Demographics of San Francisco

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Historical population
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1848 1,000 —    
1849 25,000 +2400.00%
1852 34,776 +11.63%
1860 56,802 +6.33%
1870 149,473 +10.16%
1880 233,959 +4.58%
1890 298,997 +2.48%
1900 342,782 +1.38%
1910 416,912 +1.98%
1920 506,676 +1.97%
1930 634,394 +2.27%
1940 634,536 +0.00%
1950 775,357 +2.02%
1960 740,316 −0.46%
1970 715,674 −0.34%
1980 678,974 −0.53%
1990 723,959 +0.64%
2000 776,733 +0.71%
2010 805,235 +0.36%
2016 870,887 +1.31%
Sources:[1][2][3][4]
Source:
U.S. Decennial Census[5]

The 2010 United States Census[6] reported that San Francisco had a population of 805,235, with a population density of 17,160 per square mile (6,632/km2), San Francisco is the second-most densely populated major American city behind only New York (among cities greater than 200,000 population).[7]

San Francisco is the traditional focal point of the San Francisco Bay Area and forms part of the five-county San Francisco–Oakland–Fremont, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region of 4.5 million people. It is also part of the greater 12-county San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area, whose population is over 8.6 million, making it the fifth-largest in the United States as of July 1, 2014.[8] The U.S. Census Bureau estimates San Francisco's population increased to 852,469 as of July 1, 2014.[1]

Race and ethnicity[edit]

As of the 2010 census, the ethnic makeup and population of San Francisco included: 390,387 Whites (48.1%), 267,915 Asians (33.3%), 48,870 African Americans (6.1%), 4,024 Native Americans (0.5%), 3,359 Pacific Islanders (0.4%), 53,021 from other races (6.6%), and 37,659 from two or more races (4.7%). There were 121,744 Hispanics or Latinos of any race (15.1%).

Map of racial distribution in San Francisco Bay Area, 2010 U.S. Census, each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian Hispanic, or Other (yellow)

San Francisco has a minority-majority population, as non-Hispanic whites comprise less than half of the population, 41.9%, down from 92.5% in 1940.[9] The principal Hispanic groups in the city were those of Mexican (7.4%), Salvadoran (2.0%), Nicaraguan (0.9%), Guatemalan (0.8%), and Puerto Rican (0.5%), ancestry. The Hispanic population is most heavily concentrated in the Mission District, Tenderloin District, and Excelsior District.[10] San Francisco's African American population has declined in recent decades,[9] from 13.4% of the population in 1970 to 6.1%.[11] The current percentage of African Americans in San Francisco is similar to that of the state of California;[11] conversely, the city's percentage of Hispanic residents is less than half of that of the state. The majority of the city's black population reside within the neighborhoods of Bayview-Hunters Point, and Visitacion Valley in southeastern San Francisco, and in the Fillmore District in the northeastern part of the city.[10]

In 2010, residents of Chinese ethnicity constituted the largest single ethnic minority group in San Francisco at 21.4% of the population; the other Asian groups are Filipinos (4.5%), Vietnamese (1.6%), Japanese (1.3%), Asian Indians (1.2%), Koreans (1.2%), Thais (0.3%), Burmese (0.2%), Cambodians (0.2%), and Indonesians, Laotians, and Mongolians make up less than 0.1% of the city's population.[12] The population of Chinese ancestry is most heavily concentrated in Chinatown, Sunset District, and Richmond District, whereas Filipinos are most concentrated in the Crocker-Amazon (which is contiguous with the Filipino community of Daly City, which has one of the highest concentrations of Filipinos in North America), as well as in SoMa.

After declining in the 1970s and 1980s, the Filipino community in the city has experienced a significant resurgence, the San Francisco Bay Area is home to over 382,950 Filipino Americans, one of the largest communities of Filipinos outside of the Philippines.[12][13] The Tenderloin District is home to a large portion of the city's Vietnamese population as well as businesses and restaurants, which is known as the city's Little Saigon. Koreans and Japanese have a large presence in the Western Addition, which is where the city's Japantown is located, the Pacific Islander population is 0.4% (0.8% including those with partial ancestry). Over half of the Pacific Islander population is of Samoan descent, with residence in the Bayview-Hunters Point and Visitacion Valley areas; Pacific Islanders make up more than three percent of the population in both communities.[12]

Native-born Californians form a relatively small percentage of the city's population: only 37.7% of its residents were born in California, while 25.2% were born in a different U.S. state. More than a third of city residents (35.6%) were born outside the United States.[11]

Demographic profile[14][15][16] 2010 2000 1990 1970 1940
White 48.5% 49.7% 53.6% 71.4% 95.0%
Asian 33.3% 30.8% 29.1% 13.3% 4.2%
Black or African American 6.1% 7.8% 10.9% 13.4% 0.8%
American Indian and Alaska Native 0.5% 0.4% 0.5% 0.4%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 0.4% 0.5% 0.5%
Some other race 6.6% 6.5% 5.9% 1.5% -
Two or more races 4.7% 4.0% - - -
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 15.1% 14.1% 13.9% 11.6%[17] 2.5%
Non-Hispanic White 41.9% 43.6% 46.6% 60.4%[17] 92.5%
Source: US Census

Education, households, and income[edit]

Of all major cities in the United States, San Francisco has the second-highest percentage of residents with a college degree, behind only Seattle, over 44% of adults within the city limits have a bachelor's or higher degree.[18] USA Today reported that Rob Pitingolo, a researcher who measured college graduates per square mile, found that San Francisco had the highest rate at 7,031 per square mile, or over 344,000 total graduates in the city's 46.7 square miles (121 km2).[19]

The Census reported that 780,971 people (97.0% of the population) lived in households, 18,902 (2.3%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 5,362 (0.7%) were institutionalized. There were 345,811 households, out of which 63,577 (18.4%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 109,437 (31.6%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 28,844 (8.3%) had a female householder with no spouse present, 12,748 (3.7%) had a male householder with no spouse present. There were 21,677 (6.3%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 10,384 (3.0%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 133,366 households (38.6%) were made up of individuals and 34,234 (9.9%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26. There were 151,029 families (43.7% of all households); the average family size was 3.11. There were 376,942 housing units, at an average density of 1,625.5 per square mile (627.6/km2), of which 123,646 (35.8%) were owner-occupied, and 222,165 (64.2%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.3%; the rental vacancy rate was 5.4%. 327,985 people (40.7% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 452,986 people (56.3%) lived in rental housing units.

According to the 2005 American Community Survey, San Francisco has the highest percentage of gay and lesbian individuals of any of the 50 largest U.S. cities, at 15.4%.[20] San Francisco also has the highest percentage of same-sex households of any American county, with the Bay Area having a higher concentration than any other metropolitan area.[21]

Income in 2011
Per capita income[22] $46,777
Median household income[23] $72,947
Median family income[24] $87,329

San Francisco ranks third of American cities in median household income[25] with a 2007 value of $65,519.[11] Median family income is $81,136,[11] and San Francisco ranks 8th of major cities worldwide in the number of billionaires known to be living within city limits.[26] Following a national trend, an emigration of middle-class families is contributing to widening income disparity[27] and has left the city with a lower proportion of children, 14.5%, than any other large American city.[28]

The city's poverty rate is 11.8% and the number of families in poverty stands at 7.4%, both lower than the national average.[29] The unemployment rate stands at 4.8% in the greater San Francisco Bay Area as of January 2015.[30]

Homelessness[edit]

Homelessness has been a chronic and controversial problem for San Francisco since the early 1970s when many mentally ill patients were deinstitutionalized, due to changes which began during the 1960s with the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid.[31] The homeless population is estimated to be 13,500 with 6,500 living on the streets,[32] the city is believed to have the highest number of homeless inhabitants per capita of any major U.S. city.[33][34] Rates of reported violent and property crimes for 2009 (736 and 4,262 incidents per 100,000 residents, respectively)[35] are slightly lower than for similarly sized U.S. cities.[36]

Languages and ages[edit]

The Mission District is home to many Hispanic Americans and African Americans.

As of 2010, 54.58% (411,728) of San Francisco residents aged five and older spoke only English at home, while 18.60% (140,302) spoke a Chinese language, 11.68% (88,147) Spanish, 3.42% (25,767) Tagalog, 1.86% (14,017) Russian, 1.45% (10,939) Vietnamese, 1.05% (7,895) French, 0.90% (6,777) Japanese, 0.88% (6,624) Korean, 0.56% (4,215) German, 0.53% (3,995) Italian, and Pacific Islander languages were spoken by 0.47% (3,535). In total, 45.42% (342,693) of San Francisco's population aged five and older spoke a language at home other than English.[37]

The age distribution of the city was as follows: 107,524 people (13.4%) under the age of 18, 77,664 people (9.6%) aged 18 to 24, 301,802 people (37.5%) aged 25 to 44, 208,403 people (25.9%) aged 45 to 64, and 109,842 people (13.6%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.5 years. For every 100 females there were 102.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.8 males.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "American FactFinder – Results". US Census Bureau. Retrieved March 1, 2015. 
  2. ^ Richards, Rand (1992). Historic San Francisco: A Concise History and Guide. Heritage House. ISBN 978-1-879367-00-5. OCLC 214330849. 
  3. ^ Gibson, Campbell (June 1998). Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990. U.S. Census Bureau. 
  4. ^ Official 1850 census results were destroyed by fire. This 1852 figure is from a state Census. [1].
  5. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on April 22, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  6. ^ "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA – San Francisco city". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2014. 
  7. ^ After New York City, only for cities with greater than 200,000 population. Otherwise it is not 2nd."2000 Census: US Municipalities Over 50,000: Ranked by 2000 Density". Demographia. Retrieved August 23, 2007. 
  8. ^ "American FactFinder – Results". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 1, 2015. 
  9. ^ a b "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For Large Cities And Other Urban Places in the United States". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2011. 
  10. ^ a b "Interactive: Mapping the census". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  11. ^ a b c d e "QuickFacts: San Francisco County, California". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 11, 2011. 
  12. ^ a b c "QT-P3 – Race and Hispanic or Latino Origin: 2010". 2010 United States Census Summary File 1. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 11, 2011. 
  13. ^ "Training and Education /PET". Filipino-American Law Enforcement Officers Association. Retrieved April 28, 2012. 
  14. ^ "San Francisco (city), California". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. 
  15. ^ "San Francisco City and County". Bay Area Census. Retrieved October 18, 2015. 
  16. ^ "California – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. 
  17. ^ a b From 15% sample
  18. ^ "The brainpower of America's largest cities". Bizjournals.com (data interpreted from U.S. Census). 2006. Archived from the original on July 1, 2006. Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  19. ^ Winter, Michael (June 9, 2010). "New measure ranks San Francisco the 'smartest' U.S. city". USA Today. Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  20. ^ Gates, Gary (October 2006). "Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey" (PDF). The Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 2, 2007. Retrieved July 10, 2008. 
  21. ^ "Gay and Lesbian Families in the United States: Same-Sex Unmarried Partner Households" (PDF). Human Rights Campaign. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 13, 2008. Retrieved August 26, 2006. 
  22. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19301. American FactFinder Archived September 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  23. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19013. American FactFinder Archived September 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  24. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19113. American FactFinder Archived September 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  25. ^ "Median Household Income (In 2003 Inflation-adjusted Dollars) (Place Level)". U.S. Census Bureau. August 22, 2007. Archived from the original on December 9, 2004. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  26. ^ Obusan, Claire (March 12, 2006). "Top Ten Billionaire cities". Forbes Magazine. Retrieved June 22, 2009. 
  27. ^ Hendricks, Tyche (June 22, 2006). "Rich City Poor City: Middle-class neighborhoods are disappearing from the nation's cities, leaving only high- and low-income districts, new study says.". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Communications. p. A-1. Retrieved June 14, 2008. 
  28. ^ "Families Struggle To Stay: Why Families are Leaving San Francisco and What Can Be Done" (PDF). Coleman Advocates for Children & Youth. March 1, 2006. Retrieved June 16, 2008. [dead link]
  29. ^ "Economic Characteristics". 2005–2009 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates – Data Profile Highlights. U.S. Census Bureau. 2007. Archived from the original on January 3, 2011. Retrieved January 9, 2015. 
  30. ^ "Unemployment Rates for Metropolitan Areas". Bureau of Labor Statistics. January 2015. 
  31. ^ "Deinstitutionalization: A Psychiatric 'Titanic'". PBS. Archived from the original on September 12, 2012. Retrieved September 11, 2016. 
  32. ^ Matier, Phillip; Ross, Andrew (September 27, 2010). "Homeless problem lingers as S.F. spends millions". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved December 5, 2011. 
  33. ^ "San Francisco Program Combats Homelessness with Innovation". PBS. April 5, 2005. Retrieved September 6, 2007. 
  34. ^ Pratt, Timothy (August 12, 2006). "Critics say regional plan won't solve the problem". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved August 30, 2006. 
  35. ^ "Uniform Crime Reports: Table 6 Crime in the United States by Metropolitan Statistical Area, 2009". 2009 Crime in the United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved January 23, 2011. 
  36. ^ "Uniform Crime Reports: Table 16 Crime in the United States by Metropolitan Statistical Area, 2009". 2009 Crime in the United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved January 23, 2011. 
  37. ^ "San Francisco County, California". Modern Language Association. Archived from the original on August 15, 2013. Retrieved August 6, 2013.