Justin Welby

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The Most Reverend and Right Honourable
Justin Welby
Archbishop of Canterbury
Primate of All England
Mobilising Faith Communities in Ending Sexual Violence in Conflict (15862086073).jpg
Welby in 2015
Church Church of England
Province Province of Canterbury
Diocese Diocese of Canterbury
(delegated to the Bishop of Dover)
Elected 4 February 2013
Installed 21 March 2013
Predecessor Rowan Williams
Orders
Ordination 1992 (deacon)
1993 (priest)
Consecration 28 October 2011
by John Sentamu
Personal details
Birth name Justin Portal Welby
Born (1956-01-06) 6 January 1956 (age 61)
London, England
Nationality British
Denomination Church of England
Residence Lambeth Palace, London
The Old Palace, Canterbury
Spouse Caroline (née Eaton)
Children 6 (one deceased[1])
Previous post Bishop of Durham (2011–2013)
Education St Peter's School, Seaford
Eton College
Alma mater Trinity College, Cambridge
St John's College, Durham
Coat of arms {{{coat_of_arms_alt}}}
Member of the House of Lords
Lord Spiritual
Assumed office
12 January 2012

Justin Portal Welby (born 6 January 1956[2]) is the 105th Archbishop of Canterbury and the most senior bishop in the Church of England. Welby was the vicar of Southam, Warwickshire,[3] and most recently was the Bishop of Durham, serving for just over a year.[4] As Archbishop of Canterbury he is the Primate of All England and the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion.

Welby's early career was in the oil industry. In 1989, he studied for ordination at St John's College, Durham. After several parochial appointments he became the Dean of Liverpool in 2007 and the Bishop of Durham in 2011.

Welby's theology is reported as representing the evangelical tradition within Anglicanism.[5] Having worked in business before his ordination, some of his publications explore the relationship between finance and religion and, as a member of the House of Lords, he sits on the panel of the 2012 Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards.

Early life and education[edit]

Justin Portal Welby was born in London, England, on 6 January 1956,[2] almost exactly nine months after the marriage of his mother Jane Gillian Portal (born 1929) to Gavin Bramhall James Welby (1910–1977).[7] Jane had served as a personal secretary to Sir Winston Churchill from December 1949 until her marriage to Gavin Welby in April 1955, very soon after she had a short relationship with the private secretary to Churchill, Sir Anthony Montague Browne (1923–2013).[8]

Gavin Welby, born Bernard Gavin Weiler in Ruislip, West London,[9][10][11] was the son of Bernard Weiler, a German-Jewish immigrant and importer of luxury items who changed the family name to Welby shortly after the First World War broke out.[10][12][13][14] Welby describes his early childhood as "messy": Gavin and Jane Welby were both alcoholics. They divorced in 1959, when he was three years old,[15] and he was placed in Gavin Welby's custody. In 1960 Gavin Welby was engaged to the actress Vanessa Redgrave, who called the engagement off after her mother Lady Redgrave wrote to her father, Sir Michael Redgrave, that Gavin Welby was "a real horror ... a pretty rotten piece of work".[16] Gavin Welby died in 1977 of alcohol-related causes.[15]

Welby's mother stopped drinking in 1968, and in 1975 married Charles Williams, a business executive and first-class cricketer who was made a life peer in 1985. Williams was the nephew of Elizabeth Laura Gurney, a member of the Gurney family of Norwich who were prominent Quakers and social reformers. Welby describes his stepfather as being supportive of him.

Paternity testing in 2016 showed that Welby's biological father was not Gavin Welby but Anthony Montague Browne.[7] Welby said he was not disturbed by this discovery but did admit that it had come as "a complete surprise", adding: "I know that I find who I am in Jesus Christ, not in genetics, and my identity in him never changes."[17]

Welby's maternal family[edit]

Welby's mother Jane Portal was the daughter of Iris Butler (1905–2002), a journalist and historian whose brother R. A. "Rab" Butler, Lord Butler of Saffron Walden, was a Conservative politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer, Home Secretary, Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Secretary. Their father was Sir Montagu Butler, Governor of the Central Provinces of British India and Master of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Sir Montagu Butler was the grandson of George Butler, headmaster of Harrow School and Dean of Peterborough; the nephew of educator George Butler (husband of social reformer Josephine Butler) and Henry Montagu Butler, headmaster of Harrow School, Dean of Gloucester and Master of Trinity College, Cambridge; and the grand-nephew of John Colenso, the first Bishop of Natal.

Jane Portal's father was Gervas Portal, a half-brother of the World War II Chief of the Air Staff, Charles Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford.[18] Gervas Portal's mother Rose Leslie Portal née Napier was the granddaughter of General Sir William Napier and his wife Caroline Amelia Fox. General Napier and his brothers, Generals Sir Charles James Napier and Sir George Thomas Napier (respectively Commanders-in-Chief of the British Armies in India and in the Cape Colony), were sons of George Napier (a sixth-generation descendant, via the Lords Napier, of John Napier, the inventor of logarithms) and his second wife Lady Sarah Lennox. Caroline Amelia Fox was the daughter of General Henry Edward Fox, younger brother of prominent Whig politician Charles James Fox; they were the sons of politician Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland and his wife Lady Caroline Lennox. Lady Caroline Lennox and Lady Sarah Lennox were two of the five famous Lennox sisters, daughters of the 2nd Duke of Richmond, son of the 1st Duke of Richmond, illegitimate son of King Charles II and his mistress Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth.[19]

Education[edit]

Chapel of Eton College

Welby was educated at St Peter's School, Seaford; Eton College; and Trinity College, Cambridge, where his great-uncle, Lord Butler of Saffron Walden, was then master. He graduated in 1978 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in history and law; as per tradition he was later promoted to a Master of Arts by seniority.[20]

In a 12 July 2013 interview with The Daily Telegraph, Welby related his conversion experience when he was a student in Trinity College. He said that, while he was at Eton, he had “vaguely assumed there was a God. But I didn’t believe. I wasn’t interested at all.” But during the evening of 12 October 1975 in Cambridge, praying with a Christian friend, Welby said that he suddenly felt “a clear sense of something changing, the presence of something that had not been there before in my life. He said to his friend, “Please don’t tell anyone about this.” Welby said that he was desperately embarrassed that this had happened to him.[21]

Business career[edit]

Welby worked for 11 years in the oil industry, five of them for the French oil company Elf Aquitaine based in Paris. In 1984 he became treasurer of the oil exploration group Enterprise Oil PLC in London, where he was mainly concerned with West African and North Sea oil projects. He retired from his executive position in 1989 and said that he sensed a calling from God to be ordained.[22]

During his oil industry career, Welby became a congregation member at the evangelical Anglican church of Holy Trinity in Brompton, London.[1]

In July 2013, following the report of the Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards Commission, Welby explained that senior bank executives avoided being given information about difficult issues to allow them to "plead ignorance".[23] He also said he would possibly have behaved in the same way and warned against punishing by naming and shaming individual bankers which he compared to the behaviour of a lynch mob.[23]

Ministry[edit]

Welby was at first rejected for ordination by John Hughes, the Bishop of Kensington, who told him: "There is no place for you in the Church of England."[24] Welby was subsequently accepted for ordination, with the support of the Vicar of Holy Trinity Brompton, Sandy Millar.

From 1989 to 1992, Welby studied theology and trained for the priesthood at Cranmer Hall and St John's College, Durham, where he was awarded a BA degree and DipMin in 1992. He was ordained Deacon in 1992 and Priest in 1993. [25] He then became a curate at Chilvers Coton and St Mary the Virgin, Astley (Nuneaton) from 1992 to 1995. He then became rector of St James' Church, Southam, and later vicar of St Michael and All Angels, Ufton, Diocese of Coventry, from 1995 to 2002.[26]

In 2002, Welby was appointed a canon residentiary of Coventry Cathedral and the co-director for international ministry at the International Centre for Reconciliation. In 2005, he was appointed sub-dean and Canon for Reconciliation Ministry.

Welby was appointed Dean of Liverpool in December 2007 and was installed there on 8 December 2007.[27]

Welby has written widely on ethics and on finance, featuring in books such as Managing the Church?: Order and Organisation in a Secular Age and Explorations in Financial Ethics. Welby's dissertation, an exploration into whether companies can sin, marks his point that the structure of a system can "make it easier to make the right choice or the wrong choice."[28] His dissertation led to the publication of a booklet entitled Can Companies Sin?: "Whether", "How" and "Who" in Company Accountability, which was published by Grove Books in 1992.[29] He has said that the Benedictine and Franciscan orders in the Anglican churches, along with Catholic social teaching, have influenced his spiritual formation.[30]

Interviewed by the BBC in 2011, Welby said that to be appointed Bishop of Durham was both challenging and a huge privilege: "I was astonished to be offered the role. It is a passionate desire to see a church that is vigorously full of spiritual life, serving Jesus Christ and serving those around it."[31] His election was confirmed at York Minster on 29 September 2011 and he left Liverpool Cathedral on 2 October. He was consecrated as a bishop at York Minster on 28 October 2011[32] and was enthroned as Bishop of Durham in Durham Cathedral on 26 November 2011. He was introduced to the House of Lords on 12 January 2012,[33][34] where he sits on the Lords Spiritual bench.[35] He gave his maiden speech on 16 May 2012.[36] He was asked to join the Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards in 2012.

Archbishop of Canterbury[edit]

Welby and Paul Kim, Primate of the Province of Korea, at Seoul Cathedral in 2013

Welby emerged as a candidate to be the next Archbishop of Canterbury; on 6 November 2012 the bookmakers Betvictor, Ladbrokes and William Hill suspended betting on his being appointed.[37] On 9 November 2012 Welby's appointment to the position was announced. In January 2013, Welby said that he had regarded it as "a joke" and "perfectly absurd" for him to be appointed Archbishop of Canterbury, because he had only been a bishop for a short time.[38] His confirmation of election ceremony to the See of Canterbury took place at St Paul's Cathedral on 4 February 2013;[3] on the following day it was announced that Welby would be appointed to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, as all archbishops are;[39] the order for his appointment was made on 12 February[40] and he swore the oath on 13 March.[41]

Welby was enthroned as the Archbishop of Canterbury at Canterbury Cathedral on 21 March 2013,[42] which in the calendar[43] of the Anglican churches is an observance of Thomas Cranmer.

Welby's schedule included an official visit to the Vatican on 14 June 2013, with visits to senior Curial officials, including Cardinal Kurt Koch, President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, an official audience with Pope Francis and prayer at the tombs of Saint Peter and Pope John Paul II.[44]

Religion

In a 12 July 2013 interview with The Daily Telegraph, Welby addressed questions about his religion. His answers included the following:[21]

  • Asked whether he can speak "in tongues", Welby answered, "Oh yes, it’s just a routine part of spiritual discipline – you choose to speak and you speak a language that you don’t know. It just comes."
  • Asked whether it is necessary "for a true Christian to have had a personal conversion experience", Welby answered, "Absolutely not. There is an incredible range of ways in which the Spirit works. It doesn’t matter how you get there. It really does quite matter where you are."
  • Asked about "his strange and lonely youth", Welby said that "at the time, it felt horrible. Now it feels hugely valuable. God doesn’t waste stuff." The interviewer asked Welby whether his family history had "wounded" him. After "a very long" pause, Welby answered, "I assume that I am, but I also assume that the grace of God is extraordinarily powerful in the healing of one’s wounds."
  • Asked whether he knows Jesus, Welby answered, "Yes. I do. He's both someone one knows and someone one scarcely knows at all, an utterly intimate friend and yet with indescribable majesty."
  • Regarding his religious practices, Welby called himself "a spiritual magpie". The interviewer commented about Welby, "as well as speaking in tongues, he adores the sacrament of the Eucharist. He also says the morning and evening office, Book of Common Prayer version, in the chapel of the palace, every day. For Welby, 'the routine of regular prayer is immensely important in overcoming the ups and downs of human moods.' For his spiritual discipline, Welby uses Catholic models – the contemplation and stability of Benedictines and the rigorous self-examination of St Ignatius. He also has a spiritual director, Fr Nicolas Buttet, a Roman Catholic priest.
  • The interviewer said that the church "is good at talking, but not at actually doing things to improve the social order." Welby retorted, "Rubbish! It is one of the most powerful forces of social cohesion. Did you know that each month all the Churches – roughly half of the numbers being Anglican – contribute 23 million hours of voluntary work, outside what they do in church? And it's growing. There are now between 1,200 and 2,000 food banks in which the Church is involved. Ten years ago, there were none. There are vicars living in every impoverished area in the country. This springs out of genuine spirituality. We’re not just Rotary with a pointy roof."[45]

Welby apologised unreservedly after allegations that barrister and evangelical Christian John Smyth beat boys in the late 1970s, mainly pupils at Winchester College, until their wounds bleed and left permanent scars. Smyth then headed the Christian charity, the Iwerne Trust. These allegations were suppressed for decades, although Smyth was asked to leave the UK.[46]

Views[edit]

Islam[edit]

In July 2014, Welby acknowledged that there was a problem with young Muslim youths travelling to the Syrian Civil War and elsewhere to wage jihad but the numbers were “extraordinarily small”, and so he scoffed at concerns over the potential for trouble as "hysterical... I think we’re in danger of slipping into a very fearful culture".[47] In 2015, he offered his support for British air strikes against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) in Syria.[48] Welby believes that the problem of Islamic extremism is far deeper than combating Islamic jihadists such as ISIS and Al-Qaeda; and that the Gulf monarchies and Saudi Arabia need to be challenged as their "own promotion of a particular brand of Islamic theology has provided a source from which ISIL have drawn a false legitimization."[48] In November 2016 in an interview with the Daily Telegraph, Welby stated that claiming that the actions of ISIS are "nothing to do with Islam" was damaging efforts to combat extremism. Welby stipulated that it was essential to understand the religious motivation behind extremism in order to understand it and also criticized the argument that claims that "Christian militia in the Central African Republic are nothing to do with Christianity, or Hindu nationalist persecution of Christians in South India is nothing to do with Hinduism."[49]

Refugees[edit]

Welby disagrees with restrictions on child refugees being admitted to the UK. Welby fears children are now vulnerable to exploitation and even death.[50] Welby stated:

Welby hoped the government would reconsider its decision to stop letting child refugees in. He was dismayed that only 350 children were brought in despite about 3,000 being expected.[51]

Ordination of women as bishops[edit]

Welby has been a strong supporter of Anglican consecration of women as bishops.[52] In November 2013, Welby stated he aimed to ordain women as bishops while allowing space for those who disagree.

In February 2014, Welby called on Anglicans to avoid fear, prejudice and suspicion and to grasp "cultural change in the life of the church":

Welby would like discipline applied over appointments to prevent opponents of women as bishops feeling alienated. Welby hopes to avoid a zero sum game where people feel gain for one side inevitably means loss for the other, he sees need for caution, co-operation and unity.[55]

Slightly revised legislation to allow women to be ordained Bishops in the Church of England was agreed in July 2014 and became law in November 2014.[56]

Fuel suppliers[edit]

Welby feels rises in energy prices in the UK appear "inexplicable".[57] He also feels that energy companies have a responsibility towards customers and should take account of this rather than only maximising their own opportunities.

Welby is concerned about Fuel poverty which he feels is serious as energy costs have risen while incomes remain static or decline.

Poverty[edit]

Referring to poverty in the UK in March 2013, Welby criticised UK government changes which cap benefits below inflation.

In a speech at Christmas 2013 Welby said:

In a speech at Easter 2013 Welby said:

Referring to poverty in the UK and generally Welby said that "we should all share concern for the poor and the marginalised, should work to build communities where people act responsibly towards one another, whether we are rich or poor we all have the same dignity. William Beveridge, R. H. Tawney and William Temple played a significant part in establishing the post-war welfare state in the United Kingdom and were committed Christians. We do not have the luxury of saying, 'Something must be done' without doing anything ourselves."[citation needed]

Welby has said that justice of the powerful is not justice at all and judges should decide issues based on truth and the common good rather than class and money.[65] Welby quoted Nelson Mandela that "dealing with poverty was a matter of justice rather than charity." Welby felt that speaking out about poverty, fuel bills, financial insecurity affecting families and Credit unions is part of the Christian duty to love ones neighbour.[66][67]

Welby hopes that people will resolve to help deal with poverty in their own neighbourhoods. In a BBC television broadcast he said, "I want to suggest this year that each of us makes a resolution to try and change the world a bit where we are."[68]

High-interest lending[edit]

In July 2013, Welby spoke out against the payday lending sites and met with Errol Damelin, chief executive of Wonga. Welby pledged that the Church of England would support credit unions as society needs to "provide an alternative" to the "very, very costly forms of finance" that payday lending services represent. He noted that he did not want to make legal payday lending illegal as this would leave people with no alternative to using criminal loan sharks.[69]

Shortly after this well-publicised intervention in the public debate, it emerged that the Church of England's pension fund had invested money in Accel Partners, a venture capital firm that had invested in Wonga. This led to accusations of hypocrisy and Welby noted that the investment was "very embarrassing" for the church.[71] Welby and the Church's Ethical Investment Advisory Group were unaware of their investment in Wonga.

Welby also said that the Ethical Investment Advisory Group ought to reconsider rules which allow investment in companies that make up to 25% of their income from gambling, alcohol or high-interest lending.[69]

Food banks[edit]

Welby is concerned about increasing need for food banks which would have been "unthinkable" a decade ago. He called the plight of hungry poor people shocking because he did not expect that in the UK.[72]

Welby disagrees strongly with David Anthony Freud, Baron Freud, currently Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, because Welby believes the UK government cuts to benefits have caused or contributed to the surge in food banks. Welby cites Church of England investigation showing social services referred 35% of Durham residents who use food banks when benefits they were entitled to were not paid. Welby stated,

Before Christmas 2013, Welby urged people to give 10% of what they spend at Christmas to food banks.[75][76]

Modern slavery[edit]

Welby condemns modern slavery as a crime against humanity, he joined with Pope Francis and leaders of other faiths, Buddhist, Hindu, Jewish and Muslim, in a joint declaration they would work together aiming to end modern slavery by 2020. Forced labour and prostitution, human trafficking and organ trade were specifically mentioned but all relationships that do not respect human equality, freedom and dignity were condemned.[77]

Persecution of Christians[edit]

Welby is concerned that Christians are persecuted in some parts of the world, notably in the Middle East, and fears that some risk their lives going to church.[62] Welby also noted that Christians and other religious minorities were made to suffer terribly and were killed in Iraq, which violates article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. People should document human rights violation to enable future prosecutions and to destroy the culture where those responsible expect no adverse consequences. Welby noted that Christians and other minorities face persecution for their faith in many areas worldwide, he cited Syria, South Sudan and the Central African Republic among others. Welby urged the United Kingdom to open doors to refugees.[78]

Sexuality and same-sex marriage[edit]

In March 2013, Welby stated that "My understanding of sexual ethics has been that, regardless of whether it's gay or straight, sex outside marriage is wrong."[79][80] He reiterated this belief again later in 2013, further noting that "To abandon the ideal simply because it’s difficult to achieve is ridiculous.”[81]

Welby affirms the Church of England's opposition to same-sex marriage,[82] but at his first press conference spoke out strongly against homophobia and stated that he is "always averse to the language of exclusion, when what we are called to is to love in the same way as Jesus Christ loves us." He also said "I know I need to listen very attentively to the LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender) communities, and examine my own thinking prayerfully and carefully."[83] Prior to his enthronement he stated that he did not have doubts about the church's policy in opposing same-sex marriages but remained "challenged as to how we respond to it". "You see gay relationships that are just stunning in the quality of the relationship", he said, adding that he had "particular friends where I recognise that and am deeply challenged by it".[84]

Welby sees problems with special services of blessing for same-sex couples.

Personal life[edit]

Welby is married to Caroline (née Eaton) and they have had six children. In 1983, their seven-month-old daughter, Johanna, died in a car crash in France.[1] Referring to the tragedy, Welby explained, "It was a very dark time for my wife Caroline and myself, but in a strange way it actually brought us closer to God."[86] Welby established a special day for bereaved parents at Coventry Cathedral where there is now an annual service commemorating the lives of children who have died.[87]

Welby acknowledges his privileged education and upbringing and has been praised for sending his own children to local state schools.[88]

Welby is a French speaker and Francophile, having lived and worked in France.[87] An announcement about his appointment as Bishop of Durham listed his hobbies as "most things French and sailing".[87][89]

Styles[edit]

  • The Reverend Justin Welby (1992–2002)
  • The Reverend Canon Justin Welby (2002–2007)
  • The Very Reverend Justin Welby (2007–2011)
  • The Right Reverend Justin Welby (personal: 2011–2013)
  • The Right Reverend The Lord Bishop of Durham (office: 2011–2013)
  • The Most Reverend Justin Welby (personal: 4 – 12 February 2013)[40]
  • His Grace The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury (office: 4 February 2013 – present)
  • The Most Reverend and Right Honourable Justin Welby (personal: 12 February 2013 – present)

Arms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Mick Ord (8 November 2012). "Profile: Anglican Bishop of Durham Justin Welby". BBC News. Retrieved 8 November 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Canterbury, Archbishop of. ukwhoswho.com. Who's Who. 2015 (online Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc.  (subscription required)
  3. ^ a b "Justin Welby becomes Archbishop of Canterbury". BBC News. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  4. ^ "Diocese of Durham – New Bishop-Designate of Durham Announced". Durham Anglican. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  5. ^ "Justin Welby set to become new Archbishop of Canterbury". BBC News. 8 November 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2012. 
  6. ^ "Today - 26 July 2013". Today. 26 July 2013. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  7. ^ a b The Daily Telegraph, 9 April 2016, p. 1 and main headline.
  8. ^ "Justin Welby discovers biological father was Churchill's private secretary", The Guardian, 9 April 2016.
  9. ^ "Person Page 8009". The Peerage. Retrieved 7 November 2012. 
  10. ^ a b Lewis, Jason (25 November 2012). "The Archbishop's father, his secret wife, an affair with a Kennedy and defaming a Labour Cabinet Minister". The Daily Telegraph. London. 
  11. ^ "Justin Welby 'trying to bridge gay marriage split'". BBC News. 21 December 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  12. ^ Atherstone, Andrew (2013). Archbishop Justin Welby: The Road to Canterbury. London: Darton, Longman and Todd. pp. Chapter 1. ISBN 0232530343. Retrieved 3 July 2015. 
  13. ^ "Biography Justin Welby". Archbishop of Canterbury.org. 9 November 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2012. 
  14. ^ Lewis, Jason (2 December 2012). "Jews who fled the Nazis: secrets of Justin Welby's family tree". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  15. ^ a b Welby, Justin (8 April 2016). "Justin Welby on his secret father: 'What has changed? Nothing'". Telegraph. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  16. ^ Atherstone, Andrew (28 August 2016). "Archbishop Justin Welby: The Road to Canterbury". Retrieved 9 April 2016. 
  17. ^ Welby not disturbed by news about biological father
  18. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/04/08/winston-churchills-right-hand-man-and-an-affair-to-shake-the-est/
  19. ^ Google Forum on Welby's ancestry
  20. ^ "News & Press Release (2007), Coventry Cathedral". Archived from the original on 21 February 2008. Retrieved 18 April 2008. 
  21. ^ a b “Conversion and Wounded Past”
  22. ^ Colchester, Max (30 September 2012). "British Banks Face Heat From on High". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  23. ^ a b Peter Dominiczak (22 July 2013). "Archbishop of Canterbury warns of 'lynch mob' against bankers". Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 22 July 2013. 
  24. ^ Moreton, Cole (11 November 2012), "Archbishop of Canterbury: 'You have no future in the Church'", Sunday Telegraph (London)
  25. ^ “About Justin Welby” Accessed 3 May 2016.
  26. ^ Premier Christian Media. "Welcome Welby". Retrieved 2 December 2012. 
  27. ^ "The Queen approves new Dean". Number10.gov.uk. 2007. Archived from the original on 17 August 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  28. ^ Fraser, Giles (20 July 2012). "The Saturday interview: Justin Welby, Bishop of Durham". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  29. ^ http://www.webcitation.org/6DMotESNm
  30. ^ Bingham, John. New Archbishop Justin Welby pledges re-think on gay relationships. The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 November 2012. 
  31. ^ "New Bishop of Durham is announced". BBC News. 2 June 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 
  32. ^ "Consecrations of the Bishops of Durham and Penrith". Diocese of York. 28 October 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  33. ^ "Bishop Justin's Maiden Speech in the House of Lords". Diocese of Durham. 17 May 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2013. 
  34. ^ "Bishop of Durham Introduced To House of Lords". Aegies Associates. 12 January 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2013. 
  35. ^ "Biographies; The Lords: Justin Welby". UK Parliament. 3 June 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  36. ^ "House of Lords Maiden Speech: 16 May 2012" (PDF). Durham. Retrieved 7 November 2012. 
  37. ^ Milmo, Cahal (6 November 2012). "Bookmakers suspend betting on Bishop of Durham being named next Archbishop of Canterbury". The Independent. London. Retrieved 6 November 2012. 
  38. ^ Gledhill, Ruth (31 January 2013) "Welby: my application for Canterbury was a joke", The Times.
  39. ^ Number 10 – Privy Council appointment Accessed 5 February 2013
  40. ^ a b Orders in Council – 12 February 2013
  41. ^ Orders in Council – 13 March 2013
  42. ^ "Justin Welby is enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury". BBC. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  43. ^ Church of England calendar
  44. ^ [1]
  45. ^ "Conversion and Wounded Past"
  46. ^ "Archbishop of Canterbury sorry over charity abuse claims". BBC News. 2 February 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  47. ^ "Welby: let's not get 'hysterical' about Islamic radicalisation". The Daily Telegraph. London. 13 July 2014. .
  48. ^ a b "England's top cleric challenges Saudis and Qataris on theology". The Economist. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2015. 
  49. ^ Bingham, John (18 November 2016). "Justin Welby: It's time to stop saying Isil has 'nothing to do with Islam'". The Daily Telegraph. 
  50. ^ Child refugees at risk of being killed says Justin Welby BBC
  51. ^ Archbishop of Canterbury: ministers should reconsider child refugee decision The Guardian
  52. ^ Gundy, Trevor (9 November 2012). "Justin Welby named next archbishop of Canterbury". USA Today. Retrieved 10 November 2012. Welby's appointment is expected to seal a vote in favor of allowing women bishops at a special meeting of the Church of England's General Synod held in London later this month. 
  53. ^ Women bishops: Archbishop Justin's statement
  54. ^ Archbishop's Presidential Address to the General Synod
  55. ^ "Justin Welby to Anglicans: abandon old fears and welcome female bishops". The Guardian. London. 12 February 2014. .
  56. ^ Church of England Official Website
  57. ^ “Archbishop damns energy price hikes in controversial attack”Daily Mail, 19 October 2013
  58. ^ "Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby meets with energy bosses", The Independent 
  59. ^ "Justin Welby takes energy firms to task over rising prices", The Guardian, 20 October 2013 
  60. ^ "Benefits changes will push children into poverty, says archbishop of Canterbury". The Guardian. 10 March 2013. .
  61. ^ "Archbishop highlights plight of Britain's poor". Sky News. .
  62. ^ a b "Archbishop of Canterbury highlights 'injustices' in Christmas speech". BBC News. .
  63. ^ Jesus makes us carriers of light: Archbishop Justin's Christmas sermon .
  64. ^ "Archbishop's Easter sermon focuses on suffering". BBC News. .
  65. ^ "Archbishop Justin Welby's Speech at the Tackling Poverty Conference 2013". CUF. 18 November 2013. .
  66. ^ "Archbishop Welby says 'emulate Mandela' in 2014 message". BBC News. .
  67. ^ "Archbishop says emulate Mandela in 2014 message". theway.co.uk. .
  68. ^ "Archbishop of Canterbury says emulate Nelson Mandela in tackling poverty". The Guardian. 1 January 2014. .
  69. ^ a b "Wonga row: Archbishop of Canterbury 'embarrassed' over Church funds". News Online. BBC. 26 July 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  70. ^ "Payday loans: Archbishop's speech in the House of Lords". .
  71. ^ "Welby Defends Wonga After Church Link Emerges". Sky News. 26 July 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  72. ^ Archbishop Justin Welby urges help for UK hungry
  73. ^ "Anglican Church to investigate reasons for surge in food banks". The Independent. .
  74. ^ "Justin Welby: Food banks users 'aren't scroungers'". The Independent. .
  75. ^ "Archbishop of Canterbury: give 10% of Christmas spenting to food banks". Daily Mail. .
  76. ^ "Archbishop of Canterbury: give 10% of Christmas spenting to food banks". Find food banks. Dec 2013. .
  77. ^ Archbishop of Canterbury joins world faith leaders in pledge to end slavery
  78. ^ Statement from Archbishop Justin on Iraq
  79. ^ ""Whether it's gay or straight, sex outside marriage is wrong" Archbishop Justin Welby". Anglican mainstream. 17 March 2013. 
  80. ^ Doughty, Steve (17 March 2013). "'My wife keeps an eye on my drinking and I never do it alone': Archbishop of Canterbury reveals his fears of following father into alcoholism". Daily Mail. London. 
  81. ^ "Lunch with the FT: Justin Welby". The Financial Times. 10 May 2013. 
  82. ^ Blake, Daniel (8 November 2012). "Justin Welby to Be Named New Archbishop of Canterbury, Described as 'Unashamedly Evangelical'". The Christian Post. Retrieved 14 November 2012. Welby is known to support the biblical definition of marriage as between one man and one woman; he is against same sex marriage and is opposed to homosexuals serving as bishops. 
  83. ^ Bingham, John (9 November 2012). "New Archbishop Justin Welby pledges re-think on gay relationships". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 10 November 2012. The Bishop of Durham, Justin Welby, who was formally announced as successor to Dr Rowan Williams yesterday, insisted that he supported the Church of England's opposition to same-sex marriage. 
  84. ^ Walker, Peter (21 March 2013). "Archbishop of Canterbury admits to gay 'challenge' for church". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 March 2013. 
  85. ^ "Welcome same-sex couples or be damned as bigots, Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby tells Church of England", The Independent .
  86. ^ Neil McKay (3 June 2011). "New Bishop of Durham left oil industry after daughter's death". The Journal. Retrieved 8 November 2012. 
  87. ^ a b c Jayne Lutwyche and Karen Millington (9 November 2012). "The new Archbishop of Canterbury: 10 lesser-known things". BBC News. Retrieved 9 November 2012. 
  88. ^ Brown, Andrew; Davies, Lizzy (8 November 2012). "Justin Welby: an archbishop who could do the business". The Guardian. London. 
  89. ^ "New Bishop of Durham" (Press release). 10 Downing Street: Diocese of Durham. 2 June 2011. 

External links[edit]

Church of England titles
Preceded by
Rupert Hoare
Dean of Liverpool
2007–2011
Succeeded by
Pete Wilcox
Preceded by
N. T. Wright
Bishop of Durham
2011–2013
Succeeded by
Paul Butler
Preceded by
Rowan Williams
Archbishop of Canterbury
2013–present
Incumbent
Order of precedence in England and Wales
Preceded by
Prince Michael of Kent
Gentlemen
as Archbishop of Canterbury
Succeeded by
John Sentamu
as Archbishop of York