1. Wikipedia community – The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors to the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Individual contributors are known as Wikipedians, the Oxford English Dictionary added the word Wikipedian in August 2012. With the increased maturity and visibility of Wikipedia, other categories of Wikipedians have emerged, such as Wikipedians in residence, studies of the size of the community of Wikipedia showed an exponential growth in the number of Wikipedia contributors during the early years. In April 2008, writer and lecturer Clay Shirky and computer scientist Martin Wattenberg estimated the time spent creating Wikipedia at roughly 100 million hours. In November 2011, there were approximately 31.7 million registered user accounts across all language editions, of which around 270,000 were active. The English Wikipedia, the largest language edition, currently has 139,716 editors who have performed an edit in the last 30 days, and an unknown number of contributors without an account. About half of the active editors spend at least one hour a day editing, various studies have been done with regard to the motivations of Wikipedia contributors. In a 2003 study of Wikipedia as a community, economics Ph. D, a paper written by Andrea Forte and Amy Bruckman in 2005, called Why Do People Write for Wikipedia. Incentives to Contribute to Open-Content Publishing, discussed the possible motivations of Wikipedia contributors and it applied Latour and Woolgars concept of the cycle of credit to Wikipedia contributors, suggesting that the reason that people write for Wikipedia is to gain recognition within the community. Oded Nov, in his 2007 paper What Motivates Wikipedians, related the motivations of volunteers in general to the motivations of people who contribute to Wikipedia, Nov carried out a survey using the six motivations of volunteers, identified in an earlier paper. g. The Wikimedia Foundation has carried out surveys of Wikipedia contributors and users. In 2008, the Wikimedia Foundation, alongside the Collaborative Creativity Group at UNU-Merit and it was the most comprehensive survey of Wikipedia ever conducted. The results of the survey were published two years later on March 24,2010, the Wikimedia Foundation began a process in 2011 of semi-annual surveys in order to understand Wikipedia editors more and better cater to their needs. A further study in 2014 by Cheng-Yu Lai and Heng-Li Yang explored the reasons why people continue editing Wikipedia content, the study used authors of the English-language version of the site and received 288 valid online survey responses. Editors of Wikipedia have occasionally given personal testimonials of why they contribute to Wikipedia, a common theme of these testimonials is the enjoyment that editors seem to get from contributing to Wikipedia and being part of the Wikipedia community. Also mentioned is the addictive quality of editing Wikipedia. Gina Trapani of Lifehacker said it turns out editing an article isnt scary at all and its easy, surprisingly satisfying and can become obsessively addictive. Jimmy Wales has also commented on the quality of Wikipedia, saying The main thing about Wikipedia. is that it’s funWikipedia community – Wikimania 2012 group photograph
2. Wiki markup – Wiki markup, also known as wikitext language and wikicode, is a lightweight markup language used to write pages at wiki-based websites that is a simplified/alternative/intermediate to HTML. Its purpose is to be converted by wiki software into HTML and it was created in 1995 to format pages on the original wiki site, WikiWikiWeb. There is no accepted standard wikitext language. The grammar, structure, justification, keywords and so on depend on the wiki software used on the particular website. Different Wiki programs may use of different sets of HTML elements within wikitext. In some cases, permitted HTML elements may be configured by individual wiki sites, MediaWiki supports many common HTML tags. All wikitext markup languages have a way of hyperlinking to other pages within the site. Many wikis, especially the ones, used CamelCase to mark words that should be automatically linked. In MediaWiki, this convention was replaced with the notation, which Wikipedia calls free links, Creole is an effort for a common wiki markup language to be used across different Wikis. There are several engines that have implemented Creole. Version 1.0 of the specification was released in July 2007 and it is not supported by MediaWiki. VisualEditor is a more user-friendly online rich-text editor and an alternative to editing the raw wiki markup source code, VisualEditor was developed by the Wikimedia Foundation in partnership with Wikia. In 2013, the beta was available for Mediawiki. org, in 2015, VisualEditor was offered to all users of most language editions of Wikipedia. What you see is Wiki - Questioning WYSIWYG in the Internet Age MediaWiki alternative parsers MediaWikis simple text formatWiki markup – Screenshot of the edit window in a Wikipedia article. Note the <nowiki> tag, used to escape wiki markup and HTML. HTML comments can be seen inside the <!-- --> tags.