- "L'AMBROISIE". restaurant.michelin.fr. Michelin. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
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1. Paris – Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is also a rail, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, notably, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has also been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are also pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a townParis – In the 1860s Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, making it literally "The City of Light."
2. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the FranksFrance – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
3. Place des Vosges – The Place des Vosges, originally Place Royale, is the oldest planned square in Paris and one of the finest in the city. It is located in the Marais district, and it straddles the dividing-line between the 3rd and 4th arrondissements of Paris. It was a fashionable and expensive square to live in during the 17th and 18th centuries, originally known as the Place Royale, the Place des Vosges was built by Henri IV from 1605 to 1612. A true square, it embodied the first European program of city planning. It was built on the site of the Hôtel des Tournelles and its gardens, at a tournament at the Tournelles, catherine de Medicis had the Gothic complex demolished, and she moved to the Louvre Palace. The steeply-pitched blue slate roofs are pierced with discreet small-paned dormers above the dormers that stand upon the cornices. Only the north range was built with the ceilings that the galleries were meant to have. Two pavilions that rise higher than the unified roofline of the center the north and south faces. The Place des Vosges initiated subsequent developments of Paris that created an urban background for the French aristocracy. The square was often the place for the nobility to chat and this was so until the Revolution. Before the square was completed, Henri IV ordered the Place Dauphine to be laid out, Cardinal Richelieu had an equestrian bronze of Louis XIII erected in the center. In the late 18th century, while most of the nobility moved to the Faubourg Saint-Germain district and it was renamed in 1799 when the département of the Vosges became the first to pay taxes supporting a campaign of the Revolutionary army. The Restoration returned the old name, but the short-lived Second Republic restored the revolutionary one in 1848. Today the square is planted with a bosquet of mature lindens set in grass and gravel, residents of the Place des Vosges No. 1bis Madame de Sevigné was born here No,9, seat of l Académie darchitecture, currently also tenanted by Galerie Historisimus No.11 occupied from 1639-1648 by the courtesan Marion Delorme No.14. Its ceilings painted by Lebrun are reinstalled in the Musée Carnavalet, rabbi David Feuerwerker, Antoinette Feuerwerker and Atara Marmor No.15 Marguerite Louise dOrléans, wife of Cosimo III de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany. No.17 former residence of Bossuet No.21 Cardinal Richelieu from 1615 to 1627 No.23 post-impressionist painter Georges Dufrénoy No, archived from the original on 10 March 2010. Satellite image from Google Maps http, //www. letthemtalk. com/html/pariswalks/placedesvosges. html Place des Vosges audio tour dans le parcPlace des Vosges – Place des Vosges
4. Michelin Guide – Michelin Guides are a series of guide books published by the French company Michelin for more than a century. The acquisition or loss of a star can have effects on the success of a restaurant. Michelin also publishes a series of guides to countries. In 1900, fewer than 3,000 cars graced the roads of France, four years later, in 1904, the brothers published a guide to Belgium similar to the Michelin Guide. The brothers subsequently introduced guides for Algeria and Tunisia, the Alps and the Rhine, Germany, Spain, and Portugal, the British Isles, in 1909, the Michelin Guide for France saw its first English-language version published. During the First World War, publication of the guide was suspended, after the war, revised editions of the guide continued to be given away until 1920. The companys website recounts the story that André Michelin, visiting a tire merchant, based on the principle that man only truly respects what he pays for, the brothers decided to charge a price for the guide, which was about 750 francs or $2.15 in 1954. They also made changes, notably, listing restaurants by specific categories, the debut of hotel listings. In 1926, the guide began to award stars for fine dining establishments, initially, there was only a single star awarded. Then, in 1931, the hierarchy of zero, one, finally, In 1936, the criteria for the starred rankings were published, A very good restaurant in its category, Excellent cooking, worth a detour, Exceptional cuisine, worth a special journey. In 1931 the cover of the guide was changed from blue to red, publication of the annual guide resumed on 16 May 1945, a week after VE Day. The first Michelin Guide to Italy was published in 1956 and it awarded no stars in the first edition. In 1974, the first guide to Britain since 1931 was published, in November 2005 Michelin produced its first American guide, concentrating on New York, covering 500 restaurants in the citys five boroughs and 50 hotels. In 2007 a Tokyo Michelin Guide was launched, in the same year the guide introduced a magazine, Étoile. In 2008 a Hong Kong and Macau volume was added to the list of Michelin Guides, the Michelin website in 2013 notes that the guide is published in 14 editions covering 23 countries and sold in nearly 90 countries. In 2008 the German restaurateur Juliane Caspar was appointed editor-in-chief of the French edition of the guide and she had previously been responsible for the Michelin guides to Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. She became the first woman and first non-French national to occupy the French position, Red Guides have historically listed many more restaurants than rival guides have done, relying on an extensive system of symbols to describe each establishment in as little as two lines. Reviews of starred restaurants also include two to three culinary specialities, recently, short summaries have been added to enhance descriptions of many establishmentsMichelin Guide – Cover of a 2006 Michelin Guide
5. French cuisine – French cuisine consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France. In the 14th century Guillaume Tirel, a chef known as Taillevent, wrote Le Viandier. During that time, French cuisine was influenced by Italian cuisine. Cheese and wine are a part of the cuisine. They play different roles regionally and nationally, with many variations, gastro-tourism and the Guide Michelin helped to acquaint people with the rich bourgeois and peasant cuisine of the French countryside starting in the 20th century. Gascon cuisine has also had influence over the cuisine in the southwest of France. Many dishes that were once regional have proliferated in variations across the country, knowledge of French cooking has contributed significantly to Western cuisines. Its criteria are used widely in Western cookery school boards and culinary education, in November 2010, French gastronomy was added by the UNESCO to its lists of the worlds intangible cultural heritage. In French medieval cuisine, banquets were common among the aristocracy, multiple courses would be prepared, but served in a style called service en confusion, or all at once. Food was generally eaten by hand, meats being sliced off in large pieces held between the thumb and two fingers, the sauces were highly seasoned and thick, and heavily flavored mustards were used. Meals often ended with an issue de table, which changed into the modern dessert. The ingredients of the time varied according to the seasons and the church calendar, and many items were preserved with salt, spices, honey. Late spring, summer, and autumn afforded abundance, while winter meals were more sparse, livestock were slaughtered at the beginning of winter. Beef was often salted, while pork was salted and smoked, bacon and sausages would be smoked in the chimney, while the tongue and hams were brined and dried. Cucumbers were brined as well, while greens would be packed in jars with salt, fruits, nuts and root vegetables would be boiled in honey for preservation. Whale, dolphin and porpoise were considered fish, so during Lent, artificial freshwater ponds held carp, pike, tench, bream, eel, and other fish. Poultry was kept in yards, with pigeon and squab being reserved for the elite. Game was highly prized, but very rare, and included venison, wild boar, hare, rabbit, kitchen gardens provided herbs, including some, such as tansy, rue, pennyroyal, and hyssop, which are rarely used todayFrench cuisine – A nouvelle cuisine presentation
6. La Maison Troisgros – La Maison Troisgros is a Michelin Guide three-starred restaurant in Roanne, France north west of the city of Lyon. Head chef, Michel Troisgrois of the Troisgros family, runs the hotel/restaurant along with his wife Marie-Pierre, in 1930, Burgundy native Jean-Baptiste Troisgros moved to Roanne with his wife, Marie, and bought a small hotel. She did the cooking, he oversaw the house and this was the beginning of a 3-generation dynasty of gastronomy that has seen La Maison Troisgros celebrate more than 30 consecutive years with three Michelin stars. Marie and Jean-Baptiste had two famous sons, Jean and Pierre among the inventors of nouvelle cuisine. Michel Trosgros is one of two celebrated chef sons of Pierre, in this generation Michel is the cook and his wife Marie-Pierre looks after the house, the decor and the shop. Michels cuisine is noted both for its internationalism and its use of local ingredients and he is also known, as is the American chef Mario Batali, for his enthusiastic use of acidic notes in his dishes. Pierre Troisgros once noted that the restaurant used to be identified as being across the street from the train station, now people identify the station as across the street from La Maison Troisgros. This says something about both the fame of the hotel/restaurant and the relative quietude of the town of Roanne, the restaurant was voted 25th best in the world in Restaurant Top 502008. “Le Central” Restaurant, in Roanne, France In the 1990s, Michel Troisgros opens to Roanne Le Central, a traditional cooking. “Le Koumir” Restaurant, in Moscow, Russia In 2001, Michel Troisgros opens the restaurant Koumir in Moscow, in a mansion of 19th century, between the place Pouchkin Square and the Red Square. “La Table du Lancaster” Restaurant, in Paris, France In 2004, one year later, It is rewarded for a star by the “guide Michelin”. The restaurant is supervised by Cédric Gillot, in the opening among the clerks of cooking, César Troisgros, the rustic and warm decoration offers two gites for 4 persons and three houses of cadoles on piles with bras on the campaign. They are proposed in the rent for stays from night to three days, partnership with Groupe Casino In 2008 Michel Troisgros with the group Casino creates about ten ready-made meal by emphasizing the methods of fabrication and the selection of ingredients. This range in the black packaging now declines in freshproduct, deep-frozen and in grocers shopLa Maison Troisgros – Café - Epicerie Le Central in Roanne
7. Le Louis XV (restaurant) – Le Louis XV is a French restaurant in Monte Carlo, Monaco. Run by chef Alain Ducasse, it holds three Michelin stars and it has been featured in lists of the worlds top restaurants. Le Louis XV is the restaurant of chef Alain Ducasse. It is located inside the Hôtel de Paris Monte-Carlo, in Monte Carlo, Ducasse won the three stars for the restaurant 33 months later, some fifteen months earlier than his objective. The wine cellar contains around 400,000 bottles of wine, a number of food trolleys are used by the waiters, including for champagne, cheese and one holding herbs to make herbal teas at the tableside. Several chefs who went on to lead Michelin starred restaurants underwent training at Le Louis XV, including Alexis Gauthier, food critic Paolo Tullio described Le Louis XV as one of the great French restaurants. In 2003, The Guardian identified it as one of the top five restaurants in the world, howard Jacobson was sent to review it by the newspaper, who thought initially that the dishes served were droll but changed his mind when he tasted them. He enjoyed the ambiance of the place, and thought that the numbers of staff gave it an air of professionalism, fodors travel guide described Ducasses cuisine as superb, while also describing the interior of the restaurant as magnificent. Le Louis XV holds three Michelin stars and it was included in the first published list of the worlds 101 top restaurants by The Daily Meal in 2012. It had a significant drop in rankings in 2009, falling to 43rd place, the restaurant has been the recipient of the Wine Spectator Grand Award since 1995Le Louis XV (restaurant) – Le Louis XV
8. Le Meurice – Le Meurice is a 5-star hotel in the 1st arrondissement of Paris opposite the Tuileries Garden, between Place de la Concorde and the Musée du Louvre on the Rue de Rivoli. From the Rue de Rivoli, it stretches to the Rue du Mont Thabor, the hotel was founded in 1771 and opened 1815. It received palace distinction by the French government in 2011, Le Meurice is owned and operated by the Dorchester Collection, a luxury hotel operator based in London. The hotel has a staff of over 400 and houses 160 rooms decorated in the style of Louis XVI which start at $1,235 USD per night. In the mid-18th century, the French postmaster, Charles-Augustin Meurice, understood that English tourists wanted to be on the continent with the comforts, in 1771, Meurice opened a coach inn on Rue Edmond Roche in Calais, the Hôtel Meurice de Calais. In 1815, he opened the Hôtel Meurice in Paris, originally located at 223 Rue Saint-Honoré, the hotel advertised, For an English traveler, no hotel in Paris offers more benefits than Le Meurice. In 1835, Le Meurice moved from Rue Saint Honore to its current location on the Rue de Rivoli, in a new luxurious building, close to the Tuileries Palace. In the latter half of the 19th century, Henri-Joseph Scheurich was its proprietor and in 1865 he is documented as managing the hotel under the London and Paris Hotel Company. He is mentioned again in 1867, at time the hotel offered large and small apartments, or single bedrooms. In 1891, the hotel had electric lights, new plumbing, in the early 20th century, one of the shareholders of the new company was Arthur Millon, owner of Café de la Paix and restaurants Weber and Ledoyen. To compete with the Ritz, which opened in 1902, Millon turned to a great Swiss hotelier, under these two men, Le Meurice was enlarged by the addition of the Metropole Hotel, located on Rue de Castiglione. Then, with the exception of the façade, the hotel was rebuilt under the guidance of the architect Henri Paul Nénot, for interior decoration, especially for rooms on the ground floor, the Louis XVI style prevailed. The rooms were equipped with modern, tiled bathrooms, telephone, public rooms were relocated and reinforced concrete was added for privacy, and the elevator was a copy of the sedan chair used by Marie Antoinette. Between September 1940 and August 1944, the hotel was requisitioned by the German occupation authorities, in August 1944, the Meurice became the headquarters of General Dietrich von Choltitz, the military governor of Paris. Von Choltitz famously disobeyed Hitlers commands to level the city of Paris, Hitlers reported question screamed to von Choltitz over a Hotel Meurice telephone, Is Paris burning. Later served as the title of a book about the liberation of Paris. During its long existence, Le Meurice has experienced several major refurbishments, one from 1905 to 1907, each of these renovations included modernization and beautification of the hotel. Purchased for around US$100 million by the Aga Khan, the head of the Moslem Ismaili sectLe Meurice – Hôtel Meurice
9. Ledoyen – The Ledoyen is one of the oldest restaurants in Paris, situated in the square gardens in the eastern part of the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement. Its long history places it on the Champs-Élysées before the streets beautification, situated in a two-storey pavilion with gardens, Ledoyen is considered to be one of Paris best gourmet restaurants, and boasts three Michelin stars. Initially, it began in 1779 as a small inn named Au Dauphin. It was located near the Place Louis XV, near the Café des Ambassadeurs, at that time it was a country inn on the outskirts and cows grazed in the fields outside. On 4 August 1791, Pierre-Michel Ledoyen, a son of caterers, rented it, Ledoyen, a plongeur in his early years, renamed the restaurant after himself in 1814, and it was owned by the Desmazures for many years. In 1842, architect Jacques Hittorff, responsible for the development of the gardens of the Champs-Élysées, six years later, it was repaired and renovated following a fire. Today, the walls are owned by the city of Paris. Despite its prestige and its three Michelin Star status under Christian Le Squer since 2002, the restaurant is reportedly inexpensive and it is currently operated by Yannick Alleno, who in his first year achieved 3 Michelin Stars. The original building was 13 by 4 metres, with white walls, when the restaurant was relocated in 1784 it was to a two-storey pavilion with terraced gardens, designed in the Neoclassical style. Its features include many windows, ornate ceilings, and historic second floor rooms. Dining areas include outdoor seating, interior salons, and a 1950s style grill room, during the late 18th century, it was a haunt of Louis de Saint-Just and Maximilien Robespierre and they dined there on 26 July 1794, two days before their execution. A mid-19th-century account states that the restaurant was also the breakfast place of duellists, list of Michelin three starred restaurants Restaurant site French gourmet internet websiteLedoyen – Pavilion of the Ledoyen
10. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotationGeographic coordinate system – Longitude lines are perpendicular and latitude lines are parallel to the equator.