Category:University towns in Italy
Pages in category "University towns in Italy"
The following 36 pages are in this category, out of 36 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 36 pages are in this category, out of 36 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Bari – Bari is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari and of the Apulia region, on the Adriatic Sea, in Italy. The metropolitan area counts million inhabitants. Bari is made up of four urban sections. In addition, the outer suburbs have developed rapidly during the 1990s. The city has a redeveloped airport named with connections to several European cities. The city was probably founded by the Peucetii. The historical bishop of Bari was Gervasius, noted at the Council of Sardica in 347. The bishops were dependent on the Patriarch of Constantinople until the 10th century. Until the arrival of the Normans, Bari continued to be governed with only occasional interruption. The Emirate extinguished in 871, due to the efforts of Emperor Louis II and a Byzantine fleet. In 885, Bari became the residence of governor. Under the Archbishop Byzantius, Bari became attached to the see of Rome and was granted "provincial" status. In 1071, Bari was captured by Robert Guiscard, following a three-year siege. A Lombard merchant's son, was the third of the great admirals of Norman Sicily. In 1095 Peter the Hermit preached the first crusade there.Bari – A collage of Bari, Top left:Swabian Castle, Top right:Night in Pane e Pomodoro Beach, Bottom left:Ferrarese Square, Bottom upper light:Bari University in Andrea da Bari street, Bottom lower right:View of Punta Perotti seaside area
2. Benevento – Benevento listen is a city and comune of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, 50 kilometres northeast of Naples. It is situated at the confluence of the Calore Irpino and the Sabato. It is also the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop. Benevento occupies the site of the ancient Beneventum, originally Maleventum or still earlier Maloenton. The "-vent" portion of the name probably refers to a market-place and is a common element in ancient place names. The Romans theorized that it meant "the site of bad events", from Mal + eventum. In the imperial period it was supposed to have been founded by Diomedes after the Trojan War. A saint of Benevento is the Apostle, whose relics are kept here at San Bartolomeo Cathedral. It appears, however, to have fallen into their hands during the Third Samnite War, though the exact occasion is unknown. Six years later they further sought to secure its possession by establishing there a Roman colony with Latin rights. Its wealth is also evidenced by the quantity of coins minted by Beneventum. Horace famously notes Beneventum on his journey from Rome to Brundusium. The Arch of Trajan is one of the best-preserved Roman structures in the Campania. It repeats the formula of the Arch of Titus in the Roman Forum, with reliefs of Trajan's life and exploits of his reign. Some of the sculptures are in the British Museum.Benevento – Main landmarks in Benevento. Clockwise from the upper left: the Arch of Trajan, the church of Santa Sofia, the Cathedral's main portal, the castle and the Roman theatre
3. Bergamo – Bergamo is a city in Lombardy, Italy, about 40 km northeast of Milan and 30 km from the lakes Como and Iseo. The foothills of the Bergamo Alps begin immediately north of the town. Bergamo is the seat of the Province of Bergamo. With a population of around 120,000, Bergamo is the fourth-largest city in Lombardy. The metropolitan area of Bergamo extends beyond the administrative city limits, spanning over a densely urbanized area with slightly less than 500,000 inhabitants. The Bergamo metropolitan area is itself part of the broader Milan metropolitan area, home to over 8 million people. As of 2015, Bergamo is the second most visited city in Lombardy after Milan. Bergamo occupies the site of the ancient town of Bergomum, founded as a settlement of the Celtic tribe of Cenomani. In 49 BC it became a Roman municipality, containing c. 10,000 inhabitants at its peak. An important hub on the military road between Friuli and Raetia, it was destroyed by Attila in the 5th century. After the conquest of the Lombard Kingdom by Charlemagne, it became the seat of a county under one Auteramus. From the 11th century onwards, Bergamo was an independent commune, taking part in the Lombard League which defeated Frederick I Barbarossa in 1165. The local Guelph and Ghibelline factions were the Colleoni and Suardi, respectively. Feuding between the two initially caused the family of Omodeo Tasso to flee north c. From 1264, Bergamo was intermittently under the rule of Milan.Bergamo – Top: City skyline at sunrise. Second row. Left: Palazzo della Ragione and Bergamo Cathedral. Right: Cappella Colleoni. Third row. Left: asymptote architecture. Middle: Contarini Fountain in Piazza Vecchia. Right: Biblioteca Angelo Mai. Fourth row. Left: Bergamo–Albino light rail station. Right: Passeggiata in the central district.
4. Bologna – It is the largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy. Bologna is the seventh most populous city in Italy, located in the heart of a metropolitan area of about million. The first settlements date back to at least 1000 BC. It is also an important transportation crossroad for the trains of Northern Italy, where many important mechanical, electronic and nutritional industries have their headquarters. It is home to numerous prestigious cultural, political institutions as well as one of the most impressive trade fair districts in Europe. In 2000 Bologna was declared European capital in 2006, a UNESCO "city of music". The city of Bologna was selected to participate in the Universal Exposition of Shanghai 2010 from around the world. After a long decline, it was reborn under Bishop Petronius. According to legend, St. Petronius built the church of S. Stefano. In 728, the city was captured by the Lombard Liutprand, becoming part of the Lombard Kingdom. The Germanic conquerors formed a district called "longobarda" near the complex of S. Stefano. Charlemagne stayed in 786. Traditionally said to be founded in 1088, the University of Bologna is widely considered to be the first university. The university originated as an international centre of study of medieval Roman law including Irnerius. Bologna numbered Dante, Boccaccio and Petrarca among its students.Bologna – A collage of the city, showing Fountain of Neptune, Piazza Maggiore, Basilica of San Petronio, Two towers (Due Torri), Tagliatelle al ragù bolognese (dish of Bologna origin), and endless city arcades typical for Bologna
5. Bolzano – Bolzano is the capital city of the province of South Tyrol in northern Italy. With a population of 105,713, Bolzano is also by far the largest city in South Tyrol. Bolzano is the seat of the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, where seminars are held in English, German and Italian. The city is also some of its combat and support units. Along with other Alpine towns in South Tyrol, Bolzano engages for the implementation of the Alpine Convention. The Convention aims to achieve sustainable development in the Alpine Arc. Consequently, Bolzano was awarded Alpine Town of the Year 2009. The Romans built a settlement after the area had been conquered by General Nero Claudius Drusus. Pons Drusi, was named after this Roman General. During this time the area became part of ancient Italy. In 1948, excavations of the current Cathedral led from the 4th century. At that time, the Bavarians named the nearby villages around Bolzano Bauzanum or Bauzana. German populations have been present in the region of Tyrol since this time. In the late-12th century, the bishop founded a town, along the Lauben thoroughfare. In 1277 Bolzano was conquered by the Count of Tyrol, leading to a struggle between the Counts of Tyrol and the bishops of Trent.Bolzano – Panorama of Bolzano
6. Cagliari – Cagliari is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an autonomous region of Italy. Cagliari's Sardinian Casteddu literally means castle. It has about 150,000 inhabitants, while its metropolitan city has more than 431,000 inhabitants. According to Eurostat, the commuting zone of Cagliari, rises to 476,974. Cagliari is the largest city on the island of Sardinia. An ancient city with Cagliari has seen the rule of several civilisations. Cagliari was the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia from 1324 to 1848, when Turin became the formal capital of the kingdom. The city is a regional cultural, educational, political and artistic centre, known for its diverse Art Nouveau architecture and several monuments. Cagliari has been inhabited since ancient times. It is surrounded by two swamps. There are high mountains nearby, to which people could evacuate if the settlement had to be given up. Relics of prehistoric inhabitants were found in Cape Sant ` Elia. Karalis was established as one of a string of Phoenician colonies in Sardinia, including Tharros. Its founding is linked to its position along communication routes with Africa well as to its excellent port. The Phoenician settlement was located in the Stagno di Santa Gilla, west of the present centre of Cagliari.Cagliari – Descending, from top: St. Anne's Church, view of the port, Bastione of Saint Remy, statue of King Charles Felix of Sardinia and Cala Fighera
7. Camerino – Camerino is a town in the province of Macerata, Marche, central-eastern Italy. It is located in the Apennines bordering Umbria, about 64 kilometres from Ancona. Camerino is home of Camerino founded in the Middle Ages. Camerino occupies the site of the ancient Camerinum, the inhabitants of which became allies of the Romans in 309 BC. On the other hand, the Katspriot referred in the history of the year 295 BC are probably the inhabitants of Clusium. Later it appears as a autonomous community with the foedus aequum, an ` equal' treaty with Rome. Two cohorts of Camertes fought under Gaius Marius against the invading Germanic Cimbri. It is frequently mentioned in the Civil Wars; under the empire it was a municipium. It was on the borders of Picenum. Camerino was part of the Exarchate of Ravenna until 592, when it was captured by the Lombards. In the 10th to 11th centuries the city was under the Mainardi family. Boniface III of Tuscany occupied the duchy around 1050, then ceded it to his daughter Matilda, who in turn donated it to the Papal States. After the year 1000, however, Camerino turned itself into an independent commune. Gentile formed a lasting fiefdom for his family which lasted three centuries. Camilla Battista da Varano, was canonized a saint by Pope Benedict XVI in 2010.Camerino – Camerino
8. Catania – Catania is an Italian city on the east coast of Sicily facing the Ionian Sea. It is the capital of the Metropolitan City of Catania, the seventh largest metropolitan area in Italy. The population of the city proper is 315,601 while the population of the conurbation is estimated to be 767,003. The metropolitan city has 1,115,310 inhabitants. Catania has had a eventful history, having been founded in the 8th century BC. In 1434, the first university in Sicily was founded in the city. In the 14th century and into the Renaissance period, Catania was one of Italy's most important cultural, political centres. The city has a rich history, hosting many museums, restaurants, churches, parks and theatres. Catania is well known for its food. Catania is located at the foot of Mount Etna. As observed by Strabo, the location of Catania at the foot of Mount Etna has been both a blessing. Two subterranean rivers run under the city; the Longane. The ancient indigenous population of the Sicels named their villages after geographical attributes of their location. Katane, means "grater, flaying knife, skinning place" or a "crude tool apt to pare". Other translations of the name are "harsh lands", "rugged or rough soil".Catania – Catania Skyline
9. Catanzaro – The archbishop's seat was the capital of the province of Calabria Ultra for over 200 years. It houses the second largest University of Calabria. This will lead involving over 200,000 inhabitants. Catanzaro overlooks the Gulf of Squillace, in the Ionian Sea. The district of Catanzaro stretches to an elevation of 600 metres. The historic center is approximately 300 metres above level. The town dates back to the valley of Fiumarella. The Bishopric, St. John marks the city's historical center and is connected to the North Sila. Due to its particular geography, the municipality is still subjected to a snowy winter. The torrent Corach. The climate of Catanzaro is typically Mediterranean, temperate, characterized by autumn. According to the 30-year average of 1961 -- 90 reference, the average temperature of January, came to 8.9 ° C. August, is 24.5 ° C. The climate, as mentioned, is marked during spring and autumn. The average intensity is about 4 knots with peaks at 6 knots.Catanzaro – Panorama of Catanzaro, Top left:Panorama view of Crotone Street and Ionian Sea at Catanzaro Lido, Top right:Statue of Bernadino Grimaldi in Margheria Park (Villa Margheria), Bottom upper left:Cavatore Fountain in Matteotti Square (Piazza Matteotti), Bottom lower left:Filippos Avenue (Viale de Filippis), Bottom right:Night view of Morandi viaduct Bridge
10. Ferrara – It is a city and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital city of the Province of Ferrara. The town has numerous palaces dating from the 14th and 15th centuries, when it hosted the court of the House of Este. For cultural importance Ferrara has been qualified by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Modern times have brought a renewal of industrial activity. It has branches to Ravenna, Poggio Rusco and Codigoro. It appears first as a city forming part of the Exarchate of Ravenna. Desiderius pledged a Lombard ducatus ferrariae to Pope Stephen II. Obizzo II d'Este was lifelong ruler of Ferrara five hundred years later. He also became seignior of nearby Modena in 1289. In 1471 Ferrara also became a duchy. In 1597, when Alfonso II died without heirs, the House of Este lost Ferrara to the Papal States. All of the fortress was dismantled following the bricks used for new constructions all over the town. On August 1944, the Ferrara synthetic rubber plant was a target of Strategic bombing during World War II. The town is still surrounded by more than 9 kilometres of ancient walls, mainly built in the 16th-centuries. Along with those of Lucca, they are the best preserved Renaissance walls in Italy.Ferrara – The Castle Estense
11. Florence – Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the Metropolitan City of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with inhabitants, expanding to over 1,520,000 in the metropolitan area. Florence was finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time. It has been called "the Athens of the Middle Ages". A political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family, numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982. The city is noted for its culture, monuments. Due to Florence's architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world. In 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in Italy. The language spoken during the 14th century was, still is, accepted as the Italian language. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War. Florence was home to the Medici, one of European history's most important noble families. Lorenzo de' Medici was considered a cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were popes in the 16th century: Leo X and Clement VII.Florence – A collage of Florence showing the Galleria degli Uffizi (top left), followed by the Palazzo Pitti, a sunset view of the city and the Fountain of Neptune in the Piazza della Signoria
12. Genoa – The urban area of Genoa, coinciding with its metropolitan city, has a population of 862,885. Over million people live in a wider metropolitan area that stretches all along the Riviera. Genoa is the largest seaport in Italy. Genoa has been nicknamed la Superba due to its glorious impressive landmarks. Part of the old town of Genoa was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2006. The city's cultural history in notably its art, music and cuisine allowed it to become the 2004 European Capital of Culture. Its solid financial sector dates back to the Middle Ages. The Genoa area has been inhabited since the fourth millennium B.C.. In the ancient times this area was inhabited by "Ligures", "Phoenicians", "Phocaeans", "Greeks", "Etruscans". The ancient Ligurian city was known as Stalia, so referred to by Pomponius Mela. Ligurian Stalia was overshadowed near modern Savona. Stalia had an alliance with Rome through a foedus aequum in the course of the Second Punic War. The Carthaginians accordingly destroyed it in 209 BC. The town was rebuilt and, after the Carthaginian Wars ended in 146 BC. it received municipal rights. The original thenceforth expanded towards the current areas of Santa Maria di Castello and the San Lorenzo promontory.Genoa – A collage of Genoa, clockwise from top left: Torre della Lanterna, Piazza de Ferrari, Galleria Mazzini, Brigata Liguria Street, view of San Teodoro from Port of Genoa
13. Lecce – It is over 2,000 years old. Because of the rich Baroque architectural monuments found in the city, Lecce is commonly nicknamed "The Florence of the South". In the Grecìa Salentina, a group of towns not far from Lecce, the griko language is still spoken. Lecce is also an agricultural centre, chiefly for its olive oil and wine production, as well as an industrial centre specializing in ceramic production. According to legend, a city called Sybar existed at the time of the Trojan War, founded by the Messapii. It was conquered in the 3rd century BC receiving the new name of Lupiae. Under the Hadrian the city was moved 3 kilometres to the northeast, taking the name of Licea or Litium. Lecce was connected to the Hadrian Port. Orontius of Lecce, locally called Sant ` Oronzo, is Lecce's patron saint. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Lecce was sacked by the Ostrogoth Totila in the Gothic Wars. After the Norman conquest in the 11th century, Lecce regained commercial importance, flourishing in the subsequent Hohenstaufen and rule. , starting in 1630, it was enriched with precious Baroque monuments. In 1656, a plague broke out in the city, killing a thousand inhabitants. In 1943, aircraft based in Lecce helped support isolated Italian garrisons in the Aegean Sea during World War 2. Because they were delayed by the Allies, they couldn't prevent a defeat.Lecce – Top left:Church of Santa Croce, Top right:Lecce Teatro Romano, Bottom left:Lecce Porta Napoli in Universita Street, Bottom middle:Saint Giovanni Cathedral in Perroni area, Bottom right:Lecce Cathedral in Duomo Square
14. Macerata – Macerata listen is a city and comune in central Italy, the county town of the province of Macerata in the Marche region. Together with the modern town, sprawling on the plain below, it has a population of about 43,000. The historical centre is on a hill between the Chienti and Potenza rivers. It consisted of the Picenes city named Ricina, then, after the romanization, Helvia Recina. The new town was Macerata. It became a municipality in August 1138. Typically hilly, the climate is both continental. Particularly the Apennine Mountains influence the weather. The elevation of Macerata is approximately 315 metres above sea level, so the snow is not so frequent and plentiful. Northwestern perturbations may cause snow. Late snowfall and frost may occur during April. October is neither warm nor very cold. Summer is rather sunny, sometimes the thermometer reaches 40 °C. Garbino is the cause, a hot wind from the hinterland. Summer thunderstorms are frequent during the evening when the weather becomes quite unstable.Macerata – A view of the historical center of Macerata
15. Messina – Messina is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina. The city's main resources are its seaports, cruise tourism, agriculture. The city is home to a locally important international fair. The city has the University of Messina, founded by Ignatius of Loyola. Messina has Tranvia di Messina, opened on 3 April 2003. This line links the city's central railway station with the city centre and harbour. The city is home to a significant minority, rooted in its history and officially recognised. A comune of its Metropolitan City, located at the southern entrance of the Strait of Messina, is to this day called'Scaletta Zanclea'. In the 5th century BC, Anaxilas of Rhegium renamed it Messene in honour of the Greek city Messene. The city was then reconquered by Dionysius I of Syracuse. In 288 BC the Mamertines seized the city by treachery, taking the women as their wives. The city became a base from which they ravaged the countryside, leading with the expanding regional empire of Syracuse. Tyrant of Syracuse, defeated the Mamertines near Mylae on the Longanus River and besieged Messina. Carthage assisted the Mamertines over dominance in Sicily. When Hiero attacked a second time in 264 BC, the Mamertines petitioned the Roman Republic for an alliance, hoping for more reliable protection.Messina – Frederick II age coins.
16. Milan – Milan is the capital of the Lombardy region, the most populous metropolitan area and the second most populous comune in Italy. That of the Metropolitan City of Milan is 3,209,000. Milan is one of global significance. In terms of GDP, it has the largest among European non-capital cities. Milan lies at the heart of one of the Four Motors for Europe. Milan is an Alpha leading global city, with strengths in tourism. Its district hosts Italy's Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks and companies. The city hosts academies and universities, with 11 % of the national total enrolled students. Milan's museums, landmarks attract over 9 million visitors annually. Milan -- after Naples -- is the Italian city with the highest number of accredited stars from the Michelin Guide. The city hosted the Universal Exposition in 2015. Milan is home to two of Europe's major football teams, FC Internazionale. The etymology of Milan is uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin Mediolanum comes from the Latin words medio and planus. However, some scholars believe lanum comes from the Celtic lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines.Milan – Milan Cathedral, La Scala opera house and Porta Nuova business district
17. Modena – Modena is a city and comune on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. The 360 Modena, was named after the town itself. Military officers are trained at the Military Academy of Modena, partly housed in the Baroque Ducal Palace. The Biblioteca Estense houses 3,000 manuscripts. The Cathedral of Modena, Piazza Grande are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997. Modena is also known in culinary circles for its production of balsamic vinegar. Modena lies on the Pianura Padana, is bounded by the two rivers both affluents of the Po River. Their presence is symbolized by the Two Rivers Fountain by Giuseppe Graziosi. The city is connected by the Naviglio channel. The Apennines begin some 10 kilometres from the city, to the south. The commune is divided into four circoscrizioni. These are: Centro storico Crocetta Buon Pastore San Faustino Modena has a subtropical climate, with an average annual precipitation of 809 millimetres. Winters are chilly and wetter, with the possibility of snowfall. This climate is described as Cfa. From 1945 to 1992, Modena had an consecutive series of Communist mayors.Modena – Top left:Modena Cathedral and Ghirladinn Tower, Top right:Modena City Hall, Bottom left:Stoa of Portici del Collegio in Emilia Street, Bottom right:View of Modena Ducal Palace and San Domenico Cathedral from Dante Square
18. Naples – Naples is the capital of the Italian region Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy, after Rome and Milan. In 2015, around 975,260 people lived within the city's administrative limits. The Metropolitan City of Naples had a population of 3,115,320. Naples is the populous urban area in the European Union with a population of between 3 million and 3.7 million. About million people live in the Naples metropolitan area, one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea. Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Bronze Age Greek settlements were established in the second millennium BC. Naples remained influential after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, serving as the city of the Kingdom of Naples between 1282 and 1816. Thereafter, in union with Sicily, it became the capital of the Two Sicilies in 1861. Naples was the Italian city during World War II. Much of the city's 20th-century periphery was constructed after World War II. Unemployment levels in the city and surrounding Campania have decreased since 1999. However, unemployment levels remain high. Naples has the urban economy in Italy, after Milan, Rome and Turin. It is the world's 103rd-richest city with an estimated 2011 GDP of US$83.6 billion.Naples – Naples Napoli
19. Padua – Padua is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy. It is the capital of the economic and communications hub of the area. Padua's population is 214,000. The city is sometimes included, in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, having a population of c. 1,600,000. 1,600,000. Padua stands on 29 km southeast of Vicenza. The Brenta River, which once ran through the city, still touches the northern districts. Its agricultural setting is the Venetian Plain. To the city's south west lies the Euganaean Hills, praised by Lucan and Martial, Petrarch, Ugo Foscolo, Shelley. It hosts the University of Padua, founded in 1222, where Galileo Galilei was a lecturer. Padua is the setting for most of the action in The Taming of the Shrew. The original significance of the Roman Patavium is uncertain. It may be connected with the ancient name of the River Po. Additionally, the root -, in the Indo-European language may refer to a wide open plain as opposed to nearby hills. The ending -ium, signifies the presence of villages that have united themselves together.Padua – Remnants of Padua's Roman amphitheatre wall.
20. Palermo – Palermo is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo. The city is noted for its history, gastronomy, playing an important role throughout much of its existence; it is over 2,700 years old. Palermo is located in the northwest of the island of Sicily, right by the Gulf of Palermo in the Tyrrhenian Sea. The city was founded as Ziz. The Greeks named the city Panormus meaning'complete port'. From 831 to 1072 the city was under Arab rule during the Emirate of Sicily when the city first became a capital. The Arabs shifted the Greek name into Balarm, the root for Palermo's present-day name. Eventually Sicily would be united with the Kingdom of Naples to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies until the Italian unification of 1860. In the central area, the city has a population of around 676,000 people. The inhabitants are known as Palermitani or, poetically, panormiti. The languages spoken by its inhabitants are the Palermitano dialect. Palermo is Sicily's touristic capital. It is a city rich in history, culture, food. Palermo is the Sicilian commercial center: the main industrial sectors include tourism, services, commerce and agriculture. Palermo currently has a underground economy.Palermo – Clockwise from top: Quattro Canti in Maqueda Street, San Domenico Church, Pretoria Square and Santa Caterina Church, and view of downtown Palermo from Mount Pellegrino
21. Parma – Parma listen is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its prosciutto, cheese, architecture, music and surrounding countryside. Parma is home to the University of Parma, one of the oldest universities in the world. It is divided by the stream of the same name. The district on the far side of the river is Oltretorrente. Parma's Etruscan name was adapted by Romans to describe the shield called Parma. The Italian poet Attilio Bertolucci wrote: "As a capital city it had to have a river. As a little capital Parma received a stream, often dry". It was already a built-up area in the Age. In the current position of the city rose a terramare. During this age the first necropolis were constructed. Diodorus Siculus reported that the Romans had changed their rectangular shields for round ones, imitating the Etruscans. The Roman colony was founded with Mutina; 2,000 families were settled. It had a certain importance as a hub over the Via Aemilia and the Via Claudia. Parma had a forum, in what is the central Garibaldi Square. In 44 BC, Augustus rebuilt it.Parma – Palazzo del Governatore, Parma
22. Pavia – It has a population of c. 68,000. The city was the capital of the Kingdom of the Lombards from 572 to 774. Pavia is the capital of the fertile province of Pavia, known for agricultural products including wine, cereals, dairy products. Although there are a number of industries located in the suburbs, these tend not to disturb the peaceful atmosphere of the town. Pavia is the episcopal seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Pavia. The city possesses many artistic and cultural treasures, such as the well-known Certosa di Pavia. Dating back to pre-Roman times, the town of Pavia, then known as Ticinum, was an important military site under the Roman Empire. It was said by Pliny the Elder to have been founded by the Laevi and Marici, two Ligurian tribes, while Ptolemy attributes it to the Insubres. Without his father Romulus Augustulus was powerless. With the establishment of the Ostrogoth kingdom based in northern Italy, Theoderic began his vast program of public building. Pavia was among several cities that Theodoric chose to expand. He began the construction of the vast complex that would eventually become the residence of Lombard monarchs several decades later. Near the end of Theoderic's reign the Christian philosopher Boethius was imprisoned in one of Pavia's churches before his execution for treason. It was during Boethius's captivity in Pavia that he wrote the Consolation of Philosophy.Pavia – A view of the city's Cathedral from the Piazza della Vittoria
23. Pisa – Pisa is a city in Tuscany, Central Italy, straddling the River Arno just before it empties into the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the city of the Province of Pisa. Much of the city's architecture was financed as one of the Italian maritime republics. The origin of Pisa, is a mystery. Archaeological remains from the 5th century BC confirmed the existence of a city at the sea, trading with Greeks and Gauls. The presence of an Etruscan necropolis, discovered in 1991, confirmed its Etruscan origins. Ancient Roman authors referred as an old city. Strabo referred Pisa's origins after the fall of Troy. The maritime role of Pisa should have been already prominent if the ancient authorities ascribed to it the invention of the naval ram. Pisa took advantage of being the only port along the western coast from Genoa to Ostia. Pisa served against Ligurians, Gauls and Carthaginians. In 180 BC, it became a Roman colony as Portus Pisanus. In 89 BC, Portus Pisanus became a municipium. Emperor Augustus changed the name in Colonia Iulia obsequens. It is supposed that Pisa was founded on the shore.Pisa – Pisa
24. Reggio Calabria – Reggio is the capital of the seat of the Regional Council of Calabria. It is separated from the island of Sicily by the Strait of Messina. Reggio is situated on the slopes of a long, craggy mountain range that runs up through the center of the region. About 560,000 people live in the metropolitan area, recognised in 2015 as a metropolitan city. The region has been subject to earthquakes. Reggio is transport on the southern shores of the Mediterranean. It is the seat, since 1907, of the Archeological Superintendence of Bruttium and Lucania. The city has two recently founded universities: the "Università per Stranieri". There are also a Conservatory of Music. The city was an Italian candidate to become the European Capital of Culture. in 2019. During its 3,500-year history it has often been renamed. Each name corresponds with the city's historical phases: Recion, name appeared on the most ancient coins retrieved in Reggio. Erythrà, the pre-Greek settlement populated by the Italic people. Rhégion, the Greek city from the archaic age to the Magna Grecia age, from the 8th to the 3rd centuries BC. Febèa, a short period under Dionysius II of Syracuse, in the 4th century BC.Reggio Calabria – Collage of Reggio di Calabria. Clockwise from top of left to right: Piazza Italia, Lungomare Falcomatà, Riace bronze statues in Magna Grecia National Museum, View of downtown Reggio, Messina Strait from Rotonda Square, seaside coast in Reggio.
25. Rende – Rende is a town and comune in Calabria, southern Italy, home to the headquarters of the University of Calabria. It has more than 60,000 if the university students living there are taken into account. The ancient Enotrii, coming from the plain of Sant ` Eufemia and Clampetia, founded near the river which they called the early Acheruntia and subsequently Pandosia. The florid area was unfit to defend during conflict, so some Acheruntini left the area to take refuge in a more defensible site: today's Nogiano. This new settlement, which dates from 520 BC, was named Aruntia and then Arintha. Hecataeus of Miletus, who lived in 500 BC, cites Arintha as the City of Bretia of Enotra origin. When Spartacus with his army passed through the valley of the Crati, many Acheruntini followed him. But in 1091 the entire district of Cosenza rebelled for the taxes too high. The son of Robert Guiscard and designated heir, succeeded his father in the management of the territory. He asked the involvement of Roger I, Bohemond, his brother, who repressed the rebellion by force. Bohemond obtained the control of the county of Cosenza. Bohemond d’Hauteville decided to build a castle on the solitary hill between streams Surdo and Emoli, which dominates valley of the Crati. The massive structure was finished with the help of Mirandi Artifices. In this period, for the first time appears in the name Renne, it means Kingdom in the old French language. The castle of Rende become the base for Bohemond before he left in 1096.Rende – Rende
26. Rome – Rome is a city and special comune in Italy. Rome is the capital of Italy and of the Lazio region. The Metropolitan City of Rome has a population of million residents. The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, along the shores of Tiber river. Rome's history spans a half thousand years. The city's early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and Sabines. Rome is also called the "Caput Mundi". Due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, then the birthplace of both Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters, architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city. In 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed as a World Heritage Site. Rome is the seat of United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself.Rome
27. Sassari – Sassari is an Italian city and the second-largest of Sardinia in terms of population with 127,525 inhabitants, a Functional Urban Area of about 222,000 inhabitants. One of the oldest cities on the island, it contains a considerable collection of art. The city's economy mainly relies on tourism and services, however also partially on research, construction, the petroleum industry. Sassari is located at 225 metres above sea level. The area rises up on a karstic plateau that slopes gently down towards the Gulf of Asinara and the Nurra plain. The abundance with about 400 springs and artesian wells, has made for much development of horticulture over the centuries. According to a survey by Weatherwise, Sassari is the city with the fourth best climate in the world. The origin of the city remains uncertain. It developed from the merger of a number such as San Pietro di Silki, San Giacomo di Taniga, San Giovanni di Bosove. The oldest mention of a village called Jordi de Sassaro is in an 1131 document in the archive of the Monastery of St. Peter in Silki. Sassari was sacked by the Genoese in 1166. Immigration continued until, in the 13th century, it was the most populous city in the Giudicato of Torres, its last capital. After the assassination of the latter's last ruler in 1275, Sassari became subject to the Republic of Pisa with a semi-independent status. Its statutes of 1316 are remarkable for the leniency of the penalties imposed when compared with the penal laws of the Middle Ages. Further attempts made by Genoa to conquer the city failed.Sassari – Sassari
28. Siena – Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the province of Siena. The historic centre of Siena has been declared by a World Heritage Site. It is one of the nation's most visited tourist attractions, over 163,000 international arrivals in 2008. Siena is famous for its cuisine, art, museums, the Palio, a horse race held twice a year. Siena, like other Tuscan hill towns, was first settled in the time of the Etruscans when it was inhabited by a tribe called the Saina. A Roman town called Saena Julia was founded at the site in the time of the Emperor Augustus. The first document mentioning it dates from AD 70. Some archaeologists assert that Siena was controlled by a Gaulish tribe called the Senones. According to local legend, Siena was founded by two sons of Remus and thus nephews of Romulus, after whom Rome was named. Additionally they rode black horses, giving rise to the Balzana, or coat of arms of Siena with a white band atop a dark band. Some claim the name Siena derives from Senius. Siena did not prosper under Roman rule. It lacked opportunities for trade. The oldest aristocratic families in Siena date their line to Charlemagne.Siena – View of downtown Piazza del Campo (Campo Square), with the Mangia Tower (Torre del Mangia) and Santa Maria Church
29. Trento – Trento or listen is a city located in the Adige River valley in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol in Italy. It is the capital of Trentino. In the 16th century, the city was the location of the Council of Trent. Formerly part of Austria, it was annexed in 1919. Trento is Northern Italy in general. The city contains Renaissance historic centre, with ancient buildings such as Trento Cathedral and the Castello del Buonconsiglio. Trento was awarded Alpine Town of the Year 2004. Modern-day Trento is a city, with highly developed and organized modern social services. The township of Trento encompasses the centre as well as many suburbs of extremely varied geographical and population conditions. Distinctive suburbs still retain their traditional identity of rural or mountain villages. River Adige is one of the three main south-flowing Alpine rivers; its broadly curving course alongside Trento was straightened in 1850. The valley is surrounded by mountains, including Vigolana, Monte Bondone, Paganella, Monte Calisio. Nearby lakes include Lake Caldonazzo, Lake Levico, Lake Toblino. Some scholars maintain it was a Rhaetian settlement: the Adige area was however influenced by neighbouring populations, including the Veneti, the Gauls. According to other theories, the latter did instead found the city during the fourth BC.Trento – Panorama of Trento
30. Trieste – Trieste is a city and seaport in northeastern Italy. It is also located near Croatia some further 30 kilometres south. In 2009, it is the capital of the Province of Trieste. Trieste was one of the oldest parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. In the 19th century, it was the most important port of one of the Great Powers of Europe. As a prosperous seaport in the Mediterranean region, Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the fin de siècle period at the end of the 19th century it emerged for music. In 2012, Lonely Planet listed the city of Trieste as the world's most underrated travel destination. Roman authors also transliterated the name as Tergestum. Modern names of the city include: Italian: Trieste, Slovene: Trst, German: Triest, Hungarian: Trieszt, Croatian: Trst, Serbian: Трст/Trst, Greek: Τεργέστη/Tergesti. Trieste lies in the northernmost part of the high Adriatic in northeastern Italy, near the border with Slovenia. The city lies on the Gulf of Trieste. The karst landforms close to the city reach an elevation of 458 metres above sea level. It lies on the borders of the Mitteleuropa. The territory of Trieste is composed depending on the distance from the elevation.Trieste – A collage of Trieste showing the Piazza Unità d'Italia, the Canal Grande (Grand Canal), the Serbian Orthodox church, a narrow street of the Old City, the Castello Miramare and the city seafront.
31. Turin – Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region. The population of the city proper is 892,649 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of million. Turin is well known for its renaissance, baroque, rococo, art nouveau architecture. The city currently hosts some of Italy's best universities, the Turin Polytechnic. Important museums, such as the Museo Egizio and the Mole Antonelliana are also found in the city. The tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008. Turin is ranked third after Milan and Rome, for economic strength. Turin is also home of the Italian automotive industry. The Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the centre of modern Piedmont. In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with the Insubres. The Taurini chief town was captured after a three-day siege. As a people they are rarely mentioned in history. It is believed that a Roman colony was established under the name of Castra Taurinorum and afterwards Julia Augusta Taurinorum. In probably 28 BC, the Romans created a military camp, later dedicated to Augustus.Turin – From top to bottom, left to right: panorama of the Mole Antonelliana, Valentino Park with the medieval village, Piazza Castello with Palazzo Reale and Palazzo Madama, San Carlo Plaza with the Caval ëd Bronz, the Arco Olimpico and the Lingotto, the sarcophagus of Oki at the Egyptian Museum, a view of the hills, the Po, the Gran Madre, the Monte of Cappuccini and Palatine Towers.
32. Udine – Its population was 99,244 in 2016. Udine was first attested in medieval Latin records as Udene around the year 1000. The origin of the Udine is unclear. It has been tentatively suggested that the name may be of pre-Roman origin, connected with the Indo-European root *ou̯dh-'udder' used in a figurative sense to mean'hill'. The Slovene Videm is a hypercorrection of the local Slovene name Vidan, based on settlements named Videm in Slovenia. The Slovene linguist Pavle Merkù characterized the Slovene Videm as an "idiotic 19th-century hypercorrection." Udine is the historical capital of Friuli. The area was later, most likely, settled by Illyrians. He built a square-shape tower. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area increased after the decline of Aquileia and afterwards of Cividale also. In 1420, it was conquered by the Republic of Venice. In 1511, it was the seat of a civil war, followed by an earthquake and a plague. Udine remained until 1797 being the second largest city in the state. After the battle, it was occupied by Austrians in 1918 after the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in 1918. After the war it was made capital of a short-lived province which included the current provinces of Gorizia, Pordenone and Udine.Udine – Piazza San Giacomo
33. Urbino – It hosts the University of Urbino, founded in 1506, is the seat of the Archbishop of Urbino. Its best-known architectural piece is the Palazzo Ducale, rebuilt by Luciano Laurana. The city is located at the foothills of the Northern Apennines and the Tuscan-Romagnolo Apennines. The city is in the southern area of Montefeltro, an area classified as seismic risk. They include April 1741 when the shocks were stronger than VIII on the Mercalli intensity scale, with an epicenter in Fabriano. Though, the Montefeltro noblemen took control once more, held it until 1508. Federico da Montefeltro, ruled as Duke of Urbino from 1444 to 1482. Federico's brilliant court, according to the descriptions in Baldassare Castiglione's Il Cortegiano, set standards of what would characterize a European "gentleman" for centuries to come. Cesare Borgia dispossessed Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, Elisabetta Gonzaga with the complicity of his father, Pope Alexander VI. The state was ruled since then by a papal legate, generally belonging to ecclesiastical hierarchy. These works went on to form the core of the future Uffizi Gallery. Among the works that went to Florence is the diptych of the Dukes of Urbino by Piero della Francesca. The eighteenth century opened with the election under the name of Clement XI. After the Pope's death, the Albani family remained the main patron of the most significant works until the first half of the nineteenth century. In 1789, the collapse of the dome following a massive earthquake led to the total renovation of the church.Urbino – The Ducal Palace of Urbino
34. Venice – Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated across a group of 117 small islands that are linked by bridges. These are located in an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, artwork. A part of the city are listed as a World Heritage Site. In 2014, 264,579 people resided in Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historic city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included with a total population of 2.6 million. PATREVE is only a metropolitan area without any degree of autonomy. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th BC. The city was historically the capital of the Republic of Venice. This made a wealthy city throughout most of its history. It is also known especially the Renaissance period. It is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi. The Venetia, however, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, called by the Greeks Eneti. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root * wen, so * wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly".Venice – A collage of Venice: at the top left is the Piazza San Marco, followed by a view of the city, then the Grand Canal, and (smaller) the interior of La Fenice and, finally, the Island of San Giorgio Maggiore
35. Verona – It is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, northern Italy, with approximately 265,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region. Verona is the third largest in northeast Italy. The metropolitan area of Verona has a population of 714,274 inhabitants. Three of Shakespeare's plays are set in Verona: Romeo and Juliet, The Taming of the Shrew. The city has been awarded World Heritage Site status by UNESCO because of its urban architecture. The etymology of the name "Verona" is unknown. Another theory is that it is connected to the river. "Vera" was a name of the Adige previously to the adoption of the current name. As in similar instances in Europe the name of the town is formed with the addition of suffix - ona which means settlement over. The city was archaically known as "Welsch-Bern" in German. The precise details of Verona's early history remain a mystery. One theory is it was a city of the Euganei, who were obliged to give it up to the Cenomani. With the conquest of the Valley of the Po the Veronese territory became Roman. The city became important because it was at the intersection of several roads. Stilicho defeated his Visigoths here in 403.Verona – A collage of the city of Verona, Clockwise from top left to right: View of Piazza Bra from Verona Arena, House of Juliet, Verona Arena, Ponte Pietra at sunset, Statue of Madonna Verona's fountain in Piazza Erbe, View of Piazza Erbe from Lamberti Tower
36. Viterbo – See also Viterbo, Texas and Viterbo University. For ancient Ferento, see Ferentium. It absorbed the neighboring town of Ferento in its early history. It is surrounded by the Monti Cimini and Monti Volsini. The historic center of the city is surrounded by medieval walls, still intact, built during the 12th centuries. Entrance to the walled center of the city is through ancient gates. Apart from agriculture, the main resources of Viterbo's area are pottery, wood. It is located in a thermal area, attracting many tourists from the whole of central Italy. The first report of the new city dates to the eighth CE, when it is identified as Castrum Viterbii. It was fortified by the Lombard King Desiderius in his vain attempt to conquer Rome. In 1164, Frederick Barbarossa made the seat of his antipope Paschal III. Three years later he used its militias against Rome. In 1172, Viterbo started its expansion, conquering other lands. In this age it was one of the most important of Central Italy, with a population of almost 60,000. In 1210, however, Viterbo was again at war against Rome.Viterbo – Viterbo