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1. Helena Fourment – Helena Fourment or Hélène Fourment was the second wife of Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens. She was the subject of a few portraits by Rubens, and also modeled for other religious, Hélène Fourment was the daughter and youngest child of Daniël Fourment, an Antwerp silk merchant, and Clara Stappaerts. They had four sons and seven daughters, Helena Fourment was buried together with her husband, children and parents in the Saint James church, Antwerp. Most of the daughters married into important families, Clara Stappaerts Daniel II Fourment, Lord of Wijtvliet, marr. Clara Brant, sister of Isabella Brant,23 october 1627 to Nicolas Pycqueri, died 1661, almoner of Antwerp. Who were both painted by Rubens. Hélène Fourment married Rubens on 6 December 1630, when she was 16 years old and his first wife, Isabella Brant, had died in 1626. Hélènes brother Daniël Fourment the younger was married to Clara Brant, 2nd to Hélène Fourment, Clara-Joanna Rubens, baptized 18 January 1632, marr. Philips van Parys, knight François I Rubens, bapt,12 July 1633, alderman of Antwerp in 1659, marr. Isabella-Helena Rubens, baptized 3 May 1635 Peter III Paul Rubens, baptized 1 March 1637, constantia-Albertina Rubens, baptized 3 February 1641, entered La Cambre Abbey in l668. After the death of Rubens, Helena started a relationship with Jan-Baptist de Brouchoven, count of Bergeyck assessor and alderman of Antwerp and they had five further children together. Liedtke, Walter A. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, media related to Hélène Fourment at Wikimedia CommonsHelena Fourment – Helena Fourment, circa 1630, by Jan Boeckhorst
2. Kunsthistorisches Museum – The Kunsthistorisches Museum is an art museum in Vienna, Austria. Housed in its festive palatial building on Ringstraße, it is crowned with an octagonal dome, the term Kunsthistorisches Museum applies to both the institution and the main building. It is the largest art museum in the country and it was opened around 1891 at the same time as the Naturhistorisches Museum, by Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary. The two museums have similar exteriors and face each other across Maria-Theresien-Platz, both buildings were built between 1871 and 1891 according to plans drawn up by Gottfried Semper and Karl Freiherr von Hasenauer. The two Ringstraße museums were commissioned by the Emperor in order to find a shelter for the Habsburgs formidable art collection. The façade was built of sandstone, the building is rectangular in shape, and topped with a dome that is 60 meters high. The inside of the building is decorated with marble, stucco ornamentations, gold-leaf. It was featured in an episode of Museum Secrets on the History Channel and it had been the biggest art theft in Austrian history. Treasure of Nagyszentmiklós Media related to Kunsthistorisches Museum at Wikimedia Commons Official website Spherical panorama of entrance Hofburgs Armory - photo gallery in FlickrKunsthistorisches Museum – Kunsthistorisches Museum
3. Heraclitus and Democritus (Rubens) – Heraclitus and Democritus is a 1603 painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens. It is now held in the National Sculpture Museum in Valladolid and it shows the ancient Greek philosophers Heraclitus and Democritus. Rubens produced the work as a commission for Francisco Gómez de Sandoval Rojas y Borja and it passed through several collections, ending up in that of the Syrian oil magnate Akram Ojjeh. After Ojjehs death, it was sold to the Spanish Ministry of Culture for 175,000,000 pesetas in December 1999 via Christies of LondonHeraclitus and Democritus (Rubens) – The painting
4. The Fall of Phaeton (Rubens) – The Fall of Phaeton is a painting by the Flemish master Peter Paul Rubens, featuring the ancient Greek myth of Phaeton, a recurring theme in visual arts. Rubens chose to depict the myth at the height of its action, the thunderbolts provide the light contrast to facilitate the display of horror on the faces of Phaeton, the horses and other figures while preserving the darkness of the event. The butterfly winged female figures represent the hours and seasons, who react in terror as the night, the great astrological circle that arches the heavens is also disrupted. The assemblage of bodies form an oval in the center, separating dark. The bodies are arranged so as to assist the viewer’s travel continually around that oval, Rubens painted The Fall of Phaeton in Rome and the painting was probably reworked later around 1606/1608. It has been housed in the National Gallery of Art since 5 January 1990, Rubens also painted other Greek mythological subjects, such as The Fall of Icarus, Perseus Freeing Andromeda, and The Judgement of ParisThe Fall of Phaeton (Rubens) – The Fall of Phaeton
5. The Circumcision (Rubens) – The Circumcision is an oil on canvas painting of the Circumcision of Jesus by Peter Paul Rubens, produced in 1605 during his stay in Rome. It is now in the Chiesa del Gesù e dei Santi Ambrogio e Andrea church in Genoa and it was commissioned by Marcello Pallavicino, vestryman of the Casa Professa of Jesuits in Genoa. It is mainly influenced by Mantuan paintings from the court of Vincenzo Gonzaga, G. Bertelli, G. Briganti, A. Giuliano, Storia dellArte Italiana, vol. 3, p.299, Roma 2009, Edizioni Scolastiche Bruno MondadoriThe Circumcision (Rubens) – The Circumcision
6. Samson and Delilah (Rubens) – Samson and Delilah is a painting by the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens which is currently on display in the National Gallery. It dates from about 1609 to 1610, two preliminary copies of the painting also exist today, an ink and wash drawing on paper, and an oil sketch on wood panel. The oil sketch is currently on display in the Cincinnati Art Museum, the painting depicts an episode from the Old Testament story of Samson and Delilah. Samson was a Hebrew hero known for fighting the Philistines, having fallen in love with Delilah, who has been bribed by the Philistines, Samson tells her the secret of his great strength, his uncut hair. Without his strength, Samson is captured by the Philistines, Rubens portrays the moment when, having fallen asleep on Delilahs lap, a young man cuts Samsons hair. Samson and Delilah are in a room, which is lit mostly by a candle held by an old woman to Delilahs left. Delilah is depicted with all of her clothes, but with her breasts exposed and her left hand is on top of Samsons right shoulder, as his left arm is draped over her legs. The man snipping Samsons hair is crossing his hands, which is a sign of betrayal, philistine soldiers can be seen in the right-hand background of the painting. The niche behind Delilah contains a statue of the Venus, the Goddess of love, notably, Cupids mouth is bound, rather than his eyes. This statue can be taken to represent the cause of Samsons fate, the old woman standing behind Delilah, providing further light for the scene, does not appear in the biblical narrative of Samson and Delilah. She is believed to be a procuress, and the adjacent profiles of her and Delilah may symbolise the old womans past, the painting was originally commissioned by Nicolaas II Rockox, Lord mayor of Antwerp, Belgium, for his Rockox House. In addition to being a patron, Rockox was a personal friend of Rubens. The painting was intended to be placed above a 7-foot mantleshelf. The painting was sold for charity when Rockox died in 1640. In 1700, a panel named Samson and Delilah was bought by Prince Johann Adams Andreas I and this painting was likely Rubens painting. The painting was sold in 1880 in Paris, where it was later found by Ludwig Burchard in 1929. Eventually, the painting sold at auction in 1980 at Christies, purchased by the National Gallery, there has been some doubt cast over the attribution of the painting to Rubens, led by the artist and scholar of Fayum portraits Euphronsyne Doxiades. The painting was attributed to the Dutch painter Gerard van HonthorstSamson and Delilah (Rubens) – Samson and Delilah
7. Honeysuckle Bower – The Honeysuckle Bower is a self-portrait of the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens and his first wife Isabella Brant. They wed on 3 October 1609, in St. Michaels Abbey, Antwerp, the painting is a full-length double portrait of the couple seated in a bower of honeysuckle. They are surrounded by love and marriage symbolism, the honeysuckle, additionally, Rubens depicts himself as an aristocratic gentleman with his left hand on the hilt of his sword. Media related to Honeysuckle Bower by Peter Paul Rubens at Wikimedia Commons Web Gallery of ArtHoneysuckle Bower – The Honeysuckle Bower
8. Prometheus Bound (Rubens) – Prometheus Bound is an oil painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens. It shows the punishment of Prometheus, the painting was first started between 1611 and 1612, and was completed by 1618, with the eagle painted by the specialist animal painter Frans Snyders. For a long time Rubens kept it in his own personal collection and it is now in the collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pennsylvania. It is based on the Greek play, Prometheus Bound, katherine Crawford Luber, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Handbook of the Collections, p.174Prometheus Bound (Rubens) – Bibliography 
9. The Four Philosophers – The Four Philosophers is a 1611-12 painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It is now held in the Galleria Palatina of the Palazzo Pitti in Florence and it also features in the 1772 painting The Tribuna of the Uffizi by Zoffany. Beginning from left to right it shows Peter Paul, Philip Rubens, Justus Lipsius, in the background is Peter Pauls bust of Seneca, now believed to be a copy of an imaginary Hellenistic portrait of the Greek poet Hesiod. Marco Chiarini, Galleria palatina e Appartamenti Reali, Sillabe, Livorno 1998The Four Philosophers – Bibliography 
10. The Descent from the Cross (Rubens) – The Descent from the Cross is the central panel of a triptych painting by Peter Paul Rubens in 1612–1614. It is still in its place, the Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp, Belgium. The subject was one Rubens returned to again and again in his career and this particular work was commissioned on September 7,1611, by the Confraternity of the Arquebusiers, whose Patron Saint was St. Christopher. Although essentially Baroque, the oil on panel piece is rooted in the Venetian tradition, in its composition and use of light, the triptych recalls Caravaggios Roman period. One of Savior’s feet comes to rest on the shoulder of the Magdalene. Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, placed midway on ladders so as to each other, form. The Virgin, standing at the foot of the tree, extends her arms towards her Son, Salome, kneeling. On the ground are seen the superscription and a basin where the crown of thorns. The crowd, always elated by the spectacle of torture, has departed from Golgotha as daylight fades, in 1794, Napoleon removed this painting and The Elevation of the Cross and sent them to the Louvre. After his defeat, they were returned to the cathedral in 1815, in addition to the original work for Antwerp, Rubens painted two other versions exploring the same theme. In Ouidas novel A Dog of Flanders the main characters Nello and it serves as the climax of the story, as they both sneak inside the Antwerp Cathedral on a freezing Christmas Eve to witness the beauty of the painting. The next day they are frozen to death in front of the triptych. Jaffé, M. Catalogo completo di Rubens, martin, John R. Rubens, The Antwerp Altarpieces - The Raising of the Cross and the Descent from the Cross - Norton Critical Studies in Art HistoryThe Descent from the Cross (Rubens) – The Descent from the Cross
11. Portrait of a Commander – Portrait of a Commander or A Commander Being Dressed for Battle is a portrait of an unknown man in plate armour, normally attributed to Peter Paul Rubens. In July 2010 it was sold for £9 million by Christies after Sothebys turned it down, in December 2011, the portrait was placed on loan with the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The painting, done in oil on panel, measures 48.25 ×38 3/8 in and it depicts a military commander, as shown by his baton, being dressed by pages. The identity of the commander is unknown, although Charles V, Cornelis van der Geest, the Christies cataloguer felt that the commander appears too idealized to be an actual person. The painting has been praised for its crisp and intense hue, if by Rubens, it would have been painted around 1613. It was sold at the end of the Christies estimate of between £8m and £12m to Konrad Bernheimer for £9 million. For more than 100 years, it was attributed to the School of Porbus and it was not attributed to Rubens until after World War II. According to Brian Sewell, it is an uncomfortable Rubens and the attribution doesnt quite ring true, a panel of academics employed by Christies examined the portrait and ultimately concluded that the painting is a genuine RubensPortrait of a Commander – Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640), Portrait of a Commander
12. Daniel in the Lions' Den (painting) – Daniel in the Lions Den is a 1615 painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, now in the National Gallery of Art in Washington DC. The subject is from Daniel 6, 1-28, Rubens modelled the lions on a Moroccan subspecies, examples of which were then in the Spanish governors menagerie in Brussels. In 1618 he acquired more than a hundred pieces of sculpture, in exchange for this painting, eight others. Although the painting shows Daniel as a man, according to the biblical chronology Daniel would have been over eighty years old at the time of the incident depictedDaniel in the Lions' Den (painting) – For other uses, see Daniel in the Lions' Den#Paintings.
13. The Lion and Leopard Hunt – The Lion and Leopard Hunt or The Lion Hunt is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens, now held in the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden. It is very similar to his The Tiger Hunt from the musée des beaux-arts de Rennes,2, Oxford University Press and Harvey Miller Ltd, coll. « Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard »,1986,406 p. part XVIII David Rosand, Rubenss Munich Lion Hunt, Its Sources and Significance, The Art Bulletin, College Art Association,51, no 1, March 1969, p. 29-40The Lion and Leopard Hunt – Notes 
14. Adoration of the Magi (Rubens, Lyon) – For other treatments of this subject by the same artist, see Adoration of the Magi. The Adoration of the Magi is a c. 1617-18 painting by Peter Paul Rubens and it is now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon Since it is horizontal rather than vertical it was probably commissioned for a private collection rather than as an altarpiece. 1608-09, might suggest that the Lyon painting was also a secular commission, Rubens made a considerable fortune via the paintings reproduction in engravings and tapestries. The painting arranges full-length figures across the canvas, backed by a frieze-like crowd showing a variety of mature male types, the dim stable is lit by shafts of light. It languished as a copy until Jacques Fouquart resuscitated its reputation, recognized as a work of Rubens, in the exhibition Le siècle de Rubens, ParisAdoration of the Magi (Rubens, Lyon) – The Adoration of the Magi
15. The Union of Earth and Water – The pair is crowned by the goddess Victoria and the union is heralded through a conch by the Triton below. The painting features a pyramidal composition, symmetry and the balance of forms and it was influenced by late Italian Renaissance, particularly by Venetian artists. A smaller copy of the made in the Rubens workshop was owned by the Russian businessman Vladimir Logvinenko. Following the abolition of a thirty per cent import duty on artworks in 2004, the painting is housed in the Rubens Hall of the Hermitage Museum, Russia. Previously it had been in the Chigi Collection in Rome from which it was acquired by the Hermitage Museum between 1798 and 1800The Union of Earth and Water – The Union of Earth and Water
16. Saint George and the Dragon (Rubens) – Saint George and the Dragon is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens, based upon the motif with the same name. It is housed in the Museo del Prado of Madrid and it was painted in Genoa while Rubens was in Italy to complete his artistic training. The princess presence on the left is included to represent the Church, media related to Saint George and the Dragon by Rubens at Wikimedia CommonsSaint George and the Dragon (Rubens) – Saint George and the Dragon
17. Perseus Freeing Andromeda (Rubens) – Perseus Freeing Andromeda is a painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, executed in 1607. It is housed in the Gemäldegalerie of Berlin, Germany, the painting belonged the M. Pasquier collection in Rouen, which was auctioned in 1755 in Paris. In the 18th century it entered the collection of Frederick II of Prussia and, in 1830, the scene is similar to another Perseus Freeing Andromeda by Rubens now in the Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg. It depicts the Greek mythology hero Perseus in the act of freeing Andromeda, Perseus, wearing helmet, cuirass and cloak, is sided by two puttoes, and one of them is helping him in removing the ropes that tie Andromeda to the rock. On the left, two puttoes are playing with Pegasus, Perseus winged horse, jaffé, M. Catalogo completo di RubensPerseus Freeing Andromeda (Rubens) – Perseus Freeing Andromeda
18. Marie de' Medici cycle – The Marie de Medici Cycle is a series of twenty-four paintings by Peter Paul Rubens commissioned by Marie de Medici, widow of Henry IV of France, for the Luxembourg Palace in Paris. Rubens received the commission in the autumn of 1621, after negotiating the terms of the contract in early 1622, the project was to be completed within two years, coinciding with the marriage of Maries daughter, Henrietta Maria. Twenty-one of the paintings depict Maries own struggles and triumphs in life, the remaining three are portraits of herself and her parents. The paintings now hang in the Louvre in Paris, much speculation exists on the exact circumstances under which Marie de Medici decided to commission Rubens to paint such a grandiose project, conceived in truly heroic proportions. The immortalizing of her life, however, seems to be the most apparent reason for the Queens choice to commission a painter who was capable of executing such a demanding task. The contract stated that Rubens was to paint all the figures, Marie de Medici became the second wife to King Henry IV of France in a marriage by proxy on 5 October 1600 by the power invested in her uncle, Grand Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany. When Henry was assassinated in 1610, Louis XIII, his son, Louis mother, Marie, acted as his regent as commanded by the Frankish Salic law in case of an infant ruler. However, even after Louis came of age at thirteen in 1614, in 1617, Louis XIII finally decided to take governing matters in his own hands at the age of fifteen and the queen was exiled to Blois. Louis and his mother were not reconciled for over four years, upon her return, Marie focused on building and decorating the Luxembourg Palace, an enormous undertaking in which Peter Paul Rubens played a key role. Rubens, then court painter to the Duchy of Mantua under Vincenzo I Gonzaga, had first met Marie at her wedding in Florence in 1600. In 1621, Marie de Medici commissioned Rubens to paint two large series depicting the lives of herself and her husband, Henry IV, to adorn both wings of the first floor of the Luxembourg Palace. The cycle of paintings dedicated to the life of Henry IV was never completed, the fact that the Henry IV series was not realized can be attributed in part to Marie de Medici being permanently banned from France by her son in 1631. She escaped to Brussels, and later died in exile in 1642 in the house that the Peter Paul Rubenss family had occupied more than fifty years prior. While this cycle was one of Rubenss first great commissions, Marie de Medicis life proved a one to portray. Rubens had the task of creating twenty-one paintings about a woman whose life could be measured by her marriage to Henry IV, furthermore, unlike her husband, Maries life was neither graced with triumphant victories nor punctuated by vanquished foes. Rather, implications of political scandal in her life made any literal depiction of the far too controversial for Rubens to execute without incurring the disapproval from others in government. Rubens painted extravagant images of the Queen Mother surrounded by ancient gods, the ambiguity of the figures was essentially used to depict Marie in a positive light. Rubenss Medici commission was an inspiration for artists as well, particularly the French painters Jean-Antoine WatteauMarie de' Medici cycle – Maria de' Medici
19. Portrait of Susanna Lunden – Portrait of Susanna Lunden or Le Chapeau de Paille is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It is now in the National Gallery, London, the portraits subject is Susanna Lunden, elder sister of Rubens future second wife Helena Fourment. The portrait probably dates to the time of Susannas second marriage in 1622, to Arnold LundenPortrait of Susanna Lunden – External links 
20. The Conversion of Saint Bavo – The Conversion of Saint Bavo is a 1623-1624 altarpiece by Peter Paul Rubens. It was commissioned as the altarpiece for Sint-Baafskathedraal in Ghent by bishop Antoon Triest. It is still sited in the cathedral, an oil sketch for it is now in the National Gallery, London. 72, Arcade, Brussel,1972 Gent, duizend jaar kunst en cultuur, Bijlokemuseum, Gent,1975The Conversion of Saint Bavo – Bibliography 
21. Adoration of the Magi (Rubens, Antwerp) – For other treatments of this subject by the same artist, see Adoration of the Magi. The Adoration of the Magi is a 1624 oil on canvas painting by Peter Paul Rubens and it was commissioned by Matthæus Yrsselius, abbot of St. Michaels Abbey, Antwerp, as an altarpiece, and paid for in two instalments of 750 guilders each in 1624 and 1626. The Virgin Mary is thought to have been modelled on Rubens first wife Isabella Brant, the painting is now in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts Antwerp. The painting is an important story arc in the comic book album De Raap van Rubens in the Belgian comic book series Suske en Wiske, the characters visit it in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts in Antwerp. Later the man in the red cloak on the painting comes alive, in order to find out why the man does this Lambik travels back in time, to the era of Peter Paul RubensAdoration of the Magi (Rubens, Antwerp) – References 
22. The Reconciliation of Esau and Jacob – The Reconciliation of Esau and Jacob is a 1624 painting by Peter Paul Rubens. Originally in the Spanish royal collection, it was sent to Germany by Maria Anna of Neuburg to her brother Johann Wilhelm and it is now in the Staatsgalerie Schleissheim near Munich. It shows the story of meeting between Jacob and Esau. It was the model for a painting by Abraham Willemsen and this painting was featured in Willem van Haechts Gallery of Cornelis van der Geest with Joseph and Potiphars wife, 1630sThe Reconciliation of Esau and Jacob – A study for the work (National Galleries of Scotland)
23. Minerva Protecting Peace from Mars – Minerva protecting Peace from Mars or Peace and War is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens. He produced it in London between 1629 and 1630, during a mission from the Spanish Netherlands to Charles I of England. It is now in the National Gallery, London and it shows Minerva fighting off Mars, with a nude figure of Peace in the centreMinerva Protecting Peace from Mars – External links 
24. Ildefonso Altarpiece – The Ildefonso Altarpiece is a triptych painting by Peter Paul Rubens, dating to between 1630 and 1631. It is now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum of Vienna and it is named after the central panel, which shows Saint Ildefonsuss vision of the Virgin Mary, in which she gave him a casula. On the side panels are Isabella Clara Eugenia and Albert VII, regents of the Spanish Netherlands, with their patron saints Albert and Elisabeth of HungaryIldefonso Altarpiece – External links 
25. The Rape of the Sabine Women (Rubens) – The Rape of the Sabine Women is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It is now in the Belfius Collection and it was commissioned by Philip IV of Spain in 1639 but was still incomplete on Rubens death a year later. It was completed by the Brussels painter Gaspar de Crayer, palais des Beux-Arts de Lille RUBENSThe Rape of the Sabine Women (Rubens) – Bibliography 
26. The Dance of the Villagers – The Dance of the Villagers is a 1635 painting by Peter Paul Rubens. Now in the Prado Museum in Madrid and it is closely related to The Village Fête, of a similar date and on a similar subject. It is now in the Prado MuseumThe Dance of the Villagers – External links 
27. The Origin of the Milky Way (Rubens) – The Origin of the Milky Way, or The Birth of the Milky Way, is a painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, featuring the Greco-Roman myth of the origin of the Milky Way. The painting depicts Hera, spilling her breast milk, the infant Heracles and Zeus in the background, identifiable by his eagle, Heras face is modelled on Rubens wife, Hélène Fourment. The carriage is pulled by Heras favourite animals, peacocks, due to the dark background of the night sky the figures gain a greater sense of volume. The image was a part of the commission from Philip IV of Spain to decorate Torre de la Parada, Rubens also painted other Greco-Roman mythological subjects, such as Hercules Fighting the Nemean Lion or Perseus Freeing Andromeda. The Origin of the Milky WayThe Origin of the Milky Way (Rubens) – The Origin of the Milky Way
28. Deianira Listens to Fame – Deianira Listens to Fame or Deianira delivering the fatal tunic to the Fury is a 1638 oil painting on canvas. It is now in the Sabauda Gallery in Turin and it is a pendant to another Rubens painting, Hercules in the Garden of the Hesperides. It shows Hercules wife Deianira and another holding an bloody tunicDeianira Listens to Fame – Paintings and drawings
29. The Judgement of Paris (Rubens) – The large versions of 1636 and 1638 are among the best known. These both show Rubens version of idealised beauty, with the goddesses Venus, Minerva and Juno on one side. This version follows the story as narrated in Lucians Judgement of the Goddesses and it shows the award of the golden apple, though alterations show Rubens first painted an earlier point in the story, when the goddesses are ordered to undress by Mercury. It was bought for the National Gallery in London in 1844, painted in 1638 or 1639, this version is now in the Prado and was completed shortly before his death while he was ill with gout. It was commissioned by Philip IV of Spains brother Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria, in 1788 Charles III of Spain decided it was immodest and ordered it to be burned, but he died before that order could be carried outThe Judgement of Paris (Rubens) – The Judgement of Paris
30. Jan Rubens – Jan Rubens was a Flemish magistrate of Antwerp, best known today as the father of Peter Paul Rubens. Rubens was born in Antwerp to an old merchant family and he was trained as a scholar and travelled to Italy where he received his diploma in Canon law in Rome in 1550. He returned north in 1557 and set up his practise in Antwerp where he married Maria Pypelinckx in 1558, on 7 May 1562 he became magistrate of Antwerp and served until 1568, when he fled to Cologne with his family, probably to avoid the Council of Troubles. His position and that of his fellow magistrates became precarious when the Duke of Alva came north to suppress the rebellion after the Beeldenstorm. In Cologne he could renew his work as a lawyer, because there were many Dutch refugees there who wanted to recover seized property they had left behind and he began to work as an advisor to Anna of Saxony and they had an affair at her home in Siegen. By the time it was discovered, she was pregnant and Rubens was arrested during a trip he took to Siegen to visit her and his wife, who knew nothing of the affair, came to support him after he wrote to tell her he feared he would be executed. She supported him throughout his imprisonment and his illegitimate daughter Christina van Diez was born 22 August 1571. Rubens remained in prison, but was allowed to live in Siegen with his family under house arrest in 1573 and was completely released after the death of Anna. In 1574 Philips was born and in 1577 Peter Paul was born, Rubens died in Cologne and his wife wrote an epitaph in Latin that was installed on his gravestone in the St. Peters church there. After the burial she took her back to Antwerp where she stayedJan Rubens – Latin Epitaph for Jan Rubens, written in Latin by Maria complimenting him as a husband, but with the poignant remark that she bore 7 children "all by him".
31. Jan Brueghel the Elder – Jan Brueghel the Elder was a Flemish painter and draughtsman. He was the son of the eminent Flemish Renaissance painter Pieter Brueghel the Elder, a close friend of, and regular collaborator with, Rubens, the two artists were the leading Flemish painters in the first three decades of the 17th century. He was an important innovator who created new types of such as flower garland paintings, paradise landscapes. He further created genre paintings that were imitations, pastiches and reworkings of his fathers works and he was court painter of the Archduke and Duchess Albrecht and Isabella, the governors of the Southern Netherlands. The artist was nicknamed Velvet Brueghel, Flower Brueghel, and Paradise Brueghel, the first is believed to have been given him because of his mastery in the rendering of fabrics. The second nickname is a reference to his specialization in flower still lifes and these paintings have now been reattributed to Jan Brueghel the Elder. Jan Brueghel the Elder was born in Brussels as the son of Pieter Brueghel the Elder and his mother was the daughter of prominent Flemish Renaissance artist Pieter Coecke van Aelst and Mayken Verhulst. His father died about a year after Jans birth in 1569, Mayken Verhulst was an artist in her own right. The early Flemish biographer Karel van Mander wrote in his Schilder-boeck published in 1604 that Mayken was the first art teacher of her two grandsons and she taught them drawing and watercolor painting of miniatures. Jan and his brother may also have trained with local artists in Brussels who were active as tapestry designers, Jan and his brother Pieter were then sent to Antwerp to study oil painting. According to Karel van Mander he studied under Peter Goetkint, an important dealer with a collection of paintings in his shop. Goetkint died on 15 July 1583 not very long after Jan had started his training and it is possible that Jan continued his studies in this shop, which was taken over by Goetkints widow as no other master is recorded. It was common for Flemish painters of that time to travel to Italy to complete their studies, Jan Brueghel left for Italy, first traveling to Cologne where his sister Marie and her family lived. He later visited Frankenthal, an important cultural centre where a number of Flemish landscape artists were active and he then went to Naples after probably spending time in Venice. In Naples he produced after June 1590 a number of drawings and he worked for Don Francesco Caracciolo, a prominent nobleman and priest and founder of the Clerics Regular Minor. Jan produced small-scale decorative work for Don Francesco, Brueghel left Naples for Rome where he resided from 1592 to 1594. Paul Bril was a landscape specialist from Antwerp who had moved to Rome at the end of the 16th century, together with his brother Mathijs Bril, he created atmospheric landscapes for many Roman residences. Brueghel took inspiration from Brils lively drawings and small-scale landscapes of the mid-1590s, during his time in Rome Jan Brueghel became acquainted with Hans Rottenhammer, a German painter of small highly finished cabinet paintings on copperJan Brueghel the Elder – Family of Jan Breughel the Elder, c. 1612-13, by Peter Paul Rubens, depicts Brueghel, his wife Catharina van Mariënburg and their eldest surviving children: Elisabeth (b. 1609) and Pieter (b. 1608).
32. Jacob Jordaens – Jacob Jordaens was a Flemish painter, draughtsman and tapestry designer known for his history paintings, genre scenes and portraits. After Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck, he was the leading Flemish Baroque painter of his day, unlike those contemporaries he never travelled abroad to study Italian painting, and his career is marked by an indifference to their intellectual and courtly aspirations. In fact, except for a few trips to locations in the Low Countries. As well as being a painter, he was a prominent designer of tapestries. Jordaens main artistic influences, besides Rubens and the Brueghel family, were northern Italian painters such as Jacopo Bassano, Paolo Veronese, and Caravaggio. Jacob Jordaens was born on 19 May 1593, the first of eleven children, to the wealthy linen merchant Jacob Jordaens Sr. little is known about Jordaens early education. It can be assumed that he received the advantages of the education provided for children of his social class. This assumption is supported by his handwriting, his competence in French. Like Rubens, he studied under Adam van Noort, who was his only teacher, during this time Jordaens lived in Van Noorts house in the Everdijstraat and became very close to the rest of the family. After eight years of training with Van Noort, he enrolled in the Guild of St. Luke as a waterschilder and this medium was often used for preparing tapestry cartoons in the seventeenth century. Although examples of his earliest watercolour works are no longer extant, in the same year as his entry into the guild,1616, he married his teachers eldest daughter, Anna Catharina van Noort, with whom he had three children. In 1618, Jordaens bought a house in Hoogstraat and he would then later buy the adjoining house to expand his household and workspace in 1639, mimicking Rubens house built two decades earlier. He lived and worked here until his death in 1678, Jordaens never made the traditional trip to Italy to study classical and Renaissance art. Despite this, he made efforts to study prints or works of Italian masters available in northern Europe. For example, Jordaens is known to have studied Titian, Veronese, Caravaggio and his commissions frequently came from wealthy local Flemish patrons and clergy, although later in his career he worked for courts and governments across Europe. Besides a large output of oil paintings he was a prolific tapestry designer. Jordaens importance can also be seen by his number of pupils, among them were his cousin and his son Jacob. Like Rubens and other artists at that time, Jordaens studio relied on his assistants, not many of these pupils went on to fame themselves, however a position in Jordaens studio was highly desirable for young artists from across EuropeJacob Jordaens – Self-Portrait with Parents, Brothers, and Sisters (c. 1615). Oil on canvas. The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia
33. Flemish Baroque painting – Flemish Baroque painting refers to the art produced in the Southern Netherlands during Spanish control in the 16th and 17th centuries. Antwerp, home to the prominent artists Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck, Rubens, in particular, had a strong influence on seventeenth-century visual culture. By the seventeenth century, however, Antwerp was the city for innovative artistic production. Brussels was important as the location of the court, attracting David Teniers the Younger later in the century, between 1585 and the early 17th century they made many new altarpieces to replace those destroyed during the iconoclastic outbreaks of 1566. Also during this time Frans Francken the Younger and Jan Brueghel the Elder became important for their small cabinet paintings, often depicting mythological and history subjects. Following his return to Antwerp he set up an important studio, training such as Anthony van Dyck. Most artists active in the city during the first half of the 17th century were influenced by Rubens. Flemish art is notable for the amount of collaboration that took place between independent masters, which was partly related to the local tendency to specialize in a particular area. Frans Snyders, for example, was a painter and Jan Brueghel the Elder was admired for his landscapes. Both artists worked with Rubens, who often painted the figures. In Antwerp, however, this new genre also developed into a specifically Catholic type of painting, history painting, which includes biblical, mythological and historical subjects, was considered by seventeenth-century theoreticians as the most noble art. Abraham Janssens was an important history painter in Antwerp between 1600 and 1620, although after 1609 Rubens was the leading figure, both Van Dyck and Jacob Jordaens were active painting monumental history scenes. Following Rubenss death, Jordaens became the most important Flemish painter, during the second half of the century, history painters combined a local influence from Rubens with knowledge of classicism and Italian Baroque qualities. Artists in the vein include Erasmus Quellinus the Younger, Jan van den Hoecke, Pieter van Lint, Cornelis Schut, later in the century, many painters turned to Anthony van Dyck as a major influence. Among them were Pieter Thijs, Lucas Franchoys the Younger, and artists who were inspired by Late Baroque theatricality such as Theodoor Boeyermans. Additionally, a Flemish variant of Caravaggism was expressed by Theodoor Rombouts, Rubens is closely associated with the development of the Baroque altarpiece. He also exerted an influence on Baroque portraiture through his student Anthony van Dyck. Van Dyck became court painter for Charles I of England and was influential on subsequent English portraiture, other successful portraitists include Cornelis de Vos and Jacob JordaensFlemish Baroque painting – Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, c. 1610–1611
34. Antwerp school – Antwerp took over from Bruges as the main trading and commercial center of the Low Countries around 1500. Painters, artists and craftsmen joined the Guild of Saint Luke, the first school of artists that emerged in the city were the Antwerp Mannerists, a group of anonymous late Gothic painters active in the city from about 1500 to 1520. They were followed by Mannerist painters in the Italian tradition that developed at the end of the High Renaissance, Jan Gossaert was a major artist in the city at this time. Other artists, such as Frans Floris, continued this style, artists such as Otto van Veen and members of the Francken family, working in a late mannerist style, provided new religious decoration. It also marked a beginning of decline in the city. The city experienced a renewal in the 17th century. The large workshops of Peter Paul Rubens and Jacob Jordaens, the city was an internationally significant publishing centre, and had a huge production of old master prints and book illustrations. Antwerp animaliers or animal painters, such as Frans Snyders, Jan Fyt, many artists joined the Guild of Romanists, a society for which having visited Rome was a condition of membership. The artistic legacy of Antwerp is represented in museumsAntwerp school – Paul de Vos, Ark van Noah
35. Rubenesque – Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish/Netherlandish draughtsman and painter. He is widely considered as the most notable artist of Flemish Baroque art school, the catalogue of his works by Michael Jaffé lists 1,403 pieces, excluding numerous copies made in his workshop. His commissioned works were mostly history paintings, which included religious and mythological subjects and he painted portraits, especially of friends, and self-portraits, and in later life painted several landscapes. Rubens designed tapestries and prints, as well as his own house and he also oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the royal entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635. His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not overly detailed and he also made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. For altarpieces he painted on slate to reduce reflection problems. Rubens was born in the city of Siegen to Jan Rubens and he was named in honour of Saint-Peter and Paul, because he was born on their solemnety. His father, a Calvinist, and mother fled Antwerp for Cologne in 1568, after increased religious turmoil and persecution of Protestants during the rule of the Spanish Netherlands by the Duke of Alba. Jan Rubens became the adviser of Anna of Saxony, the second wife of William I of Orange. Following Jan Rubens imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577, the family returned to Cologne the next year. In 1589, two years after his fathers death, Rubens moved with his mother Maria Pypelincks to Antwerp, religion figured prominently in much of his work and Rubens later became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting. In Antwerp, Rubens received a Renaissance humanist education, studying Latin, by fourteen he began his artistic apprenticeship with Tobias Verhaeght. Subsequently, he studied under two of the leading painters of the time, the late Mannerist artists Adam van Noort. Much of his earliest training involved copying earlier works, such as woodcuts by Hans Holbein the Younger. Rubens completed his education in 1598, at time he entered the Guild of St. Luke as an independent master. In 1600 Rubens travelled to Italy and he stopped first in Venice, where he saw paintings by Titian, Veronese, and Tintoretto, before settling in Mantua at the court of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga. The colouring and compositions of Veronese and Tintoretto had an effect on Rubenss painting. With financial support from the Duke, Rubens travelled to Rome by way of Florence in 1601, there, he studied classical Greek and Roman art and copied works of the Italian mastersRubenesque – Self-portrait, 1623, Royal Collection
36. Poussinists and Rubenists – In 1671 an argument broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris about whether drawing or color was more important in painting. On one side stood the Poussinists who were a group of French artists, named after the painter Nicolas Poussin, on the other side were the Rubenists, named after Peter Paul Rubens, who prioritize color. There was a strong nationalistic flavour to the debate as Poussin was French but Rubens was Flemish, by that time the French Rococo was in full swing. The Poussinists believed in the Platonic idea of the existence in the mind of objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by the selection, using reason. For the Poussinists, therefore, color was a decorative addition to form and drawing. Their leader was Charles Lebrun, Director of the Academy, and their heroes were Raphael, the Carracci and their touchstones were the forms of classical art. They were opposed by the Rubenists who believed that colour, not drawing, was superior as it was true to nature. Their models were the works of Rubens who had prioritised the accurate depiction of nature over the imitation of classical art, the Rubenists argued that the aim of painting was to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of nature. Drawing, according to the Rubenists, although based on reason, to a certain extent, the debate was simply about whether it was acceptable to paint purely in order to give pleasure to the viewer without the nobler purposes typical of a history painting. Watteaus acceptance was, however, perhaps not everything that he could have hoped for, charles-Antoine Coypel, the son of its then director, tellingly said, The charming paintings of this gracious painter would be a bad guide for whoever wished to paint the Acts of the Apostles. Watteau is considered the greatest of the Rubenist artists, other important Rubenists include François Boucher and Jean-Honoré Fragonard. Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin benefited from the new found interest in still-life and genre painting, the debate and the overlapping development of the Rococo in eighteenth century France have been seen as a form of revival. Jean-Baptiste Dubos observed that what was comprehended through the mind paled compared to what was apprehended through the senses, quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns Poussinistes vs. RubenistesPoussinists and Rubenists – Poussin's Et in Arcadia ego (Les Bergers d’Arcadie), late 1630s.
37. Flemish art – Flemish painting flourished from the early 15th century until the 17th century. These painters were invited to work at foreign courts and had a Europe-wide influence, since the end of the Napoleonic era, Flemish painters had again been contributing to a reputation that had been set by the Old Masters. The Franco-Flemish School of musical composition flourished at the same time, the so-called Flemish Primitives were the first to popularize the use of oil paint. Their art has its origins in the painting of the late Gothic period. Chief among them were Jan van Eyck, Hans Memling, Hugo van der Goes, Robert Campin, the court of the Duchy of Burgundy was an important source of patronage. From the early 16th century, the Italian Renaissance started to influence the Flemish painters, the result was very different from the typical Italian Renaissance painting. The leading artist was Pieter Brueghel the Elder, who avoided direct Italian influence, after the Siege of Antwerp, the Southern Provinces of the Netherlands remained under Spanish rule and were separated from the independent Dutch Republic. Following the deaths of major artists like Rubens in 1640 and the end of the Eighty Years War in 1648, a revival of painting in this region came in the advent of the Belgian Revolution of 1830 and work around that time is often considered Flemish. The painters, who flourished in the aftermath of this period, are usually referred to as Belgian rather than Flemish. That kingdom comprising Flanders, often influences also more recent artistss categorization, new York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Moderne Vlaamse schilderkunst van 1850 tot 1950 van Leys tot Permeke, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Liedtke, Walter A. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of ArtFlemish art – The Arnolfini portrait by Jan van Eyck.
38. Netherlandish art – From the late Middle Ages until about 1700 the Low Countries were a leading force in the art of northern Europe, thereafter becoming less important. In the earlier High Middle Ages Mosan art, from an area partly in the Low Countries, had had a similar role. The art of the Low Countries includes the traditions of Early Netherlandish painting and it begins approximately with the careers of Robert Campin and Hubert and Jan van Eyck around 1400 and ends with Gerard David about 1520. Other major figures include Rogier van der Weyden, Hugo van der Goes, the 16th century was a period of response to Italian Renaissance art and the development of several distinctly Netherlandish themes. At the start of the century Hieronymus Bosch painted fantastic images, often for courtly viewers, Jan Mabuse, Maarten van Heemskerck and Frans Floris were all instrumental in adopting Italian models and incorporating them into their own artistic language. The spread of Mannerism throughout Europe produced important forms of Northern Mannerist art in the Low Countries, finally, Joachim Patinir was a recognized innovator of landscape painting, while Pieter Bruegel the Elder and Pieter Aertsen helped establish genre painting as a popular subject matter. The 17th century was a period dominated by the distinct individuals Peter Paul Rubens in the Southern Netherlands, Dutch and Flemish painters both followed many of the same themes, including still life, genre, landscape, portraiture and classicism. The most famous painter from the region in the late 17th and early 18th century is Antoine Watteau, otherwise, few painters from about 1700 until the end of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1830 have been incorporated into the art historical discourse. Dutch painters such as Jacob de Wit adopted a lofty Rococo style, indebted somewhat to Rubens, for ceiling decorations, other painters, such as Cornelis Troost, looked to England and especially the works of William Hogarth, for inspiration. Art after 1830 in Belgium and the Netherlands follow separate paths as the countries further develop their own identities, james Ensor is an important figure from Belgium, while Vincent van Gogh, from the Netherlands, posthumously reached the level of modern superstar painter. Koldeweij, A. M. Alexandra Hermesdorf, Paul Huvenne, et alNetherlandish art – Jan van Eyck, The Arnolfini Portrait, National Gallery, London.
39. Palazzi di Genova – Palazzi di Genova is a 1622 book written and illustrated by Peter Paul Rubens, depicting and describing the palaces of Genoa, Italy in 72 plates. A second volume with 67 further plates was added the same year, the illustrations of the second part are usually considered not to be by Rubens though. It is the only book Rubens published himself, the first volume contained plans, facades and additional views of 12 of the palaces of Genoa, the second book contained a further 19 palaces and 4 churches. Included are many of the Palazzi dei Rolli and they were seen by Rubens during his trips to Italy. Rubens was an admirer of the architecture of Italy, as evidenced in his own house, the Genoese style, developed by architects like Galeazzo Alessi, became very popular, and their distribution in Northern Europe was at least partially due to the book by Rubens. Examples of this include the Hôtel de Ville, Lyon, rubenss Palazzi di Genova during the 17th Century in Europe, Questions and Problems. The 1924 German edition from archive. orgPalazzi di Genova – Plate 57 of the first volume of Palazzi di Genova, 1622
40. Rubenshuis – The Rubenshuis is the former home and studio of Peter Paul Rubens in Antwerp. A year after marrying Isabella Brant in 1609, Rubens began construction on an Italian-style villa on the then-Vaartstraat, at the time located at the banks of the canal Herentalse Vaart. Rubens designed the building himself, based on studies of Italian Renaissance palace architecture that formed the basis of his Palazzi di Genova. The layout included his home, studio, a monumental portico, the courtyard opens into a Baroque garden that he also planned. In the adjacent studio he and his students executed many of the works for which Rubens is famous and he had established a well-organised workshop that met the demands of his active studio, including large commissions from England, France, Spain and Bavaria and other locations. He relied on students and collaborators for much of the actual work, Rubens himself, however, guaranteed the quality and often finished paintings with his own hand. In a separate private studio he made drawings, portraits and small paintings without the assistance of his students, Rubens spent most of his lifetime in this palace. After his death, his wife Helena Fourment rented the building to William Cavendish, after the Cavendishes left in 1660, the house was sold. The city bought the house in 1937, and after a restoration the Rubenshuis was opened to the public in 1946. Dozens of paintings and artworks by Rubens and his contemporaries were installed in the rooms, paintings include his early Adam and Eve and a self portrait made when he was about fifty. The Rubenianum, a dedicated to the study of Rubens, is in a building at the rear of the garden. Rockox House Official Website of The Rubens House 360°-panorama van de RubenshuisRubenshuis – The interior courtyard