- Boris Fyodorov, 50, Dies; Guided Reforms in Russia The New York Times, 21 November 2008
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1. Boris Fyodorov – Boris Grigoryevich Fyodorov was a Russian economist, politician, and reformer. He was awarded a doctor of economics degree and authored over 200 publications and he served as Finance Minister of Russia from 1993 until 1994, when he resigned. Fyodorov was Minister of Finance of the Russian SFSR in 1990, from 1991 to 1992 he worked for the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in London. In 1992 he became director of the World Bank, Fyodorov was a member of the State Duma between 1994 and 1998. In 1998 becoming tax minister and Deputy Prime Minister of Russia, in 1994, he founded United Financial Group UFG, an investment bank which was later, in 2005, sold to Deutsche Bank. Fyodorov was a member of boards including Gazprom, Sberbank. He was also a partner of UFG Private Equity starting from 2006. In addition to his economic and political accomplishments, Fyodorov was a historian and author of a book on Pyotr Stolypin. Fyodorov died from a stroke on 20 November 2008 in London, England, at the age of 50Boris Fyodorov – Boris Fyodorov Борис Фёдоров
2. Russian legislative election, 1995 – Parliamentary elections were held in Russia on 17 December 1995. At stake were the 450 seats in the State Duma, the house of the Federal Assembly of Russia. The election law adopted for the 1995 election was similar to that adopted for the 1993 election, second, invalid votes were now included in the calculation of the 5.0 percent threshold. Third, on the district ballot, party endorsements of candidates were indicated. Out of the forty three parties and coalitions contesting the elections, only four cleared the 5% threshold to qualify for the proportional seats and our Home – Russia had weightier resources and soon acquired the nickname of “party of power” for its reliance on elite political and economic office holders. It was also referred to as “Our Home Is Gazprom” for its ties to Gazprom’s substantial financial resources. Most of the cabinet joined the bloc, and a number of business leaders. However, almost no other parties entered it, and many SMD candidates who had initially affiliated with the party left it. One of the parties to enter the bloc, Sergei Shakhrai’s Party of Russian Unity and Accord. In the election, the Our Home Is Russia bloc took 10. 1% of the vote, enough to form a faction in the Duma, at its peak, the party claimed the membership of around one third of Russia’s governors. However, both the center and regional elites made only ephemeral commitments to Our Home is Russia, as a result of these elections, the Communists and their satellites, the Agrarians and other left-wing deputies, controlled a little less than the half of the seats. The populist LDPR occasionally sided with the majority, but often supported the government. As in the previous Duma, the groups of independent deputies had a significant influence on the balance of power in the parliament. On January 17,1996 a Communist, Gennady Seleznyov, was elected the Speaker of the DumaRussian legislative election, 1995
3. Republican Party of Russia – The Peoples Freedom Party, or PARNAS, is a Russian liberal democratic political party. Founded in November 1990 in the Russian SFSR as a pro-reform and pro-democracy party, in 2007 the party was denied re-registration and declared to be dissolved by the Russian Supreme Court. It was only after the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the denial of registration was unlawful that it could restore its official registration in May 2012, today, PARNAS is led by Mikhail Kasyanov and is an associate member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe. The Republican Party of the Russian Federation was founded in 1990 by members of the Democratic Platform of the CPSU, the foundation of the new party took place in November 1990. Nikolay Lysenko, Stepan Sulakshin and Vyacheslav Shostakovsky were elected as the three co-chairman, the Republican Party joined the Democratic Russia bloc, an umbrella organisation of pro-democracy movements. The Republican Party was close to the Social Democratic Party of Russia, the two parties shared similar program and there were attempts to merge. The RPR and the SDP formed a faction in the Russian Congress of Peoples Deputies. In contrast to the democrats, the Republicans participated in the Movement of Democratic Reforms that was formed in summer,1991. The Republican Party initially supported both Yegor Gaidars economic reforms and Boris Yeltsin in his conflict with the Supreme Soviet, later, the Republican Party left the Democratic Russia bloc in October,1993 due to disagreements with the blocs policies. The party members won altogether 12 seats in the elected parliament in 1993,5 republicans within the Yabloko bloc and 7 from Democratic Choice of Russia. In the 1995 legislative election, party ran within the Pamfilova - Gurev - N. Lysenko bloc, Lysenko and Ella Pamfilova won seat through majoritarian district. In 1999, Lysenko won a parliament seat in a majoritarian district, in 2002, the party was reorganized into the Republican Party of Russia. In 2007, the Russian Supreme Court ruled the party to be dissolved, in 2011 the European Court of Human Rights ruled out the refusal to register the party was unlawful. Since 5 May 2012, the Justice Ministry has restored the state registration of the Republican Party of Russia, in 2006–2010, the RPR was a member of coalition The Other Russia. Since 2010 it is a member of the liberal coalition For Russia without Lawlessness and Corruption, Peoples Freedom Party will continue to work on the base of Republican Party and it may be renamed. In 2011, partys dissolution was held to be unlawful by the European Court of Human Rights, in January 2012, following the entry into force of the ECtHR’s judgment, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation quashed its 2007 decision to dissolve the party. On its 15th congress on 16 June 2012 RPR merged with PARNAS, in 2012 the RPR-PARNAS participated in regional elections in Barnaul, Saratov Oblast, Tuva. In 2015 it was rebranded to just PARNAS, on 28-29 May 2016 Parnas held primaries, which were won by a majority vote by Viacheslav MaltsevRepublican Party of Russia – The first meeting of the coalition of democratic forces " For Russia without Lawlessness and Corruption " in Moscow on Bolotnaya Square on October 9, 2010
4. The New York Times – The New York Times is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B. Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond, owner and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance, continuing and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946The New York Times – Cover of The New York Times (November 15, 2012), with the headline story reporting on Operation Pillar of Defense.