Category:Western European countries
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
1. Belgium – Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is bordering Germany. Historically, Belgium, Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries; it once covered a somewhat larger area than the current Benelux group of states. The region was called Belgica after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. Until the 17th century the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three communities, that exist next to each other. Its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is an officially bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia. Related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium is also a founding member of the Eurozone, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union. Brussels, hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is also a part of the Schengen Area.Belgium – Charlemagne and Charles V
2. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country consisting of territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. Overseas France include several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France has a total population of 66.7 million. It is a semi-presidential republic with the capital in the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. France emerged as a major European power with its victory in the Hundred Years' War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would be the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europe's dominant political, military power under Louis XIV. In the 19th century Napoleon established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies typically retained close economic and military connections with France.France – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
3. Luxembourg – Luxembourg /ˈlʌksəmbɜːrɡ/, officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, France to the south. Its culture, languages are highly intertwined with its neighbors, making essentially a mixture of Germanic cultures. It comprises two principal regions: the Oesling in the north as part of the Ardennes massif, the Gutland in the south. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe. Luxembourg had a population in October 2012, ranking the least-populous country in Europe. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and the world's highest GDP per capita, according to the United Nations in 2014. The city of Luxembourg, the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, a first in the country's history. Around this fort, a town gradually developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In the following centuries, Luxembourg's fortress was steadily strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands. This arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourg's full independence is reckoned. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union.Luxembourg – Historic map (undated) of Luxembourg city's fortifications
4. Netherlands – The Netherlands is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a small, densely populated country located in Western Europe with three island territories in the Caribbean. The largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament. The name Holland is also incorrectly used to refer informally to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. "Netherlands" literally influenced by its low land and flat geography, with only about 50 % of its land exceeding one metre above sea level. Most of the areas below level are man-made. Since the 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, amounting to nearly 17 % of the country's current land mass. With a density of 408 people per km2 -- 505 if water is excluded -- the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country. Only Bangladesh, Taiwan have both a larger population and higher population density. England at 420 people per km2 is also more densely populated when the total area of the Netherlands including water is used. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, after the United States. This is partly due to the fertility of the mild climate. In 2001, it became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage. The Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union.Netherlands – The Netherlands in 5500 BC
5. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the UK is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants. Together, this makes it the fourth most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch—since 6 February 1952—is Queen Elizabeth II. Other major urban areas in the UK include the regions of Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow and Liverpool. The UK consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the United Kingdom have changed over time. Wales was annexed in 1542. In 1922, five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories.United Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.