Hercules and Omphale (Rubens)
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1. Louvre Museum – The Louvre or the Louvre Museum is the worlds largest museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the citys 1st arrondissement, approximately 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. The Louvre is the second most visited museum after the Palace Museum in China. The museum is housed in the Louvre Palace, originally built as a fortress in the late 12th century under Philip II, remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to the expansion of the city, the fortress eventually lost its defensive function and. The building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace, in 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons. The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years, during the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nations masterpieces. The museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801. The collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum renamed Musée Napoléon, the collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, and during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown steadily through donations and bequests since the Third Republic, whether this was the first building on that spot is not known, it is possible that Philip modified an existing tower. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf hunting den, in the 7th century, St. Fare, an abbess in Meaux, left part of her Villa called Luvra situated in the region of Paris to a monastery. This territory probably did not correspond exactly to the modern site, the Louvre Palace was altered frequently throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvres holdings, his acquisitions including Leonardo da Vincis Mona Lisa. After Louis XIV chose Versailles as his residence in 1682, constructions slowed, however, on 14 October 1750, Louis XV agreed and sanctioned a display of 96 pieces from the royal collection, mounted in the Galerie royale de peinture of the Luxembourg Palace. Under Louis XVI, the museum idea became policy. The comte dAngiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed conversion of the Grande Galerie of the Louvre – which contained maps – into the French Museum, many proposals were offered for the Louvres renovation into a museum, however, none was agreed on. Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution, during the French Revolution the Louvre was transformed into a public museum. In May 1791, the Assembly declared that the Louvre would be a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences, on 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection in the Louvre became national propertyLouvre Museum – the Richelieu wing (2005)
2. Hercules – Hercules is the Roman adaptation of the Greek divine hero Heracles, who was the son of Zeus and the mortal Alcmene. In classical mythology, Hercules is famous for his strength and for his numerous far-ranging adventures, the Romans adapted the Greek heros iconography and myths for their literature and art under the name Hercules. In later Western art and literature and in culture, Hercules is more commonly used than Heracles as the name of the hero. Hercules was a figure with contradictory characteristics, which enabled later artists and writers to pick. This article provides an introduction to representations of Hercules in the later tradition, Hercules is known for his many adventures, which took him to the far reaches of the Greco-Roman world. One cycle of these adventures became canonical as the Twelve Labours, one traditional order of the labours is found in the Bibliotheca as follows, Slay the Nemean Lion. Capture the Golden Hind of Artemis, clean the Augean stables in a single day. Obtain the girdle of Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons, obtain the cattle of the monster Geryon. Steal the apples of the Hesperides, Hercules was a favorite subject for Etruscan art, and appears often on bronze mirrors. The Etruscan form Herceler derives from the Greek Heracles via syncope, a mild oath invoking Hercules was a common interjection in Classical Latin. Hercules had a number of myths that were distinctly Roman, one of these is Hercules defeat of Cacus, who was terrorizing the countryside of Rome. The hero was associated with the Aventine Hill through his son Aventinus, Mark Antony considered him a personal patron god, as did the emperor Commodus. Roman brides wore a belt tied with the knot of Hercules. The comic playwright Plautus presents the myth of Hercules conception as a sex comedy in his play Amphitryon, during the Roman Imperial era, Hercules was worshipped locally from Hispania through Gaul. Tacitus records a special affinity of the Germanic peoples for Hercules, in chapter 3 of his Germania, Tacitus states. They say that Hercules, too, once visited them, and they have also those songs of theirs, by the recital of this barditus as they call it, they rouse their courage, while from the note they augur the result of the approaching conflict. For, as their line shouts, they inspire or feel alarm, some have taken this as Tacitus equating the Germanic Þunraz with Hercules by way of interpretatio romana. In the Roman era Hercules Club amulets appear from the 2nd to 3rd century, distributed over the empire, mostly made of gold, a specimen found in Köln-Nippes bears the inscription DEO HER, confirming the association with HerculesHercules – Hercules fighting the Nemean lion by Peter Paul Rubens
3. Omphale – For the city in Sicily, formerly called Omphale, see Daedalium. In Greek mythology, Omphale was a daughter of Iardanus, either a king of Lydia, Diodorus Siculus provides the first appearance of the Omphale theme in literature, though Aeschylus was aware of the episode. The Greeks did not recognize her as a goddess, the etymological connection with omphalos. The theme, inherently a comic inversion of roles, is not fully illustrated in any surviving text from Classical Greece. Omphale even wore the skin of the Nemean Lion and carried Heracles olive-wood club, unfortunately no full early account survives, to supplement the later vase-paintings. But it was also during his stay in Lydia that Heracles captured the city of the Itones and enslaved them, killed Syleus who forced passersby to hoe his vineyard and he buried the body of Icarus and took part in the Calydonian Boar Hunt and the Argonautica. After some time, Omphale freed Heracles and took him as her husband and they travelled to the grove of Dionysus and planned to celebrate the rites of Bacchus at dawn. Hercules slept alone in a bed covered with the clothes of Omphale, the Greek god Pan hoped to have his way with Omphale and crept naked into the bed of Hercules who threw Pan to the floor and laughed. Diodorus Siculus and Ovid in his Heroides mention a son named Lamos, but Bibliotheca gives the name of the son of Heracles and Omphale as Agelaus. Pausanias gives yet another name, mentioning Tyrsenus, son of Heracles by the Lydian woman and this Tyrsenus supposedly first invented the trumpet, and Tyrsenus son Hegeleus taught the Dorians with Temenus how to play the trumpet and first gave to Athena the surname Trumpet. The name Tyrsenus appears elsewhere as a variant of Tyrrhenus, whom many accounts bring from Lydia to settle the Tyrsenoi/Tyrrhenians/Etruscans in Italy, dionysius gives this as an alternate to other versions of Tyrrhenus ancestry. Herodotus refers to a Heraclid dynasty of kings who ruled Lydia, yet were not descended from Omphale, writing, The Heraclides, descended from Heracles. However, Diodorus Siculus relates that when Heracles was still Omphales slave, before Omphale set Heracles free and married him, Heracles fathered a son, Cleodaeus and this fits, though in Herodotus the son of Heracles and the slave-girl of Iardanus is named Alcaeus. We know from coins that this Tylon was a native Anatolian god equated with the Greek Heracles, Herodotus asserts that the first of the Heraclids to reign in Sardis was Agron, the son of Ninus, son of Belus, son of Agelaus, son of Heracles. But later writers know a Ninus who is the king of Assyria. Their Ninus is the founder and eponym of the city of Ninus, referring to Ninevah, while Belus. An earlier genealogy may have made Agron, as a legendary first king of an ancient dynasty, to be a son of the mythical Ninus, son of Belus, strabo makes Atys father of Lydus, and Tyrrhenus to be one of the descendants of Heracles and Omphale. But all other accounts place Atys, Lydus, and Tyrrhenus brother of Lydus among the kings of LydiaOmphale – Omphale wearing Hercules' garb, 18th-century sculpture from the Schönbrunn Garden by Joseph Anton Weinmüller
4. Adoration of the Magi (Rubens, Madrid) – For other treatments of this subject by the same artist, see Adoration of the Magi. The Adoration of the Magi is a painting by the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens and he first painted it in 1609 and later gave it a major reworking between 1628 and 1629 during his second trip to Spain. It is now in the Museo del Prado in Madrid and it is one of many works on the subject by Rubens - others include those of 1616-17 and 1624. Towards the end of 1608 Antwerp was preparing to receive the peace delegates negotiating an end to the war between Spain and the Dutch Republic and their negotiations were to be held in Antwerp City Hall between 28 March and 9 April 1609 and resulted in the Twelve Years Truce. He had returned to Antwerp and was already the citys most notable painter and he was paid 1,800 florins for the commission. The theme of the commission was an allusion to the benefits the city hoped to gain from peace, there is also a study for the whole work in a private collection in London, which allows its original appearance to be reconstructed. The town magistrates presented the painting to Calderón, but in 1621 he fell into disgrace and was executed, in 1623 Philip IV of Spain purchased the painting from the sale of Calderóns collection and installed it in his Royal Alcázar of Madrid. In September 1628 Rubens travelled to Spain for the second time and he had been summoned there to inform the king about his peace negotiations with Britain, but was also able to rework the painting while he was there. Francisco Pacheco relates in his work El arte de la pintura changed some things in his painting of the Adoration of the Magi that was in the palace. This amounted to a complete re-working, with details modified, strips added to the top and right hand edges. It was later installed in the Royal Palace of Madrid and he went to the Museo del Prado. In 2004, the painting underwent a complete restoration, catalogue entry Article on the painting in the Enciclopedia online del Prado. The painting in the Prados online gallery, Article on the painting on the Centro Virtual Cervantes. The painting on the Prado website, El Siglo de Rubens en el Museo del Prado. Catálogo Razonado de Pintura Flamenca del Siglo XVII, barcelona / Madrid, Editorial Prensa Ibérica, S. A. / Museo Nacional del Prado. Museo del Prado, Catálogo de las pinturas, Madrid, Ministerio de Educación y CulturaAdoration of the Magi (Rubens, Madrid) – Contents
5. Samson and Delilah (Rubens) – Samson and Delilah is a painting by the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens which is currently on display in the National Gallery. It dates from about 1609 to 1610, two preliminary copies of the painting also exist today, an ink and wash drawing on paper, and an oil sketch on wood panel. The oil sketch is currently on display in the Cincinnati Art Museum, the painting depicts an episode from the Old Testament story of Samson and Delilah. Samson was a Hebrew hero known for fighting the Philistines, having fallen in love with Delilah, who has been bribed by the Philistines, Samson tells her the secret of his great strength, his uncut hair. Without his strength, Samson is captured by the Philistines, Rubens portrays the moment when, having fallen asleep on Delilahs lap, a young man cuts Samsons hair. Samson and Delilah are in a room, which is lit mostly by a candle held by an old woman to Delilahs left. Delilah is depicted with all of her clothes, but with her breasts exposed and her left hand is on top of Samsons right shoulder, as his left arm is draped over her legs. The man snipping Samsons hair is crossing his hands, which is a sign of betrayal, philistine soldiers can be seen in the right-hand background of the painting. The niche behind Delilah contains a statue of the Venus, the Goddess of love, notably, Cupids mouth is bound, rather than his eyes. This statue can be taken to represent the cause of Samsons fate, the old woman standing behind Delilah, providing further light for the scene, does not appear in the biblical narrative of Samson and Delilah. She is believed to be a procuress, and the adjacent profiles of her and Delilah may symbolise the old womans past, the painting was originally commissioned by Nicolaas II Rockox, Lord mayor of Antwerp, Belgium, for his Rockox House. In addition to being a patron, Rockox was a personal friend of Rubens. The painting was intended to be placed above a 7-foot mantleshelf. The painting was sold for charity when Rockox died in 1640. In 1700, a panel named Samson and Delilah was bought by Prince Johann Adams Andreas I and this painting was likely Rubens painting. The painting was sold in 1880 in Paris, where it was later found by Ludwig Burchard in 1929. Eventually, the painting sold at auction in 1980 at Christies, purchased by the National Gallery, there has been some doubt cast over the attribution of the painting to Rubens, led by the artist and scholar of Fayum portraits Euphronsyne Doxiades. The painting was attributed to the Dutch painter Gerard van HonthorstSamson and Delilah (Rubens) – Samson and Delilah
6. Honeysuckle Bower – The Honeysuckle Bower is a self-portrait of the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens and his first wife Isabella Brant. They wed on 3 October 1609, in St. Michaels Abbey, Antwerp, the painting is a full-length double portrait of the couple seated in a bower of honeysuckle. They are surrounded by love and marriage symbolism, the honeysuckle, additionally, Rubens depicts himself as an aristocratic gentleman with his left hand on the hilt of his sword. Media related to Honeysuckle Bower by Peter Paul Rubens at Wikimedia Commons Web Gallery of ArtHoneysuckle Bower – The Honeysuckle Bower
7. The Elevation of the Cross (Rubens) – The Elevation of the Cross is a triptych painting by Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, completed in 1610-1611. Peter Paul Rubens painted The Elevation of the Cross after returning to Flanders from Italy, the work shows the clear influence of Italian Renaissance and Baroque artists such as Caravaggio, Tintoretto and Michelangelo. The central panel illustrates a tension between the multitude of finely muscled men attempting to lift the cross and the unbearable weight of Christ on the cross. Peter Paul Rubens foreshortening is evident in the contortions of the struggling, strapping men, Christ cuts across the central panel in a diagonal, stylistically akin to Caravaggios Entombment where both descent and ascent are in play at a key moment. Motion, space and time are illustrated along with the struggle to upright the cross, Rubens uses dynamic color and chiaroscuro boldly, a style that would become more subtle with time. The painting is located at the Cathedral of Our Lady in Antwerp, Belgium and it was commissioned by the church to express their allegiance with Catholicism, after the split of the protestants. Under Napoleons rule, the emperor took the painting, along with Peter Paul Rubens The Descent from the Cross, the paintings were returned to the cathedral in 1815. In Ouidas novel A Dog of Flanders the main characters Nello and it serves as the climax of the story, as they both sneak inside the Antwerp Cathedral on a freezing Christmas Eve to witness the beauty of the painting. The next day they are frozen to death in front of the triptychThe Elevation of the Cross (Rubens) – The Elevation of the Cross
8. Massacre of the Innocents (Rubens) – The first, measuring 142 x 182 cm, was painted after his return to his native Antwerp in 1608, following eight years spent in Italy. The first version painted by Rubens dates from around 1611–12, at the end of the seventeenth century, the painting became part of the Liechtenstein Collection in Vienna, Austria, along with another Rubens painting, Samson and Delilah. The Forchondt brothers sold both paintings to Hans-Adam I, Prince of Liechtenstein whom they knew through his father Karl Eusebius, Prince of Liechtenstein around 1700. The paintings were given the Liechtenstein family seal and are recorded in the collection until the 19th century, under that attribution it remained until it was sold to an Austrian family in 1920. It was subsequently loaned in 1923 to Stift Reichersberg, a monastery in northern Austria, in 2001, the painting was seen by George Gordon, an expert in Flemish and Dutch paintings at Sothebys in London. He was persuaded that it was indeed a Rubens by its characteristics and style to the Samson. The work was sold at auction at Sothebys, London on July 10,2002 for £49.5 million to Canadian businessman and art collector Kenneth Thomson, 2nd Baron Thomson of Fleet. These influences are seen in painting through the sheer drama and emotive dynamism of the scene. There is also evidence of the use of chiaroscuro and he also used ecorche figures - anatomical statues with the skin removed-to study how the body was made. At the time of Rubens first painting on the subject Antwerp had been involved in only a few years before- a conflict temporarily frozen by the truce of 1609. In one year alone over 8000 citizens had been killed by Calvinists, Antwerp however remained a Catholic stronghold and became a leading centre of Counter Reformation thought. Towards the end of his life, between 1636 and 1638, Rubens painted a version of the Massacre of the Innocents. This version was acquired by the Alte Pinakothek, Munich by 1706, a copy of this later version was made as an engraving in 1643 by Paulus Pontius. BBC News article on the auction ART4 2-DAY articleMassacre of the Innocents (Rubens) – Peter Paul Rubens. Massacre of the Innocents, 1611–12 (Art Gallery of Ontario), lost and later rediscovered.
9. Prometheus Bound (Rubens) – Prometheus Bound is an oil painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens. It shows the punishment of Prometheus, the painting was first started between 1611 and 1612, and was completed by 1618, with the eagle painted by the specialist animal painter Frans Snyders. For a long time Rubens kept it in his own personal collection and it is now in the collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pennsylvania. It is based on the Greek play, Prometheus Bound, katherine Crawford Luber, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Handbook of the Collections, p.174Prometheus Bound (Rubens) – Bibliography 
10. The Four Philosophers – The Four Philosophers is a 1611-12 painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It is now held in the Galleria Palatina of the Palazzo Pitti in Florence and it also features in the 1772 painting The Tribuna of the Uffizi by Zoffany. Beginning from left to right it shows Peter Paul, Philip Rubens, Justus Lipsius, in the background is Peter Pauls bust of Seneca, now believed to be a copy of an imaginary Hellenistic portrait of the Greek poet Hesiod. Marco Chiarini, Galleria palatina e Appartamenti Reali, Sillabe, Livorno 1998The Four Philosophers – Bibliography 
11. The Four Continents – The Four Continents, also known as The Four Rivers of Paradise, is a painting by Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, made in the 1610s. It depicts the female personifications of four continents sitting with the personifications of their major rivers – the Danube, the Ganges, the Nile. Europe is shown on the left, Africa in the middle, Asia on the right and America behind it, the tigress, protecting the cubs from the crocodile, is used as a symbol of Asia. The personification of the Danube holds a rudder, the bottom part of the painting shows several putti. Artist Elizabeth McGrath proposed a different interpretation of the figures on the painting, believing them to be nymphs instead. McGrath also suggested different river names, the Tigris instead of the Danube and the Euphrates instead of the Río de la Plata, arguing that those names also appear in Christian exegesisThe Four Continents – The Four Continents
12. Portrait of a Commander – Portrait of a Commander or A Commander Being Dressed for Battle is a portrait of an unknown man in plate armour, normally attributed to Peter Paul Rubens. In July 2010 it was sold for £9 million by Christies after Sothebys turned it down, in December 2011, the portrait was placed on loan with the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The painting, done in oil on panel, measures 48.25 ×38 3/8 in and it depicts a military commander, as shown by his baton, being dressed by pages. The identity of the commander is unknown, although Charles V, Cornelis van der Geest, the Christies cataloguer felt that the commander appears too idealized to be an actual person. The painting has been praised for its crisp and intense hue, if by Rubens, it would have been painted around 1613. It was sold at the end of the Christies estimate of between £8m and £12m to Konrad Bernheimer for £9 million. For more than 100 years, it was attributed to the School of Porbus and it was not attributed to Rubens until after World War II. According to Brian Sewell, it is an uncomfortable Rubens and the attribution doesnt quite ring true, a panel of academics employed by Christies examined the portrait and ultimately concluded that the painting is a genuine RubensPortrait of a Commander – Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640), Portrait of a Commander
13. The Crowning of the Virtuous Hero – The Crowning of the Virtuous Hero is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens, painted between 1613 and 1614. Unsigned, it was commissioned by the St George Guild of Archers in Antwerp for their hall and is now in the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister within the Schloss Wilhelmshöhe in Kassel. It shows an ancient Roman general being crowned by Nike with laurels of victory and treading underfoot a bound barbarian, to his right is a genius of Harmony, who presents him with a bound bundle of arrows. The figure on the right is intended as the guardian of religion. Behind the altar is a red and white tricolour, referring to the house of Habsburg. William VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel acquired the painting between 1730 and 1760 to add to his collection of Dutch paintings at the Schloss Bellevue in Kassels Oberneustadt or upper new town. In 1813 general Czerniczew forced Jerome Bonaparte to flee and negotiations began for the return of this, jacob Grimm played an instrumental part in gaining the return of the Rubens, which occurred in December 1815. Between 1878 and 1943, the painting was in the Neue Galerie at the Schloss Bellevue, in 1943 the painting was moved to a store elsewhere - Kassel was a target for Allied bombing and the Schloss Wilhelmshöhe was severely damaged. In 1956 the painting was moved to headquarters of the Landesmuseum until in April 1974 it returned to Kassel. Georg Westermann Verlag, Braunschweig 1982, S. 38-45 Eduard Brauns, a. Bernecker Verlag, Melsungen 1971, S.20 u.21 Friedhelm Häring Hans, Joachim Klein, DuMont Kunst- Reiseführer Hessen. Auflage 1988, S.56 Jürgen Weishaupt, Kasseler Kostbarkeiten, Verlag Thiele & Schwarz, Kassel 1981, S.8 u.66The Crowning of the Virtuous Hero – The Coronation of the Virtuous Hero
14. Madonna of the Basket (Rubens) – The Madonna of the Basket or the Madonna della Cesta is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens, dated to around 1615. It is now held in the Galleria Palatina of the Palazzo Pitti in Florence, between 1799 and 1815 it was confiscated by the French and assigned to the Dijon Museum of Fine Arts. Marco Chiarini, Galleria palatina e Appartamenti Reali, Sillabe, Livorno 1998Madonna of the Basket (Rubens) – This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Italian. (January 2015) Click [show] for important translation instructions.
15. Daniel in the Lions' Den (painting) – Daniel in the Lions Den is a 1615 painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, now in the National Gallery of Art in Washington DC. The subject is from Daniel 6, 1-28, Rubens modelled the lions on a Moroccan subspecies, examples of which were then in the Spanish governors menagerie in Brussels. In 1618 he acquired more than a hundred pieces of sculpture, in exchange for this painting, eight others. Although the painting shows Daniel as a man, according to the biblical chronology Daniel would have been over eighty years old at the time of the incident depictedDaniel in the Lions' Den (painting) – For other uses, see Daniel in the Lions' Den#Paintings.
16. The Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt – The Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt is an oil painting on canvas by Peter Paul Rubens. It was commissioned in 1615 to decorate Schleißheim Palace, along three other works depicting lion, wolf, and boar hunts. The cycle of paintings were looted from the palace during the Napoleonic Wars, only the Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt was returned to Munich, at which time it was added to the collection that is now the Alte Pinakothek. Peter Paul Rubens created the oil painting entitled The Hippopotamus. The hunt takes place on the banks of the Nile, as indicated by a tree in the background. As hippopotami and crocodiles were considered dangerous nuisances, their destruction was a duty performed by noblemen, the enraged hippopotamus tramples the crocodile, as both are attacked by the hunters and hounds. The accurately-rendered physical appearances of the hippopotamus and crocodile contrasts with contemporary renderings and reflect the growing interest in empiricism. It has been suggested that Rubens may have traveled to Rome to view a temporarily-displayed dead hippopotamus preserved in brine prior to the painting of the picture, Rubens created the genre of the large hunting scene and his studio produced dozens for aristocratic patrons in the 1610s and 1620s. Rubens and his studio produced the four large canvases in Antwerp over the years 1615–16, the Wittelsbach collection formed the nucleus of Alte Pinakothek in Munich, the present location of the Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt and The Lion Hunt from the same cycle. The cycle of paintings were looted from the palace during the Napoleonic Wars, only the Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt was returned to Munich, at which time it was added to the collection that is now the Alte Pinakothek. The complexity of the grouping, representation of turbulent motion and violent action, high drama. In the notice of January 25,1847, Eugène Delacroix admired the crocodile as a masterpiece of execution, remarking, however, that its action could have been more interestingThe Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt – The Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt
17. The Lion and Leopard Hunt – The Lion and Leopard Hunt or The Lion Hunt is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens, now held in the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden. It is very similar to his The Tiger Hunt from the musée des beaux-arts de Rennes,2, Oxford University Press and Harvey Miller Ltd, coll. « Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard »,1986,406 p. part XVIII David Rosand, Rubenss Munich Lion Hunt, Its Sources and Significance, The Art Bulletin, College Art Association,51, no 1, March 1969, p. 29-40The Lion and Leopard Hunt – Notes 
18. Adoration of the Magi (Rubens, Lyon) – For other treatments of this subject by the same artist, see Adoration of the Magi. The Adoration of the Magi is a c. 1617-18 painting by Peter Paul Rubens and it is now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon Since it is horizontal rather than vertical it was probably commissioned for a private collection rather than as an altarpiece. 1608-09, might suggest that the Lyon painting was also a secular commission, Rubens made a considerable fortune via the paintings reproduction in engravings and tapestries. The painting arranges full-length figures across the canvas, backed by a frieze-like crowd showing a variety of mature male types, the dim stable is lit by shafts of light. It languished as a copy until Jacques Fouquart resuscitated its reputation, recognized as a work of Rubens, in the exhibition Le siècle de Rubens, ParisAdoration of the Magi (Rubens, Lyon) – The Adoration of the Magi
19. The Five Senses (series) – They are now in the Prado Museum in Madrid. They are all painted in oils on panel, approximately 65 by 110 centimetres in dimensions. The series constitutes one of the best known and most successful collaborations by Brueghel and Rubens and his approach was widely copied in later Flemish painting. Rubens painted the female figures, accompanied by a putto or a winged Cupid in Sight, Hearing, Smell and Touch. The figure in Hearing is playing the lute amongst a collection of musical instruments, in Smell, she sits among flowers in a garden, with a perfume distillery visible on the left. In Taste, seated at a table groaning with food fit for a banquet, she is eating an oyster, in Touch, she embraces a putto in a superbly equipped armoury where there are also medical instruments, pain being an aspect of touch. In Hearing, the music is a dedicated to the couple. Ferdinand in turn offered them through the Duke of Medina de las Torres to his brother King Philip IV of Spain and they were subsequently housed in other royal palaces in Madrid and became part of the founding collection of the Prado in 1819. The Five Senses, executed in the period by Brueghel and 11 others Sight, PD1394, Hearing, PD1395, Smell, PD1396, Taste, PD1397, Touch, PD1398The Five Senses (series) – Sight, 1617
20. Feast in the House of Simon the Pharisee – Feast in the House of Simon the Pharisee, also known as Christ in the Home of Simon the Pharisee, is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens. 1618-1620, and is in The Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, the painting depicts an incident from Luke 7 where Jesus visits Simon the Pharisee, and has his feet anointed by a sinful woman. Jesus proceeds to tell the Parable of the Two DebtorsFeast in the House of Simon the Pharisee – Feast in the House of Simon the Pharisee
21. The Fall of the Damned – The Fall of the Damned, conversely known as The Fall of the Rebel Angels is a monumental religious painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It features a jumble of the bodies of the damned, hurled into abyss by archangel Michael, david Freedberg assessed this painting manner as the most brilliant assemblages of lusciously naked flesh in Western art. In 1959 an art vandal threw an acid on the painting, according to him, he did not directly destroy the work, but the acid relieves one from the work of destruction. The sketch of The Fall of the Damned was made in black and red chalks and it is assumed to be the work of a studio assistant, while Rubens then went over the drawing with brush and oil colour. The dramatic chiaroscuro of the forms and clouds emphasizes the darkness into which these figures fallThe Fall of the Damned – The Fall of the Damned
22. Saint George and the Dragon (Rubens) – Saint George and the Dragon is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens, based upon the motif with the same name. It is housed in the Museo del Prado of Madrid and it was painted in Genoa while Rubens was in Italy to complete his artistic training. The princess presence on the left is included to represent the Church, media related to Saint George and the Dragon by Rubens at Wikimedia CommonsSaint George and the Dragon (Rubens) – Saint George and the Dragon
23. Perseus Freeing Andromeda (Rubens) – Perseus Freeing Andromeda is a painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, executed in 1607. It is housed in the Gemäldegalerie of Berlin, Germany, the painting belonged the M. Pasquier collection in Rouen, which was auctioned in 1755 in Paris. In the 18th century it entered the collection of Frederick II of Prussia and, in 1830, the scene is similar to another Perseus Freeing Andromeda by Rubens now in the Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg. It depicts the Greek mythology hero Perseus in the act of freeing Andromeda, Perseus, wearing helmet, cuirass and cloak, is sided by two puttoes, and one of them is helping him in removing the ropes that tie Andromeda to the rock. On the left, two puttoes are playing with Pegasus, Perseus winged horse, jaffé, M. Catalogo completo di RubensPerseus Freeing Andromeda (Rubens) – Perseus Freeing Andromeda
24. The Three Graces (Rubens, monochrome) – The Three Graces is a grisaille painting by Peter Paul Rubens, dating to 1620-1623. It is now held in the Galleria Palatina in Florence and it was acquired by Monsignor Francesco Airoldi, nuncio to Brussels, who offered it to cardinal Leopoldo de Medici, a great admirer of Rubens. The cardinals art collection passed to the Uffizi after his death - the grisaille was transferred to the Palatina in 1928The Three Graces (Rubens, monochrome) – External links 
25. Isabella Brant (drawing) – Isabella Brant, a portrait drawing, was executed in Antwerp around 1621 by Flemish artist and diplomat, Peter Paul Rubens. Brant was Rubens first wife and modelled for some of his portraits until her death in 1626. The portrait is drawn in black and red chalk with white heightening on brown wash paper and this drawing is noted for its immediacy and attractiveness and was the basis for three oil paintings. The first was painted in 1621 by Rubens pupil, Anthony van Dyck as a gift to his mentor and this portrait now hangs in the National Gallery of Art in Washington. The second, painted by Rubens between 1620 and 1625, is located in the Cleveland Museum of Art and the third painted by Rubens in 1625, is located in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. Following Rubens death, the drawing passed through five known collectors and was acquired by the British Museum in 1893. During re-mounting work in 1964, a sketch was discovered on the reverse side of the portrait. The sketch, also in red and black chalk is presumed to be a self-portrait of Rubens, the portrait of Isabella Brant was drawn by Rubens around 1621, when she was about 30 years old and had been married to Rubens for 12 years. Rubens employed the aux trois crayons technique, using red and black chalk, the head of the portrait was sketched in detail while the eyes had been retouched with pen and black ink. This drawing, which is the only one sketched of Isabella Brant in this medium, has been admired for centuries as a example of Rubens portrait drawing. Rubens intimate drawing was intended to capture the sweetness and vivacity of his first wife, the sitters head is shown with a slight downward tilt — facing slightly to the left and looking directly at the observer. She is shown wearing drop earrings and her hair and features are depicted with care, while her clothes are sketchily portrayed. Her mischievous smile is further enhanced by the dimples in her plump cheeks, the great detail and animation of the portrait suggests that Rubens had great affection for his wife. The drawing was used as a basis for three oil portraits, the 1621 painting of Brant outside the portico of the family home, was done by Rubens pupil, Anthony van Dyck as a parting gift to his mentor. The striking similarity between the portrait and drawing meant that van Dyck would have had access to the sketch for this work. The Cleveland portrait by Rubens, painted between 1620 and 1625, displays such as the pulled-back hair and the mocking smile. The Uffizi, portrait was produced close to Brants death in June 1626, although the pose is similar, the face exhibits puffiness as a result of her illness. In 1964, the drawing was re-mounted in preparation for its showing at the 1965 Masterpieces of the Print Room exhibition at the British MuseumIsabella Brant (drawing) – A portrait of Isabella Brant
26. The Lion Hunt (Rubens) – The Lion Hunt is a 1621 painting by Peter Paul Rubens, now held in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. It shows two lions attacked by hunters on horseback and on foot and it marks the end of an intensive creative phase for Rubens centred on the theme of hunting. 2, Oxford University Press and Harvey Miller Ltd, coll, « Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard »,1986,406 p. partie XVIII David Rosand, « Rubenss Munich Lion Hunt, Its Sources and Significance », The Art Bulletin, College Art Association, vol. 51, no 1, March 1969, p. 29-40The Lion Hunt (Rubens) – Bibliography 
27. Perseus and Andromeda (Rubens) – Perseus and Andromeda is a 1622 painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens featuring the ancient Greek myth of Perseus and Andromeda after the formers defeat of the Gorgon. The paintings shows the Gorgons reflection on Perseus shield, the painting also shows Tobiano Pegasus, the goddess of glory over Perseus head and several putti. The bottom of the painting partially shows Cetus, killed by Perseus earlier and this painting probably remained in Rubens house until his death, an engraving from 1684, depicting the facade of Rubens house in Antwerp, shows the painting through the window of the second floor. In the summer of 1769 the painting was acquired by the Russian Hermitage Museum from the collections of Heinrich von Brühl and it is now housed in the Rubens Hall on the second floor of the Hermitage MuseumPerseus and Andromeda (Rubens) – Perseus and Andromeda
28. The History of Constantine – An additional five designs were painted by Cortona in 1630 and woven in the atelier of Cardinal Francesco Barberini in Rome over the next decade. The series was commissioned in 1622 when Rubens was in Paris discussing the paintings he was designing for the Luxembourg Palace for Marie de Médicis. New evidence, such the fact that the designs were listed as the property of de la Planche upon his death, establishing a weak form of copyright, has muddied the issue. One theory is that Rubens only cited the king as the commissioner of the tapestries in the letter in order to increase their perceived importance because his payment was overdue. He repeated only one design from the Rubens set, the apparition of the cross, Cortona also designed several smaller tapestries such as portieres and a baldachin to furnish an entire room, and painted the ceiling of the salon where they were displayed. The dossal he designed, featuring a golden statue of Constantine, hung behind the throne of Urban VIII. The life of the first Christian monarch would have relevance for a king whose own father experienced such a notable conversion to Catholicism. While the subject matter could plausibly have been chosen by Louis XIII himself, it also may have been selected by Comans and de la Planche to appeal to him, Rubens drew on Cardinal Cesare Baronios Annales Ecclesiastici for inspiration and historical detail. Baronio based his writings on the accounts of Eusebius. Rubens designs proved popular and were woven several times by the Comans-La Planche workshop over the next decades. Cortonas tapestries were only woven once, the sole complete set remained with the Barberini collection in Rome until 1889. The tapestries were split up and passed through various hands before being reunited by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, the sketches remain widely scattered, many of them in private hands. Sketch, private collection,18.625 x 25.375 tapestry, the event occurs in a temple of Jupiter and Juno, who preside in the form of statuary. However, in the tapestry, Jupiter wears a more beneficent mien and holds his thunderbolt less threatening. In a dream, he learns that placing this emblem on his banner assures him of triumph over Maxentius, Rubens follows Eusebius quite closely, but replaces the flaming cross he described with the monogram in Lactantius chronicle. One soldier, looking at Constantine rather than the vision, points with the labarum, or military standard, to the next scene. Sketch, private collection,13.9 x 10.8 tapestry, Paris, Mobilier National This episode depicts the moments just before the Battle of Milvian Bridge and this has been emblazoned with Christs symbol, as he was instructed. The monogram of Rubens usual panel maker, Michiel Vrient, is impressed on the back of the panel, along with a branded A that indicates the panel was prepared about 1621-22The History of Constantine – The History of Constantine
29. The Conversion of Saint Bavo – The Conversion of Saint Bavo is a 1623-1624 altarpiece by Peter Paul Rubens. It was commissioned as the altarpiece for Sint-Baafskathedraal in Ghent by bishop Antoon Triest. It is still sited in the cathedral, an oil sketch for it is now in the National Gallery, London. 72, Arcade, Brussel,1972 Gent, duizend jaar kunst en cultuur, Bijlokemuseum, Gent,1975The Conversion of Saint Bavo – Bibliography 
30. Adoration of the Magi (Rubens, Antwerp) – For other treatments of this subject by the same artist, see Adoration of the Magi. The Adoration of the Magi is a 1624 oil on canvas painting by Peter Paul Rubens and it was commissioned by Matthæus Yrsselius, abbot of St. Michaels Abbey, Antwerp, as an altarpiece, and paid for in two instalments of 750 guilders each in 1624 and 1626. The Virgin Mary is thought to have been modelled on Rubens first wife Isabella Brant, the painting is now in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts Antwerp. The painting is an important story arc in the comic book album De Raap van Rubens in the Belgian comic book series Suske en Wiske, the characters visit it in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts in Antwerp. Later the man in the red cloak on the painting comes alive, in order to find out why the man does this Lambik travels back in time, to the era of Peter Paul RubensAdoration of the Magi (Rubens, Antwerp) – References 
31. Assumption of the Virgin Mary (Rubens) – In Rubens depiction of the Assumption of Mary, a choir of angels lifts her in a spiraling motion toward a burst of divine light. Around her tomb are gathered the 12 apostles — some with their arms raised in awe, the women in the painting are thought to be Mary Magdalene and the Virgin Marys two sisters. A kneeling woman holds a flower, referring to the lilies that miraculously filled the empty coffin, the Antwerp Cathedral of Our Lady opened a competition for an Assumption altar in 1611. Rubens submitted models to the clergy on February 16,1611, in September 1626,15 years later, he completed the piece. There is a studio version, with some differences, in the National Gallery of Art, Washington. Another version hangs on the side altar of the castle church St. Peter and Paul in Kirchheim in Schwaben. Marian art in the Catholic Church Assumption of the Virgin Mary in art National Gallery of Art page about the paintingAssumption of the Virgin Mary (Rubens) – Assumption of the Virgin
32. The Annunciation (Rubens) – The Annunciation is the title of two paintings by Peter Paul Rubens. The first was commissioned by the Jesuit college in Antwerp and painted in 1609 and it is now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Around 1610 Rubens composed the second version and painted the righthand half, in 1627-1628 he completed it and also modified the figure of Mary. It is now in the Rubenshuis in Antwerp, who acquired it in 1954, the two compositions are strikingly different. The Vienna painting is a traditional composition. The angel Gabriel is on the right and he has just alighted on the ground, his robe still billowing from his flight, and he kneels as if in reverence or supplication. Mary stands on the left facing Gabriel, but she leans back slightly as if in surprise or alarm, the Antwerp painting is a more original composition. Mary kneels on the right, her body is turned away from Gabriel, Gabriel is still airborne, he reaches with his left hand toward Mary and points with his right hand toward heaven. The Rubenshuis painting was in Madrid during Rubens stay there from 28 August 1628 to 29 April 1629, there it was acquired by Diego Messia, marquis de Leganés, commander of the Spanish artillery and cavalry in the Spanish Netherlands. In 1655, the painting was in the inventory of the collection then it was left to the Altamira family. It then passed through the Smith, Hamlet, earl of Caldon and Graupe collections in Britain before being acquired by the Brussels collector Gaston DulièreThe Annunciation (Rubens) – History 
33. The Rape of the Sabine Women (Rubens) – The Rape of the Sabine Women is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It is now in the Belfius Collection and it was commissioned by Philip IV of Spain in 1639 but was still incomplete on Rubens death a year later. It was completed by the Brussels painter Gaspar de Crayer, palais des Beux-Arts de Lille RUBENSThe Rape of the Sabine Women (Rubens) – Bibliography 
34. The Dance of the Villagers – The Dance of the Villagers is a 1635 painting by Peter Paul Rubens. Now in the Prado Museum in Madrid and it is closely related to The Village Fête, of a similar date and on a similar subject. It is now in the Prado MuseumThe Dance of the Villagers – External links 
35. The Origin of the Milky Way (Rubens) – The Origin of the Milky Way, or The Birth of the Milky Way, is a painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, featuring the Greco-Roman myth of the origin of the Milky Way. The painting depicts Hera, spilling her breast milk, the infant Heracles and Zeus in the background, identifiable by his eagle, Heras face is modelled on Rubens wife, Hélène Fourment. The carriage is pulled by Heras favourite animals, peacocks, due to the dark background of the night sky the figures gain a greater sense of volume. The image was a part of the commission from Philip IV of Spain to decorate Torre de la Parada, Rubens also painted other Greco-Roman mythological subjects, such as Hercules Fighting the Nemean Lion or Perseus Freeing Andromeda. The Origin of the Milky WayThe Origin of the Milky Way (Rubens) – The Origin of the Milky Way
36. Deianira Listens to Fame – Deianira Listens to Fame or Deianira delivering the fatal tunic to the Fury is a 1638 oil painting on canvas. It is now in the Sabauda Gallery in Turin and it is a pendant to another Rubens painting, Hercules in the Garden of the Hesperides. It shows Hercules wife Deianira and another holding an bloody tunicDeianira Listens to Fame – Paintings and drawings
37. Jan Rubens – Jan Rubens was a Flemish magistrate of Antwerp, best known today as the father of Peter Paul Rubens. Rubens was born in Antwerp to an old merchant family and he was trained as a scholar and travelled to Italy where he received his diploma in Canon law in Rome in 1550. He returned north in 1557 and set up his practise in Antwerp where he married Maria Pypelinckx in 1558, on 7 May 1562 he became magistrate of Antwerp and served until 1568, when he fled to Cologne with his family, probably to avoid the Council of Troubles. His position and that of his fellow magistrates became precarious when the Duke of Alva came north to suppress the rebellion after the Beeldenstorm. In Cologne he could renew his work as a lawyer, because there were many Dutch refugees there who wanted to recover seized property they had left behind and he began to work as an advisor to Anna of Saxony and they had an affair at her home in Siegen. By the time it was discovered, she was pregnant and Rubens was arrested during a trip he took to Siegen to visit her and his wife, who knew nothing of the affair, came to support him after he wrote to tell her he feared he would be executed. She supported him throughout his imprisonment and his illegitimate daughter Christina van Diez was born 22 August 1571. Rubens remained in prison, but was allowed to live in Siegen with his family under house arrest in 1573 and was completely released after the death of Anna. In 1574 Philips was born and in 1577 Peter Paul was born, Rubens died in Cologne and his wife wrote an epitaph in Latin that was installed on his gravestone in the St. Peters church there. After the burial she took her back to Antwerp where she stayedJan Rubens – Latin Epitaph for Jan Rubens, written in Latin by Maria complimenting him as a husband, but with the poignant remark that she bore 7 children "all by him".
38. Isabella Brant – Isabella Brant was a Flemish artists model who was the first wife of painter Peter Paul Rubens. She was the daughter of Jan Brant, an important city official in Antwerp and her aunt Mary was married to Phillipe I Rubens, brother of her future husband. Isabella Brant married the brother of her uncle Peter Paul on 3 October 1609 in St. Michaels Abbey and they had three children, Clara, Nicolaas, Lord of Rameyen and Albert. She was 34 years old when she died of the plague, several paintings of Brant and one important drawing of her by Rubens survive, in addition to a portrait of her by Rubens disciple and assistant, Anthony van Dyck. In 1977, Brant appeared on a stamp of Anguilla. Liedtke, Walter A. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, new York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Media related to Isabella Brant at Wikimedia CommonsIsabella Brant – Portrait of Isabella Brant by Rubens, c. 1620-1625 (Cleveland Museum of Art)
39. Adam van Noort – Adam van Noort was a Flemish painter and draughtsman and one of the teachers of Peter Paul Rubens. Adam van Noort was mainly know for his paintings but he also created some portraits. He was a designer for engravings for the Collaert family of printmakers and publishers, Adam van Noort was born and died in Antwerp. He was the son of Lambert van Noort from Amersfoort and Katelijne van Broeckhuysen from Zwolle and his parents had established themselves in Antwerp where Lambert became a member of the local Guild of Saint Luke in 1549. His father was primarily as a designer of stained-glass windows and engravings, an architect and, to a lesser extent. Adam van Noort probably initially trained with his father but must have had other teachers since his father died when he was still young and he was not registered with any other teacher in the records of the Guild of Saint Luke. He became a master of the Guild of Saint Luke in 1587 and he married Elisabeth Nuyts, with whom he had five children. Van Noort served as dean of the Guild of Saint Luke from 1597 until 1602 and he had problems with the Guild, which accused him of poor management of the accounts and misappropriation of materials of the Guild. Some other guild members objected to his actions and he was forced to substitute the panels, the commission to paint the substituted panels did finally not go to van Noort but to Maerten de Vos. A second conflict with the Guild arose from the fact that he did not settle his accounts in time after he ceased being a deacon of the Guild. Adam’s present-day fame largely rests on the fact that he was the teacher of two of the leading Flemish Baroque painters Peter Paul Rubens and Jacob Jordaens, Rubens only stayed for a little over a year and is not believed to have been influenced much by van Noorts training. Jordaens married van Noort’s daughter Elisabeth and would influence the style of his teacher, the total number of pupils of van Noort was around 35. This attests to the fact that in his time he was a respected artist. He was also successful and was able to acquire several properties in Antwerp. The other pupils of Adam van Noort include Hendrick van Balen, Ferdinand van Apshoven the Elder, Artus de Bruyn, Hendrik van der Eedt, Remoldus Eynhoudt, van Noort lived to an old age but likely ceased practising as an artist aroun 1630. He made his last will on 31 August 1640 and died not long after September that year, van Noort painted mainly paintings of religious subjects and portraits. He collaborated with Marten de Vos and Ambrosius Francken on the decorations for the Joyous Entry of Archduke Ernest of Austria in 1594. Originally working in the Mannerist style of the two artists, he developed his own style which was a transformation of Frans Floris’ Romanism executed on a smaller scaleAdam van Noort – Portrait of Adam van Noort by Anthony van Dyck
40. Otto van Veen – He is known for running a large studio in Antwerp, producing several emblem books, and for being, from 1594 or 1595 until 1598, Peter Paul Rubenss teacher. His role as a classically educated humanist artist, reflected in the Latin name by which he is known, Octavius Vaenius, was influential on the young Rubens. Van Veen was born in Leiden around 1556, where his father had been Burgomaster and he probably was a pupil of Isaac Claesz van Swanenburg until October 1572, when the Catholic family moved to Antwerp, and then to Liège. He studied for a time under Dominicus Lampsonius and Jean Ramey and he stayed there for about five years, perhaps studying with Federico Zuccari. Carel van Mander relates that van Veen then worked at the courts of Rudolf II in Prague and William V of Bavaria in Munich, before returning to the Low Countries. In Brussels, he was painter to the governor of the Southern Netherlands, Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma until 1592. After becoming a master in the Guild of St. Luke in 1593, van Veen took numerous commissions for decorations, including altarpieces for the Antwerp cathedral. He also organized his studio and workshop, which included Rubens, the artist later served as dean in two prominent organizations in the city, the Guild of St. Luke in 1602, and the Romanists in 1606. In the seventeenth century, van Veen often worked for the Archdukes Albert and Isabella, later paintings include a series of twelve paintings depicting the battles of the Romans and the Batavians, based on engravings he had already published of the subject, for the Dutch States General. He had two brothers who were painters, Gijsbert van Veen was an engraver and Pieter was an amateur. His daughter Gertruid was also a painter, increasingly, van Veen was active in producing Emblem books, including Quinti Horatii Flacci emblemata, Amorum emblemata, and Amoris divini emblemata. In all these works, van Veens skills as an artist, the Amorum emblemata, for example, pictures 124 putti, or little cupids, enacting the mottoes and quotations from lyricists, philosophers, and ancient writers on the powers of Love. Some of these emblems are as relevant today as they would have to a seventeenth-century audience, a few examples of these mottoes read, A Wished Warre, The woundes that lovers give are willingly receaved. He goes on to quote Cicero and Seneca on this theme, another example familiar to us today as the story of The Tortoise and the Hare, is titled Perseverance winneth, The hare and the tortes layd a wager of their speed. Shows us a cupid and tortoise outpacing the hare and exemplifying the idea that the love which is steady, Emblem Project Utrecht -3 editions of emblem books by Otto van Veen Amorum Emblemata on Internet Archive. Vita D. Thomae Aquinatis a manuscript by Otto van Veen Otto van Veen on Artcyclopedia Belkin, Kristin Lohse, bertini, Giuseppe, Otto van Veen, Cosimo Masi and the Art Market in Antwerp at the End of the Sixteenth Century. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, Otto van Veens Batavians defeating the Roman Van de Velde, Carl, Veen, entry at the Netherlands Institute for Art History Veen, Otto van. Emblemes of Love, with verses in Latin, English, media related to Otto van Veen at Wikimedia CommonsOtto van Veen – Title print of three volume book Schouburg, by Arnold Houbraken. Houbraken considered Van Veen to be the most impressive artist and scholar of his day and put his portrait (lower left) on his title print.
41. Frans Snyders – Frans Snyders or Frans Snijders was a Flemish painter of animals, hunting scenes, market scenes and still lifes. He was one of the earliest specialist animaliers and he is credited with initiating a wide variety of new still-life and he was a regular collaborator with leading Antwerp painters such as Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck and Jacob Jordaens. Snyders was born in Antwerp as the son of Jan Snijders, according to legend the famous 16th century painter Frans Floris squandered his fortune in the inn. His brother Michiel also became a painter but no works of him are known, Snyders was recorded as a student of Pieter Brueghel the Younger in 1593, and subsequently trained with Hendrick van Balen, who was the first master of Anthony van Dyck. Snyders became a master of the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1602 and he travelled to Italy in 1608-9 where he first resided in Rome. The artist subsequently traveled from Rome to Milan, Jan Brueghel the Elder had introduced him there by letter to the famous art collector Cardinal Borromeo. Brueghel asked Snyders to paint a copy after a portrait by Titian in the Borromeo collection and this is regarded as evidence that Snyders was a skilled figure painter before he turned his attention to still life painting. Snyders had returned to Antwerp in the spring of 1609, in 1611 he married Margaretha, the sister of Cornelis de Vos and Paul de Vos, two leading painters in Antwerp. His collaboration with Rubens started in the 1610s, Snyders had many patrons including the Ghent Bishop Antonius Triest who commissioned four paintings of market scenes around 1615. He was a friend of van Dyck who painted Snyders and his more than once. Snyders was commercially successful and was able to purchase a house on the high-end Keizerstraat in Antwerp, in 1628 he became the dean of the Guild of Saint Luke. In the period 1636-1638 he was one of the Antwerp artists who assisted Rubens in a commission for decorations for the hunting pavilion Torre de la Parada of Philip IV of Spain. The two artists worked together on decorations for the Royal Alcazar of Madrid and the royal Buen Retiro Palace in Madrid. Snyders painted about 60 hunting paintings and animal pieces after designs by Rubens, in 1639 Rubens and Snyders received a follow-up commission for an additional 18 paintings for the hunting pavilion. After Peter Paul Rubens death Snyders acted as one of the appraisers of the inventory of Rubens collection, in the years 1641 and 1642 Snyders traveled with other artists to the Dutch Republic. In 1646 Snyders was probably in Breda working on a commission, Snyders became a widower in 1647. He died himself on 19 August 1657 in Antwerp and he died childless and bequeathed his fortune to his sister, a beguine. His pupils are believed to have included Nicasius Bernaerts, Peter van Boucle, Juriaen Jacobsze, Jan Roos, Jan Fyt was a student, and then assistant of Snyders from 1629Frans Snyders – A greyhound catching a young wild boar
42. Jan Brueghel the Elder – Jan Brueghel the Elder was a Flemish painter and draughtsman. He was the son of the eminent Flemish Renaissance painter Pieter Brueghel the Elder, a close friend of, and regular collaborator with, Rubens, the two artists were the leading Flemish painters in the first three decades of the 17th century. He was an important innovator who created new types of such as flower garland paintings, paradise landscapes. He further created genre paintings that were imitations, pastiches and reworkings of his fathers works and he was court painter of the Archduke and Duchess Albrecht and Isabella, the governors of the Southern Netherlands. The artist was nicknamed Velvet Brueghel, Flower Brueghel, and Paradise Brueghel, the first is believed to have been given him because of his mastery in the rendering of fabrics. The second nickname is a reference to his specialization in flower still lifes and these paintings have now been reattributed to Jan Brueghel the Elder. Jan Brueghel the Elder was born in Brussels as the son of Pieter Brueghel the Elder and his mother was the daughter of prominent Flemish Renaissance artist Pieter Coecke van Aelst and Mayken Verhulst. His father died about a year after Jans birth in 1569, Mayken Verhulst was an artist in her own right. The early Flemish biographer Karel van Mander wrote in his Schilder-boeck published in 1604 that Mayken was the first art teacher of her two grandsons and she taught them drawing and watercolor painting of miniatures. Jan and his brother may also have trained with local artists in Brussels who were active as tapestry designers, Jan and his brother Pieter were then sent to Antwerp to study oil painting. According to Karel van Mander he studied under Peter Goetkint, an important dealer with a collection of paintings in his shop. Goetkint died on 15 July 1583 not very long after Jan had started his training and it is possible that Jan continued his studies in this shop, which was taken over by Goetkints widow as no other master is recorded. It was common for Flemish painters of that time to travel to Italy to complete their studies, Jan Brueghel left for Italy, first traveling to Cologne where his sister Marie and her family lived. He later visited Frankenthal, an important cultural centre where a number of Flemish landscape artists were active and he then went to Naples after probably spending time in Venice. In Naples he produced after June 1590 a number of drawings and he worked for Don Francesco Caracciolo, a prominent nobleman and priest and founder of the Clerics Regular Minor. Jan produced small-scale decorative work for Don Francesco, Brueghel left Naples for Rome where he resided from 1592 to 1594. Paul Bril was a landscape specialist from Antwerp who had moved to Rome at the end of the 16th century, together with his brother Mathijs Bril, he created atmospheric landscapes for many Roman residences. Brueghel took inspiration from Brils lively drawings and small-scale landscapes of the mid-1590s, during his time in Rome Jan Brueghel became acquainted with Hans Rottenhammer, a German painter of small highly finished cabinet paintings on copperJan Brueghel the Elder – Family of Jan Breughel the Elder, c. 1612-13, by Peter Paul Rubens, depicts Brueghel, his wife Catharina van Mariënburg and their eldest surviving children: Elisabeth (b. 1609) and Pieter (b. 1608).
43. Jacob Jordaens – Jacob Jordaens was a Flemish painter, draughtsman and tapestry designer known for his history paintings, genre scenes and portraits. After Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck, he was the leading Flemish Baroque painter of his day, unlike those contemporaries he never travelled abroad to study Italian painting, and his career is marked by an indifference to their intellectual and courtly aspirations. In fact, except for a few trips to locations in the Low Countries. As well as being a painter, he was a prominent designer of tapestries. Jordaens main artistic influences, besides Rubens and the Brueghel family, were northern Italian painters such as Jacopo Bassano, Paolo Veronese, and Caravaggio. Jacob Jordaens was born on 19 May 1593, the first of eleven children, to the wealthy linen merchant Jacob Jordaens Sr. little is known about Jordaens early education. It can be assumed that he received the advantages of the education provided for children of his social class. This assumption is supported by his handwriting, his competence in French. Like Rubens, he studied under Adam van Noort, who was his only teacher, during this time Jordaens lived in Van Noorts house in the Everdijstraat and became very close to the rest of the family. After eight years of training with Van Noort, he enrolled in the Guild of St. Luke as a waterschilder and this medium was often used for preparing tapestry cartoons in the seventeenth century. Although examples of his earliest watercolour works are no longer extant, in the same year as his entry into the guild,1616, he married his teachers eldest daughter, Anna Catharina van Noort, with whom he had three children. In 1618, Jordaens bought a house in Hoogstraat and he would then later buy the adjoining house to expand his household and workspace in 1639, mimicking Rubens house built two decades earlier. He lived and worked here until his death in 1678, Jordaens never made the traditional trip to Italy to study classical and Renaissance art. Despite this, he made efforts to study prints or works of Italian masters available in northern Europe. For example, Jordaens is known to have studied Titian, Veronese, Caravaggio and his commissions frequently came from wealthy local Flemish patrons and clergy, although later in his career he worked for courts and governments across Europe. Besides a large output of oil paintings he was a prolific tapestry designer. Jordaens importance can also be seen by his number of pupils, among them were his cousin and his son Jacob. Like Rubens and other artists at that time, Jordaens studio relied on his assistants, not many of these pupils went on to fame themselves, however a position in Jordaens studio was highly desirable for young artists from across EuropeJacob Jordaens – Self-Portrait with Parents, Brothers, and Sisters (c. 1615). Oil on canvas. The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia
44. Antwerp school – Antwerp took over from Bruges as the main trading and commercial center of the Low Countries around 1500. Painters, artists and craftsmen joined the Guild of Saint Luke, the first school of artists that emerged in the city were the Antwerp Mannerists, a group of anonymous late Gothic painters active in the city from about 1500 to 1520. They were followed by Mannerist painters in the Italian tradition that developed at the end of the High Renaissance, Jan Gossaert was a major artist in the city at this time. Other artists, such as Frans Floris, continued this style, artists such as Otto van Veen and members of the Francken family, working in a late mannerist style, provided new religious decoration. It also marked a beginning of decline in the city. The city experienced a renewal in the 17th century. The large workshops of Peter Paul Rubens and Jacob Jordaens, the city was an internationally significant publishing centre, and had a huge production of old master prints and book illustrations. Antwerp animaliers or animal painters, such as Frans Snyders, Jan Fyt, many artists joined the Guild of Romanists, a society for which having visited Rome was a condition of membership. The artistic legacy of Antwerp is represented in museumsAntwerp school – Paul de Vos, Ark van Noah
45. Flemish art – Flemish painting flourished from the early 15th century until the 17th century. These painters were invited to work at foreign courts and had a Europe-wide influence, since the end of the Napoleonic era, Flemish painters had again been contributing to a reputation that had been set by the Old Masters. The Franco-Flemish School of musical composition flourished at the same time, the so-called Flemish Primitives were the first to popularize the use of oil paint. Their art has its origins in the painting of the late Gothic period. Chief among them were Jan van Eyck, Hans Memling, Hugo van der Goes, Robert Campin, the court of the Duchy of Burgundy was an important source of patronage. From the early 16th century, the Italian Renaissance started to influence the Flemish painters, the result was very different from the typical Italian Renaissance painting. The leading artist was Pieter Brueghel the Elder, who avoided direct Italian influence, after the Siege of Antwerp, the Southern Provinces of the Netherlands remained under Spanish rule and were separated from the independent Dutch Republic. Following the deaths of major artists like Rubens in 1640 and the end of the Eighty Years War in 1648, a revival of painting in this region came in the advent of the Belgian Revolution of 1830 and work around that time is often considered Flemish. The painters, who flourished in the aftermath of this period, are usually referred to as Belgian rather than Flemish. That kingdom comprising Flanders, often influences also more recent artistss categorization, new York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Moderne Vlaamse schilderkunst van 1850 tot 1950 van Leys tot Permeke, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Liedtke, Walter A. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of ArtFlemish art – The Arnolfini portrait by Jan van Eyck.