Chung Ching Yee

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Not to be confused with Chung Ching.

Joe Boys (also Chung Ching Yee, traditional Chinese: 忠精義; simplified Chinese: 忠精义; pinyin: Zhōngjīngyì; Jyutping: Zung1 Zing1 Ji6) was a Chinese American youth gang founded in the 1960s in San Francisco's Chinatown. Joe Boys was originally known as "Joe Fong Boys", after its founder Joe Fong. Fong was a former member of Wah Ching. Most of their members were born in Hong Kong or were of Hong Kongese descent.[1]

Author Bill Lee, a former Joe Boys gang member, wrote extensively of his life's involvement in the Chinese criminal underworld, and the gang's history in his book Chinese Playground: A Memoir. Joe Boys gained further notoriety after the Golden Dragon massacre which stemmed over the sale of fire crackers in Chinatown. The massacre left 5 people dead, and 11 others injured, none of whom were gang members. The perpetrators were convicted and sentenced to prison.[2][3]

Since the Golden Dragon Massacre, the Chung Ching Yee has disbanded due to pressure from the San Francisco Police "Gang Task Force" in the San Francisco Chinatown area.


  1. ^ Make First Arrest in Golden Dragon Massacre of 1977, UPI, March 24, 1978.
  2. ^ Mullen, Kevin J. "The Golden Dragon Restaurant Massacre". 
  3. ^ "People v. Szeto , 29 Cal.3d 20". Supreme Court of California. February 11, 1981.