Category:Witnesses to the assassination of John F. Kennedy
Pages in category "Witnesses to the assassination of John F. Kennedy"
The following 39 pages are in this category, out of 39 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 39 pages are in this category, out of 39 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Witnesses – A witness is someone who has, who claims to have, or is thought, by someone with authority to compel testimony, to have knowledge relevant to an event or other matter of interest. A percipient witness or eyewitness is one who testifies what they perceived through his or her senses, a hearsay witness is one who testifies what someone else said or wrote. In most court proceedings there are limitations on when hearsay evidence is admissible. Such limitations do not apply to grand jury investigations, many administrative proceedings, also some types of statements are not deemed to be hearsay and are not subject to such limitations. An expert witness may or may not also be a percipient witness, a reputation witness is one who testifies about the reputation of a person or business entity, when reputation is material to the dispute at issue. Sometimes the testimony is provided in public or in a confidential setting, although informally a witness includes whoever perceived the event, in law, a witness is different from an informant. A confidential informant is someone who claimed to have witnessed an event or have hearsay information, the information from the confidential informant may have been used by a police officer or other official acting as a hearsay witness to obtain a search warrant. A subpoena commands a person to appear and it is used to compel the testimony of a witness in a trial. Usually, it can be issued by a judge or by the representing the plaintiff or the defendant in a civil trial or by the prosecutor or the defense attorney in a criminal proceeding. In many jurisdictions, it is compulsory to comply, to take an oath, in a court proceeding, a witness may be called by either the prosecution or the defense. The side that calls the witness first asks questions, in what is called direct examination, the opposing side then may ask their own questions in what is called cross-examination. In some cases, redirect examination may then be used by the side called the witness. Recalling a witness means calling a witness, who has given testimony in a proceeding. Witness are usually permitted to testify to what they experienced first hand. In most cases, they may not testify about something they were told and this restriction does not apply to expert witnesses. Expert witnesses, however, may only testify in the area of their expertise, Eyewitness testimony is generally presumed to be more reliable than circumstantial evidence. Studies have shown, however, that individual, separate witness testimony is often flawed and this can occur because of flaws in Eyewitness identification, or because a witness is lying. One study involved an experiment, in which subjects acted as jurors in a criminal case, jurors heard a description of a robbery-murder, then a prosecution argument, and then an argument for the defenseWitnesses – Heinrich Buscher (de) as a witness during the Nuremberg Trials
2. Assassination of John F. Kennedy – On November 22,1963, John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was fatally shot in Dallas, Texas while riding in a motorcade in Dallas Dealey Plaza, at 12,30 p. m. Fatally shot by Lee Harvey Oswald, he was traveling with his wife, Jacqueline, Texas Governor John Connally, Kennedys death marked the fourth and most recent assassination of an American President. The Committee was not able to identify any individuals or groups involved with the conspiracy, in addition, the HSCA found that the original federal investigations were seriously flawed in respect of information-sharing and the possibility of conspiracy. As recommended by the HSCA, the evidence indicating conspiracy was subsequently re-examined and rejected. However, Kennedys assassination is still the subject of debate and has spawned numerous conspiracy theories. Polling in 2013 showed that 60% of Americans believe that a group of conspirators was responsible for the assassination, President Kennedy traveled to Texas to smooth over frictions in the Democratic Party between liberals Ralph Yarborough and Don Yarborough and conservative John Connally. A presidential visit to the state of Texas was first agreed upon by Lyndon B. Johnson, President John F. Kennedys vice president, and Texas native, President Kennedys trip to Dallas was first announced to the public in September 1963. The exact motorcade route was finalized on November 18 and announced to the public a few days before November 22, the White House staff informed the Secret Service that the President would arrive there via a short flight from Carswell Air Force Base in Fort Worth to Dallas Love Field. Leaving from Dallas Love Field,45 minutes had been allotted for the motorcade to reach the Trade Mart at an arrival time of 12,15 p. m. The actual route was chosen to be a meandering 10-mile route between the two places, which could be driven slowly in the allotted time, on November 14, both men attended a meeting at Love Field and drove over the route that Sorrels believed best suited for the motorcade. From Love Field, the route passed through a portion of Dallas, through Downtown along Main Street. The planned route to the Trade Mart was widely reported in Dallas newspapers several days before the event, for the benefit of people who wished to view the motorcade. The route on Main Street precluded a direct turn onto the Fort Worth Turnpike exit, the Texas School Book Depository was situated at this corner of Houston and Elm. Three vehicles were used for Secret Service and police protection in the Dallas motorcade, the first car, an unmarked white Ford, carried Dallas Police Chief Jesse Curry, Secret Service Agent Win Lawson, Sheriff Bill Decker and Dallas Field Agent Forrest Sorrels. The second car, a 1961 Lincoln Continental convertible, held driver Agent Bill Greer, SAIC Roy Kellerman, Governor John Connally, Nellie Connally, President Kennedy, Secret Service agents Clint Hill, Jack Ready, Tim McIntyre and Paul Landis rode on the running boards. By the time the motorcade reached Dealey Plaza, they were five minutes away from their planned destination. At 12,30 p. m. President, you cant say Dallas doesnt love you and those were the last words ever spoken by John F. KennedyAssassination of John F. Kennedy – An aerial view of Dealey Plaza showing the route of President Kennedy's motorcade
3. Ike Altgens – He was 19 when he began his AP career, which was interrupted by military service during World War II. When his service ended, Altgens returned to Dallas and got married. He soon went back to work for the local AP bureau, Altgens was on assignment for the AP when he captured two historic images on November 22,1963. Altgens appeared briefly as an actor and model during his 40-year career with the AP. He spent his years working in display advertising, and answering letters. Altgens and his wife Clara died in 1995 at about the time in their Dallas home. Both had suffered from illnesses, and police said poisoning by a malfunctioning furnace also may have contributed to their deaths. Ike Altgens was born James William Altgens on April 28,1919 in Dallas, Texas, to Willie May, a housewife, and J. H. Altgens and he had a younger sister, Mary. Altgens was orphaned as a child and raised by a widowed aunt and he was hired by the Associated Press in 1938 when he was 19, shortly after his graduation from North Dallas High School. Altgens began his career handling various assignments and writing some sports articles and he showed a talent for photography and was assigned in 1940 to work in the wirephoto office. Altgens career was interrupted by service in the United States Coast Guard during World War II, following his return to Dallas from military service, he married Clara Halliburton in July 1944. Altgens went back to work for the AP in 1945 and was assigned to its news bureau and he also attended night classes at Southern Methodist University, earning a Bachelor of Arts degree in speech with a minor in journalism. Starting in 1959, Altgens made occasional appearances as an actor and model in motion pictures, television, credited as James Altgens, he played Secretary Lloyd Patterson in the low-budget science fiction thriller Beyond the Time Barrier, his role included the films final line of dialogue. Altgens acting career included a role as a witness in Free, White and 21. Altgens photographed President Kennedy for the AP in 1961 at Perrin Air Force Base, Kennedy and his predecessor Dwight D. Eisenhower were traveling to Bonham, Texas in November to attend the funeral of Sam Rayburn, three-time Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. Earlier that day, Altgens was the only photojournalist to climb to the 29th floor of the Mercantile National Bank Building in Dallas to cover the rescue of a girl from an elevator fire. On November 22,1963, Altgens was scheduled to work in the AP offices in Dallas as the wirephoto editor. He asked instead to go to the overpass to photograph the motorcade that was to take President Kennedy from Love Field to his scheduled appearance at the Dallas Trade MartIke Altgens – Ike Altgens circa 1970
4. Hugh Aynesworth – Hugh Grant Aynesworth is an American journalist, investigative reporter, author, and teacher. In a 1976 Texas Monthly article, William Broyles, Jr. described Aynesworth as one of the most respected authorities on the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Aynesworth is a native of Clarksburg, West Virginia. Aynesworths started as a newspaperman in 1948 and he first worked in his home state as a freelancer for the Clarksburg Exponent-Telegram. Aynesworths next two positions were with Donald W. Reynolds-owned newspapers in Fort Smith, Arkansas, from 1950 to 1954, he was a sports editor for the Fort Smith Times Record making $32/week. At the age of 23, he was hired as managing editor of the Southwest American. According to Aynesworth, at time he may have been the youngest managing editor of a daily newspaper in the United States. He also conducted his first interview with a murderer while working at the American, in 1957, Aynesworth left the American after a dispute with Reynolds regarding compensation. Aynesworth was a writer for the Dallas Times Herald at 26, then was hired to work for United Press International in their Denver. While in Denver, he was stabbed in the throat by a man who broke down his apartment door one night. Those who speculated on the motivation for the attack believed Aynesworth may have been targeted in a case of identity or by a jealous husband. Aynesworth himself reported he thought that the Teamsters may have involved due to a story on which the UPI was working at the time. While still bandaged from the attack, he interviewed and was hired by the Dallas Morning News in 1960. Aynesworth covered the United States space program for the Dallas Morning News as a space and aviation reporter, in 1967, he started for Newsweek in their Houston bureau, where he eventually succeeded Philip Carter as head of that bureau. Aynesworth was a chief at the Dallas Times Herald where he first began working in 1975. At ABC News, Aynesworth was an investigator for 20/20, in the mid-1990s, he was the Dallas/Southwest bureau chief of The Washington Times. In 2007, Aynesworth was elected President of the 300-member Press Club of Dallas and he has served on the board of directors for The Texas Observers MOLLY National Journalism Prize. Aynesworth has been nominated for a Pulitzer Prize six times, and has been a finalist four times, according to Aynesworth, he was scheduled to interview a scientist at Southern Methodist University on November 22,1963. He said that he saw Jack Ruby around 11,30 that morning in the cafeteria of the Dallas Morning News before Ruby went upstairs to place an advertisement for his nightclubHugh Aynesworth – Hugh Aynesworth at the 2013 Texas Book Festival.
5. Badge Man – Badge Man is the name given to an unknown figure reputedly visible within the famous Mary Moorman photograph of the assassination of U. S. President John F. Kennedy. Some researchers have theorized that this figure is a sniper firing a weapon at the President from the area of the grassy knoll in Dealey Plaza, speculation about the Badge Man figure helped fuel conspiracy theories about a plot by members of the Dallas Police Department to kill Kennedy. In response, abundant skeptics proposed numerous alternative interpretations of the image, during the Presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza, Dallas resident Mary Moorman took a series of photographs with her Polaroid camera. The Badge Man is reputedly visible in Moormans fifth and most famous photo of the area, the Moorman photograph was seen contemporaneously in world media through UPI, but the Warren Commission did not include it in the volumes of its Report. The House Select Committee on Assassinations sent a high-quality negative of the Moorman photo to the Rochester Institute of Technology for enlargement, enhancement, and analysis. In 1982 Gary Mack, the curator and archivist for The Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza was the first to claim discovery of the Badge Man figure. In Macks visual interpretation, a police officer can be seen standing behind the stockade fence, his face obscured by a muzzle flash. Mack initially believed Gordon Arnold to be the Badge Man figure, the question of Badge Mans existence helped perpetuate conspiracy theories which alleged that members of the Dallas Police Department had killed Kennedy and simultaneously framed Lee Harvey Oswald. In his initial observations, Mack had been assisted by photographer and assassination researcher Jack White, in the mid-1980s, White put forward a new version, enhanced in contrast and brightness, which he claimed revealed the policeman figure in high clarity. Whites research was shown and discussed in the 1988 documentary series, in it, a closeup of the enhanced Badge Man figure is repeated onscreen as a voice-over describes three shooters at Dealey Plaza, said to be in league with the Mafia. One of the three is described as standing in the Badge Mans position, behind the fence on the grassy knoll. The narration identifies this shooter as Lucien Sarti, a French national, army uniform when a shot passed close to his left ear. Three tramps Umbrella Man Babushka Lady The Moorman Polaroid Photograph JFK Online, Badge Man JFK Files, Badge Man Mary Moormans Camera - Polaroid Highlander Model 80ABadge Man – The Moorman photograph (detail) showing the fatal shot; "Badge Man" is reputedly located behind the stockade fence at photo center
6. Lee Bowers – Lee Edward Bowers, Jr. was a witness to the assassination of John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas on November 22,1963. Some Conspiracy theorists believe that Bowers died under mysterious circumstances, Bowers served in the U. S. Navy from ages 17 to 21. He attended Hardin-Simmons University for two years then Southern Methodist University for two years, majoring in religion and he worked for the Union Terminal Co. railyard for 15 years, also working as a self-employed builder. In 1964 he began working as manager for a hospital. He had a view of the rear of the concrete pergola. On April 2,1964, Lee Bowers provided testimony to Joseph A. Ball, assistant counsel of the Warren Commission, at the US Post Office Building in Dallas. When asked by Ball, Now, were any people standing on the high side — high ground between your tower and where Elm Street goes down under the underpass toward the mouth of the underpass. One was middle-aged, or slightly older, fairly heavy-set, in a shirt, fairly dark trousers. One or both were still there when the first police officer arrived immediately after the shooting, many assumed that Bowers meant that these men were standing behind the stockade fence at the top of the grassy knoll. Bowers further stated, At the time of the shooting there seemed to be some commotion on the ground above Elm Street. Bowers later purportedly said to his supervisor, Olan Degaugh, that he saw a man in the parking lot throw what appeared to be a rifle into a car. Bowers said, These two men were standing back from the street somewhat at the top of the incline and were very near two trees which were in the area. And one of them, from time to time as he walked back and forth and these two men to the best of my knowledge were standing there at the time of the shooting. Bowers told Lane that as the motorcade passed there was a flash of light or smoke in the vicinity of where the two men were standing, Bowers died in August,1966, when his car left an empty road and struck a concrete bridge abutment near Midlothian, Texas. Bowers was played by Pruitt Taylor Vince in the 1991 film JFK, biography of Lee Bowers Bowers testimony and Oliver Stones Film Up by the Triple Underpass Lee BowersLee Bowers – Bowers worked in the two-story railroad tower seen at the top of this photo of Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas
7. Howard Brennan – Howard Leslie Brennan was a witness to the assassination of U. S. President John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas on November 22,1963. When testifying, Brennan identified himself as a 45-year-old steamfitter and he arrived at about 12,22 p. m. and while waiting for the motorcade, Brennan observed the others in the crowd. During his testimony Brennan stated that he watched the parade as the presidential limousine turned the corner at Houston and Elm, Brennan heard a loud noise that he “positively thought was a backfire” just after the president had passed his location. Brennan quickly reported his observations to police officers, “I could see the red brick building across the street from where I was sitting. I take this building across the street to be about 7 stories anyway in the east end of the building, I had seen him before the President’s car arrived. He was just sitting up there looking down apparantly waiting for the same thing I was to see the President, I did not notice anything unusual about this man. He was a man in his early 30’s, slender, nice looking, slender. He had on light colored clothing but definately not a suit, I proceeded to watch the President’s car … I heard what I thought was a back fire … I looked up at the building. I then saw this man I have described in the window, I could see all of the barrel of the gun. I do not know if it had a scope on it or not, I was looking at the man in this window at the time of the last explosion. Then this man let the gun down to his side and stepped out of sight. He did not seem to be in any hurry, I could see this man from about his belt up. There was nothing unusual about him at all in appearance, I believe that I could identify this man if I ever saw him again. A description of the suspect was broadcast to all Dallas police at 12,45 p. m.12,48 p. m. and 12,55 p. m. Patrolman J. D. Tippit was shot and killed by Lee Harvey Oswald after Tippit spotted him walking along a sidewalk, Oswald fled and was later captured in a nearby movie theater. Later the same evening Brennan identified Oswald in a lineup as the person who most closely resembled the man in the window. A few hours prior to seeing the line-up, Brennan had observed a picture of Oswald on television, Brennan attributed this to part of the reason he felt he could not make a positive identification, he did not want the image to have impacted his decision. On December 17,1963, he told the FBI that he was sure that Oswald was the rifleman he had seen in the window, several months later, he also testified to the Warren CommissionHoward Brennan – Howard Brennan sitting across from the Texas School Book Depository in Dallas. Circle "A" indicates where he saw a man fire a gun at President Kennedy's motorcade and circle "B" indicates the window in which he saw "colored guys" watching the motorcade.
8. Earle Cabell – Earle Cabell was a Texas politician who served as mayor of Dallas, Texas. Cabell was mayor at the time of the assassination of John F. Kennedy and was later a member of the U. S. House of Representatives. He attended Texas A&M University, where he met Jack Crichton and H. R. Bum Bright, after returning from college, he founded, along with his brothers, Cabells Inc. a chain of dairies and convenience stores. He later became involved with banking and other investments, in May 1961, he was elected mayor to succeed Robert L. Thornton. He was the brother of Charles Cabell, who was deputy director of the Central Intelligence Agency until Charles resigned in the wake of the Bay of Pigs invasion, on February 3,1964, Cabell resigned as mayor of Dallas in order to run for Congress. He unseated the ten-year Republican incumbent Bruce Alger, in that same election, Jack Crichton was defeated by a wide margin by the Democratic Governor John B. Connally, Jr. and George Herbert Walker Bush fell to Senator Ralph W. Yarborough, Cabell served four terms in the House before he was defeated by the Republican Alan Steelman in the 1972 election. Following his defeat, he retired in Dallas, where he lived until his death in 1975 from emphysema and he was buried at Restland Cemetery in Dallas. The Earle Cabell Federal Building and Courthouse on Commerce Street in Dallas is named in his honor, biographical Directory of the United States CongressEarle Cabell – Earle Cabell
9. John Connally – John Bowden Connally, Jr. was an American politician. As a Democrat he served as Secretary of the Navy under President John F. Kennedy, as the 39th Governor of Texas, while Governor of Texas, he was seriously wounded when President Kennedy was assassinated. As Treasury Secretary, Connally is best remembered for removing the U. S. dollar from the standard in 1971. In 1973 he switched parties to become a Republican, and ran unsuccessfully for the Republican nomination for President in 1980, Connally was born on February 27,1917, into a large family in Floresville, the seat of Wilson County southeast of San Antonio. He was one of seven born to Lela and John Bowden Connally, Sr. a dairy. His six siblings included four brothers, Golfrey, Merrill, Wayne, Connally attended Floresville High School and, upon graduation, was one of the few graduates who attended college. He graduated from the University of Texas at Austin, where he was the student body president and he subsequently graduated from the University of Texas School of Law and was admitted to the bar by examination. He transferred to the South Pacific Theater, where he served with distinction and he was a fighter-plane director aboard the aircraft carrier USS Essex and was awarded the Bronze Star for bravery. He was shifted to another Essex-class aircraft carrier, the USS Bennington and was awarded the Legion of Merit and he was also involved in the campaigns in the Gilbert, Marshall, Ryukyu, and Philippine islands. He was discharged in 1946 at the rank of lieutenant commander and he had close ties with Johnson before his navy days and maintained them till the presidents death in 1973. Two of Connallys principal legal clients were the Texas oil tycoon Sid W. Richardson and Perry Bass, Richardsons nephew and partner, Richardsons empire at the time was estimated at $200 million to $1 billion. Under Richardsons tutelage, Connally gained experience in a variety of enterprises, the work required the Connallys to relocate to Fort Worth. When Richardson died in 1959, Connally was named to the position as co-executor of the estate. Connally was also involved in a reported clandestine deal to place the Texas Democrat Robert Anderson on the 1956 Republican ticket as vice president, moreover, in another coincidence, Anderson had been Eisenhowers first Navy secretary, the post that Connally filled for John F. Kennedy in 1961. At the 1960 Democratic convention in Los Angeles, Connally led supporters of Senator Lyndon Johnson and he claimed that John F. Kennedy, if nominated and elected, would be unable to serve as president for a full term because of Addisons disease and dependence on cortisone. Kennedy, however, had wrapped up the delegates for nomination before the convention even opened. Kennedy realized that he could not be elected without support of traditional Southern Democrats, therefore, Johnson was offered the vice-presidential nomination. At Johnsons request, in 1961 President Kennedy named Connally Secretary of the Navy, Connally resigned eleven months later to run for the Texas governorshipJohn Connally – John Connally
10. Nellie Connally – Idanell Nellie Brill Connally was the First Lady of Texas from 1963 to 1969. She was the wife of John Connally, who served as Governor of Texas and she and her husband were passengers in the Presidential limousine carrying President John F. Kennedy when he was assassinated in Dallas, Texas on November 22,1963. Connally was born in Austin, Texas, the eldest of five children of Kathleen Annie and she attended the University of Texas where she was named Sweetheart of the University in 1938. Connally initially had aspirations to become an actress but gave up those plans after meeting her husband, John Connally. John Connally began his career in working for then Congressman Lyndon B. Johnson. John Connally was elected Governor of Texas in 1962 and he was subsequently re-elected for two additional terms. During her tenure as First Lady, Connally created the gardens at the Texas Governors Mansion, on November 22,1963, Connally and her husband were riding in the presidential limousine that carried President John F. Kennedy when he was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. While riding in the car with President Kennedy, Connally told President Kennedy, Mr. President, within a few seconds, she heard the first of what she later concluded were three gunshots in quick succession. The President and Governor Connally were shot, resulting in fatal wounds to the President, mrs. Connally got down in the car to take care of her husband, who had slumped after the second shot. I was just trying to care of him, she said. Connally had said the most enduring image she had of the assassination in Dallas was of a mixture of blood and roses, Its the image of yellow roses and red roses, all over us, she said in a 2003 interview with The Associated Press. It was so quick and so short, so potent, in her 2003 book From Love Field—Our Final Hours with John F. Kennedy, Connally shared her personal diary of the event written in the days immediately after the assassination. After serving as Texass First Lady, Connally worked to raise money for charities including the Children’s Miracle Network Telethon for Hermann Childrens Hospital. She served on the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Board of Visitors since 1984, and she was later named Woman of Distinction by the Crohns and Colitis Foundation. Connally was also a member of the Texas Historical Commission and helped to complete Tranquility Park located in Houston, in 1988, Connally was diagnosed with breast cancer. She was treated and went into remission, the following year, Richard Nixon, Donald Trump, and Barbara Walters turned out for a gala to honor her and raise money for diabetes research. In 1998, ten years after her breast cancer diagnosis, Connally celebrated her 80th birthday with fellow breast cancer survivors at a ceremony in the Nellie B, Connally Breast Center at Anderson Hospital in Houston. Private business ventures after 1980 were less successful than John Connallys career as a politician, an oil company in which he invested encountered trouble, and $200 million of real-estate projects failedNellie Connally – President John F. Kennedy, First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy and the Connallys in the presidential limousine before the assassination
11. Clint Grant – Donald Clinton Clint Grant was an American photographer and photojournalist based in Dallas, Texas. He was a photographer with The Dallas Morning News from 1949 to 1986. He was particularly known for his images of animals and children, Grant was on assignment in November 1963 to cover President John F. Kennedys trip from Washington, D. C. to Dallas. One of his photographs made the front page of the November 22 edition of the Morning News, Grant also would make several pictures at Parkland Memorial Hospital within minutes after Kennedys motorcade arrived following the shooting in Dealey Plaza. Grant was the recipient of multiple awards during his career. He retired from The Dallas Morning News in 1986, but continued working in a capacity for more than a decade thereafter. He died in Dallas of heart failure at age 93, Clint Grant was born in Nashville, Tennessee. Grant got a job with the Photo Department, but he was drafted into the United States Army before he could report to work, Grant served during World War II in Europe, where he never used a camera. Grant married Myrtis Ann Halliburton in 1939 after a brief courtship, when they met, he worked behind the dairy counter at the local A&P market where she was a customer. When Grant returned from overseas to Dallas in 1945, all Morning News staff photographers resumed their duties and he ran a photography studio until 1949, when a position at the newspaper became available. During his early years with the News, Grant was one of up to ten staff photographers, including Jack Beers, Tom Dillard, Doris Jacoby and Joe Laird. His evocative photographs often featured animals and children, and his editor said Grants knack for putting subjects at ease came largely because he had the patience of Job, Grants work also accompanied sports stories. A photograph of a fan and a fallen fighter was named one of the best sports pictures of 1956. Grant taught classes in photography in the 1950s and 60s at North Texas University and he was also the official photographer for the Dallas Zoo and the State Fair of Texas. In an interview, Grant said he had his own tricks for making photos and he would pre-focus, pretend to not aim the camera, and shoot from the hip. He believed that any good photojournalist should have the necessary to do the job without needing to use the viewfinder. One of Grants photos was blown up to eight feet and displayed for one year in Grand Central Terminal in New York City and he also photographed the culinary creations of some of the best chefs in Dallas, who all knew Grant and respected his work. A menu item at the Casa Dominguez restaurant in Dallas was named for Grant, two collections of Grants work have been published, Moments from Life, An Exhibition of Photographs from the Grant Estate in 2000, and 50 Years of the Best Photos of Clint Grant in 2001Clint Grant – Clint Grant in an undated family photo
12. William Greer – William Robert Greer was an agent of the U. S. Greer was born on a farm in Stewartstown, County Tyrone, Ireland, after working for over a decade as a chauffeur and servant to several wealthy families in the Boston and New York areas, including the Lodge family and several years with Franklin Q. Greer took a close to Kennedy, and can be seen in several pictures with the Kennedy family. He chauffeured the president on many occasions, including the day of the assassination, like all agents involved, he has been the target of much speculation and criticism for his actions on that day. Greer, along with Secret Service agents Roy Kellerman, Clint Hill, Greer retired on disability from the Secret Service in 1966 due to a stomach ulcer that grew worse following the Kennedy assassination. In 1973 he relocated to Waynesville, North Carolina, where he died of cancer. Greers son, Richard, told author Vince Palamara in 1991 that his father had no survivors guilt. Secret Service procedures in place at the time did not allow Greer to take action without orders from senior agent Roy Kellerman, as Roy Kellerman told author William Manchester, Greer then looked in the back of the car. Greer later delivered an apology to her. William Greer at Find a Grave Stabilized Zapruder Film FBI Agent ONeils ReportWilliam Greer – The Presidential limousine shortly before Kennedy's assassination. Greer is in the driver seat. Agent Roy Kellerman was in the front passenger seat.
13. Jerry Haynes – Jerome Martin Jerry Haynes was an American actor from Dallas, Texas. He also had a career in local and regional theater. A1944 graduate of Dallas Woodrow Wilson High School, he was the father of musician Gibby Haynes and he was born in Dallas, Texas to Louise Schimmelpfennig Haynes and Fred Haynes. In 1990, Haynes was inducted into Woodrow Wilson High Schools Hall of Fame, Jerry graduated from Southern Methodist University after attending Louisiana State University and Yale. Jerry was father of Butthole Surfers frontman, Gibby Haynes, Haynes began his most famous role in 1961, playing a character who wore a red- and white-striped jacket and straw hat and carried a candy-striped magic cane. The original show ran for nine years as a show, with Mr. Peppermint talking with a variety of puppet characters. Early in the run of his show, an accident of fate made Haynes the first to report the Kennedy assassination on local news, together with his program director, Jay Watson. The men quickly located and interviewed eyewitnesses, going on the air shortly later and he and I were the first to go live on local TV and report the terrible moment. I went home that afternoon, and Doris and I gathered our children around, there was no direct discussion about it on Mr. Peppermint the next week. I didn’t feel qualified to counsel the viewers on it and we just behaved in a subdued and respectful manner. During these early years, the show began at 7,30 AM and ran for one hour, competing in its last half-hour with the national CBS broadcast of Captain Kangaroo but usually winning its time slot. National trends shifted, however, and in 1970, the show was replaced by a program for the adult audience. After the Federal Communications Commission called in 1975 for more programming for children, the show was retooled as Peppermint Place. The show continued in that format for over 20 years, eventually being syndicated to 108 markets nationwide before ending its run in 1996, most of Haynes film career was in made-for-television films, especially those set in his native Texas. His first film role was in the 1981 docudrama Crisis at Central High, about the integration of Little Rocks Central High School, filmed in Dallas. His chief feature film roles included 1984s Places in the Heart, as Deputy Jack Driscoll and he also played minor roles in RoboCop and Boys Dont Cry. In 1996 the Lone Star Film & Television Awards honored him with a Lifetime Achievement Award and he regularly appeared in the Red River, New Mexico, Fourth of July parade in a candy-striped Jeep. Haynes was diagnosed with Parkinsons disease in early 2008, and then was diagnosed with a heart condition for which he received an artificial pacemakerJerry Haynes – Haynes in the 2007 Red River, New Mexico Fourth of July parade, riding in his trademark Jeep Wrangler painted with candy stripes
14. Clint Hill (Secret Service) – Clinton J. Clint Hill is a former United States Secret Service agent who was in the presidential motorcade during the assassination of John F. Kennedy on November 22,1963, in Dallas, Texas. This action was documented in the Zapruder film, Hill is the last surviving passenger of the presidential limousine that arrived at Parkland Hospital. Hill was born in Larimore, North Dakota, to a Norwegian mother and his birth parents homesteaded near Roseglen. At three months of age, he was placed in an orphanage in Fargo, where he was adopted by another Norwegian family in Chris, originally named Haugen, the family later changed its name to the English version of the name, Haugen means the hill in Norwegian. Hills new family took him to Washburn, where he graduated from Washburn High School. He also attended Concordia College in Moorhead, Minnesota, where he played football, studied history, after college, Hill joined the Army and became a Counterintelligence Special Agent where he served until 1957. After the Army, Hill joined the Secret Service and was assigned to the Denver Secret Service office, in 1958, Hill served on the detail for President Dwight D. Eisenhower. After John F. Kennedy was elected President of the United States, Hill was assigned to protect the First Lady, Jacqueline Kennedy. President Kennedy was assassinated on November 22,1963, in Dallas, Texas, during a motorcade through the city, the President and Mrs. Kennedy were riding in an open limousine containing three rows of seats. Hill was riding on the front running board of the Secret Service car immediately behind the presidential limousine. As soon as the shooting began, Hill began running to overtake the moving car in front of him and he climbed from the rear bumper, crawling over the trunk to the back seat where the President and First Lady were located. In the moments immediately after the fatal shots Mrs. Kennedy was seen climbing out of the seat towards the trunk. Hill pushed her back into the car and covered her and the wounded president with his body. Hill, along with Secret Service agents Kellerman, Greer, and Rufus Youngblood, provided testimony to the Warren Commission in Washington, D. C. on March 9,1964. Hill grabbed a small handrail on the rear of the trunk. He had repeated this wish only a few days before, during his visit to Tampa, the notion that the Presidents instructions in Tampa jeopardized his security in Dallas has since been denied by Hill and other agents. Regardless of Kennedys statement, photos taken of the motorcade along earlier segments of the route show Hill riding on the step at the back of the car. As an alternate explanation, fellow agent Gerald Blaine cites the location of the shooting, We were going into a freeway, so we would not have had any agents there anywayClint Hill (Secret Service) – Clint Hill on the Presidential limousine moments after Kennedy's assassination.
15. Jean Hill – Norma Jean Lollis Hill was an eyewitness to the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas, on November 22,1963. Hill was known as the Lady in Red because of the long red raincoat she wore that day, a teacher by profession, she was a consultant for Oliver Stones 1991 film JFK and co-wrote JFK, The Last Dissenting Witness with Bill Sloan. Hills claims have been disputed and embraced. Jean Hill was a consistent critic of the report of the Warren Commission since its release. In this book she made the assertion that her testimony before the Warren Commission was fabricated by the commission. Hill was born and raised in Ferguson, Oklahoma, after her parents divorced in 1943, she moved with her father to Wewoka, Oklahoma where she later graduated from Wewoka High School. Upon graduation, Hill enrolled at Oklahoma Baptist University and she dropped out after two years after marrying Bill Hill. The couple had two children, Jeanne and Billy, Hill eventually returned to college and earned a degree in elementary education in 1955. Hill worked as a teacher in Oklahoma City until 1962 when the family moved to Dallas for Bill Hills job at Science Research Associates, shortly after moving to Dallas, Hill and her husband separated. To support herself and her children, Hill got a job as a teacher with the Dallas public school system, Jean and Bill Hills divorce was finalized in August 1964. Hill was present along with her friend Mary Moorman across from the grassy knoll, Moorman can be seen in the Zapruder film taking pictures, which Hill stated were later taken and bleached out by unknown parties. At Zapruder frame 313, when Kennedy was shot in the head, Hill was only 21 feet away, leftward, Hill was also one of several witnesses who stated that at the end of the assassination they saw smoke lingering near the grassy knoll picket fence corner. She testified to the Warren Commission that after the assassination she watched a man running from near the Texas School Book Depository toward the picket fence area. After watching this man, Hill crossed the street and was one of witnesses and authorities who first ran toward the grassy knoll after the shots ended. Mrs. Jean L. Hill stated that after the firing stopped she saw a man wearing a brown overcoat. She has since stated when she saw a photo of Jack Ruby after his killing of Lee Harvey Oswald she now believes he was the man she saw running, there are no other witnesses who claim to have seen a man running toward the railroad tracks. Hills recollection or to reveal the identity of the man described by Mrs. Hill, Hill stated that she received death threats and that the brake lines of her automobile were cut after the assassination. The films epilogue states that of 18 witnesses, all but two of whom died from unnatural causes within three years of the assassination, there were significant problems with the films actuarial assertions, which were completely inaccurate due to an error in communicationJean Hill – Jean Hill (left) and Mary Moorman (right) as captured in Frame 298 of the Zapruder film, just less than one second before the fatal head shot.
16. Lem Johns – Thomas Lemuel Lem Johns was a member of the United States Secret Service present during the assassination of John F. Kennedy and the first inauguration of Lyndon B. Johnson. Johns was born in and grew up in Birmingham, Alabama, Johns attended the University of Alabama and later graduated from Howard College. Johns joined the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax Division of the Internal Revenue Service in 1952 and he joined the United States Secret Service in 1954 and served until 1976, including many years as head of the Birmingham field office. Johns died in Hoover, Alabama on May 10,2014Lem Johns – Johns on November 22, 1963
17. Roy Kellerman – Roy Herman Kellerman was a U. S. Secret Service Agent assigned to protect President John F. Kennedy when he was assassinated on November 22,1963, Kellerman joined the Secret Service in Detroit just before Christmas 1941, transferring temporarily to the White House detail in March 1942 and permanently one month later. In 1965, Kellerman was promoted to deputy special agent in charge and he retired from the Secret Service in 1968 as an assistant administrator. Kellerman died in St. Petersburg, Florida, on March 22,1984, as the Assistant Special Agent in Charge of November 22,1963, Shift Team #3, Kellerman was riding in the front passenger seat of the presidential limousine. The driver was Secret Service Agent William Greer, like all Secret Service agents assigned to protect the President of the United States, Kellerman was trained to use his own body as a shield, taking a bullet if necessary in the line of duty. Kellerman, along with Secret Service agents William Greer, Clint Hill, Kellerman testified, I turned around to find out what happened when two additional shots rang out and the President slumped into Mrs. Kennedys lap and Governor Connally fell to Mrs. Connallys lap. Kellerman also testified to the Warren Commission, I am going to say that I have, from the firecracker report, but, if President Kennedy had from all reports four wounds, Governor Connally three, there have got to be more than three shots, gentlemen. The primary function of the agent was to remain at all times in close proximity to the President in the event of such emergencies, Kellerman maintained his composure immediately after Kennedys assassination, managing events as they continued to develop. Kellerman testified that he played a role in the autopsy at Bethesda, when asked by the House Select Committee on Assassinations staff why he wanted this material, he said. the point is, he was our man, everything belonged in the White House. According to a given in 1981, Kellerman did not believe there was a conspiracy to assassinate Kennedy. However, in 1994, Vanity Fair published an article by Anthony Summers and Robbyn Swan in which they quoted Kellermans widow, June, in the 2013 film Parkland, actor Tom Welling played the role of Kellerman. Philip H. Mellanson, with Peter F. Stevens, The Secret Service, The Hidden History of an Enigmatic Agency, p.77. Obit, The Washington Post, March 30,1984 The Secret Service, In Their Own Words by Vince Palamara http, //www. jfklancer. com/pdf/words. pdf Roy Kellerman at Find a GraveRoy Kellerman – The Presidential limousine shortly before Kennedy's assassination. Kellerman was in the front passenger seat of the car
18. Mary Moorman – Mary Ann Moorman was a witness to the assassination of U. S. President John F. Kennedy. She is best known for her photograph capturing the presidential limousine a fraction of a second after the fatal shot, Mary Ann Moorman was born Mary Ann Boshart. She married Donald G. Moorman in 1952 and divorced him in 1973 and she later married Gary Krahmer in 1980. On November 22,1963, U. S. President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, Moorman stated that she stepped off the grass onto the street to take her Polaroid photo. Zapruder is seen standing on the pergola in the Moorman photograph and she and her friend, Jean Hill, can be clearly seen in many frames of the Zapruder film. Between Zapruder film frames Z-315 and 316, Moorman took a Polaroid photograph, her fifth that day, moormans photograph captured the fatal head shot which killed President Kennedy. She later stated in a 2013 PBS documentary Kennedy Half Century that she was enough to hear Jackie Kennedy exclaim that John had been shot. In 2013, Moorman attempted to sell the original polaroid through Cowan’s Auctions in Cincinnati, the photo was expected to sell between $50,000 and $75,000, but did not meet its reserve. She had previously attempted to sell the item at Sothebys in New York and that same year, she expressed her opinion on the assassination, she was convinced that Kennedy was killed by a conspiracy. I really don’t know what happened, but I do know there is bound to be a lot more to the story that hasnt been told. I was hoping it would come out in my lifetime, so much has been hidden by the government, anything can take place and it can be hidden. Oswald probably wasnt a person, he probably had backers. I really do think it was a conspiracy, she said, what was captured in the background of the photo has been a matter of contentious debate. On the grassy knoll, some claim to have identified as many as four different figures, most often a figure is identified as the Badge Man because it supposedly resembles a uniformed police officer. Others claim to see Gordon Arnold, a man who claimed to have filmed the assassination from that area, a man in a hard hat. Moorman stated she heard a shot as the limousine passed her and she stated that she could not determine where the shots came from, and that she saw no one in the area that appeared to have possibly been the assassin. Moorman was interviewed by the Dallas County Sheriffs Department and the FBI and she was called by the Warren Commission to testify, but due to a sprained ankle, she was unable to be questioned. She was never contacted by them again, affidavit of Mary Ann Moorman, November 22,1963Mary Moorman – Polaroid photo by Mary Ann Moorman taken a fraction of a second after the fatal shot (detail)
19. Kenneth O'Donnell – ODonnell was a close friend of President Kennedy and his younger brother, politician Robert F. Kennedy, and was part of the group of Kennedys close advisors called the Irish Mafia. ODonnell served as President Lyndon B, johnsons aide from 1963 to 1965, and was a key campaign advisor for Robert Kennedys 1968 presidential campaign. Kenneth Patrick ODonnell was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, and raised in Boston, both of his parents were Roman Catholics of Irish descent. His father, Cleo ODonnell, was the coach for the Holy Cross Crusaders football team for two decades and later athletics director for all sports activities at the College of the Holy Cross. ODonnells older brother, also named Cleo, was a star at Harvard during the 1940s. During World War II ODonnell served in the US Army Air Corps, after completing his service in the AAC, he studied at Harvard College 1946–1949. It was at Harvard that ODonnell met Robert F. Kennedy, ODonnell and Robert Kennedy remained close friends until the latters assassination in 1968. Following graduation from Harvard, ODonnell attended law school at Boston College from 1950–51 and he later worked as a salesman for the Hollingsworth & Vose Paper Company and then the Whitney Corporation, both in Boston, from 1951 to 1952. ODonnell later worked in public relations from 1952 to 1957, ODonnells friendship with Robert Kennedy led to his involvement with the Kennedy familys political career. In 1946, Robert Kennedy enlisted ODonnell to work on his brothers, John F. Kennedy. In 1952, ODonnell and Robert Kennedy campaigned together to get John Kennedy elected to the United States Senate, in 1958, ODonnell became a member of John Kennedys staff and, in 1960, became the organizer and director of Kennedys presidential campaign schedule. The following year he became President Kennedys special assistant and Appointments Secretary, ODonnell advised President Kennedy during the planning for the Bay of Pigs invasion as well as during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. He later arranged President Kennedys trip to Dallas in November 1963, President Kennedys death was an enormous blow to ODonnell, who long blamed himself for the assassination. ODonnell told the Warren Commission that the shooting had come from the rear and he later told his friend, Tip ONeill, that he had been under pressure from the Federal Bureau of Investigation to say this. In fact, he believed that the gunfire had come from in front of the motorcade, ODonnell commented, I told the FBI what I had heard, but they said it couldnt have happened that way and that I must have been imagining things. So I testified the way they wanted me to, I just didnt want to stir up any more pain and trouble for the family. In 1968, he served as manager for Robert Kennedy. In 1972, ODonnell and David Powers co-authored a book about President Kennedy, Johnny We Hardly Knew Ye, while at Harvard, ODonnell married Helen Sullivan in 1947Kenneth O'Donnell – Kenneth O'Donnell
20. Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis – Jacqueline Lee Jackie Kennedy Onassis was the wife of the 35th President of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and First Lady of the United States from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. Bouvier was the daughter of Wall Street stockbroker John Vernou Bouvier III. In 1951, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in French literature from George Washington University, in 1952, Bouvier met Congressman John F. Kennedy at a dinner party. In November of that year, he was elected as a United States Senator from Massachusetts, and they had four children, two of whom died in infancy. As First Lady, she was known for her highly publicized restoration of the White House and her emphasis on arts, on November 22,1963, she was riding with the President in a motorcade in Dallas, Texas, when he was assassinated. She and her children withdrew from view after his funeral. Following her second death in 1975, she had a career as a book editor for the final two decades of her life. She is remembered for her contributions to the arts and preservation of historic architecture, as well as for her style, elegance. She was an icon, and her famous ensemble of pink Chanel suit. She ranks as one of the most popular First Ladies and in 1999 was named on Gallups list of Most Admired Men and Women in 20th-century America. Jacqueline Lee Bouvier was born on July 28,1929, at Southampton Hospital in Southampton, New York, to Wall Street stockbroker John Vernou Black Jack Bouvier III, Bouviers mother was of Irish descent, and her father had French, Scottish, and English ancestry. Named after her father, Bouvier was baptized at the Church of St. Ignatius Loyola in Manhattan and her younger sister Lee was born in 1933. Bouvier spent her childhood years in Manhattan and at Lasata. She idolized her father, who favored her over her sister. From an early age, Bouvier was an equestrienne and successfully competed in the sport. She also took lessons, was an avid reader, and excelled at learning languages. Bouvier enrolled in the Chapin School in Manhattan in 1935, which she attended for grades 1–6. She was a student but often misbehaved, one of her teachers described her as a darling child, the prettiest little girl, very clever, very artisticJacqueline Kennedy Onassis – Jacqueline Kennedy at the White House in 1961
21. David Powers – David Francis Powers was Special Assistant and assistant Appointments Secretary to President of the United States John F. Kennedy. Powers served as Museum Curator of the John F. Kennedy Library, Powers was a military veteran who had served in the U. S. Army Air Corps during World War II from 1942 to 1945. Powers was also a close, personal friend of John F. Kennedy. The son of Irish immigrants, Powers was born in the Charlestown section of Boston and his father died when he was two-years old. In 1996, the Assassination Records Review Board released three-minutes of film footage captured by Powers in Dallas prior to the assassination, Powers said he began filming when the motorcade left Love Field but ran out of film at 12,17 p. m before reaching Dealey Plaza. Powers and Kenneth ODonnell co-authored Johnny We Hardly Knew Ye, Memories of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, ISBN 0-316-71625-1 Powers granddaughter, Jenny Powers, gained fame as a Broadway actress and performer. An ardent Democrat like her grandfather, she was asked to sing the National Anthem at the 2000 Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles, Judith Campbell Exner in her autobiography Judith Exner, My Story alleged that Powers assisted in setting up encounters with President Kennedy. Powers would later state that Kennedy never had an affair with Exner, in her 2012 book, Once Upon a Secret, My Affair with President John F. They were shooting from the front, from behind that fence, John F. Kennedy Library and Museum bioDavid Powers – David Francis Powers, Special Assistant to President John F. Kennedy.
22. Three tramps – Since the mid-1960s, various allegations have been made about the identities of the men and their involvement in a conspiracy to kill Kennedy. Records released by the Dallas Police Department in 1989 identified the men as Gus Abrams, Harold Doyle, the men later became known as the three tramps. Appearing before an audience on the December 31,1968, episode of The Tonight Show. Immediately after obtaining the photographs, Gregory held a conference that received considerable coverage and his charges were reported in Rolling Stone. The Rockefeller Commission reported in 1975 that they investigated the allegation that Hunt and Sturgis, on behalf of the Central Intelligence Agency and their report also stated that FBI Agent Lyndal L. According to the Committee, only Crisman resembled any of the tramps, according to Mark Lane, Sturgis became involved with Marita Lorenz in 1985, who later identified Sturgis as a gunman in the assassination. Joseph Chagra, the brother of Jamiel Chagra, testified during Harrelsons trial that Harrelson claimed to have shot Kennedy, Chagra said that he did not believe Harrelsons claim, and the AP reported that the FBI apparently discounted any involvement by Harrelson in the Kennedy assassination. According to Jim Marrs in 1989s Crossfire, Harrelson is believed to be the youngest and tallest of the tramps by many assassination researchers, according to the Houston Chronicle, a homicide detective who worked on the original murder case of Rogers parents described the scenario as far-fetched. Holt also stated that he was with Harrelson in Dealey Plaza on the day of the assassination, according to Holt, he was ordered to Dallas to deliver phony Secret Service credentials, but was not involved in killing Kennedy nor did he have knowledge of who did. According to that book, Harrelson and Rogers were sharpshooters on the grassy knoll, an immediate search for the three men by the FBI and others was prompted by an article by Ray and Mary La Fontaine on the front page of the February 9,1992, Houston Post. Less than a later, the FBI reported that Abrams was dead. According to Doyle, the three men had spent the night before the assassination in a homeless shelter where they showered. Interviewed by A Current Affair in 1992, Doyle said that he was aware of the allegations and he added, I am a plain guy, a simple country boy, and thats the way I want to stay. I wouldnt be a celebrity for $10 million, Gedney independently affirmed Doyles account, and a researcher who tracked down Abrams sister confirmed that Abrams lived the life of an itinerant train hopper and had died in 1987. Babushka Lady Badge Man Umbrella Man Fred CrismanThree tramps – E. Howard Hunt and one of the three tramps arrested after JFK's assassination
23. Jack Valenti – Jack Joseph Valenti was a longtime president of the Motion Picture Association of America. During his 38-year tenure in the MPAA, he created the MPAA film rating system, Valenti was born on September 5,1921 in Houston, Texas, the son of Italian immigrants. During World War II, he was a first lieutenant in the United States Army Air Force, Valenti flew 51 combat missions as the pilot-commander of a B-25 medium bomber and received four decorations, including the Distinguished Flying Cross and Air Medal. Valenti graduated from the University of Houston in 1946 with a BBA, during his time there, he worked on the staff of the university newspaper, The Daily Cougar, and was president of the universitys student government. Valenti would later serve on the board of regents. In 1952, he and a partner named Weldon Weekley founded Weekley & Valenti, in 1956, Valenti met then Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson. Weekley & Valenti branched out into political consulting and added Representative Albert Thomas, in 1960, Valentis firm assisted in the Kennedy-Johnson presidential campaign. Following the assassination of President Kennedy, Valenti was present in the photograph of Lyndon Johnsons swearing in aboard Air Force One. He then became the first special assistant to Johnsons White House, Valenti later called Johnson the most single dominating human being that Ive ever been in contact with and the single most intelligent man Ive ever known. In a speech before the American Advertising Federation in 1965, Valenti said, I sleep each night a little better, a little more confidently, because Lyndon Johnson is my president. Valenti later attacked film director Oliver Stone for the 1991 movie JFK. Valenti called the movie a monstrous charade and said, I could not live with myself if I stood by mutely and let some filmmaker soil his memory. With Valentis arrival in Hollywood, the pair were lifelong allies, mr Valenti was a consummate salesman, who like all great salesmen. Worked himself up into believing the truth of his clients message, was a great actor working on the stage of Washington DC on behalf of an industry that appreciated his craft, but that never let him forget that the message was theirs and not his. In 1968, Valenti created the MPAA film rating system, the system initially comprised four distinct ratings, G, M, R, and X. The M rating would soon be replaced by GP, which was changed to PG. The X rating immediately proved troublesome, since it was not trademarked and therefore was used freely by the pornography industry, Films such as Midnight Cowboy and A Clockwork Orange were assumed to be pornographic because they carried the X rating. In 1990 the NC-17 rating was introduced as an adults only replacement for the non-trademarked X-rating. The PG-13 rating was added in 1984 to provide a range of distinction for audiencesJack Valenti – Jack Valenti
24. Wes Wise – Wes Wise was a three-term mayor of Dallas, Texas from 1971 until 1976. Wise was born in Shreveport, Louisiana, wises father having died when Wise was fifteen years old, Wise had to drop out of high school and begin work at a local radio station in Monroe, Louisiana. Although Wise earned a diploma by passing the high school equivalency test, Wise went on to work for many years as a sports director at KRLD-TV, a Dallas CBS television affiliate. In 1960 he teamed with Davey OBrien to call Dallas Cowboys games for CBS, during his CBS years, Wise also occasionally covered hard news. In particular, Wise provided on-the-spot coverage of President John F. Kennedys November 22,1963 assassination in downtown Dallas Dealey Plaza, Wise was present in the Dallas Municipal Building when Oswald was shot dead. Wise testified as a witness for both the defense and the prosecution at Jack Rubys trial for the murder of Oswald, Wise is a co-author of the 2004 memoir When the News Went Live, Dallas 1963. Of Dallas during Kennedys visit, Wise has said, Lets face it, At the time and it served as the regional headquarters of the John Birch Society, and Gen. Edwin Walker - whom many considered a far-out extremist - had moved here. You might remember that Lee Harvey Oswald took a shot at him, hunts right-wing radio program originated here. So it was hardly a haven for liberals, Wise was elected Dallas city councilman in 1969 and then was elected mayor in 1971. Wise did much during his term to eradicate the bad image Dallas had nationally after the assassination, wises mayoral term concluded when he resigned to run for CongressWes Wise
25. Ralph Yarborough – He co-wrote the Endangered Species Act and was the most powerful proponent of the Big Thicket National Preserve. He was the southern senator to vote for all civil rights bills from 1957 to 1970. Yarborough was known as Smilin Ralph and used the slogan Lets put the jam on the shelf so the little people can reach it in his campaigns. Yarborough was born in Chandler in Henderson County west of Tyler, the seventh of nine children of Charles Richard Yarborough and he was appointed to the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1919 but dropped out to become a teacher. Yarborough instead attended Sam Houston State Teachers College and worked his way into the University of Texas at Austin and he earned renown for winning a million dollar judgment against the Mid-Kansas Oil and Gas Company for oil royalties, the second largest judgment ever in Texas at the time. After Allred was elected governor, he appointed Yarborough to the bench in 1936, Yarborough was confirmed in that office by an election later the same year. Yarboroughs first run for state office resulted in a finish in the Democratic primary for state attorney general in 1938 against the sitting lieutenant governor. He served in the U. S. Army during World War II after 1943, Yarborough was urged to run again for state attorney general in 1952, and he planned to do so until he received a personal affront from Governor Allan Shivers who told him not to run. Texas Secretary of State John Ben Shepperd resigned in the spring of 1952 and was elected attorney general that year, angered at Shivers, Yarborough ran in the gubernatorial primaries in 1952 and 1954 against the conservative Shivers, drawing support from labor unions and liberals. Shivers portrayed Yarborough as an integrationist supported by communists and unions, in 1956, Yarborough made it to the primary runoff for governor against U. S. Texas historian J. Evetts Haley ran in the primary to the right of both Daniel and Yarborough but polled few votes. It is believed that the election was stolen because of voting in East Texas. Nevertheless, Yarboroughs runs for governor had raised his stature and popularity in the state as he had been campaigning for six years for office. When Daniel resigned from the Senate in 1957 to become governor, with no runoff then required, he needed only a plurality of votes to win. Ironically, his runs for governor made him the best positioned candidate. Yarborough won the election with 38 percent of the vote to join fellow Texan Lyndon B. Johnson in the Senate. The runner-up in the race with 30 percent of the vote was U. S, representative Martin Dies, Jr. known for his investigations into communist infiltration. A Republican lawyer from Houston, Thad Hutcheson, ran third with 23 percent of the ballots cast, james Boren served as Yarboroughs campaign manager and chief of staffRalph Yarborough – Ralph Yarborough
26. Abraham Zapruder – Abraham Zapruder was an American clothing manufacturer who witnessed the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas, on November 22,1963. Zapruder unexpectedly captured the event in a movie while filming the presidential limousine. Zapruder was born into a Russian Jewish family in the city of Kovel and he received only four years of formal education in Russia. In 1920, amid the turmoil of the Russian Civil War, his family emigrated to the United States, settling in Brooklyn, studying English at night, he found work as a clothing pattern maker in Manhattans garment district. In 1933, he married Lillian Sapovnik, with whom he had two children, Zapruder was a Freemason and an Inspector-General of the Scottish Rite. In 1941, Zapruder moved to Dallas, Texas, to work for Nardis, in 1949 he co-founded Jennifer Juniors, Inc. producing the Chalet and Jennifer Juniors brands. His offices were on the floor of the Dal-Tex Building. At the time of the assassination, Zapruder was an admirer of President Kennedy, Zapruder had originally planned to film the motorcade carrying President Kennedy through downtown Dallas on November 22, but decided not to film the event as it had been raining that morning. When he arrived at work that morning without his camera, Zapruders assistant insisted that he retrieve it from home before going to Dealey Plaza because the weather had cleared. Zapruders movie camera was an 8 mm Bell & Howell Zoomatic Director Series Model 414 PD—top of the line when it was purchased in 1962. Zapruder had planned to film the motorcade from his office window, Zapruders secretary, Marilyn Sitzman, offered to assist Zapruder as he suffered from vertigo and was apprehensive about standing on the abutment alone. While Sitzman stood behind Zapruder and held his coat to steady him, Zapruders film captured 26.6 seconds of the traveling motorcade carrying President Kennedy on 486 frames of Kodak Kodachrome II safety film. Zapruders film captured the head shot that struck President Kennedy as his limousine passed almost directly in front of Zapruder. Zapruder would later recall that he knew that President Kennedys wound was fatal as he saw the presidents head. explode like a firecracker. McCormick was acquainted with Agent Forrest Sorrels of the Secret Services Dallas office, Zapruder agreed and returned to his office. McCormick later found Sorrels outside the Sheriffs office at Main and Houston, Zapruder agreed to give the film to Sorrels on the condition it would be used only for investigation of the assassination. The three then took the film to the television station WFAA to be developed, after it was realized that WFAA was unable to develop Zapruders footage, film was taken to Eastman Kodaks Dallas processing plant where it was immediately developed later that afternoon. As the Kodachrome process requires different equipment for duplication than for simple development, the original developed film was taken to the Jamieson Film Company, where three additional copies were exposed, these were returned to Kodak around 8 p. m. for processingAbraham Zapruder – Abraham Zapruder's camera, in the collection of the US National Archives