1. Zittau – It is part of the District of Görlitz. As of 31 the city had a population of 27,506. The inner city of Zittau still shows its original beauty with many houses from several periods of German architecture. There is the famous hall built in an Italian style, the church of St John and the stables with its medieval heritage. This multi-storied building is one of the oldest of its kind in Germany. Zittau was one of the six members of the Six-City League of Upper Lusatia. At that time the city was granted a special title—it was called "Die Reiche" because of its high proportion of well-to-do citizens. Many of them went on to find refuge in surrounding villages, in Berlin in Brandenburg. One of the most important trading goods of this early age in the 16th century was beer. Later in the 18th and 19th century textiles became important too, a tradition common in the region of Upper Lusatia. During World War II, a camp was located in the city. It provided forced labour for a truck-manufacturing company. The city is also disadvantaged by the lower cost of labour in its closely neighbouring countries. This development has, however, saved parts of the city, primarily consisting today of schools, from what would otherwise have been certain destruction. Zittau is now a desirable place of income from overseas investors, properties valueing from between $250,000 - $380,000 average.Zittau – Zittau Panorama
2. Frankfurt am Main – Frankfurt is a global hub for commerce, culture, education, tourism and traffic. Frankfurt Airport is among the world's busiest. Frankfurt's DE-CIX is the world's largest internet point. Messe Frankfurt is one of the world's largest trade fairs. Major fairs include the Frankfurt Motor Show, the Frankfurt Book Fair, the world's largest book fair. Frankfurt is ethnically diverse, with around half of the population, a majority of young people, having an immigrant background. A quarter of the population are foreign nationals, including many expatriates. Frankfurt is the largest financial centre in continental Europe. It is home to the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, several large commercial banks. Frankfurt is considered a global city as listed by the GaWC group's 2012 inventory. Among global cities it was ranked 10th by the Global Power City Index 2011 and 11th by the Global City Competitiveness Index 2012. Among financial centres it was ranked 8th by the International Financial Centers Development Index 9th by the Global Financial Centres Index 2013. Its central location within Germany and Europe makes a major air, rail and road transport hub. Frankfurt Airport is the main hub for Germany's flag carrier Lufthansa. The Autobahn interchange close to the airport, is the most heavily used interchange in the EU, used by 320,000 cars daily.Frankfurt am Main – Collage of Frankfurt, clockwise from top of left to right: Facade of the Römer and Frankfurt Cathedral, statue of Charlemagne in Frankfurt Historical Museum, view of Frankfurt skyline and Main River
3. Fortification – Fortifications are military constructions or buildings designed for the defense of territories in warfare, also used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. Humans have constructed defensive works in a variety of increasingly complex designs. The term is derived from the Latin fortis and facere. From very early history to modern times, walls have been a necessity for cities to survive in an ever changing world of conquest. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were the small cities to be fortified. In ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae. A Greek Phrourion was a fortified collection of buildings is the equivalent of the Roman castellum or English fortress. These construction mainly served the purpose of a tower, to guard certain roads, passes, lands that might threaten the kingdom. Though smaller than a real fortress, they acted as a guard rather than a real strongpoint to watch and maintain the border. The art of constructing a fortification traditionally has been called "castramentation" since the time of the Roman legions. Fortification is usually divided into two branches: permanent fortification and fortification. There is also an intermediate branch known as semi-permanent fortification. Roman forts and hill forts were the main antecedents of castles in Europe, which emerged in the Carolingian Empire. The Early Middle Ages saw the creation of some towns built around castles. Medieval-style fortifications were largely made obsolete by the arrival of cannons in the 14th century.Fortification – Krak des Chevaliers is one of the best-preserved Crusader castles.
4. Bastion – A bastion, is an angular structure projecting outward from the curtain wall of an artillery fortification. It is one element in the style of fortification dominant from the mid 16th to 19th centuries. Bastions differ from medieval towers in a number of respects. Bastions are normally of similar height to the adjacent curtain wall. The height of towers, although making them difficult to scale, also made them easy for artillery to destroy. A bastion would normally have a ditch in the opposite side of which would be built up above the natural level then slope away gradually. In contrast to typical medieval towers, bastions were flat sided rather than curved. This eliminated dead ground making it possible for the defenders to fire upon any point directly in front of the bastion. Bastions also cover a larger area than most towers. This allows more cannons to be provided enough space for the crews to operate them. Surviving examples of bastions are usually faced with masonry. If a bastion was successfully stormed it could provide the attackers from which to launch further attacks. Some bastion designs attempted to minimise this problem. The term is also used of bastions built on a right line. A bastion is that which has a re-entering angle at the point.Bastion – Drawing of a bastion
5. Crownwork – A crownwork is an element of the trace italienne system of fortification and is effectively an expanded Hornwork. Griffiths, Frederick Augustus. The artillerist's British soldier's compendium. Parker & Son. Editor. "A Popular View of Fortification and Gunnery, No. I. 49, No. II. 316, No. III. 586". The United Service Journal and Naval and Military Magazine. London: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley.Crownwork – Feature 'l' is a Crownwork. From the Cyclopaedia.
6. Ancient history – The term classical antiquity is often used to refer to history in the Old World from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC. In India, ancient history includes the early period of the Middle Kingdoms, and, in China, the time up to the Qin Dynasty. Historians have two major avenues which they take to better understand the ancient world: archaeology and the study of source texts. Primary sources are those sources closest to the origin of the information or idea under study. Primary sources have been distinguished from secondary sources, which often cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources. Archaeology is the study of artefacts in an effort to reconstruct human behavior. Archaeologists excavate the ruins of ancient cities looking for clues as to how the people of the time period lived. The study of the ancient cities of Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Lothal in India. The city of Pompeii: an ancient Roman city preserved by the eruption of a volcano in AD 79. The Terracotta Army: the mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor in ancient China. The discovery of Knossos by Minos Kalokairinos and Sir Arthur Evans. The discovery of Troy by Heinrich Schliemann. Most of what is known of the ancient world comes from the accounts of antiquity's own historians. Although it is important to take into account the bias of each ancient author, their accounts are the basis for our understanding of the ancient past. Some of the more notable ancient writers include Herodotus, Thucydides, Arrian, Plutarch, Polybius, Sima Qian, Sallust, Livy, Josephus, Suetonius, Tacitus.Ancient history – Khafre's Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. 2500 BC or perhaps earlier)
7. Abatis – The trees are usually tied with wire. Abatis are used alone or in combination with other obstacles. There is evidence it was used as recently as the American Civil War. A classic use of an abatis was during the Seven Years' War. The French troops defeated a massive army of 16,000 British and Colonial troops by fronting their defensive positions with an extremely dense abatis. The British were forced to withdraw with some 2,600 casualties. An important weakness in contrast to barbed wire, is that it can be destroyed by fire. An important advantage is that an improvised abatis can be quickly formed in forested areas. This can be done by simply cutting down a row of trees so that they fall toward the enemy. An alternative is to place explosives as to blow the trees down. Abatis are rarely seen nowadays, having been largely replaced by wire obstacles. However, it may supplement when barbed wire is in short supply. A form of giant abatis, using whole trees instead of branches, can be used as an anti-tank obstacle. Though rarely used by modern military units, abatises are still officially maintained in United States Army and Marine Corps training. Furthermore, it is recommended that the trees remain connected to the length of roadway covered be at least 80 yards.Abatis – Abatis improvised by Japanese troops during World War II
8. Agger (ancient Rome) – An agger is an ancient Roman embankment or rampart, or any artificial elevation. It is a Latin word. The agger was an embankment that gave the proper draining base. Basically the agger is a ridge that supports the surface. The material used to build the aggers was dug from lateral ditches. Once the material was dug out of the ditches that were known as" scoop ditches," they were used as the drain for that road. These ditches could also be used for soldiers to hide in if they ever were under attack from enemies. On the most important road routes, the agger could be 4 to 5 feet high and 45 to 50 feet wide. The course of a Roman road can often be traced today by the distinctive line of the agger across the landscape. It consisted of a double rampart bearing formidable fortifications.Agger (ancient Rome) – Remains of the agger of Ardea, Italy
9. Broch – A broch is an Iron Age drystone hollow-walled structure of a type found only in Scotland. Brochs belong to the classification "complex roundhouse" devised by Scottish archaeologists in the 1980s. Their origin is a matter of some controversy. Although most stand alone in the landscape, some examples exist of brochs surrounded by clusters of smaller dwellings. The broch is derived from Lowland Scots ` brough', meaning fort. In the mid-19th century Scottish antiquaries called brochs ` burgs', with the same meaning. Place names in Scandinavian Scotland such as Burgawater and Burgan show that Old Norse borg is the older word used for these structures in the north. Brochs are often referred to as'duns' in the west. Antiquaries began to use the spelling'broch' in the 1870s. A precise definition for the word has proved elusive. Brochs are the most spectacular of a complex class of roundhouse buildings found throughout Atlantic Scotland. Researcher Euan MacKie has proposed a much smaller total for Scotland of 104. The origin of brochs is a subject of continuing research. A few may be earlier, notably the one proposed for Old Scatness Broch in Shetland, where a bone dating to 390 -- 200 BC has been reported. There are also a great many examples in the west of Scotland and the Hebrides.Broch – Dun Carloway broch, Lewis, Scotland
10. CastellumCastellum – Reconstructed Limes watch tower, between Bad Nauheim and Pfaffenwiesbach, Germany.
11. Castra – In the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp. Castrum was the term used for different sizes of camps including a large legionary fortress, smaller auxiliary forts, "marching" forts. The diminutive castellum was used for fortlets, typically occupied by a detachment of a cohort or a century. In the terms "Roman fortress", "Roman fort" and "Roman camp" are commonly used for castrum. However, scholastic convention tends toward the use of the word "camp", "marching camp" and "fortress" as a translation of castrum. For a list of known castra see List of castra. This term appears in three Italic languages: Oscan, Umbrian and Latin. Castrorum Filius was one of names used then also by other emperors. The terms phrourion were used by Greek language authors to translate castrum and castellum, respectively. A castrum was designed to protect the soldiers, their equipment and supplies when they were not fighting or marching. Regulations required a major unit in the field to retire to a properly constructed camp every day. They could throw up a camp under attack in as little as a few hours. More permanent camps were stativa, "standing camps". The least permanent of these were castra aestivalia, "summer camps", in which the soldiers were housed sub pellibus or sub tentoriis, "under tents". Summer was the season.Castra – Reconstructed gateway of a Castra Stativa. Note the battlements, the Roman arches, the turres.
12. Circular rampart – The period during which these structures appeared stretches to the Middle Ages. The key feature of a circular rampart is the embankment forming the primary means of the defensive fortification. It can be constructed in various ways: as a simple earth embankment, as a wall. Circular ramparts usually have a ditch in front of them; the embankment can be enhanced with a wooden palisade. Often concentric rings were built, which produced a more effective defensive position against attackers. The interior of such sites often shows evidence of buildings such as halls, other secondary structures. They are often discovered by aerial photography.Circular rampart – Artist's impression of the circular rampart of Burg, near Celle, Germany
13. City gate – A city gate is a gate, or was, set within a city wall. Other terms include port. City gates were traditionally built to provide a point of controlled access to and departure from a walled city for people, vehicles, animals. City gates, in another, can be found across the world in cities dating back to ancient times to around the 19th century. With increased freedom, many walled cities removed such fortifications as city gates, although many still survive; albeit for historic interest rather than security. Ireland: St. Laurences Gate, 13th Century, in Drogheda, Co.City gate – The Brama Młyńska in Stargard Szczeciński one of a few water gates in Europe
14. Crannog – A crannog is typically a partially or entirely artificial island, usually built in lakes, rivers and estuarine waters of Scotland and Ireland. However, in areas such as the Outer Hebrides of Scotland, timber was unavailable from the Neolithic era onwards. As a result, completely stone crannogs supporting drystone architecture are common there. Crannogs typically appear as small, circular islets, often 10 to 30 metres in diameter, covered in dense vegetation due to their inaccessibility to grazing livestock. There is some confusion on what the island itself. The additional meanings of ` crannog' can be variously related as "structure/piece of wood; wooden pin; crow's nest; pulpit; driver's box on a vessel/box/chest" for crannóg. The Gaelic form is crannag and has the additional meanings of "pulpit" and "churn". Crannogs are widespread in Ireland, with an estimated 1,200 examples, while Scotland has 347 sites officially listed as such. Previously unknown crannogs in Scotland and Ireland are still being found as underwater surveys continue to investigate loch beds for completely submerged examples. The largest concentrations of crannogs in Ireland are found in the Drumlin Belt of the Midlands, Northwest. In Scotland, crannogs favour ` Atlantic distribution', with high concentrations in Argyll and Dumfries and Galloway. They are recognised under varying terms besides "crannog". One lone Welsh example at Llangorse Lake exists, likely a product of Irish influence across the Irish Sea. Crannogs took based on what was available in the immediate landscape. The classic image of a prehistoric crannog stems by C.M..Crannog – Reconstructed crannog near Kenmore, Perth and Kinross, on Loch Tay, Scotland
15. Ditch (fortification) – In medieval fortification, a ditch was often constructed in front of a defensive wall to hinder escalade activities from an attacker. When filled with water, such a defensive ditch is called a moat. However, moats may also be dry. Today ditches are still often used as anti-vehicle obstacles. A fence concealed in a ditch is called a ha-ha. Scarp: the inner side of the ditch is called the scarp slope. This may be revetted in which case, it is called the "scarp wall". Faussebraye: a secondary parapet between the rampart and the inner edge of the ditch. Carnot wall: a loopholed wall between the rampart and the inner edge of the ditch. Chemin de ronde: a pathway running along the berm, behind the faussebraye or Carnot wall. Cunette: a narrow channel that runs along the floor of the ditch for drainage purposes. Bartardeau: a type of masonry dam across a ditch, part wet and part dry. Counterscarp: the outer slope or wall of the ditch. Sally port: a small door allowing the defenders to enter the ditch should it be occupied by the enemy. Counterscarp gallery: a passage constructed behind the counterscarp wall and pierced with loopholes, which enables the defenders to fire on attackers who have entered the ditch.Ditch (fortification) – A ditch and earth bank at Old Sarum, near Salisbury in England, dating from the Iron Age.
16. Defensive wall – A defensive wall is a fortification used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors. In ancient to modern times, they were used to enclose settlements. Beyond their defensive utility, many walls also had symbolic functions -- representing the status and independence of the communities they embraced. Existing ancient walls are always masonry structures, although brick and timber-built variants are also known. Walls are often supplemented with towers. Defensive walls of earth or stone, thrown up around hillforts, ringworks, early castles and the like, tend to be referred to as ramparts. From very early history to modern times, walls have been a near necessity for every city. Uruk in ancient Sumer is one of the world's oldest known walled cities. Before that, the city of Jericho in what is now the West Bank had a wall surrounding it early as the 8th millennium BC. The Assyrians deployed large labour forces to build new palaces, defensive walls. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were also fortified. By about 3500 B.C. hundreds of small farming villages dotted the Indus floodplain. Many of these settlements had planned streets. Square bastions of sun dried bricks. In Central Europe, the Celts built fortified settlements which the Romans called oppida, whose walls seem partially influenced by those built in the Mediterranean.Defensive wall – Part of the Great Wall of China, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
17. FaussebrayeFaussebraye – Faussebraye of Château de Brest
18. Gatehouse – A gatehouse, in architectural terminology, is a building enclosing or accompanying a gateway for a castle, manor house, fort, town or similar buildings of importance. Gatehouses made their first appearance in the early antiquity when it became necessary to protect the main entrance to a town. Over time, they evolved into very complicated structures with many lines of defence. Strongly fortified gatehouses would normally include a drawbridge, one or more portcullises, machicolations, possibly even murder-holes where stones would be dropped on attackers. In some castles, the gatehouse was strongly fortified it took on the function of a keep, sometimes referred to as a "gate keep". Examples of such gate keeps can be found at Beaumaris Castle. In the late Middle Ages, some of these arrow loops might have been converted into gun loops. Sometimes gatehouses formed part of town fortifications, perhaps defending the passage of a bridge as Monnow Bridge in Monmouth. York has four important gatehouses, known as "Bars", in its city walls. One such is Micklegate Bar. The French term for gatehouse is logis-porche. A very large gatehouse might be called a châtelet. At the end of the Middle Ages, many gatehouses in England and France were converted to manor houses or estates. Many of them attached to the manor or mansion only by an enclosing wall. By this time the gatehouse had become more of a monumental structure designed to harmonise with the manor or mansion.Gatehouse – Gatehouse reconstruction from ancient Babylon
19. Gord (archaeology) – A gord is a medieval Slavonic fortified wooden settlement, sometimes known as a burgwall after the German term for such sites. Gords were built during the late Bronze and early Iron Ages by the Lusatian culture (ca. 1300–500 BCE, later in the 8th–7th centuries BCE, in what are now Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, eastern Germany, India. These settlements were usually founded on strategic sites such as hills, riverbanks, peninsulas. Some gords were ring-shaped, with a round, occasionally polygonal fence or wall surrounding a hollow. Others, built on a man-made mound, were cone-shaped. Those such as a river or lake, were usually horseshoe-shaped. Most gords were built in densely populated areas on sites that offered natural advantages. As Slavic tribes united to form states, gords were also built for defensive purposes in less-populated border areas. Gords that lay on trade routes quickly expanded. Near the gord, or below it in elevation, there formed small communities of servants, merchants, others who served the higher-ranked inhabitants of the gord. Each such community was known as a suburbium. Its residents could shelter within the walls of the gord in the event of danger. Eventually the suburbium acquired its own wall. In the High Middle Ages, the usual evolved into a castle or citadel and the suburbium into a town.Gord (archaeology) – Reconstructed West Slavic fortified settlement (gord) in Groß Raden, Germany
20. Hillfort – They are typically European and of Iron Ages. Some were used in the post-Roman period. The fortification usually follows the contours of a hill, consisting of one or more lines with stockades or defensive walls, external ditches. "hill fort", "hill-fort" and "hillfort" are all used in the archaeological literature. They all refer to an elevated site with one or more ramparts made with an external ditch. Many early hill forts were abandoned, with the larger ones being redeveloped at a later date. Some hill forts contain houses. Similar but less defendable earthworks are found on the sides of hills. These may have been animal pens. Hill forts were the home of up to 1,000 people. With the emergence of oppida in the Late Iron Age, settlements could reach as large as 10,000 inhabitants. As the population increased so did the complexity of prehistoric societies. Around 1100 BC hill forts in the following centuries spread through Europe. They served a range of purposes and were variously tribal centres, defended places, foci of ritual activity, places of production. During the Hallstatt C period, hill forts became the dominant type in the west of Hungary.Hillfort – Maiden Castle in England is one of the largest hill forts in Europe. Photograph taken in 1935 by Major George Allen (1891–1940).
21. Limes – A limes was a border defence or delimiting system of Ancient Rome. It marked the provinces of the Roman Empire. The word limes was utilized by Latin writers to denote a fortified frontier. This was the traditional usage of the term. It is now more common to accept that limes was not a term used for the imperial frontier, fortified or not. This is a anachronistic interpretation. The term became common after the 3rd century AD, when it denoted a military district under the command of a dux limitis. The limites represented the line of the Roman Empire at its greatest extent in the 2nd century AD. Today consist of vestiges of walls, ditches, forts, fortresses and civilian settlements. Certain elements of the line have been excavated, some reconstructed, a few destroyed. The two sections of the limes in Germany cover a length of 550 km from the north-west of the country to the Danube in the south-east. The 118 km long Hadrian's Wall was built on the orders of the Emperor Hadrian c. AD 122 at the northernmost limits of the Roman province of Britannia. It illustrates the defensive techniques and geopolitical strategies of ancient Rome. It constitutes the northwestern-most portion of the Roman Limes.Limes – Reconstructed east gate at Welzheim
22. Oppidum – An oppidum is a large fortified Iron Age settlement. They continued in use until the Romans began conquering Europe. North of the River Danube, where the population remained independent from Rome, oppida continued to be used into the 1st century AD. Oppidum is a Latin word meaning the main settlement in any administrative area of ancient Rome. The word is derived from the earlier Latin ob-pedum, possibly from the * pedóm -, "occupied space" or "footprint". Although he did not explicitly define what features qualified a settlement to be called an oppidum, the main requirements emerge. The Roman legions could obtain supplies. Caesar named 28 oppida. Most of the places that Caesar called oppida were city-sized fortified settlements. However, Geneva, for example, was referred to as an oppidum, but no fortifications dating to this period have yet been discovered there. Caesar also refers to 20 oppida of the Bituriges and 12 of the Helvetii, twice the number of fortified settlements of these groups known today. That implies that Caesar likely counted some unfortified settlements as oppida. A similar ambiguity is in writing by the Roman historian Livy, who also used the word for both unfortified settlements. In his Geographia, Ptolemy listed the coordinates of Celtic settlements. An exception to, the oppidum of Brenodurum at Bern, confirmed by an archaeological discovery.Oppidum – Celtic Oppidum, Central Europe 1st century BC
23. Palisade – Typical construction consisted of small or mid-sized tree trunks aligned vertically, with no free space in between. The trunks sometimes reinforced with additional construction. The height of a palisade ranged to nearly ten feet. As a defensive structure, palisades were often used with earthworks. Palisades were an excellent option for other hastily constructed fortifications. Since they were made of wood, they could often be easily built from readily available materials. They were an effective deterrent against small forces. However, because they were wooden constructions they were also vulnerable to siege weapons. Often, a palisade would be constructed around a castle as a temporary wall until a permanent wall could be erected. They were frequently used in New France. Both the Greeks and Romans created palisades to protect their military camps. The Roman historian Livy describes the Greek method as being inferior to that of the Romans during the Second Macedonian War. The Greek stakes were spaced too far apart. This made it easy for enemies to create a large enough gap in which to enter. In contrast, the Romans used easier to carry stakes which were placed closer together, making them more difficult to uproot.Palisade – Palisade in a Celtic village
24. Promontory fort – Although their dating is problematic, most seem to the Iron Age. They are mainly found in Brittany, Ireland, the Isle of Man, Devon and Cornwall. Others, like Dalkey Island have been reoccupied and changed in the early medieval period. Dunbeg contains an early medieval corbelled stone hut. On the Isle of Man promontory forts are found particularly on the rocky slate headlands of the south. Several, especially in Santon, can be visited using the Raad ny Foillan coastal footpath. Promontory forts can be found all along the coast of Penwith. Maen Castle, near to Land's End is one of the oldest, having been dated to around BC. They are also found in e.g.. The famous site at Tintagel may be a rare example of promontory fort whose occupation continued into later periods. Their capital was Darioritum on the Morbihan bay, now modern Vannes/Gwened. The Veneti were linguistically British: they once ruled Cornwall and Devon. They had close trade ties. When they were attacked in Brittany, Julius Caesar reports that Cornwall sent them military aid. Hill fort Nancy Edwards, The Archaeology of Early Medieval Ireland.Promontory fort – Dunbeg Fort, a promontory fort below Mount Eagle, Dingle Peninsula, County Kerry, Ireland
25. Rampart (fortification) – It is usually made of excavated earth or masonry or a combination of the two. Of course they are the characteristic feature of circular ramparts. The ramparts raised in height by the use of palisades. This type of arrangement was a feature of the motte and bailey castle in the early medieval period. One particular type, common in Central Europe, used earth, timber posts to form a Pfostenschlitzmauer or "post-slot wall". Vitrified ramparts were composed of stone, subsequently fired, possibly to increase its strength. An early example is the 20 foot walls found at Troy, dating from about 5000 BC. Well known examples of classical stone ramparts include the Walls of Constantinople. Fieldworks, however, continued to make use of earth ramparts due to their relatively temporary nature. Parapet: a low wall on top of the rampart to shelter the defenders. Crenellation: rectangular gaps or indentations at intervals in the parapet, the gaps being called embrasures or crenels, the intervening high parts being called merlons. Brattice: a timber gallery built on top of the rampart and projecting forward from the parapet, to give the defenders a better field of fire. Exterior slope: the front face of the rampart, often faced with stone or brick. Interior slope: the back of the rampart on the inside of the fortification; usually a grassy slope. Parapet which concealed the defending soldiers.Rampart (fortification) – The multiple ramparts of the British Camp hillfort in Herefordshire
26. Ringfort – Ringforts are circular fortified settlements that were mostly built during the Early Middle Ages up to about the year 1000. They are found in Northern Europe, especially in Ireland. There are also many in Cornwall, where they are called ` Rounds'. Ringforts may be made of stone or earth. Earthen ringforts would have been marked by a circular rampart, often with a stakewall. Both earthen ringforts would generally have had at least one building inside. In Irish language sources they are known by a number of names: ráth, lios, caiseal, dún. Lios was an earthen ringfort; the ráth being the enclosing bank and the lios being the open space within. The cathair was a stone ringfort. The dún was usually used for any stronghold of importance, which may or may not be ring-shaped. In Ireland, it is thought that at least 50,000 ringforts existed on the island. They are common with a mean density of just over one ringfort within any area of 2 km ². It is likely that many have been destroyed by urbanisation. However, many unknown ringforts have been found thanks to early Ordnance Survey maps, aerial photography, the archaeological work that has accompanied road-building. Few Cornish examples have been archaeologically excavated, with the exception of Trethurgy Rounds.Ringfort – The Grianán Ailigh in Ulster is one of the more impressive stone-walled ringforts
27. Refuge castle – In former times such sites were also described as giant castles because their origin was ascribed to giants. Amongst historical references to them are the refuge castles of the Gauls described by Caesar as oppida, although they could also be permanent settlements. Similar ringwork systems were built by the various Germanic and Slavic tribes, the latter into the Middle Ages period. Wood and stone were also used in a variety of construction methods. As a rule they have no towers, but occasionally superstructures resembling gate towers occur. The large size of refuge castles enabled them to provide supplies in the event of a siege. Later on during the Middle Ages this type of castle was also built by local farmers. These "farmers' castles" provided protection from marauding bands of troops. Because the majority of refuge castles were not permanent settlements, archaeological excavations often produce little by way of finds. In the Middle Ages fortified churches and churches also acted as refuge castles. Their fortifications also made them suitable for use as temporary places of refuge for the villages. During excavations, well as the defensive system, an early Christian church was discovered in the interior of the castellum. Kreuzen Castle/Bad Kreuzen Hillfort Cave castleRefuge castle – Reconstructed Slavic refuge castle of Raddusch (Lower Lusatia)
28. Stockade – A stockade is an enclosure of palisades and tall walls made of logs placed side by side vertically with the tops sharpened to provide security. Stockade fortifications were simple forms of military camps or settlements used since ancient Roman times and earlier. They would stand the sharpened logs side-by-side inside it, encircling the perimeter. Sometimes they would add additional defence by placing sharpened sticks in a secondary trench outside the stockade. In colder climates sometimes the stockade received a coating of mud that would make the crude wall wind-proof. Builders could also place thick mud layers at the foot of the stockade, improving the resistance of the wall. The stockade also refers to a military prison in an army camp, in some cases, even a crude prison camp or a slave camp. In these cases, the stockade keeps people inside, rather than out. Nowadays, stockade walls are often used as fencing, made of finished planks more useful for privacy fencing and more decoration than security. Security fence Tower and stockadeStockade – This replica of an 1832 fort in Illinois features a stockade with a blockhouse.
29. Sudis (stake) – The sudis is a Latin word meaning stake. It was the name given to stakes carried as a field fortification, sometimes also called vallus. Incorrectly, called a pilum murale meaning ` wall spear'. The stakes were carried by Roman legionaries; typically two were carried by each soldier. Each stake was made of hardwood, usually about 150 -- 180 cm long and about 50 -- 100 mm wide at the thickest point. Square in the shape tapers to a point at both ends. The central part is narrowed in a way that strongly suggests the function of a handle, although this may not be its actual purpose. Examples that have been found are rough hewn. It seems clear that the stakes were used to form a temporary defence. However, the exact manner in which stakes were used is the subject of debate among experts. It is possible that the stakes were incorporated into the ramparts of a Roman marching camp. Projecting from the ramparts at an angle, they would present a barrier to an attacker attempting to climb up. Alternatively, they could have been placed vertically at the top of the rampart as a fence. It has been proposed that the stakes were lashed in pairs at intervals along a beam to form a Cheval de frise. This could be used, as a moveable barrier to bar a gateway.Sudis (stake)
30. Trou de loup – In medieval fortification, a trou de loup was a type of booby trap or defensive obstacle. Each trou de loup consisted at the top. At the bottom of the pit, a sharpened stick would be hammered in. In some cases, the pit was concealed by a layer of soil. Sometimes rotting feces would be smeared onto the points to cause serious infection and quite often death. Caesar writes they were called lilies for their resemblance to the flower of the same name. Later Roman examples can be seen in Great Britain.Trou de loup – A diagrammatic example of a common trou de loup
31. Vallum – Vallum is a term applied either to the whole or a portion of the fortifications of a Roman camp. The vallum usually comprised an earthen or rampart with a wooden palisade on top, with a deep outer ditch. The Greek valli were cut on the spot; the Romans prepared theirs beforehand.. Oak was preferred. While on the march, each soldier pointed at both ends. A number of these have been found in excavations, sufficiently well-preserved to show that they were "waisted", narrowed at the centre. It is likely that these would be augmented with whatever was to hand, such as tree branches or thorn bushes. Such a circumvallation, besides cutting off all communication between the surrounding country, formed a defence against the sallies of the besieged. There was often a double line of fortifications, the outer against a force that might attempt to raise the siege. In this case the army was encamped between the two lines of works. This kind of circumvallation, which the Greeks called περιτειχισμός, was employed by the Peloponnesians in the siege of Plataea. Their lines consisted at the distance of 16 feet, which surrounded the city in the form of a circle. Between the walls were the huts of the besiegers. The walls had battlements, at every ten battlements was a tower, filling up by its depth the whole space between the walls. There was a passage for the besiegers through the middle of each tower.Vallum – Valli (Sudes) combined to form a Czech hedgehog.
32. Wagon fort – "Wagenburg" redirects here. For trailer Wagenburg, see trailer park. For the museum in Vienna, see Wagenburg. Historians interpret this as a wagon-fort. Similar hoc defense formations were used in the United States, were called corrals. These were traditionally used by 19th century American settlers travelling to the West in convoys of Conestoga wagons. One of the earliest examples of using conjoined wagons as fortification is described in the historical record Book of Han. In the 13th century, the armies of Kievan Rus' used tabors in the Battle of Kalka to defend themselves from Mongol forces. Such a camp was easy to practically invulnerable to enemy cavalry. Inside the square would usually be the cavalry. There were two principal stages of the battle using the fort: defensive and counterattack. The defensive part would be a pounding of the enemy with artillery. The Hussite artillery was a primitive form of a howitzer, called in Czech a houfnice, from which the English word howitzer comes. There would even be stones stored for throwing whenever the soldiers were out of ammunition. After this huge barrage, the enemy would be demoralized.Wagon fort – The Hussite Wagenburg
33. Vitrified fort – They are generally situated on hills offering defensive positions. Their form seems to have been determined by the contour of the flat summits which they enclose. The walls are so broad that they present the appearance of embankments. The walls themselves are termed vitrified ramparts. It is not clear how the walls were subjected to vitrification. The heating actually weakens the structure. The process is found during both Iron Age and Early Medieval Forts in Scotland. The most remarkable are: the largest in area at 245 m by 50 m. They have not been found in Wales. Broborg is a vitrified hill-fort in Uppland, Sweden. Ralston, I. Celtic Fortifications, Tempus, 2006. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, ed.. "name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press.Vitrified fort – Part of the vitrified wall at Sainte Suzanne (Mayenne)
34. Medieval fortification – During this millennium, fortifications in turn were modified to suit new tactics, weapons and siege techniques. Towers of medieval castles were usually made of sometimes wood. Often toward the later part of the era they included battlements and arrow loops. In northern Europe, early in the period, walls were likely to have been proofed against small forces. Especially where stone was readily available for building, the wood will have been replaced to a higher or lower standard of security. This would have been the pattern of events in the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw in England. In many cases, the wall would have had an external pomoerium. This was a strip of clear ground immediately adjacent the wall. The word is from the late medieval, derived from the Latin post murum, "behind the wall." An external pomoerium, stripped of building, gave defenders a clear view of what was happening outside and an unobstructed field of shot. An internal pomoerium gave ready access to the rear of the wall to facilitate movement of the garrison to a point of need. By the end of the sixteenth century, the word had developed further into pomery. They were sometimes retained for use against thieves and other threats of a lower order. These belong mainly to the post-medieval periods. However, a few, such as those of Carcassonne and Dubrovnik, have been restored to an impressively complete state.Medieval fortification – Beaumaris Castle in Wales was built in the late 13th century and is an example of concentric castles which developed in the medieval period.
35. Albarrana tower – An Albarrana tower is a defensive tower detached from the curtain wall and connected to it by a bridge or an arcade. In Spanish, they are called torre albarrana. The towers with a square section, were built several meters in front of the curtain wall. They were accessible by a walkway from the curtain wall. More often, the bridge had a wooden section allowing the tower to be isolated from the wall if the tower is occupied by attacking forces. A more rectangular plan became the norm. In the north of Europe, flanking towers remained a part of the wall. Even the keep were sometimes built as a part of the wall instead of inside the yard at the center of the castle. They were philippian towers. The main albarrana towers are: Torre de Espantaperros in Badajoz, Spain. Probably the first albarrana tower, built by Abu Yaqub Yusuf in 1170. Its plan is octagonal. In the other parts of the Muslim world this defensive feature seems not to be used. Possibly the only example of a true Albarrana tower in England can be found at Pontefract Castle.Albarrana tower – Torre de la Malmuerta in Cordoba (Spain)
36. AlcazabaAlcazaba – Alcazaba of Málaga
37. Arrowslit – An arrowslit is a thin vertical aperture in a fortification through which an archer can launch arrows. Arrow slits come in a remarkable variety. A recognizable form is the cross. Balistraria can often be found beneath the crenellations. The invention of the arrowslit is attributed during the siege of Syracuse in 214 -- 212 BC. Although used in Greek Roman defences, arrowslits were not present in early Norman castles. In these early examples, arrowslits were positioned to protect sections of the wall, rather than all sides of the castle. In the 13th century, it became common for arrowslits to be placed all around a castle's defences. In its simplest form, an arrowslit was a vertical opening; however, the different weapons used by defenders sometimes dictated the form of arrowslits. Immediately behind the slit there was a recess called an embrasure; this allowed a defender to get close to the slit without being too cramped. When an embrasure linked to more than one arrowslit it is called a "multiple arrowslit". Embrasure Loophole, legal term Notes Bibliography Media related to Arrowslits at Wikimedia CommonsArrowslit – An arrowslit at Corfe Castle. This shows the inside - where the archer would have stood.
38. Barbican – Usually barbicans were situated outside the main line of defences and connected to the city walls with a walled road called the neck. With the improvement in siege tactics and artillery, barbicans lost their significance. However, several barbicans were built even in the 16th century. Mock-fortified gatehouses remained a feature of ambitious French and English residences into the 17th century. Fortifications in East Asia also featured similar structures. Called literally "jar walls", they are often referred to as "barbicans" in English. Barbican Estate, London Barbican, Plymouth Gatehouse Kraków barbican Warsaw Barbican Saint Laurence Gate, Drogheda Media related to Barbicans at Wikimedia Commons "Barbican". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. 1911.Barbican – The barbican in Kraków
39. Bartizan – Most frequently found at corners, they enabled him to see his surroundings. Bartizans generally are furnished with oillets or arrow slits. The turret could be round or square. Bartizans were incorporated in Scotland. In the architecture of Aberdeen, the new Town House, built in 1868–74, incorporates bartizans in the West Tower. Bretèche garret—an attic or top floor room in the military sense; a watchtower from the French word gariteBartizan – Bartizan at Fort de Chartres, a French colonial era fort in Illinois on the Mississippi River.
40. Battery towerBattery tower – Battery tower of Kufstein Fortress
41. Battlement – The act of adding crenels to a previously unbroken parapet is termed crenellation. The solid widths between the crenels are called merlons. A wall with battlements is said to be embattled. Battlements on walls have protected walkways behind them. On building tops, the roof is used as the protected fighting platform. The term originated in about the 14th century from the French word batailler, "to fortify with batailles". In medieval England a licence to crenellate granted the permission to fortify their property. The castles in England vastly outnumber the licences to crenellate. Royal pardons were obtainable, on the payment of an arbitrarily determined fine, by a person who had fortified without licence. The surviving records of such licences, generally issued by letters patent, provide valuable evidence for the dating of ancient buildings. There has been academic debate over the purpose of licensing. The view of military-focused historians is that licensing restricted the number of fortifications that could be used against a royal army. They indicated to the observer that the grantee had obtained "royal recognition, compliment". The crown usually occasionally charged a fee of about half a mark. Battlements have been used for thousands of years; the earliest known example is in the fortress at Buhen in Egypt.Battlement – Battlements on the Great Wall of China
42. Bent entrance – A bent entrance is a defensive feature in mediaeval fortification. In a castle with a entrance, the gate passage is narrow and turns sharply. Its purpose is to slow down attackers attempting to impede the use of battering rams against doors. It is often combined with means such as machicolations, in effect confining intruders to a narrow killing zone. Its defensive function is related to that of a barbican in front of the gate. Bent entrances are typical of Arab fortifications and crusader castles. The Citadel of Aleppo is a good example of the former, with a massive tower enclosing a complicated passage. The most elaborate entrance among crusader castles is the turning entrance ramp at Crac des Chevaliers, defensible from several towers and via machicolations. In addition to the main gate, postern gates could also feature a entrance, usually on a smaller scale. In the ruined crusader castle at Belvoir, posterns open into the moat at the angle between the outer wall and the corner towers. See for example the long passage at Harlech Castle, which uses multiple doors and murder-holes, but no turns. Kennedy, Hugh. Crusader Castles. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79913-9.Bent entrance – Bent entrance of Citadel of Aleppo, Syria
43. Bergfried – A bergfried is a tall tower typically found in castles of the Middle Ages in German-speaking countries and in countries under German influence. Friar describes it as a "fighting-tower". Its defensive function is to some extent similar to that of a keep in French castles. However, the characteristic difference between a bergfried and a keep lies in the fact that a bergfried was typically not designed for permanent habitation. The bergfried served during sieges. The distinction between a bergfried and a keep is not always clear-cut, as there were thousands of such towers built with many variations. There are some French keeps with only austere living quarters, while some late bergfrieds in Germany were intended to be habitable. For maximum protection, the bergfried could be totally separate from the enceinte. For instance, the Marksburg has Katz Castle on the most likely direction of attack. Some, like Münzenberg and Plesse Castles, have two bergfrieds. Eynsford Castle in Kent is a English example, where the bergfried is the central element of the design. The main tower of a castle was often simply referred to as "big tower". In late medieval Low German documents, however, berchvrede and similar variants often appeared often in connexion with smaller castles. The etymological origin of the word is unclear. There are theories about it being derived from Middle High Latin, or even from a Greek word brought back from the Crusades.Bergfried – Topoľčany Castle, Slovakia. Three lines of defence are perfectly depicted here: Renaissance bastions, central Gothic fortification and a bergfried as the last refuge.
44. Bridge castle – A bridge castle is a type of castle, built to provide military observation and security for a river crossing. In the narrower sense it refers to castles that are built directly next to a bridge. Sometimes, castles close to a bridge are referred to as bridge castles. These fortifications were often designed as toll castles that were occupied only by a guard force. In Europe several examples of bridge castles have survived, especially in the southeast of the continent. The bridge type --, only rarely mentioned in detail in the specialist literature -- is not always clearly distinguishable from the "fortified bridge". In medieval Europe, numerous river crossings were protected by tower outworks. The largest preserved castle is the rectangular edifice of Valeggio sul Mincio. The fort lies about 100 metres in height below the hill castle. Three gateways were linked to 14 demi-bastions. The tower below the hill castle is of a strikingly weak design. The living rooms of the guards were in the central gateway. This gateway barred access to the rear gateway with a massive crossbeam. The Germans' Gate across the Seille river in Metz is the last castle found in France. The castle displays fortified towers, battlements, machicolations.Bridge castle – The Germans' Gate in Metz, France.
45. Bridge tower – A bridge tower was a type of fortified tower built on a bridge. They were typically built as part of a city or town wall or castle. There is usually a tower at both ends of the bridge. The rivers were often part of the defences of these settlements. As a result, it was important from a defensive perspective that the bridges did not allow attacking enemies to break in. The bridges acted as a bulwark and often had a small drawbridge. In addition to their genuine defensive functions they also played a symbolic and architectural role. Often these towers were the public buildings that the travellers saw when approaching the city. The high cost of such towers was usually paid for by charging tolls. The gates of bridge towers were closed at night, so that no-one could cross the bridge during silent hours. Le Pont Vieux at Orthez, France. Pont Valentré, Cahors, France. The Wasserturm, part of the Kapellbrücke complex in Lucerne, Switzerland. The Monnow Gate on the Monnow Bridge at Monmouth, Wales The bridge tower in Warkworth, Northumberland, England Tower Bridge in London, England. The actual function of these towers is to support a high-level walkway.Bridge tower – The Old Lahn Bridge in Limburg an der Lahn with its surviving bridge tower
46. Butter-churn tower – A butter-churn tower is a two-part defensive tower in which the upper section has a smaller diameter than the lower section. In rarer cases butter-churn towers may have a square plan. Its name derives from its shape, similar to that of an upright churn: a cylindrical container with a shorter, narrower top section. It offered better observation over a greater distance. The reason for the construction of butter-churn towers may have more symbolic than strategic. In the late Middle Ages a large number of butter-churn towers were erected in the Middle Rhine-South Hesse-Taunus region. Examples include those in Bad Homburg, Friedberg, Idstein and Oberwesel. The Marksburg above Braubach am Rhein had a square bergfried to, added a butter-churn turret in 1468. This was replaced in 1905. The third-highest surviving bergfried in Germany is at the Osterburg near Weida in Thuringia; it is 53 metres high and also designed as a butter-churn tower. It is also one of the oldest surviving bergfrieds, dating to 1193. It has an octagonal, stone conical roof dating to the 15th century. Horst Wolfgang Böhme, Reinhard Friedrich, Barbara Schock-Werner: Wörterbuch der Burgen, Schlösser und Festungen. Reclam-Verlag, 2004; ISBN 3-15-010547-1, pp. 103 − 105. Otto Piper, Burgenkunde.Butter-churn tower – The Adolf Tower in Friedberg in butter-churn style with its bartizans
47. Caltrop – Caltrops were part of defenses that served to slow the advance of horses, human troops. They were particularly effective against the soft feet of camels. In more modern times, caltrops are still effective when used with pneumatic tires. The modern name "caltrop" is derived from the Latin calcitrapa, such as in the French chausse-trape. This plant can also be compared to Centaurea calcitrapa, sometimes referred to as the "caltrop". A plant with similarly-shaped spiked seeds is called the "water caltrop", Trapa natans. They were known sometimes as murex ferreus, the latter meaning ` jagged iron'. They were also used in 53 BC. As a chariot of this sort does not always meet with level ground, the least obstruction stops it. And if one of the horses be wounded, it falls into the enemy's hands. ... There is no doubt that the most inscrutable Indian treading on a caltrop would be shocked into noisy comment. ... The fact that only one has been found would seem to suggest that they were used little, if at all. The Japanese version of the caltrop is called makibishi.Caltrop – Roman caltrop at Westfälisches Museum für Archäologie, Herne, Germany
48. Castle – A castle is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by nobility. Usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble. Usage of the term has been applied to structures as diverse as hill forts and country houses. Although their military origins are often emphasised in castle studies, the structures also served as symbols of power. Many castles were originally built from timber, but had their defences replaced later by stone. Early castles often exploited natural defences, relying on a central keep. In the late early 13th centuries, a scientific approach to castle defence emerged. This led with an emphasis on flanking fire. Some grand castles had long winding approaches intended to dominate their landscape. As a result, true castles were replaced by artillery forts with no role in civil administration, country houses that were indefensible. The castle is derived from the Latin word castellum, a diminutive of the word castrum, meaning "fortified place". The castle was introduced into English shortly before the Norman Conquest to denote this type of building, then new to England. In its simplest terms, the definition of a castle accepted amongst academics is "a fortified residence". Castles served a range of purposes, the most important of which were military, domestic. As well as defensive structures, castles were also offensive tools which could be used as a base of operations in territory.Castle – The Alcázar of Segovia in Spain overlooking the city
49. Chartaque – A chartaque is a watchtower and important element of the fortification systems in the time of the Ottoman Empire. Fundamentally they were places of defence. A structural feature of chartaques is that they consisted of a lookout tower with a palisade around the base. Defensive works such as schanzen, abatis, ramparts and ditches were often built in the vicinity as additional protection against an enemy. The construction of a chartaque was an operation that lasted several weeks. During the time of the Kuruc wars, precise details are known about the fortifications of the Kuruc schanzen in eastern Styria. Such a chartaque came at a cost of 24 kreuzer. For three chartaques an overseer was appointed in addition to the crews of each chartaque. For the rebuilding of another chartaque, burned down to its supporting posts, the cost was estimated at 30 guilders. There were also chartaques that were additionally protected by the redoubt costing an estimated 40 guilders. The Ottomans used the idea against their western enemies. Thus chartaques were adopted, in turn, by their opponents. Chartaques were usually erected in lines in order to be able to other visual and audible messages. Depending on the state of the terrain, they might be arranged at intervals of about one to three kilometres. They were supporting elements of defensive lines.Chartaque – Reconstruction of a chartaque in Burgau
50. Chashi – Chashi is the Japanese term for the hilltop fortifications of the Ainu. The word is from casi, which means palisade or palisaded compound; a rival theory relates the term to cas. A few, including the Tōya casi of present-day Kushiro, date to the Muromachi period; the remainder date largely to the early century. As such their construction may be related to increased competition with the Japanese. At the two corners of these... palisades, a high scaffolding is made for a lookout. Excavated chashi have revealed Japanese lacquerware, ceramics, swords, as well as beads perhaps from Sakhalin; consumables included rice, sake, tobacco. In return the Ainu traded products derived from bird, fish; plants and medicines; and goods imported via Sakhalin. However, "the culture of the trading post... destroy the ecological balance... overhunting and overfishing". By the end of the following century, the depletion of natural stocks resulted in famine. Furthermore, "competition over fisheries was at the heart of most Ainu conflicts". According to the Ezo hōki, regional influence among the Ainu was based on "good land", "many utensils", physical strength. Others known include the Arashiyama casi, Harutoru casi, Onibishi's casi, Sarushina casi, Sashirui casi, Uraike casi. Although there are nineteen chashi on the Shiretoko Peninsula, it is inscribed as a Natural rather than Cultural UNESCO World Heritage Site. In addition to providing for defence against rival Ainu, chashi functioned for gatherings and rituals. They also served as "visible symbols of power".Chashi – Chashi in the Kushiro wetlands
51. Chemin de rondeChemin de ronde – The chemin de ronde of the Yedikule Fortress, Istanbul, Turkey.
52. Chemise (wall) – In medieval castles the chemise was typically a low wall encircling the keep, protecting the base of the tower. Alternative terms, more commonly used in English, are apron wall. In some cases, the keep could only be entered from the chemise. Numerous examples exist including the heavily fortified chemise of Château de Vincennes, or the more modest example at Provins, both in France. Some chemises are suggested to have been developed from earlier bailey defences, though they may not usually be referred to as chemise. In later fortification, a chemise is a wall lined for greater support and strength. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chambers, ed.. "Chemise". Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. James and John Knapton, et al. Mesqui, Jean. Chateaux-forts et fortifications en France. Paris: Flammarion. P. 493 pp. ISBN 2-08-012271-1.Chemise (wall) – The keep at Provins encirled by a low wall
53. Cheval de frise – The cheval de frise was a medieval defensive anti-cavalry measure consisting of a portable frame covered with many projecting long iron or wooden spikes or spears. They could also be moved quickly to help block a breach in another barrier. They remained in occasional use until they were replaced just after the American Civil War. During the Civil War, the Confederates used this type of barrier more often than the Union forces. During World War I, armies used chevaux de frise to temporarily plug gaps in barbed wire. Chevaux de frise of barbed wire were used in jungle fighting during World War II. French: Cheval de frise literally means "Frisian horse". The Frisians, having few cavalry, relied heavily on anti-cavalry obstacles in warfare. The Dutch also adopted use of the defensive device when with Spain. The term came to be used for any spiked obstacle, such as broken glass embedded on the top of a wall. During the American Revolutionary War, Robert Erskine designed an anti-ship version of the cheval-de-frise to prevent British warships from proceeding up the Hudson River. A cheval-de-frise was placed between Fort Lee in New Jersey in 1776. Similar devices planned by Ben Franklin were used in the Delaware River between Fort Mifflin and Fort Mercer. A cheval-de-frise was retrieved from the Delaware River in Philadelphia after more than two centuries in the river. A small promontory between Holland Haven and Frinton on Sea, was named Chevaux de Frise Point.Cheval de frise – Chevaux de frise at the Confederate Fort Mahone defenses at Siege of Petersburg
54. Citadel – A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a fortress, fortified center. It is positioned to be the last line of defense, should the enemy breach the other components of the system. A citadel is also a term of the third part of a medieval castle, with higher walls than the rest. It was to be the last line of defense before the keep itself. Some of the oldest known structures which have served as citadels were built by harappan, where the citadel represented a centralised authority. The main citadel in Indus Valley was almost 12 meters tall. The purpose of these structures, however, remains debated. Though the structures found in the ruins of Mohenjo-daro were walled, it is far from clear that these structures were defensive against enemy attacks. Rather, they may have been built to divert flood waters. Nearly every Greek city-state had one -- the Acrocorinth famed as a particularly strong fortress. One such incident played an important part against the Seleucid Empire. A city where the citadel held out against an invading army was not considered conquered. In the Philippines The Ivatan people of the northern islands of Batanes often built fortifications to protect themselves during times of war. They elevated areas.These fortifications were likened to European castles because of their purpose.Citadel – In this seventeenth-century plan of the fortified city of Casale Monferrato the citadel is the large star-shaped structure on the left.
55. Concentric castle – The concentric does not imply that these castles were circular; in fact if taken too literally the term "concentric" is quite misleading. The layout was an irregular polygon where curtain walls of a spur castle followed the contours of a hill. Concentric castles resemble thus creating an inner and outer ward. They are typically built without a central free-standing keep. Where the castle includes a particularly strong tower, such as at Krak or Margat, it projects from the inner enceinte. The Byzantines also famously constructed the Walls of Constantinople which featured double layers of walls through most of a moat. The city of ancient Babylon also featured multiple layers of fortifications, famously seen in the Ishtar Gate. However, the relationship of the concentric castle to other forms of fortification is complex. The outer wall protected the inner one from siege engines, while the projecting towers provided flanking fire from crossbows. In addition, the strong towers may have served for shooting back at the besiegers. The Krak des Chevaliers in Syria is the best preserved of the concentric crusader castles. By contrast, Château Pèlerin was not a concentric castle, as the side facing the sea did not require defensive walls. While a concentric castle has double towers on all sides, the defences need not be uniform in all directions. There can still be a concentration of defences at a vulnerable point. At Krak des Chevaliers, this is the case at the southern side, where the terrain permits an attacker to deploy siege engines.Concentric castle – Plan of Beaumaris Castle (Wales)
56. Corner tower – A fortified tower is one of the defensive structures used in fortifications, such as castles, along with curtain walls. Castle towers can have a variety of fulfil different functions. Rectangular towers are easy to construct and give a good amount of usable internal space. Their disadvantage is that the corners are vulnerable to mining. Despite this vulnerability, Muslim military architecture generally favoured them. Round towers, also called drum towers, are more resistant to technology such as sappers and projectiles than square towers. The front is more resistant than the straight side of a square tower, just as a load-bearing arch. This principle was already understood in antiquity. The horseshoe-shaped tower is a compromise that gives the best of a square tower. The semicircular side could resist siege engines, while the rectangular part at the back gives a large fighting platform on top. The gate towers at Harlech are good examples. Armenian castles such as Lampron also favoured this style. A common form is the octagonal tower, used at Castel del Monte in Italy. There are also hybrid shapes. For instance, the keep at Château Gaillard also has a triangular beak to deflect projectiles.Corner tower – Gate towers at Harlech Castle
57. Curtain wall (fortification) – A curtain wall is defensive wall between two towers of a castle, fortress, or town. In medieval castles, the area surrounded without towers, is known as the bailey. The outermost walls with their integrated wall towers together make up main defensive line enclosing the site. Evidence for a series of walls surrounding fortress can be found in the historical sources from Assyria and Egypt. Some notable examples are ancient Lachish and Buhen.Curtain wall (fortification) – Beaumaris Castle with curtain walls between the lower outer towers and higher inner curtain walls between the higher inner towers.
58. Drawbridge – Medieval castles were usually defended by a moat, crossed by wooden bridge. Drawbridges became very common. It would be backed by more portcullises and gates. Access to the bridge could be resisted in flanking towers. The bridge would be lowered using ropes or chains attached to a windlass in a chamber in the gatehouse above the gate-passage. Only a very light bridge could be raised without any form of counterweight, so some form of bascule arrangement is normally found. The raising chains could themselves be attached to counterweights. In some cases, a portcullis provides the weight, as at Alnwick. In France, working drawbridges survive at a number including the Château du Plessis-Bourré. In England, two working drawbridges remain at Helmingham Hall, which dates from the early sixteenth century. A bridge pivoted on central trunnions may or may not have the raising chains characteristic of a drawbridge. Many turning bridges were replaced with more advanced drawbridges. Bascule bridge Drawbridge mentality Portcullis LinkspanDrawbridge – Drawbridge at the fort of Ponta da Bandeira; Lagos, Portugal
59. Enceinte – Enceinte is a French term denoting the "main defensive enclosure of a fortification". For a castle this is the defensive line of wall towers and curtain walls enclosing the position. For a settlement it would be the main wall with its associated gatehouses and towers and walls. However, the defensive wall close to the enceinte were not considered as forming part of it. In 20th-century fortification, the enceinte was usually simply the innermost continuous line of fortifications. In architecture, generally, an enceinte is the precinct of a cathedral, abbey, castle, etc.. The enceinte may be combined with buildings adjoining the outer walls. The outline with its fortified towers and domestic buildings, shaped the silhouette of a castle. The plan of an enceinte is affected by the terrain. From the 12th century onwards an additional enclosure called a zwinger was often built in front of the enceinte of European castles. This afforded an additional layer of defence as it formed a killing ground in front of the defensive wall. During the Baroque era it was not uncommon for these enclosures to be turned into pleasure gardens as for example in Dresden). Enceinte is the adjective'pregnant' in the French language. Friar, Stephen, The Sutton Companion to Castles, Stroud: Sutton Publishing, p. 105, ISBN 978-0-7509-3994-2 Piper, Otto, "Burgenkunde.Enceinte – Enceinte of Khotyn Fortress in Ukraine
60. Embrasure – In domestic architecture this refers to the outward splay of a window or slit on the inside. A loophole, arrow arrowslit passes through a solid wall and was originally for use by archers. The purpose of embrasures is to allow weapons to be fired out from the fortification while the firer remains under cover. Excellent examples of deep embrasures with arrow slits are to be seen at both in France. The etymology of embrasure expresses "widening". The invention of the arrowslit is attributed during the siege of Syracuse in 214 -- 212 BC. However, the invention was later forgotten in the 12th century. See arrowslit. By the 19th century, a distinction was made between loopholes being used for musketry. In both cases, the opening was normally made wider on the inside of the wall than the outside. A distinction was made depending on the orientation of the slit formed in the outside wall. Vertical loopholes -- which are much more common -- allow the weapon to be easily lowered in elevation so as to cover a variety of ranges easily. Horizontal loopholes, on the other hand, make large adjustments in elevation very difficult. They were usually used in circumstances where rapid cover of a wide field of arc was preferred. Arrowslit This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, ed..Embrasure – A loophole or inverted keyhole embrasure, allowing both arrow fire (through the arrow slit at the top) and small cannon fire through the circular opening, Château de Caen, France
61. Flanking tower – A flanking tower is a fortified tower, sited on the outside of a defensive wall or other fortified structure and thus forms a flank. From embrasures the section of wall between them could be swept from the side by ranged weapons. In addition, there were also rectangular towers. In architecture, a flanking tower is a semi-circular or polygonal tower on the outer wall of the church. The church of Great St. Martin Church in Cologne has several flanking towers. Flanking towers of Bibra Castle Flanking towers of Grumbach CastleFlanking tower – Flanking towers of Château de Coucy
62. Fortified church – A fortified church is a church, built to play a defensive role in times of war. Such churches were specially designed to incorporate military features, such as thick walls, embrasures. Others, such as the Cathedral of Ávila were incorporated into the wall. Churches with external defences such as curtain walls and wall towers are often referred to more specifically as fortress churches or Kirchenburgen. Although a large number of fortified churches in a variety of styles existed in the lands of Belarus only a handful have survived until the present. The most famous include Christian Orthodox churches in Muravanka and Synkovichi, well as Catholic fortified churches in Kamai and Ishkold'. In addition to Christian churches Belarus also has the ruins of fortified synagogues, of which the Chief Synagogue in Bykhaw is most notable. About 65 fortified churches are found in the Thiérache region of France. There are fortified churches that have been preserved, especially in the German states of Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria and Hesse. Located at ul. Grodzka street, it was built by a Polish statesman Palatine Sieciech in 1079 -- 1098. St. Andrew was the only Romanesque church in Kraków to withstand the Mongol attack of 1241. Along the lower part of the broader section of its façade are small openings that served during military siege. A number of medieval fortified churches, cathedrals survive in Portugal. These buildings were built either in Gothic styles.Fortified church – Fortified church in Muttenz, Switzerland
63. Fortified house – A fortified house is a type of building which developed in Europe during the Middle Ages. More generally it can refer to any residence that has had additional fortifications added. In the United States, historically a fortified house was often called a station depending on the region. This was a building built against primarily Indian attacks in frontier areas. While some fortified houses were sometimes used by militias, state and federal military units, their primary purpose was for civilian defense. Sometimes a stockade would surround the building. Examples of historic private or civilian fortified houses built include; Fort Nelson and Floyd's Station and Low Dutch Station all in Kentucky. Mormon Fort and Mormon Station in Nevada. Fort Buenaventura, Cove Fort, Fort Deseret, Fort Utah all in Utah. Carpenter's Fort in Ohio. Tower house Manor house Block house Fortified houses in IrelandFortified house – Schloss Hart by the Harter Graben near Kindberg, Austria
64. Ganerbenburg – A Ganerbenburg is a castle occupied and managed by several families or family lines at the same time. These families shared common areas of the castle including chapel whilst maintaining their own private living quarters. They occurred primarily in medieval Germany. Ganerbenburgen often came as a result of a type of inheritance known as a Ganerbschaft. Each branch of the family built, usually, one residential building within a common curtain wall. Sometimes these residences were expanded within the common castle site. The German ganerbe appears in the Middle High German romance, Parzival, written by Wolfram von Eschenbach around 1200. The legal Ganerbschaft appears from textual evidence to go back at least to the second half of the 9th century. In Old High German, gan meant "common", "joint" or "commoner". The first historically verifiable Ganerbschaft arrangement appears at the castle of Haut-Kœnigsbourg. The castles of feudal lords were often planned from the outset as Ganerbenburgs. Burgmann was responsible for the management and defence of a sector of the castle. This was not just for practical reasons; the higher nobility naturally wanted to limit the power of his liegemen. A good example of this is the Franconian castle of Salzburg near Bad Neustadt a castle enfeoffed by the Würzburg bishops. Ganerbenburgs that had evolved were sometimes forced to submit to the suzerainty of more powerful feudal lords.Ganerbenburg – One of the earliest known examples of a joint inheritance or Ganerbschaft: the reconstructed Hohkönigsburg in Alsace
65. Gate tower – A gate tower is a tower built over or next to a major gateway. Usually it is part of a medieval fortification. This may be a town or city wall, a castle. The tower may be built as a twin tower on either side of an entranceway. Even in the design of modern building complexes, gate towers may be built symbolically as a main entrance. Tower Gate City gateGate tower – The Linz Gate in Freistadt, Austria
66. Gabion – For control, caged riprap is used. For dams or in construction, cylindrical metal structures are used. In a military context, earth - or sand-filled gabions are used to protect sappers, artillerymen from enemy fire. Leonardo da Vinci designed a type of gabion called a Corbeille Leonard in Milan. Other uses include retaining walls, temporary flood walls, silt filtration from runoff, for small or temporary/permanent dams, channel lining. They may be used to direct the force of a flow of water around a vulnerable structure. Gabions are also used as fish screens on small streams. A wall is a retaining wall made of stacked stone-filled gabions tied together with wire. Gabion walls are usually stepped back with the slope, rather than stacked vertically. Gabions also have advantages over more rigid structures, because they can conform to subsidence, drain freely. Their effectiveness may increase with time in some cases, as silt and vegetation fill the interstitial voids and reinforce the structure. They are sometimes used to prevent falling stones from a cut or endangering traffic on a thoroughfare. The expectancy of gabions depends on the lifespan of the wire, not on the contents of the basket. The structure will fail when the wire fails. Stainless steel wire are also used.Gabion – Gabions with cannon, from a late 16th century illustration.
67. Glacis – A glacis in military engineering is an artificial slope as part of a medieval castle or in early modern fortresses. They may be constructed as a temporary structure or of stone in more permanent structure. A glacis plate is the front-most section of the hull of a tank or other armored fighting vehicle. More generally, the term glacis can denote any slope, artificial, which fulfils the above requirements. The etymology of this French word suggests a slope made dangerous with ice, hence the relationship with glacier. A glacis could also appear by the ancient Egyptians. Here it was used by them to prevent siege engines from weakening defensive walls. British hill forts started to incorporate glacis around 350 BC. Those at Maiden Castle in Dorset were 25 metres high. Towards the end of the medieval period some castles were modified to make them defensible against cannons. Towers were converted into gun platforms. Early European fortresses were so constructed as to keep any potential assailant under the fire of the defenders until the last possible moment. This gave a direct line of sight into the assaulting force, allowing them to efficiently sweep the field with fire from the parapet. Additionally, but the bank of earth would shield the walls from being hit directly by cannon fire. In a armored engagement, the glacis plate is the largest and most obvious target available to an enemy gunner.Glacis – The ramparts and ditches of Maiden Castle.
68. Guard towerGuard tower – Torre del Verger, guard tower located at Banyalbufar, Majorca, Spain.
69. Gulyay-gorod – Gulyay-gorod, also guliai-gorod, was a mobile fortification used by the Russian army between the 15th and the 17th centuries. Russian armies would construct a gulyay-gorod from prefabricated shields installed on wheels or sleds, a development of the wagon-fort concept. The usage of installable shields instead of armoured wagons allowed the assembly of more possible configurations. The gulyay-gorod developed in the European steppe nations where flat, void landscape provided no natural shelter. The English ambassador to Russia, left an early Western description of the gulyay-gorod in his Of the Russe Common Wealth. The wide-scale usage of gulyay-gorod started during the Russo-Kazan Wars of 1438-1552, later the Ukrainian Cossacks used the fortification extensively. A gulyay-gorod played the critical role during the Battle of Molodi, which brought to a halt the expansion of the Crimean Khanate into the Russian lands. In Ukraine, Bogdan Khmelnitsky had a large gulyay-gorod built for the siege of the castle of Zbarazh in 1649. With the proliferation of field artillery this kind of fortification fell into disuse. In a wider sense the Russian term has come to be applied to foreign mobile fortifications, such as wagon forts of Hussites. Battery-tower Wagon fort Mantlet Gorod V.F.Shperk, "The History of Fortification"Gulyay-gorod – Gulyay-gorod reconstruction.
70. Gusuku – Gusuku often refers to castles or fortresses in the Ryukyu Islands that feature stone walls. However, the essence of gusuku remain controversial. The Yarazamori Gusuku Inscription contains phrases, "pile gusuku" and "pile up gusuku and...". Apparently gusuku in these phrases to refer to stone walls. In the Omoro Sōshi, the term gusuku is written as "くすく," or "ぐすく" in hiragana. Occasionally, the kanji "城" is assigned to it. In later kumi odori, the reading shiro is also used for the same kanji. The referents of gusuku in the Omoro Sōshi are not limited to them. Some are sacred places of worship. In some cases, gusuku refers to Shuri Castle. A Chinese dictionary, maps Chinese" 皇城" to the transcription" 姑速姑". Similarly, the Yiyu yinshi assigns "窟宿孤" to "皇城." There is no consensus about the etymology of gusuku. Chamberlain analyzed the word as the combination of shuku. Iha Fuyū proposed that suku was cognate with soko.Gusuku – Shuri Castle, rebuilt after WWII
71. Half tower – Towers of this type were used, in city walls. City gates can also be incorporated into a type of half tower. On this side, a wooden railing on individual floors stopped objects from falling off. Sometimes the open side was sealed with weaker timber framed walls. Towers that are fully open at the rear are'open towers, whilst those only open on the lower floors are partially open towers. Some were rectangular.Half tower – Half tower in the town walls of Freiburg im Üechtland
72. Hoarding (castle) – A hoard or hoarding was a temporary wooden shed-like construction, placed on the exterior of the ramparts of a castle during a siege. Machicolations are also siege-ready. It is suspected that in peacetime, hoardings were stored as prefabricated elements. Construction of hoardings was often facilitated by sockets that were left in the masonry of castle walls for wooden joists called "putlogs". However, some hoardings were supported on permanent stone corbels. The keep of Laval, France. Another reconstructed hoarding can be seen at Caerphilly Castle, also in South Wales, which extends along the northern wall of the inner bailey. Castle Arrow slit Machicolation Murder holeHoarding (castle) – Reconstructed wooden hoarding at Carcassonne, France
73. Inner bailey – The inner bailey or inner ward of a castle is the strongly fortified enclosure at the heart of a medieval castle. It is protected by the outer ward and, sometimes also a zwinger, moats, other outworks. Depending on topography it may also be called upper ward. The inner bailey is usually the oldest part of a castle, because it contains those buildings that were the first to be built during its construction. Similarly the inner ward of Hohensalzburg Fortress is still called the Hoher Stock. Ward Outer bailey Motte and bailey Horst Wolfgang Böhme, Reinhard Friedrich, Barbara Schock-Werner: Wörterbuch der Burgen, Schlösser und Festungen. Philipp Reclam, Stuttgart, 2004, ISBN 3-15-010547-1, p. 169.Inner bailey – Plan of the outer and inner baileys of Alt-Trauchburg Castle (Germany).
74. Keep – KEEP is a commercially supported FM radio station serving the general area of Fredericksburg, Texas, due west from Austin and due north of San Antonio. KEEP is broadcast from Johnson City, Texas. It was one of four member stations of the Texas Rebel Radio Network which supplies Texas programming. This programming is available as audio via the KEEP/Texas Rebel Radio website. On June 2011, KEEP, after three months of silence, returned to the air simulcasting country-formatted KNAF-FM 105.7. Query the FCC's FM station database for KEEP Radio-Locator information on KEEP Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KEEPKeep
75. L-plan castle – An L-plan castle is a castle or towerhouse in the shape of an L, typically built in the 13th to the 17th century. This design is also seen in other locations. The evolution of its design was an expansion of the blockhouse or simple square tower from the Early Middle Ages. As building techniques improved, it became possible to construct a more complex shape than the simple tower. A more compelling motivation for the L plan was the ability to defend the entrance door by providing covering fire from the adjacent walls. This stratagem was particularly driven by the advent of cannon used by attackers. It was common for the union of the two wings to have very thick construction to support a defensive tower in the union area. For example, the stone walls of Muchalls Castle in Scotland are over 14 feet thick at the ground level. Built in the 13th century, these walls are thought to have supported a substantial defensive tower. A 17th-century reconstruction consisted of a probably equally tall structure, but one suited toward 17th century living and whose upper storey footprints mimicked the lower course. Gleninagh Castle is a 16th-century towerhouse in a state of partial preservation. The L-plan design is also present in Rathmore Castle in County Meath. As an European example, one may look to Herasti Castle, which includes elements of Italian Renaissance design. In Cagliari, Sardinia are two surviving structures known as the Pisan Towers. Each of these towers, as well as a third structure destroyed by English and Spanish naval power, is an L-plan design.L-plan castle – Muchalls Castle, Scotland
76. Machicolation – The design was adopted in the Middle Ages in Europe when Norman crusaders returned from the Holy Land. A machicolated battlement projects outwards from the supporting wall in order to facilitate this. A hoarding is a similar structure made of wood, usually temporarily constructed in the event of a siege. Advantages of machicolations over wooden hoardings include resistance of stone. The word derives from the Old French word machecol, mentioned in Medieval Latin as machecollum, probably from Old French machier'crush','wound' and col'neck'. Machicolate is only recorded in the 18th century in English, but a verb machicollāre is attested in Anglo-Latin. The Spanish word denoting matacán, is similarly composed from "matar canes" meaning roughly the latter being a reference to infidels. Machicolations were more common in French castles than English, where they were usually restricted to the gateway, as in the 13th-century Conwy Castle. One of the first examples of machicolation that still exists in northern France is Château de Farcheville built in 1291 outside Paris. Similar to a machicolation is a smaller version which opens as a balcony, generally from a tower rather than a larger structure. This is called a box-machicolation. Machicolations were a common feature in many towers and rural buildings in Malta until the 18th century. Buildings with machicolations include Cavalier Tower, Gauci Tower, Tal-Wejter Tower. Machicolation subsequently became a characteristic of non-military buildings. Bretèche Arrow slit Hoarding Murder hole Notes Bibliography Mesqui, Jean.Machicolation – Functional machicolation at Château de Pierrefonds
77. Merlon – A merlon is the solid upright section of a battlement or crenellated parapet in medieval architecture or fortifications. Merlons are sometimes pierced by slits designed for observation and fire. A succession of merlons and crenels is a crenellation. Crenels designed in later eras, for use by cannons, were also called embrasures. An alternative etymology suggests that the Latin merulus functioned as a diminutive of Latin merle, expressing an image of blackbirds sitting on a wall. As an essential part of battlements, merlons were used in fortifications for millennia. The best-known examples appear on medieval buildings, where battlements, though defensive, could be attractively formed, thus having a decorative purpose. Some buildings have false "decorative battlements". Other shapes include: three-pointed, quatrefoil, shielded, flower-like, rounded, pyramidal, aesthetic considerations. In Roman times, the merlons had a width sufficient to shelter a single man. The shutters could be opened by using a pulley. Battlement Embrasure, also called a crenel Defensive walls Balestracci, D.. "I materiali da costruzione castello medievale". Archeologia Medievale: 227–242. Luisi, R..Merlon – Merlons of the Alcazaba in Almería, Spain.
78. Moat – In some places moats evolved including natural or artificial lakes, dams and sluices. In older fortifications, such as hillforts, they are usually referred to simply as ditches, although the function is similar. In later periods, moats or water defences may be largely ornamental. They could also act as sewerage. Some of the earliest evidence of moats has been uncovered around Egyptian castles. One example is at a castle excavated in Nubia. Other evidence of ancient moats is found in reliefs from ancient Egypt, Assyria, other cultures in the region. The use of the moats could have been either for agriculture purposes. Moats were excavated around other fortifications as part of the defensive system as an obstacle immediately outside the walls. In suitable locations they might be filled with water. A water-filled moat made the practice of digging tunnels under the castles in order to effect a collapse of the defences, very difficult as well. Segmented moats have one section filled with water. Dry moats cut across the narrow part of a peninsula are called neck ditches. Moats separating different elements such as the inner and outer wards are cross ditches. The shared derivation implies that the two features were possibly constructed at the same time.Moat – The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England
79. Motte-and-bailey castle – The Normans introduced the design into England and Wales following their invasion in 1066. Motte-and-bailey castles were adopted in Scotland, Ireland, the Low Countries and Denmark in the 12th and 13th centuries. The term "motte and bailey" is a relatively modern one, is not medieval in origin. The word "bailey" comes from the Norman-French baille, or basse-cour, referring to a low yard. In medieval sources, the Latin term castellum was used to describe the bailey complex within these castles. One contemporary account of these structures comes from Jean de Colmieu around 1130, describing the Calais region in northern France. Inside the enclosure is a citadel, or keep, which commands the whole circuit of the defences. Some were also built over older artificial structures, such as Bronze Age barrows. The size of mottes varied considerably, with these mounds being 3 metres to 30 metres in height, from 30 metres to 90 metres in diameter. This minimum height of 3 metres for mottes is usually intended to exclude smaller mounds which often had non-military purposes. A keep and a protective wall would usually be built on top of the motte. Smaller mottes could only support simple towers with room for a few soldiers, whilst larger mottes could be equipped with a much grander building. Wooden structures on mottes could be protected by skins and hides to prevent them being easily set alight during a siege. The bailey was an enclosed courtyard overlooked by the motte and surrounded by a wooden fence called a palisade and another ditch. The bailey was often kidney-shaped to fit against a circular motte, but could be made in other shapes according to the terrain.Motte-and-bailey castle – A reconstruction of the English city of York in the 15th century, showing the motte and bailey fortifications of Old Baile (left) and York Castle (right)
80. Murder-holeMurder-hole – Murder holes at Bodiam Castle
81. Neck ditch – It is often an important element in the defensive system of hill castles, especially in Germany and other parts of Central Europe. Originally the term ditch was only applied to spur castles. These were sited on hill spurs where three sides of the castle were protected by steep hillsides. Realistically they could only be attacked from the direction of the higher ground of the hill itself. The castle was then only accessible over a bridge – usually a drawbridge. Old neck ditches have since become thickly overgrown and may only be made out with some difficulty. Examples of castles with neck ditches in the classical sense are Liebenstein, Rochlitz, Kriebstein and Isenburg. If other parts such as the outer and inner wards, are separated with such moats, they are known as cross ditches. Reclam, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-15-010547-1, p. 145–146. Friedrich-Wilhelm Krahe: Burgen des deutschen Mittelalters. Grundriss-Lexikon. Flechsig, ISBN 3-88189-360-1, p. 24.Neck ditch – Plan of Rudelsburg castle with its neck ditch (D)
82. Outer bailey – An outer bailey or outer ward is the defended outer enclosure of a castle. It usually contains those ancillary buildings used for the management of the castle or the supply of its occupants. In many cases there was also a brewery, a kitchen, if the latter was not located in the hall or palas. An outer bailey was often called a court in England. Depending on topography it could also be referred to as lower ward, the keep being in the upper bailey or ward. Chepstow Castle has lower, upper baileys. The domestic buildings of the continental schloss, often palace, may also be referred to as an outer ward. These frequently contained buildings that were not common in medieval castles. Large castles often have more than one bailey; examples include Monschau and Bürresheim. At some larger castles, markets were held in the outer bailey. In lowland castles, the outer bailey is usually arranged in a half-moon shape around the main castle. Rudelsburg Castle in Saxony-Anhalt is one of the rare cases of a castle where both baileys are at the same level. This explains why the chapel was often found in the bailey: it served as the parish church for the commoners. Ward Inner bailey Motte and bailey Horst Wolfgang Böhme, Reinhard Friedrich, Barbara Schock-Werner: Dictionary of castles, palaces and fortresses. Reclam, ISBN 3-15-010547-1, page 255-256.Outer bailey – Orava Castle (Slovakia) with a large outer bailey.
83. Peel tower – Canons Ashby consists in the county of Northamptonshire. Peel towers in smaller settlements. Some towers are now derelict while others have been converted for use in peacetime. That on the Inner Farne is a home to bird wardens. The most obvious conversion needs will include the provision of more and larger windows. Bastle house Manor house house This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed.. "Peel Towers". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne. Pele Towers in Cumbria "the name given to fortresses of the moss-troopers on the Scottish border". P. 490.Peel tower – Smailholm Tower.
84. Portcullis – Portcullises fortified the entrances to medieval castles, securely closing off the castle during time of attack or siege. Often, two portcullises to the main entrance would be used. The one closer to the inside would be closed first, then the one farther away. Often, burning wood or fire-heated sand would be dropped onto them from the roof or murder-holes. Hot oil, however, was not commonly used in this manner, contrary to popular belief, since oil was extremely expensive. Arrowslits in the sides of the walls enabled archers and crossbowmen to eliminate the trapped group of attackers. In England, working portcullises survive at the Tower of London, Monk Bar in York, Hever Castle. Since then, the portcullis has been a moderately common motif of English heraldry, especially that heraldry dating from the Tudor period. A junior officer of arms in the College of Arms at London, dates from this period. Somerset named them for his family. These include Worcester, Somerset West, Beaufort West. Institutions that derive the portcullis from these arms include a school, a rugby club. A portcullis—fitted well with the scheme. Since then, the portcullis has become the primary symbol of Parliament; an building for Members of Parliament, opened in 2001, is named "Portcullis House". The badge of the Canada Border Services Agency also bore a portcullis, symbolising the agency's role as "gatekeeper" of goods into Canada.Portcullis – Portcullis at Cahir Castle
85. PosternPostern – The postern of Newport Arch, built by the ancient Romans in Lincolnshire, England, located to the right of the larger main arch, and used for pedestrian traffic.
86. Ringwork – A ringwork is a form of fortified defensive structure, usually circular or oval in shape. Ringworks are essentially motte-and-bailey castles minus the motte. Defences were usually earthworks in the form of a bank surrounding the site. Ringworks originated in the 10th century as an early form of medieval castle and at first were little more than a fortified manor house. Large numbers were built during the late 11th and early 12th centuries. More elaborate versions comprise the ringwork replacing the more usual motte and the bailey acting as a military stronghold. A survey published in 1969 identified 198 ringwork castles with a further 50 sites that were considered to possibly be ringworks. Ringfort Circular rampartRingwork – Surviving earthworks of the ringwork at Newington Bagpath, England
87. Quadrangular castle – There is no keep and frequently no distinct gatehouse. The form predominantly dates from the mid to late fourteenth century and signals the transition from defensively to domestically oriented great houses. The four walls are also known as ranges. Quadrangular castles typically display a complex approach to the planning of internal social spaces. There are many quadrangular castles around Britain, for example: Bolton Castle. No castles of this design were built in Wales. One of the earliest quadrangular castles in Germany is Neuleiningen, of which substantial ruins remain.Quadrangular castle – Bolton Castle, in England.
88. Shell keep – A shell keep is a style of medieval fortification, best described as a stone structure circling the top of a motte. Castle engineers during the Norman period did not trust the motte to support the enormous weight of a stone keep. A common solution was to replace the palisade with a wall then build wooden buildings backing onto the inside of the wall. This construction was lighter than a prevented the walls from being undermined, meaning they could be thinner and lighter. The majority were built in the 11th and 12th centuries. Brown, Reginald Allen. Castles from the air:Cambridge air surveys. CUP Archive. P. 52. ISBN 0-521-32932-9. Darvill, Timothy; Stamper, Paul; Timby, Jane. England: an Oxford archaeological guide to sites from earliest times to AD 1600. Oxford University Press. P. 196. ISBN 0-19-284101-7.Shell keep – An aerial view of the Windsor castle: with its shell keep (called "The Round Tower") prominent on its motte inside the middle ward (middle baily).
89. Shield wall (castle) – There is often no definitive distinction between a shield wall and a mantle wall. However some British castles built on headlands such as Tantallon do have a similar feature. The thickness of a wall could, in extreme cases, be as much as 12 metres. For example at Liebenzell Castle, the bergfried was built in the centre of the shield wall. Philipp Reclam, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-15-010547-1, p. 228–230; Alexander Antonow: Burgen des südwestdeutschen Raums im 13. Und 14. Jahrhundert – unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Schildmauer. Verlag Konkordia, Bühl/Baden 1977, ISBN 3-7826-0040-1; Friedrich-Wilhelm Krahe: Burgen des deutschen Mittelalters – Grundriss-Lexikon. Sonderausgabe, Flechsig Verlag, Würzburg 2000, ISBN 3-88189-360-1, p. 34−36; Friedrich-Wilhelm Krahe: Burgen und Wohntürme des deutschen Mittelalters, Band 1: Burgen. Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-7995-0104-5, p. 33−36;Shield wall (castle) – The shield wall of Stahleck Castle
90. Toll castle – A toll castle is a castle that, in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Era, guarded a customs post and was intended to control it. They were typically found in the Holy Roman Empire. Toll castles always stood in the vicinity of an long-distance trade route over, for example, the Alpine passes or the Middle Rhine. Such castles were usually placed at strategic locations, such as border crossings, river crossings or mountain were manned by armed guards. The toll-collecting point lay below at the road or river and was often linked by walls to the castle itself. Some, such as Pfalzgrafenstein Castle in the middle of the Rhine near Kaub, were, however, purely customs only collected tolls. Castles of the World. New York: Metro Books. ISBN 978-1-4351-4845-1 Horst Wolfgang Böhme, Reinhard Friedrich, Barbara Schock-Werner: Wörterbuch der Burgen, Schlösser und Festungen. Philipp Reclam, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-15-010547-1, p. 272.Toll castle – The toll castle of Stahleck in Bacharach
91. Tower castle – A tower castle is a small castle that mainly consists of a fortified tower or a tower-like structure, built on natural ground. It is thus different from the motte-and-bailey castle, whose main defensive structure is built on a motte or artificial hill. The castle is occasionally also described as a tower house castle or a tower house. The habitable but also fortified castle became the permanent private residence of numerous lords during the 11th and 12th centuries. Fortified house Watchtower Tower house Horst Wolfgang Böhme, Reinhard Friedrich, Barbara Schock-Werner: Wörterbuch der Burgen, Schlösser und Festungen. Philipp Reclam, Stuttgart, ISBN 3-15-010547-1, pp. 248 -- 249.Tower castle – Artist's impression of a tower castle by Viollet-le-Duc
92. Tower house – A tower house is a particular type of stone structure, built for defensive purposes as well as habitation. At the same time, they were also used as an aristocrat's residence, around which a town was often constructed. In medieval communes, tower houses were increasingly built by the local barons as power centres during times of internal strife. In century Scotland these castles became the pleasurable retreats of the upper-classes. While able to adopt a military nature, they were furnished for social interaction. Tower houses are commonly found in northern Spain, especially in the Basque Country, some of them dating back to the 8th century. They were able to provide shelter against several enemies, starting with the Arabs and later Castile and Aragon. During the petty wars among the Basque nobles from 1379 to 1456, the upper floors of most of them were demolished. Few have survived unscathed to the present day. Since then they have been converted into farm houses. In Cantabria and Asturias similar tower houses are found. Furthest west in the Iberian peninsula in Galicia, medieval tower houses are in the origin of many Modern Age pazos, noble residences well as strongholds. The house served the purpose of protecting the extended family. A number of such tower houses still exist, well-preserved examples include Purtse, Vao and Kiiu castles in Estonia. The Yemeni city of Shibam has hundreds of tower houses which were the tallest in the world.Tower house – The Tower of Hallbar in South Lanarkshire, Scotland
93. Turret – In architecture, a turret is a small tower that projects vertically from the wall of a building such as a medieval castle. Turrets were used to provide a projecting defensive position allowing covering fire to the adjacent wall in the days of military fortification. As their military use faded, turrets were used for decorative purposes, as in the Scottish baronial style. A turret can have a circular top with crenellations as seen in the picture at other kind of apex. The size of a turret is therefore limited by technology, since it puts additional stresses on the structure of the building. It would traditionally be supported by a corbel. An overhanging, wall-mounted turret found particularly on French and Spanish fortifications between the 16th century. They returned with their popularity in baronial style. Bay window Oriel windowTurret – Turret (highlighted) attached to a tower on a baronial building in Scotland
94. Fortified tower – A fortified tower is one of the defensive structures used in fortifications, such as castles, along with curtain walls. Castle towers can have a variety of fulfil different functions. Rectangular towers are easy to construct and give a good amount of usable internal space. Their disadvantage is that the corners are vulnerable to mining. Despite this vulnerability, Muslim military architecture generally favoured them. Round towers, also called drum towers, are more resistant to technology such as sappers and projectiles than square towers. The front is more resistant than the straight side of a square tower, just as a load-bearing arch. This principle was already understood in antiquity. The horseshoe-shaped tower is a compromise that gives the best of a square tower. The semicircular side could resist siege engines, while the rectangular part at the back gives a large fighting platform on top. The gate towers at Harlech are good examples. Armenian castles such as Lampron also favoured this style. A common form is the octagonal tower, used at Castel del Monte in Italy. There are also hybrid shapes. For instance, the keep at Château Gaillard also has a triangular beak to deflect projectiles.Fortified tower – Gate towers at Harlech Castle
95. Ward (castle) – In fortifications, a bailey or ward refers to a courtyard enclosed by a curtain wall. In particular, an early type of European castle was known as a Motte-and-bailey. Castles can have more than one ward. Their layout depends both on the level of fortification technology employed, ranging from simple enclosures to elaborate concentric defences. Wards can be arranged along a hill giving an upper ward and lower ward. They can also be nested one inside the other, as in a concentric castle, giving inner ward. Large castles may have two outer wards; if in line they may form an middle ward. On the other hand, Tower houses lack an enclosed ward. Nonetheless, there are a few castles where the keep is outside the inner ward, such as Flint Castle. Outer wards often held less important structures, such as stables, if there was not enough space in the inner ward. Outer wards could also be largely defensive without significant buildings. Rectangular shapes are very common. A particularly complex arrangement of wards can be found at Château Gaillard. The wall was a Zwingermauer or type of low mantlet wall. Cathcart King, David James.Ward (castle) – Outer (lower) ward of Krak des Chevaliers as seen from the inner (upper) ward
96. Watchtower – A watchtower, or watch tower, is a type of fortification used in many parts of the world. It differs from a turret in that it is usually a freestanding structure. Its main purpose is to provide a safe place from which a sentinel or guard may observe the surrounding area. In some cases, non-military towers, such as religious pagodas, may also be used as watchtowers. The Romans built numerous towers as part of a system of one example being the towers along Hadrian's Wall in Britain. In medieval Europe, similar fortified buildings, were equipped with watchtowers. In some of the manor houses of western France, the watchtower equipped with gun loopholes was one of the principal means of defense. A feudal lord could keep watch over his domain from the top of his tower. In southern Saudi Arabia and Yemen, small mud towers called "qasaba" were constructed as either watchtowers or keeps in the Asir mountains. Furthermore, in Najd, a watchtower, called "Margab", was used to shout calling warnings from atop. Later many were built against the Barbary pirates. Some notable examples of military Mediterranean watchtowers include the towers that the Knights of Malta had constructed on the coasts of Malta. These towers ranged in size to large structures armed with numerous cannons. They include the Wignacourt, Lascaris towers, named for the Grand Master, such as Martin de Redin, that commissioned each series. In the Channel Islands, the Guernsey loophole towers date from the late 18th Century.Watchtower – Watchtower of the camp of the French artillery detachment of the IFOR, Sarajevo, 1995.
97. Witch tower – The name is derived from the period of witch trials. Many of these towers found guilty of witchcraft. These towers are sometimes renovated and used to house museums. According to legend, witches were actually burnt at the Wildensteiner Burg. With trials from the region of the Upper Danube valley may be seen in the archives. In a special beer, the Hexe is brewed which depicts on its label the local witch tower. The ruins were torn down. Only a picture on the facade of Paris Lodron Straße recalls this building.Witch tower – The Jülich witch tower
98. Yett – A yett is a gate or grille of latticed wrought iron bars used for defensive purposes in castles and tower houses. While few references to yetts exist outside Scotland, an English report of 1416 on Roxburgh Castle contained recommendations for the insertion of iron gates. Yetts are widespread throughout. Similar grille constructions, also referred to as yetts, were used in Scotland over windows and other openings. These were typically fixed in place, often set into the jambs, lintels. The earliest references to yetts date from the 14th century. Exchequer Rolls from 1377 refer to part of the defences for David's Tower in Edinburgh Castle. Yetts were also appearing at about the same time. By the 15th century, window-grilles had become standard features within Scottish castles and towers. The yett was frequently used as cheaper alternative to the portcullis, since it was simpler in concept, more practical. However, it was also used within more complex defensive arrangements. The yetts each had two leaves, with a wicket gate inserted within one of the leaves. Commonly, the yett would be placed behind a wooden door, providing additional security should the outer door be burned. Being a defensive structure, royal warrants were required before a yett could be added to any castle. Following the Union of the Crowns in 1603, efforts were made by the government to control the reiving in the borders.Yett – Yett hanging in the main entrance of Blackness Castle, Scotland, showing attached bolts and pierced construction. Wrought in 1693.
99. Modern history – Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the global historiographical approach to the timeframe after the Post-classical history. The contemporary history is the span of historic events that are immediately relevant to the present time. Some events, while not without precedent, show a new way of perceiving the world. The concept of modernity seeks explanations for major developments. The fundamental difficulty of studying modern history is the fact that a plethora of it has been documented up to the present day. It is imperative to consider the reliability of the information obtained from these records. Pre-modern cultures have not been thought of creating a sense of distinct individuality, though. Religious officials, who often held positions of power, were the spiritual intermediaries to the common person. It was only through these intermediaries that the general masses had access to the divine. The social order of ceremony and morals in a culture could be strictly enforced. The term "modern" was coined in the 16th century to indicate recent times. New information about the world was discovered versus the historic use of reason and innate knowledge. The term "Early Modern" was introduced in the English language in the 1930s. To distinguish the time between what we call time of the late Enlightenment. It is important to note that these terms stem from European history.Modern history – Waldseemüller map with joint sheets, 1507
100. 18th century – The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1700 to December 31, 1799 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French and American revolutions. Science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a age. This dream turned with the French Revolution of 1789 - though later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror under Maximilien Robespierre. With the French Revolution they feared losing their power and formed broad coalitions for the counter-revolution. The Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. The 18th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state. The vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. Great Britain became a major power in North America in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India. However, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States of America. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain with the production of the improved steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change the environment. Western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. 1700-1721: Great Northern War between Tsarist Russia and the Swedish Empire.18th century – Washington crossing the Delaware, December 25, 1776, an iconic event of the American Revolution
101. Blockhouse – In military science, a blockhouse is a small fortification, usually consisting of one or more rooms with loopholes, allowing its defenders to fire in various directions. A fortification intended to resist these weapons is more likely to be an underground bunker. However, a blockhouse may also refer within a larger fortification, usually a battery or redoubt. The term "blockhouse" is of uncertain origin, perhaps related to 18th-century French blocus. The major period of construction was in the maritime defence programmes of Henry VIII between 1545. They were built to protect important maritime approaches such as the Thames Estuary, Plymouth. The last blockhouse of this type was Cromwell's Castle, built in 1651. Blockhouses were an ubiquitous feature in Malta's coastal fortifications built by the Order of St. John. Almost redoubt had a blockhouse, which served as gun crew accommodation and a place to store munitions. Many of the batteries consisted of a semi-circular or polygonal gun platform, at the rear. In some cases were linked together by redans. Surviving batteries include Mistra Battery and Ferretti Battery, which both have two blockhouses, Saint Anthony's Battery, which have a single blockhouse. Many of the redoubts consisted at the rear although a few had semi-circular or rectangular platforms. Surviving redoubts with blockhouses include Baħar iċ-Ċagħaq Redoubt and Briconet Redoubt, both of which have a pentagonal plan. A few of the redoubts were known as tour-reduits.Blockhouse – Oldest remaining blockhouse in North America: Fort Edward (Nova Scotia) (1750)
102. Breastwork (fortification) – A breastwork is a temporary fortification, often an earthwork thrown up to breast height to provide protection to defenders firing over it from a standing position. A more permanent structure, normally in stone, would be described as the battlement of a wall. In warships, a breastwork is the armored superstructure in the ship that did not extend all the way out to the sides of the ship. It was generally only used in turret ships designed between 1880. List of established military termsBreastwork (fortification) – Breastwork trench at Armentieres in 1916, during World War I
103. Canal – Canals and navigations are human-made channels for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. These areas are referred to as ` slack water levels', just called ` levels'. In contrast, a canal cuts atop a ridge generally requiring an external water source above the highest elevation. Many canals have been built at elevations towering over others water ways crossing far below. The Roman Empire's Aqueducts were such supply canals. A navigation is a series of channels that run roughly parallel to the valley and bed of an unimproved river. A navigation always shares the drainage basin of the river. A vessel uses the calm parts of the river itself well as improvements, traversing the same changes in height. A true canal is a channel that cuts across a drainage divide, making a navigable channel connecting two different drainage basins. This is true for many canals still in use. There are two broad types of canal: Waterways: navigations used for carrying vessels transporting goods and people. These can be subdivided into two kinds: Those connecting existing lakes, rivers, seas and oceans. Those connected in a city network: such as the Canal Grande and others of Venice Italy; the gracht of Amsterdam, the waterways of Bangkok. Aqueducts: water supply canals that are used for the conveyance and delivery of potable water for human consumption, municipal uses, hydro power canals and agriculture irrigation. Historically canals were of the development, growth and vitality of a civilization.Canal – The Alter Strom, in the sea resort of Warnemünde, Germany.
104. Caponier – A caponier is a type of fortification structure. The word originates from the French caponnière. Originally the term referred to a covered passageway that traversed the ditch outside the wall. Thus the passageway was equipped with musket ports and cannon ports that fired along the ditch. To clear the smoke and fumes from the firing the roof of the caponier is often provided with ventilation ports. The length of the straight sections of the ditch is chosen so that it can be covered from a single caponier. Caponiers are often wedge shaped so that they can fire down both angles of the ditch. An alternative to the caponier is a counterscarp battery, giving a similar field of fire. Both structures may be found in the same fort.Caponier – Rifle port inside a caponier, Fort Napoleon, Ostend, Belgium.
105. Casemate – A casemate, sometimes erroneously rendered casement, is a fortified gun emplacement or armored structure from which guns are fired. Originally, the term referred in a fortress. In armoured fighting vehicles that do not have a turret for the main gun, the structure that accommodates the gun is termed the casemate. The word comes from the Italian casamatta, the etymology of, uncertain. Others think that it comes from the Arabic kasaba, transliterated to kasbah, the word that originated the Spanish word for fortress: alcazaba. Menagio speculated that it came from the Greek word for khasma, the plural of, khasmata. Hensleigh Wedgwood thought that it came from matar, making a casemate a house in which killing happens. Others take matto in its Italian meaning of dark, equivalent to the English matt, as in opaque, making a casamatta a dark house. Casematte were also used as military prisons, making use of their lack of light to add to the punishment. This explanation seems to be the most agreed upon. A casemate was originally a vaulted chamber usually constructed underneath the rampart. It could be used for sheltering troops or stores. With the addition of an embrasure through the scarp face of the rampart, it could be used as a protected position. In the 19th century, French military engineer Baron Haxo designed a free-standing casemate that could be built on the top of the rampart. Casemates built in concrete were used in the Second World War to protect coastal artillery from attack.Casemate – Fort Bokar was built as a two-story casemate fortress, standing in front of the medieval Walls of Dubrovnik in Croatia.
107. CounterguardCounterguard – Saint Michael's Counterguard in Valletta, Malta.
108. Counterscarp – A scarp and a counterscarp are the inner and outer sides of a ditch or moat used in fortifications. Attackers ascend the scarp. In permanent fortifications the counterscarp may be encased in stone. These are "galleries" that have been built behind the counterscarp wall inside the moat or ditch. Each gallery is pierced with loopholes for musketry, so that attacking forces that enter the moat can be directly fired upon. Counterscarp galleries were usually built into the angles of the ditch to give the widest field of fire. They were more commonly designed for infantry weapons only. 1898: Counterscarp Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Counterscarp". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Cambridge University Press. P. 316. Jean Lafitte Historic Resource Study,: Jackson's line at Rodriguez CanalCounterscarp – Counterscarp of a Napoleon era polygonal fort (Fort Napoleon, Ostend). Counterscarps had become vertical by this time. The housing at the bottom of the ditch is a caponier from where the defenders could fire on attackers that managed to climb down into the ditch, while being protected from cannon fire themselves.
109. Couvreface – A couvreface in fortification architecture is a small outwork, built in front of the actual fortress ditch before bastions or ravelins. It just consisted of a low rampart with a breastwork that protected its defending infantry. Another ditch in front of the work guarded it from frontal assault. The function of couvrefaces was to protect the faces of the higher ravelin or bastion from direct artillery fire. Similar to the couvreface is the larger counterguard which, by contrast, was designed to enable the positioning of guns. Couvrefaces are found particularly in Dutch and French fortifications to the early 19th centuries.Couvreface – A: Counterguard B: Couvreface (idealised graphic in which all accompanying works such as moats or glacis have been omitted)
110. Coupure – For the prehistoric biological event, see Grande Coupure A coupure is a means of closing an opening in a wall, floodwall or levee. The word comes from the verb couper which means to cut. In historic times a coupure was a location where the walls of a fortress was closed. In more modern times a coupure is a way of allowing traffic to pass a flood structure. Its purpose is to frustrate an attack made by the forlorn hope. This was a strategy used many times by defenders of fortifications, for example, during the Siege of Clonmel. It can also be a passage through a glacis to create a sally port so that the defenders can launch a sortie against the attackers. In case of expected flooding the cut can temporarily be closed. This type of coupure is also known as vehicle gate, similar names. The closure can be accomplished by various means. The most basic means of closing a coupure is with soil or sandbags. More sophisticated means of closing a coupure consist of wooden or metal doors. Older coupures are usually brick built structures with provisions for placing two stacks of beams between them. Between the stacks of beams, which form two walls, horse other animal faeces mixed with straw is dumped and compacted. This type of material swells when wet, thus providing additional waterproofing.Coupure – A coupure where the A2 motorway crosses the Diefdijk in the Netherlands.
111. CovertwayCovertway – 17th century illustration showing a cross-section of the fortifications of Groenlo. From left to right: counterscarp, covertway, ditch, faussebraye and the main defensive wall.
112. Device fort – Some forts operated independently, others were designed to be mutually reinforcing. These utilitarian fortifications were armed with artillery, intended to be used against enemy ships before they could land forces or attack ships lying in harbour. The first wave of work between 1543 was characterised by the use of circular bastions and multi-tiered defences, combined with many traditional medieval features. Despite a French raid against the Isle of Wight in 1545, the Device Forts saw almost no action before peace was declared in 1546. Some of the defences were decommissioned only a few years after their construction. After war broke out in 1569, Elizabeth I improved many of the remaining fortifications, including during the attack of the Spanish Armada of 1588. This spurred fresh investment in those Device Forts encouraged the decommissioning of others. Despite being brought back into use by the 1950s the fortifications were finally considered redundant and decommissioned for good. Some sites had been extensively damaged or completely destroyed. Many were opened to the public as tourist attractions. The Device Forts emerged in the early 16th century. During the medieval period, the English use of castles as military fortifications had declined in importance. Soon traditional stone walls could easily be destroyed by early artillery. Many older castles were simply left to fall in disrepair. A full-scale invasion seemed unlikely.Device fort – Deal Castle in Kent was built between 1539 and 1540.
114. Orillon – An orillon, also known as an orillion, is an architectural element of a military fortification. The ear-shaped projection of masonry provided defense at the flank of a bastion. However, an orillon could also shield a gate. An orillon, sometimes referred to as an orillion, is an architectural element of a fortification. It is an ear-shaped projection from the end of the face of a bastion. It may be semi-circular or squared-off in shape. It may cover a retired flank. The French orillon is a diminutive which derives from the French oreille. An orillon was generally built at the flank of a bastion, close to the defensive wall. The position permitted the cannons to be set back into the bastion. The projecting masonry shielded soldiers. Additional protection was sometimes provided by lowering the platform in the bastion. An orillon could also shield a gate. An example is the Prince Edward's Gate in the Charles V Wall in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. Examples of bastions that have orillons include the South Bastion in Gibraltar.Orillon – At the lower edge of the 1908 OS map of the Flat Bastion in Gibraltar is an orillon covering a retired flank and the Prince Edward's Gate in the Charles V Wall.
115. Ostrog (fortress) – Ostrog is a Russian term for a small fort, typically wooden and often non-permanently manned. Ostrogs were encircled by 4–6 metres high palisade walls made from sharpened trunks. The name derives from the Russian word строгать, "to shave the wood". Ostrogs were smaller and exclusively military forts, compared to larger kremlins that were the cores of Russian cities. Ostrogs were often built in remote areas or within the fortification lines, such as the Great Abatis Line. Many of these forts later transformed into large Siberian cities. Kremlin Blockhouse Ostrog at the Great Soviet EncyclopediaOstrog (fortress) – The tower of Ilimsky ostrog, now in Taltsy Museum in Irkutsk, Siberia.
116. OutworkOutwork – View of the fortifications of Valletta, with the main fortification (a bastion) to the left, the ditch in the centre, and the outwork (a counterguard) to the right.
117. Polygonal fort – The polygonal style of fortification is also described as a "flankless fort". Their low profile makes them easy to overlook. The British went on to build several other polygonal forts and batteries from 1872 to 1909, the first one being Fort St. Rocco. Many were also built during the government of Lord Palmerston, so they are also often referred to as Palmerston forts. In response to the vulnerabilities of star forts, military engineers evolved a more robust style of fortification. The ditch became vertical sided, cut directly into the native rock. It was laid out as a series of straight lines surrounding the fortified area that gives this style of fortification its name. Firing positions cut into the outer face of the ditch itself. The majority of the fort is underground, with deep passages giving access from within the fort. Magazines and machine halls are deep with only the emplacements for the fort's guns exposed at the surface. Surprisingly the guns were often mounted in open emplacements, known as "en barbette", simply protected by a parapet. Accuracy still relatively low. Experience had shown that guns could be put out by collapsing their casemates around them by bombardment. The gun in its open emplacement was a much harder target to hit than the massive face of a casemate. The polygonal forts provided defendable gun platforms.Polygonal fort – Fort Tigné in Malta. Built in 1792-95, it is an early example of a polygonal fort.
118. Punji stick – The punji stick or punji stake is a type of booby trapped stake. It is a simple spike, made out of generally placed upright in the ground. Punji sticks are usually deployed in substantial numbers. Punji sticks would be placed in areas likely to be passed through by enemy troops. The presence of punji sticks may be camouflaged by natural undergrowth, crops, brush or similar materials. They were often incorporated into various types of traps; for example, a camouflaged pit into which a man might fall. Sometimes a pit would be dug with punji sticks in the sides pointing downward at an angle. Punji sticks were sometimes deployed in the preparation of an ambush. The point of penetration was usually in lower leg area. Punji sticks were also used in Vietnam to complement various defenses, such as barbed wire. NLF and PAVN strategy, organization and structure NLF and PAVN logistics and equipment NLF and PAVN battle tacticsPunji stick – Punji stake pit exhibit, from the National Museum of the Marine Corps
119. Ravelin – A ravelin is a triangular fortification or detached outwork, located in front of the innerworks of a fortress. Originally called a demi-lune, after the lunette, the ravelin is placed opposite a fortification curtain. It also impedes besiegers from using their artillery to batter a breach in the wall. Frequently ravelins have a ramp or stairs on the curtain-wall side to facilitate the movement of troops and artillery onto the ravelin. The first example of a ravelin dates from 1497. The Italian origins of the system of fortifications, of which ravelins were a part gave rise to the term trace Italienne. List of established military terms RaveleijnRavelin – The ravelin outside the Land Gate at Tilbury Fort
120. Redan – Redan is a term related to fortifications. It is a work in a V-shaped angle toward an expected attack. It can be made from other material. The redan developed from the lunette, originally a half-moon-shaped outwork; with shorter flanks it became a redan. Redans were a common feature in the coastal batteries built in the end of the 18th century. Surviving batteries with redans include Saint Anthony's Battery. The Russians used redans at the Battle of Borodino against Napoleon. A small redan whose faces make an obtuse angle with a vertex toward the enemy is called a flèche. The Bagration flèches were three redans backwards in echelon. The Shevardino Redoubt was erected in front of the Bagration flèches. A Redan hole or Redan is an aspect of golf course architecture commonly associated with golf architect Charles B. Macdonald. The term alludes to the "Redan" type of fortification. Specifically, a Redan hole has a green which slopes downward and away from the point of entrance, typically the front portion of the green. This definition serves well to explain the basic concept.Redan – A redan as part of a fortification
121. Redoubt – It can be a permanent structure or a hastily constructed temporary fortification. The word means "a place of retreat". A redoubt differs from a redan in that the redan is open in the rear, whereas the redoubt was considered an enclosed work. The advent of mobile warfare in the 20th century generally diminished the importance of the defence of siege warfare. During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms redoubts were frequently built to protect older fortifications from the more effective artillery of the period. A small close to Worcester was used as an artillery platform by the Parliamentarians when they successfully besieged Worcester in 1646. In 1651 before the Battle of Worcester the hill was turned by the Royalists. During the Battle of Worcester, the Parliamentarians turned its guns on Worcester. In so doing they made the defence of the untenable. This action effectively ended the last of the English Civil War. They were built in the middle of bays to prevent enemy forces from outflanking the coastal batteries. The design of the redoubts was influenced by ones built in the French colonies. In all, a few semi-circular or rectangular ones were built. A few still survive, such as Briconet Redoubt, Saint George Redoubt and Ximenes Redoubt. Four tour-reduits were also built.Redoubt – Vendôme Tower in Marsaxlokk. It is the only surviving tour-reduit in Malta.
123. Sandbag – The advantages are that the sand are inexpensive. When empty, the bags are lightweight for easy storage and transportation. They can be filled with local sand or soil. Disadvantages are that filling bags is labor-intensive. Without proper training, sandbag walls can be constructed improperly causing them to fail at a lower height than expected. They can degrade prematurely in the sun and elements once deployed. They can also become contaminated by flood waters making them difficult to deal with after flood waters recede. Sandbags may be used during emergencies when a levee or dike is damaged. They may also be used as a foundation for new levees or other water-control structures. After usage, dry sandbags can be stored for future use. Wet bags may need to be disposed in a landfill as they may be contaminated by fecal matter. The military uses sandbags as a temporary measure to protect civilian structures. Because sand are inexpensive, large protective barriers can be erected cheaply. The friction created by moving soil or grains multiple tiny air gaps makes sandbags an efficient dissipator of explosive blast. The most common sizes for sandbags are 14 by 26 inches to 17 by 32 inches.Sandbag – Residents and volunteers work to fill sandbags during the Mississippi and Missouri river floods of 1993.
124. Sconce (fortification) – A sconce is a small protective fortification, such as an earthwork, often placed on a mound as a defensive work for artillery. It was used primarily in Northern Europe from the late Middle Ages until the 19th century. During the Eighty Years' War for Dutch independence, the sconces were used also in circumvallations. Several more or less intact sconces remain in the Netherlands. One of the top tourist locations in the Netherlands, derived its name as a sconce. Sconces played a major part in the Serbian Revolution, countering the numerical superiority of the Turkish army. List of established military terms Redoubt Schanze SkansenSconce (fortification) – Sconce built at Warnemünde, Rostock in 1661 (detail from a map from 1670–1680)
125. Schanze – A schanze is, according to the specialist terminology of German fortification construction, an independent fieldwork, frequently used in the construction of temporary field fortifications. The word has no direct English equivalent, although the word sconce is derived from Dutch schans, cognate to the German word. Later such schanzen often consisted of earthen ramparts. In the 16th century, the verb schanzen became generally associated with earthworks of all kinds. In modern military use, schanzen is still used to mean the construction of smaller earthworks, especially of fire trenches. From this already derived usage comes the phrase verschanzen, "to entrench oneself" in yet another derivative sense. As a rule a schanze is an fortified work. To block a pass, however, a line of adjacent schanzen could be erected, not infrequently connected by a low rampart and ditch. In this case it is referred to as a verschanzte Linie - a fortified line of schanzen. If such a defensive line completely enclosed an area on all sides, it was described as a verschanztes Lager - a fortified position. It was not uncommon in the 18th centuries for weaker armies to construct such works in order to protect themselves from a stronger foe. During sieges fortified lines of schanzen were often used as lines of circumvallation. Depending on the layout, a distinction is made between "open" and "closed" schanzen. "star schanzen" with alternating inward and outward facing corners. There is a very extensive system of schanzen in elements of which have survived.Schanze – Schanzen in the shape of an enclosed redoubt; here shown as incorporated into a verschanzten Linie or "fortified line". The schanze is additionally protected in this example by a couvreface
126. Coastal defence and fortification – Coastal defence and coastal fortification are measures taken to provide protection against military attack at or near a coastline, for example, fortification and coastal artillery. In littoral warfare, coastal defence counteracts naval offence, such as naval artillery, both. Sea forts are completely surrounded by water - if not permanently, then at least at high tide. Unlike most coastal fortifications, which are on the coast, sea forts are not. Instead, they are specially built structures. Some, such as for example Bréhon Tower, completely occupy small islands; others, such as Flakfortet and Pampus, are on artificial islands built up on shoals. Fort Louvois is on 400 meters from the shore, connected to it by a causeway that high tide completely submerses. The most elaborate fort is Murud-Janjira, so extensive that one might truly call it a sea fortress. The most recent sea forts were the Maunsell Forts, which the British built as anti-aircraft platforms. One type consisted on which stood two cylindrical towers on top of, the gun platform mounting. They were assembled as complete units. They were then fitted out before being sunk onto their sand bank positions in 1942. The other type consisted of seven interconnected steel platforms built on stilts. Five platforms carried guns arranged around the sixth platform, which contained the control centre and accommodation. The seventh platform, set further out than the gun towers, was the searchlight tower.Coastal defence and fortification – Castillo San Felipe de Barajas in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, an example of a Early Modern coastal defense.
127. Station (frontier defensive structure) – A station was a defensible residence constructed on the American frontier during the late 18th and early 19th century. Many of these structures were built during the struggle with the British and Native Americans. According to Virginia law, a dwelling built. On the frontier, this building had to be fortified. Families often maintained visitors were always welcome, since in numbers there was strength. Many built a station to secure the area. The purpose for stations in Kentucky was for protection, since most Native Americans often attacked the settlers.Station (frontier defensive structure) – Low Dutch Station historical marker
128. Star fort – It was first seen in the mid-15th century in Italy. The predecessors of star fortifications were medieval fortresses, usually placed on high hills. From there, the higher the fortress was, the further the arrows flew. The enemies' hope was to either climb over the wall with ladders and overcome the defenders. For the invading force, accordingly, fortresses occupied a key position in warfare. In contrast, the star fortress was a very flat structure composed of many triangular bastions, specifically designed to cover each other, a ditch. In order to counteract the cannonballs, defensive walls were made thicker. The outer side of the ditch was usually provided with a glacis to deflect cannonballs aimed at the lower part of the main wall. They were built of usually earth and brick, as brick does not shatter on impact from a cannonball as stone does. Star fortifications were further developed in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries primarily to the French invasion of the Italian peninsula. The French army was equipped with new cannon and bombards that were easily able to destroy traditional fortifications built in the Middle Ages. Star forts were refined in the sixteenth century by Baldassare Peruzzi and Vincenzo Scamozzi. The design spread out in the 1530s and 1540s. It was employed heavily throughout Europe for the following three centuries. Italian engineers were heavily in demand throughout Europe to help build the new fortifications.Star fort – 17th century map of the city of Palmanova, Italy, an example of a Venetian star fort
129. Tenaille – It is "from French, literally: tongs, from Late Latin tenācula, pl of tenaculum". ... ... ...... Tenaille were a development among others. A simple tenaille is shown to the right; it is the chevron between the two corner bastions. The design also evolved a version in which the tenaille possess projections at each end, as seen in the middle right. Finally, the word was also used for some vee-shaped parts of outworks; the bottom-most image, a priest's cap, has two tenailles. Also shown is another approach to protect a gate; the roughly triangular outwork seen in the middle of the bottom drawing is a ravelin.Tenaille – St. Andrew's Tenaille in Valletta
130. 19th century – The 19th century was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Napoleonic, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. After its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the Russian empires expanded greatly, becoming the world's leading powers. The Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the world's land and one quarter of the world's population. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in mines, well as strict social norms regarding modesty and gender roles. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, in the First Sino-Japanese War. Europe's population doubled to more than 400 million. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century. London became the world's largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased in 1800 to million a century later. Liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe. Slavery was greatly reduced around the world. Following a successful revolt in Haiti, Britain and France succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UK's Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the global slave trade.19th century – Antoine-Jean Gros, Surrender of Madrid, 1808. Napoleon enters Spain's capital during the Peninsular War, 1810
131. Barbed wire – It is used to construct inexpensive fences and is used atop walls surrounding secured property. It is also a major feature of the fortifications in trench warfare. A animal trying to pass over barbed wire will suffer discomfort and possibly injury. Barbed fencing requires only fence posts, fixing devices such as staples. It is simple to construct and quick to erect, even by an unskilled person. Joseph F. Glidden of DeKalb, Illinois, received a patent for the modern invention in 1874 after he made his own modifications to previous versions. Barbed wire was the first wire technology capable of restraining cattle. Wire fences were cheaper and easier to erect than their alternatives. When wire fences became widely available in the United States in the late 19th century, they made it affordable to fence much larger areas than before. They made intensive animal husbandry practical on a much larger scale. Englishman Richard Newton brought barbed wire to the Argentine pampas in 1845. Fencing consisting of thin wire was first proposed by Leonce Eugene Grassin-Baledans in 1860. His design consisted of bristling points, creating a fence, painful to cross. In April 1865 Louis François Janin proposed a double wire with diamond-shaped metal barbs; he was granted a patent. Michael Kelly from New York had a similar idea, proposed that the fencing should be used specifically for deterring animals.Barbed wire – A close-up view of a barbed wire
132. Barbette – Barbettes are several types of gun emplacement in terrestrial fortifications or on naval ships. In naval usage, a ` barbette' is a protective circular armour support for a heavy gun turret. This evolved from earlier forms of protection that eventually led to the pre-dreadnought. The former less protection than the latter. Some inland fortifications. The term is also used for certain gun mounts. By the late 1880s, all three systems were replaced with a barbette-turret system that combined the benefits of both types. The vertical tube that supported the new gun mount was referred to as a barbette. American authors generally refer simply as tail guns or tail gun turrets. The use of barbette mountings originated in ground fortifications. The term originally referred to a raised platform on a rampart for one or more guns, enabling them to be fired over a parapet. While an en emplacement offered wider arcs of fire, it also exposed the gun's crew to greater danger from hostile fire. Fortifications in the 19th century typically employed both casemate and barbette emplacements. The type was usually used for coastal defence guns. Later coastal guns were often protected in hybrid installation, with wide casemate with cantilevered overhead cover partially covering a barbette mount.Barbette – Barbette for a 25-ton gun on the British ironclad HMS Temeraire
133. Bunker – A bunker is a defensive military fortification designed to protect people or valued materials from falling bombs or other attacks. Bunkers are underground compared to blockhouses which are mostly above ground. They were used extensively for weapons facilities, command and control centers, storage facilities. Bunkers can also be used from tornadoes. Trench bunkers are concrete structures, partly dug into the ground. Many artillery installations, especially for coastal artillery, have historically been protected by extensive bunker systems. Industrial bunkers include mining sites, food storage areas, dumps for materials, data storage, sometimes living quarters. When a house is purpose-built with a bunker, the normal location is a below-ground bathroom with fibre-reinforced plastic shells. Bunkers deflect the wave from nearby explosions to prevent ear and internal injuries to people sheltering in the bunker. Nuclear bunkers must also block radiation. A bunker's door must be at least as strong as the walls. In bunkers inhabited for prolonged periods, large amounts of ventilation or conditioning must be provided. Bunkers can be destroyed with bunker-busting warheads. The bunker originates as a Scots word for "bench, seat". The word possibly has a Scandinavian origin: Swedish bunke means "boards used to protect the cargo of a ship".Bunker – The north entrance to the Cheyenne Mountain Complex in Colorado
134. Coastal artillery – Coastal artillery is the branch of the armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications. The advent of 20th-century technologies, especially military aviation, naval aviation, guided missiles, reduced the primacy of cannon, battleships, coastal artillery. In countries where coastal artillery has not been disbanded, these forces have acquired amphibious capabilities. In littoral warfare, coastal artillery armed with surface-to-surface missiles still can be used to deny the use of sea lanes. Land-based guns also benefited from the additional protection of walls or earth mounds. The Martello tower is an excellent example of a widely used coastal fort which mounted defensive artillery, in this case cannon. During the 19th century China also built hundreds of coastal fortresses in an attempt to counter naval threats. Coastal artillery could be part of the Army. In English-speaking countries, coastal artillery positions were sometimes referred to as ` Land Batteries', distinguishing this form of artillery battery from for example floating batteries. Thereafter, in 1907, Congress split the field artillery and coast artillery into two separate branches, created a separate Coast Artillery Corps. The first decade of the United States Marine Corps established the Advanced Base Force. The Blücher had entered the narrow waters of the Oslofjord, leading a German invasion fleet. The first salvo from the Norwegian defenders, fired from Oscarsborg Fortress about 1 mile distant, set her afire. Singapore was defended by its famous coastal guns, which included one battery of three 15-inch guns and one with two 15-inch guns. AP shells were ineffective against personnel.Coastal artillery – The Castle Islands Fortifications, in Bermuda. Construction beginning in 1612, these were the first stone fortifications, with the first coastal artillery batteries, built by England in the New World.
135. Gun turret – A gun turret is a location from which weapons can be fired that affords protection, visibility, some cone of fire. Rotating gun turrets have the protection, its crew rotate. When this meaning of the word "turret" started being used at the beginning of the 1860s, turrets were normally cylindrical. Barbettes were an alternative to turrets; the weapon and crew were on a rotating platform inside the barbette. In the 1890s, armoured hoods were added to barbettes; these rotated with the platform. By the 20th Century, these hoods were known as turrets. Modern warships have gun-mountings described as turrets, though the "protection" on them is limited from the weather. They are most often protected to some degree, if not actually armoured. Sub-turret set on top of a larger one, is called a cupola. The cupola is also used for a rotating turret that carries a sighting device rather than weaponry, such as that used by a tank commander. Firepower was provided by a large number of guns which could only traverse in a limited arc. Designs for a rotating turret date back to the late 18th century. The Lady Nancy "proved a great success" and Coles patenting his rotating turret after the war. The Admiralty incorporated it into other new designs. Coles submitted a design for a ship having each housing two large guns.Gun turret – A modern gun turret allows firing of the cannons via remote control. Loading of ammunition is also often done by automatic mechanisms.
136. Land mine – A mine may cause damage by direct blast effect, by fragments that are thrown by the blast, or by both. The name originates from the ancient practice of military mining, where tunnels were dug under enemy fortifications or troop formations. Nowadays, in common parlance, land mines generally refer to devices specifically manufactured as anti-vehicle weapons. The use of land mines is controversial because of their potential as indiscriminate weapons. They can remain many years after a conflict has ended, harming the economy and civilians. To date, 162 nations have signed the treaty. To act as area-denial weapons. As of 2013, the only governments that still laid land mines were Syria in its civil war. Land mines continue to injure at least 4,300 people every year, even decades after the ends of the conflicts for which they were placed. The invention of this detonated "enormous bomb" was credited to one Lou Qianxia of the 13th century. The wad of the mine was made of hard wood, carrying three different fuses to the touch hole. Boiling oil is next left there for some time before being removed. The fuse is compressed into it to form an explosive mine. A trench five feet in depth is dug. The fuse is connected to a device which ignites them when disturbed.Land mine – Examples of anti-personnel mines. Center: Valmara 69 (a bounding mine); right: VS-50
137. Martello tower – Most were coastal forts. They stand up to 40 feet high and typically had a garrison of one officer and 15–25 men. A few towers had moats or other batteries and works attached for extra defence. The Martello towers became obsolete with the introduction of rifled artillery. Many have survived to the present day, often preserved as historic monuments. In the second half of the 19th century, there was another spate of building, during the premiership of Lord Palmerston. The Palmerston Forts are also circular in design and resemble Martello towers. Martello towers were inspired by a round fortress, part of a larger Genoese defence system, at Mortella Point in Corsica. The designer was Giovan Giacomo Paleari Fratino, the tower was completed in 1565. Since the 15th century, the Corsicans had shipping from African pirates. The fire would alert the local defence forces to the threat. Although the pirate threat subsequently dwindled, the Genovese built a newer generation of circular towers, that warded off later foreign invasions. What helped the British was that the tower's two 18-pounder guns fired seaward, while only the one 6-pounder could fire land-ward. The number of men in the Tower were 33; only two were wounded, those mortally. Late in the previous year, the tower's French defenders had abandoned it after HMS Lowestoffe had fired two broadsides at it.Martello tower – Prince of Wales Tower - oldest Martello tower in North America (1796), Point Pleasant Park, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
138. Outpost (military)Outpost (military) – Police outpost near Mallannaswamy Temple
139. Trench warfare – The most famous use of trench warfare is the Western Front in World War I. It has become a byword for stalemate, attrition, sieges and futility in conflict. The area between opposing trench lines was fully exposed to artillery fire from both sides. Attacks, even if successful, often sustained severe casualties. With the development of armoured warfare, emphasis on warfare still occurs where battle-lines become static. Field works are as old as armies. Roman legions, when in the presence of an enemy, entrenched camps nightly when on the move. In the early modern era they were used to block possible lines of advance. They played a pivotal role in manoeuvring that took place before the Battle of Blenheim. The lines were captured by the French in 1707 and demolished. The French built the 19-kilometre-long Lines of Weissenburg in 1706. These were to remain in existence for just over 100 years and were last manned during Napoleon's Hundred Days. The French built the Lines of Ne Plus Ultra during the winter of 1710–1711, which have been compared to the trenches of World War I. They ran to Cambrai and Valenciennes where they linked up with existing defensive lines fronted by the Sambre. They were breached through "a magnificent piece of manoeuvring".Trench warfare – Lines of Torres Vedras
140. Sangar (fortification) – A sangar is a temporary fortified position with a breastwork originally constructed of stones, now built of sandbags and similar materials. Sangars are normally constructed in terrain where the digging of trenches would not be practicable. The term is still frequently used by the British Army. The word derives originally from the Persian word sang, "stone". Its first appearance in English dates from 1841. The word is found as a surname. The term was originally used by the British Indian Army to describe small fortified positions on the North West Frontier and in Afghanistan. It was widely used during the Italian Campaign of World War II. More recently, the use of the term has been extended to cover a wider range of small, fortified positions. The Independent Monitoring Commission stated immediately in Northern Ireland: The British Army use other terms to classify their sites covered by our definition. For the avoidance of any doubt we set out below the military terms we have deemed to be included in this part of the report. Sangar: A sangar is a protected sentry post, normally located around the perimeter of a base. Supersangar: A supersangar is an elevated sangar and may be indistinguishable from what is commonly termed a tower. Remote Communications Site: A site used primarily for electronic communications. List of established military terms "Army dismantles NI post".Sangar (fortification) – Sangar from the Western Sahara conflict probably dating from the 1980s.
141. Wire obstacle – In the military science of fortification, wire obstacles are defensive obstacles made from barbed wire, barbed tape or concertina wire. They are designed to disrupt, generally slow down an attacking enemy. During the time that the attackers are slowed down by the obstacle they are easy to target with machinegun and artillery fire. One example is "low wire entanglement", which consists of irregularly placed stakes that have been driven into the ground with only some 15 showing. The barbed wire tightened on to these. An combatant running through the barrier, difficult to see, is apt to trip and get caught. Entanglements were often not by pushing together the mess of wire formed when conventional barbed wire fences had been damaged by artillery shells. Another method was to deliberately leave attractive-looking gaps in wire obstacles to give the appearance of a weak link in the defences. Because water-cooled machine-guns such as the Vickers gun were used, continuous fire could be sustained for hours at a time if required. Stormtroopers platoons included ballistic shields in their list, as infiltration was one of their specialities. However the more fluid nature of modern war means that most obstacles used today are relatively simple, temporary barriers. Light armored vehicles can generally flatten unmined wire obstacles, although the wire can become entangled in the tracks and immobilize the vehicle. This can also occur to wheeled vehicles once the wire becomes wrapped around the axle. Wire obstacles can also be breached by intense artillery shelling or Bangalore torpedoes. The effectiveness of any obstacle is greatly increased by planting anti-tank and blast antipersonnel mines in and around it.Wire obstacle – Obstacle with concertina wire
142. 20th century – The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000. It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium. It is distinct from the century ended on December 1999. It saw that by the late 1980s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication and genetic modification of life. The term "short twentieth century" was coined to represent the events from 1914 to 1991. Globally approximately 45% of those who were married and able to have children used contraception; 40% of pregnancies were unplanned; half of unplanned pregnancies were aborted. The century had the total wars between world powers across continents and oceans in World War I and World War II. The century saw a major shift in the way that many people lived, in ideology, economics, society, culture, science, technology, medicine. The 20th century may have seen more technological and scientific progress than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization. Terms like ideology, nuclear war entered common usage. Western society's basic form of personal transportation for thousands of years, were replaced within a few decades. Humans explored space for the first time, taking their first footsteps on the Moon. Information technology made the world's knowledge more widely available. Advancements in medical technology also improved the welfare of many people: the global expectancy increased to 65 years. Rapid technological advancements, however, also allowed warfare to reach unprecedented levels of destruction.20th century – The Earth as seen from Apollo 17. The second half of the 20th century saw humankind's first space exploration.
143. Admiralty scaffolding – It was widely deployed on beaches of southern England, eastern England and the south western peninsula during the invasion crisis of 1940-1941. Scaffolding was also used, though more sparingly, inland. Of a number of similar designs, by far the most common was designated obstacle Z.1. This design comprised upright tubes 4 feet 10 inches apart, these were connected by up to four horizontal tubes. Each upright was braced by a pair of diagonal tubes, to the rear. Wide sections were preassembled and then carried to the sea to be placed in position at the half tide mark as an obstacle to boats. In some places, two sets of scaffolding were set up, one at high water against tanks. Despite this, many miles of Admiralty scaffolding were erected using more than 15,000 miles of scaffolding tube. After the war, the scaffolding got in the way of swimmers. Very any remaining traces are now very rare, but are occasionally revealed by storms. Anti-invasion preparations of World War II British hardened field defences of World War II Foot, William. Beaches, fields, streets, hills... the anti-invasion landscapes of England, 1940. Council for British Archaeology. ISBN 1-902771-53-2. Ruddy, Austin.Admiralty scaffolding – A drawing of Admiralty scaffolding from 1940
144. Air-raid shelter – Air-raid shelters, also known as bomb shelters, are structures for the protection of non-combatants as well as combatants against enemy attacks from the air. They are similar to bunkers in many regards, although they are not designed to defend against attack. In May 1924, an Air Raid Precautions Committee was set up in the United Kingdom. In February 1936 the Home Secretary appointed a technical Committee against Air Attack. This proposal was eventually implemented in January 1939. During the Munich crisis, local authorities dug trenches to provide shelter. After the crisis, the British Government decided to make a permanent feature, with a standard design of precast concrete trench lining. Unfortunately these turned out to perform poorly. They also decided to provide steel props to create shelters in suitable basements. Air raid shelters were built specifically to serve as protection against air raids. A commonly used shelter known as the Anderson shelter would be built in a garden and equipped with beds as a refuge from air raids. For this reason, air-raid precautions during World War II in Germany could be much more readily implemented by the authorities than was possible in the UK. However, the inadequacies of basements became apparent in the firestorms during the incendiary attacks on the larger German inner cities, especially Hamburg and Dresden. Some occupants perished from carbon monoxide poisoning. In contrast to other shelters, these buildings were considered completely bomb-proof.Air-raid shelter – Air-raid shelter in Tateyama, Nagasaki, Nagasaki.
145. Barbed tape – Barbed tape or razor wire is a mesh of metal strips with sharp edges whose purpose is to prevent passage by humans. The term "wire", through long usage, has generally been used to describe barbed tape products. While wire is much sharper than the standard barbed wire, it is named after its appearance, but is not actually razor sharp. However, the points are made to rip and grab onto clothing and flesh. More recently barbed tape has been used in more commercial and residential security applications. Due to its dangerous nature, razor wire/barbed tape and similar fencing/barrier materials is prohibited in some locales. Norway prohibits any barbed wire in combination with other fencing, in order to protect domesticated animals from exposure. Some local jurisdictions further prohibit barbed wire altogether. A steel tape punched into a shape with barbs. The tape is then cold-crimped tightly to the wire everywhere except for the barbs. Barbed tape has no central reinforcement wire. The process of combining the two is called roll forming. Like barbed wire, barbed tape is available as either straight wire or spiral wire. The tape is stainless, although fully stainless barbed tape is used for expensive permanent installations or under water. Barbed tape is also characterized by the shape of the barbs.Barbed tape – Razor wire—long-barb type on top of a chain link privacy-fence surrounding a utility power sub-station
146. Blast shelter – A blast shelter is a place where people can go to protect themselves from bomb blasts. It is also possible for a shelter to protect from fallout. Blast shelters are employed in civil defense. There are above-ground, below-ground, dual-purpose, potential blast shelters. Dedicated blast shelters are built specifically for the purpose of protection. Dual-purpose blast shelters are existing structures with blast-protective properties that have been modified to accommodate people seeking protection from blasts. Potential blast shelters are geological features exhibiting blast-protective properties that have potential to be used for protection from blasts. Blast shelters deflect the wave from nearby explosions to prevent ear and internal injuries to people sheltering in the bunker. While frame buildings collapse from as little as 3 psi of overpressure, blast shelters are regularly constructed to survive several hundred psi. This substantially decreases the likelihood that a bomb can harm the structure. The basic plan is to provide a structure, very strong in compression. The actual specification must be done individually, based on the nature and probability of the threat. Such a weapon would be used to attack soft targets in the area. Only the most heavy bedrock-shelters would stand a chance of surviving. The most common purpose-built structure is a steel-reinforced concrete arch buried or located in the basement of a house.Blast shelter – Nuclear weapons
147. Blast wallBlast wall – U.S. and Afghan soldiers standing behind a blast wall made from HESCO bastions in Afghanistan in 2012
148. Border barrier – A border barrier is a separation barrier that runs along an international border. Such barriers are typically constructed for border control purposes, viz. to curb illegal immigration, human trafficking and smuggling. In cases of a disputed or unclear border, erecting a barrier can serve as a facto unilateral consolidation of a territorial claim. Examples include the ancient Great Wall of a series of walls separating China from nomadic empires to the north and the modern Mexico -- United States barrier. The construction of border barriers increased in the new century; half of all border barriers built post-World War II, were built between 2014. Note: The table can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the icon. In 2003, Botswana began building a 300-mile - electric fence along its border with Zimbabwe. The official reason for the fence is to stop the spread of foot-and-mouth disease among livestock. Zimbabweans argue that the height of the fence is clearly intended to keep out people. Botswana has responded that the fence is designed to ensure that entrants have their shoes disinfected at legal border crossings. Botswana also argued that the government continues to encourage legal movement into the country. The barrier remains a source of tension. Egypt maintains the Egypt -- Gaza barrier between the Gaza Strip. The Moroccan Wall is mostly a sand wall, running through the region of Western Sahara and the southeastern portion of Morocco. According to maps from the UNHCR, part of the wall extends several kilometers into internationally recognized Mauritanian territory.Border barrier – Section of Mexico–United States barrier near Tijuana
149. Bremer wall – A Bremer wall, or T-wall, is a twelve-foot-high portable, steel-reinforced concrete blast wall of the type used for blast protection throughout Iraq and Afghanistan. The Bremer barrier resembles the smaller 3-foot-tall Jersey barrier, used widely for vehicle control on coalition military bases in Iraq and Afghanistan. Similarly, the largest barriers, which stand around 6 m tall, are called Alaska barriers. Alaska barriers are typically used as perimeter fortifications of well-established bases in Iraq and Afghanistan. These T-shaped walls were originally developed in the Israeli West Bank barrier. The term "T-wall" has been used commonly by soldiers due to the wall's cross-sectional shape resembling an inverted letter "T". In 2011 a series of Bremer walls were used to form a wall for fallen U.S. soldiers. The concrete is painted black with names in yellow. The wall's design is based on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. Ames, Thomas and Russell Marsh. The art of war: Operation Iraqi Freedom. Ashburn, VA: Cage Juka Pub. ISBN 978-1-4611-3604-0. Whitney, Robin. The T-walls of Kuwait and Iraq.Bremer wall – A short T-wall painted with various military signs is seen at Camp Liberty, Iraq
150. Concertina wire – In conjunction with plain barbed wire and steel pickets, it is used to form military wire obstacles. During World War I soldiers themselves using ordinary barbed wire. It is factory-made. In World War I, barbed wire obstacles were made by stretching lengths of barbed wire between stakes of iron. At its simplest, such a barrier would resemble a fence as might be used for agricultural purposes. The double fence comprised a line of pickets with wires running diagonally down to points on the ground either side of the fence. Horizontal wires were attached to these diagonals. Formidable obstructions could be formed with multiple lines of stakes connected with wire running from side-to-side, back-to-front, diagonally in every possible direction. Effective as these obstacles were, their construction took considerable time. Learning this lesson, World War I soldiers would deploy barbed wire in so-called concertinas that were relatively loose. Barbed wire concertinas could be then deployed in no-man's - land relatively quickly under cover of darkness. Concertina wire can then be deployed as an obstacle much more quickly than ordinary barbed wire. A platoon of soldiers can deploy a single fence at a rate of about a kilometer per hour. Concertinas are normally built up into more elaborate patterns as time permits. Concertina wire is factory made and is available in forms that can be deployed very rapidly from the back of a vehicle or trailer.Concertina wire – Triple concertina wire fence
151. Defensive fighting position – A foxhole is one type of strategic position. It is a "small pit used for cover, usually for two men, so constructed that the occupants can effectively fire from it." It is known more commonly as a "fighting position" or as a "ranger grave". During the American Civil War the term "pit" was recognized by both U.S. Army and Confederate Army forces. During the fighting in North Africa, U.S. forces employed the slit trench. This was a very shallow excavation allowing one man to lie horizontally while shielding his body from nearby shell bursts and small arms fire. The foxhole widened near the bottom to allow a soldier to crouch down while under intense artillery fire or attack. The Germans used hardened fortifications such as the Atlantic Wall, that were in essence foxholes made from concrete. The Germans knew them officially as Ringstände; the Allies called them "Tobruks" because they had first encountered the structures during the fighting in Africa. Frequently, the Germans put a turret on the foxhole. This gave the gunner protection from shrapnel and small arms. Modern militaries distribute elaborate field manuals for the proper construction of DFPs in stages. Initially, a shallow "shell scrape" is dug, much like a very shallow grave, which provides very limited protection. Each stage develops the fighting position, gradually increasing its effectiveness, while always maintaining functionality. In this way, a soldier can improve the position over time, while being able to stop at any time and use the position in a fight.Defensive fighting position – U.S. Marine in a fighting hole, July 1958, in Lebanon
152. Czech hedgehog – The Czech hedgehog is a static anti-tank obstacle defense made of metal angle beams or I-beams. The hedgehog is very effective in keeping tanks from getting through a line of defense. It maintains its function even when tipped over by a nearby explosion. Although it may provide some scant cover for infantry, infantry forces are generally much less effective against defensive positions than mechanized units. The Czech hedgehog's name refers to its origin in Czechoslovakia. The Czech hedgehog was widely used by the Soviet Union in anti-tank defense. They were produced from any sturdy piece including railroad ties. Czech hedgehogs were especially effective in urban combat, where a single hedgehog could block an entire street. Czech hedgehogs are visible in many images of the Normandy invasion. A Czech hedgehog made to specifications could be constructed from any material capable of withstanding at least 60 tonnes-force, while being at most 1.4 metres high. However, such parameters were hard to achieve in makeshift hedgehogs, reducing their usefulness. Two arms of the hedgehog were connected in the factory, while the third arm was connected on-site by M20 bolts. The arms were equipped with square "feet" to prevent sinking into the ground, well as notches for attaching barbed wire. Known as Rhino tanks, they proved very useful for clearing the hedgerows that made up the bocages across Normandy. Caltrop Cheval de frise, a portable frame covered with many long iron or wooden spikes used in medieval times to deter cavalry.Czech hedgehog – Examples of Czech hedgehogs deployed on the Atlantic Wall in the vicinity of Calais.
153. Dragon's teeth (fortification) – Dragon's teeth are square-pyramidal fortifications of reinforced concrete first used during the Second World War to impede the movement of tanks and mechanised infantry. The idea was to channel tanks into killing zones where they could easily be disposed of by anti-tank weapons. They were employed particularly on the Siegfried Line. The obstacles could simply be buried using bulldozers and dump trucks. Dragon's teeth were used by several armies in the European Theatre. The Germans made extensive use of them in the Atlantic Wall. Typically, each "tooth" was 90 to 120 cm tall depending on the precise model. Land mines were often laid between further obstacles constructed along the lines of "teeth". Behind minefields were the dragon's teeth. They rested on thirty meters wide, sunk in a meter or two into the ground. They were spaced in such a manner that a tank could not drive through. The only way to take those pillboxes was for infantry to attack the rear entry. But behind the first row of dragon's teeth, there was a second, often a third, sometimes a fourth. Switzerland continues to maintain lines of dragon's teeth in strategic areas. In the military jargon these constructions are often referred to after the chocolate bar.Dragon's teeth (fortification) – Dragon's teeth near Aachen, Germany, part of the Siegfried Line.
154. Electric fence – For the physical barrier, see electric fence. Electric Fence is a debugger written by Bruce Perens. It consists of a library which programmers can link into their code to override the C standard library management functions. EFence triggers a crash when the memory error occurs, so a debugger can be used to inspect the code that caused the error. Normally, these two errors would cause corruption, which would manifest itself only much later, usually in unrelated ways. Thus, Electric Fence helps programmers find the precise location of programming errors. Electric Fence allocates at least two pages for every allocated buffer. In some modes of operation, it does not deallocate freed buffers. Thus, Electric Fence vastly increases the memory requirements of programs being debugged. This leads to the recommendation that programmers should apply Electric Fence to smaller programs when possible, should never leave Electric Fence linked against code. Electric Fence is free software licensed under the GNU General Public License. Last version was released 2003-12-07.Electric fence
155. Fallout shelter – A fallout shelter is an enclosed space specially designed to protect occupants from radioactive debris or fallout resulting from a nuclear explosion. Such shelters were constructed as civil defense measures during the Cold War. During a nuclear explosion, matter vaporized in the resulting fireball is exposed to neutrons from the explosion, becomes radioactive. When this material condenses in the rain, it forms light sandy materials that resembles ground pumice. The fallout emits beta particles, as well as gamma rays. Much of this highly radioactive material falls to earth, subjecting anything to radiation becoming a significant hazard. A shelter is designed to allow its occupants to minimize exposure to harmful fallout until radioactivity has decayed to a safer level. Plans were made, however, to use existing buildings with below-ground-level basements as makeshift fallout shelters. These buildings were usually placarded with the black trefoil sign. The N.E.A.R. Civilian alarm device was engineered and tested but the program was not viable and was terminated in 1967. Under the direction of Steuart L. Pittman, the federal government started the Community Fallout Shelter Program. A letter from President Kennedy advising the use of fallout shelters appeared in the September 1961 issue of Life magazine. Germany has protected shelters for 3 % of its population, Austria for 30 %, Finland for 70 %, Switzerland for 114 %. The Swiss authorities also maintain communal shelters stocked with over four months of food and fuel.Fallout shelter – A sign pointing to an old fallout shelter in New York City.
156. Fire support base – FSBs follow a number of plans; their shape and the projected garrison. Widely used during the Vietnam War, the concept has continued on including in Afghanistan. A fire base was originally a temporary firing base for artillery, although many evolved into more permanent bases. Large FSBs might also have an infantry battalion. The other 5 howitzers were arranged in a "star" pattern. Smaller FSBs tended to vary greatly from this layout, with two to four howitzers of various calibers located in fortified firing positions. These smaller bases arranged their guns in triangle patterns when possible. One of the first support bases constructed by U.S. troops was built in October 1965. It was built by the First Cavalry Division in Pleiku Province soon after the division arrived in South Vietnam. Firebases evolved into small forts with all the defensive measures those required. Firebase Bastogne was a United States firebase constructed by the 101st Airborne Division. Firebase Mary Ann, constructed by elements of the 23rd Infantry Division "Americal", was more typical of smaller support bases. Firebases have been set up in Afghanistan since the action by U.S.-led Coalition forces began in 2001. These bases provide support to Coalition forces in the search for Taliban fighters along the Pakistan border. Kunar Province Firebase Phoenix Helmand Province Firebase Fiddler's Green Nangarhar Province A former firebase - Forward Operating Base Torkham Firebase Thomas Firebase Tinsley near Char Chiehna.Fire support base – Fire Support Base Danger, headquarters of 4/39th Infantry of the 9th U.S. Infantry Division, Dinh Tuong Province, Vietnam, 1969.
157. Flak tower – Other cities that used flak towers included Stuttgart and Frankfurt. Smaller single-purpose flak towers were built at key German strongpoints, such as at Angers, France and Helgoland, Germany. The towers were used by the Luftwaffe to defend during World War II. They also served for tens of thousands of local civilians. After the RAF's raid on Berlin in 1940, Adolf Hitler ordered the construction of three massive flak towers to defend the capital from attack. Each tower had a installation with a radar dish which could be retracted behind a thick concrete and steel dome for protection. Hitler even made some sketches. They were constructed in six months. However, only the 128 mm guns had effective range to defend against the RAF and USAAF heavy bombers. The three flak towers around the outskirts of Berlin created a triangle of anti-aircraft fire that covered the centre of Berlin. The towers, during the fall of Berlin, formed their own communities, with up to 30,000 Berliners taking refuge in one tower during the battle. Soviet forces generally eventually sent in envoys to seek their surrender. L-Towers were 50 m × m × 39 m, usually armed with sixteen 20 mm guns. Generation 2 G-Towers were 57 m × m × 41.6 m, usually armed with eight 128 mm guns and sixteen 20 mm guns. L-Towers were 50 m × m × 44 m, usually armed with forty 20 mm guns.Flak tower – The 'L-Tower' at Augarten, Vienna.
158. Hardened aircraft shelter – A hardened aircraft shelters or protective aircraft shelter is a reinforced hangar to house and protect military aircraft from enemy attack. Building practicalities limit their use to fighter size aircraft. HASs are a passive measure which aim to prevent or at least degrade enemy attacks. Whether structures, tanks or aircraft, its most prolific use was during the Cold War. NATO and Warsaw Pact countries built hundreds of HASs across Europe. In this context hardened aircraft shelters were built to protect aircraft from conventional attacks well as nuclear, chemical and biological strikes. In the post-cold era, the value of the HAS concept was further eroded by the introduction of precision-guided munitions. Iraq's HAS hangars nevertheless proved almost useless during the Gulf War. Early attempts to defeat them typically used a "one-two punch" using a TV-guided missile to blast open the doors, followed by bombs tossed in the front. US efforts soon turned to simply dropping a 2,000 laser guided bomb on the top, which would easily penetrate the roof and explode within. Dispersal of aircraft to many different bases, reduces the efficiency of aircraft at both squadron and air force level. Nuclear weapons can be stored in the HAS in a vault; e.g. the United States Air Force Weapons Storage and Security System. They are in a known position. Hardened shelters are expensive. Hardened shelters are usually too small to easily accommodate large aircraft such as large surveillance aircraft.Hardened aircraft shelter – Hardened aircraft shelter at RAF Bruggen, 1981
159. Hesco bastion – The HESCO bastion is a modern gabion primarily used for flood control and military fortifications. It has seen considerable use in Iraq and Afghanistan. It was developed in the late 1980s by a British company of the same name. Originally designed for control, the HESCO Bastion quickly became a popular security device in the 1990s. HESCO barriers continue to be used for their original purpose. They were used in 2005 to reinforce levees around New Orleans in the few days between Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita. During the June 2008 Midwest floods 8,200 metres of HESCO barrier wall were shipped to Iowa. In late March, 2009, 10,700 metres of HESCO barrier were delivered to Fargo, North Dakota to protect against floods. In late September, 2016, 10 miles of HESCO barriers were used in Cedar Rapids, IA, for the fall flood of 2016. Specifically, the brand name for the barrier is "Concertainer", with HESCO Bastion being the company that produces it. The HESCO bastion was originally developed by Jimi Heselden, a British entrepreneur and ex-coal miner, who founded HESCO Bastion Ltd. in 1989 to manufacture his invention. Assembling the HESCO bastion entails unfolding it and filling it with sand, soil or gravel, usually using a front end loader. The main advantage of HESCO barriers, strongly contributing to their popularity with troops and flood fighters, is the quick and easy setup. Previously, people had to fill sandbags, a slow undertaking, with one worker filling about 20 sandbags per hour. Workers using HESCO barriers and a front end loader can do ten times the work of those using sandbags.Hesco bastion – United States Navy sailors assembling HESCO bastions.
160. Revetment (aircraft) – A revetment, in military aviation, is a parking area for one or more aircraft, surrounded by blast walls on three sides. These walls are as much about protecting neighbouring aircraft as it is to protect the aircraft within the revetment. The blast walls around a revetment are designed to channel damage upwards and outwards away from neighbouring aircraft. The longer section behind the parking areas usually encloses a narrow corridor for aircrew and servicing personnel to use as an air raid shelters. The Imperial War Museum Duxford has one, accessible to the public. Whilst common on Fighter Command airfields, other RAF Stations such as RAF Brize Norton did not have any blast pens. Revetment Hardened aircraft shelter Flint, Peter. R.A.F. Kenley. Terence Dalton Limited. P. 158. ISBN 0-86138-036-3. Media related to Aircraft revetments at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Blast pens at Wikimedia CommonsRevetment (aircraft) – USAF F-4D Phantom II fighters in their revetments at Ubon Royal Thai Air Force Base, Thailand, circa 1967
161. Sentry gun – A sentry gun is a gun, automatically aimed and fired at targets that are detected by sensors. Fictional sentry guns have appeared since the 1940s. Video games have provided a fertile ground for fictional visions of sentry guns. Fictional examples of automatic sentry guns have appeared in films such as Aliens and the television series Æon Flux. The Samsung SGR-A1 is a South Korean military sentry designed to replace human counterparts in the demilitarized zone at the South and North Korea border. It is a stationary system made by Samsung subsidiary Samsung Techwin. In 2007, the Israeli military deployed the Sentry Tech system along the Gaza fence with pillboxes placed at intervals of some hundreds of meters. The 4-million USD system is supposed to be completed by the end of the summer. Initial deployment plans call for mounting a.50-caliber Browning automated machine gun in each pillbox. The gun is based on the Samson Remote Controlled Weapon Station. It is able to function during nighttime and regardless of weather conditions. It has been tested in the Korean Demilitarized Zone. A simple gun is used to pin down a group of rebelling colonists in Robert A. Heinlein's 1949 novel Red Planet. Michael Crichton's 1969 novel uses sentry guns firing tranquillizer darts at pests in the underground facility elevator shaft. Later, in 1980, Crichton wrote in his book Congo.Sentry gun – Phalanx CIWS is an automated turret for missile defence
162. Spider hole – A spider hole is military parlance for a camouflaged one-man foxhole, used for observation. A hole is typically a shoulder-deep, protective, round hole, often covered by a camouflaged lid, in which a soldier can stand and fire a weapon. A hole differs from a foxhole in that a foxhole is usually deeper and designed to emphasize cover rather than concealment. The term is usually understood to be an allusion to the camouflaged hole constructed by the spider. According to United States Marine Corps historian Major Chuck Melson, the term originated in the American Civil War, when it meant a hastily dug foxhole. Spider holes were used during World War II including Leyte in the Philippines and Iwo Jima. They called them "octopus pots" for a fancied resemblance to the pots used to catch octopuses in Japan. Spider holes were also used during the Vietnam War. The American columnist William Safire claimed in the December 2003, issue of the New York Times that the term originated in the Vietnam War. According to Safire, one of the characteristics of these holes was that they held a "pot large enough to hold a crouching man." If the pot broke, the soldier was exposed to attack from spiders, hence the name "spider hole".Spider hole – A spider hole
163. Tunnel warfare – Tunnel warfare is a general name for war being conducted in tunnels and other underground cavities. Also, tunnels can serve from enemy attack. Also they can have cul-de-sacs as well as reduced lighting that can create a closed-in night environment. Polybius describes the Seleucids and Parthians employing counter-tunnels during the siege of Sirynx. A famous mine made the walls of Kazan crumble, allowing the Russians to take it. The only countermeasure was to dig down, fight the advancing enemy soldiers underground. Both sides were buried alive. The oldest known sources about employing trenches for guerrilla-like warfare are Roman. After the uprising in Germania the insurgent tribes soon started to change defence into utilising the advantage of wider terrain. Hidden trenches to assemble for surprise attacks were dug, connected via tunnels for secure fallback. In action often barriers were used to prevent the enemy from pursuing. Roman legions entering the country soon learned to fear this warfare, as the ambushing of marching columns caused high casualties. Therefore, they approached possibly fortified areas carefully, giving time to evaluate, assemble troops and organize them. With time the Romans understood that efforts should be made to expose these tunnels. Once an entrance was discovered fire was lit, either suffocating them to death.Tunnel warfare – German trench destroyed by a mine explosion, 1917. Approximately 10,000 German troops were killed when the mines were simultaneously detonated
164. Underground hangar – An underground hangar is a type of hangar for military aircraft, usually dug into the side of a mountain for protection. It is more protected than a hardened aircraft shelter. Countries that have used underground hangars include Norway, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Vietnam and Yugoslavia. The Indian Air Force operates underground hangars. Sukhoi Su-30 MKI have been stationed at Trishul Air-base situated in Uttar Pradesh, India. It houses one of the largest underground hangars in Asia. It is the base for C-130J, C-17 Globemaster and Mi-17. Adampur, situated in Punjab, houses an air-base with underground hangars. It is the base for MiG-29s. Pakistan has an underground facility for the Pakistan Air Force at PAF Base Mushaf, Sargodha, Punjab. After World War II plans were made up for building underground hangars at every air base that had suitable rock conditions. These ambitious building plans were reduced to hangars at certain selected air bases. A underground hangar was built in 1947 at F 18 Tullinge which began operating in 1950. After that plans were finalized for building underground hangars capable of surviving close hits by nuclear weapons. This required that these new hangars be much deeper, with heavy-duty blast doors in concrete.Underground hangar – A Mirage III RS in front of an aircraft cavern in Buochs airfield, Switzerland
165. Topography – Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, asteroids. The topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, or a description. This meaning is less common in the United States, where topographic maps with elevation contours have made "topography" synonymous with relief. The older sense of topography as the study of place still has currency in Europe. Topography in a narrow sense involves the identification of specific landforms. This is also known as geomorphometry. In modern usage, this involves generation of elevation data in digital form. The term topography originated in ancient Greece and continued in ancient Rome, as the detailed description of a place. The word comes from the Greek τόπος and -γραφία. In classical literature this refers to writing about a place or places, what is now largely called'local history'. In in general, the word topography is still sometimes used in its original sense. This term was used into the 20th century as generic for topographic maps. The earliest scientific surveys in France were called the Cassini maps after the family who produced them over four generations. The term "topographic surveys" appears to be American in origin. Identifying features, recognizing typical landform patterns are also part of the field.Topography – A surveying point in Germany
166. Cave castle – A cave castle or grotto castle is a residential or refuge castle, built into a natural cave. It falls within the category of hill castles. Unlike other types of castle, a cave castle can only be assaulted from the front. The gateway is usually located in the middle of a rock face, which makes it much more difficult to penetrate. Archaeological discoveries have revealed that caves were used as places of refuge early as the Stone Age. The medieval cave castles emerged in the 11th and 12th centuries. In the 15th centuries this type of castle became more widespread, especially in certain parts of France and Switzerland. The actual castle was generally built at the foot of a high rock face and at the level of one or more steep scree slopes. In several regions in Switzerland and France, however, soft material provides a good basis for the construction of cave and grotto castles. There are considerably more castles of this type in Graubünden, Ticino, the Dordogne than, for example, in Bavaria or the Tyrol. Most cave castles, for similar reasons, had other towers. One exception is Loch Castle near Eichhofen in Bavaria, that has round bergfried in front of it. In many cases, the grotto was simply sealed by a frontal wall and divided internally by stone or wooden partition walls. Several castles were, however, expanded accordingly, for example Stein Castle and Predjama Castle. In the technical literature a distinction is made between grotto castles.Cave castle – Predjama grotto castle near Postojna (Adelsberg), Slovenia
167. Hill castle – A hill castle is a castle built on a natural feature that stands above the surrounding terrain. It is a term derived from the German Höhenburg used in categorising castle sites by their topographical location. Hill castles are thus distinguished from lowland castles. A special type is Felsenburg. Ridge castle, built on the crest of a ridge. Hillside castle, built on the side of a hill and thus is dominated by rising ground on one side. In Germany, almost 66 per cent of all medieval castles known today are of the hill type. In the earliest centuries of construction only great nobles and kings had the power to build them. From the 12th century, however, the higher imperial ministeriales also built representative hill castles. This pattern was followed by the lesser nobility. They often have restaurants or kiosks. In some cases, where they are preserved, the interior of the castle may be visited. Examples of hill castles are Kriebstein Castle, the Marksburg, Schachenstein Castle. An Italian term for fortified houses or small castles built on higher ground above a town as refuge or protection. Horst Wolfgang Böhme, Reinhard Friedrich, Barbara Schock-Werner: Wörterbuch der Burgen, Schlösser und Festungen.Hill castle – The Marksburg in Germany is a typical example of a hill castle
168. Hill fort – They are typically European and of Iron Ages. Some were used in the post-Roman period. The fortification usually follows the contours of a hill, consisting of one or more lines with stockades or defensive walls, external ditches. "hill fort", "hill-fort" and "hillfort" are all used in the archaeological literature. They all refer to an elevated site with one or more ramparts made with an external ditch. Many early hill forts were abandoned, with the larger ones being redeveloped at a later date. Some hill forts contain houses. Similar but less defendable earthworks are found on the sides of hills. These may have been animal pens. Hill forts were the home of up to 1,000 people. With the emergence of oppida in the Late Iron Age, settlements could reach as large as 10,000 inhabitants. As the population increased so did the complexity of prehistoric societies. Around 1100 BC hill forts in the following centuries spread through Europe. They served a range of purposes and were variously tribal centres, defended places, foci of ritual activity, places of production. During the Hallstatt C period, hill forts became the dominant type in the west of Hungary.Hill fort – Maiden Castle in England is one of the largest hill forts in Europe. Photograph taken in 1935 by Major George Allen (1891–1940).
169. Hillside castle – A hillside castle is a castle built on the side of a hill above much of the surrounding terrain but below the summit itself. It emerged in Europe in the second half of the 11th century. Often a combination of these two defensive works were used. The advantage of a castle was that its well was much less deep than that of a hilltop castle. The boring of the well was often the most time-consuming element in the overall construction of a castle. However, its water supply was ensured with the additional help of donkeys as pack animals, entailing the construction of special donkey tracks. There are numerous hillside castles in the German Central Uplands, especially in river valleys, for example on the Middle Rhine. They lay close to trading routes. Examples of hillside castles include Katz Castle in Sankt Goarshausen, the Rietburg near Rhodt in der Palatinate. Horst Wolfgang Böhme, Reinhard Friedrich, Barbara Schock-Werner: Wörterbuch der Burgen, Schlösser und Festungen. Philipp Reclam, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-15-010547-1, p. 149–150. Michael Losse: Kleine Burgenkunde. Regionalia, Euskirchen 2011, ISBN 978-3-939722-39-7.Hillside castle – Ehrenfels Castle on the Rhine
170. Hilltop castle – A hilltop castle is a type of hill castle, built on the summit of a hill or mountain. The chief advantage of such a selected site was its inaccessibility. The steep flanks of the hill made assaults on the castle difficult or, depending on the terrain, even impossible. In addition, it often commanded excellent fields of fire over the surrounding countryside. The sheer height of the castle above the local area could also protect the occupants of the castle from bombardment. In addition, the prominent location of such a castle enhanced its status as a residence. Nevertheless, hilltop castles presented their logistic difficulties. Without sufficiently strong pumps, supply could be problematic if there was no well in the vicinity. Another problem was the isolation of such castles. The withdrawal of armed foot soldiers into the castle was hampered by the terrain; all the more so for cavalry. Its control over the surrounding region was therefore always adequate. Spur castles were introduced by the Franks in order to hinder the deployment of heavy siege machinery. The bergfried is surrounded by an external moat. The Cathars used a number of inaccessible hilltop castles as refuges, such as Château de Montségur which stands on the summit of a rocky mountain. Like other hill castles, hilltop castles lost their significance during the course of the Middle Ages.Hilltop castle – Hohenzollern Castle, a typical example of a hilltop castle
171. Island castle – The island castle is a variation of the water castle. It is distinguished by its location on an natural island. It is a lowland castle. Such castles could therefore be very cheaply built. The best-known castle in Germany is Pfalzgrafenstein Castle near Kaub. The Gothic water castle in Europe is Trakai Castle in Lithuania. Castle Turnbull, Stephen. Crusader Castles of the Teutonic Knights: The Red-brick Castles of Prussia, Osprey, Oxford. ISBN 1-84176-557-0.Island castle – Castle Stalker, an island castle in Scotland
172. Lowland castle – In Germany, about 34 percent of all castles are of the lowland type. Where natural obstacles do not exist, artificially similar obstacles take on added significance. These include water-filled or dry moats, ramparts, curtain walls. Fortified towers also fulfil this purpose. Castles of the Early Middle Ages often had high and steep earth ramparts. Lowland castles are naturally found in the Netherlands. But they may also be encountered occasionally for example in a valley as a so-called island castle on an island in a river. Water castle: Overarching term for all castle types that use water as a defensive obstacle. Depending on their topographic situation these castles may be subdivided into: River castles: a castle erected on a bank. As a rule, they are also surrounded by moats filled with water supplied by the river. Shore castle: castle by a lake or the sea. Like river castles, shore castles usually have artificial ditches with a link to the waterbody. Island castle: castle on a natural, more rarely on an artificial, island in a river or lake. Marsh castle: castle in marshy or boggy terrain. It uses the natural inaccessibility of the terrain to its defensive advantage.Lowland castle – Trakai Castle (Lithuania), an island castle
173. Marsh castle – A marsh or marshland castle is a type of lowland castle, situated in marshy or boggy countryside. It uses the natural inaccessibility of the terrain to its defensive advantage. Examples of well-known marsh castles in Germany include: a ruined castle in Oebisfelde-Weferlingen in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. The oldest surviving marsh castle in Germany, also situated in Oebisfelde-Weferlingen in Saxony-Anhalt. Storkow Castle, in Storkow the state of Brandenburg. Calvörde Castle, in Calvörde in the state of Saxony-Anhalt.Marsh castle – Calvörde Castle, a marsh castle, depicted around 1600
174. Water castle – Topographically water castles are a type of lowland castle. Forde-Johnson describes it as "a castle in which water plays a prominent part in the defences..." Island castles are an example. In all cases, water is used as an obstacle to hinder an attacker. That apart, an abundant supply of water was also an advantage during a siege. Such a castle usually had only one entrance, via a drawbridge and that could be raised in the event of an attack. To some extent these water castles had a fortress-like character. The characteristic moats thus were retained in some cases as an element of landscaping. Today, in monument conservation circles, they are often described because of the water damage caused to their foundations. As a result, many moats around castles in Germany have been drained, or more rarely filled, especially since the 1960s.Water castle – Plan of Doorwerth Castle (Gelderland, the Netherlands)
175. Ridge castle – A ridge castle is a medieval fortification built on a ridge or the crest of mountain or hill chain. Ridge castles were not a common type of fortification. While castles of this type were well protected, they had the disadvantage that they could be attacked from two sides. For mutual protection, such castles could be built within sight of one another. Château de Montségur in France lies on the spur of a mountain. Michael Losse: Kleine Burgenkunde. Regionalia, Euskirchen 2011, ISBN 978-3-939722-39-7.Ridge castle – Burghausen Castle
176. Rocca (architecture) – A rocca might in reality be no grander than a fortified farmhouse. A more extensive rocca would be referred to as a castello. The rocca in Roman times would more likely be a site of a venerable cult than a dwelling, like the highplace of its Acropolis. Locally the term la rocca simply designates the local high place. Rocca Flea is a fortified palazzo in Umbria. In Valletta, Malta, Casa Rocca Piccola is one of the last unconverted palazzi, still lived in today by a noble family. In Sardinia, a stronghold of the Doria of Genoa, gives its name to the commune Monteleone Rocca Doria. From the earliest stage, when rocca were the only stone structures "the distinction between ` castles' and ` villages' is already one of degree rather than kind." Their protective rocca has extended its name to many small communities: Roccacasale is located in the Province of L'Aquila in the Abruzzo. Rocca di Papa in the region called Castelli Romani in the hills surrounding Lazio has given its name to its comune. Twelfth-century documents name the Castrum Rocce de Papa, because here lived Pope Eugene III. A comune in the Province of Rieti in Lazio, is located about 50 km northeast of Rome. Rocca Canterano, Rocca Priora, Rocca Massima, Rocca di Cave, Rocca d'Arce are also in Lazio. Rocca Grimalda in the Province of Alessandria, Piedmont was a nest of bandits in the eighteenth century. Rocca Canavese, Rocca Cigliè, Rocca de' Baldi are also comuni in Piedmont.Rocca (architecture) – The Rocca of Cetona (province of Siena) dominates its village.
177. Rock castle – Topographically rock castles are classified as hill castles. Typically a castle was built on a rock, able to provide a fortified position without any great additions. In simple fortifications of this type the rock could be climbed on simple ladders that were hoisted up in times of danger. Rock castles would also have wooden and stone structures built against them. The morphological characteristics of the rock were crucial to the nature of any structures. The rock on which the castle stands is always incorporated into its design. If the rock is easy to work, rooms, passages, steps, cisterns were invariably hacked out of it. The buildings, made of stone, stood on or next to the rock and used it as a foundation or walls. Most rock castles longer exist today. However, several rock castles, like the ruins of Neuwindstein still have impressive wall remains. A few rock castles were rebuilt in e. g. In both cases it was not a reconstruction of the medieval fortification but a new design. Castle researcher, Otto Piper used the German phrase Burg for castles that had rooms artificially hewn out of the rock on which the castle stood. His examples of rock-hewn castles include Fleckenstein, Trifels and Altwindstein. In some cases this has resulted in tourists being attracted, which in turn has caused considerable damage to these monuments.Rock castle – Spangenberg Castle (Palatinate Forest), with the upper ward on the rock and the lower ward in front of it
178. Spur castle – A spur castle is a type of medieval fortification that uses its location as a defensive feature. The name refers to the location on a spur projecting from a hill. Depending on the local topography, a castle may depend mostly on its inaccessible location, or combine it with defensive features such as walls and towers. A typical feature is a ditch cutting off the spur from the rest of the hill. When the spur is narrow, the term ridge castle is sometimes used as well. Not always, subdivided into a lower ward and a more strongly defended upper ward. Hilltop castles were introduced by the Franks in order to hinder the deployment of the increasing use of the counterweight trebuchet. In the case of spur castles, heavy machinery could only be deployed on the uphill side enabling defensive works and forces to be concentrated there. The crusader castle Krak des Chevaliers lies from the south. At the same time, it has concentric castle defences on all sides. In the castle at Saône, the defences are concentrated on the vulnerable side of the spur, most notably a deep ditch. The lower bailey at Saône towers. Stirling Castle in Scotland is located on a narrow spur with drops on a gentle slope providing access from the south-east. Château de Chinon in France was used in the 12th century. In 1205, it was the largest castle in the Loire valley.Spur castle – Ruins of Montfort on the top of the spur.
179. Jagdschloss – Jagdschloss is the German term for a hunting lodge. A Jagdschloss was often the venue for a banquet accompanying a hunt, sometimes it also hosted other events. The term Jagdschloss is often equated to the Lustschloss or maison de plaisance, particularly as the hunt was also a recreational activity. However, a Lustschloss and Jagdschloss differ in function well as architecture. Unlike with a Lustschloss, timber-framed buildings or log cabins were not uncommon. Only a few imposing stone buildings have survived, which colours the general understanding of what a Jagdschloss is today. A Jagdschloss often had other outbuildings used to house hunting equipment, coaches and the entourage. Actes des premières Rencontres européenne Château de Maisons, 10-13 juin 2003. Picard, Paris, 2006, ISBN 2-7084-0737-6. Claude d'Anthenaise: Chasses princières dans l'Europe de la Renaissance. Actes du colloque de Chambord. Fondation de la Maison de la Chasse et de la Nature. Actes Sud, Arles, 2007, ISBN 978-2-7427-6643-7. Heiko Laß: Jagd - und Lustschlösser: culture of two sovereign construction tasks; shown in Thuringian constructions of the 17th and 18th century. Imhof, Petersberg, 2006, ISBN 3-86568-092-5 Media related to Hunting lodges at Wikimedia CommonsJagdschloss – Jagdschloss Gelbensande
180. Imperial castleImperial castle – The imperial castle of Münzenberg, Hesse, Germany
181. Kaiserpfalz – Likewise Königspfalz is a combination of König, Pfalz, meaning "royal palace". This was so-called "itinerant kingship"; a sort of "travelling kingdom". Because pfalzen were used by the king as a ruler within the Holy Roman Empire, the correct historic term is Königspfalz or "royal palace". Moreover, they were not always grand palaces in the accepted sense, some were fortified hunting lodges, such as Bodfeld in the Harz. In Latin, such a royal manor was known as a villa curtis regia. They were located either in the countryside in the middle of royal estates. Pfalzen were generally built at intervals of 30 kilometres, which represented a day's journey at that time. At a minimum, a pfalz consisted with its Great Hall or Aula Regia, an imperial chapel and an estate. It was here that emperors carried out the business of state, held their imperial court sessions and celebrated important church festivals. Each was administered by a palatine, who executed jurisdiction in the emperor's stead. One of the most important of them would eventually rise to the title of Prince-elector. The pfalzen that the rulers visited varied depending on their function. The festival palaces, Easter being the most important and celebrated at Easter palaces. The larger palaces were often in towns that could also be bishop's seats or imperial abbeys. In the Hohenstaufen era of the Roman-German kingdom, imperial princes began to demonstrate their claims to power by building their own pfalzen.Kaiserpfalz – Imperial Palace of Goslar
182. Lustschloss – In the course of the years, many aristocratic family seats grew into big estates; at the same time, the court ceremonial changed. Now, the prince stood more in the centre of a luxurious royal household that reached its zenith during absolutism. The nobility surrounded themselves with artists, courtiers, envoys, petitioners. Often the residences overflowed with guests. The desire for greater intimacy led to the construction of the Lustschloss, to which often only certain circles of acquaintances were invited. Here its owners could withdraw with their family and relatives. The Lustschloss was above all a place for parties, music. It was also frequently used for painting. This distinguished it from the main residence, nearby. The latter served the state, in which etiquette had to be protected. The most popular architectural styles for these particular castles were rococo, which both displayed a sense of wealth. The Lustschloss was often located in mostly distinguished by especially extensive and valuable decorations. At the same time the rooms and drawing rooms became more comfortable. Significant artists from their respective region would work in the castle. Famous examples are the Petit Trianon in the gardens of Versailles, the Castle Marly-le-Roi, the Amalienburg in the Schlosspark of Nymphenburg.Lustschloss – Schloss Favorite of Ludwigsburg
183. Ordensburg – An Ordensburg was a fortress built by crusading German military orders during the Middle Ages. The term "Ordensburgen" was also used during Nazi Germany to refer to training schools for Nazi leaders. Later, Ordensburgen were used to defend against Poland and Lithuania. The Ordensburgen often resembled cloisters. While they were considerably larger than those in the Holy Roman Empire, they were much scarcer in the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. The small castles are considered to be of vassals, while the larger ones might have served as arsenals and strongholds against rebels and invaders. Most Ordensburgen were rectangular, even quadratic in form, lacking a Bergfried. Many castles had no towers at all, as a mighty quadrangle, was considered sufficient for defence. Note that many, possibly most of the castles in the list below are NOT Ordensburg either in terms of architecture. List of castles in Estonia List of castles in Latvia List of castles in Lithuania List of castles in Poland Krahe, Friedrich-Wilhelm. Burgen des deutschen Mittelalters. Grundriss-Lexikon. Flechsig. ISBN 3-88189-360-1.Ordensburg – The Ordensburg Marienburg in 1890/1905, during the German Empire
184. Hornwork – A hornwork is an element of the trace italienne system of fortification. Unlike a hornwork, it contains full bastion. Griffiths, Frederick Augustus. The artillerist's British soldier's compendium. Parker & Son. Editor. "A Popular View of Fortification and Gunnery, No. I. 49, No. II. 316, No. III. 586". The United Service Journal and Naval and Military Magazine. London: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley. Part 1.Hornwork – Feature 'f' is a hornwork. From Cyclopaedia.