1. Zittau – Zittau is a city in the south east of the Free State of Saxony, Germany, very close to the border tri-point of Germany, Poland, and the Czech Republic. It is part of the District of Görlitz, as of 31 July 2012, the city had a population of 27,506. The inner city of Zittau still shows its original beauty with many houses from several periods of German architecture, there is the famous town hall built in an Italian style, the church of St John and the stables with its medieval heritage. This multi-storied building is one of the oldest of its kind in Germany, Zittau was one of the six members of the Six-City League of Upper Lusatia. At that time the city was granted a special title—it was called Die Reiche because of its proportion of well-to-do citizens. Many of them went on to find refuge in surrounding villages, in Dresden, one of the most important trading goods of this early age in the 16th century was beer. Later in the 18th and 19th century textiles became important too, during World War II, a labour camp was located in the city. It provided forced labour for Phänomen Werke Gustav Hiller, a truck-manufacturing company, the city is also disadvantaged by the lower cost of labour in its closely neighbouring countries. In addition, lignite surface mining was discontinued in the foothills of the Zittau Mountains on the outskirts of the city, although it is still carried on across the border in Poland. This development has, however, saved parts of the city, primarily consisting today of mothballed military garrisons and schools, from what would otherwise have been certain destruction. Zittau is now a place for students and yields a lot of income from overseas investors. 2001-2015, Arnd Voigt since August 2015, Thomas Zenker, the local council has 26 members, the results of the elections in August 2014 are, Church of our Lady, A semi-gothic church that is first mentioned in 1355. City Hall, Designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel and built in Italian palazzo style between 1840 and 1845, flower Clock, A notable Zittau attraction, the flower clock was built in 1907 from a clockwork of an old Tower clock and contains approximately 4800 plants planted three times annually. Friary Church, It was the church of the Franciscan Monastery and their high altar was sacred to the apostles Peter and Paulus in 1293. The main aisle dates from 1480 and was built in the style of late gothic, in the years 1696,1731 and 1748 prayer rooms were built on the south side of the church. These were special seating areas for wealthy citizens, markt, The main central square St Johns Church, Originally built in 1230 in the Romanesque style of the Order of Saint John, whose patron saint was John the Baptist. It was later dedicated also to John the Evangelist, the building was destroyed in 1757 by Austrian soldiers during the Seven Years War. The current building was built between 1766 and 1837, Zittau Lenten Altar Cloths, two large decorated cloths which were used to hide the altar during LentZittau – Zittau Panorama
2. Frankfurt am Main – The city is at the centre of the larger Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, which has a population of 5.8 million and is Germanys second-largest metropolitan region after Rhine-Ruhr. Since the enlargement of the European Union in 2013, the centre of the EU is about 40 km to the east of Frankfurts CBD. Frankfurt is culturally and ethnically diverse, with half of the population. A quarter of the population are foreign nationals, including many expatriates, Frankfurt is an alpha world city and a global hub for commerce, culture, education, tourism and traffic. Its the site of many global and European headquarters, Frankfurt Airport is among the worlds busiest. Automotive, technology and research, services, consulting, media, Frankfurts DE-CIX is the worlds largest internet exchange point. Messe Frankfurt is one of the worlds largest trade fairs, major fairs include the Frankfurt Motor Show, the worlds largest motor show, the Music Fair, and the Frankfurt Book Fair, the worlds largest book fair. Frankfurt is home to educational institutions, including the Goethe University, the UAS, the FUMPA. Its renowned cultural venues include the concert hall Alte Oper, Europes largest English Theatre and many museums, Frankfurts skyline is shaped by some of Europes tallest skyscrapers. In sports, the city is known as the home of the top football club Eintracht Frankfurt, the basketball club Frankfurt Skyliners, the Frankfurt Marathon. Its the seat of German sport unions for Olympics, football, Frankfurt is the largest financial centre in continental Europe. It is home to the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the worlds largest stock exchanges by market capitalization and accounts for more than 90 percent of the turnover in the German market. Frankfurt is considered a city as listed by the GaWC groups 2012 inventory. Among global cities it was ranked 10th by the Global Power City Index 2011, among financial centres it was ranked 8th by the International Financial Centers Development Index 2013 and 9th by the Global Financial Centres Index 2013. Its central location within Germany and Europe makes Frankfurt a major air, rail, Frankfurt Airport is one of the worlds busiest international airports by passenger traffic and the main hub for Germanys flag carrier Lufthansa. Frankfurter Kreuz, the Autobahn interchange close to the airport, is the most heavily used interchange in the EU, in 2011 human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Frankfurt as seventh in its annual Quality of Living survey of cities around the world. According to The Economist cost-of-living survey, Frankfurt is Germanys most expensive city, Frankfurt has many high-rise buildings in the city centre, forming the Frankfurt skyline. It is one of the few cities in the European Union to have such a skyline and because of it Germans sometimes refer to Frankfurt as Mainhattan, the other well known and obvious nickname is BankfurtFrankfurt am Main – Collage of Frankfurt, clockwise from top of left to right: Facade of the Römer and Frankfurt Cathedral, statue of Charlemagne in Frankfurt Historical Museum, view of Frankfurt skyline and Main River
3. Fortification – Fortifications are military constructions or buildings designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and also used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs, the term is derived from the Latin fortis and facere. From very early history to modern times, walls have been a necessity for cities to survive in a changing world of invasion. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were the first small cities to be fortified, in ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae. A Greek Phrourion was a collection of buildings used as a military garrison. These construction mainly served the purpose of a tower, to guard certain roads, passes. Though smaller than a fortress, they acted as a border guard rather than a real strongpoint to watch. The art of setting out a camp or constructing a fortification traditionally has been called castramentation since the time of the Roman legions. Fortification is usually divided into two branches, permanent fortification and field fortification, there is also an intermediate branch known as semi-permanent fortification. Castles are fortifications which are regarded as being distinct from the fort or fortress in that they are a residence of a monarch or noble. Roman forts and hill forts were the antecedents of castles in Europe. The Early Middle Ages saw the creation of towns built around castles. Medieval-style fortifications were made obsolete by the arrival of cannons in the 14th century. Fortifications in the age of black powder evolved into much lower structures with greater use of ditches and earth ramparts that would absorb, Walls exposed to direct cannon fire were very vulnerable, so were sunk into ditches fronted by earth slopes. The arrival of explosive shells in the 19th century led to yet another stage in the evolution of fortification, steel-and-concrete fortifications were common during the 19th and early 20th centuries. However the advances in warfare since World War I have made large-scale fortifications obsolete in most situations. Demilitarized zones along borders are arguably another type of fortification, although a passive kind, many military installations are known as forts, although they are not always fortified. Larger forts may be called fortresses, smaller ones were known as fortalicesFortification – Krak des Chevaliers is one of the best-preserved Crusader castles.
4. Crownwork – A crownwork is an element of the trace italienne system of fortification and is effectively an expanded Hornwork. It consists of a bastion with the walls on either side ending in half bastions from which longer flank walls run back towards the main fortress. The artillerists manual, and British soldiers compendium, a Popular View of Fortification and Gunnery, No. I. The United Service Journal and Naval and Military Magazine, london, Henry Colburn and Richard BentleyCrownwork – Feature 'l' is a Crownwork. From the Cyclopaedia.
5. Abatis – An abatis, abattis, or abbattis is a field fortification consisting of an obstacle formed of the branches of trees laid in a row, with the sharpened tops directed outwards, towards the enemy. The trees are usually interlaced or tied with wire, abatis are used alone or in combination with wire entanglements and other obstacles. There is evidence it was used as early as the Roman Imperial period, a classic use of an abatis was at the Battle of Carillon during the Seven Years War. The 3,600 French troops defeated an army of 16,000 British. The British found the defences almost impossible to breach and were forced to withdraw with some 2,600 casualties, an important weakness of abatis, in contrast to barbed wire, is that it can be destroyed by fire. An important advantage is that an improvised abatis can be formed in forested areas. This can be done by cutting down a row of trees so that they fall with their tops toward the enemy. An alternative is to place explosives so as to blow the trees down, abatis are rarely seen nowadays, having been largely replaced by wire obstacles. However, it may be used as a replacement or supplement when barbed wire is in short supply, a form of giant abatis, using whole trees instead of branches, can be used as an improvised anti-tank obstacle. Though rarely used by conventional military units, abatises are still officially maintained in United States Army. Furthermore, it is recommended that the trees remain connected to the stumps, US military maps record an abatis by use of an inverted V with a short line extending from it to the right. Zasechnaya cherta Pamplin Historical Park & The National Museum of the Civil War Soldier includes large and authentic reproduction of abatis used in the U. S. Civil WarAbatis – Abatis improvised by Japanese troops during World War II
6. Agger (ancient Rome) – An agger is an ancient Roman embankment or rampart, or any artificial elevation. The agger was an embankment that gave Roman roads the proper draining base, basically the agger is a ridge that supports the road surface. The material used to build the aggers was dug from lateral ditches, once the material was dug out of the ditches that were known as scoop ditches, they were used as the storm drain for that road. These ditches could also be used for soldiers to hide in if they ever were under attack from enemies, on the most important road routes, the agger could be 4 to 5 feet high and 45 to 50 feet wide. Along less important routes the road is set directly on the levelled ground surface with stones laid to provide drainage with the lateral ditches barely visible. The material was found locally, though the Romans would not hesitate to bring in the material from other places if they could find no suitable stone. The course of a Roman road can often be traced today by the line of the agger across the landscape. A well-known example is the Agger Servianus, a part of the Servian walls of Rome, which protected the city on its most vulnerable side and it consisted of a double rampart bearing formidable fortificationsAgger (ancient Rome) – Remains of the agger of Ardea, Italy
7. Broch – A broch is an Iron Age drystone hollow-walled structure of a type found only in Scotland. Brochs belong to the classification complex atlantic roundhouse devised by Scottish archaeologists in the 1980s and their origin is a matter of some controversy. The theory that they were defensive military structures is not accepted by modern archaeologists. Although most stand alone in the landscape, some examples exist of brochs surrounded by clusters of smaller dwellings, the word broch is derived from Lowland Scots brough, meaning fort. In the mid-19th century Scottish antiquaries called brochs burgs, after Old Norse borg, place names in Scandinavian Scotland such as Burgawater and Burgan show that Old Norse borg is the older word used for these structures in the north. Brochs are often referred to as duns in the west, antiquaries began to use the spelling broch in the 1870s. A precise definition for the word has proved elusive, brochs are the most spectacular of a complex class of roundhouse buildings found throughout Atlantic Scotland. Researcher Euan MacKie has proposed a smaller total for Scotland of 104. The origin of brochs is a subject of continuing research and this view contrasted, for example, with that of Sir Lindsay Scott, who argued, following Childe, for a wholesale migration into Atlantic Scotland of people from southwest England. Meanwhile, the increasing number – albeit still pitifully few – of radiocarbon dates for the use of brochs still suggests that most of the towers were built in the 1st centuries BC. A few may be earlier, notably the one proposed for Old Scatness Broch in Shetland, Caithness, Sutherland and the Northern Isles have the densest concentrations, but there are also a great many examples in the west of Scotland and the Hebrides. Although mainly concentrated in the northern Highlands and the Islands, a few occur in the Borders, on the west coast of Dumfries and Galloway. In a c.1560 sketch there appears to be a broch by the next to Annan Castle in Dumfries. This small group of southern brochs has never been satisfactorily explained, the original interpretation of brochs, favoured by nineteenth century antiquarians, was that they were defensive structures, places of refuge for the community and their livestock. They were sometimes regarded as the work of Danes or Picts, from the 1930s to the 1960s, archaeologists like V. Gordon Childe and later John Hamilton regarded them as castles where local landowners held sway over a subject population. The castle theory fell from favour among Scottish archaeologists in the 1980s, once again, however, there is a lack of archaeological proof for this reconstruction, and the sheer number of brochs, sometimes in places with a lack of good land, makes it problematic. Brochs close groupings and profusion in many areas may indeed suggest that they had a defensive or even offensive function. Often they are at key strategic points, in Shetland they sometimes cluster on each side of narrow stretches of water, the broch of Mousa, for instance, is directly opposite another at Burraland in SandwickBroch – Dun Carloway broch, Lewis, Scotland
8. City gate – A city gate is a gate which is, or was, set within a city wall. City gates were built to provide a point of controlled access to and departure from a walled city for people, vehicles, goods. The city gate was also used to display diverse kinds of public information such as announcements, tax and toll schedules, standards of local measures. City gates, in one form or another, can be found across the world in cities dating back to ancient times to around the 19th century. Many cities would close their gates after a certain curfew each night, for example a bigger one like Prague or a smaller one like Flensburg, in the north of Germany. With increased stability and freedom, many walled cities removed such fortifications as city gates, although many still survive, many surviving gates have been heavily restored, rebuilt or new ones created to add to the appearance of a city, such as Bab Bou Jalous in Fes. With increased levels of traffic, city gates have come under threat in the past for impeding the flow of traffic, ireland, St. Laurences Gate, 13th Century, in Drogheda, CoCity gate – The Brama Młyńska in Stargard Szczeciński one of a few water gates in Europe
9. Gatehouse – A gatehouse, in architectural terminology, is a building enclosing or accompanying a gateway for a castle, manor house, fort, town or similar buildings of importance. Gatehouses made their first appearance in the early antiquity when it became necessary to protect the entrance to a castle or town. Over time, they evolved into very complicated structures with many lines of defence, strongly fortified gatehouses would normally include a drawbridge, one or more portcullises, machicolations, arrow loops and possibly even murder-holes where stones would be dropped on attackers. In some castles, the gatehouse was so strongly fortified it took on the function of a keep, examples of such gate keeps can be found at Bodiam Castle and Beaumaris Castle. In the late Middle Ages, some of these arrow loops might have converted into gun loops. Sometimes gatehouses formed part of fortifications, perhaps defending the passage of a bridge across a river or a moat. York has four important gatehouses, known as Bars, in its city walls, the French term for gatehouse is logis-porche. This could be a large, complex structure that served both as a gateway and lodging or it could have composed of a gateway through an enclosing wall. A very large gatehouse might be called a châtelet, at the end of the Middle Ages, many gatehouses in England and France were converted into beautiful, grand entrance structures to manor houses or estates. Many of them became a separate feature free-standing or attached to the manor or mansion only by an enclosing wall, by this time the gatehouse had lost its defensive purpose and had become more of a monumental structure designed to harmonise with the manor or mansion. On the continent of Europe, there are examples of surviving gatehouses in France, Austria. Bargate, in Hampshire is a gatehouse in the city centre of Southampton. Constructed in 1180 as part of the Southampton town walls Ightham Mote, Durham Castle, in Durham has an 11th-century gatehouse that is now used as accommodation for students attending University College, Durham. Layer Marney Tower, the apotheosis of the Tudor gatehouse, stokesay Castle, a 13th-century fortified manor house in Shropshire has a Jacobean half-timbered gatehouse. Stanway House, Stanway, Gloucestershire, where the gatehouse measures 44 ft. by 22 ft. and has three storeys, westwood House, Worcestershire, which has a frontage of 54 ft. with two storeys. Burton Agnes Hall, East Riding of Yorkshire, which has three storeys and is flanked by octagonal towers at the angles. Hylton Castle, Hylton, Sunderland, although it is an actual castle, château de Châteaubriant, two gatehouses, one for the lower bailey, one for the upper ward. Château de Suscinio, a large 15th-century gatehouse in the style, MorbihanGatehouse – Gatehouse reconstruction from ancient Babylon
10. Gord (archaeology) – A gord is a medieval Slavonic fortified wooden settlement, sometimes known as a burgwall after the German term for such sites. Gords were built during the late Bronze and early Iron Ages by the Lusatian culture (c, 1300–500 BCE, and later in the 8th–7th centuries BCE, in what are now Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, eastern Germany, and India. These settlements were founded on strategic sites such as hills, riverbanks, lake islands. A typical gord was a group of houses built either in rows or in circles, surrounded by one or more rings of walls made of earth and wood. Some gords were ring-shaped, with a round, oval, or occasionally polygonal fence or wall surrounding a hollow, others, built on a natural hill or a man-made mound, were cone-shaped. Those with a defense on one side, such as a river or lake, were usually horseshoe-shaped. Most gords were built in densely populated areas on sites that offered particular natural advantages, as Slavic tribes united to form states, gords were also built for defensive purposes in less-populated border areas. Gords in which rulers resided or that lay on trade routes quickly expanded, near the gord, or below it in elevation, there formed small communities of servants, merchants, artisans, and others who served the higher-ranked inhabitants of the gord. Each such community was known as a suburbium and its residents could shelter within the walls of the gord in the event of danger. Eventually the suburbium acquired its own fence or wall, in the High Middle Ages, the gord usual evolved into a castle or citadel and the suburbium into a town. Some gords did not stand the test of time and were abandoned or destroyed, notable archeological sites include Biskupin, Poland, and Bilsk, Ukraine. The term ultimately descends from the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European root ǵʰortós, enclosure, from this same root come the Germanic word elements *gard and *gart, and likely also the names of Graz, Austria and Gartz, Germany. Cognate to these are English words such as yard, garth, girdle, also cognate but less closely related are Latin hortus, a garden, and its English descendants horticulture and orchard. Further afield, in ancient Iran, a fortified settlement was called a gerd. Burugerd or Borujerd is a city in the West of Iran, the Indian suffix -garh, meaning a fort in Hindi, Sanskrit, and other Indo-Iranian languages, appears in many Indian place names. The Proto-Slavic word gordъ later differentiated into grad and gorod, etc and it is the root of various words in modern Slavic languages pertaining to fences and fenced areas. Some of them are in countries which once were but no longer are mainly inhabited by Slavic-speaking peoples, the word survives in the names of several villages and town districts, as well as in the names of the German municipalities Puttgarden, Wagria and Putgarten, Rügen. Garðaríki - Varangian name for Kievan Rus, interpreted as cities Biskupin, fortified settlements in other cultures, Kraal, Motte-and-baileyGord (archaeology) – Reconstructed West Slavic fortified settlement (gord) in Groß Raden, Germany
11. Hillfort – A hillfort or hill fort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. They are typically European and of the Bronze and Iron Ages, some were used in the post-Roman period. The fortification usually follows the contours of a hill, consisting of one or more lines of earthworks, with stockades or defensive walls, and external ditches. Hill forts developed in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age, roughly the start of the first millennium BC, the terms hill fort, hill-fort and hillfort are all used in the archaeological literature. They all refer to a site with one or more ramparts made of earth, stone and/or wood. Many small early hill forts were abandoned, with the ones being redeveloped at a later date. Similar but smaller and less defendable earthworks are found on the sides of hills and these are known as hill-slope enclosures and may have been animal pens. It has been estimated that in about 5000 BC during the Neolithic between 2 million and 5 million lived in Europe, in the Late Iron Age it had an population of around 15 to 30 million. Outside Greece and Italy, which were densely populated, the vast majority of settlements in the Iron Age were small. Hill forts were the exception, and were the home of up to 1,000 people, with the emergence of oppida in the Late Iron Age, settlements could reach as large as 10,000 inhabitants. As the population increased so did the complexity of prehistoric societies, around 1100 BC hill forts emerged and in the following centuries spread through Europe. They served a range of purposes and were variously tribal centres, defended places, foci of ritual activity, during the Hallstatt C period, hill forts became the dominant settlement type in the west of Hungary. Julius Caesar described the large late Iron Age hill forts he encountered during his campaigns in Gaul as oppida, by this time the larger ones had become more like cities than fortresses and many were assimilated as Roman towns. Hill forts were occupied by conquering armies, but on other occasions the forts were destroyed, the local people forcibly evicted. For example, Solsbury Hill was sacked and deserted during the Belgic invasions of southern Britain in the 1st century BC. Excavations at hill forts in the first half of the 20th century focussed on the defenses, the exception to this trend began in the 1930s with a series of excavations undertaken by Mortimer Wheeler at Maiden Castle, Dorset. From 1960 onwards, archaeologists shifted their attention to the interior of hill forts, currently, post-processual archaeologists regard hill forts as symbols of wealth and power. Michael Avery has stated the view of hill forts by sayingHillfort – Maiden Castle in England is one of the largest hill forts in Europe. Photograph taken in 1935 by Major George Allen (1891–1940).
12. Limes – A limes was a border defence or delimiting system of Ancient Rome. It marked the boundaries and provinces of the Roman Empire, the word limes was utilized by Latin writers to denote a marked or fortified frontier. This was the definition and usage of the term. It is now common to accept that limes was not a term used by the Romans for the imperial frontier. This is a modern, anachronistic interpretation, the term became common after the 3rd century AD, when it denoted a military district under the command of a dux limitis. The limites represented the line of the Roman Empire at its greatest extent in the 2nd century AD. It stretched over 5,000 km from the Atlantic coast of northern Britain, through Europe to the Black Sea, the remains of the limites today consist of vestiges of walls, ditches, forts, fortresses and civilian settlements. Certain elements of the line have been excavated, some reconstructed, the two sections of the limes in Germany cover a length of 550 km from the north-west of the country to the Danube in the south-east. The 118 km long Hadrians Wall was built on the orders of the Emperor Hadrian c, AD122 at the northernmost limits of the Roman province of Britannia. It is an example of the organization of a military zone and illustrates the defensive techniques. The Antonine Wall, a 60 km-long fortification in Scotland, was started by Emperor Antoninus Pius in AD142 as a defense against the Barbarians of the north and it constitutes the northwestern-most portion of the Roman Limes. Limes Norici, the frontier of the Roman province Noricum, from the River Inn along the Danube to Cannabiaca in Austria, Limes Pannonicus, the frontier of the Roman province Pannonia, along the Danube from Klosterneuburg Austria to Taurunum in Serbia. A mediaeval limes is the Limes Saxoniae in Holstein, the stem of limes, limit-, which can be seen in the genitive case, limitis, marks it as the ancestor of an entire group of important words in many languages, for example, English limit. Modern languages have multiplied its abstract formulations, for example, from limit comes the abbreviation lim, used in mathematics to designate the limit of a sequence or a function, see limit. In metaphysics, material objects are limited by matter and therefore are delimited from each other, in ethics, men must know their limitations and are wise if they do. An etymology was given in detail by Julius Pokorny, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch. According to him, it comes from Indo-European el-, elei-, lei-, to bow, to bend, the Latin meaning was discussed in detail by W. Gebert. The sense is that a limit bends across one in some way, the limes was a cross-path or a cross-wall, which the Romans meant to throw across the path of invaders to hinder themLimes – Reconstructed east gate at Welzheim
13. Oppidum – An oppidum is a large fortified Iron Age settlement. They continued in use until the Romans began conquering Europe, north of the River Danube, where the population remained independent from Rome, oppida continued to be used into the 1st century AD. Oppidum is a Latin word meaning the settlement in any administrative area of ancient Rome. The word is derived from the earlier Latin ob-pedum, enclosed space, possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *pedóm-, in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Julius Caesar described the larger Celtic Iron Age settlements he encountered in Gaul during the Gallic Wars in 58 to 52 BC as oppida. Although he did not explicitly define what features qualified a settlement to be called an oppidum and they were important economic sites, places where goods were produced, stored and traded, and sometimes Roman merchants had settled and the Roman legions could obtain supplies. They were also political centres, the seat of authorities taking decisions that affected large numbers of people, Most of the places that Caesar called oppida were city-sized fortified settlements. However, Geneva, for example, was referred to as an oppidum, Caesar also refers to 20 oppida of the Bituriges and 12 of the Helvetii, twice the number of fortified settlements of these groups known today. That implies that Caesar likely counted some unfortified settlements as oppida, a similar ambiguity is in evidence in writing by the Roman historian Livy, who also used the word for both fortified and unfortified settlements. In his work Geographia, Ptolemy listed the coordinates of many Celtic settlements, however, research has shown many of the localisations of Ptolemy to be erroneous, making the identification of any modern location with the names he listed highly uncertain and speculative. An exception to that is the oppidum of Brenodurum at Bern, in particular, Dehn suggested defining an oppidum by four criteria, Size, The settlement has to have a minimum size, defined by Dehn as 30 hectares. Topography, Most oppida are situated on heights, but some are located on areas of land. Fortification, The settlement is surrounded by a wall, usually consisting of three elements, a facade of stone, a construction and an earthen rampart at the back. Chronology, The settlement dates from the late Iron Age, the last two centuries BC and they could be referred to as the first cities north of the Alps. The period of 2nd and 1st centuries BC places them in the known as La Tène. A notional minimum size of 15 to 25 hectares has often been suggested, however, the term is not always rigorously used, and it has been used to refer to any hill fort or circular rampart dating from the La Tène period. One of the effects of the inconsistency in definitions is that it is uncertain how many oppida were built, in European archaeology, the term oppida is also used more widely to characterize any fortified prehistoric settlement. For example, significantly older hill-top structures like the one at Glauberg have been called oppida, the Spanish word castro, also used in English, means a walled settlement or hill fort, and this word is often used interchangeably with oppidum by archaeologists. According to prehistorian John Collis oppida extend as far east as the Hungarian plain where other settlement types take over, central Spain has sites similar to oppida, but while they share features such as size and defensive ramparts the interior was arranged differentlyOppidum – Celtic Oppidum, Central Europe 1st century BC
14. Palisade – A palisade—sometimes called a stakewall or a paling—is typically a fence or wall made from wooden stakes or tree trunks and used as a defensive structure or enclosure. Typical construction consisted of small or mid-sized tree trunks aligned vertically, the trunks were sharpened or pointed at the top, and were driven into the ground and sometimes reinforced with additional construction. The height of a palisade ranged from around a metre to as high as 3-4 m, as a defensive structure, palisades were often used in conjunction with earthworks. Palisades were an excellent option for small forts or other hastily constructed fortifications, since they were made of wood, they could often be quickly and easily built from readily available materials. They proved to be effective protection for short-term conflicts and were a deterrent against small forces. However, because they were wooden constructions they were vulnerable to fire. Often, a palisade would be constructed around a castle as a wall until a permanent stone wall could be erected. They were frequently used in New France, both the Greeks and Romans created palisades to protect their military camps. The Roman historian Livy describes the Greek method as being inferior to that of the Romans during the Second Macedonian War, the Greek stakes were too large to be easily carried and were spaced too far apart. This made it easy for enemies to them and create a large enough gap in which to enter. In contrast, the Romans used smaller and easier to carry stakes which were placed closer together, many settlements of the native Mississippian culture of the Midwestern United States also made use of palisades. The most prominent example is the Cahokia Mounds site in Collinsville, a wooden stockade with a series of watchtowers or bastions at regular intervals formed a 2-mile-long enclosure around Monks Mound and the Grand Plaza. Archaeologists found evidence of the stockade during excavation of the area and indications that it was several times. The stockade seems to have separated Cahokias main ceremonial precinct from other parts of the city, the English settlements in Jamestown, Virginia and Plymouth, Massachusetts were originally fortified towns surrounded by palisades. In the late century, when milled lumber was not available or practical. The walls were made of vertical half timbers, the outside, rounded half with its still on faced Adirondack weather. Typically, the cracks between the logs were filled with moss and sometimes covered with small sticks. Inside, the cracks were covered with narrow wooden battens and it also presented a more finished look insidePalisade – Palisade in a Celtic village
15. Promontory fort – A promontory fort is a defensive structure located above a steep cliff, often only connected to the mainland by a small neck of land, thus utilizing the topography to reduce the ramparts needed. Although their dating is problematic, most seem to date to the Iron Age and they are mainly found in Brittany, Ireland, the Orkney Islands, the Isle of Man, Devon and Cornwall. Only a few Irish promontory forts have been excavated and most date to the Iron Age, though some, others, like Dalkey Island contain imported Eastern Mediterranean pottery and have been reoccupied and changed in the early medieval period. Dunbeg contains an early medieval corbelled stone hut, on the Isle of Man promontory forts are found particularly on the rocky slate headlands of the south. Four out of more than 20 have been excavated and several, especially in Santon, all have a rampart on their vulnerable landward side, and excavations at Cronk ny Merriu have shown that access to the fort was via a strongly built gate. Promontory forts can be all along the coast of Penwith. Maen Castle, near to Lands End is one of the oldest and they are also found in other districts, e. g. The Rumps near Padstow and Dodman Point In Devon, The Aran Islands, Burgh Island and Bolt Tail are located on the south coast and Embury Beacon and Hillsborough on the north coast. The famous site at Tintagel may be an example of promontory fort whose occupation continued into the post Roman. Caesars de Bello Gallico describes the Veneti in southern Armorica – a powerful sea-faring people allied with the southern British during the war of 56 BC – as living in clifftop oppida and their capital was Darioritum on the Morbihan bay, now modern Vannes/Gwened. The Veneti were linguistically British, they spoke Breton, which was derived from Cornish, when they were attacked by the Romans in Brittany, Julius Caesar reports that Cornwall sent them military aid. Hill fort Nancy Edwards, The Archaeology of Early Medieval Ireland, manx National Heritage - Promontory Forts Cronk ny Merriu MNH Maen Castle Retrieved 14 May 2007. Pretanic World - Chart of Neolithic, Bronze Age and Celtic Stone StructuresPromontory fort – Dunbeg Fort, a promontory fort below Mount Eagle, Dingle Peninsula, County Kerry, Ireland
16. Refuge castle – In former times such sites were also described as giant castles because their origin was ascribed to giants. Amongst ancient historical references to them are the castles of the Gauls described by Caesar as oppida. Similar ringwork systems were built by the various Germanic and Slavic tribes, such systems are also known as hillforts, the primary construction material being earth, but wood and stone were also used in a variety of construction methods. As a rule they have no towers, but occasionally superstructures resembling gate towers occur, the large size of refuge castles enabled them to provide stores and supplies in the event of a siege. Later on during the Middle Ages this type of castle was built by local farmers. These farmers castles provided protection for country folk from marauding bands of troops, because the majority of refuge castles were not permanent settlements, archaeological excavations often produce little by way of finds. In the Middle Ages fortified churches and fortress churches also acted as refuge castles and they were primarily utilised as the village churches, but their fortifications also made them suitable for use as temporary places of refuge for the villages. D. which had the task of protecting the crossing in the Gailtal valley. During excavations, as well as the system, an early Christian church was discovered in the interior of the castellum. Kreuzen Castle/Bad Kreuzen Hillfort Cave castleRefuge castle – Reconstructed Slavic refuge castle of Raddusch (Lower Lusatia)
17. Sudis (stake) – The sudis is a Latin word meaning stake. It was the given to stakes carried by Roman legionaries for employment as a field fortification. It is frequently, but incorrectly, called a pilum murale meaning wall spear, the stakes were carried by Roman legionaries, typically two were carried by each soldier. Each stake was made of hardwood, usually oak, about 150–180 cm long, square in section, the shape tapers to a point at both ends. The central part is narrowed in a way that suggests the function of a handle. Examples that have found are rough hewn. It seems clear that the stakes were used to form a temporary defence, however, the exact manner in which stakes were used is the subject of debate among experts. It is possible that the stakes were incorporated into the ramparts of a Roman marching camp, projecting from the ramparts at an angle, they would present a barrier to an attacker attempting to climb up. Alternatively, they could have been placed vertically at the top of the rampart as a fence, experiments with reconstructions have been disappointing in that such barriers are not strong, as the symmetry of the stakes makes them easy to pull out of the ground. It has been proposed that the stakes were lashed in pairs at intervals along a log or beam to form a Cheval de frise and this could be used, for example, as a moveable barrier to bar a gateway. Alternatively, three stakes might be roped together into a defence resembling the Czech hedgehog — a sort of giant caltrop, defences of this type, employed en masse, can be pushed aside only with difficulty and cannot be collapsed. The advantage of such suggested modes of use is that they are consistent with the symmetry of the stakes, the Roman Legion Recreated in Colour PhotographsSudis (stake)
18. Vitrified fort – Vitrified fort is the name given to certain crude stone enclosures whose walls have been subjected in a greater or lesser degree to the action of heat. They are generally situated on hills offering strong defensive positions and their form seems to have been determined by the contour of the flat summits which they enclose. The walls vary in size, a few being upwards of 12 feet high, the walls themselves are termed vitrified ramparts. No lime or cement has been found in any of these structures and this fusion, which has been caused by the application of intense heat, is not equally complete in the various forts, or even in the walls of the same fort. It is not clear why or how the walls were subjected to vitrification, some antiquarians have argued that it was done to strengthen the wall, but the heating actually weakens the structure. Battle damage is unlikely to be the cause, as the walls are thought to have been subjected to carefully maintained fires to ensure they were hot enough for vitrification to take place. The process has no significance and is found during both Iron Age and Early Medieval Forts in Scotland. The most remarkable are, Dun Mac Sniachan, the largest in area at 245 m by 50 m and they have not been found in Wales. Broborg is a vitrified hill-fort in Uppland, Sweden, gordon Childe and Wallace Thorneycroft in the 1930s. The experiment produced a few partially vitrified stones, but no answers were gleaned as to how large-scale forts could have been crafted with the approach tried in the programme. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, HughVitrified fort – Part of the vitrified wall at Sainte Suzanne (Mayenne)
19. Albarrana tower – An Albarrana tower is a defensive tower detached from the curtain wall and connected to it by a bridge or an arcade. In Spanish, they are called torre albarrana, the towers of typical appearance, with a square section, were built several meters in front of the curtain wall. They were accessible by a walkway from the curtain wall. More often, the bridge had a removable wooden section allowing the tower to be isolated from the wall if the tower is occupied by attacking forces, the earliest Albarrana towers were often pentagonal or octagonal in plan but a more rectangular plan became the norm. In France and the north of Europe, flanking towers remained a part of the wall, even the keep were sometimes built as a part of the wall instead of inside the yard at the center of the castle. The main albarrana towers are, Torre de Espantaperros in Badajoz, probably the first albarrana tower, built by Abu Yaqub Yusuf in 1170. In the other parts of the medieval Muslim world this defensive feature seems not to be used, possibly the only example of a true Albarrana tower in England can be found at Pontefract Castle. The castle now lies in ruins, but one Albarrana tower called Swillington Tower is visible on the models of the castle and the remains of the tower itself can be seen to the north of the castleAlbarrana tower – Torre de la Malmuerta in Cordoba (Spain)
20. Arrowslit – An arrowslit is a thin vertical aperture in a fortification through which an archer can launch arrows. The interior walls behind an arrow loop are often cut away at an angle so that the archer has a wide field of view. Arrow slits come in a remarkable variety, a common and recognizable form is the cross. Balistraria can often be found in the walls of medieval battlements beneath the crenellations. The invention of the arrowslit is attributed to Archimedes during the siege of Syracuse in 214–212 BC, slits of the height of a man and about a palms width on the outside allowed defenders to shoot bows and scorpions from within the city walls. Although used in late Greece and Roman defences, arrowslits were not present in early Norman castles and they are only reintroduced to military architecture towards the end of the 12th century, with the castles of Dover and Framlingham in England, and Richard the Lionhearts Château Gaillard in France. In these early examples, arrowslits were positioned to protect sections of the castle wall, in the 13th century, it became common for arrowslits to be placed all around a castles defences. In its simplest form, an arrowslit was a vertical opening, however. It was common for arrowslits to widen to a triangle at the bottom, called a fishtail, immediately behind the slit there was a recess called an embrasure, this allowed a defender to get close to the slit without being too cramped. The width of the slit dictated the field of fire, but the field of vision could be enhanced by the addition of horizontal openings, they allowed defenders to view the target before it entered range. Usually, the slits were level, which created a cross shape. When an embrasure linked to more than one arrowslit it is called a multiple arrowslit, embrasure Loophole, legal term Notes Bibliography Media related to Arrowslits at Wikimedia CommonsArrowslit – An arrowslit at Corfe Castle. This shows the inside - where the archer would have stood.
21. Bartizan – Most frequently found at corners, they protected a warder and enabled him to see his surroundings. Bartizans generally are furnished with oillets or arrow slits, the turret was usually supported by stepped masonry corbels and could be round or square. Bartizans were incorporated into many notable examples of Scots Baronial Style architecture in Scotland, in the architecture of Aberdeen, the new Town House, built in 1868–74, incorporates bartizans in the West Tower. Bretèche garret—an attic or top floor room in the military sense, a watchtower from the French word gariteBartizan – Bartizan at Fort de Chartres, a French colonial era fort in Illinois on the Mississippi River.
22. Battlement – These gaps are termed crenels, and the act of adding crenels to a previously unbroken parapet is termed crenellation. The solid widths between the crenels are called merlons, a wall with battlements is said to be crenelated or embattled. Battlements on walls have protected walkways behind them, on tower or building tops, the roof is used as the protected fighting platform. The term originated in about the 14th century from the Old French word batailler, the word crenel derives from the ancient French cren, Latin crena, meaning a notch, mortice or other gap cut out often to receive another element or fixing, see also crenation. In medieval England a licence to crenellate granted the permission to fortify their property. The castles in England vastly outnumber the licences to crenellate, royal pardons were obtainable, on the payment of an arbitrarily determined fine, by a person who had fortified without licence. The surviving records of such licences, generally issued by letters patent, there has been academic debate over the purpose of licensing. The view of military-focused historians is that licensing restricted the number of fortifications that could be used against a royal army and they indicated to the observer that the grantee had obtained royal recognition, acknowledgment and compliment. The crown usually did not charge for the granting of such licences, battlements have been used for thousands of years, the earliest known example is in the fortress at Buhen in Egypt. Battlements were used in the walls surrounding Assyrian towns, as shown on bas reliefs from Nimrud, traces of them remain at Mycenae in Greece, and some ancient Greek vases suggest the existence of battlements. The Great Wall of China has battlements, late merlons permitted fire from the first firearms. From the 13th century, the merlons could be connected with wooden shutters that provided added protection when closed, the shutters were designed to be opened to allow shooters to fire against the attackers, and closed during reloading. The Romans used low wooden pinnacles for their first aggeres, in the battlements of Pompeii, additional protection derived from small internal buttresses or spur walls, against which the defender might stand so as to gain complete protection on one side. Loop-holes were frequent in Italian battlements, where the merlon has much greater height, Italian military architects used the so-called Ghibelline or swallowtail battlement, with V-shaped notches in the tops of the merlon, giving a horn-like effect. This would allow the defender to be protected whilst shooting standing fully upright, the normal rectangular merlons were later nicknamed Guelph. In Muslim and African fortifications, the merlons often were rounded, the battlements of the Arabs had a more decorative and varied character, and were continued from the 13th century onwards not so much for defensive purposes as for a crowning feature to the walls. They serve a similar to the cresting found in the Spanish Renaissance. European architects persistently used battlements as a decorative feature throughout the DecoratedBattlement – Battlements on the Great Wall of China
23. Bent entrance – A bent entrance is a defensive feature in mediaeval fortification. In a castle with a bent entrance, the passage is narrow. Its purpose is to slow down attackers attempting to rush the gate and it is often combined with means for an active defence, such as machicolations, in effect confining intruders to a narrow killing zone. Its defensive function is related to that of a barbican in front of the gate, bent entrances are typical of Arab fortifications and crusader castles. The Citadel of Aleppo is an example of the former. The most elaborate bent entrance among crusader castles is the entrance ramp at Crac des Chevaliers. In addition to the gate, postern gates could also feature a bent entrance. For instance, in the crusader castle at Belvoir, posterns open into the moat at the angle between the outer wall and the corner towers. Bent entrances of such complexity as at Crac are less common in European castles, see for example the long gate passage at Harlech Castle, which uses multiple doors and murder-holes, but no turns. The castle in England and Wales, an interpretive historyBent entrance – Bent entrance of Citadel of Aleppo, Syria
24. Bridge castle – A bridge castle is a type of castle that was built to provide military observation and security for a river crossing. In the narrower sense it refers to castles that are directly on or next to a bridge. Sometimes, however, castles close to a bridge are referred to as bridge castles and these fortifications were often designed as toll castles that charged river tolls and were occupied only by a guard force. In Europe several examples of bridge castles have survived, especially in the south, the bridge castle type—which is only rarely mentioned in detail in the specialist literature—is not always clearly distinguishable from the fortified bridge. In medieval Europe, numerous river crossings were protected by tower structures, the largest preserved bridge castle is the rectangular edifice of Valeggio sul Mincio. In the Late Middle Ages, Gian Galeazzo Visconti ordered the construction of a mighty bridge fortress under the inner bailey of the local castle between Mantua and Lake Garda. The bridge fort lies about 100 metres in height below the hill castle, three gateways were linked by curtain walls to 14 demi-bastions. The gate tower below the castle is of a strikingly weak design. The living rooms of the guards were in the central gateway and this gateway barred access to the crossing in a similar way to the rear gateway with a massive crossbeam. The Germans Gate across the Seille river in Metz is the last bridge castle found in France, the bridge castle displays fortified towers, battlements, and machicolations. The Germans Gate dating from the 13th century played a defensive role during the Siege of Metz in 1552-1553 by Emperor Charles V. Bullet impacts coming from the muskets during the assaults still can be seen on the facade, the Hohenstaufen double tower gate on the Roman bridge across the Volturno in Capua, Italy, is classified as a bridge castle. Frederick II of Hohenstaufen built here a state building as the gateway to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The famous bridge castle of Stari Most in Mostar was partly destroyed in 1993 by Bosnian-Croatian troops, originally, around 1450, two great fortified towers on both sides of the river guarded a suspension bridge, which was replaced in 1566 by a stone arch bridge. A typical example of a bridge is the Pont Valentré near Cahors in Southern France. The site is almost totally preserved apart from the eastern barbican which was removed in the 19th century, in Germany and Central Europe only ruins of bridge fortifications have generally survived. Usually there are only the gate towers, for example as on the Stone Bridge in Regensburg. G. Ulrich Großmann, Burgen in EuropaBridge castle – The Germans' Gate in Metz, France.
25. Butter-churn tower – A butter-churn tower is a two-part defensive tower in which the upper section has a smaller diameter than the lower section. This design provides a ledge or fighting platform about half-way up that acts as a chemin de ronde whilst the tower that rises from this platform acts as a raised observation point. The two sections of the tower are usually cylindrical, but in rarer cases butter-churn towers may have a square plan and its name derives from its shape which is similar to that of an upright butter churn, a cylindrical container with a shorter, narrower top section. The design appeared in the 14th century, being employed for the bergfriede of castles in Europe. Its fighting or defensive value was not much greater than ordinary defensive towers, the reason for the construction of butter-churn towers may have more symbolic than strategic. In the late Middle Ages a large number of towers were erected in the Middle Rhine-South Hesse-Taunus region. Examples include those in Bad Homburg, Friedberg, Idstein and Oberwesel, the Marksburg above Braubach am Rhein had a square bergfried to which was added a small butter-churn turret in 1468. This burned down in 1705 and was replaced in 1905, one of the tallest towers is the 56-metre-high Round Tower, the symbol of the town of Andernach, which dates to 1453 and has an unusual variation, an octagonal upper turret with a stone gable roof. The highest bergfried of a castle with a butter-churn top was that of Rheinfels Castle above Sankt Goar am Rhein which was 54 metres high at the intermediate platform. The third-highest surviving bergfried in Germany is at the Osterburg near Weida in Thuringia, it is 53 metres high and it is also one of the oldest surviving bergfrieds, dating to 1193. It measures 24 metres to the platform and has an octagonal, horst Wolfgang Böhme, Reinhard Friedrich, Barbara Schock-Werner, Wörterbuch der Burgen, Schlösser und Festungen. Reclam-Verlag, Stuttgart,2004, ISBN 3-15-010547-1, pp. 103−105, weltbild-Verlag, Augsburg,1994, ISBN 3-89350-554-7, p.217Butter-churn tower – The Adolf Tower in Friedberg in butter-churn style with its bartizans
26. Chartaque – A chartaque is a watchtower and important element of the fortification systems in the time of the Ottoman Empire. The original form, to which the name relates, was built of four logs, fundamentally they were places of observation and defence. A characteristic structural feature of chartaques is that they consisted of a tower with a palisade around the base. Other defensive works such as schanzen, abatis, ramparts and ditches were built in the vicinity as additional protection against an enemy. The construction of a chartaque was an operation that lasted several weeks, in 1706, during the time of the Kuruc wars, precise details are known about the fortifications of the Kuruc schanzen in eastern Styria. Such a chartaque came at a cost of 28 guilders and 24 kreuzer, for two or three chartaques an overseer was appointed in addition to the crews of each chartaque. For the rebuilding of another chartaque which was burned down to its supporting posts, there were also chartaques that were additionally protected by a small redoubt, the redoubt costing an estimated 40 guilders. For larger chartaques for 12-15 men,32 construction-quality logs, six rafter logs, the Ottomans took over these installations from their eastern neighbours, the Persians, who had long been their enemies, and used the idea against their western enemies. Thus chartaques found their way to the Styrian-Hungarian border area and were adopted, in turn, at first they were built by the Styrians and Lower Austrians as part of their defence against the Ottomans and later strengthened to defend their lands against the Kurucs. Chartaques were usually erected in lines in order to be able to relay warning shots and other visual, depending on the state of the terrain, they might be arranged at intervals of about one to three kilometres. They were supporting elements of defensive lines, the description of these military installations has survived to the present day. They were also installed as part of the Baroque lines of fortification in southwest Germany, today only a very few chartaques have survived. In several places, however, they have been faithfully reconstructed, for example, in Burgau in 1995, a chartaque was reconstructed on the Lafnitz, once the border river between Austria and Hungary. Other reconstructions are found on the Eppingen LinesChartaque – Reconstruction of a chartaque in Burgau
27. Chemise (wall) – In medieval castles the chemise was typically a low wall encircling the keep, protecting the base of the tower. Alternative terms, more used in English, are mantlet wall or apron wall. In some cases, the keep could only be entered from the chemise, numerous examples exist of highly varied form, including the heavily fortified chemise of Château de Vincennes, or the more modest example at Provins, both in France. Some chemises are suggested to have developed from earlier motte and bailey defences. In later fortification, a chemise is a wall lined with a bastion, or any other bulwark of earth, for greater support and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chambers, Ephraim, ed. Chemise. Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, james and John Knapton, et alChemise (wall) – The keep at Provins encirled by a low wall
28. Citadel – A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a fortress, castle, or fortified center, the term is a diminutive of city and thus means little city, so called because it is a smaller part of the city of which it is the defensive core. It is positioned to be the last line of defense, should the enemy breach the other components of the fortification system, a citadel is also a term of the third part of a medieval castle, with higher walls than the rest. It was to be the last line of defense before the keep itself, some of the oldest known structures which have served as citadels were built by the Indus Valley Civilization, harappan, where the citadel represented a centralised authority. The main citadel in Indus Valley was almost 12 meters tall, the purpose of these structures, however, remains debated. Though the structures found in the ruins of Mohenjo-daro were walled, rather, they may have been built to divert flood waters. The most well-known is the Acropolis of Athens, but nearly every Greek city-state had one – the Acrocorinth famed as a strong fortress. In a much later period, when Greece was ruled by the Latin Empire, rebels who took power in the city but with the citadel still held by the former rulers could by no means regard their tenure of power as secure. One such incident played an important part in the history of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire, the Hellenistic garrison of Jerusalem and local supporters of the Seleucids held out for many years in the Acra citadel, making Maccabean rule in the rest of Jerusalem precarious. When finally gaining possession of the place, the Maccabeans pointedly destroyed and razed the Acra, a city where the citadel held out against an invading army was not considered conquered. In the Philippines The Ivatan people of the islands of Batanes often built fortifications to protect themselves during times of war. They built their so-called idjangs on hills and elevated areas. These fortifications were likened to European castles because of their purpose. Usually, the entrance to the castles would be via a rope ladder that would only be lowered for the villagers. In time of war the citadel in many cases afforded retreat to the living in the areas around the town. For example, during the Dutch Wars of 1664-67, King Charles II of England constructed a Royal Citadel at Plymouth, barcelona had a great citadel built in 1714 to intimidate the Catalans against repeating their mid-17th- and early-18th-century rebellions against the Spanish central government. A similar example is the Citadella in Budapest, Hungary, the Citadelle of Québec still survives as the largest citadel still in official military operation in North America. It is home to the Royal 22nd Regiment of Canada, citadels since the mid 20th century, are commonly military command and control centres built to resist attack commonly aerial or nuclear bombardment. The Military citadels under London such as the underground complex beneath the Ministry of Defense called Pindar is one such exampleCitadel – In this seventeenth-century plan of the fortified city of Casale Monferrato the citadel is the large star-shaped structure on the left.
29. Drawbridge – A drawbridge or draw-bridge is a type of movable bridge typically associated with the entrance of a castle and a number of towers, surrounded by a moat. Medieval castles were usually defended by a ditch or moat, crossed by wooden bridge, in early castles the bridge might be designed to be destroyed or removed in the event of an attack, but drawbridges became very common. It would be backed by one or more portcullises and gates, access to the bridge could be resisted with missiles from machicolations above or arrow slits in flanking towers. The bridge would be raised or lowered using ropes or chains attached to a windlass in a chamber in the gatehouse above the gate-passage, only a very light bridge could be raised in this way without any form of counterweight, so some form of bascule arrangement is normally found. The raising chains could themselves be attached to counterweights, in some cases, a portcullis provides the weight, as at Alnwick. In France, working drawbridges survive at a number of châteaux, in England, two working drawbridges remain in regular use at Helmingham Hall, which dates from the early sixteenth century. A bridge pivoted on central trunnions is called a turning bridge, the inner end carried counterweights enabling it to sink into a pit in the gate-passage, and when horizontal the bridge would often be supported by stout pegs inserted through the side walls. This was an arrangement, and many turning bridges were replaced with more advanced drawbridges. Bascule bridge Drawbridge mentality Portcullis LinkspanDrawbridge – Drawbridge at the fort of Ponta da Bandeira; Lagos, Portugal
30. Enceinte – Enceinte is a French term denoting the main defensive enclosure of a fortification. For a castle this is the defensive line of wall towers. For a settlement it would be the town wall with its associated gatehouses and towers. However, the outworks or defensive wall close to the enceinte were not considered as forming part of it, in early 20th-century fortification, the enceinte was usually simply the innermost continuous line of fortifications. In architecture, generally, an enceinte is the close or precinct of a cathedral, abbey, castle, the enceinte may be laid out as a freestanding structure or combined with buildings adjoining the outer walls. The enceinte not only provided protection for the areas behind it. The outline of the enceinte, with its towers and domestic buildings. The ground plan of an enceinte is affected by the terrain, from the 12th century onwards an additional enclosure called a zwinger was often built in front of the enceinte of many European castles. This afforded an additional layer of defence as it formed a killing ground in front of the defensive wall. During the Baroque era it was not uncommon for these enclosures to be turned into gardens as for example in Dresden). Enceinte is the adjective pregnant in the French language, friar, Stephen, The Sutton Companion to Castles, Stroud, Sutton Publishing, p.105, ISBN 978-0-7509-3994-2 Piper, Otto, Burgenkunde. Bauwesen und Geschichte der Burgen, in Piperer, R. et alEnceinte – Enceinte of Khotyn Fortress in Ukraine
31. Flanking tower – A flanking tower is a fortified tower that is sited on the outside of a defensive wall or other fortified structure and thus forms a flank. From the defensive platform and embrasures the section of wall between them could be swept from the side by ranged weapons, in High and Late Medieval castles and town walls flanking towers often had a semi-circular floor plan or a combination of a rectangular inner and semi-circular outer plans. There were also circular and rectangular towers, corner flanking towers are found, for example, in the fortifications of the Alhambra and at the manor house of Hugenpoet Palace, Wellheim Castle has a square flanking tower. In church architecture, a tower is a semi-circular or polygonal tower on the outer wall of the church. The church of Great St. Martin Church in Cologne has several flanking towers, Flanking towers of Bibra Castle Flanking towers of Grumbach CastleFlanking tower – Flanking towers of Château de Coucy
32. Fortified church – A fortified church is a church that is built to play a defensive role in times of war. Such churches were designed to incorporate military features, such as thick walls, battlements. Others, such as the Cathedral of Ávila were incorporated into the town wall, monastic communities, such as Lérins Abbey, are often surrounded by a wall, and some churches, such as St Arbogast in Muttenz, Switzerland, have an outer wall as well. Churches with additional external defences such as walls and wall towers are often referred to more specifically as fortress churches or Kirchenburgen. Fortified churches were built in places controlled by colonial empires. Although a large number of fortified churches in a variety of styles existed in the lands of Belarus only a handful have survived until the present, the most famous include Christian Orthodox churches in Muravanka and Synkovichi, as well as Catholic fortified churches in Kamai and Ishkold. In addition to Christian churches Belarus also has the ruins of several fortified synagogues, about 65 fortified churches are found in the Thiérache region of France. There are several fortified churches that have preserved, especially in the German states of Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria. Wolfgang in Rothenburg and the church of Wenkbach. A rare surviving example of a church used for defensive purposes is the Church of St. Andrew in Kraków, one of the oldest. Grodzka street, it was built by a medieval Polish statesman Palatine Sieciech in 1079–1098, St. Andrew was the only Romanesque church in Kraków to withstand the Mongol attack of 1241. Along the lower part of the section of its façade are small openings that served as defensive windows during military siege. A number of fortified churches, monasteries and cathedrals survive in Portugal. These buildings were either in Romanesque or Gothic styles. Romanesque examples are the Lisbon Cathedral and the Old Cathedral of Coimbra, Gothic examples are the Church of Leça do Balio and the Guarda Cathedral. South-eastern Transylvania region in Romania has one of the highest numbers of existing fortified churches from the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries, there are medieval fortified churches near the Anglo-Scottish border, where defence was an important consideration until the seventeenth century when the two states were united in personal union. All Saints Church, Boltongate in Cumbria is an example, also in Cumbria, St Michaels Church, Burgh by Sands has a defensive tower, and originally had two. Defensive towers can also be found on the England–Wales border, for instance, St Michaels Church, saint Catherines Monastery Tangyud Monastery Video Fortified churches in TransylvaniaFortified church – Fortified church in Muttenz, Switzerland
33. Gabion – A gabion is a cage, cylinder, or box filled with rocks, concrete, or sometimes sand and soil for use in civil engineering, road building, military applications and landscaping. For erosion control, caged riprap is used, for dams or in foundation construction, cylindrical metal structures are used. In a military context, earth- or sand-filled gabions are used to protect sappers, infantry, leonardo da Vinci designed a type of gabion called a Corbeille Leonard for the foundations of the San Marco Castle in Milan. Other uses include retaining walls, noise barriers, temporary walls, silt filtration from runoff, for small or temporary/permanent dams, river training. They may be used to direct the force of a flow of water around a vulnerable structure. Gabions are also used as fish screens on small streams, a gabion wall is a retaining wall made of stacked stone-filled gabions tied together with wire. Gabion walls are usually battered, or stepped back with the slope, gabion baskets have some advantages over loose riprap because of their modularity and ability to be stacked in various shapes. Gabions have advantages over more rigid structures, because they can conform to subsidence, dissipate energy from flowing water and resist being washed away and their strength and effectiveness may increase with time in some cases, as silt and vegetation fill the interstitial voids and reinforce the structure. They are sometimes used to prevent falling stones from a cut or cliff endangering traffic on a thoroughfare, the life expectancy of gabions depends on the lifespan of the wire, not on the contents of the basket. The structure will fail when the wire fails, galvanized steel wire is most common, but PVC-coated and stainless steel wire are also used. PVC-coated galvanized gabions have been estimated to survive for 60 years, Some gabion manufacturers guarantee a structural consistency of 50 years. In the United States, gabion use within streams first began with projects completed from 1957 to 1965 on North River, Virginia and Zealand River, more than 150 grade-control structures, bank revetments and channel deflectors were constructed on the two U. S. Forest Service sites. Eventually, a portion of the in-stream structures failed due to undermining. In particular, corrosion and abrasion of wires by bedload movement compromised the structures, other gabions were toppled into channels as trees grew and enlarged on top of gabion revetments, leveraging them toward the river channels. Gabions have also used in building, as in the Dominus Winery in the Napa Valley, California by architects Herzog & de Meuron. There are various designs of gabions to meet particular functional requirements. For example, Bastion, a gabion lined internally with a membrane, typically of nonwoven geotextile to permit use of a granular soil fill, mattress, a form of gabion with relatively small height relative to the lateral dimensions, commonly very wide. For protecting surfaces from wave erosion and similar attack, rather than building or supporting high structures, trapion, a form of gabion with a trapezoidal cross section, designed for stacking to give a face that is sloping rather than steppedGabion – Gabions with cannon, from a late 16th century illustration.
34. Gulyay-gorod – Gulyay-gorod, also guliai-gorod, was a mobile fortification used by the Russian army between the 15th and the 17th centuries. Russian armies would construct a gulyay-gorod from large wall-sized prefabricated shields installed on wheels or sleds, the usage of installable shields instead of permanently armoured wagons cost less and allowed the assembly of more possible configurations. The gulyay-gorod developed as a fortification in the Eastern European steppe nations. Giles Fletcher, the Elder, English ambassador to Russia, left an early Western description of the gulyay-gorod in his Of the Russe Common Wealth, the wide-scale usage of gulyay-gorod started during the Russo-Kazan Wars of 1438-1552, and later the Ukrainian Cossacks used the fortification extensively. A gulyay-gorod played the role during the Battle of Molodi. In Ukraine, Bogdan Khmelnitsky had a large gulyay-gorod built for the siege of the castle of Zbarazh in 1649, with the proliferation of field artillery this kind of fortification fell into disuse. In a wider sense the Russian term has come to be applied to foreign mobile fortifications, battery-tower Wagon fort Mantlet Gorod V. F. Shperk, The History of FortificationGulyay-gorod – Gulyay-gorod reconstruction.
35. Gusuku – Gusuku often refers to castles or fortresses in the Ryukyu Islands that feature stone walls. However, the origin and essence of gusuku remain controversial, in the archaeology of Okinawa Prefecture, the Gusuku period refers to an archaeological epoch of the Okinawa Islands that follows the shell-mound period and precedes the Sanzan period. Many gusuku and related cultural remains on Okinawa Island have been listed by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites under the title Gusuku Sites, the Yarazamori Gusuku Inscription contains phrases, pile gusuku and pile up gusuku and. Apparently gusuku in these phrases to refer to stone walls, in the Omoro Sōshi, the term gusuku is written as くすく, or ぐすく in hiragana. Occasionally, the kanji 城 is assigned to it, in later ryūka and kumi odori, the reading shiro is also used for the same kanji. The referents of gusuku in the Omoro Sōshi are mostly castles and fortresses but are not limited to them, some are sacred places and places of worship. In some cases, gusuku refers to Shuri Castle, the Liuqiu-guan yiyu, a Chinese dictionary, maps Chinese 皇城 to the transcription 姑速姑. Similarly, the Yiyu yinshi assigns 窟宿孤 to 皇城, there is no consensus about the etymology of gusuku. Chamberlain analyzed the word as the combination of gu and shuku, kanazawa Shōzaburō also segmented gusuku into gu and suku but considered that the latter half was cognate with old mainland Japanese shiki, in which ki was a loan from some Old Korean language. Iha Fuyū proposed that suku was cognate with soko, hirata Tsugumasa considered that suku was cognate with mainland Japanese soko. Similarly, Higashionna Kanjun raised doubts over the analysis of gu since older records always used honorific u instead of gu, nakahara Zenchū identified gu as go. The most prominent feature of most gusuku is their wall, Gusuku walls are primarily made with Ryukyuan limestone and, sometimes, coral. There are three types of walls, pile, block, and tortoise. Examples of each are Nakijin Castle, Zakimi Castle, and parts of Shuri Castle, the shape of gusuku walls usually follows the contours of the land. They are usually thick, and sometimes have low parapets atop them, some gusuku walls, like those of Nakagusuku Castle, were designed to resist cannon fire. Gusuku have one or more baileys, the baileys of typical gusuku usually contained a residence, a well, an utaki, and storage buildings. Larger gusuku, like Nakijin Castle, could have more than five baileys, while smaller gusuku, Gusuku have one or more entrances, often guarded by a heavy gate or gatehouse. Gates were the strongpoints of gusuku, many gusuku, like Nakijin Castle, were adapted to have gun ports next to their gatesGusuku – Shuri Castle, rebuilt after WWII
36. Hoarding (castle) – A hoard or hoarding was a temporary wooden shed-like construction that was placed on the exterior of the ramparts of a castle during a siege. The purpose of a hoarding was to allow the defenders to improve their field of fire along the length of a wall and, most particularly, directly downwards to the wall base. The latter function was taken up by the invention of machicolations. Machicolations are also permanent and siege-ready and it is suspected that in peacetime, hoardings were stored as prefabricated elements. Construction of hoardings was often facilitated by putlog holes, sockets that were left in the masonry of walls for wooden joists called putlogs. However, some hoardings were supported on permanent stone corbels, some medieval hoardings have survived including examples at the north tower of Stokesay Castle, England, and the keep of Laval, France. Another reconstructed hoarding can be seen at Caerphilly Castle, also in South Wales, Castle Arrow slit Machicolation Murder holeHoarding (castle) – Reconstructed wooden hoarding at Carcassonne, France
37. Machicolation – The word derives from the Old French word machecol, mentioned in Medieval Latin as machecollum, probably from Old French machier crush, wound and col neck. Machicolate is only recorded in the 18th century in English, but a verb machicollāre is attested in Anglo-Latin, the Spanish word denoting this structure, matacán, is similarly composed from matar canes meaning roughly killing dogs, the latter being a reference to infidels. The design of a machicoulis, commonly known as drop box, in Arab fortifications they are usually found on defensive walls. The original Arab design was small, and similar to the domestic wooden balcony known as Mashrabiya. However, different from the balcony, for defense purposes it prominently features a wide opening at the bottom. The opening allows the dropping of hot water or oil and other material intended to harm to the enemy below. The feature of a closed balcony also allows to cover while making use. A hoarding is a structure made of wood, usually temporarily constructed in the event of a siege. Advantages of machicolations over wooden hoardings include the strength and fire resistance of stone. Machicolations were more common in French castles than English, where they were restricted to the gateway. One of the first examples of machicolation that still exists in northern France is Château de Farcheville built in 1291 outside Paris, similar to a machicolation is a smaller version which opens as a balcony, generally from a tower rather than a larger structure. Machicolations were a feature in many towers and rural buildings in Malta until the 18th century. Buildings with machicolations include Cavalier Tower, Gauci Tower, the Captains Tower, machicolation was later used for decorative effect with spaces between the corbels but without the openings, and subsequently became a characteristic of many non-military buildings. Bretèche Arrow slit Hoarding Murder hole Media related to Machicolations at Wikimedia Commons Glossary of Medieval Art and Architecture, machicolationMachicolation – Functional machicolation at Château de Pierrefonds
38. Merlon – A merlon is the solid upright section of a battlement or crenellated parapet in medieval architecture or fortifications. Merlons are sometimes pierced by narrow, vertical embrasures or slits designed for observation, the space between two merlons is called a crenel, and a succession of merlons and crenels is a crenellation. Crenels designed in later eras, for use by cannons, were also called embrasures. The word comes from the French language, adapted from the Italian merlone, possibly a form of mergola, connected with Latin mergae, or from a diminutive moerulus. An alternative etymology suggests that the medieval Latin merulus functioned as a diminutive of Latin merle, as an essential part of battlements, merlons were used in fortifications for millennia. The best-known examples appear on buildings, where battlements, though defensive, could be attractively formed. Some buildings have false decorative battlements, other shapes include, three-pointed, quatrefoil, shielded, flower-like, rounded, pyramidal, etc. depending either from the type of attacks expected or aesthetic considerations. In Roman times, the merlons had a sufficient to shelter a single man. As new weapons appeared in the Middle Ages, the merlons were enlarged and provided with loop-holes of various dimensions and shapes, the shutters could be opened by hand, or by using a pulley. Battlement Embrasure, also called a crenel Defensive walls Balestracci, D, I materiali da costruzione nel castello medievale. Luisi, R. Scudi di pietra, I castelli e l’arte della guerra tra Medioevo e RinascimentoMerlon – Merlons of the Alcazaba in Almería, Spain.
39. Outer bailey – An outer bailey or outer ward is the defended outer enclosure of a castle. It protects the inner bailey and usually contains those buildings used for the management of the castle or the supply of its occupants. In many cases there was also a brewery, a bakehouse, an outer bailey was often called a base court in England. Depending on topography it could also be referred to as a bailey or lower ward. Chepstow Castle has lower, middle and upper baileys, the domestic buildings of the continental schloss, often a stately home or palace, may also be referred to as an outer ward. These frequently contained a house or a cavalier house, buildings that were not common in medieval castles. Large castles often have more than one bailey, examples include Monschau, at some larger castles, markets were held in the outer bailey. Outer baileys were usually enclosed and protected by a wall and separated from the actual living area of the castle - the inner ward and keep - by a moat, a wall. In lowland castles, the bailey is usually arranged in a half-moon shape around the main castle. Rudelsburg Castle in Saxony-Anhalt is one of the cases of a hill castle where both baileys are at the same level. This explains why the castle chapel was found in the bailey. Ward Inner bailey Motte and bailey Horst Wolfgang Böhme, Reinhard Friedrich, Barbara Schock-Werner, reclam, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-15-010547-1, page 255-256. Friedrich-Wilhelm Krahe, Castles and tower houses of the German Middle Ages, volume 1 Thorbecke, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-7995-0104-5, page 53-55. Reprint of the edition of 1912, weltbild, Augsburg 1994, ISBN 3-89350-554-7, pp. 10–11Outer bailey – Orava Castle (Slovakia) with a large outer bailey.
40. Peel tower – By an Act of the Parliament of England in 1455, each of these towers was required to have an iron basket on its summit and a smoke or fire signal, for day or night use, ready at hand. A line of towers was built in the 1430s across the Tweed valley from Berwick to its source. Canons Ashby contains the only Peel tower in the Midlands, due to the settlement of Cumbrian sheep farmer, John Dryden, in the county of Northamptonshire. The towers also provided a refuge so that, when cross-border raiding parties arrived, Peel towers are not usually found in larger places which have a castle, but in smaller settlements. They are often associated with a church, for example Embleton Tower in Embleton, Northumberland is an example of a so-called vicars pele and the one at Hulne Priory is in the grounds of the priory. Hawkshaw, ancestral home of the Porteous family at Tweedsmuir in Peeblesshire, some towers are now derelict while others have been converted for use in peacetime. Embleton Tower is now part of the vicarage and that on the Inner Farne is a home to bird wardens, the most obvious conversion needs will include access, which was originally difficult, and the provision of more and larger windows. A peel tower in Hellifield, North Yorkshire featured in an episode of Grand Designs showing the conversion from a state to a home. Bastle house Manor house Tower house This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Wood, James. London and New York, Frederick Warne, pele Towers in Cumbria Peel Towers, the name given to fortresses of the moss-troopers on the Scottish borderPeel tower – Smailholm Tower.
41. Portcullis – Portcullises fortified the entrances to many medieval castles, securely closing off the castle during time of attack or siege. Every portcullis was mounted in vertical grooves in the walls of the castle, often, two portcullises to the main entrance would be used. The one closer to the inside would be closed first, and this was used to trap the enemy, and often, burning wood or fire-heated sand would be dropped onto them from the roof or murder-holes. Hot oil, however, was not commonly used in this manner, contrary to popular belief, arrowslits in the sides of the walls enabled archers and crossbowmen to eliminate the trapped group of attackers. In England, working portcullises survive at the Tower of London, Monk Bar in York, Amberley Castle, since then, the portcullis has been a moderately common motif of English heraldry, especially that heraldry dating from the Tudor period. The heraldic office of Portcullis Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary, a officer of arms in the College of Arms at London. It is through Lord Charles Somerset, son of the 5th Duke of Beaufort, Somerset established several towns during his governorship at the then Cape Colony and named them for his family. These include Worcester, Somerset West, Fort Beaufort and Beaufort West, institutions that derive the portcullis from these arms include a school, chamber of commerce and a rugby club. Other South African coats of arms include a portcullis are not necessarily related to either Lord Somerset or any of the town named for. A portcullis—fitted well with the scheme, since then, the portcullis has become the primary symbol of Parliament, an office building for Members of Parliament, opened in 2001, is named Portcullis House. A portcullis was previously found on the British one penny coin and on the pre-decimal thrupenny bit, the badge of the Canada Border Services Agency also bore a portcullis, symbolising the agencys role as gatekeeper of goods into Canada. Though these do not appear in gateways of castles unless the blazon specifies them and it is often shown with chains attached, even when the blazon does not mention them. Arrow slit Castle Hoarding Machicolation Murder-hole Sally port Yett Kaufmann, J. E. Kaufmann, the Medieval Fortress, Castles, Forts and Walled Cities of the Middle AgesPortcullis – Portcullis at Cahir Castle
42. Ringwork – A ringwork is a form of fortified defensive structure, usually circular or oval in shape. Ringworks are essentially motte-and-bailey castles minus the motte, defences were usually earthworks in the form of a ditch and bank surrounding the site. Ringworks originated in Germany in the 10th century as a form of medieval castle. They appeared in England just prior to the Norman conquest and large numbers were built during the late 11th, more elaborate versions comprise a ringwork and bailey, the ringwork replacing the more usual motte and the bailey acting as a military stronghold. A survey published in 1969 identified 198 ringwork castles in England and Wales, with a further 50 sites that were considered to possibly be ringworksRingwork – Surviving earthworks of the ringwork at Newington Bagpath, England
43. Quadrangular castle – There is no keep and frequently no distinct gatehouse. The quadrangular form predominantly dates from the mid to late fourteenth century, the four walls are also known as ranges. Quadrangular castles typically display a sophisticated and complex approach to the planning of internal social spaces, there are many quadrangular castles around Britain, for example, Bodiam Castle in East Sussex, and Bolton Castle. The 27 quadrangular castles identified by John Rickard as being built in England consist roughly 10% of the built in the country between 1272 and 1422. No castles of this design were built in Wales, one of the earliest quadrangular castles in Germany is Neuleiningen, of which substantial ruins remainQuadrangular castle – Bolton Castle, in England.
44. Shield wall (castle) – A shield wall refers to the highest and strongest curtain wall, or tower of a castle that defends the only practicable line of approach to a castle built on a mountain, hill or headland. German sources may refer to a wall that protects two or more sides as a Hoher Mantel or Mantelmauer, which is variously translated as mantle-wall. There is often no clear, definitive distinction between a wall and a mantle wall. However some British castles built on such as Tantallon do have a similar feature. The construction of walls was common in the late 12th century in Germany and Austria. The thickness of a wall could, in extreme cases. Behind the battlements at the top of the wall there was usually an allure or wall walk, the shield wall could also be flanked by two wall towers. In many cases the shield wall replaced the bergfried, for example in the castle of Sporkenburg in the Westerwald forest or the ruins of the Alt Eberstein near the city of Baden-Baden. In other cases, for example at Liebenzell Castle, the bergfried was built in the centre of the shield wall, philipp Reclam, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-15-010547-1, p. 228–230, Alexander Antonow, Burgen des südwestdeutschen Raums im 13. Jahrhundert – unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Schildmauer, Verlag Konkordia, Bühl/Baden 1977, ISBN 3-7826-0040-1, Friedrich-Wilhelm Krahe, Burgen des deutschen Mittelalters – Grundriss-Lexikon. Sonderausgabe, Flechsig Verlag, Würzburg 2000, ISBN 3-88189-360-1, p. 34−36, Friedrich-Wilhelm Krahe, Burgen und Wohntürme des deutschen Mittelalters, Band 1, jan Thorbecke Verlag, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-7995-0104-5, p. 33−36Shield wall (castle) – The shield wall of Stahleck Castle
45. Toll castle – A toll castle is a castle that, in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Era, guarded a customs post and was intended to control it. They were typically found in the Holy Roman Empire, toll castles always stood in the vicinity of an important long-distance trade route over, for example, the Alpine passes or the Middle Rhine. Such castles were placed at strategic locations, such as border crossings, river crossings or mountain passes. The actual toll-collecting point lay below at the road or river and was linked by walls to the castle itself. Toll castles belonged to the territorial lords or to vassals, to whom the duty. Most toll castles also had administrative and other functions, as border watch posts or residences. Some, such as Pfalzgrafenstein Castle in the middle of the Rhine near Kaub, were, however, purely customs points, ISBN 978-1-4351-4845-1 Horst Wolfgang Böhme, Reinhard Friedrich, Barbara Schock-Werner, Wörterbuch der Burgen, Schlösser und Festungen. Philipp Reclam, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-15-010547-1, p.272Toll castle – The toll castle of Stahleck in Bacharach
46. Turret – In architecture, a turret is a small tower that projects vertically from the wall of a building such as a medieval castle. Turrets were used to provide a defensive position allowing covering fire to the adjacent wall in the days of military fortification. As their military use faded, turrets were used for decorative purposes, a turret can have a circular top with crenellations as seen in the picture at right, a pointed roof, or other kind of apex. The size of a turret is therefore limited by technology, since it puts additional stresses on the structure of the building and it would traditionally be supported by a corbel. Bartizan, an overhanging, wall-mounted turret found particularly on French and they returned to prominence in the 19th century with their popularity in Scottish baronial styleTurret – Turret (highlighted) attached to a tower on a baronial building in Scotland
47. Watchtower – A watchtower, or watch tower, is a type of fortification used in many parts of the world. It differs from a tower in that its primary use is military. Its main purpose is to provide a high, safe place from which a sentinel or guard may observe the surrounding area, in some cases, non-military towers, such as religious pagodas, may also be used as watchtowers. The Romans built numerous towers as part of a system of communications, in medieval Europe, many castles and manor houses, or similar fortified buildings, were equipped with watchtowers. In some of the houses of western France, the watchtower equipped with arrow or gun loopholes was one of the principal means of defense. A feudal lord could keep watch over his domain from the top of his tower, in southern Saudi Arabia and Yemen, small stone and mud towers called qasaba were constructed as either watchtowers or keeps in the Asir mountains. Furthermore, in Najd, a watchtower, called Margab, was used to watch for approaching enemies far in distance and shout calling warnings from atop. Scotland saw the construction of Peel towers that combined the function of watchtower with that of a keep or tower house served as the residence for a local notable family. Later many were restored or built against the Barbary pirates, some notable examples of military Mediterranean watchtowers include the towers that the Knights of Malta had constructed on the coasts of Malta. These towers ranged in size from small watchtowers to large structures armed with numerous cannons and they include the Wignacourt, de Redin, and Lascaris towers, named for the Grand Master, such as Martin de Redin, that commissioned each series. In the Channel Islands, the Jersey Round Towers and the Guernsey loophole towers date from the late 18th Century and they were erected to give warning of attacks by the French. One of the last Martello towers to be built was Fort Denison in Sydney harbour, the most recent descendants of the Martello Towers are the flak towers that the various combatants erected in World War II as mounts for anti-aircraft artillery. An example of nonmilitary watchtower in history is the one of Jerusalem, though the Hebrews used it to keep a watch for approaching armies, the religious authorities forbade the taking of weapons up into the tower as this would require bringing weapons through the temple. Rebuilt by King Herod, that watchtower was renamed after Mark Antony, his friend who battled against Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, fire lookout tower Observation towers are similar constructions being usually outside of fortifications. A similar use have also Control towers on airports or harbours, diaolou Watchtower Media related to Watch towers at Wikimedia CommonsWatchtower – Watchtower of the camp of the French artillery detachment of the IFOR, Sarajevo, 1995.
48. Yett – A yett is a gate or grille of latticed wrought iron bars used for defensive purposes in castles and tower houses. While few references to yetts exist outside Scotland, an English report of 1416 on Roxburgh Castle contained recommendations for the insertion of iron gates, yetts are not restricted to any one region or district within Scotland, but are widespread throughout. Similar grille constructions, frequently referred to as yetts, were used in Scotland over windows. These were typically fixed in place, often set into the jambs, the earliest references to yetts date from the 14th century. Exchequer Rolls from 1377 refer to an iron gate, part of the defences for Davids Tower in Edinburgh Castle. Yetts were also appearing in other castles at about the same time, by the 15th century, yetts and window-grilles had become standard features within Scottish castles and towers. The yett was frequently used as alternative to the portcullis, since it was simpler in concept, less cumbersome. However, it was used within more complex defensive arrangements. The 14th-century castle at Doune, in Perthshire, had a portcullis in the main gateway supplemented by a yett, the yetts each had two leaves, with a wicket gate inserted within one of the leaves. Commonly, the yett would be placed behind a wooden door, being a defensive structure, royal warrants were required before a yett could be added to any house or castle. Following the Union of the Crowns in 1603, efforts were made by the government to control the disorder, in November 1606 it was recognised that one of the impediments to the administration of justice in the area was the strength of the houses. Consequently, the Privy Council ordered that all yetts should be removed from all houses belonging to lower in rank than barons. The usual method was to build the yett in quadrants with all the bars in a quadrant passing either vertically or horizontally through the bars as shown in the photograph. This method of construction for gates is not seen outside Scotland, although window grilles constructed in this manner are found in northern Italy and Tyrol. Grated windows in the Scottish style were traditional in Tyrol in the 15th century and it is likely the craft spread south from Tyrol to the Venetian Republic, but little apparent connection to the earlier Scottish technology, although there was some trade between Scotland and Germany. Grated iron doors were found in England, but were constructed using a different method. For the English-style gate, the bars all passed in front of the horizontal bars, and were riveted or fixed in place. One notable exception, however, is constructed using the Scottish method, Streatlam was rebuilt by Sir George Bowes following damage in the 16th century, the Bowes family had connections in Scotland, which may have inspired the yett constructionYett – Yett hanging in the main entrance of Blackness Castle, Scotland, showing attached bolts and pierced construction. Wrought in 1693.
49. Modern history – Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the global historiographical approach to the timeframe after the Post-classical history. It took all of history up to 1804 for the worlds population to reach 1 billion. Contemporary history is the span of historic events from approximately 1945 that are relevant to the present time. Some events, while not without precedent, show a new way of perceiving the world, the concept of modernity interprets the general meaning of these events and seeks explanations for major developments. The fundamental difficulty of studying modern history is the fact that a plethora of it has been documented up to the present day and it is imperative to consider the reliability of the information obtained from these records. In the pre-modern era, many peoples sense of self and purpose was expressed via a faith in some form of deity. Pre-modern cultures have not been thought of creating a sense of distinct individuality, religious officials, who often held positions of power, were the spiritual intermediaries to the common person. It was only through intermediaries that the general masses had access to the divine. Tradition was sacred to ancient cultures and was unchanging and the order of ceremony. The term modern was coined in the 16th century to present or recent times. New information about the world was discovered via empirical observation, versus the use of reason. The term Early Modern was introduced in the English language in the 1930s, to distinguish the time between what we call Middle Ages and time of the late Enlightenment. It is important to note that these terms stem from European history, in the Contemporary era, there were various socio-technological trends. Regarding the 21st century and the modern world, the Information Age and computers were forefront in use, not completely ubiquitous. The development of Eastern powers was of note, with China, in the Eurasian theater, the European Union and Russian Federation were two forces recently developed. A concern for Western world, if not the world, was the late modern form of terrorism. The modern period has been a period of significant development in the fields of science, politics, warfare and it has also been an age of discovery and globalization. During this time, the European powers and later their colonies, began a political, economic, the modern era is closely associated with the development of individualism, capitalism, urbanization and a belief in the possibilities of technological and political progressModern history – Waldseemüller map with joint sheets, 1507
50. 18th century – The 18th century lasted from January 1,1701 to December 31,1800 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French, philosophy and science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age and this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789-, though later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power, the Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. The 18th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state, the once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued. Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in North America in the 1760s, however, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States of America. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society, western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, 1700-1721, Great Northern War between Tsarist Russia and the Swedish Empire. 1701, Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I,1701, Ashanti Empire is formed under Osei Kofi Tutu I. 1701–1714, The War of the Spanish Succession is fought, involving most of continental Europe, 1701–1702, The Daily Courant and The Norwich Post become the first daily newspapers in England. 1702, Forty-seven Ronin attack Kira Yoshinaka and then commit seppuku in Japan,1703, Saint Petersburg is founded by Peter the Great, it is the Russian capital until 1918. 1703–1711, The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy,1704, End of Japans Genroku period. 1704, First Javanese War of Succession,1705, George Frideric Handels first opera, Almira, premieres. 1706, War of the Spanish Succession, French troops defeated at the Battles of Ramilies,1706, The first English-language edition of the Arabian Nights is published. 1707, The Act of Union is passed, merging the Scottish and English Parliaments,1707, After Aurangzebs death, the Mughal Empire enters a long decline and the Maratha Empire slowly replaces it. 1707, Mount Fuji erupts in Japan for the first time since 1700,1707, War of 27 Years between the Marathas and Mughals ends in India18th century – Washington crossing the Delaware, December 25, 1776, an iconic event of the American Revolution
51. Blockhouse – In military science, a blockhouse is a small fortification, usually consisting of one or more rooms with loopholes, allowing its defenders to fire in various directions. It usually refers to a fort in the form of a single building, serving as a defensive strong point against any enemy that does not possess siege equipment or, in modern times. A fortification intended to resist these weapons is more likely to qualify as a fortress or a redoubt, or in modern times, however, a blockhouse may also refer to a room within a larger fortification, usually a battery or redoubt. The term blockhouse is of uncertain origin, perhaps related to Middle Dutch blokhus, early blockhouses were designed solely to protect a particular area by the use of artillery, and they had accommodation only for the short-term use of the garrison. The first known example is the Cow Tower, Norwich, built in 1398, the major period of construction was in the maritime defence programmes of Henry VIII between 1539 and 1545. They were built to protect important maritime approaches such as the Thames Estuary, the Solent, the last blockhouse of this type was Cromwells Castle, built in Scilly in 1651. Blockhouses were a feature in Maltas coastal fortifications built in the 18th century by the Order of St. John. Between 1714 and 1716, dozens of batteries and redoubts were built around the coasts of the Maltese Islands, almost every battery and redoubt had a blockhouse, which served as gun crew accommodation and a place to store munitions. Many of the batteries consisted of a semi-circular or polygonal gun platform, the blockhouses usually had musketry loopholes, and in some cases were linked together by redans. Surviving batteries include Mistra Battery and Ferretti Battery, which both have two blockhouses, and Saint Marys Battery and Saint Anthonys Battery, which have a single blockhouse. Many of the redoubts consisted of a platform with a rectangular blockhouse at the rear. Surviving redoubts with blockhouses include Baħar iċ-Ċagħaq Redoubt and Briconet Redoubt, a few of the redoubts consisted of a single tower-like blockhouse without a platform, and were known as tour-reduits. Of the four tour-reduits that were built, only the Vendôme Tower survives today, originally blockhouses were often constructed as part of a large plan, to block access to vital points in the scheme. Blockhouses may be made of masonry where available, but were made from very heavy timbers. They were usually two or even three floors, with all storeys being provided with embrasures or loopholes, and the uppermost storey would be roofed, blockhouses were normally entered via a sturdy, barred door at ground level. Most blockhouses were roughly square in plan, but some of the more elaborate ones were hexagonal or octagonal, to provide better all-around fire. In some cases, blockhouses became the basis for complete forts, by building a palisade with the blockhouse at one corner, many historical stone blockhouses have survived, and a few timber ones have been restored at historical sites. In New Zealand, the Cameron Blockhouse, near Whanganui, is one of the few blockhouses to survive from the New Zealand land wars, during the Second Boer War the British forces built a large number of fortifications in South AfricaBlockhouse – Oldest remaining blockhouse in North America: Fort Edward (Nova Scotia) (1750)
52. Canal – Canals and navigations are human-made channels for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. In the vernacular, both are referred to as canals, and in most cases, the works will have a series of dams. These areas are referred to as water levels, often just called levels. In contrast, a canal cuts across a drainage divide atop a ridge, many canals have been built at elevations towering over valleys and others water ways crossing far below. Cities need a lot of water and many canals with sources of water at a higher level can deliver water to a destination where there is a lack of water. The Roman Empires Aqueducts were such water supply canals, a navigation is a series of channels that run roughly parallel to the valley and stream bed of an unimproved river. A navigation always shares the drainage basin of the river, a vessel uses the calm parts of the river itself as well as improvements, traversing the same changes in height. A true canal is a channel that cuts across a drainage divide, most commercially important canals of the first half of the 19th century were a little of each, using rivers in long stretches, and divide crossing canals in others. This is true for many canals still in use, there are two broad types of canal, Waterways, canals and navigations used for carrying vessels transporting goods and people. These can be subdivided into two kinds, Those connecting existing lakes, rivers, other canals or seas and oceans and those connected in a city network, such as the Canal Grande and others of Venice Italy, the gracht of Amsterdam, and the waterways of Bangkok. Aqueducts, water canals that are used for the conveyance and delivery of potable water for human consumption, municipal uses, hydro power canals. Historically canals were of importance to commerce and the development, growth. In 1855 the Lehigh Canal carried over 1.2 million tons of burning anthracite coal, by the 1930s the company which built. By the early 1880s, canals which had little ability to compete with rail transport, were off the map. In the next couple of decades, coal was diminished as the heating fuel of choice by oil. Later, after World War I when motor-trucks came into their own, Canals are built in one of three ways, or a combination of the three, depending on available water and available path, Human made streams A canal can be created where no stream presently exists. Either the body of the canal is dug or the sides of the canal are created by making dykes or levees by piling dirt, stone, the water for the canal must be provided from an external source, like streams or reservoirs. Where the new waterway must change elevation engineering works like locks, lifts or elevators are constructed to raise, examples include canals that connect valleys over a higher body of land, like Canal du Midi, Canal de Briare and the Panama CanalCanal – The Alter Strom, in the sea resort of Warnemünde, Germany.
53. Caponier – A caponier is a type of fortification structure. The word originates from the French word caponnière, originally the term referred to a covered passageway that traversed the ditch between the walls of a fortress and a ravelin outside the wall. This was more simply a passage however as fire from this point could sweep the ditch between the ravelin and the curtain wall and inflict devastating damage on any attempt to storm the wall. Thus the passageway was equipped with ports and cannon ports that fired along the ditch. While fortifications were evolving to the polygonal style, the term was used to describe the blockhouses set in the corners of the ditch that provide the same function in that style of fort. The roof is vulnerable to plunging fire, and is thus usually exceedingly thick and curved to deflect falling shells, or covered with a thick layer of earth. The caponier is usually equipped with a step and rifle ports to allow troops to fire along the ditch. To clear the smoke and fumes from the firing the roof of the caponier is often provided with ventilation ports, the length of the straight sections of the ditch is chosen so that it can be covered by fire from a single caponier. Caponiers are often wedge shaped so that they can fire down both angles of the ditch, an alternative to the caponier is a counterscarp battery, dug into the outer face of the corner of the ditch, giving a similar field of fire. Again reached by a tunnel from within the fort, it not have the vulnerable roof that the caponier has. Both structures may be found in the same fortCaponier – Rifle port inside a caponier, Fort Napoleon, Ostend, Belgium.
54. Casemate – A casemate, sometimes erroneously rendered casement, is a fortified gun emplacement or armored structure from which guns are fired. Originally, the referred to a vaulted chamber in a fortress. In armoured fighting vehicles that do not have a turret for the main gun, the word comes from the Italian casamatta, the etymology of which is uncertain. Others think that it comes from the Arabic word kasaba, transliterated to kasbah, menagio speculated that it came from the Greek word for pit, khasma, the plural of which is khasmata. Hensleigh Wedgwood thought that it came from the Spanish casa and matar, others take matto in its archaic Italian meaning of dark, equivalent to the English matt, as in opaque, making a casamatta a dark house. Casematte were also used as prisons, making use of their lack of light to add to the punishment. This explanation seems to be the most agreed upon, a casemate was originally a vaulted chamber usually constructed underneath the rampart. It was intended to be impenetrable and could be used for sheltering troops or stores, with the addition of an embrasure through the scarp face of the rampart, it could be used as a protected gun position. In the early 19th century, French military engineer Baron Haxo designed a free-standing casemate that could be built on the top of the rampart, casemates built in concrete were used in the Second World War to protect coastal artillery from air attack. In warship design the term casemate has been used in a number of ways, the most famous naval battle of the war was the duel at Hampton Roads between the Union turretted ironclad USS Monitor and the Confederate casemate ironclad CSS Virginia. Casemate ship was a term for central battery ship or center battery ship. The casemate was a box that extended the full width of the ship protecting many guns. The armoured sides of the box were the sides of hull of the ship, there was an armoured bulkhead at the front and rear of the casemate, and a thick deck protecting the top. The lower edge of the casemate sat on top of ships belt armour, some ships, such as the Alexandra, had a two-storey casemate. A casemate was a room in the side of a warship. A typical casemate held a 6-in gun, and had a 6 front plate, with armour plates on the sides and rear, with a protected top and floor. Casemates were similar in size to turrets, ships carrying them had them in pairs, the first battleships to carry them were the British Royal Sovereign class laid down in 1889. They were adopted as a result of live-firing trials against HMS Resistance in 1888, the use of casemates enabled the 6-in guns to be dispersed, so that a single hit would not knock out all of themCasemate – Fort Bokar was built as a two-story casemate fortress, standing in front of the medieval Walls of Dubrovnik in Croatia.
55. Couvreface – A couvreface in fortification architecture is a small outwork that was built in front of the actual fortress ditch before bastions or ravelins. It usually just consisted of a low rampart with a breastwork that protected its defending infantry, another ditch in front of the work guarded it from immediate frontal assault. The function of couvrefaces was to protect the faces of the higher ravelin or bastion behind it from direct artillery fire. So that the couvreface and the works behind it could not come under fire from an enemy battery along the line of the ramparts they were not allowed to run parallel to one another. Similar to the couvreface is the larger counterguard which, by contrast, was designed to enable the positioning of guns, couvrefaces are found particularly in Dutch and French fortifications from the 17th to the early 19th centuriesCouvreface – A: Counterguard B: Couvreface (idealised graphic in which all accompanying works such as moats or glacis have been omitted)
56. Coupure – For the prehistoric biological event, see Grande Coupure A coupure is a means of closing an opening in a wall, floodwall or levee. The word comes from the french verb couper which means to cut, in historic times a coupure was a location where a breach in the city walls or the walls of a fortress was closed. In more modern times a coupure is a way of allowing traffic to pass a flood protection structure. During a siege a coupure is a ditch or an earthwork or wooden palisade built behind a breach in the walls of a fortress, or a city and its purpose is to hinder and frustrate an attack made by the forlorn hope. This was a strategy used many times by defenders of fortifications, for example and it can also be a passage through a glacis to create a sally port so that the defenders can launch a sortie against the attackers. When a road or railway crosses a floodwall or levee the road or railway can either be laid on a grade or through a cut in the floodwall or levee, in case of expected flooding the cut can temporarily be closed. This type of coupure is also known as vehicle gate, floodwall gate or similar names, the closure can be accomplished by various means. The most basic means of closing a coupure is with soil or sandbags, more sophisticated means of closing a coupure consist of wooden or metal beams or doors. Older coupures are usually brick built structures with provisions for placing two stacks of beams between them, between the stacks of beams, which form two walls, horse manure or other animal faeces mixed with straw is dumped and compacted. This type of material swells when wet, thus providing additional waterproofing, modern coupures can consist of only one wall and can be made watertight with the help of rubber flaps or other materials. Stephen Francis Wyley A Dictionary of Military Architecture Fortification and Fieldworks from the Iron Age to the Eighteenth Century, Drawings by Steven LoweCoupure – A coupure where the A2 motorway crosses the Diefdijk in the Netherlands.
57. Orillon – An orillon, also known as an orillion, is an architectural element of a military fortification. The ear-shaped projection of masonry provided defense for guns and soldiers at the flank of a bastion, however, an orillon could also shield a city gate. An orillon, sometimes referred to as an orillion, is an element of a fortification. It is a masonry projection from the end of the face of a bastion. The curve of an orillon is convex and it may be semi-circular or squared-off in shape and it provides defense for guns and soldiers on the flank, and may cover a retired flank. The French orillon is a diminutive which derives from the French oreille, an orillon was generally built at the flank of a bastion, close to the adjacent defensive wall. The position permitted the cannons to be set back into the bastion, the projecting masonry shielded the gun and soldiers. Additional protection was provided by lowering the gun platform in the bastion. An orillon could also shield a city gate, an example is the Prince Edwards Gate in the Charles V Wall in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. Examples of bastions that have include the Flat Bastion and the South Bastion in Gibraltar. The two bastions along the Charles V Wall each have an orillon and a flank on their opposing faces, the west wall for the Flat Bastion. Usually, however, orillons were built on both flanks of a bastionOrillon – At the lower edge of the 1908 OS map of the Flat Bastion in Gibraltar is an orillon covering a retired flank and the Prince Edward's Gate in the Charles V Wall.
58. Polygonal fort – The polygonal style of fortification is also described as a flankless fort. Their low profile makes them easy to overlook, one of the earliest polygonal forts in the world is Fort Tigné on Tigné Point, Malta, which was built by the Order of Saint John between 1792 and 1795. The British went on to several other polygonal forts and batteries on Malta from 1872 to 1909. Many were also built in the United Kingdom during the government of Lord Palmerston, in response to the vulnerabilities of star forts, military engineers evolved a much simpler but more robust style of fortification. The ditch became deep and vertical sided, cut directly into the native rock and it was laid out as a series of straight lines surrounding the fortified area that gives this style of fortification its name. The ditch was swept by fire from defensive blockhouses set in the ditch, the counterscarp, is usually vertical, while the upper edge of the scarp is steeply sloping and often revetted in stone, to help shed shells into the ditch. Access to the fort was down a curving ramp cut into the glacis, then through a gatehouse set deep in the scarp of the ditch, reached by a rolling bridge that withdrew into the gatehouse. The majority of the fort is underground, with deep passages giving access to the counterscarp batteries, magazines and machine halls are deep under the surface, with only the emplacements for the forts guns exposed at the surface. Perhaps surprisingly the guns were mounted in open emplacements, known as en barbette. Because of the fast burning propellant, gun barrels were short, experience had shown that guns could be put out of action by collapsing their casemates around them by bombardment. The gun in its open emplacement was a harder target to hit than the massive face of a casemate. The polygonal forts provided robust and defendable gun platforms and they were built in the context of a larger defensive scheme, as forward batteries to engage the enemy and prevent them bombarding more vulnerable targets, like city rail centres and dockyards. The increasing range of field artillery also required corresponding increases in the depth of zone that forts needed to prevent bombardment of the resources being defended. Meanwhile, the development of guns and barbed wire offered a more flexiblePolygonal fort – Fort Tigné in Malta. Built in 1792-95, it is an early example of a polygonal fort.
59. Redan – Redan is a term related to fortifications. It is a work in a V-shaped salient angle toward an expected attack and it can be made from earthworks or other material. The redan developed from the lunette, originally a half-moon-shaped outwork, redans were a common feature in the coastal batteries built in Malta between 1715 and the end of the 18th century. Surviving batteries with redans include Mistra Battery and Saint Anthonys Battery, the Russians used redans on their left at the Battle of Borodino against Napoleon. A small redan whose faces make an angle with a vertex toward the enemy is called a flèche. The Bagration flèches were three redans backwards in echelon, the Shevardino Redoubt was erected as an early warning post a mile in front of the Bagration flèches. A Redan hole or Redan is an aspect of golf course architecture commonly associated with golf architect Charles B, the term alludes to the Redan type of fortification. Specifically, a Redan hole has a green which slopes downward and away from the point of entrance, typically the front right portion of the green. Links golf is played on the ground as much as in the air and, consequently, the green slopes away from the golfer playing to the green from the tee or fairway. Thus, it is played in an indirect manner, that is. This definition serves well to explain the basic concept, macdonald built his original American Redan as the fourth hole at the National Golf Links of America, commonly known as NGLA. He and his cohorts, Seth Raynor and Charles Steamshovel Banks built a Redan or a reverse version of it at nearly every course that they constructed. It is an element that has been copied by modern architects frequently - most notably the husband wife team of Pete and Alice Dye. The design element can be used as a complex of any par hole - a par 3 most commonly. Many Redan holes are flanked by a variety of deep bunkers, the original Redan is the 15th hole on the West Links of North Berwick. Redan holes in which the green is visible from the tee can produce a particular excitement for the golfer as the ball tracks its way to the hole, at the original Redan design in North Berwick, Scotland, the green is invisible from the tee. The NGLA version, more the inspiration for modern copies than the original hole, many golf architecture connoisseurs feel that the NGLA hole is the perhaps the greatest example of this design, exceeding the original. The name Redan in golf comes from the Crimean War, when the British captured a Russian-held fort, a serving officer—John White-Melville—is credited on his return as describing the 6th like the formidable fortress, or redan, he had encountered at SebastopolRedan – A redan as part of a fortification
60. Redoubt – A redoubt is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort, usually relying on earthworks, although some are constructed of stone or brick. It is meant to protect soldiers outside the defensive line. The word means a place of retreat, a redoubt differs from a redan in that the redan is open in the rear, whereas the redoubt was considered an enclosed work. The advent of mobile warfare in the 20th century generally diminished the importance of the defence of static positions, during the English Civil War redoubts were frequently built to protect older fortifications from the more effective artillery of the period. Often close to ancient fortifications there were hills that overlooked the defences. A small hill close to Worcester was used as a platform by the Parliamentarians when they successfully besieged Worcester in 1646. In 1651 before the Battle of Worcester the hill was turned into a redoubt by the Royalists, during the Battle of Worcester, the Parliamentarians captured this redoubt and turned its guns on Worcester. In so doing they made the defence of the city untenable and this action effectively ended the battle, the last of the English Civil War. From 1715 onwards, the Order of Saint John built a number of redoubts in Malta and they were built in the middle of bays to prevent enemy forces from disembarking and outflanking the coastal batteries. The design of the redoubts was influenced by ones built in the French colonies, in all, eleven pentagonal redoubts and a few semi-circular or rectangular ones were built. Most redoubts have been demolished over the years, but a few survive, such as Briconet Redoubt, Saint George Redoubt. These were redoubts built in the form of a tower, with rows of musketry loopholes, three were around Marsaxlokk Bay, and one was located in Marsalforn, Gozo. The only one still in existence is Vendôme Tower in Marsaxlokk, during the siege of Malta of 1798–1800, Maltese insurgents built a number of fortifications to bombard French positions and repel a possible counterattack. Most of the fortifications were batteries, but at least two redoubts, Windmill Redoubt and Żabbar Redoubt, were also built, in 1799, British forces also built San Rocco Redoubt and San Lucian Redoubt in Malta. No redoubts from the French blockade survive today, in the late 19th century, the British built a redoubt near Fomm ir-Riħ as part of the Victoria Lines. The chain blocked the river, the forts were positioned to fire on ships attempting to approach the chain, list of military structures Reduit Redoubt on historical mapRedoubt – Vendôme Tower in Marsaxlokk. It is the only surviving tour-reduit in Malta.
61. Schanze – A schanze is, according to the specialist terminology of German fortification construction, an independent fieldwork, that is frequently used in the construction of temporary field fortifications. The word is German and has no direct English equivalent, although the word sconce is derived from Dutch schans, which is cognate to the German word. The word Schanze derives originally from the fact that, during sieges in the Late Middle Ages, temporary defensive positions had frequently been built out of gabions, later such schanzen very often consisted of earthen ramparts. As a result, in the 16th century, the verb schanzen became generally associated with earthworks of all kinds, in modern German military use, schanzen is still used to mean the construction of smaller earthworks, especially of fire trenches. From this already derived usage comes the phrase sich verschanzen, to entrench oneself in yet another derivative sense, as a rule a schanze is an independent fortified work. To block a valley or a pass, however, a line of adjacent schanzen could be erected, not infrequently connected by a low rampart, in this case it is referred to as a verschanzte Linie - a fortified line of schanzen. If such a defensive line completely enclosed an area on all sides and it was not uncommon in the 17th and 18th centuries for weaker armies to construct such works in order to protect themselves from a stronger foe. During sieges fortified lines of schanzen were often used as lines of contravallation or circumvallation, depending on the layout, a distinction is made between open and closed schanzen. The closed type are further divided into redoubts, that only have outward-facing angles, there is a very extensive system of schanzen in the Black Forest, elements of which have survived. See Baroque fortifications in the Black Forest, sconce Baroque schanzen Schanze in Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 4th edn.1888 ff. Vol.14, p.403 Replica of a redoubt at 1,1 scale with a link to the construction diarySchanze – Schanzen in the shape of an enclosed redoubt; here shown as incorporated into a verschanzten Linie or "fortified line". The schanze is additionally protected in this example by a couvreface
62. Station (frontier defensive structure) – A station was a defensible residence constructed on the American frontier during the late 18th and early 19th century. Many of these structures were built on the Kentucky frontier during the struggle with the British, according to Virginia law, settled land had to be surveyed, a corn crop planted and a dwelling built. On the frontier, this building had to be fortified, the home, often called a station, but could be called a fort in other regions, was usually built of logs and were supplied only while hostilities were continuing. Families often maintained a station and visitors were welcome, since in numbers there was strength. Veterans were given land grants after the American Revolution, and many built a station to secure the area, the purpose for stations in Kentucky was for protection, since most Native Americans at the time supported the British and often attacked the settlersStation (frontier defensive structure) – Low Dutch Station historical marker
63. Star fort – A star fort, bastion fort or trace italienne, is a fortification in a style that evolved during the age of gunpowder when the cannon came to dominate the battlefield. It was first seen in the century in Italy. The design of the fort is normally a pentagon or hexagon with bastions at the corners of the walls and these outcroppings are present for the purpose of a total, panoramic view of the battlefield. Because of the bastions, archers and cannon operators can hit any target on the battlefield without having to lean over the wall, many bastion forts also feature cavaliers, which are raised secondary structures based entirely inside the primary structure. The predecessors of star fortifications were medieval fortresses, usually placed on high hills, from there, arrows were shot at the enemies, and the higher the fortress was, the further the arrows flew. The enemies hope was to ram the gate or climb over the wall with ladders. For the invading force, these fortifications proved quite difficult to overcome, passive ring-shaped fortifications of the Medieval era proved vulnerable to damage or destruction by cannon fire, when it could be directed from outside against a perpendicular masonry wall. In addition, a force that could get close to the wall was able to conduct undermining operations in relative safety. In contrast, the fortress was a very flat structure composed of many triangular bastions, specifically designed to cover each other. In order to counteract the cannonballs, defensive walls were lower and thicker. The outer side of the ditch was provided with a glacis to deflect cannonballs aimed at the lower part of the main wall. They were built of materials, usually earth and brick. Star fortifications were developed in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries primarily in response to the French invasion of the Italian peninsula. The French army was equipped with new cannon and bombards that were able to destroy traditional fortifications built in the Middle Ages. Star forts were employed by Michelangelo in the earthworks of Florence. The design spread out of Italy in the 1530s and 1540s and it was employed heavily throughout Europe for the following three centuries. Italian engineers were heavily in demand throughout Europe to help build the new fortifications, the late-seventeenth-century architects Menno van Coehoorn and especially Vauban, Louis XIVs military engineer, are considered to have taken the form to its logical extreme. In the 19th century, the development of the explosive shell changed the nature of defensive fortifications, elvas, in Portugal is considered by some to be the best surviving example of the Dutch school of fortificationsStar fort – 17th century map of the city of Palmanova, Italy, an example of a Venetian star fort
64. Tenaille – Tenaille is an advanced defensive-work, in front of the main defences of a fortress which takes its name from resemblance, real or imaginary, to the lip of a pair of pincers. It is from French, literally, tongs, from Late Latin tenācula, tenaille were a development in fortification formalised by Vauban, among others. To allow the defenders to access the ditches that front a curtain wall a postern gate was placed low down in the close to its centre. To protect the postern, an outwork, originally vee-shaped, was placed in front of the gate, a simple tenaille is shown in the top image to the right, it is the chevron between the two corner bastions. The design also evolved a version in which the tenaille possess projections at each end, finally, the word was also used for some other vee-shaped parts of outworks, the bottom-most image, a priests cap, has two tenailles. Also shown is another approach to protect a gate, the roughly triangular outwork seen in the middle of the drawing is a ravelinTenaille – St. Andrew's Tenaille in Valletta
65. Barbed wire – It is used to construct inexpensive fences and is used atop walls surrounding secured property. It is also a feature of the fortifications in trench warfare. A person or animal trying to pass through or over barbed wire will suffer discomfort, Barbed wire fencing requires only fence posts, wire, and fixing devices such as staples. It is simple to construct and quick to erect, even by an unskilled person, the first patent in the United States for barbed wire was issued in 1867 to Lucien B. Smith of Kent, Ohio, who is regarded as the inventor. Joseph F. Glidden of DeKalb, Illinois, received a patent for the invention in 1874 after he made his own modifications to previous versions. Barbed wire was the first wire technology capable of restraining cattle, Wire fences were cheaper and easier to erect than their alternatives. When wire fences became widely available in the United States in the late 19th century and they made intensive animal husbandry practical on a much larger scale. Englishman Richard Newton brought barbed wire to the Argentine pampas in 1845, fencing consisting of flat and thin wire was first proposed in France, by Leonce Eugene Grassin-Baledans in 1860. His design consisted of bristling points, creating a fence that was painful to cross, in April 1865 Louis François Janin proposed a double wire with diamond-shaped metal barbs, he was granted a patent. Michael Kelly from New York had a idea, and proposed that the fencing should be used specifically for deterring animals. More patents followed, and in 1867 alone there were six patents issued for barbed wire, only two of them addressed livestock deterrence, one of which was from American Lucien B. Smith of Ohio. Before 1870, westward movement in the USA was largely across the plains with little or no settlement occurring, after the American Civil War the plains were extensively settled, consolidating Americas dominance over them. Ranchers moved out on the plains, and needed to fence their land in against encroaching farmers, the railroads throughout the growing West needed to keep livestock off their tracks, and farmers needed to keep stray cattle from trampling their crops. A cost-effective alternative was needed to make cattle operations profitable, the Big Four in barbed wire were Joseph Glidden, Jacob Haish, Charles Francis Washburn, and Isaac L. Ellwood. Glidden, a farmer in 1873 and the first of the Big Four, is credited for designing a successful sturdy barbed wire product. Gliddens idea came from a display at a fair in DeKalb, Illinois in 1873, Rose had patented The Wooden Strip with Metallic Points in May 1873. This was simply a wooden block with wire protrusions designed to keep cows from breaching the fence and that day, Glidden was accompanied by two other men, Isaac L. Ellwood, a hardware dealer and Jacob Haish, a lumber merchant. Like Glidden, they wanted to create a more durable wire fence with fixed barbsBarbed wire – A close-up view of a barbed wire
66. Barbette – Barbettes are several types of gun emplacement in terrestrial fortifications or on naval ships. In recent naval usage, a barbette is a circular armour support for a heavy gun turret. This evolved from earlier forms of gun protection that led to the pre-dreadnought. The former gives better angles of fire but less protection than the latter, the disappearing gun was a variation on the barbette gun, it consisted of a heavy gun on a carriage that would retract behind a parapet or into a gunpit for reloading. They were primarily used in coastal defences, but saw use in a handful of warships. The term is used for certain aircraft gun mounts. By the late 1880s, all three systems were replaced with a hybrid system that combined the benefits of both types. The heavily-armored vertical tube that supported the new gun mount was referred to as a barbette, american authors generally refer to such mounts simply as tail guns or tail gun turrets. The use of barbette mountings originated in ground fortifications, the term originally referred to a raised platform on a rampart for one or more guns, enabling them to be fired over a parapet. This gave rise to the phrase en barbette, which referred to a gun placed to fire over a parapet, rather than through an embrasure, while an en barbette emplacement offered wider arcs of fire, it also exposed the guns crew to greater danger from hostile fire. In addition, since the position would be higher than a casemate position—that is. Fortifications in the 19th century typically employed both casemate and barbette emplacements, the type was usually used for coastal defence guns. Later heavy coastal guns were protected in hybrid installation, with wide casemate with cantilevered overhead cover partially covering a barbette mount. Following the introduction of ironclad warships in the early 1860s, naval designers grappled with the problem of mounting guns in the most efficient way possible. The first generation of ironclads employed the same arrangement as the old ship of the line. This was particularly important to designers, since the tactic of ramming was revived following its successful employment at the decisive Austrian victory at the Battle of Lissa in 1866, ramming required a ship to steam directly at its opponent, which greatly increased the importance of end-on fire. Designers such as Cowper Phipps Coles and John Ericsson designed the first gun turrets in the 1860s, in the 1870s, designers began to experiment with an en barbette type of mounting. The barbette was a fixed armoured enclosure protecting the gun, the barbette could take the form of a circular or elongated ring of armour around the rotating gun mount over which the guns firedBarbette – Barbette for a 25-ton gun on the British ironclad HMS Temeraire
67. Coastal artillery – Coastal artillery is the branch of the armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications. The advent of 20th-century technologies, especially aviation, naval aviation, jet aircraft, and guided missiles, reduced the primacy of cannon, battleships. In countries where coastal artillery has not been disbanded, these forces have acquired amphibious capabilities, in littoral warfare, mobile coastal artillery armed with surface-to-surface missiles still can be used to deny the use of sea lanes. Land-based guns also benefited in most cases from the protection of walls or earth mounds. The Martello tower is an excellent example of a widely used coastal fort which mounted defensive artillery, during the 19th century China also built hundreds of coastal fortresses in an attempt to counter Western naval threats. Coastal artillery could be part of the Navy, or part of the Army, in English-speaking countries, certain coastal artillery positions were sometimes referred to as Land Batteries, distinguishing this form of artillery battery from for example floating batteries. In the United Kingdom, in the later 19th and earlier 20th Centuries, then, following the Spanish–American War and the report of the Endicott Board, U. S. harbor defenses were greatly strengthened and provided with new, rifled artillery and minefield defenses. Shortly thereafter, in 1907, Congress split the field artillery, the first decade of the 20th Century, the United States Marine Corps established the Advanced Base Force. The force was used for setting up and defending advanced bases, during the Siege of Port Arthur, Japanese forces had captured the vantage point on 203 Meter Hill overlooking Port Arthur harbor. The battleship Sevastopol, although hit 5 times by 11-inch shells, after 3 weeks, the Sevastopol was still afloat, having survived 124 torpedoes fired at her while sinking two Japanese destroyers and damaging six other vessels. The Japanese had meanwhile lost the cruiser Takasago to a mine outside the harbor, the Blücher had entered the narrow waters of the Oslofjord, carrying 1,000 soldiers and leading a German invasion fleet. The first salvo from the Norwegian defenders, fired from Oscarsborg Fortress about 1 mile distant, disabled Blüchers main battery, fire from the smaller guns swept her decks and disabled her steering, and she received several torpedo hits before the fires reached her magazines and doomed her. Singapore was defended by its famous large-caliber coastal guns, which included one battery of three 15-inch guns and one with two 15-inch guns, AP shells were designed to penetrate the hulls of heavily armoured warships and were ineffective against personnel. The Japanese defended the island of Betio in the Tarawa atoll with numerous 203 mm coastal guns, in 1943, these were knocked out early in the battle with a combined USN naval and aerial bombardment. Nazi Germany fortified its conquered territories with the Atlantic Wall, the intent was to destroy the Allied landing craft before they could unload. During the Normandy Landings in 1944, shore bombardment was given a high importance, using ships from battleships to destroyers, for example, the Canadians at Juno beach had fire support many times greater than they had had for the Dieppe Raid in 1942. In addition, there were modified landing-craft, eight Landing Craft Gun, twenty-four Landing Craft Tank carried Priest self-propelled howitzers which also fired while they were on the run-in to the beach. Similar arrangements existed at other beaches, on June 25,1944 the American battleship Texas engaged German shore batteries on the Cotentin PeninsulaCoastal artillery – The Castle Islands Fortifications, in Bermuda. Construction beginning in 1612, these were the first stone fortifications, with the first coastal artillery batteries, built by England in the New World.
68. Gun turret – A gun turret is a location from which weapons can be fired that affords protection, visibility, and some cone of fire. Rotating gun turrets have the protection, the weapon, and its crew rotate, when this meaning of the word turret started being used at the beginning of the 1860s, turrets were normally cylindrical. Barbettes were an alternative to turrets, with a barbette the protection was fixed, in the 1890s, armoured hoods were added to barbettes, these rotated with the platform. By the early 20th Century, these hoods were known as turrets, modern warships have gun-mountings described as turrets, though the protection on them is limited to protection from the weather. They may be manned or remotely controlled and are most often protected to some degree, a small turret, or sub-turret set on top of a larger one, is called a cupola. The term cupola is used for a rotating turret that carries a sighting device rather than weaponry. Before the development of large-calibre, long-range guns in the mid-19th century, firepower was provided by a large number of guns which could only traverse in a limited arc. Additionally casemate mounts had to be recessed into the side of a vessel to afford a wide arch of fire, designs for a rotating gun turret date back to the late 18th century. The Lady Nancy proved a success and Coles patenting his rotating turret design after the war. Coless aim was to create a ship with the greatest possible all round arc of fire, the Admiralty accepted the principle of the turret gun as a useful innovation, and incorporated it into other new designs. Coles submitted a design for a ship having ten domed turrets each housing two large guns, the design was rejected as impractical, although the Admiralty remained interested in turret ships and instructed its own designers to create better designs. Coles enlisted the support of Prince Albert, who wrote to the first Lord of the Admiralty, in January 1862, the Admiralty agreed to construct a ship, the HMS Prince Albert which had four turrets and a low freeboard, intended only for coastal defence. While Coles designed the turrets the ship was the responsibility of the chief Constructor Isaac Watts, another ship using Coles turret designs, HMS Royal Sovereign, was completed in August 1864. Its existing broadside guns were replaced with four turrets on a flat deck, early ships like the Royal Sovereign had little sea-keeping qualities being limited to coastal waters. Sir Edward James Reed, went on to design and build HMS Monarch, laid down in 1866 and completed in June 1869, it carried two turrets, although the inclusion of a forecastle and poop prevented the turret guns firing fore and aft. The gun turret was independently invented by the Swedish inventor John Ericsson in America, Ericsson designed the USS Monitor in 1861, its most prominent feature being a large cylindrical gun turret mounted amidships above the low-freeboard upper hull, also called the raft. This extended well past the sides of the lower, more traditionally shaped hull, a small armoured pilot house was fitted on the upper deck towards the bow, however, its position prevented Monitor from firing her guns straight forward. Like Coles, one of Ericssons goals in designing the ship was to present the smallest possible target to enemy gunfire, the turrets rounded shape helped to deflect cannon shotGun turret – A modern gun turret allows firing of the cannons via remote control. Loading of ammunition is also often done by automatic mechanisms.
69. Trench warfare – The most famous use of trench warfare is the Western Front in World War I. It has become a byword for stalemate, attrition, sieges, Trench warfare occurred when a revolution in firepower was not matched by similar advances in mobility, resulting in a grueling form of warfare in which the defender held the advantage. On the Western Front in 1914–18, both sides constructed elaborate trench and dugout systems opposing each other along a front, protected from assault by barbed wire, mines, the area between opposing trench lines was fully exposed to artillery fire from both sides. Attacks, even if successful, often sustained severe casualties, with the development of armoured warfare, emphasis on trench warfare has declined, but still occurs where battle-lines become static. Field works are as old as armies, Roman legions, when in the presence of an enemy, entrenched camps nightly when on the move. In the early modern era they were used to block possible lines of advance and they played a pivotal role in manoeuvring that took place before the Battle of Blenheim. The lines were captured by the French in 1707 and demolished, the French built the 19-kilometre-long Lines of Weissenburg during the War of the Spanish Succession under the orders of the Duke of Villars in 1706. These were to remain in existence for just over 100 years and were last manned during Napoleons Hundred Days, the French built the Lines of Ne Plus Ultra during the winter of 1710–1711, which have been compared to the trenches of World War I. They ran from Arras to Cambrai and Valenciennes where they linked up with existing defensive lines fronted by the river Sambre and they were breached in the 1711 campaign season by the Duke of Marlborough through a magnificent piece of manoeuvring. During the Peninsular War, the British and Portuguese constructed the Lines of Torres Vedras in 1809 and 1810, nor were fortifications restricted to European powers. British casualty rates of up to 45 percent, such as at the Battle of Ohaeawai in 1845, proved contemporary firepower was insufficient to dislodge defenders from a trench system. Fundamentally, as the range and rate of fire of rifled small arms increased and this was only made more lethal by the introduction of rapid-firing artillery, exemplified by the French 75, and high explosive fragmentation rounds. The increases in firepower had outstripped the ability of infantry to cover the ground between firing lines, and the ability of armour to withstand fire and it would take a revolution in mobility to change that. Trench warfare is associated with the First World War of 1914–18. Both sides concentrated on breaking up attacks and on protecting their own troops by digging deep into the ground. Trench warfare was conducted on other fronts, including Italy. Trench warfare has become a symbol of the futility of war. To the French, the equivalent is the attrition of the Battle of Verdun in which the French Army suffered 380,000 casualties, Trench warfare is associated with mass slaughter in appalling conditionsTrench warfare – Lines of Torres Vedras
70. 20th century – The 20th century was a century that began on January 1,1901 and ended on December 31,2000. It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium and it is distinct from the century known as the 1900s, which began on January 1,1900 and ended on December 31,1999. It saw great advances in communication and medical technology that by the late 1980s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication, the term short twentieth century was coined to represent the events from 1914 to 1991. It took all of history up to 1804 for the worlds population to reach 1 billion, world population reached 2 billion estimates in 1927, by late 1999. Globally approximately 45% of those who were married and able to have children used contraception, 40% of pregnancies were unplanned, the century had the first global-scale total wars between world powers across continents and oceans in World War I and World War II. The century saw a shift in the way that many people lived, with changes in politics, ideology, economics, society, culture, science, technology. The 20th century may have seen more technological and scientific progress than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization, terms like ideology, world war, genocide, and nuclear war entered common usage. It was a century that started with horses, simple automobiles, and freighters but ended with high-speed rail, cruise ships, global commercial air travel and the space shuttle. Horses, Western societys basic form of transportation for thousands of years, were replaced by automobiles and buses within a few decades. Humans explored space for the first time, taking their first footsteps on the Moon, mass media, telecommunications, and information technology made the worlds knowledge more widely available. Advancements in medical technology also improved the health of many people, rapid technological advancements, however, also allowed warfare to reach unprecedented levels of destruction. World War II alone killed over 60 million people, while nuclear weapons gave humankind the means to annihilate itself in a short time, however, these same wars resulted in the destruction of the Imperial system. For the first time in history, empires and their wars of expansion and colonization ceased to be a factor in international affairs, resulting in a far more globalized. The last time major powers clashed openly was in 1945, and since then, technological advancements during World War I changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as tanks, chemical weapons, and aircraft modified tactics and strategy. After more than four years of warfare in western Europe, and 20 million dead. The regime of Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown during the conflict, Russia became the first communist state, at the beginning of the period, Britain was the worlds most powerful nation, having acted as the worlds policeman for the past century. Meanwhile, Japan had rapidly transformed itself into an advanced industrial power. Its military expansion into eastern Asia and the Pacific Ocean culminated in an attack on the United States20th century – The Earth as seen from Apollo 17. The second half of the 20th century saw humankind's first space exploration.
71. Admiralty scaffolding – It was widely deployed on beaches of southern England, eastern England and the south western peninsula during the invasion crisis of 1940-1941. Scaffolding was also used, though sparingly, inland. Of a number of designs, by far the most common was designated obstacle Z.1. This design comprised upright tubes 9 feet high and 4 feet 10 inches apart, each upright was braced by a pair of diagonal tubes, at about 45°, to the rear. 20-foot wide sections were preassembled and then carried to the sea to be placed in position at the half tide mark as an obstacle to boats. Tests in October 1940, confirmed that tanks could break through with difficulty. As an anti-tank barrier it was placed at or just above the water point where it would be difficult for tanks to get enough momentum to break through the barrier. In some places, two sets of scaffolding were set up, one in the water against boats and one at high water against tanks. The problem of securing the barriers on sand was overcome by the development of the sword picket by Stewarts & Lloyds – this device was known at the Admiralty as the Wallace Sword. Barriers varying in length from a couple of hundred feet to three miles were constructed consuming 50% of Britains production of scaffolding steel at an estimated cost of £6,600 per mile. Despite this, many miles of Admiralty scaffolding were erected using more than 15,000 miles of scaffolding tube, after the war, the scaffolding got in the way of swimmers. Very soon, the scaffolding was removed for scrap and any remaining traces are now very rare, British anti-invasion preparations of World War II British hardened field defences of World War II Foot, William. The anti-invasion landscapes of England,1940, official Handbook of the Pillbox Study Group. Pillboxes, A Study of UK Defences, archived from the original on 17 February 2007Admiralty scaffolding – A drawing of Admiralty scaffolding from 1940
72. Air-raid shelter – Air-raid shelters, also known as bomb shelters, are structures for the protection of non-combatants as well as combatants against enemy attacks from the air. They are similar to bunkers in many regards, although they are not designed to defend against ground attack, prior to World War II, in May 1924, an Air Raid Precautions Committee was set up in the United Kingdom. In February 1936 the Home Secretary appointed a technical Committee on Structural Precautions against Air Attack and this proposal was eventually implemented in January 1939. During the Munich crisis, local authorities dug trenches to provide shelter, after the crisis, the British Government decided to make these a permanent feature, with a standard design of precast concrete trench lining. Unfortunately these turned out to very poorly. They also decided to free to poorer households the Anderson shelter. Air raid shelters were built specifically to serve as protection against enemy air raids, a commonly used home shelter known as the Anderson shelter would be built in a garden and equipped with beds as a refuge from air raids. For this reason, air-raid precautions during World War II in Germany could be more readily implemented by the authorities than was possible in the UK. However, the inadequacies of cellars and basements became apparent in the firestorms during the attacks on the larger German inner cities, especially Hamburg. Some occupants perished from heat stroke or carbon monoxide poisoning, in contrast to other shelters, these buildings were considered completely bomb-proof. They also had the advantage of being built upward, which was cheaper than downward excavation. There were no equivalents of hochbunkers in the cities of the Allied countries, hochbunkers usually consisted of large concrete blocks above ground with walls between 1 m and 1.5 m thick and with huge lintels above doorways and openings. They often had a constant interior temperature of 7 to 10 °C and they were designated to protect people, administrative centres, important archives, and works of art. Some of the circular towers contained helical floors that gradually curved their way upward within the circular walls, many of these structures may still be seen to this day. They have been converted into offices, storage space, and some have even adapted for hotels, hospitals and schools. In Schöneberg, a block of flats was built over the Pallasstrasse air-raid shelter after World War II, during the Cold War, NATO used the shelter for food storage. The cost of demolishing these edifices after the war would have been enormous and these towers had anti-aircraft batteries on platforms on their roofs. The attempted demolition caused no more than a crack in one of the walls of the tower, after efforts were abandonedAir-raid shelter – Air-raid shelter in Tateyama, Nagasaki, Nagasaki.
73. Buoy anti-tank obstacle – Buoy is a British type of anti-tank obstacle used to block roads intended to impede enemy movement. Buoys were widely deployed during the crisis of 1940-1941. Each buoy was a cone of concrete with a rounded bottom, about 2 feet 9 inches high. They would be placed in at least five rows across a roadway, buoys were intended as an alternative to a simple cylinder of concrete. The advantage of buoy was that it could be used to block or unblock a road quickly. Passing a rod or crossbar through a pair of buoys formed a wheeled axle that could easily be rolled into place, when the axle was removed the buoys could be separated and stood up. Although easily knocked over, the conical shapes could not be rolled very far, they would move unpredictably and out of the field of view of a tank driver and they were eventually judged to be ineffective and phased out. Extant examples are found by the roadside today. British anti-invasion preparations of World War II British hardened field defences of World War II Foot, the anti-invasion landscapes of England,1940. Twentieth century military structures in the landscape, pillboxes, A Study of UK DefencesBuoy anti-tank obstacle – Extant examples in Sussex
74. Bremer wall – A Bremer wall, or T-wall, is a twelve-foot-high portable, steel-reinforced concrete blast wall of the type used for blast protection throughout Iraq and Afghanistan. The name is believed to have originated from L, the Bremer barrier resembles the smaller 3-foot-tall Jersey barrier, which has been used widely for vehicle traffic control on coalition military bases in Iraq and Afghanistan. Similarly, the largest barriers, which stand around 20-foot-tall, are called Alaska barriers, Alaska barriers are typically used as perimeter fortifications of well-established bases in Iraq and Afghanistan. These T-shaped walls were developed by the Israelis in the Israeli West Bank barrier. The term T-wall has been used commonly by soldiers throughout Iraq and Afghanistan, in 2011 a series of 23 Bremer walls were used to form a memorial wall for fallen U. S. soldiers. It was painted by U. S. Army/Air Force troops deployed to Kirkuk Iraq, the concrete is painted black with 4336 names in yellow. The walls design is based on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, the art of war, Operation Iraqi Freedom. The T-walls of Kuwait and Iraq, madison, CT, Operation Music Aid, Inc. In the Business of Blast Walls, Saturday, April 5,2008Bremer wall – A short T-wall painted with various military signs is seen at Camp Liberty, Iraq
75. Electric fence – For the physical barrier, see electric fence. Electric Fence is a memory debugger written by Bruce Perens and it consists of a library which programmers can link into their code to override the C standard library memory management functions. EFence triggers a crash when the memory error occurs, so a debugger can be used to inspect the code that caused the error. Normally, these two errors would cause heap corruption, which would manifest itself only much later, usually in unrelated ways, thus, Electric Fence helps programmers find the precise location of memory programming errors. Electric Fence allocates at least two pages for every allocated buffer, in some modes of operation, it does not deallocate freed buffers. Thus, Electric Fence vastly increases the requirements of programs being debugged. This leads to the recommendation that programmers should apply Electric Fence to smaller programs when possible, Electric Fence is free software licensed under the GNU General Public License. Dmalloc Electric Fence 2.2.4 source code from Ubuntu DUMA – a fork of Electric Fence which also works for Windows eFence-2.2.2 – rpm of electric fence 2.2.2 sourceElectric fence
76. Fallout shelter – A fallout shelter is an enclosed space specially designed to protect occupants from radioactive debris or fallout resulting from a nuclear explosion. Many such shelters were constructed as civil defense measures during the Cold War, during a nuclear explosion, matter vaporized in the resulting fireball is exposed to neutrons from the explosion, absorbs them, and becomes radioactive. When this material condenses in the rain, it forms dust, the fallout emits alpha and beta particles, as well as gamma rays. Much of this radioactive material falls to earth, subjecting anything within the line of sight to radiation. A fallout shelter is designed to allow its occupants to minimize exposure to harmful fallout until radioactivity has decayed to a safer level, plans were made, however, to use existing buildings with sturdy below-ground-level basements as makeshift fallout shelters. These buildings were usually placarded with the yellow and black trefoil sign, civilian alarm device was engineered and tested but the program was not viable and was terminated in 1967. In the U. S. in September 1961, under the direction of Steuart L. Pittman, a letter from President Kennedy advising the use of fallout shelters appeared in the September 1961 issue of Life magazine. The former Soviet Union and other Eastern Bloc countries often designed their underground mass-transit and subway tunnels to serve as bomb, germany has protected shelters for 3% of its population, Austria for 30%, Finland for 70%, Sweden for 81% and Switzerland for 114%. Later, the law ensured that all buildings built after 1978 contained a nuclear shelter able to withstand a blast from a 12 megaton explosion at a distance of 700 metres. The Federal Law on the Protection of the Population and Civil Protection still requires nowadays that every inhabitant should have a place in a close to where they live. The Swiss authorities also maintain large communal shelters stocked with four months of food. The reference Nuclear War Survival Skills declared that, as of 1986, Switzerland has the best civil defense system, one that already includes blast shelters for over 85 percent of all its citizens. In Switzerland, most residential shelters are no longer stocked with the food and water required for prolonged habitation, but the owner still has the obligation to ensure the maintenance of the shelter. A basic fallout shelter consists of shields that reduce gamma ray exposure by a factor of 1000, the required shielding can be accomplished with 10 times the thickness of any quantity of material capable of cutting gamma ray exposure in half. Shields that reduce gamma ray intensity by 50% include 1 cm of lead,6 cm of concrete,9 cm of packed earth or 150 m of air, when multiple thicknesses are built, the shielding multiplies. Thus, a practical fallout shield is ten halving-thicknesses of packed earth, usually, an expedient purpose-built fallout shelter is a trench, with a strong roof buried by c.1 m of earth. The two ends of the trench have ramps or entrances at right angles to the trench, so that gamma rays cannot enter, to make the overburden waterproof, a plastic sheet may be buried a few inches below the surface and held down with rocks or bricks. Blast doors are designed to absorb the shock wave of a nuclear blast, bending, dry earth is a reasonably good thermal insulator, and over several weeks of habitation, a shelter will become dangerously hotFallout shelter – A sign pointing to an old fallout shelter in New York City.
77. Hesco bastion – The HESCO bastion is a modern gabion primarily used for flood control and military fortifications. It is made of a wire mesh container and heavy duty fabric liner. It has seen use in Iraq and Afghanistan. It was developed in the late 1980s by a British company of the same name, originally designed for use on beaches and marshes for erosion and flood control, the HESCO Bastion quickly became a popular security device in the 1990s. HESCO barriers continue to be used for their original purpose and they were used in 2005 to reinforce levees around New Orleans in the few days between Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita. During the June 2008 Midwest floods 8,200 metres of HESCO barrier wall were shipped to Iowa, in late March,2009,10,700 metres of HESCO barrier were delivered to Fargo, North Dakota to protect against floods. In late September,2016,10 miles of HESCO barriers were used in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, specifically, the brand name for the barrier is Concertainer, with HESCO Bastion being the company that produces it. The HESCO bastion was developed by Jimi Heselden, a British entrepreneur and ex-coal miner. Assembling the HESCO bastion entails unfolding it and filling it with sand, soil or gravel, the placement of the barrier is generally very similar to the placement of a sandbag barrier or earth berm except that room must generally be allowed for the equipment used to fill the barrier. The main advantage of HESCO barriers, strongly contributing to their popularity with troops and flood fighters, is the quick, previously, people had to fill sandbags, a slow undertaking, with one worker filling about 20 sandbags per hour. Workers using HESCO barriers and a front end loader can do ten times the work of those using sandbags, the HESCO barriers come in a variety of sizes. Most of the barriers can also be stacked, and they are shipped collapsed in compact sets, example dimensions of typical configurations are 1.4 by 1.1 by 9.8 metres to 2.1 by 1.5 by 30 metres. Bremer wall - steel-reinforced concrete blast walls HESCO Bastion Ltd—HESCO company siteHesco bastion – United States Navy sailors assembling HESCO bastions.
78. Revetment (aircraft) – A revetment, in military aviation, is a parking area for one or more aircraft that is surrounded by blast walls on three sides. These walls are as much about protecting neighbouring aircraft as it is to protect the aircraft within the revetment, the blast walls around a revetment are designed to channel blast and damage upwards and outwards away from neighbouring aircraft. The longer spine section behind the areas usually encloses a narrow corridor for aircrew. The Imperial War Museum Duxford has one that is accessible to the public, whilst common on Fighter Command airfields, other RAF Stations such as RAF Benson and RAF Brize Norton did not have any blast pens. Revetment Hardened aircraft shelter Flint, Peter, Media related to Aircraft revetments at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Blast pens at Wikimedia CommonsRevetment (aircraft) – USAF F-4D Phantom II fighters in their revetments at Ubon Royal Thai Air Force Base, Thailand, circa 1967
79. Underground hangar – An underground hangar is a type of hangar for military aircraft, usually dug into the side of a mountain for protection. It is bigger and more protected than a hardened aircraft shelter, countries that have used underground hangars include Albania, China, India, Pakistan, Italy, North Korea, Norway, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Vietnam and Yugoslavia. The Indian Air Force operates underground hangars, sukhoi Su-30 MKI have been stationed at Trishul Air-base situated in Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India. It houses one of the largest underground hangars in Asia, hindon, situated in Uttar Pradesh, a 5 minutes flight from Delhi is the 8th largest in the world, with one of the most complex and massive underground hangars and facilities. It is the base for C-130J, C-17 Globemaster and Mi-17. Adampur, situated in Punjab, houses an air-base with underground hangars and it is the home base for MiG-29s. Pakistan has a hangar facility for the Pakistan Air Force at PAF Base Mushaf, Sargodha. In 1941 the Swedish Air Force began building its first underground hangar at F9 Säve, located near Gothenburg in south-west Sweden, after World War II plans were made up for building underground hangars at every air force base that had suitable rock conditions. These ambitious building plans proved to be too expensive and were reduced to hangars at certain selected air bases, a second underground hangar was built in 1947 at F18 Tullinge which began operating in 1950. After that plans were finalized for building underground hangars capable of surviving close hits by tactical nuclear weapons and this required that these new hangars be much deeper, with 25 to 30 meters of rock cover, and heavy-duty blast doors in concrete. The Saab 37 Viggen aircraft was designed with a tail fin to fit into low hangars. The Aeroseum an aircraft museum open to the public in Gothenburg is housed in the cold war era Underground Hangar at Säve. Six Flugzeugkaverne, each with space for 30 or more aircraft, were constructed for the Swiss Air Force, one is used to operate F/A-18 Hornet aircraft. During the Gulf War, USAF and Saudi Air Force utilized underground hangars with good desert camouflage, South Africa has an underground hangar facility for the South African Air Force at Air Force Base Hoedspruit. The only Taiwanese airbase with underground hangars is Jiashan Airbase, located in Hualien on the east coast of Taiwan, Underground hangars in Jiashan Airbase have deployed F-16 A/B and F-5 E-F squadrons. The largest underground complex in former Yugoslavia was at Željava Airport near Bihać. Slatina Air Base, located at Pristina International Airport, contained the second largest, armeeschulfilm über die Schweizer Flugzeugkaverne Underground Hangars to Protect War Planes Popular Mechanics, September 1937 Highway stripUnderground hangar – A Mirage III RS in front of an aircraft cavern in Buochs airfield, Switzerland
80. Hill fort – A hillfort or hill fort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. They are typically European and of the Bronze and Iron Ages, some were used in the post-Roman period. The fortification usually follows the contours of a hill, consisting of one or more lines of earthworks, with stockades or defensive walls, and external ditches. Hill forts developed in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age, roughly the start of the first millennium BC, the terms hill fort, hill-fort and hillfort are all used in the archaeological literature. They all refer to a site with one or more ramparts made of earth, stone and/or wood. Many small early hill forts were abandoned, with the ones being redeveloped at a later date. Similar but smaller and less defendable earthworks are found on the sides of hills and these are known as hill-slope enclosures and may have been animal pens. It has been estimated that in about 5000 BC during the Neolithic between 2 million and 5 million lived in Europe, in the Late Iron Age it had an population of around 15 to 30 million. Outside Greece and Italy, which were densely populated, the vast majority of settlements in the Iron Age were small. Hill forts were the exception, and were the home of up to 1,000 people, with the emergence of oppida in the Late Iron Age, settlements could reach as large as 10,000 inhabitants. As the population increased so did the complexity of prehistoric societies, around 1100 BC hill forts emerged and in the following centuries spread through Europe. They served a range of purposes and were variously tribal centres, defended places, foci of ritual activity, during the Hallstatt C period, hill forts became the dominant settlement type in the west of Hungary. Julius Caesar described the large late Iron Age hill forts he encountered during his campaigns in Gaul as oppida, by this time the larger ones had become more like cities than fortresses and many were assimilated as Roman towns. Hill forts were occupied by conquering armies, but on other occasions the forts were destroyed, the local people forcibly evicted. For example, Solsbury Hill was sacked and deserted during the Belgic invasions of southern Britain in the 1st century BC. Excavations at hill forts in the first half of the 20th century focussed on the defenses, the exception to this trend began in the 1930s with a series of excavations undertaken by Mortimer Wheeler at Maiden Castle, Dorset. From 1960 onwards, archaeologists shifted their attention to the interior of hill forts, currently, post-processual archaeologists regard hill forts as symbols of wealth and power. Michael Avery has stated the view of hill forts by sayingHill fort – Maiden Castle in England is one of the largest hill forts in Europe. Photograph taken in 1935 by Major George Allen (1891–1940).
81. Lowland castle – The term lowland castle or plains castle describes a type of castle based that is situated on a lowland, plain or valley floor, as opposed to one built on higher ground such as a hill spur. The classification is used in Germany where about 34 percent of all castles are of the lowland type. Where such natural obstacles do not exist, artificially similar obstacles take on added significance and these include water-filled or dry moats, ramparts, palisades and curtain walls. In order to increase the height of the castle above the terrain, artificial earth mounds may be built. Castles of the Early Middle Ages often had a narrow, deep ditch and high, lowland castles are naturally found on plains such as the North German Plain or in the Netherlands. But they may also be encountered occasionally in highlands, for example in a valley as an island castle on an island in a river. Water castle, Overarching term for all types that use water as a defensive obstacle. Depending on their topographic situation these castles may be subdivided into, River castles, as a rule, they are also surrounded by moats filled with water supplied by the river. Shore castle, castle by a lake or the sea, like river castles, shore castles usually have artificial ditches with a link to the waterbody. Island castle, castle on a natural, more rarely on an artificial, marsh castle, castle in marshy or boggy terrain. It uses the natural inaccessibility of the terrain to its defensive advantage, valley castle, Castle on a valley bottom. An example are the Castles of Bellinzona, sub-types according to function, Bridge castle, a castle built to watch over and protect a river crossing. Harbour castle, a castle that is built to protect a harbour, wörterbuch der Burgen, Schlösser und Festungen. Reclam, Stuttgart, p.156, ISBN 3-15-010547-1 Krahe, Burgen und Wohntürme des deutschen Mittelalters. Vol.1, Thorbecke, Stuttgart,2002, pp. 21–23, ISBN 3-7995-0104-5Lowland castle – Trakai Castle (Lithuania), an island castle
82. Marsh castle – A marsh or marshland castle is a type of lowland castle that is situated in marshy or boggy countryside. It uses the natural inaccessibility of the terrain to its defensive advantage, examples of well-known marsh castles in Germany include, Weferlingen Castle, a ruined castle in Oebisfelde-Weferlingen in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. Oebisfelde Castle, the oldest surviving marsh castle in Germany, also situated in Oebisfelde-Weferlingen in Saxony-Anhalt, Storkow Castle, in Storkow the state of Brandenburg. Calvörde Castle, in Calvörde in the state of Saxony-AnhaltMarsh castle – Calvörde Castle, a marsh castle, depicted around 1600
83. Ridge castle – A ridge castle is a medieval fortification built on a ridge or the crest of mountain or hill chain. Ridge castles were not a type of fortification. While castles of this type were relatively protected, they had the disadvantage that they could be attacked from two sides. The similar spur castle, located at the end of a ridge, is protected by drop offs on three sides, for mutual protection, several such castles could be built within sight of one another. Château de Montségur in France was used by the Cathars and lies on the spur of a mountainRidge castle – Burghausen Castle
84. Kaiserpfalz – The term was also used more rarely for a bishop who, as a territorial lord, had to provide the king and his entourage with board and lodging, a duty referred to as Gastungspflicht. Kaiserpfalz is a German word that is a combination of Kaiser, meaning emperor, which is derived from caesar, and Pfalz, meaning palace, likewise Königspfalz is a combination of König, king, and Pfalz, meaning royal palace. This was so-called itinerant kingship, a sort of travelling kingdom, because pfalzen were built and used by the king as a ruler within the Holy Roman Empire, the correct historical term is Königspfalz or royal palace. The term Kaiserpfalz is a 19th-century appellation that overlooks the fact that the king did not bear the title of the Roman Emperor until after his imperial coronation. Moreover, they were not always grand palaces in the sense, some were small castles or fortified hunting lodges. In Latin, such a royal manor was known as a villa regia or curtis regia and they were located either near the bishops residences, near important abbeys, near towns the king held or in the countryside in the middle of royal estates. Pfalzen were generally built at intervals of 30 kilometres, which represented a journey by horse at that time. At a minimum, a pfalz consisted of a palas with its Great Hall or Aula Regia, an imperial chapel and it was here that kings and emperors carried out the business of state, held their imperial court sessions and celebrated important church festivals. Each was administered by a count palatine, who executed jurisdiction in the emperors stead, one of the most important of them would eventually rise to the title of Prince-elector. The pfalzen that the rulers visited varied depending on their function, especially important were those palaces in which the kings spent the winter, and the festival palaces, Easter being the most important and celebrated at Easter palaces. The larger palaces were often in towns that had special rights, in the Hohenstaufen era of the Roman-German kingdom, important imperial princes began to demonstrate their claims to power by building their own pfalzen. Important examples of these include Henry the Lions Dankwarderode Castle in Brunswick, both buildings followed the basic design of Hohenstaufen pfalzen and also had the same dimensions. Examples of surviving imperial palaces may be found in the town of Goslar, palace Palas Imperial castle Adolf Eggers, Der königliche Grundbesitz im 10. Jahrhundert, Veröffentlicht von H. Darmstadt,1996, ISBN 3-534-12548-7, alexander Thon, Barbarossaburg, Kaiserpfalz, Königspfalz oder Casimirschloss. Studien zu Relevanz und Gültigkeit des Begriffes „Pfalz“ im Hochmittelalter anhand des Beispiels Lautern, in, Kaiserslauterer Jahrbuch für pfälzische Geschichte und Volkskunde. Kaiserslautern,1.2001, ISSN 1619-7283, pp. 109–144, alexander Thon. ut nostrum regale palatium infra civitatem vel in burgo eorum non hedificent. Studies of relevance and validity to do with the term Pfalz for the research of castles of the 12th and 13th centuries in, pub. by the Wartburg-Gesellschaft for the research of castles and palaces in Verb. with the Germanic National Museum. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich,2002, ISBN 3-422-06361-7, pp. 45–72Kaiserpfalz – Imperial Palace of Goslar