1. Frankfurt am Main – The city is at the centre of the larger Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, which has a population of 5.8 million and is Germanys second-largest metropolitan region after Rhine-Ruhr. Since the enlargement of the European Union in 2013, the centre of the EU is about 40 km to the east of Frankfurts CBD. Frankfurt is culturally and ethnically diverse, with half of the population. A quarter of the population are foreign nationals, including many expatriates, Frankfurt is an alpha world city and a global hub for commerce, culture, education, tourism and traffic. Its the site of many global and European headquarters, Frankfurt Airport is among the worlds busiest. Automotive, technology and research, services, consulting, media, Frankfurts DE-CIX is the worlds largest internet exchange point. Messe Frankfurt is one of the worlds largest trade fairs, major fairs include the Frankfurt Motor Show, the worlds largest motor show, the Music Fair, and the Frankfurt Book Fair, the worlds largest book fair. Frankfurt is home to educational institutions, including the Goethe University, the UAS, the FUMPA. Its renowned cultural venues include the concert hall Alte Oper, Europes largest English Theatre and many museums, Frankfurts skyline is shaped by some of Europes tallest skyscrapers. In sports, the city is known as the home of the top football club Eintracht Frankfurt, the basketball club Frankfurt Skyliners, the Frankfurt Marathon. Its the seat of German sport unions for Olympics, football, Frankfurt is the largest financial centre in continental Europe. It is home to the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the worlds largest stock exchanges by market capitalization and accounts for more than 90 percent of the turnover in the German market. Frankfurt is considered a city as listed by the GaWC groups 2012 inventory. Among global cities it was ranked 10th by the Global Power City Index 2011, among financial centres it was ranked 8th by the International Financial Centers Development Index 2013 and 9th by the Global Financial Centres Index 2013. Its central location within Germany and Europe makes Frankfurt a major air, rail, Frankfurt Airport is one of the worlds busiest international airports by passenger traffic and the main hub for Germanys flag carrier Lufthansa. Frankfurter Kreuz, the Autobahn interchange close to the airport, is the most heavily used interchange in the EU, in 2011 human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Frankfurt as seventh in its annual Quality of Living survey of cities around the world. According to The Economist cost-of-living survey, Frankfurt is Germanys most expensive city, Frankfurt has many high-rise buildings in the city centre, forming the Frankfurt skyline. It is one of the few cities in the European Union to have such a skyline and because of it Germans sometimes refer to Frankfurt as Mainhattan, the other well known and obvious nickname is BankfurtFrankfurt am Main – Collage of Frankfurt, clockwise from top of left to right: Facade of the Römer and Frankfurt Cathedral, statue of Charlemagne in Frankfurt Historical Museum, view of Frankfurt skyline and Main River
2. Fortification – Fortifications are military constructions or buildings designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and also used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs, the term is derived from the Latin fortis and facere. From very early history to modern times, walls have been a necessity for cities to survive in a changing world of invasion. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were the first small cities to be fortified, in ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae. A Greek Phrourion was a collection of buildings used as a military garrison. These construction mainly served the purpose of a tower, to guard certain roads, passes. Though smaller than a fortress, they acted as a border guard rather than a real strongpoint to watch. The art of setting out a camp or constructing a fortification traditionally has been called castramentation since the time of the Roman legions. Fortification is usually divided into two branches, permanent fortification and field fortification, there is also an intermediate branch known as semi-permanent fortification. Castles are fortifications which are regarded as being distinct from the fort or fortress in that they are a residence of a monarch or noble. Roman forts and hill forts were the antecedents of castles in Europe. The Early Middle Ages saw the creation of towns built around castles. Medieval-style fortifications were made obsolete by the arrival of cannons in the 14th century. Fortifications in the age of black powder evolved into much lower structures with greater use of ditches and earth ramparts that would absorb, Walls exposed to direct cannon fire were very vulnerable, so were sunk into ditches fronted by earth slopes. The arrival of explosive shells in the 19th century led to yet another stage in the evolution of fortification, steel-and-concrete fortifications were common during the 19th and early 20th centuries. However the advances in warfare since World War I have made large-scale fortifications obsolete in most situations. Demilitarized zones along borders are arguably another type of fortification, although a passive kind, many military installations are known as forts, although they are not always fortified. Larger forts may be called fortresses, smaller ones were known as fortalicesFortification – Krak des Chevaliers is one of the best-preserved Crusader castles.
3. Bastion – A bastion is an angular structure projecting outward from the curtain wall of a fortification, most commonly at the corners. The fully developed bastion consists of two faces and two flanks with fire from the flanks being able to protect the wall and also the adjacent bastions. It is one element in the style of fortification dominant from the mid 16th to mid 19th centuries, Bastion fortifications offered a greater degree of passive resistance and more scope for ranged defense in the age of gunpowder artillery compared with the medieval fortifications they replaced. By the middle of the 15th century, artillery pieces had become powerful enough to make the traditional medieval round tower, during the Eighty Years War Dutch military engineers developed the concepts further lengthening the faces and shortening the curtain walls of the bastions. To augment this change they placed v shaped outworks in front of the bastions, Bastions differ from medieval towers in a number of respects. Bastions are lower than towers and are normally of similar height to the adjacent curtain wall, the height of towers, although making them difficult to scale, also made them easy for artillery to destroy. A bastion would normally have a ditch in front, the side of which would be built up above the natural level then slope away gradually. This glacis shielded most of the bastion from the cannon while the distance from the base of the ditch to the top of the bastion meant it was still difficult to scale. In contrast to late medieval towers, bastions were flat sided rather than curved. This eliminated dead ground making it possible for the defenders to fire upon any point directly in front of the bastion, Bastions also cover a larger area than most towers. This allows more cannons to be mounted and provided space for the crews to operate them. Surviving examples of bastions are usually faced with masonry, unlike the wall of a tower this was just a retaining wall, cannonball were expected to pass through this and be absorbed by a greater thickness of hard-packed earth or rubble behind. The top of the bastion was exposed to fire. If a bastion was successfully stormed, it could provide the attackers with a stronghold from which to further attacks. Some bastion designs attempted to minimise this problem and this could be achieved by the use of retrenchments in which a trench was dug across the rear of the bastion, isolating it from the main rampart. Various kinds of bastions have been used throughout history, solid bastions are those that are filled up entirely, and have the ground even with the height of the rampart, without any empty space towards the centre. Void or hollow bastions are those that have a rampart, or parapet, only around their flanks and faces, so that a void space is left towards the centre. The ground is so low, that if the rampart is taken, no retrenchment can be made in the centre, but what will lie under the fire of the besiegedBastion – Drawing of a bastion
4. Crownwork – A crownwork is an element of the trace italienne system of fortification and is effectively an expanded Hornwork. It consists of a bastion with the walls on either side ending in half bastions from which longer flank walls run back towards the main fortress. The artillerists manual, and British soldiers compendium, a Popular View of Fortification and Gunnery, No. I. The United Service Journal and Naval and Military Magazine, london, Henry Colburn and Richard BentleyCrownwork – Feature 'l' is a Crownwork. From the Cyclopaedia.
5. Ancient history – Ancient history is the aggregate of past events from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the Postclassical Era. The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script, the term classical antiquity is often used to refer to history in the Old World from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC. This roughly coincides with the date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome. In India, ancient history includes the period of the Middle Kingdoms, and, in China. Historians have two major avenues which they take to better understand the ancient world, archaeology and the study of source texts, primary sources are those sources closest to the origin of the information or idea under study. Primary sources have been distinguished from secondary sources, which cite, comment on. Archaeology is the excavation and study of artefacts in an effort to interpret, archaeologists excavate the ruins of ancient cities looking for clues as to how the people of the time period lived. The study of the ancient cities of Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, the city of Pompeii, an ancient Roman city preserved by the eruption of a volcano in AD79. Its state of preservation is so great that it is a window into Roman culture and provided insight into the cultures of the Etruscans. The Terracotta Army, the mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor in ancient China, the discovery of Knossos by Minos Kalokairinos and Sir Arthur Evans. The discovery of Troy by Heinrich Schliemann, most of what is known of the ancient world comes from the accounts of antiquitys own historians. Although it is important to take account the bias of each ancient author. Some of the more notable ancient writers include Herodotus, Thucydides, Arrian, Plutarch, Polybius, Sima Qian, Sallust, Livy, Josephus, Suetonius, furthermore, the reliability of the information obtained from these surviving records must be considered. Few people were capable of writing histories, as literacy was not widespread in almost any culture until long after the end of ancient history, the earliest known systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, beginning with Herodotus of Halicarnassus. He was also the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event, the Roman Empire was one of the ancient worlds most literate cultures, but many works by its most widely read historians are lost. Indeed, only a minority of the work of any major Roman historian has survived, prehistory is the period before written history. The early human migrations in the Lower Paleolithic saw Homo erectus spread across Eurasia 1.8 million years ago, the controlled use of fire occurred 800,000 years ago in the Middle Paleolithic. 250,000 years ago, Homo sapiens emerged in Africa, 60–70,000 years ago, Homo sapiens migrated out of Africa along a coastal route to South and Southeast Asia and reached AustraliaAncient history – Khafre's Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. 2500 BC or perhaps earlier)
6. Abatis – An abatis, abattis, or abbattis is a field fortification consisting of an obstacle formed of the branches of trees laid in a row, with the sharpened tops directed outwards, towards the enemy. The trees are usually interlaced or tied with wire, abatis are used alone or in combination with wire entanglements and other obstacles. There is evidence it was used as early as the Roman Imperial period, a classic use of an abatis was at the Battle of Carillon during the Seven Years War. The 3,600 French troops defeated an army of 16,000 British. The British found the defences almost impossible to breach and were forced to withdraw with some 2,600 casualties, an important weakness of abatis, in contrast to barbed wire, is that it can be destroyed by fire. An important advantage is that an improvised abatis can be formed in forested areas. This can be done by cutting down a row of trees so that they fall with their tops toward the enemy. An alternative is to place explosives so as to blow the trees down, abatis are rarely seen nowadays, having been largely replaced by wire obstacles. However, it may be used as a replacement or supplement when barbed wire is in short supply, a form of giant abatis, using whole trees instead of branches, can be used as an improvised anti-tank obstacle. Though rarely used by conventional military units, abatises are still officially maintained in United States Army. Furthermore, it is recommended that the trees remain connected to the stumps, US military maps record an abatis by use of an inverted V with a short line extending from it to the right. Zasechnaya cherta Pamplin Historical Park & The National Museum of the Civil War Soldier includes large and authentic reproduction of abatis used in the U. S. Civil WarAbatis – Abatis improvised by Japanese troops during World War II
7. Agger (ancient Rome) – An agger is an ancient Roman embankment or rampart, or any artificial elevation. The agger was an embankment that gave Roman roads the proper draining base, basically the agger is a ridge that supports the road surface. The material used to build the aggers was dug from lateral ditches, once the material was dug out of the ditches that were known as scoop ditches, they were used as the storm drain for that road. These ditches could also be used for soldiers to hide in if they ever were under attack from enemies, on the most important road routes, the agger could be 4 to 5 feet high and 45 to 50 feet wide. Along less important routes the road is set directly on the levelled ground surface with stones laid to provide drainage with the lateral ditches barely visible. The material was found locally, though the Romans would not hesitate to bring in the material from other places if they could find no suitable stone. The course of a Roman road can often be traced today by the line of the agger across the landscape. A well-known example is the Agger Servianus, a part of the Servian walls of Rome, which protected the city on its most vulnerable side and it consisted of a double rampart bearing formidable fortificationsAgger (ancient Rome) – Remains of the agger of Ardea, Italy
8. City gate – A city gate is a gate which is, or was, set within a city wall. City gates were built to provide a point of controlled access to and departure from a walled city for people, vehicles, goods. The city gate was also used to display diverse kinds of public information such as announcements, tax and toll schedules, standards of local measures. City gates, in one form or another, can be found across the world in cities dating back to ancient times to around the 19th century. Many cities would close their gates after a certain curfew each night, for example a bigger one like Prague or a smaller one like Flensburg, in the north of Germany. With increased stability and freedom, many walled cities removed such fortifications as city gates, although many still survive, many surviving gates have been heavily restored, rebuilt or new ones created to add to the appearance of a city, such as Bab Bou Jalous in Fes. With increased levels of traffic, city gates have come under threat in the past for impeding the flow of traffic, ireland, St. Laurences Gate, 13th Century, in Drogheda, CoCity gate – The Brama Młyńska in Stargard Szczeciński one of a few water gates in Europe
9. Crannog – A crannog is typically a partially or entirely artificial island, usually built in lakes, rivers and estuarine waters of Scotland and Ireland. Crannogs have been interpreted as free-standing wooden structures, as at Loch Tay, although more commonly they exist as brush. However, in such as the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. As a result, completely stone crannogs supporting drystone architecture are common there, today, crannogs typically appear as small, circular islets, often 10 to 30 metres in diameter, covered in dense vegetation due to their inaccessibility to grazing livestock. The Irish word crannóg derives from Old Irish crannóc, which referred to a structure or vessel, stemming from crann. The modern sense of the term first appears sometime around the 12th century, its popularity spread in the period along with the terms isle, ylle, inis. There is some confusion on what the term originally referred to. The additional meanings of crannog can be related as structure/piece of wood, wooden pin, crows nest, pulpit, drivers box on a coach. The Scottish Gaelic form is crannag and has the additional meanings of pulpit, Crannogs are widespread in Ireland, with an estimated 1,200 examples, while Scotland has 347 sites officially listed as such. Previously unknown crannogs in Scotland and Ireland are still being found as underwater surveys continue to investigate loch beds for completely submerged examples, the largest concentrations of crannogs in Ireland are found in the Drumlin Belt of the Midlands, North and Northwest. In Scotland, crannogs favour a western or Atlantic distribution, with concentrations in Argyll and Dumfries. In reality, the Western Isles contain the highest density of lake-settlements in Scotland, one lone Welsh example at Llangorse Lake exists, likely a product of Irish influence across the Irish Sea. Crannogs took on different forms and methods of construction based on what was available in the immediate landscape. The classic image of a prehistoric crannog stems from both post-medieval illustrations and highly influential such as Milton Loch in Scotland by C. M. The Milton Loch interpretation is of a small islet surrounded or defined at its edges by timber piles, Crannogs are traditionally interpreted as simple prehistorical farmsteads. A strict definition of a crannog, which has long been debated, sites in the Western Isles do not satisfy this criterion, although their inhabitants shared the common habit of living on water. The visible structural remains are traditionally interpreted as duns, or in more recent terminology as Atlantic roundhouses and this terminology has recently become popular when describing the entire range of robust, drystone structures that existed in later prehistoric Atlantic Scotland. In some early digs, labourers merely hauled away tons of materials with little regard to anything that was not of immediate economic valueCrannog – Reconstructed crannog near Kenmore, Perth and Kinross, on Loch Tay, Scotland
10. Ditch (fortification) – A ditch in military engineering is an obstacle, designed to slow down or break up an attacking force, while a trench is intended to provide cover to the defenders. In medieval fortification, a ditch was constructed in front of a defensive wall to hinder mining. When filled with water, such a defensive ditch is called a moat, however, moats may also be dry. Today ditches are obsolescent as an obstacle, but are still often used as anti-vehicle obstacles. A fence concealed in a ditch is called a ha-ha, scarp, the inner side of the ditch is called the scarp slope. This may be revetted with masonry or brickwork, in which case, cordon, a course of protruding masonry along the top of a scarp wall, intended to make it harder for an enemy to stand a ladder against it. Rampart, the wall of the fort which can be made of earth or masonry, is topped by a parapet for the defenders to fire over. Berm, a ledge between the wall and the exterior slope of the rampart, designed to increase the stability of the rampart. Faussebraye, a parapet between the rampart and the inner edge of the ditch. Carnot wall, a wall between the rampart and the inner edge of the ditch. Chemin de ronde, a pathway running along the berm, behind the faussebraye or Carnot wall, cunette, a narrow channel that runs along the floor of the ditch for drainage purposes. Bartardeau, a type of dam across a ditch that is part wet. Counterscarp, the slope or wall of the ditch. Sally port, a door allowing the defenders to enter the ditch should it be occupied by the enemy. Caponier, a masonry or brick structure extending into the ditch or traversing across it, it is pierced with loopholes to enable the defenders to fire along the floor of the ditch. Counterscarp gallery, a passage constructed behind the wall and pierced with loopholes. Glacis, an earth slope angled away from the ditch, the height and angle of the glacis was calculated to protect the rampart from direct fire but to allow the defenders to fire over it. Place-of-arms, an area of the covered way at an angle of the ditchDitch (fortification) – A ditch and earth bank at Old Sarum, near Salisbury in England, dating from the Iron Age.
11. Defensive wall – A defensive wall is a fortification used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors. In ancient to modern times, they were used to enclose settlements, beyond their defensive utility, many walls also had important symbolic functions – representing the status and independence of the communities they embraced. Existing ancient walls are almost always masonry structures, although brick, depending on the topography of the area surrounding the city or the settlement the wall is intended to protect, elements of the terrain may be incorporated in order to make the wall more effective. Walls may only be crossed by entering the city gate and are often supplemented with towers. Simpler defensive walls of earth or stone, thrown up around hillforts, ringworks, early castles, from very early history to modern times, walls have been a near necessity for every city. Uruk in ancient Sumer is one of the worlds oldest known walled cities, before that, the city of Jericho in what is now the West Bank had a wall surrounding it as early as the 8th millennium BC. The Assyrians deployed large labour forces to build new palaces, temples, some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were also fortified. By about 3500 B. C. hundreds of small farming villages dotted the Indus floodplain, many of these settlements had fortifications and planned streets. Mundigak in present-day south-east Afghanistan has defensive walls and square bastions of sun dried bricks, babylon was one of the most famous cities of the ancient world, especially as a result of the building program of Nebuchadnezzar, who expanded the walls and built the Ishtar Gate. Exceptions were few — notably, ancient Sparta and ancient Rome did not have walls for a long time, initially, these fortifications were simple constructions of wood and earth, which were later replaced by mixed constructions of stones piled on top of each other without mortar. In Central Europe, the Celts built large fortified settlements which the Romans called oppida, the fortifications were continuously expanded and improved. In ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, in classical era Greece, the city of Athens built a long set of parallel stone walls called the Long Walls that reached their guarded seaport at Piraeus. Large tempered earth walls were built in ancient China since the Shang Dynasty, although stone walls were built in China during the Warring States, mass conversion to stone architecture did not begin in earnest until the Tang Dynasty. The large walls of Pingyao serve as one example, likewise, the famous walls of the Forbidden City in Beijing were established in the early 15th century by the Yongle Emperor. The Romans fortified their cities with massive, mortar-bound stone walls, the most famous of these are the largely extant Aurelian Walls of Rome and the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople, together with partial remains elsewhere. These are mostly city gates, like the Porta Nigra in Trier or Newport Arch in Lincoln, apart from these, the early Middle Ages also saw the creation of some towns built around castles. These cities were only protected by simple stone walls and more usually by a combination of both walls and ditches. From the 12th century AD hundreds of settlements of all sizes were founded all across Europe and these cities are easy to recognise due to their regular layout and large market spacesDefensive wall – Part of the Great Wall of China, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
12. Gatehouse – A gatehouse, in architectural terminology, is a building enclosing or accompanying a gateway for a castle, manor house, fort, town or similar buildings of importance. Gatehouses made their first appearance in the early antiquity when it became necessary to protect the entrance to a castle or town. Over time, they evolved into very complicated structures with many lines of defence, strongly fortified gatehouses would normally include a drawbridge, one or more portcullises, machicolations, arrow loops and possibly even murder-holes where stones would be dropped on attackers. In some castles, the gatehouse was so strongly fortified it took on the function of a keep, examples of such gate keeps can be found at Bodiam Castle and Beaumaris Castle. In the late Middle Ages, some of these arrow loops might have converted into gun loops. Sometimes gatehouses formed part of fortifications, perhaps defending the passage of a bridge across a river or a moat. York has four important gatehouses, known as Bars, in its city walls, the French term for gatehouse is logis-porche. This could be a large, complex structure that served both as a gateway and lodging or it could have composed of a gateway through an enclosing wall. A very large gatehouse might be called a châtelet, at the end of the Middle Ages, many gatehouses in England and France were converted into beautiful, grand entrance structures to manor houses or estates. Many of them became a separate feature free-standing or attached to the manor or mansion only by an enclosing wall, by this time the gatehouse had lost its defensive purpose and had become more of a monumental structure designed to harmonise with the manor or mansion. On the continent of Europe, there are examples of surviving gatehouses in France, Austria. Bargate, in Hampshire is a gatehouse in the city centre of Southampton. Constructed in 1180 as part of the Southampton town walls Ightham Mote, Durham Castle, in Durham has an 11th-century gatehouse that is now used as accommodation for students attending University College, Durham. Layer Marney Tower, the apotheosis of the Tudor gatehouse, stokesay Castle, a 13th-century fortified manor house in Shropshire has a Jacobean half-timbered gatehouse. Stanway House, Stanway, Gloucestershire, where the gatehouse measures 44 ft. by 22 ft. and has three storeys, westwood House, Worcestershire, which has a frontage of 54 ft. with two storeys. Burton Agnes Hall, East Riding of Yorkshire, which has three storeys and is flanked by octagonal towers at the angles. Hylton Castle, Hylton, Sunderland, although it is an actual castle, château de Châteaubriant, two gatehouses, one for the lower bailey, one for the upper ward. Château de Suscinio, a large 15th-century gatehouse in the style, MorbihanGatehouse – Gatehouse reconstruction from ancient Babylon
13. Hillfort – A hillfort or hill fort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. They are typically European and of the Bronze and Iron Ages, some were used in the post-Roman period. The fortification usually follows the contours of a hill, consisting of one or more lines of earthworks, with stockades or defensive walls, and external ditches. Hill forts developed in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age, roughly the start of the first millennium BC, the terms hill fort, hill-fort and hillfort are all used in the archaeological literature. They all refer to a site with one or more ramparts made of earth, stone and/or wood. Many small early hill forts were abandoned, with the ones being redeveloped at a later date. Similar but smaller and less defendable earthworks are found on the sides of hills and these are known as hill-slope enclosures and may have been animal pens. It has been estimated that in about 5000 BC during the Neolithic between 2 million and 5 million lived in Europe, in the Late Iron Age it had an population of around 15 to 30 million. Outside Greece and Italy, which were densely populated, the vast majority of settlements in the Iron Age were small. Hill forts were the exception, and were the home of up to 1,000 people, with the emergence of oppida in the Late Iron Age, settlements could reach as large as 10,000 inhabitants. As the population increased so did the complexity of prehistoric societies, around 1100 BC hill forts emerged and in the following centuries spread through Europe. They served a range of purposes and were variously tribal centres, defended places, foci of ritual activity, during the Hallstatt C period, hill forts became the dominant settlement type in the west of Hungary. Julius Caesar described the large late Iron Age hill forts he encountered during his campaigns in Gaul as oppida, by this time the larger ones had become more like cities than fortresses and many were assimilated as Roman towns. Hill forts were occupied by conquering armies, but on other occasions the forts were destroyed, the local people forcibly evicted. For example, Solsbury Hill was sacked and deserted during the Belgic invasions of southern Britain in the 1st century BC. Excavations at hill forts in the first half of the 20th century focussed on the defenses, the exception to this trend began in the 1930s with a series of excavations undertaken by Mortimer Wheeler at Maiden Castle, Dorset. From 1960 onwards, archaeologists shifted their attention to the interior of hill forts, currently, post-processual archaeologists regard hill forts as symbols of wealth and power. Michael Avery has stated the view of hill forts by sayingHillfort – Maiden Castle in England is one of the largest hill forts in Europe. Photograph taken in 1935 by Major George Allen (1891–1940).
14. Limes – A limes was a border defence or delimiting system of Ancient Rome. It marked the boundaries and provinces of the Roman Empire, the word limes was utilized by Latin writers to denote a marked or fortified frontier. This was the definition and usage of the term. It is now common to accept that limes was not a term used by the Romans for the imperial frontier. This is a modern, anachronistic interpretation, the term became common after the 3rd century AD, when it denoted a military district under the command of a dux limitis. The limites represented the line of the Roman Empire at its greatest extent in the 2nd century AD. It stretched over 5,000 km from the Atlantic coast of northern Britain, through Europe to the Black Sea, the remains of the limites today consist of vestiges of walls, ditches, forts, fortresses and civilian settlements. Certain elements of the line have been excavated, some reconstructed, the two sections of the limes in Germany cover a length of 550 km from the north-west of the country to the Danube in the south-east. The 118 km long Hadrians Wall was built on the orders of the Emperor Hadrian c, AD122 at the northernmost limits of the Roman province of Britannia. It is an example of the organization of a military zone and illustrates the defensive techniques. The Antonine Wall, a 60 km-long fortification in Scotland, was started by Emperor Antoninus Pius in AD142 as a defense against the Barbarians of the north and it constitutes the northwestern-most portion of the Roman Limes. Limes Norici, the frontier of the Roman province Noricum, from the River Inn along the Danube to Cannabiaca in Austria, Limes Pannonicus, the frontier of the Roman province Pannonia, along the Danube from Klosterneuburg Austria to Taurunum in Serbia. A mediaeval limes is the Limes Saxoniae in Holstein, the stem of limes, limit-, which can be seen in the genitive case, limitis, marks it as the ancestor of an entire group of important words in many languages, for example, English limit. Modern languages have multiplied its abstract formulations, for example, from limit comes the abbreviation lim, used in mathematics to designate the limit of a sequence or a function, see limit. In metaphysics, material objects are limited by matter and therefore are delimited from each other, in ethics, men must know their limitations and are wise if they do. An etymology was given in detail by Julius Pokorny, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch. According to him, it comes from Indo-European el-, elei-, lei-, to bow, to bend, the Latin meaning was discussed in detail by W. Gebert. The sense is that a limit bends across one in some way, the limes was a cross-path or a cross-wall, which the Romans meant to throw across the path of invaders to hinder themLimes – Reconstructed east gate at Welzheim
15. Palisade – A palisade—sometimes called a stakewall or a paling—is typically a fence or wall made from wooden stakes or tree trunks and used as a defensive structure or enclosure. Typical construction consisted of small or mid-sized tree trunks aligned vertically, the trunks were sharpened or pointed at the top, and were driven into the ground and sometimes reinforced with additional construction. The height of a palisade ranged from around a metre to as high as 3-4 m, as a defensive structure, palisades were often used in conjunction with earthworks. Palisades were an excellent option for small forts or other hastily constructed fortifications, since they were made of wood, they could often be quickly and easily built from readily available materials. They proved to be effective protection for short-term conflicts and were a deterrent against small forces. However, because they were wooden constructions they were vulnerable to fire. Often, a palisade would be constructed around a castle as a wall until a permanent stone wall could be erected. They were frequently used in New France, both the Greeks and Romans created palisades to protect their military camps. The Roman historian Livy describes the Greek method as being inferior to that of the Romans during the Second Macedonian War, the Greek stakes were too large to be easily carried and were spaced too far apart. This made it easy for enemies to them and create a large enough gap in which to enter. In contrast, the Romans used smaller and easier to carry stakes which were placed closer together, many settlements of the native Mississippian culture of the Midwestern United States also made use of palisades. The most prominent example is the Cahokia Mounds site in Collinsville, a wooden stockade with a series of watchtowers or bastions at regular intervals formed a 2-mile-long enclosure around Monks Mound and the Grand Plaza. Archaeologists found evidence of the stockade during excavation of the area and indications that it was several times. The stockade seems to have separated Cahokias main ceremonial precinct from other parts of the city, the English settlements in Jamestown, Virginia and Plymouth, Massachusetts were originally fortified towns surrounded by palisades. In the late century, when milled lumber was not available or practical. The walls were made of vertical half timbers, the outside, rounded half with its still on faced Adirondack weather. Typically, the cracks between the logs were filled with moss and sometimes covered with small sticks. Inside, the cracks were covered with narrow wooden battens and it also presented a more finished look insidePalisade – Palisade in a Celtic village
16. Ringfort – Ringforts are circular fortified settlements that were mostly built during the Early Middle Ages up to about the year 1000. They are found in Northern Europe, especially in Ireland, there are also many in south Wales and in Cornwall, where they are called Rounds. Ringforts come in sizes and may be made of stone or earth. Earthen ringforts would have been marked by a rampart, often with a stakewall. Both stone and earthen ringforts would generally have had at least one building inside, in Irish language sources they are known by a number of names, ráth, lios, caiseal, cathair and dún. The ráth and lios was an earthen ringfort, the ráth being the enclosing bank, the caiseal and cathair was a stone ringfort. The term dún was usually used for any stronghold of importance, in Ireland, over 40,000 sites have been identified as ringforts and it is thought that at least 50,000 ringforts existed on the island. They are common throughout the country, with a density of just over one ringfort within any area of 2 km2. It is likely that many have been destroyed by farming and urbanisation, however, many hitherto unknown ringforts have been found thanks to early Ordnance Survey maps, aerial photography, and the archaeological work that has accompanied road-building. Few Cornish examples have been excavated, with the exception of Trethurgy Rounds. According to the authoritative New History of Ireland, archaeologists are agreed that the vast bulk of them are the enclosures of the well-to-do of early medieval Ireland. The a priori case for attributing some ringforts to the Later Middle Ages. is based on the absence of any other settlement form of date in those landscapes. In other words, if the Gaelic-Irish did not live in ringforts, the conjecture that ringforts can be seen to have evolved from and be part of an Iron Age tradition has been expanded by Darren Limbert. This hypothesis is based on a number of re-interpretations of the available evidence, Limbert argues instead, that the ringfort should be seen in the context of a variety of similar developments in Britain and the European Continent, particularly in Iberia and Gaul. While conceding that most ringforts were built in the Early Christian period, supports an intrusion of a Celtic warrior caste. On the island of Öland, Sweden, nineteen ringforts have been identified, including Eketorp, a site that has been completely excavated, currently, excavations are ongoing at Sandby borg, which was the site of a massacre in the 5th Century A. D. It is also possible that the Hill of Tara is a type of ringfort. From a morphological viewpoint, and probably also from the view of the contemporary person, some L Plan Castles, such as Balingarry Castle in Ireland originated as ringfortsRingfort – The Grianán Ailigh in Ulster is one of the more impressive stone-walled ringforts
17. Refuge castle – In former times such sites were also described as giant castles because their origin was ascribed to giants. Amongst ancient historical references to them are the castles of the Gauls described by Caesar as oppida. Similar ringwork systems were built by the various Germanic and Slavic tribes, such systems are also known as hillforts, the primary construction material being earth, but wood and stone were also used in a variety of construction methods. As a rule they have no towers, but occasionally superstructures resembling gate towers occur, the large size of refuge castles enabled them to provide stores and supplies in the event of a siege. Later on during the Middle Ages this type of castle was built by local farmers. These farmers castles provided protection for country folk from marauding bands of troops, because the majority of refuge castles were not permanent settlements, archaeological excavations often produce little by way of finds. In the Middle Ages fortified churches and fortress churches also acted as refuge castles and they were primarily utilised as the village churches, but their fortifications also made them suitable for use as temporary places of refuge for the villages. D. which had the task of protecting the crossing in the Gailtal valley. During excavations, as well as the system, an early Christian church was discovered in the interior of the castellum. Kreuzen Castle/Bad Kreuzen Hillfort Cave castleRefuge castle – Reconstructed Slavic refuge castle of Raddusch (Lower Lusatia)
18. Stockade – A stockade is an enclosure of palisades and tall walls made of logs placed side by side vertically with the tops sharpened to provide security. Stockade fortifications were simple forms of defence of camps or settlements, used since ancient Roman times. The troops or settlers would build a stockade by clearing a space of woodland and using the whole or chopped in half. They would dig a trench around the area, and stand the sharpened logs side-by-side inside it. Sometimes they would add additional defence by placing sharpened sticks in a secondary trench outside the stockade. In colder climates sometimes the stockade received a coating of clay or mud that would make the crude wall wind-proof, builders could also place stones or thick mud layers at the foot of the stockade, improving the resistance of the wall. From that the defenders could, if they had the materials, raise a stone or brick wall inside the stockade, the word stockade also refers to a military prison in an army camp, and in some cases, even a crude prison camp or a slave camp. In these cases, the stockade keeps people inside, rather than out, nowadays, stockade walls are often used as garden fencing, made of finished planks more useful for privacy fencing and more decoration than securityStockade – This replica of an 1832 fort in Illinois features a stockade with a blockhouse.
19. Sudis (stake) – The sudis is a Latin word meaning stake. It was the given to stakes carried by Roman legionaries for employment as a field fortification. It is frequently, but incorrectly, called a pilum murale meaning wall spear, the stakes were carried by Roman legionaries, typically two were carried by each soldier. Each stake was made of hardwood, usually oak, about 150–180 cm long, square in section, the shape tapers to a point at both ends. The central part is narrowed in a way that suggests the function of a handle. Examples that have found are rough hewn. It seems clear that the stakes were used to form a temporary defence, however, the exact manner in which stakes were used is the subject of debate among experts. It is possible that the stakes were incorporated into the ramparts of a Roman marching camp, projecting from the ramparts at an angle, they would present a barrier to an attacker attempting to climb up. Alternatively, they could have been placed vertically at the top of the rampart as a fence, experiments with reconstructions have been disappointing in that such barriers are not strong, as the symmetry of the stakes makes them easy to pull out of the ground. It has been proposed that the stakes were lashed in pairs at intervals along a log or beam to form a Cheval de frise and this could be used, for example, as a moveable barrier to bar a gateway. Alternatively, three stakes might be roped together into a defence resembling the Czech hedgehog — a sort of giant caltrop, defences of this type, employed en masse, can be pushed aside only with difficulty and cannot be collapsed. The advantage of such suggested modes of use is that they are consistent with the symmetry of the stakes, the Roman Legion Recreated in Colour PhotographsSudis (stake)
20. Wagon fort – A wagon fort is a mobile fortification made of wagons arranged into a rectangle, a circle or other shape and possibly joined with each other, an improvised military camp. It is also known as a laager, ammianus Marcellinus, a Roman army officer and historian of the 4th century, describes a Roman army approaching ad carraginem as they approach a Gothic camp. Historians interpret this as a wagon-fort, similar ad hoc defense formations were used in the United States, and were called corrals. These were traditionally used by 19th century American settlers travelling to the West in convoys of Conestoga wagons. The armed men would then man the perimeter, the circled wagons serving to break up the charge, to create a certain amount of concealment from observation. This tactic was known as circling up the wagons. One of the earliest examples of using conjoined wagons as fortification is described in the Chinese historical record Book of Han, in the 13th century, the armies of Kievan Rus used tabors in the Battle of Kalka to defend themselves from Mongol forces. In the 15th century, during the Hussite Wars, the Hussites developed tactics of using the tabors, called vozová hradba in Czech or Wagenburg by the Germans, such a camp was easy to establish and practically invulnerable to enemy cavalry. The etymology of the word tabor may come from the Hussite fortress and modern day Czech city of Tábor, which itself is a name derived from biblical Jezreel mountain Tavor. The crew of each wagon consisted of 18 to 21 soldiers,4 to 8 crossbowmen,2 handgunners,6 to 8 soldiers equipped with pikes or flails,2 shield carriers and 2 drivers. The wagons would normally form a square, and inside the square would usually be the cavalry, there were two principal stages of the battle using the wagon fort, defensive and counterattack. The defensive part would be a pounding of the enemy with artillery, the Hussite artillery was a primitive form of a howitzer, called in Czech a houfnice, from which the English word howitzer comes. Also, they called their guns the Czech word píšťala, meaning that they were shaped like a pipe or a fife, from which the English word pistol is possibly derived. When the enemy would come close to the fort, crossbowmen and hand-gunners would come from inside the wagons. There would even be stored in a pouch inside the wagons for throwing whenever the soldiers were out of ammunition. After this huge barrage, the enemy would be demoralized, once the commander saw it fit, the second stage of battle would begin. Men with swords, flails, and polearms would come out, together with the infantry, the cavalry in the square would come out and attack. At this point, the enemy would be eliminated or very nearly so, the wagon forts effect on Czech history was lost, but the Czechs would continue to use the wagon forts in later conflictsWagon fort – The Hussite Wagenburg
21. Vitrified fort – Vitrified fort is the name given to certain crude stone enclosures whose walls have been subjected in a greater or lesser degree to the action of heat. They are generally situated on hills offering strong defensive positions and their form seems to have been determined by the contour of the flat summits which they enclose. The walls vary in size, a few being upwards of 12 feet high, the walls themselves are termed vitrified ramparts. No lime or cement has been found in any of these structures and this fusion, which has been caused by the application of intense heat, is not equally complete in the various forts, or even in the walls of the same fort. It is not clear why or how the walls were subjected to vitrification, some antiquarians have argued that it was done to strengthen the wall, but the heating actually weakens the structure. Battle damage is unlikely to be the cause, as the walls are thought to have been subjected to carefully maintained fires to ensure they were hot enough for vitrification to take place. The process has no significance and is found during both Iron Age and Early Medieval Forts in Scotland. The most remarkable are, Dun Mac Sniachan, the largest in area at 245 m by 50 m and they have not been found in Wales. Broborg is a vitrified hill-fort in Uppland, Sweden, gordon Childe and Wallace Thorneycroft in the 1930s. The experiment produced a few partially vitrified stones, but no answers were gleaned as to how large-scale forts could have been crafted with the approach tried in the programme. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, HughVitrified fort – Part of the vitrified wall at Sainte Suzanne (Mayenne)
22. Medieval fortification – During this millennium, fortifications changed warfare, and in turn were modified to suit new tactics, weapons and siege techniques. Towers of medieval castles were usually made of stone or sometimes wood, often toward the later part of the era they included battlements and arrow loops. The tower had a staircase to make it hard for the attackers to fight upward. An exact nature of the walls of a town or city would depend on the resources available for building them, the nature of the terrain. In northern Europe, early in the period, walls were likely to have constructed of wood. Especially where stone was available for building, the wood will have been replaced by stone to a higher or lower standard of security. This would have been the pattern of events in the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw in England, in many cases, the wall would have had an internal and an external pomoerium. This was a strip of ground immediately adjacent the wall. The word is from the medieval, derived from the classical Latin post murum. An external pomoerium, stripped of bushes and building, gave defenders a clear view of what was happening outside, an internal pomoerium gave ready access to the rear of the curtain wall to facilitate movement of the garrison to a point of need. By the end of the century, the word had developed further in common use. By that time too, the walls were no longer secure against a serious threat from an army as they were not designed for resisting cannon shot. They were sometimes rebuilt, as at Berwick on Tweed, or retained for use against thieves, very elaborate and complex schemes for town defences were developed in the Netherlands and France but these belong mainly to the post-medieval periods. However, a few, such as those of Carcassonne and Dubrovnik, Medieval walls that were no longer adequate for defending were succeeded by the star fort. After the invention of the shell, star forts became obsolete as well. Harbours or some sort of access was often essential to the construction of medieval fortification. It was a route for trading and fortification. The concept of rivers or harbours coming directly up to the walls of fortifications was used by the English as they constructed castles throughout WalesMedieval fortification – Beaumaris Castle in Wales was built in the late 13th century and is an example of concentric castles which developed in the medieval period.
23. Albarrana tower – An Albarrana tower is a defensive tower detached from the curtain wall and connected to it by a bridge or an arcade. In Spanish, they are called torre albarrana, the towers of typical appearance, with a square section, were built several meters in front of the curtain wall. They were accessible by a walkway from the curtain wall. More often, the bridge had a removable wooden section allowing the tower to be isolated from the wall if the tower is occupied by attacking forces, the earliest Albarrana towers were often pentagonal or octagonal in plan but a more rectangular plan became the norm. In France and the north of Europe, flanking towers remained a part of the wall, even the keep were sometimes built as a part of the wall instead of inside the yard at the center of the castle. The main albarrana towers are, Torre de Espantaperros in Badajoz, probably the first albarrana tower, built by Abu Yaqub Yusuf in 1170. In the other parts of the medieval Muslim world this defensive feature seems not to be used, possibly the only example of a true Albarrana tower in England can be found at Pontefract Castle. The castle now lies in ruins, but one Albarrana tower called Swillington Tower is visible on the models of the castle and the remains of the tower itself can be seen to the north of the castleAlbarrana tower – Torre de la Malmuerta in Cordoba (Spain)
24. Bartizan – Most frequently found at corners, they protected a warder and enabled him to see his surroundings. Bartizans generally are furnished with oillets or arrow slits, the turret was usually supported by stepped masonry corbels and could be round or square. Bartizans were incorporated into many notable examples of Scots Baronial Style architecture in Scotland, in the architecture of Aberdeen, the new Town House, built in 1868–74, incorporates bartizans in the West Tower. Bretèche garret—an attic or top floor room in the military sense, a watchtower from the French word gariteBartizan – Bartizan at Fort de Chartres, a French colonial era fort in Illinois on the Mississippi River.
25. Bridge tower – A bridge tower was a type of fortified tower built on a bridge. They were typically built in the period up to modern times as part of a city or town wall or castle. There is usually a tower at both ends of the bridge and these towers were built in pre-medieval and medieval times to guard access to the bridge and to enable the charging of tolls on important roads crossing rivers, usually near towns and cities. The rivers were part of the defences of these settlements. As a result, it was important from a perspective that the bridges did not allow attacking enemies to break in. The bridges acted as a bulwark and often had a small drawbridge, in addition to their genuine protective and defensive functions they also played a symbolic and architectural role. Often these towers were the first public buildings that the travellers saw when approaching the city, the high cost of such towers was usually paid for by charging tolls. The gates of bridge towers were closed at night, so that no-one could cross the bridge during silent hours, le Pont Vieux at Orthez, France. The Wasserturm, part of the Kapellbrücke complex in Lucerne, Switzerland, the Monnow Gate on the Monnow Bridge at Monmouth, Wales The bridge tower at Warkworth Bridge in Warkworth, Northumberland, England Tower Bridge in London, England. The actual function of these towers is to support a high-level walkway, description of the bridge towers of Regensburg at baufachinformation. de Bridge chapel Gate tower GatehouseBridge tower – The Old Lahn Bridge in Limburg an der Lahn with its surviving bridge tower
26. Butter-churn tower – A butter-churn tower is a two-part defensive tower in which the upper section has a smaller diameter than the lower section. This design provides a ledge or fighting platform about half-way up that acts as a chemin de ronde whilst the tower that rises from this platform acts as a raised observation point. The two sections of the tower are usually cylindrical, but in rarer cases butter-churn towers may have a square plan and its name derives from its shape which is similar to that of an upright butter churn, a cylindrical container with a shorter, narrower top section. The design appeared in the 14th century, being employed for the bergfriede of castles in Europe. Its fighting or defensive value was not much greater than ordinary defensive towers, the reason for the construction of butter-churn towers may have more symbolic than strategic. In the late Middle Ages a large number of towers were erected in the Middle Rhine-South Hesse-Taunus region. Examples include those in Bad Homburg, Friedberg, Idstein and Oberwesel, the Marksburg above Braubach am Rhein had a square bergfried to which was added a small butter-churn turret in 1468. This burned down in 1705 and was replaced in 1905, one of the tallest towers is the 56-metre-high Round Tower, the symbol of the town of Andernach, which dates to 1453 and has an unusual variation, an octagonal upper turret with a stone gable roof. The highest bergfried of a castle with a butter-churn top was that of Rheinfels Castle above Sankt Goar am Rhein which was 54 metres high at the intermediate platform. The third-highest surviving bergfried in Germany is at the Osterburg near Weida in Thuringia, it is 53 metres high and it is also one of the oldest surviving bergfrieds, dating to 1193. It measures 24 metres to the platform and has an octagonal, horst Wolfgang Böhme, Reinhard Friedrich, Barbara Schock-Werner, Wörterbuch der Burgen, Schlösser und Festungen. Reclam-Verlag, Stuttgart,2004, ISBN 3-15-010547-1, pp. 103−105, weltbild-Verlag, Augsburg,1994, ISBN 3-89350-554-7, p.217Butter-churn tower – The Adolf Tower in Friedberg in butter-churn style with its bartizans
27. Chartaque – A chartaque is a watchtower and important element of the fortification systems in the time of the Ottoman Empire. The original form, to which the name relates, was built of four logs, fundamentally they were places of observation and defence. A characteristic structural feature of chartaques is that they consisted of a tower with a palisade around the base. Other defensive works such as schanzen, abatis, ramparts and ditches were built in the vicinity as additional protection against an enemy. The construction of a chartaque was an operation that lasted several weeks, in 1706, during the time of the Kuruc wars, precise details are known about the fortifications of the Kuruc schanzen in eastern Styria. Such a chartaque came at a cost of 28 guilders and 24 kreuzer, for two or three chartaques an overseer was appointed in addition to the crews of each chartaque. For the rebuilding of another chartaque which was burned down to its supporting posts, there were also chartaques that were additionally protected by a small redoubt, the redoubt costing an estimated 40 guilders. For larger chartaques for 12-15 men,32 construction-quality logs, six rafter logs, the Ottomans took over these installations from their eastern neighbours, the Persians, who had long been their enemies, and used the idea against their western enemies. Thus chartaques found their way to the Styrian-Hungarian border area and were adopted, in turn, at first they were built by the Styrians and Lower Austrians as part of their defence against the Ottomans and later strengthened to defend their lands against the Kurucs. Chartaques were usually erected in lines in order to be able to relay warning shots and other visual, depending on the state of the terrain, they might be arranged at intervals of about one to three kilometres. They were supporting elements of defensive lines, the description of these military installations has survived to the present day. They were also installed as part of the Baroque lines of fortification in southwest Germany, today only a very few chartaques have survived. In several places, however, they have been faithfully reconstructed, for example, in Burgau in 1995, a chartaque was reconstructed on the Lafnitz, once the border river between Austria and Hungary. Other reconstructions are found on the Eppingen LinesChartaque – Reconstruction of a chartaque in Burgau
28. Chashi – Chashi is the Japanese term for the hilltop fortifications of the Ainu. The word is of Ainu origin, from チャシ, which means palisade or palisaded compound, a few, including the Tōya casi of present-day Kushiro, date to the Muromachi period, the remainder date largely to the early seventeenth century. As such their construction may be related to increased competition for resources as a result of intensification of trade with the Japanese. There were large fir doors in the palisades with strong clamps, at the two corners of these … palisades, a high scaffolding is made of fir planks, for a lookout. Excavated chashi have revealed Japanese lacquerware, ceramics, ironware, and swords, as well as beads perhaps from Sakhalin, consumables included rice, sake, and tobacco. In return the Ainu traded products derived from bird, beast, and fish, plants and medicines, however, the market culture of the trading post … destroy the ecological balance … overhunting and overfishing. By the end of the century, the depletion of natural stocks resulted in famine. Furthermore, competition over animals and fisheries was at the heart of most Ainu conflicts, according to the Ezo hōki, regional influence among the Ainu was based on good land, many utensils, charismatic authority, and physical strength. In 1668, disputes over deer, bear cubs, and a live crane lead to the Hae elder Chikunashi and his mother burning down the Shibuchari casi and killing the escapees. In response Shakushain sent the Urakawa Ainu to attack the Atsubetsu casi, driven off by musket fire they returned in force and captured it, after many of its defenders had left in search of food. The conflict escalated the following year fighting with the Japanese, after his final surrender, Shukushain was killed. Others known include the Arashiyama casi, Harutoru casi, Onibishis casi, Sarushina casi, Sashirui casi, Setanai casi, although there are nineteen chashi on the Shiretoko Peninsula, it is inscribed as a Natural rather than a mixed Natural and Cultural UNESCO World Heritage Site. In addition to providing for defence against rival Ainu, casi functioned as centres for gatherings and they also served as visible symbols of chiefdom power. Japanese castle Gusuku List of Historic Sites of JapanChashi – Chashi in the Kushiro wetlands
29. Chemise (wall) – In medieval castles the chemise was typically a low wall encircling the keep, protecting the base of the tower. Alternative terms, more used in English, are mantlet wall or apron wall. In some cases, the keep could only be entered from the chemise, numerous examples exist of highly varied form, including the heavily fortified chemise of Château de Vincennes, or the more modest example at Provins, both in France. Some chemises are suggested to have developed from earlier motte and bailey defences. In later fortification, a chemise is a wall lined with a bastion, or any other bulwark of earth, for greater support and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chambers, Ephraim, ed. Chemise. Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, james and John Knapton, et alChemise (wall) – The keep at Provins encirled by a low wall
30. Cheval de frise – The cheval de frise was a medieval defensive anti-cavalry measure consisting of a portable frame covered with many projecting long iron or wooden spikes or spears. They were principally intended as an obstacle but could also be moved quickly to help block a breach in another barrier. They remained in use until they were replaced by wire obstacles just after the American Civil War. During the Civil War, the Confederates used this type of more often than the Union forces. During World War I, armies used chevaux de frise to temporarily plug gaps in barbed wire, Chevaux de frise of barbed wire were used in jungle fighting on south Pacific islands during World War II. The term is applied to defensive works comprising a series of closely set upright stones found outside the ramparts of Iron Age hillforts in northern Europe. French, Cheval de frise literally means Frisian horse, the Frisians, having few cavalry, relied heavily on such anti-cavalry obstacles in warfare. The Dutch also adopted use of the device when at war with Spain. The term came to be used for any spiked obstacle, such as broken glass embedded in mortar on the top of a wall. The cheval de frise was adapted in New York and Pennsylvania during the American Revolutionary War as a defensive measure installed in rivers to prevent upriver movement by enemy ships. During the American Revolutionary War, Robert Erskine designed a version of the cheval-de-frise to prevent British warships from proceeding up the Hudson River. A cheval-de-frise was placed between Fort Washington at northern Manhattan and Fort Lee in New Jersey in 1776, similar devices planned by Ben Franklin were used in the Delaware River near Philadelphia, between Fort Mifflin and Fort Mercer. A cheval-de-frise was retrieved from the Delaware River in Philadelphia on November 13,2007 in excellent condition, a small promontory on the north-east Essex coast in the United Kingdom, between Holland Haven and Frinton on Sea, was named Chevaux de Frise PointCheval de frise – Chevaux de frise at the Confederate Fort Mahone defenses at Siege of Petersburg
31. Curtain wall (fortification) – A curtain wall is a defensive wall between two towers of a castle, fortress, or town. In medieval castles, the area surrounded by a curtain wall, the outermost walls with their integrated bastions and wall towers together make up the enceinte or main defensive line enclosing the site. In earlier designs of castle and town, the walls were often built to a considerable height and were fronted by a ditch or moat to make assault difficult. Evidence for curtain walls or a series of walls surrounding a town or fortress can be found in the sources from Assyria. Some notable examples are ancient Lachish and Buhen, enceinte Curry, Anne, Hughes, Michael, eds. The Popular Encyclopedia, or, Conversations Lexicon, I, Glasgow, Edinburgh, and London, Blackie & Son, p.444Curtain wall (fortification) – Beaumaris Castle with curtain walls between the lower outer towers and higher inner curtain walls between the higher inner towers.
32. Flanking tower – A flanking tower is a fortified tower that is sited on the outside of a defensive wall or other fortified structure and thus forms a flank. From the defensive platform and embrasures the section of wall between them could be swept from the side by ranged weapons, in High and Late Medieval castles and town walls flanking towers often had a semi-circular floor plan or a combination of a rectangular inner and semi-circular outer plans. There were also circular and rectangular towers, corner flanking towers are found, for example, in the fortifications of the Alhambra and at the manor house of Hugenpoet Palace, Wellheim Castle has a square flanking tower. In church architecture, a tower is a semi-circular or polygonal tower on the outer wall of the church. The church of Great St. Martin Church in Cologne has several flanking towers, Flanking towers of Bibra Castle Flanking towers of Grumbach CastleFlanking tower – Flanking towers of Château de Coucy
33. Fortified church – A fortified church is a church that is built to play a defensive role in times of war. Such churches were designed to incorporate military features, such as thick walls, battlements. Others, such as the Cathedral of Ávila were incorporated into the town wall, monastic communities, such as Lérins Abbey, are often surrounded by a wall, and some churches, such as St Arbogast in Muttenz, Switzerland, have an outer wall as well. Churches with additional external defences such as walls and wall towers are often referred to more specifically as fortress churches or Kirchenburgen. Fortified churches were built in places controlled by colonial empires. Although a large number of fortified churches in a variety of styles existed in the lands of Belarus only a handful have survived until the present, the most famous include Christian Orthodox churches in Muravanka and Synkovichi, as well as Catholic fortified churches in Kamai and Ishkold. In addition to Christian churches Belarus also has the ruins of several fortified synagogues, about 65 fortified churches are found in the Thiérache region of France. There are several fortified churches that have preserved, especially in the German states of Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria. Wolfgang in Rothenburg and the church of Wenkbach. A rare surviving example of a church used for defensive purposes is the Church of St. Andrew in Kraków, one of the oldest. Grodzka street, it was built by a medieval Polish statesman Palatine Sieciech in 1079–1098, St. Andrew was the only Romanesque church in Kraków to withstand the Mongol attack of 1241. Along the lower part of the section of its façade are small openings that served as defensive windows during military siege. A number of fortified churches, monasteries and cathedrals survive in Portugal. These buildings were either in Romanesque or Gothic styles. Romanesque examples are the Lisbon Cathedral and the Old Cathedral of Coimbra, Gothic examples are the Church of Leça do Balio and the Guarda Cathedral. South-eastern Transylvania region in Romania has one of the highest numbers of existing fortified churches from the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries, there are medieval fortified churches near the Anglo-Scottish border, where defence was an important consideration until the seventeenth century when the two states were united in personal union. All Saints Church, Boltongate in Cumbria is an example, also in Cumbria, St Michaels Church, Burgh by Sands has a defensive tower, and originally had two. Defensive towers can also be found on the England–Wales border, for instance, St Michaels Church, saint Catherines Monastery Tangyud Monastery Video Fortified churches in TransylvaniaFortified church – Fortified church in Muttenz, Switzerland
34. Fortified house – A fortified house is a type of building which developed in Europe during the Middle Ages. More generally it can refer to any residence that has had additional fortifications added, in the United States, historically a fortified house was often called a fort or station depending on the region. This was a built for defense against primarily Indian attacks in frontier areas. While some fortified houses were used by militias, state and federal military units. Sometimes a stockade would surround the building, examples of historic private or civilian fortified houses built include, Fort Nelson and Floyds Station and Low Dutch Station all in Kentucky. Mormon Fort and Mormon Station in Nevada, Fort Buenaventura, Cove Fort, Fort Deseret, and Fort Utah all in Utah. Tower house Manor house Block house Fortified houses in IrelandFortified house – Schloss Hart by the Harter Graben near Kindberg, Austria
35. Gate tower – A gate tower is a tower built over or next to a major gateway. Usually it is part of a medieval fortification and this may be a town or city wall, a fortress or a castle. The gate tower may be built as a tower on either side of an entranceway. Even in the design of building complexes, gate towers may be built symbolically as a main entranceGate tower – The Linz Gate in Freistadt, Austria
36. Gabion – A gabion is a cage, cylinder, or box filled with rocks, concrete, or sometimes sand and soil for use in civil engineering, road building, military applications and landscaping. For erosion control, caged riprap is used, for dams or in foundation construction, cylindrical metal structures are used. In a military context, earth- or sand-filled gabions are used to protect sappers, infantry, leonardo da Vinci designed a type of gabion called a Corbeille Leonard for the foundations of the San Marco Castle in Milan. Other uses include retaining walls, noise barriers, temporary walls, silt filtration from runoff, for small or temporary/permanent dams, river training. They may be used to direct the force of a flow of water around a vulnerable structure. Gabions are also used as fish screens on small streams, a gabion wall is a retaining wall made of stacked stone-filled gabions tied together with wire. Gabion walls are usually battered, or stepped back with the slope, gabion baskets have some advantages over loose riprap because of their modularity and ability to be stacked in various shapes. Gabions have advantages over more rigid structures, because they can conform to subsidence, dissipate energy from flowing water and resist being washed away and their strength and effectiveness may increase with time in some cases, as silt and vegetation fill the interstitial voids and reinforce the structure. They are sometimes used to prevent falling stones from a cut or cliff endangering traffic on a thoroughfare, the life expectancy of gabions depends on the lifespan of the wire, not on the contents of the basket. The structure will fail when the wire fails, galvanized steel wire is most common, but PVC-coated and stainless steel wire are also used. PVC-coated galvanized gabions have been estimated to survive for 60 years, Some gabion manufacturers guarantee a structural consistency of 50 years. In the United States, gabion use within streams first began with projects completed from 1957 to 1965 on North River, Virginia and Zealand River, more than 150 grade-control structures, bank revetments and channel deflectors were constructed on the two U. S. Forest Service sites. Eventually, a portion of the in-stream structures failed due to undermining. In particular, corrosion and abrasion of wires by bedload movement compromised the structures, other gabions were toppled into channels as trees grew and enlarged on top of gabion revetments, leveraging them toward the river channels. Gabions have also used in building, as in the Dominus Winery in the Napa Valley, California by architects Herzog & de Meuron. There are various designs of gabions to meet particular functional requirements. For example, Bastion, a gabion lined internally with a membrane, typically of nonwoven geotextile to permit use of a granular soil fill, mattress, a form of gabion with relatively small height relative to the lateral dimensions, commonly very wide. For protecting surfaces from wave erosion and similar attack, rather than building or supporting high structures, trapion, a form of gabion with a trapezoidal cross section, designed for stacking to give a face that is sloping rather than steppedGabion – Gabions with cannon, from a late 16th century illustration.
37. Glacis – A glacis in military engineering is an artificial slope as part of a medieval castle or in early modern fortresses. They may be constructed of earth as a structure or of stone in more permanent structure. A glacis plate is the sloped front-most section of the hull of a tank or other armored fighting vehicle, more generally, the term glacis can denote any slope, natural or artificial, which fulfils the above requirements. The etymology of this French word suggests a slope made dangerous with ice, hence the relationship with glacier, a glacis could also appear in ancient fortresses, such as the one built at Semna, by the ancient Egyptians. Here it was used by them to prevent enemy siege engines from weakening defensive walls, ancient British hill forts started to incorporate glacis around 350 BC. Those at Maiden Castle in Dorset were 25 metres high, towards the end of the medieval period some castles were modified to make them defensible against cannons. Glacis consisting of earthen slopes faced with stones were placed in front of the curtain walls, towers were lowered to the same height as the curtain walls and converted into gun platforms. Early modern European fortresses were so constructed as to any potential assailant under the fire of the defenders until the last possible moment. This gave defenders a direct line of sight into the assaulting force, additionally, but secondarily, the bank of earth would shield the walls from being hit directly by cannon fire. Though defenders on a high ground already have a line of sight. The term glacis plate describes the sloped front-most section of the hull of a tank or other armored fighting vehicle, in a head-on-head armored engagement, the glacis plate is the largest and most obvious target available to an enemy gunner. For example, an aimed at 4 of plate steel set on a 45-degree angle will have to pass through 5.67 of material to penetrate. Anti-tank mines which employ a tilt-rod fuze are also designed to detonate directly underneath the glacis plate, as a result, it is generally the thickest, most robust armored section of a tank, followed by the turret face and gun mantlet. Fortification Siege Sloped armour Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Fortification, caen Castle, A Ten Centuries Old Fortress. Greenwood guides to historic events of the medieval worldGlacis – The ramparts and ditches of Maiden Castle.
38. Gusuku – Gusuku often refers to castles or fortresses in the Ryukyu Islands that feature stone walls. However, the origin and essence of gusuku remain controversial, in the archaeology of Okinawa Prefecture, the Gusuku period refers to an archaeological epoch of the Okinawa Islands that follows the shell-mound period and precedes the Sanzan period. Many gusuku and related cultural remains on Okinawa Island have been listed by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites under the title Gusuku Sites, the Yarazamori Gusuku Inscription contains phrases, pile gusuku and pile up gusuku and. Apparently gusuku in these phrases to refer to stone walls, in the Omoro Sōshi, the term gusuku is written as くすく, or ぐすく in hiragana. Occasionally, the kanji 城 is assigned to it, in later ryūka and kumi odori, the reading shiro is also used for the same kanji. The referents of gusuku in the Omoro Sōshi are mostly castles and fortresses but are not limited to them, some are sacred places and places of worship. In some cases, gusuku refers to Shuri Castle, the Liuqiu-guan yiyu, a Chinese dictionary, maps Chinese 皇城 to the transcription 姑速姑. Similarly, the Yiyu yinshi assigns 窟宿孤 to 皇城, there is no consensus about the etymology of gusuku. Chamberlain analyzed the word as the combination of gu and shuku, kanazawa Shōzaburō also segmented gusuku into gu and suku but considered that the latter half was cognate with old mainland Japanese shiki, in which ki was a loan from some Old Korean language. Iha Fuyū proposed that suku was cognate with soko, hirata Tsugumasa considered that suku was cognate with mainland Japanese soko. Similarly, Higashionna Kanjun raised doubts over the analysis of gu since older records always used honorific u instead of gu, nakahara Zenchū identified gu as go. The most prominent feature of most gusuku is their wall, Gusuku walls are primarily made with Ryukyuan limestone and, sometimes, coral. There are three types of walls, pile, block, and tortoise. Examples of each are Nakijin Castle, Zakimi Castle, and parts of Shuri Castle, the shape of gusuku walls usually follows the contours of the land. They are usually thick, and sometimes have low parapets atop them, some gusuku walls, like those of Nakagusuku Castle, were designed to resist cannon fire. Gusuku have one or more baileys, the baileys of typical gusuku usually contained a residence, a well, an utaki, and storage buildings. Larger gusuku, like Nakijin Castle, could have more than five baileys, while smaller gusuku, Gusuku have one or more entrances, often guarded by a heavy gate or gatehouse. Gates were the strongpoints of gusuku, many gusuku, like Nakijin Castle, were adapted to have gun ports next to their gatesGusuku – Shuri Castle, rebuilt after WWII
39. Hoarding (castle) – A hoard or hoarding was a temporary wooden shed-like construction that was placed on the exterior of the ramparts of a castle during a siege. The purpose of a hoarding was to allow the defenders to improve their field of fire along the length of a wall and, most particularly, directly downwards to the wall base. The latter function was taken up by the invention of machicolations. Machicolations are also permanent and siege-ready and it is suspected that in peacetime, hoardings were stored as prefabricated elements. Construction of hoardings was often facilitated by putlog holes, sockets that were left in the masonry of walls for wooden joists called putlogs. However, some hoardings were supported on permanent stone corbels, some medieval hoardings have survived including examples at the north tower of Stokesay Castle, England, and the keep of Laval, France. Another reconstructed hoarding can be seen at Caerphilly Castle, also in South Wales, Castle Arrow slit Machicolation Murder holeHoarding (castle) – Reconstructed wooden hoarding at Carcassonne, France
40. Keep – KEEP is a commercially supported FM radio station serving the general area of Fredericksburg, Texas, due west from Austin and due north of San Antonio. KEEP is owned by J & J Fritz Media and is broadcast from Johnson City and it was one of four member stations of the Texas Rebel Radio Network which supplies Texas music programming. This programming is available as streaming audio via the KEEP/Texas Rebel Radio website, on June 24,2011, KEEP, after three months of silence, returned to the air simulcasting country-formatted KNAF-FM105.7. Query the FCCs FM station database for KEEP Radio-Locator information on KEEP Query Nielsen Audios FM station database for KEEPKeep
41. Merlon – A merlon is the solid upright section of a battlement or crenellated parapet in medieval architecture or fortifications. Merlons are sometimes pierced by narrow, vertical embrasures or slits designed for observation, the space between two merlons is called a crenel, and a succession of merlons and crenels is a crenellation. Crenels designed in later eras, for use by cannons, were also called embrasures. The word comes from the French language, adapted from the Italian merlone, possibly a form of mergola, connected with Latin mergae, or from a diminutive moerulus. An alternative etymology suggests that the medieval Latin merulus functioned as a diminutive of Latin merle, as an essential part of battlements, merlons were used in fortifications for millennia. The best-known examples appear on buildings, where battlements, though defensive, could be attractively formed. Some buildings have false decorative battlements, other shapes include, three-pointed, quatrefoil, shielded, flower-like, rounded, pyramidal, etc. depending either from the type of attacks expected or aesthetic considerations. In Roman times, the merlons had a sufficient to shelter a single man. As new weapons appeared in the Middle Ages, the merlons were enlarged and provided with loop-holes of various dimensions and shapes, the shutters could be opened by hand, or by using a pulley. Battlement Embrasure, also called a crenel Defensive walls Balestracci, D, I materiali da costruzione nel castello medievale. Luisi, R. Scudi di pietra, I castelli e l’arte della guerra tra Medioevo e RinascimentoMerlon – Merlons of the Alcazaba in Almería, Spain.
42. Moat – A moat is a deep, broad ditch, either dry or filled with water, that is dug and surrounds a castle, fortification, building or town, historically to provide it with a preliminary line of defence. In some places evolved into more extensive water defences, including natural or artificial lakes, dams. In older fortifications, such as hillforts, they are referred to simply as ditches. In later periods, moats or water defences may be largely ornamental and they could also act as sewerage. Some of the earliest evidence of moats has been uncovered around ancient Egyptian castles, one example is at Buhen, a castle excavated in Nubia. Other evidence of ancient moats is found in the ruins of Babylon, and in reliefs from ancient Egypt, Assyria, and other cultures in the region. Evidence of early moats around settlements has been discovered in archaeological sites throughout Southeast Asia, including Noen U-Loke, Ban Non Khrua Chut, Ban Makham Thae. The use of the moats could have been either for defensive or agriculture purposes, moats were excavated around castles and other fortifications as part of the defensive system as an obstacle immediately outside the walls. In suitable locations they might be filled with water, a moat made access to the walls difficult for siege weapons, such as siege towers and battering rams, which needed to be brought up against a wall to be effective. A water-filled moat made the practice of mining, digging tunnels under the castles in order to effect a collapse of the defences, segmented moats have one dry section and one section filled with water. Dry moats cut across the part of a spur or peninsula are called neck ditches. Moats separating different elements of a castle, such as the inner and outer wards are cross ditches, the shared derivation implies that the two features were closely related and possibly constructed at the same time. The term moat is also applied to natural formations reminiscent of the artificial structure, the walls were further protected from infantry attack by wet or dry moats, sometimes in elaborate systems. When this style of fortification was superseded by lines of forts in the mid-19th century. The Walls of Benin were a combination of ramparts and moats, called Iya and it was considered the largest man-made structure lengthwise, second only to the Great Wall of China and the largest earthwork in the world. With more recent work by Patrick Darling, it has established as the largest man-made structure in the world. It enclosed 6,500 km² of community lands and its length was over 16,000 km of earth boundaries. It was estimated that earliest construction began in 800 and continued into the mid-15th century, the walls are built of a ditch and dike structure, the ditch dug to form an inner moat with the excavated earth used to form the exterior rampartMoat – The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England
43. Neck ditch – A neck ditch, sometimes called a throat ditch, is a dry moat that does not fully surround a castle, but only bars the side that is not protected by natural obstacles. It is often an important element in the system of hill castles, especially in Germany. Originally the term neck ditch was only applied to spur castles and these were sited on hill spurs where three sides of the castle were protected by steep hillsides. Realistically they could only be attacked from the direction of the ground of the hill itself. The castle would therefore be separated from the rest of the hill by a dry ditch or moat which, for reasons, was cut across the narrowest part of the spur. The castle was only accessible over a bridge – usually a drawbridge. Today the term neck bridge is used for other types of castle. For example, a ditch may be cut across the neck of a spit or peninsula in the case of a castle that is otherwise surrounded by water. Many old neck ditches have since become thickly overgrown and may only be out with some difficulty. Examples of castles with neck ditches in the classical sense are Liebenstein, Rochlitz, Kriebstein, if other parts of a castle, such as the outer and inner wards, are separated with such moats, they are known as cross ditches. Reclam, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-15-010547-1, p. 145–146, friedrich-Wilhelm Krahe, Burgen des deutschen Mittelalters. Flechsig, Würzburg 2000, ISBN 3-88189-360-1, p.24Neck ditch – Plan of Rudelsburg castle with its neck ditch (D)
44. Outer bailey – An outer bailey or outer ward is the defended outer enclosure of a castle. It protects the inner bailey and usually contains those buildings used for the management of the castle or the supply of its occupants. In many cases there was also a brewery, a bakehouse, an outer bailey was often called a base court in England. Depending on topography it could also be referred to as a bailey or lower ward. Chepstow Castle has lower, middle and upper baileys, the domestic buildings of the continental schloss, often a stately home or palace, may also be referred to as an outer ward. These frequently contained a house or a cavalier house, buildings that were not common in medieval castles. Large castles often have more than one bailey, examples include Monschau, at some larger castles, markets were held in the outer bailey. Outer baileys were usually enclosed and protected by a wall and separated from the actual living area of the castle - the inner ward and keep - by a moat, a wall. In lowland castles, the bailey is usually arranged in a half-moon shape around the main castle. Rudelsburg Castle in Saxony-Anhalt is one of the cases of a hill castle where both baileys are at the same level. This explains why the castle chapel was found in the bailey. Ward Inner bailey Motte and bailey Horst Wolfgang Böhme, Reinhard Friedrich, Barbara Schock-Werner, reclam, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-15-010547-1, page 255-256. Friedrich-Wilhelm Krahe, Castles and tower houses of the German Middle Ages, volume 1 Thorbecke, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-7995-0104-5, page 53-55. Reprint of the edition of 1912, weltbild, Augsburg 1994, ISBN 3-89350-554-7, pp. 10–11Outer bailey – Orava Castle (Slovakia) with a large outer bailey.
45. Portcullis – Portcullises fortified the entrances to many medieval castles, securely closing off the castle during time of attack or siege. Every portcullis was mounted in vertical grooves in the walls of the castle, often, two portcullises to the main entrance would be used. The one closer to the inside would be closed first, and this was used to trap the enemy, and often, burning wood or fire-heated sand would be dropped onto them from the roof or murder-holes. Hot oil, however, was not commonly used in this manner, contrary to popular belief, arrowslits in the sides of the walls enabled archers and crossbowmen to eliminate the trapped group of attackers. In England, working portcullises survive at the Tower of London, Monk Bar in York, Amberley Castle, since then, the portcullis has been a moderately common motif of English heraldry, especially that heraldry dating from the Tudor period. The heraldic office of Portcullis Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary, a officer of arms in the College of Arms at London. It is through Lord Charles Somerset, son of the 5th Duke of Beaufort, Somerset established several towns during his governorship at the then Cape Colony and named them for his family. These include Worcester, Somerset West, Fort Beaufort and Beaufort West, institutions that derive the portcullis from these arms include a school, chamber of commerce and a rugby club. Other South African coats of arms include a portcullis are not necessarily related to either Lord Somerset or any of the town named for. A portcullis—fitted well with the scheme, since then, the portcullis has become the primary symbol of Parliament, an office building for Members of Parliament, opened in 2001, is named Portcullis House. A portcullis was previously found on the British one penny coin and on the pre-decimal thrupenny bit, the badge of the Canada Border Services Agency also bore a portcullis, symbolising the agencys role as gatekeeper of goods into Canada. Though these do not appear in gateways of castles unless the blazon specifies them and it is often shown with chains attached, even when the blazon does not mention them. Arrow slit Castle Hoarding Machicolation Murder-hole Sally port Yett Kaufmann, J. E. Kaufmann, the Medieval Fortress, Castles, Forts and Walled Cities of the Middle AgesPortcullis – Portcullis at Cahir Castle
46. Ringwork – A ringwork is a form of fortified defensive structure, usually circular or oval in shape. Ringworks are essentially motte-and-bailey castles minus the motte, defences were usually earthworks in the form of a ditch and bank surrounding the site. Ringworks originated in Germany in the 10th century as a form of medieval castle. They appeared in England just prior to the Norman conquest and large numbers were built during the late 11th, more elaborate versions comprise a ringwork and bailey, the ringwork replacing the more usual motte and the bailey acting as a military stronghold. A survey published in 1969 identified 198 ringwork castles in England and Wales, with a further 50 sites that were considered to possibly be ringworksRingwork – Surviving earthworks of the ringwork at Newington Bagpath, England
47. Toll castle – A toll castle is a castle that, in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Era, guarded a customs post and was intended to control it. They were typically found in the Holy Roman Empire, toll castles always stood in the vicinity of an important long-distance trade route over, for example, the Alpine passes or the Middle Rhine. Such castles were placed at strategic locations, such as border crossings, river crossings or mountain passes. The actual toll-collecting point lay below at the road or river and was linked by walls to the castle itself. Toll castles belonged to the territorial lords or to vassals, to whom the duty. Most toll castles also had administrative and other functions, as border watch posts or residences. Some, such as Pfalzgrafenstein Castle in the middle of the Rhine near Kaub, were, however, purely customs points, ISBN 978-1-4351-4845-1 Horst Wolfgang Böhme, Reinhard Friedrich, Barbara Schock-Werner, Wörterbuch der Burgen, Schlösser und Festungen. Philipp Reclam, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-15-010547-1, p.272Toll castle – The toll castle of Stahleck in Bacharach
48. Tower house – A tower house is a particular type of stone structure, built for defensive purposes as well as habitation. Tower houses began to appear in the Middle Ages, especially in mountainous or limited access areas, at the same time, they were also used as an aristocrats residence, around which a castle town was often constructed. In Italian medieval communes, tower houses were built by the local barons as power centres during times of internal strife. In seventeenth century Scotland these castles became the pleasurable retreats of the upper-classes, while able to adopt a military nature, they were furnished for comfort and social interaction. Tower houses are commonly found in northern Spain, especially in the Basque Country. They were mainly used as residences and were able to provide shelter against several enemies, starting with the Arabs and later Castile. However, due to complex legal charters, few had boroughs attached to them, during the petty wars among the Basque nobles from 1379 to 1456, the upper floors of most of them were demolished. Few have survived unscathed to the present day, since then they have been used only as residences by their traditional noble owners or converted into farm houses. To the west of the Basque Country, in Cantabria and Asturias similar tower houses are found, furthest west in the Iberian peninsula in Galicia, medieval tower houses are in the origin of many Modern Age pazos, noble residences as well as strongholds. The tower house served the purpose of protecting the extended family and these tower houses were typically not intended to be used in any major military actions, for this purpose the crusaders relied on a number of larger order castles. A number of tower houses still exist, well-preserved examples include Purtse, Vao. The Yemeni city of Shibam has hundreds of houses which were the tallest in the world. Many other buildings in the Asir and Al-Bahah provinces of Saudi Arabia also have many stone towers and tower houses, most notable in the New World might be considered a focal element of the Mesa Verde Anasazi ruin in Colorado, United States. There is a prominent structure at that site which is in called the tower house and has the general appearance characteristics of its counterparts in Britain. Aul Svan tower Diaolou Bastle house Castle Keep L Plan Castle Manor house Peel tower The Fortified House in Scotland Fortified house Pazo Qasaba Z-plan castle Johnson Westropp, notes on the Lesser Castles or Peel Towers of the County Clare. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, the Culture of the English People, Iron Age to the Industrial Revolution. Architecture of the Islamic world, its history and social meaning, media related to Tower houses at Wikimedia Commons Cutaway drawing Of Urquhart Castle tower houseTower house – The Tower of Hallbar in South Lanarkshire, Scotland
49. Turret – In architecture, a turret is a small tower that projects vertically from the wall of a building such as a medieval castle. Turrets were used to provide a defensive position allowing covering fire to the adjacent wall in the days of military fortification. As their military use faded, turrets were used for decorative purposes, a turret can have a circular top with crenellations as seen in the picture at right, a pointed roof, or other kind of apex. The size of a turret is therefore limited by technology, since it puts additional stresses on the structure of the building and it would traditionally be supported by a corbel. Bartizan, an overhanging, wall-mounted turret found particularly on French and they returned to prominence in the 19th century with their popularity in Scottish baronial styleTurret – Turret (highlighted) attached to a tower on a baronial building in Scotland
50. Yett – A yett is a gate or grille of latticed wrought iron bars used for defensive purposes in castles and tower houses. While few references to yetts exist outside Scotland, an English report of 1416 on Roxburgh Castle contained recommendations for the insertion of iron gates, yetts are not restricted to any one region or district within Scotland, but are widespread throughout. Similar grille constructions, frequently referred to as yetts, were used in Scotland over windows. These were typically fixed in place, often set into the jambs, the earliest references to yetts date from the 14th century. Exchequer Rolls from 1377 refer to an iron gate, part of the defences for Davids Tower in Edinburgh Castle. Yetts were also appearing in other castles at about the same time, by the 15th century, yetts and window-grilles had become standard features within Scottish castles and towers. The yett was frequently used as alternative to the portcullis, since it was simpler in concept, less cumbersome. However, it was used within more complex defensive arrangements. The 14th-century castle at Doune, in Perthshire, had a portcullis in the main gateway supplemented by a yett, the yetts each had two leaves, with a wicket gate inserted within one of the leaves. Commonly, the yett would be placed behind a wooden door, being a defensive structure, royal warrants were required before a yett could be added to any house or castle. Following the Union of the Crowns in 1603, efforts were made by the government to control the disorder, in November 1606 it was recognised that one of the impediments to the administration of justice in the area was the strength of the houses. Consequently, the Privy Council ordered that all yetts should be removed from all houses belonging to lower in rank than barons. The usual method was to build the yett in quadrants with all the bars in a quadrant passing either vertically or horizontally through the bars as shown in the photograph. This method of construction for gates is not seen outside Scotland, although window grilles constructed in this manner are found in northern Italy and Tyrol. Grated windows in the Scottish style were traditional in Tyrol in the 15th century and it is likely the craft spread south from Tyrol to the Venetian Republic, but little apparent connection to the earlier Scottish technology, although there was some trade between Scotland and Germany. Grated iron doors were found in England, but were constructed using a different method. For the English-style gate, the bars all passed in front of the horizontal bars, and were riveted or fixed in place. One notable exception, however, is constructed using the Scottish method, Streatlam was rebuilt by Sir George Bowes following damage in the 16th century, the Bowes family had connections in Scotland, which may have inspired the yett constructionYett – Yett hanging in the main entrance of Blackness Castle, Scotland, showing attached bolts and pierced construction. Wrought in 1693.
51. Modern history – Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the global historiographical approach to the timeframe after the Post-classical history. It took all of history up to 1804 for the worlds population to reach 1 billion. Contemporary history is the span of historic events from approximately 1945 that are relevant to the present time. Some events, while not without precedent, show a new way of perceiving the world, the concept of modernity interprets the general meaning of these events and seeks explanations for major developments. The fundamental difficulty of studying modern history is the fact that a plethora of it has been documented up to the present day and it is imperative to consider the reliability of the information obtained from these records. In the pre-modern era, many peoples sense of self and purpose was expressed via a faith in some form of deity. Pre-modern cultures have not been thought of creating a sense of distinct individuality, religious officials, who often held positions of power, were the spiritual intermediaries to the common person. It was only through intermediaries that the general masses had access to the divine. Tradition was sacred to ancient cultures and was unchanging and the order of ceremony. The term modern was coined in the 16th century to present or recent times. New information about the world was discovered via empirical observation, versus the use of reason. The term Early Modern was introduced in the English language in the 1930s, to distinguish the time between what we call Middle Ages and time of the late Enlightenment. It is important to note that these terms stem from European history, in the Contemporary era, there were various socio-technological trends. Regarding the 21st century and the modern world, the Information Age and computers were forefront in use, not completely ubiquitous. The development of Eastern powers was of note, with China, in the Eurasian theater, the European Union and Russian Federation were two forces recently developed. A concern for Western world, if not the world, was the late modern form of terrorism. The modern period has been a period of significant development in the fields of science, politics, warfare and it has also been an age of discovery and globalization. During this time, the European powers and later their colonies, began a political, economic, the modern era is closely associated with the development of individualism, capitalism, urbanization and a belief in the possibilities of technological and political progressModern history – Waldseemüller map with joint sheets, 1507
52. 18th century – The 18th century lasted from January 1,1701 to December 31,1800 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French, philosophy and science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age and this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789-, though later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power, the Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. The 18th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state, the once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued. Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in North America in the 1760s, however, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States of America. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society, western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, 1700-1721, Great Northern War between Tsarist Russia and the Swedish Empire. 1701, Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I,1701, Ashanti Empire is formed under Osei Kofi Tutu I. 1701–1714, The War of the Spanish Succession is fought, involving most of continental Europe, 1701–1702, The Daily Courant and The Norwich Post become the first daily newspapers in England. 1702, Forty-seven Ronin attack Kira Yoshinaka and then commit seppuku in Japan,1703, Saint Petersburg is founded by Peter the Great, it is the Russian capital until 1918. 1703–1711, The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy,1704, End of Japans Genroku period. 1704, First Javanese War of Succession,1705, George Frideric Handels first opera, Almira, premieres. 1706, War of the Spanish Succession, French troops defeated at the Battles of Ramilies,1706, The first English-language edition of the Arabian Nights is published. 1707, The Act of Union is passed, merging the Scottish and English Parliaments,1707, After Aurangzebs death, the Mughal Empire enters a long decline and the Maratha Empire slowly replaces it. 1707, Mount Fuji erupts in Japan for the first time since 1700,1707, War of 27 Years between the Marathas and Mughals ends in India18th century – Washington crossing the Delaware, December 25, 1776, an iconic event of the American Revolution
53. Canal – Canals and navigations are human-made channels for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. In the vernacular, both are referred to as canals, and in most cases, the works will have a series of dams. These areas are referred to as water levels, often just called levels. In contrast, a canal cuts across a drainage divide atop a ridge, many canals have been built at elevations towering over valleys and others water ways crossing far below. Cities need a lot of water and many canals with sources of water at a higher level can deliver water to a destination where there is a lack of water. The Roman Empires Aqueducts were such water supply canals, a navigation is a series of channels that run roughly parallel to the valley and stream bed of an unimproved river. A navigation always shares the drainage basin of the river, a vessel uses the calm parts of the river itself as well as improvements, traversing the same changes in height. A true canal is a channel that cuts across a drainage divide, most commercially important canals of the first half of the 19th century were a little of each, using rivers in long stretches, and divide crossing canals in others. This is true for many canals still in use, there are two broad types of canal, Waterways, canals and navigations used for carrying vessels transporting goods and people. These can be subdivided into two kinds, Those connecting existing lakes, rivers, other canals or seas and oceans and those connected in a city network, such as the Canal Grande and others of Venice Italy, the gracht of Amsterdam, and the waterways of Bangkok. Aqueducts, water canals that are used for the conveyance and delivery of potable water for human consumption, municipal uses, hydro power canals. Historically canals were of importance to commerce and the development, growth. In 1855 the Lehigh Canal carried over 1.2 million tons of burning anthracite coal, by the 1930s the company which built. By the early 1880s, canals which had little ability to compete with rail transport, were off the map. In the next couple of decades, coal was diminished as the heating fuel of choice by oil. Later, after World War I when motor-trucks came into their own, Canals are built in one of three ways, or a combination of the three, depending on available water and available path, Human made streams A canal can be created where no stream presently exists. Either the body of the canal is dug or the sides of the canal are created by making dykes or levees by piling dirt, stone, the water for the canal must be provided from an external source, like streams or reservoirs. Where the new waterway must change elevation engineering works like locks, lifts or elevators are constructed to raise, examples include canals that connect valleys over a higher body of land, like Canal du Midi, Canal de Briare and the Panama CanalCanal – The Alter Strom, in the sea resort of Warnemünde, Germany.
54. Caponier – A caponier is a type of fortification structure. The word originates from the French word caponnière, originally the term referred to a covered passageway that traversed the ditch between the walls of a fortress and a ravelin outside the wall. This was more simply a passage however as fire from this point could sweep the ditch between the ravelin and the curtain wall and inflict devastating damage on any attempt to storm the wall. Thus the passageway was equipped with ports and cannon ports that fired along the ditch. While fortifications were evolving to the polygonal style, the term was used to describe the blockhouses set in the corners of the ditch that provide the same function in that style of fort. The roof is vulnerable to plunging fire, and is thus usually exceedingly thick and curved to deflect falling shells, or covered with a thick layer of earth. The caponier is usually equipped with a step and rifle ports to allow troops to fire along the ditch. To clear the smoke and fumes from the firing the roof of the caponier is often provided with ventilation ports, the length of the straight sections of the ditch is chosen so that it can be covered by fire from a single caponier. Caponiers are often wedge shaped so that they can fire down both angles of the ditch, an alternative to the caponier is a counterscarp battery, dug into the outer face of the corner of the ditch, giving a similar field of fire. Again reached by a tunnel from within the fort, it not have the vulnerable roof that the caponier has. Both structures may be found in the same fortCaponier – Rifle port inside a caponier, Fort Napoleon, Ostend, Belgium.
55. Casemate – A casemate, sometimes erroneously rendered casement, is a fortified gun emplacement or armored structure from which guns are fired. Originally, the referred to a vaulted chamber in a fortress. In armoured fighting vehicles that do not have a turret for the main gun, the word comes from the Italian casamatta, the etymology of which is uncertain. Others think that it comes from the Arabic word kasaba, transliterated to kasbah, menagio speculated that it came from the Greek word for pit, khasma, the plural of which is khasmata. Hensleigh Wedgwood thought that it came from the Spanish casa and matar, others take matto in its archaic Italian meaning of dark, equivalent to the English matt, as in opaque, making a casamatta a dark house. Casematte were also used as prisons, making use of their lack of light to add to the punishment. This explanation seems to be the most agreed upon, a casemate was originally a vaulted chamber usually constructed underneath the rampart. It was intended to be impenetrable and could be used for sheltering troops or stores, with the addition of an embrasure through the scarp face of the rampart, it could be used as a protected gun position. In the early 19th century, French military engineer Baron Haxo designed a free-standing casemate that could be built on the top of the rampart, casemates built in concrete were used in the Second World War to protect coastal artillery from air attack. In warship design the term casemate has been used in a number of ways, the most famous naval battle of the war was the duel at Hampton Roads between the Union turretted ironclad USS Monitor and the Confederate casemate ironclad CSS Virginia. Casemate ship was a term for central battery ship or center battery ship. The casemate was a box that extended the full width of the ship protecting many guns. The armoured sides of the box were the sides of hull of the ship, there was an armoured bulkhead at the front and rear of the casemate, and a thick deck protecting the top. The lower edge of the casemate sat on top of ships belt armour, some ships, such as the Alexandra, had a two-storey casemate. A casemate was a room in the side of a warship. A typical casemate held a 6-in gun, and had a 6 front plate, with armour plates on the sides and rear, with a protected top and floor. Casemates were similar in size to turrets, ships carrying them had them in pairs, the first battleships to carry them were the British Royal Sovereign class laid down in 1889. They were adopted as a result of live-firing trials against HMS Resistance in 1888, the use of casemates enabled the 6-in guns to be dispersed, so that a single hit would not knock out all of themCasemate – Fort Bokar was built as a two-story casemate fortress, standing in front of the medieval Walls of Dubrovnik in Croatia.
56. Couvreface – A couvreface in fortification architecture is a small outwork that was built in front of the actual fortress ditch before bastions or ravelins. It usually just consisted of a low rampart with a breastwork that protected its defending infantry, another ditch in front of the work guarded it from immediate frontal assault. The function of couvrefaces was to protect the faces of the higher ravelin or bastion behind it from direct artillery fire. So that the couvreface and the works behind it could not come under fire from an enemy battery along the line of the ramparts they were not allowed to run parallel to one another. Similar to the couvreface is the larger counterguard which, by contrast, was designed to enable the positioning of guns, couvrefaces are found particularly in Dutch and French fortifications from the 17th to the early 19th centuriesCouvreface – A: Counterguard B: Couvreface (idealised graphic in which all accompanying works such as moats or glacis have been omitted)
57. Coupure – For the prehistoric biological event, see Grande Coupure A coupure is a means of closing an opening in a wall, floodwall or levee. The word comes from the french verb couper which means to cut, in historic times a coupure was a location where a breach in the city walls or the walls of a fortress was closed. In more modern times a coupure is a way of allowing traffic to pass a flood protection structure. During a siege a coupure is a ditch or an earthwork or wooden palisade built behind a breach in the walls of a fortress, or a city and its purpose is to hinder and frustrate an attack made by the forlorn hope. This was a strategy used many times by defenders of fortifications, for example and it can also be a passage through a glacis to create a sally port so that the defenders can launch a sortie against the attackers. When a road or railway crosses a floodwall or levee the road or railway can either be laid on a grade or through a cut in the floodwall or levee, in case of expected flooding the cut can temporarily be closed. This type of coupure is also known as vehicle gate, floodwall gate or similar names, the closure can be accomplished by various means. The most basic means of closing a coupure is with soil or sandbags, more sophisticated means of closing a coupure consist of wooden or metal beams or doors. Older coupures are usually brick built structures with provisions for placing two stacks of beams between them, between the stacks of beams, which form two walls, horse manure or other animal faeces mixed with straw is dumped and compacted. This type of material swells when wet, thus providing additional waterproofing, modern coupures can consist of only one wall and can be made watertight with the help of rubber flaps or other materials. Stephen Francis Wyley A Dictionary of Military Architecture Fortification and Fieldworks from the Iron Age to the Eighteenth Century, Drawings by Steven LoweCoupure – A coupure where the A2 motorway crosses the Diefdijk in the Netherlands.
58. Polygonal fort – The polygonal style of fortification is also described as a flankless fort. Their low profile makes them easy to overlook, one of the earliest polygonal forts in the world is Fort Tigné on Tigné Point, Malta, which was built by the Order of Saint John between 1792 and 1795. The British went on to several other polygonal forts and batteries on Malta from 1872 to 1909. Many were also built in the United Kingdom during the government of Lord Palmerston, in response to the vulnerabilities of star forts, military engineers evolved a much simpler but more robust style of fortification. The ditch became deep and vertical sided, cut directly into the native rock and it was laid out as a series of straight lines surrounding the fortified area that gives this style of fortification its name. The ditch was swept by fire from defensive blockhouses set in the ditch, the counterscarp, is usually vertical, while the upper edge of the scarp is steeply sloping and often revetted in stone, to help shed shells into the ditch. Access to the fort was down a curving ramp cut into the glacis, then through a gatehouse set deep in the scarp of the ditch, reached by a rolling bridge that withdrew into the gatehouse. The majority of the fort is underground, with deep passages giving access to the counterscarp batteries, magazines and machine halls are deep under the surface, with only the emplacements for the forts guns exposed at the surface. Perhaps surprisingly the guns were mounted in open emplacements, known as en barbette. Because of the fast burning propellant, gun barrels were short, experience had shown that guns could be put out of action by collapsing their casemates around them by bombardment. The gun in its open emplacement was a harder target to hit than the massive face of a casemate. The polygonal forts provided robust and defendable gun platforms and they were built in the context of a larger defensive scheme, as forward batteries to engage the enemy and prevent them bombarding more vulnerable targets, like city rail centres and dockyards. The increasing range of field artillery also required corresponding increases in the depth of zone that forts needed to prevent bombardment of the resources being defended. Meanwhile, the development of guns and barbed wire offered a more flexiblePolygonal fort – Fort Tigné in Malta. Built in 1792-95, it is an early example of a polygonal fort.
59. Punji stick – The punji stick or punji stake is a type of booby trapped stake. It is a spike, made out of wood or bamboo. Punji sticks are usually deployed in substantial numbers, punji sticks would be placed in areas likely to be passed through by enemy troops. The presence of punji sticks may be camouflaged by natural undergrowth, crops, grass and they were often incorporated into various types of traps, for example, a camouflaged pit into which a man might fall. Sometimes a pit would be dug with punji sticks in the sides pointing downward at an angle, punji sticks were sometimes deployed in the preparation of an ambush. In the preparation of these stakes, the stake itself would be sharpened and, in cases, rubbed with toxic plants, frogs or even feces. Soldiers lying in wait for the enemy to pass would deploy punji sticks in the areas where the enemy might be expected to take cover, thus. The point of penetration was usually in the foot or lower leg area, in the Vietnam War, the Viet Cong would also use this method to force the wounded soldier to be transported by helicopter to a medical hospital for treatment. Punji sticks were used in Vietnam to complement various defenses. The term first appeared in the English language in the 1870s, NLF and PAVN strategy, organization and structure NLF and PAVN logistics and equipment NLF and PAVN battle tacticsPunji stick – Punji stake pit exhibit, from the National Museum of the Marine Corps
60. Ravelin – A ravelin is a triangular fortification or detached outwork, located in front of the innerworks of a fortress. Originally called a demi-lune, after the lunette, the ravelin is placed outside a castle, the outer edges of the ravelin are so configured that it divides an assault force, and guns in the ravelin can fire upon the attacking troops as they approach the curtain. It also impedes besiegers from using their artillery to batter a breach in the curtain wall. The side of the ravelin facing the fortifications has at best a low wall, if any. Frequently ravelins have a ramp or stairs on the side to facilitate the movement of troops. The first example of a ravelin appears in the fortifications of the Italian town of Sarzanello, the first ravelins were built of brick, but later, during the sixteenth century in the Netherlands, they were earthen, to better to absorb the impact of cannonballs. The Italian origins of the system of fortifications, of which ravelins were a part gave rise to the term trace Italienne, list of established military terms RaveleijnRavelin – The ravelin outside the Land Gate at Tilbury Fort
61. Star fort – A star fort, bastion fort or trace italienne, is a fortification in a style that evolved during the age of gunpowder when the cannon came to dominate the battlefield. It was first seen in the century in Italy. The design of the fort is normally a pentagon or hexagon with bastions at the corners of the walls and these outcroppings are present for the purpose of a total, panoramic view of the battlefield. Because of the bastions, archers and cannon operators can hit any target on the battlefield without having to lean over the wall, many bastion forts also feature cavaliers, which are raised secondary structures based entirely inside the primary structure. The predecessors of star fortifications were medieval fortresses, usually placed on high hills, from there, arrows were shot at the enemies, and the higher the fortress was, the further the arrows flew. The enemies hope was to ram the gate or climb over the wall with ladders. For the invading force, these fortifications proved quite difficult to overcome, passive ring-shaped fortifications of the Medieval era proved vulnerable to damage or destruction by cannon fire, when it could be directed from outside against a perpendicular masonry wall. In addition, a force that could get close to the wall was able to conduct undermining operations in relative safety. In contrast, the fortress was a very flat structure composed of many triangular bastions, specifically designed to cover each other. In order to counteract the cannonballs, defensive walls were lower and thicker. The outer side of the ditch was provided with a glacis to deflect cannonballs aimed at the lower part of the main wall. They were built of materials, usually earth and brick. Star fortifications were developed in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries primarily in response to the French invasion of the Italian peninsula. The French army was equipped with new cannon and bombards that were able to destroy traditional fortifications built in the Middle Ages. Star forts were employed by Michelangelo in the earthworks of Florence. The design spread out of Italy in the 1530s and 1540s and it was employed heavily throughout Europe for the following three centuries. Italian engineers were heavily in demand throughout Europe to help build the new fortifications, the late-seventeenth-century architects Menno van Coehoorn and especially Vauban, Louis XIVs military engineer, are considered to have taken the form to its logical extreme. In the 19th century, the development of the explosive shell changed the nature of defensive fortifications, elvas, in Portugal is considered by some to be the best surviving example of the Dutch school of fortificationsStar fort – 17th century map of the city of Palmanova, Italy, an example of a Venetian star fort
62. Tenaille – Tenaille is an advanced defensive-work, in front of the main defences of a fortress which takes its name from resemblance, real or imaginary, to the lip of a pair of pincers. It is from French, literally, tongs, from Late Latin tenācula, tenaille were a development in fortification formalised by Vauban, among others. To allow the defenders to access the ditches that front a curtain wall a postern gate was placed low down in the close to its centre. To protect the postern, an outwork, originally vee-shaped, was placed in front of the gate, a simple tenaille is shown in the top image to the right, it is the chevron between the two corner bastions. The design also evolved a version in which the tenaille possess projections at each end, finally, the word was also used for some other vee-shaped parts of outworks, the bottom-most image, a priests cap, has two tenailles. Also shown is another approach to protect a gate, the roughly triangular outwork seen in the middle of the drawing is a ravelinTenaille – St. Andrew's Tenaille in Valletta
63. Barbette – Barbettes are several types of gun emplacement in terrestrial fortifications or on naval ships. In recent naval usage, a barbette is a circular armour support for a heavy gun turret. This evolved from earlier forms of gun protection that led to the pre-dreadnought. The former gives better angles of fire but less protection than the latter, the disappearing gun was a variation on the barbette gun, it consisted of a heavy gun on a carriage that would retract behind a parapet or into a gunpit for reloading. They were primarily used in coastal defences, but saw use in a handful of warships. The term is used for certain aircraft gun mounts. By the late 1880s, all three systems were replaced with a hybrid system that combined the benefits of both types. The heavily-armored vertical tube that supported the new gun mount was referred to as a barbette, american authors generally refer to such mounts simply as tail guns or tail gun turrets. The use of barbette mountings originated in ground fortifications, the term originally referred to a raised platform on a rampart for one or more guns, enabling them to be fired over a parapet. This gave rise to the phrase en barbette, which referred to a gun placed to fire over a parapet, rather than through an embrasure, while an en barbette emplacement offered wider arcs of fire, it also exposed the guns crew to greater danger from hostile fire. In addition, since the position would be higher than a casemate position—that is. Fortifications in the 19th century typically employed both casemate and barbette emplacements, the type was usually used for coastal defence guns. Later heavy coastal guns were protected in hybrid installation, with wide casemate with cantilevered overhead cover partially covering a barbette mount. Following the introduction of ironclad warships in the early 1860s, naval designers grappled with the problem of mounting guns in the most efficient way possible. The first generation of ironclads employed the same arrangement as the old ship of the line. This was particularly important to designers, since the tactic of ramming was revived following its successful employment at the decisive Austrian victory at the Battle of Lissa in 1866, ramming required a ship to steam directly at its opponent, which greatly increased the importance of end-on fire. Designers such as Cowper Phipps Coles and John Ericsson designed the first gun turrets in the 1860s, in the 1870s, designers began to experiment with an en barbette type of mounting. The barbette was a fixed armoured enclosure protecting the gun, the barbette could take the form of a circular or elongated ring of armour around the rotating gun mount over which the guns firedBarbette – Barbette for a 25-ton gun on the British ironclad HMS Temeraire
64. Bunker – A bunker is a defensive military fortification designed to protect people or valued materials from falling bombs or other attacks. Bunkers are mostly underground, compared to blockhouses which are mostly above ground and they were used extensively in World War I, World War II, and the Cold War for weapons facilities, command and control centers, and storage facilities. Bunkers can also be used as protection from tornadoes, trench bunkers are small concrete structures, partly dug into the ground. Many artillery installations, especially for coastal artillery, have historically been protected by extensive bunker systems, typical industrial bunkers include mining sites, food storage areas, dumps for materials, data storage, and sometimes living quarters. When a house is purpose-built with a bunker, the location is a reinforced below-ground bathroom with fibre-reinforced plastic shells. Bunkers deflect the blast wave from nearby explosions to prevent ear, nuclear bunkers must also cope with the underpressure that lasts for several seconds after the shock wave passes, and block radiation. A bunkers door must be at least as strong as the walls, in bunkers inhabited for prolonged periods, large amounts of ventilation or air conditioning must be provided. Bunkers can be destroyed with explosives and bunker-busting warheads. The word bunker originates as a Scots word for bench, seat, the word possibly has a Scandinavian origin, Old Swedish bunke means boards used to protect the cargo of a ship. A sense of earthen seat is recorded 1805, with the spelling boncure from whence the use to refer to sand traps in golf, all the early references to its usage in the Oxford English Dictionary are to German fortifications. This type of bunker is a concrete structure, partly dug into the ground. Such bunkers give the defending soldiers better protection than the open trench and they also provide shelter against the weather. The front bunker of a system usually includes machine guns or mortars. The rear bunkers are usually used as posts or Tactical Operations Centers, for storage. Many artillery installations, especially for coastal artillery, have historically been protected by extensive bunker systems, artillery bunkers are some of the largest individual pre-Cold War bunkers. The walls of the Batterie Todt gun installation in northern France were up to 3.5 m thick, typical industrial bunkers include mining sites, food storage areas, dumps for materials, data storage, and sometimes living quarters. They were built mainly by nations like Germany during World War II to protect important industries from aerial bombardment, industrial bunkers are also built for control rooms of dangerous activities, e. g. tests of rocket engines or explosive experiments. They are also built in order to perform experiments in them or to store radioactive or explosive goodsBunker – The north entrance to the Cheyenne Mountain Complex in Colorado
65. 20th century – The 20th century was a century that began on January 1,1901 and ended on December 31,2000. It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium and it is distinct from the century known as the 1900s, which began on January 1,1900 and ended on December 31,1999. It saw great advances in communication and medical technology that by the late 1980s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication, the term short twentieth century was coined to represent the events from 1914 to 1991. It took all of history up to 1804 for the worlds population to reach 1 billion, world population reached 2 billion estimates in 1927, by late 1999. Globally approximately 45% of those who were married and able to have children used contraception, 40% of pregnancies were unplanned, the century had the first global-scale total wars between world powers across continents and oceans in World War I and World War II. The century saw a shift in the way that many people lived, with changes in politics, ideology, economics, society, culture, science, technology. The 20th century may have seen more technological and scientific progress than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization, terms like ideology, world war, genocide, and nuclear war entered common usage. It was a century that started with horses, simple automobiles, and freighters but ended with high-speed rail, cruise ships, global commercial air travel and the space shuttle. Horses, Western societys basic form of transportation for thousands of years, were replaced by automobiles and buses within a few decades. Humans explored space for the first time, taking their first footsteps on the Moon, mass media, telecommunications, and information technology made the worlds knowledge more widely available. Advancements in medical technology also improved the health of many people, rapid technological advancements, however, also allowed warfare to reach unprecedented levels of destruction. World War II alone killed over 60 million people, while nuclear weapons gave humankind the means to annihilate itself in a short time, however, these same wars resulted in the destruction of the Imperial system. For the first time in history, empires and their wars of expansion and colonization ceased to be a factor in international affairs, resulting in a far more globalized. The last time major powers clashed openly was in 1945, and since then, technological advancements during World War I changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as tanks, chemical weapons, and aircraft modified tactics and strategy. After more than four years of warfare in western Europe, and 20 million dead. The regime of Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown during the conflict, Russia became the first communist state, at the beginning of the period, Britain was the worlds most powerful nation, having acted as the worlds policeman for the past century. Meanwhile, Japan had rapidly transformed itself into an advanced industrial power. Its military expansion into eastern Asia and the Pacific Ocean culminated in an attack on the United States20th century – The Earth as seen from Apollo 17. The second half of the 20th century saw humankind's first space exploration.
66. Air-raid shelter – Air-raid shelters, also known as bomb shelters, are structures for the protection of non-combatants as well as combatants against enemy attacks from the air. They are similar to bunkers in many regards, although they are not designed to defend against ground attack, prior to World War II, in May 1924, an Air Raid Precautions Committee was set up in the United Kingdom. In February 1936 the Home Secretary appointed a technical Committee on Structural Precautions against Air Attack and this proposal was eventually implemented in January 1939. During the Munich crisis, local authorities dug trenches to provide shelter, after the crisis, the British Government decided to make these a permanent feature, with a standard design of precast concrete trench lining. Unfortunately these turned out to very poorly. They also decided to free to poorer households the Anderson shelter. Air raid shelters were built specifically to serve as protection against enemy air raids, a commonly used home shelter known as the Anderson shelter would be built in a garden and equipped with beds as a refuge from air raids. For this reason, air-raid precautions during World War II in Germany could be more readily implemented by the authorities than was possible in the UK. However, the inadequacies of cellars and basements became apparent in the firestorms during the attacks on the larger German inner cities, especially Hamburg. Some occupants perished from heat stroke or carbon monoxide poisoning, in contrast to other shelters, these buildings were considered completely bomb-proof. They also had the advantage of being built upward, which was cheaper than downward excavation. There were no equivalents of hochbunkers in the cities of the Allied countries, hochbunkers usually consisted of large concrete blocks above ground with walls between 1 m and 1.5 m thick and with huge lintels above doorways and openings. They often had a constant interior temperature of 7 to 10 °C and they were designated to protect people, administrative centres, important archives, and works of art. Some of the circular towers contained helical floors that gradually curved their way upward within the circular walls, many of these structures may still be seen to this day. They have been converted into offices, storage space, and some have even adapted for hotels, hospitals and schools. In Schöneberg, a block of flats was built over the Pallasstrasse air-raid shelter after World War II, during the Cold War, NATO used the shelter for food storage. The cost of demolishing these edifices after the war would have been enormous and these towers had anti-aircraft batteries on platforms on their roofs. The attempted demolition caused no more than a crack in one of the walls of the tower, after efforts were abandonedAir-raid shelter – Air-raid shelter in Tateyama, Nagasaki, Nagasaki.
67. Border barrier – A border barrier is a separation barrier that runs along an international border. Such barriers are typically constructed for border control purposes, viz. to curb illegal immigration, in cases of a disputed or unclear border, erecting a barrier can serve as a de facto unilateral consolidation of a territorial claim. Examples include the ancient Great Wall of China, a series of walls separating China from nomadic empires to the north, and the former Berlin Wall between East and West Berlin. The construction of border barriers increased in the early 2000s, half of all the border barriers built since World War II ended in 1945 were built after 2000, note, The table can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the icon. In 2003, Botswana began building a 300-mile -long electric fence along its border with Zimbabwe, the official reason for the fence is to stop the spread of foot-and-mouth disease among livestock. Zimbabweans argue that the height of the fence is clearly intended to keep out people, Botswana has responded that the fence is designed to keep out cattle, and to ensure that entrants have their shoes disinfected at legal border crossings. Botswana also argued that the government continues to encourage legal movement into the country, Zimbabwe was unconvinced, and the barrier remains a source of tension. The Melilla border fence stands at the Morocco–Spain border at Melilla, the Moroccan Wall is an approximately 2,700 km-long structure, mostly a sand wall, running through the region of Western Sahara and the southeastern portion of Morocco. According to maps from MINURSO or the UNHCR, part of the wall extends several kilometers into internationally recognized Mauritanian territory, in 1975 a security fence of 120 kilometres was erected by South Africa to keep the violent revolution in Mozambique from spilling into Kruger National Park. In 1990 it was reported, Concern is growing in South Africa over the use of a lethal,3,300 volt one amp electrified fence on its borders with Mozambique. According to a recently published by the South African Catholic Bureau for Refugees. Local people call the fence the Snake of Fire, there have been calls by South African church leaders over the past months for the fence to be switched off permanently. Most of its victims have been women and children fleeing the war in Mozambique, the Berlin Wall resulted in 80 deaths over 28 years. Official figures provided by the South African Defence Force indicate that 89 people were electrocuted at the fence between August 1986 and August 1989, church leaders dispute these figures, and claim that the true figure is nearer 200 each year. In 2005 it was reported only a relatively small portion of the high-security border fence separating South Africas Kruger National Park with Zimbabwes Gonarezhou Park had been removed. Security concerns, especially about illegal immigrants and the smuggling of weapons, there has been legislation in the U. S. Congress on lengthening the barrier, but progress has been slow due to lobbying and lack of funding. In parts of the US, there is only inferior fencing, President Donald Trump promised to build a 1, 954-mile border wall along the entire US-Mexico border during his campaign. Of the approximately 11 million estimated to lack legal credentials,40 percent have overstayed visas and did not sneak through the border, the Express-News also notes that a considerable number of illegal aliens are not MexicansBorder barrier – Section of Mexico–United States barrier near Tijuana
68. Dragon's teeth (fortification) – Dragons teeth are square-pyramidal fortifications of reinforced concrete first used during the Second World War to impede the movement of tanks and mechanised infantry. The idea was to slow down and channel tanks into killing zones where they could easily be disposed of by anti-tank weapons and they were employed extensively, particularly on the Siegfried Line. In practice, the use of engineers and specialist clearance vehicles enabled them to be disposed of relatively quickly. The obstacles could also simply be buried using bulldozers and dump trucks, Dragons teeth were used by several armies in the European Theatre. The Germans made extensive use of them in the Siegfried Line, typically, each tooth was 90 to 120 cm tall depending on the precise model. Land mines were laid between the individual teeth, and further obstacles constructed along the lines of teeth. Behind minefields were the dragons teeth and they rested on a concrete mat between ten and thirty meters wide, sunk in a meter or two into the ground. On top of the mat were the teeth themselves, truncated pyramids of reinforced concrete about a meter in height in the front row and they were staggered and spaced in such a manner that a tank could not drive through. The only way to take those pillboxes was for infantry to get behind them, but behind the first row of pillboxes and dragon’s teeth, there was a second, and often a third, and sometimes a fourth. Due to the numbers laid and their durable construction, many thousands of dragons teeth can still be seen today, especially in the remains of the Siegfried. Switzerland continues to maintain lines of teeth in certain strategic areas. In the military jargon these constructions are often referred to as Toblerone lines, Dragons teeth are also present in some areas along the Korean Demilitarized Zone borderline and were also used on the Eastern Side of the Berlin Wall. Bollard is another term for such a post, some countries, such as those formed after the breakup of Yugoslavia, have movable teeth, positioned at roadsides at strategic locations, which are to be lifted and placed on the roads. Some stages of Rallye Deutschland, the German round of the WRC rally championship, are run on roads belonging to the training ground at Baumholder. The roads are lined with teeth, known as hinkelsteins. They usually serve as obstacles to prevent tanks from leaving the roads, popular Science, June 1942, pp. 106–112. Field expedient tank traps constructed of logs, white Cliffs Underground - Dragons Teeth and Tank Traps around Englands south coast Dragons Teeth on Libyan border with Egypt ANTI-TANK OBSTACLES, ISLE OF GRAIN, KENTDragon's teeth (fortification) – Dragon's teeth near Aachen, Germany, part of the Siegfried Line.
69. Fallout shelter – A fallout shelter is an enclosed space specially designed to protect occupants from radioactive debris or fallout resulting from a nuclear explosion. Many such shelters were constructed as civil defense measures during the Cold War, during a nuclear explosion, matter vaporized in the resulting fireball is exposed to neutrons from the explosion, absorbs them, and becomes radioactive. When this material condenses in the rain, it forms dust, the fallout emits alpha and beta particles, as well as gamma rays. Much of this radioactive material falls to earth, subjecting anything within the line of sight to radiation. A fallout shelter is designed to allow its occupants to minimize exposure to harmful fallout until radioactivity has decayed to a safer level, plans were made, however, to use existing buildings with sturdy below-ground-level basements as makeshift fallout shelters. These buildings were usually placarded with the yellow and black trefoil sign, civilian alarm device was engineered and tested but the program was not viable and was terminated in 1967. In the U. S. in September 1961, under the direction of Steuart L. Pittman, a letter from President Kennedy advising the use of fallout shelters appeared in the September 1961 issue of Life magazine. The former Soviet Union and other Eastern Bloc countries often designed their underground mass-transit and subway tunnels to serve as bomb, germany has protected shelters for 3% of its population, Austria for 30%, Finland for 70%, Sweden for 81% and Switzerland for 114%. Later, the law ensured that all buildings built after 1978 contained a nuclear shelter able to withstand a blast from a 12 megaton explosion at a distance of 700 metres. The Federal Law on the Protection of the Population and Civil Protection still requires nowadays that every inhabitant should have a place in a close to where they live. The Swiss authorities also maintain large communal shelters stocked with four months of food. The reference Nuclear War Survival Skills declared that, as of 1986, Switzerland has the best civil defense system, one that already includes blast shelters for over 85 percent of all its citizens. In Switzerland, most residential shelters are no longer stocked with the food and water required for prolonged habitation, but the owner still has the obligation to ensure the maintenance of the shelter. A basic fallout shelter consists of shields that reduce gamma ray exposure by a factor of 1000, the required shielding can be accomplished with 10 times the thickness of any quantity of material capable of cutting gamma ray exposure in half. Shields that reduce gamma ray intensity by 50% include 1 cm of lead,6 cm of concrete,9 cm of packed earth or 150 m of air, when multiple thicknesses are built, the shielding multiplies. Thus, a practical fallout shield is ten halving-thicknesses of packed earth, usually, an expedient purpose-built fallout shelter is a trench, with a strong roof buried by c.1 m of earth. The two ends of the trench have ramps or entrances at right angles to the trench, so that gamma rays cannot enter, to make the overburden waterproof, a plastic sheet may be buried a few inches below the surface and held down with rocks or bricks. Blast doors are designed to absorb the shock wave of a nuclear blast, bending, dry earth is a reasonably good thermal insulator, and over several weeks of habitation, a shelter will become dangerously hotFallout shelter – A sign pointing to an old fallout shelter in New York City.
70. Hardened aircraft shelter – A hardened aircraft shelters or protective aircraft shelter is a reinforced hangar to house and protect military aircraft from enemy attack. Cost considerations and building practicalities limit their use to fighter size aircraft, HASs are a passive defence measure which aim to prevent or at least degrade enemy attacks. As with many items, whether structures, tanks or aircraft. NATO and Warsaw Pact countries built hundreds of HASs across Europe, in this context hardened aircraft shelters were built to protect aircraft from conventional attacks as well as nuclear, chemical and biological strikes. NATO shelters, built to standard designs across the continent, were designed to withstand a hit by a 500 lb bomb. In the post-cold war era, the value of the HAS concept was eroded by the introduction of precision-guided munitions. Iraqs HAS hangars were built to a somewhat higher than NATO or Warsaw Pact shelters. Early attempts to defeat them typically used a one-two punch using a TV-guided missile to blast open the doors, US efforts soon turned to simply dropping a 2,000 lb laser guided bomb on the top, which would easily penetrate the roof and explode within. With that being said, however, NATO hangars would still remain useful against the forces of any enemy as might conceivably engage Europe in a conflict in the short term. Reduces vulnerability of aircraft to all but the most accurate precision weaponry Combined with active airfield defences increases survivability of defenders aircraft, an alternative option, dispersal of aircraft to many different bases, reduces the efficiency of aircraft at both squadron and air force level. Nuclear weapons can be stored in the HAS near the aircraft, in a vault, e. g. the United States Air Force Weapons Storage and they are in a fixed known position. Hardened shelters are usually too small to accommodate large aircraft such as strategic transport aircraft. Time taken for construction requires forward planning regarding most likely combat zones, if a conflict flares up quickly aircraft may be afforded no protection, e. g. in both the Gulf War and 2003 Iraq War many coalition aircraft had only sun shelters, not hardened facilities. When first developed, the likelihood of a hit was minimal. Today, with precision-guided munitions and adequate training, delivering a hit on a HAS is trivial. Coalition aircraft destroyed over half of Iraqs HASs during the Gulf War, deployable shelters Kevlar lined deployable shelters could protect aircraft from bomblets. However this would provide no protection from PGMs, Dispersal at bases Wider dispersal at airfields would decrease the vulnerability of aircraft. This would also force an enemy to increase the number of attacking aircraft greatly, either way the effect of airfield defences would take a heavy toll on the aggressorHardened aircraft shelter – Hardened aircraft shelter at RAF Bruggen, 1981
71. Sentry gun – A sentry gun is a gun that is automatically aimed and fired at targets that are detected by sensors. Fictional sentry guns have appeared in fiction since the 1940s. Video games have provided a ground for the creation of wild. Fictional examples of automatic sentry guns have appeared since the 1980s, in such as Aliens. The Samsung SGR-A1 is a South Korean military robot designed to replace human counterparts in the demilitarized zone at the South and North Korea border. It is a system made by Samsung defense subsidiary Samsung Techwin. In 2007, the Israeli military deployed the Sentry Tech system along the Gaza border fence with pillboxes placed at intervals of hundreds of meters. The 4-million USD system is supposed to be completed by the end of the summer, initial deployment plans call for mounting a. 50-caliber M2 Browning automated machine gun in each pillbox. The gun is based on the Samson Remote Controlled Weapon Station, in December 2010, the South Korean firm DoDAAM unveiled the Super aEgis II, an automated turret-based weapon platform that uses thermal imaging to lock onto vehicles or humans up to 3 km away. It is able to function during nighttime and regardless of weather conditions, the system gives a verbal warning before firing, and though it is capable of firing automatically, the company reports that all of its customers have configured it to require human confirmation. It is used at facilities in United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi, and Qatar, among other places. A simple sentry gun is used to pin down a group of rebelling colonists in Robert A. Heinleins 1949 novel Red Planet, michael Crichtons 1969 novel The Andromeda Strain, uses sentry guns firing tranquillizer darts at pests in the underground facility elevator shaft. Later, in 1980, Crichton wrote about a more advanced vision of sentry guns in his book Congo, video games have provided a fertile ground for visions of sentry guns. The Team Fortress mod for QuakeWorld solidified the sentry guns position in gamers vocabularies, two relatively early games that featured sentry guns were GoldenEye 007 on the Nintendo 64, and its spiritual successor, Perfect Dark. Various games, including Duke Nukem, Fallout 2, Dune 2, Metal Gear, and Could you come over here. Team Fortress 2 features sentry guns capable of being upgraded, a cylinder shaped ammunition box, bioshock features sentry guns that may be hacked to target enemies instead of the player. The Unturned incarnation of the gun comes in three different variants, each with its own behavior and level of hostile towards enemy, passive and ally players. Fictional examples of automatic sentry guns also appeared in the Special Edition version of Aliens, in the film, marines who were surrounded by Xenomorphs barricaded themselves into a sick bay facility, and deployed sentry guns to block access points to the sick baySentry gun – Phalanx CIWS is an automated turret for missile defence
72. Spider hole – A spider hole is military parlance for a camouflaged one-man foxhole, used for observation. A spider hole is typically a shoulder-deep, protective, round hole, often covered by a lid, in which a soldier can stand. A spider hole differs from a foxhole in that a foxhole is usually deeper, the term is usually understood to be an allusion to the camouflaged hole constructed by the trapdoor spider. According to United States Marine Corps historian Major Chuck Melson, the term originated in the American Civil War, spider holes were used during World War II by Japanese forces on many Pacific battlefields, including Leyte in the Philippines and Iwo Jima. They called them octopus pots for a resemblance to the pots used to catch octopuses in Japan. Spider holes were used by Vietnamese Communist fighters during the Vietnam War. The American columnist William Safire claimed in the December 15,2003, according to Safire, one of the characteristics of these holes was that they held a clay pot large enough to hold a crouching man. If the pot broke, the soldier was exposed to attack from snakes or spiders, hence the name spider holeSpider hole – A spider hole
73. Cave castle – A cave castle or grotto castle is a residential or refuge castle that has been built into a natural cave. It falls within the category of hill castles, unlike other types of castle, a cave castle can only be assaulted from the front. The castle gateway is located in the middle of a rock face. Archaeological discoveries have revealed that caves were used as places of refuge as early as the Stone Age, the first medieval cave castles emerged in the 11th and 12th centuries. In the 14th and 15th centuries this type of castle became more widespread, especially in parts of France. The actual cave castle was built at the foot of a high rock face. In several regions in Switzerland and France, however, soft rock material provides a basis for the construction of cave. There are considerably more castles of this type in Graubünden, Ticino, Valais or the Dordogne than, for example, the domestic buildings and stables were generally sited in the valley bottom beneath the castle, because the cave was often only accessible over steep and narrow paths. Most cave castles, for reasons, had no bergfried or other towers. One exception is Loch Castle near Eichhofen in Bavaria, that has an imposing, in many cases, the cave or grotto was simply sealed by a frontal wall and divided internally by stone or wooden partition walls. Several castles were, however, later turned into representative seats and expanded accordingly, for example Stein Castle, from an engineering perspective the cave castle is closely related to the rock castle, here, too, natural or artificially widened rock openings were incorporated into the structure. In the technical literature a distinction is made between cave and grotto castles, in popular usage, both terms are used more or less interchangeably. Weltbild, Augsburg 1994, ISBN 3-89350-554-7, p. 554–559, in, Basler Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Altertumskunde. 65,1965, ISSN 0067-4540, p. 53–62Cave castle – Predjama grotto castle near Postojna (Adelsberg), Slovenia
74. Hilltop castle – A hilltop castle is a type of hill castle that was built on the summit of a hill or mountain. The chief advantage of such a strategically selected site was its inaccessibility, the steep flanks of the hill made assaults on the castle difficult or, depending on the terrain, even impossible. In addition, it often commanded excellent fields of view and fire over the surrounding countryside, the sheer height of the castle above the local area could also protect the occupants of the castle from bombardment. In addition, the prominent location of such a castle enhanced its status as a residence, nevertheless, hilltop castles presented their logistic difficulties. Without sufficiently strong pumps, water supply could be if there was no well in the vicinity. Another problem was the isolation of such castles, the withdrawal of armed foot soldiers into the castle was hampered by the terrain, all the more so for cavalry. Its control over the region was therefore not always adequate. Hilltop and spur castles were introduced by the Franks in order to hinder the deployment of heavy siege machinery, the classic example of a German hilltop castle is the 13th-century Otzberg, which comprises a circular bergfried on a hill above the village of the same name. The bergfried is surrounded by concentric, oval-shaped, inner and outer wards, the Cathars used a number of inaccessible hilltop castles as refuges, such as Château de Montségur which stands on the summit of a steep rocky mountain. Like other hill castles, hilltop castles lost their significance during the course of the Middle Ages, the rise of towns as economic and political centres reduced the value of such castles for trade and governanceHilltop castle – Hohenzollern Castle, a typical example of a hilltop castle
75. Island castle – The island castle is a variation of the water castle. It is distinguished by its location on an artificial or natural island and it is a typical lowland castle. Such castles could therefore be easily and cheaply built. Many island castles in lakes were, however, relatively easily captured in winter if there was an ice sheet thick enough to support attacking troops, the best-known island castle in Germany is Pfalzgrafenstein Castle near Kaub. The only Gothic water castle in Europe is Trakai Castle in Lithuania, crusader Castles of the Teutonic Knights, The Red-brick Castles of Prussia, Osprey, OxfordIsland castle – Castle Stalker, an island castle in Scotland
76. Lowland castle – The term lowland castle or plains castle describes a type of castle based that is situated on a lowland, plain or valley floor, as opposed to one built on higher ground such as a hill spur. The classification is used in Germany where about 34 percent of all castles are of the lowland type. Where such natural obstacles do not exist, artificially similar obstacles take on added significance and these include water-filled or dry moats, ramparts, palisades and curtain walls. In order to increase the height of the castle above the terrain, artificial earth mounds may be built. Castles of the Early Middle Ages often had a narrow, deep ditch and high, lowland castles are naturally found on plains such as the North German Plain or in the Netherlands. But they may also be encountered occasionally in highlands, for example in a valley as an island castle on an island in a river. Water castle, Overarching term for all types that use water as a defensive obstacle. Depending on their topographic situation these castles may be subdivided into, River castles, as a rule, they are also surrounded by moats filled with water supplied by the river. Shore castle, castle by a lake or the sea, like river castles, shore castles usually have artificial ditches with a link to the waterbody. Island castle, castle on a natural, more rarely on an artificial, marsh castle, castle in marshy or boggy terrain. It uses the natural inaccessibility of the terrain to its defensive advantage, valley castle, Castle on a valley bottom. An example are the Castles of Bellinzona, sub-types according to function, Bridge castle, a castle built to watch over and protect a river crossing. Harbour castle, a castle that is built to protect a harbour, wörterbuch der Burgen, Schlösser und Festungen. Reclam, Stuttgart, p.156, ISBN 3-15-010547-1 Krahe, Burgen und Wohntürme des deutschen Mittelalters. Vol.1, Thorbecke, Stuttgart,2002, pp. 21–23, ISBN 3-7995-0104-5Lowland castle – Trakai Castle (Lithuania), an island castle
77. Marsh castle – A marsh or marshland castle is a type of lowland castle that is situated in marshy or boggy countryside. It uses the natural inaccessibility of the terrain to its defensive advantage, examples of well-known marsh castles in Germany include, Weferlingen Castle, a ruined castle in Oebisfelde-Weferlingen in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. Oebisfelde Castle, the oldest surviving marsh castle in Germany, also situated in Oebisfelde-Weferlingen in Saxony-Anhalt, Storkow Castle, in Storkow the state of Brandenburg. Calvörde Castle, in Calvörde in the state of Saxony-AnhaltMarsh castle – Calvörde Castle, a marsh castle, depicted around 1600
78. Ridge castle – A ridge castle is a medieval fortification built on a ridge or the crest of mountain or hill chain. Ridge castles were not a type of fortification. While castles of this type were relatively protected, they had the disadvantage that they could be attacked from two sides. The similar spur castle, located at the end of a ridge, is protected by drop offs on three sides, for mutual protection, several such castles could be built within sight of one another. Château de Montségur in France was used by the Cathars and lies on the spur of a mountainRidge castle – Burghausen Castle
79. Rocca (architecture) – A rocca might in reality be no grander than a fortified farmhouse. A more extensive rocca would be referred to as a castello, the rocca in Roman times would more likely be a site of a venerable cult than a dwelling, like the highplace of Athens, its Acropolis. Locally the term la rocca simply designates the local fortified high place, Rocca Flea is a fortified palazzo in Gualdo Tadino, Umbria. In Valletta, Malta, Casa Rocca Piccola is one of the last remaining unconverted palazzi, in Sardinia, the Rocca Doria, a stronghold of the Doria of Genoa, gives its name to the commune Monteleone Rocca Doria. From the earliest stage, when church and rocca were the stone structures the distinction between castles and villages is already one of degree rather than kind. Their protective rocca has extended its name to other small communities. Rocca di Papa in the region called Castelli Romani in the hills surrounding Lazio has given its name to its comune, twelfth-century documents name the Castrum Rocce de Papa, because here lived Pope Eugene III. Rocca Sinibalda, a comune in the Province of Rieti in Lazio, is located about 50 km northeast of Rome, Rocca Canterano, Rocca Priora, Rocca Massima, Rocca di Cave, Rocca Santo Stefano, Rocca dArce are also in Lazio. Rocca Grimalda in the Province of Alessandria, Piedmont was a nest of bandits in the eighteenth century, Rocca Canavese, Rocca Cigliè, Rocca dArazzo, Rocca de Baldi are also comuni in Piedmont. Rocca Pietore is in the Province of Belluno in the Veneto, roccaraso is a town and comune of the Province of LAquila in the Abruzzo region of central Italy. Rocca Susella and Rocca de Giorgi are in the Province of Pavia in Lombardy, castelvecchio di Rocca Barbena is a comune in the Province of Savona in Liguria. Rocca San Casciano is a comune in the Province of Forlì-Cesena in Emilia-Romagna, Rocca San Giovanni is a comune and town in the province of Chieti in the Abruzzo. Rocca dEvandro is a comune in the Province of Caserta in Campania, Rocca Pia s a comunein the Province of LAquila in the Abruzzo region. Rocca Imperiale is a town and comune in the province of Cosenza in Calabria, Rocca di Urbisaglia is a 16th-century military fortification in Urbisaglia, in the MarcheRocca (architecture) – The Rocca of Cetona (province of Siena) dominates its village.
80. Jagdschloss – Jagdschloss is the German term for a hunting lodge. It is a set in a wildlife park or a hunting area that served primarily as accommodation for a ruler or aristocrat. A Jagdschloss was often the venue for a banquet accompanying a hunt, the term Jagdschloss is often equated to the Lustschloss or maison de plaisance, particularly as the hunt was also a recreational activity. However, a Lustschloss and Jagdschloss differ in function as well as architecture, a Jagdschloss could also be very lavishly furnished, but unlike with a Lustschloss, timber-framed buildings or log cabins were not uncommon. Only a few imposing stone buildings have survived, which colours the general understanding of what a Jagdschloss is today, a Jagdschloss often had stables and other outbuildings used to house hunting equipment, coaches and the entourage. Larger examples often form self-contained ensembles, while smaller ones, known as Jagdhäuser, were built within castle parks and gardens. Actes des premières Rencontres darchitecture européenne, Château de Maisons, 10-13 juin 2003, claude dAnthenaise, Chasses princières dans lEurope de la Renaissance. Fondation de la Maison de la Chasse et de la Nature, actes Sud, Arles,2007, ISBN 978-2-7427-6643-7. Heiko Laß, Jagd- und Lustschlösser, Art and culture of two sovereign construction tasks, shown in Thuringian constructions of the 17th and 18th century, imhof, Petersberg,2006, ISBN 3-86568-092-5 Media related to Hunting lodges at Wikimedia CommonsJagdschloss – Jagdschloss Gelbensande