- "L'AMBROISIE". restaurant.michelin.fr. Michelin. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
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1. Paris – Paris is the capital and the most populous city of France. It has a population in 2013 of 2,229,621 within the administrative limits. The agglomeration has grown well beyond the city's administrative limits. The Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris has a population of 6.945 million persons. Paris was founded by a Celtic people called the Parisii, who gave the city its name. It retains that position still today. The city is also a major rail, highway, air-transport hub, served by the two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily. It is the second busiest system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Paris is surrounded by three orbital roads: the Périphérique, the A86 motorway, the Francilienne motorway. Most of France's major universities and écoles are located in Paris, as are France's major newspapers, including Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération. The rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros.Paris – In the 1860s Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, making it literally "The City of Light."
2. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country consisting of territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. Overseas France include several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France has a total population of 66.7 million. It is a semi-presidential republic with the capital in the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. France emerged as a major European power with its victory in the Hundred Years' War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would be the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europe's dominant political, military power under Louis XIV. In the 19th century Napoleon established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies typically retained close economic and military connections with France.France – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
3. Place des Vosges – The Place des Vosges, originally Place Royale, is the oldest planned square in Paris and one of the finest in the city. It straddles the dividing-line between the 3rd and 4th arrondissements of Paris. Originally known as the Place Royale, the Place des Vosges was built from 1605 to 1612. A true square, it embodied the first European program of royal city planning. She moved to the Louvre Palace. The blue slate roofs are pierced with discreet small-paned dormers above the pedimented dormers that stand upon the cornices. Only the range was built with the vaulted ceilings that the "galleries" were meant to have. The Place des Vosges initiated subsequent developments of Paris that created a urban background for the French aristocracy and nobility. The square served as a meeting place for them. This was so until the Revolution. Before the square was completed, Henri IV ordered the Place Dauphine to be laid out. Cardinal Richelieu had an bronze of Louis XIII erected in the center. It was renamed in 1799 when the département of the Vosges became the first to pay taxes supporting a campaign of the Revolutionary army. The short-lived Second Republic restored the revolutionary one in 1848. The square is planted with a bosquet of mature lindens set in grass and gravel, surrounded by clipped lindens.Place des Vosges – Place des Vosges
5. Michelin Guide – Michelin Guides are a series of guide books published by the French company Michelin for more than a century. The acquisition or loss of a star can have dramatic effects on the success of a restaurant. Michelin also publishes a series of general guides to countries. In 1900 the tyre manufacturers André Michelin and his brother Édouard published the first edition of a guide for French motorists. For the first edition of the Michelin Guide the brothers had nearly 35,000 copies printed. In 1904 the brothers published a similar guide to Belgium. In 1909, the first English-language version of the Michelin guide to France was published. During the First World War, publication of the guide was suspended. After the war, revised editions of the guide continued to be given away until 1920. The company's website recounts the story that André Michelin, visiting a tyre merchant, noticed copies of the guide being used to prop up a workbench. They also made several changes, notably: listing restaurants by specific categories; the debut of hotel listings; and the abandonment of advertisements in the guide. In 1926, the guide began to award stars for fine dining establishments. Initially, there was only a single star awarded. Then, in 1931, the hierarchy of three stars was introduced. In 1931 the cover of the guide was changed from blue to red, has remained so in all subsequent editions.Michelin Guide – Cover of a 2006 Michelin Guide
6. French cuisine – French cuisine consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France. In the 14th century a court chef known as "Taillevent", wrote Le Viandier, one of the earliest recipe collections of medieval France. During that time, French cuisine was heavily influenced by Italian cuisine. Wine are a major part of the cuisine. They play nationally, with many variations and appellation d'origine contrôlée laws. The Guide Michelin helped to acquaint people with the rich bourgeois and peasant cuisine of the French countryside starting in the 20th century. Knowledge of French cooking has contributed significantly to Western cuisines. Its criteria are used widely in culinary education. In November 2010, French gastronomy was added to its lists of the world's "intangible cultural heritage". In medieval cuisine, banquets were common among the aristocracy. Multiple courses would be served in a style called service en confusion, or all at once. Food was generally eaten by meats being sliced off in large pieces held between the thumb and two fingers. Heavily flavored mustards were used. Summer, autumn afforded abundance, while winter meals were more sparse. Livestock were slaughtered at the beginning of winter.French cuisine – A nouvelle cuisine presentation
7. La Maison Troisgros – La Maison Troisgros is a Michelin Guide three-starred restaurant in Roanne, France north west of the city of Lyon. Michel Troisgrois of the Troisgros family, runs the hotel/restaurant along with his wife Marie-Pierre. In 1930, Burgundy native Jean-Baptiste Troisgros bought a small hotel. She did the cooking, he oversaw the house. This was the beginning of a 3-generation dynasty of gastronomy that has seen La Maison Troisgros celebrate more than 30 consecutive years with three Michelin stars. Marie and Jean-Baptiste had two famous chef sons, Pierre among the inventors of nouvelle cuisine. Michel Trosgros is one of two celebrated chef sons of Pierre. His wife Marie-Pierre looks after the house, the decor and the shop. Michel's cuisine is noted both for its use of local ingredients. He is also known, as is the American chef Mario Batali, in his dishes. Pierre Troisgros once noted that the restaurant used to be identified as being from the train station. Now people identify the station across the street from La Maison Troisgros. This says something about the relative quietude of the town of Roanne. The restaurant was voted 25th best in the world in Restaurant Top 2008. "Le Central" Restaurant, In the 1990s Michel Troisgros opens to Roanne" Le Central", a traditional cooking.La Maison Troisgros – Café - Epicerie Le Central in Roanne
8. Le Louis XV (restaurant) – Le Louis XV is a French restaurant in Monte Carlo, Monaco. Run by chef Alain Ducasse, it holds three Michelin stars. It has been featured in lists of the world's top restaurants. Le Louis XV is the flagship restaurant of chef Alain Ducasse. It is located in Monte Carlo, Monaco. Ducasse won the three stars for the restaurant some fifteen months earlier than his objective. The cellar contains around 400,000 bottles of wine. A number of food trolleys are used including for champagne, cheese and one holding herbs to make herbal teas at the tableside. Several chefs who went on to lead Michelin starred restaurants underwent training including Alexis Gauthier and Clare Smyth. Food critic Paolo Tullio described Le Louis XV of the "great French restaurants". In 2003, The Guardian identified it in the world. He thought that the numbers of staff gave it an air of professionalism. Fodor's guide described Ducasse's cuisine as "superb", while also describing the interior of the restaurant as "magnificent". Le Louis XV holds three Michelin stars. It was included by The Daily Meal in 2012.Le Louis XV (restaurant) – Le Louis XV
9. Le Meurice – From the Rue de Rivoli, it stretches to the Rue du Mont Thabor. The hotel opened 1815. It received palace distinction in 2011. Le Meurice is operated by the Dorchester Collection, a luxury hotel operator based in London. The hotel has a staff of over 400 and 160 rooms decorated in the style of Louis XVI which start at $1,235 USD per night. In 1771, Meurice opened a coach inn in Calais, the Hôtel Meurice de Calais. In 1815, he opened the Hôtel Meurice in Paris, originally located at 223 Rue Saint Honore. The hotel advertised, "For an English traveler, no hotel in Paris offers more benefits than Le Meurice." In 1891, the hotel had electric lights, accommodated 200 guests; Scheurich was still the proprietor. To compete with the Ritz, which opened in 1902, Millon turned to Frédéric Schwenter. Under these two men, Le Meurice was enlarged by the addition of the Metropole Hotel, located on Rue de Castiglione. Especially for rooms on the ground floor, the Louis XVI style prevailed. The rooms were equipped with modern, tiled bathrooms, electric butler bells. The elevator was a copy of the sedan chair used by Marie Antoinette. Between August 1944, the hotel was requisitioned by the German occupation authorities.Le Meurice – Hôtel Meurice
12. Ledoyen – The Ledoyen is one of the oldest restaurants in Paris, situated in the square gardens in the eastern part of the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement. Its long history places it before the street's beautification. Situated in a two-storey pavilion with gardens, Ledoyen boasts three Michelin stars. Initially, it began as a very small inn named Au Dauphin. It was located near the Café des Ambassadeurs. Cows grazed in the fields outside. On 4 Pierre-Michel Ledoyen, a son of caterers, rented it and established it as a formal restaurant. It was owned by the Desmazures for many years. In 1842, architect Jacques Hittorff, responsible for the development of the gardens of the Champs-Élysées, transferred the restaurant to its present location. Six years later, it was renovated following a fire. The building walls are owned by the city of Paris. Despite its three Michelin Star status under Christian Le Squer since 2002, the restaurant is reportedly inexpensive and serves a varied clientele. The original building was 13 by 4 metres, with green shutters. When the restaurant was relocated in 1784 it was with terraced gardens designed in the Neoclassical style. Its features include many huge windows, historic second floor rooms.Ledoyen – Pavilion of the Ledoyen
13. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. Two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, elevation. To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a projection. Ptolemy credited him rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography measured latitude from the equator instead. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory as the zero-reference line. The Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911. The pole is 90 ° N; the south pole is 90 ° S. The 0 parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the fundamental plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The "longitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at south poles.Geographic coordinate system – Longitude lines are perpendicular and latitude lines are parallel to the equator.