Landscape with Philemon and Baucis
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- Hermann Bauer: El Barroco en los Países Bajos, en Los maestros de la pintura occidental, Taschen, 2005, p. 290, ISBN 3-8228-4744-5
1. Kunsthistorisches Museum – The Kunsthistorisches Museum is an art museum in Vienna, Austria. Housed in its festive palatial building on Ringstraße, it is crowned with an octagonal dome, the term Kunsthistorisches Museum applies to both the institution and the main building. It is the largest art museum in the country and it was opened around 1891 at the same time as the Naturhistorisches Museum, by Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary. The two museums have similar exteriors and face each other across Maria-Theresien-Platz, both buildings were built between 1871 and 1891 according to plans drawn up by Gottfried Semper and Karl Freiherr von Hasenauer. The two Ringstraße museums were commissioned by the Emperor in order to find a shelter for the Habsburgs formidable art collection. The façade was built of sandstone, the building is rectangular in shape, and topped with a dome that is 60 meters high. The inside of the building is decorated with marble, stucco ornamentations, gold-leaf. It was featured in an episode of Museum Secrets on the History Channel and it had been the biggest art theft in Austrian history. Treasure of Nagyszentmiklós Media related to Kunsthistorisches Museum at Wikimedia Commons Official website Spherical panorama of entrance Hofburgs Armory - photo gallery in FlickrKunsthistorisches Museum – Kunsthistorisches Museum
2. Vienna – Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austrias primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million, and its cultural, economic and it is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin, Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region, along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is also said to be The City of Dreams because it was home to the worlds first psycho-analyst – Sigmund Freud. The citys roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city and it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the worlds most liveable cities, between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne, Australia. Monocles 2015 Quality of Life Survey ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world to make a base within, the UN-Habitat has classified Vienna as being the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. Vienna regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the worlds number-one destination for international congresses and it attracts over 3.7 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the name or the French Vienne. The etymology of the name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning forest stream, which produced the Old High German Uuenia. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Slovak names of the city, the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different, probably Slavonic origin, and originally referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, evidence has been found of continuous habitation since 500 BC, when the site of Vienna on the Danube River was settled by the Celts. In 15 BC, the Romans fortified the city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the northVienna
3. Baucis and Philemon – Jupiter and Mercury came disguised as ordinary peasants, and began asking the people of the town for a place to sleep that night. They had been rejected by all, so wicked were the people of that land, though the couple were poor, their generosity far surpassed that of their rich neighbours, among whom the gods found “doors bolted and no word of kindness. After serving the two food and wine, Baucis noticed that, although she had refilled her guests beechwood cups many times. Realising that her guests were gods, she and her husband raised their hands in supplication and implored indulgence for their simple home and fare. Philemon thought of catching and killing the goose that guarded their house and making it into a meal, Jupiter said they need not slay the goose and that they should leave the town. This was because he was going to destroy the town and all those who had turned them away and he told Baucis and Philemon to climb the mountain with him and Mercury and not to turn back until they reached the top. After climbing to the summit, Baucis and Philemon looked back on their town and saw that it had destroyed by a flood. The couples wish to be guardians of the temple was granted and they also asked that when time came for one of them to die, that the other would die as well. Upon their death, the couple were changed into a pair of trees, one oak and one linden. The story of Baucis and Philemon does not appear elsewhere in Greek mythology nor in any cult, after Lot and his wife had feasted them, two strangers were revealed as two angels. Like the story of Baucis and Philemon, Lot and his family were told to flee to the mountains and not look back, before God destroyed the city that he was living in. In addition, Hebrews 13,2 reads Do not neglect to show hospitality to strangers, the possibility that unidentified strangers in need of hospitality were gods in disguise was ingrained in first century culture. Barnabas they called Zeus, and Paul they called Hermes, nathaniel Hawthorne repeated the story of Baucis and Philemon in The Miraculous Pitcher. Jean de la Fontaines poem follows Ovid closely, John Dryden translated Ovids poem in 1693 Jonathan Swift wrote a poem on the subject of Baucis and Philemon in 1709. Joseph Haydn wrote a marionette opera Philemon und Baucis, oder Jupiters Reise auf die Erde in 1773, Baucis and Philemon are characters in the fifth act of Goethes Faust II. Gogol wrote an ironic and bittersweet reworking of the legend in his 1835 novella The Old World Landowners, charles Gounod wrote his opéra comique Philémon et Baucis in 1860. One of the cities in Italo Calvinos Invisible Cities is named after Baucis, charles Fraziers novel, Cold Mountain, ends with a reading of this myth. Film director Károly Makk sets his film Philemon és Baucis during the Hungarian uprising of 1956, referenced by Shakespeare in Much Ado About Nothing when Don Pedro courts Hero for Claudio, and also in As You Like It by JaquesBaucis and Philemon – Jacob van Oost Mercury and Jupiter in the House of Philemon and Baucis
4. The Fall of Phaeton (Rubens) – The Fall of Phaeton is a painting by the Flemish master Peter Paul Rubens, featuring the ancient Greek myth of Phaeton, a recurring theme in visual arts. Rubens chose to depict the myth at the height of its action, the thunderbolts provide the light contrast to facilitate the display of horror on the faces of Phaeton, the horses and other figures while preserving the darkness of the event. The butterfly winged female figures represent the hours and seasons, who react in terror as the night, the great astrological circle that arches the heavens is also disrupted. The assemblage of bodies form an oval in the center, separating dark. The bodies are arranged so as to assist the viewer’s travel continually around that oval, Rubens painted The Fall of Phaeton in Rome and the painting was probably reworked later around 1606/1608. It has been housed in the National Gallery of Art since 5 January 1990, Rubens also painted other Greek mythological subjects, such as The Fall of Icarus, Perseus Freeing Andromeda, and The Judgement of ParisThe Fall of Phaeton (Rubens) – The Fall of Phaeton
5. The Circumcision (Rubens) – The Circumcision is an oil on canvas painting of the Circumcision of Jesus by Peter Paul Rubens, produced in 1605 during his stay in Rome. It is now in the Chiesa del Gesù e dei Santi Ambrogio e Andrea church in Genoa and it was commissioned by Marcello Pallavicino, vestryman of the Casa Professa of Jesuits in Genoa. It is mainly influenced by Mantuan paintings from the court of Vincenzo Gonzaga, G. Bertelli, G. Briganti, A. Giuliano, Storia dellArte Italiana, vol. 3, p.299, Roma 2009, Edizioni Scolastiche Bruno MondadoriThe Circumcision (Rubens) – The Circumcision
6. Portrait of Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria – The Portrait of Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria is an oil painting by Peter Paul Rubens, dating to 1606. It is now in the National Gallery of Art in Washington and it was commissioned by Marquess Giacomo Massimiliano Doria, of Genoa, and shows his wife shortly after their wedding in 1605, she came from the equally prominent Spinola family. He died in 1613 and she remarried another Doria and it has been cut several times on each side, removing the garden shown in the background and the lower part of the figure. The overall dimensions of the painting are now 152 by 98 centimetres after the original was reduced in size during the 19th century. Rubens completed a pen and brown ink study for the painting, details removed include the bottom of the Marchesas floor-length wedding gown as the painting has been cut just below her knees and the architecture that formed the backdrop. Writing in The Burlington Magazine in 1951, Christopher Norris indicated the sketch portrayed an older than the 22-year-old Marchesa. In the painting the Marchesa is placed in an opulent setting to convey luxury, adorned with jewels, she wears a satin and lace dress with a broad ruff round her neck. Light is used to emphasise the draping of her wedding gown. It subsequently became the property of Marchessa Brigida Spinola-Dorias second husband, probably in 1625 and it remained in the family until given to relatives of Rati Opizzone. By 1848 it was held in Paris by Simon Horsín-Déon, four years later, in 1854, the portrait was in London and sold several times before being purchased by the Samuel H. Kress foundation in 1957 who donated it to the National Gallery of Art in 1961. First exhibited in 1952 at the Minneapolis Institute of Art when it was likely in the ownership of the Duveen Brothers, since 1961 it has regularly been featured in exhibitionsPortrait of Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria – Description 
7. Adoration of the Magi (Rubens, Madrid) – For other treatments of this subject by the same artist, see Adoration of the Magi. The Adoration of the Magi is a painting by the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens and he first painted it in 1609 and later gave it a major reworking between 1628 and 1629 during his second trip to Spain. It is now in the Museo del Prado in Madrid and it is one of many works on the subject by Rubens - others include those of 1616-17 and 1624. Towards the end of 1608 Antwerp was preparing to receive the peace delegates negotiating an end to the war between Spain and the Dutch Republic and their negotiations were to be held in Antwerp City Hall between 28 March and 9 April 1609 and resulted in the Twelve Years Truce. He had returned to Antwerp and was already the citys most notable painter and he was paid 1,800 florins for the commission. The theme of the commission was an allusion to the benefits the city hoped to gain from peace, there is also a study for the whole work in a private collection in London, which allows its original appearance to be reconstructed. The town magistrates presented the painting to Calderón, but in 1621 he fell into disgrace and was executed, in 1623 Philip IV of Spain purchased the painting from the sale of Calderóns collection and installed it in his Royal Alcázar of Madrid. In September 1628 Rubens travelled to Spain for the second time and he had been summoned there to inform the king about his peace negotiations with Britain, but was also able to rework the painting while he was there. Francisco Pacheco relates in his work El arte de la pintura changed some things in his painting of the Adoration of the Magi that was in the palace. This amounted to a complete re-working, with details modified, strips added to the top and right hand edges. It was later installed in the Royal Palace of Madrid and he went to the Museo del Prado. In 2004, the painting underwent a complete restoration, catalogue entry Article on the painting in the Enciclopedia online del Prado. The painting in the Prados online gallery, Article on the painting on the Centro Virtual Cervantes. The painting on the Prado website, El Siglo de Rubens en el Museo del Prado. Catálogo Razonado de Pintura Flamenca del Siglo XVII, barcelona / Madrid, Editorial Prensa Ibérica, S. A. / Museo Nacional del Prado. Museo del Prado, Catálogo de las pinturas, Madrid, Ministerio de Educación y CulturaAdoration of the Magi (Rubens, Madrid) – Contents
8. Samson and Delilah (Rubens) – Samson and Delilah is a painting by the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens which is currently on display in the National Gallery. It dates from about 1609 to 1610, two preliminary copies of the painting also exist today, an ink and wash drawing on paper, and an oil sketch on wood panel. The oil sketch is currently on display in the Cincinnati Art Museum, the painting depicts an episode from the Old Testament story of Samson and Delilah. Samson was a Hebrew hero known for fighting the Philistines, having fallen in love with Delilah, who has been bribed by the Philistines, Samson tells her the secret of his great strength, his uncut hair. Without his strength, Samson is captured by the Philistines, Rubens portrays the moment when, having fallen asleep on Delilahs lap, a young man cuts Samsons hair. Samson and Delilah are in a room, which is lit mostly by a candle held by an old woman to Delilahs left. Delilah is depicted with all of her clothes, but with her breasts exposed and her left hand is on top of Samsons right shoulder, as his left arm is draped over her legs. The man snipping Samsons hair is crossing his hands, which is a sign of betrayal, philistine soldiers can be seen in the right-hand background of the painting. The niche behind Delilah contains a statue of the Venus, the Goddess of love, notably, Cupids mouth is bound, rather than his eyes. This statue can be taken to represent the cause of Samsons fate, the old woman standing behind Delilah, providing further light for the scene, does not appear in the biblical narrative of Samson and Delilah. She is believed to be a procuress, and the adjacent profiles of her and Delilah may symbolise the old womans past, the painting was originally commissioned by Nicolaas II Rockox, Lord mayor of Antwerp, Belgium, for his Rockox House. In addition to being a patron, Rockox was a personal friend of Rubens. The painting was intended to be placed above a 7-foot mantleshelf. The painting was sold for charity when Rockox died in 1640. In 1700, a panel named Samson and Delilah was bought by Prince Johann Adams Andreas I and this painting was likely Rubens painting. The painting was sold in 1880 in Paris, where it was later found by Ludwig Burchard in 1929. Eventually, the painting sold at auction in 1980 at Christies, purchased by the National Gallery, there has been some doubt cast over the attribution of the painting to Rubens, led by the artist and scholar of Fayum portraits Euphronsyne Doxiades. The painting was attributed to the Dutch painter Gerard van HonthorstSamson and Delilah (Rubens) – Samson and Delilah
9. Honeysuckle Bower – The Honeysuckle Bower is a self-portrait of the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens and his first wife Isabella Brant. They wed on 3 October 1609, in St. Michaels Abbey, Antwerp, the painting is a full-length double portrait of the couple seated in a bower of honeysuckle. They are surrounded by love and marriage symbolism, the honeysuckle, additionally, Rubens depicts himself as an aristocratic gentleman with his left hand on the hilt of his sword. Media related to Honeysuckle Bower by Peter Paul Rubens at Wikimedia Commons Web Gallery of ArtHoneysuckle Bower – The Honeysuckle Bower
10. Massacre of the Innocents (Rubens) – The first, measuring 142 x 182 cm, was painted after his return to his native Antwerp in 1608, following eight years spent in Italy. The first version painted by Rubens dates from around 1611–12, at the end of the seventeenth century, the painting became part of the Liechtenstein Collection in Vienna, Austria, along with another Rubens painting, Samson and Delilah. The Forchondt brothers sold both paintings to Hans-Adam I, Prince of Liechtenstein whom they knew through his father Karl Eusebius, Prince of Liechtenstein around 1700. The paintings were given the Liechtenstein family seal and are recorded in the collection until the 19th century, under that attribution it remained until it was sold to an Austrian family in 1920. It was subsequently loaned in 1923 to Stift Reichersberg, a monastery in northern Austria, in 2001, the painting was seen by George Gordon, an expert in Flemish and Dutch paintings at Sothebys in London. He was persuaded that it was indeed a Rubens by its characteristics and style to the Samson. The work was sold at auction at Sothebys, London on July 10,2002 for £49.5 million to Canadian businessman and art collector Kenneth Thomson, 2nd Baron Thomson of Fleet. These influences are seen in painting through the sheer drama and emotive dynamism of the scene. There is also evidence of the use of chiaroscuro and he also used ecorche figures - anatomical statues with the skin removed-to study how the body was made. At the time of Rubens first painting on the subject Antwerp had been involved in only a few years before- a conflict temporarily frozen by the truce of 1609. In one year alone over 8000 citizens had been killed by Calvinists, Antwerp however remained a Catholic stronghold and became a leading centre of Counter Reformation thought. Towards the end of his life, between 1636 and 1638, Rubens painted a version of the Massacre of the Innocents. This version was acquired by the Alte Pinakothek, Munich by 1706, a copy of this later version was made as an engraving in 1643 by Paulus Pontius. BBC News article on the auction ART4 2-DAY articleMassacre of the Innocents (Rubens) – Peter Paul Rubens. Massacre of the Innocents, 1611–12 (Art Gallery of Ontario), lost and later rediscovered.
11. The Four Philosophers – The Four Philosophers is a 1611-12 painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It is now held in the Galleria Palatina of the Palazzo Pitti in Florence and it also features in the 1772 painting The Tribuna of the Uffizi by Zoffany. Beginning from left to right it shows Peter Paul, Philip Rubens, Justus Lipsius, in the background is Peter Pauls bust of Seneca, now believed to be a copy of an imaginary Hellenistic portrait of the Greek poet Hesiod. Marco Chiarini, Galleria palatina e Appartamenti Reali, Sillabe, Livorno 1998The Four Philosophers – Bibliography 
12. The Four Continents – The Four Continents, also known as The Four Rivers of Paradise, is a painting by Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, made in the 1610s. It depicts the female personifications of four continents sitting with the personifications of their major rivers – the Danube, the Ganges, the Nile. Europe is shown on the left, Africa in the middle, Asia on the right and America behind it, the tigress, protecting the cubs from the crocodile, is used as a symbol of Asia. The personification of the Danube holds a rudder, the bottom part of the painting shows several putti. Artist Elizabeth McGrath proposed a different interpretation of the figures on the painting, believing them to be nymphs instead. McGrath also suggested different river names, the Tigris instead of the Danube and the Euphrates instead of the Río de la Plata, arguing that those names also appear in Christian exegesisThe Four Continents – The Four Continents
13. Portrait of a Commander – Portrait of a Commander or A Commander Being Dressed for Battle is a portrait of an unknown man in plate armour, normally attributed to Peter Paul Rubens. In July 2010 it was sold for £9 million by Christies after Sothebys turned it down, in December 2011, the portrait was placed on loan with the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The painting, done in oil on panel, measures 48.25 ×38 3/8 in and it depicts a military commander, as shown by his baton, being dressed by pages. The identity of the commander is unknown, although Charles V, Cornelis van der Geest, the Christies cataloguer felt that the commander appears too idealized to be an actual person. The painting has been praised for its crisp and intense hue, if by Rubens, it would have been painted around 1613. It was sold at the end of the Christies estimate of between £8m and £12m to Konrad Bernheimer for £9 million. For more than 100 years, it was attributed to the School of Porbus and it was not attributed to Rubens until after World War II. According to Brian Sewell, it is an uncomfortable Rubens and the attribution doesnt quite ring true, a panel of academics employed by Christies examined the portrait and ultimately concluded that the painting is a genuine RubensPortrait of a Commander – Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640), Portrait of a Commander
14. St Sebastian (Rubens) – St Sebastian is a painting of c.1614 by Peter Paul Rubens, showing the Christian Saint Sebastian. It dates to the years of Rubens stay in Rome - its sinuous line and defined figures are thought to be the result of his studies of Michelangelo. It was bought by the Borghese directly from cardinal Neri Corsini in Brussels and it is now in the Borghese collection. In 1618, Rubens wrote the English Sir Dudley Carlton a letter describing a collection of his own paintings he had at his home he wished to trade and it is more than likely not that this is that paintingSt Sebastian (Rubens) – Paintings and drawings
15. Madonna of the Basket (Rubens) – The Madonna of the Basket or the Madonna della Cesta is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens, dated to around 1615. It is now held in the Galleria Palatina of the Palazzo Pitti in Florence, between 1799 and 1815 it was confiscated by the French and assigned to the Dijon Museum of Fine Arts. Marco Chiarini, Galleria palatina e Appartamenti Reali, Sillabe, Livorno 1998Madonna of the Basket (Rubens) – This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Italian. (January 2015) Click [show] for important translation instructions.
16. Daniel in the Lions' Den (painting) – Daniel in the Lions Den is a 1615 painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, now in the National Gallery of Art in Washington DC. The subject is from Daniel 6, 1-28, Rubens modelled the lions on a Moroccan subspecies, examples of which were then in the Spanish governors menagerie in Brussels. In 1618 he acquired more than a hundred pieces of sculpture, in exchange for this painting, eight others. Although the painting shows Daniel as a man, according to the biblical chronology Daniel would have been over eighty years old at the time of the incident depictedDaniel in the Lions' Den (painting) – For other uses, see Daniel in the Lions' Den#Paintings.
17. The Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt – The Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt is an oil painting on canvas by Peter Paul Rubens. It was commissioned in 1615 to decorate Schleißheim Palace, along three other works depicting lion, wolf, and boar hunts. The cycle of paintings were looted from the palace during the Napoleonic Wars, only the Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt was returned to Munich, at which time it was added to the collection that is now the Alte Pinakothek. Peter Paul Rubens created the oil painting entitled The Hippopotamus. The hunt takes place on the banks of the Nile, as indicated by a tree in the background. As hippopotami and crocodiles were considered dangerous nuisances, their destruction was a duty performed by noblemen, the enraged hippopotamus tramples the crocodile, as both are attacked by the hunters and hounds. The accurately-rendered physical appearances of the hippopotamus and crocodile contrasts with contemporary renderings and reflect the growing interest in empiricism. It has been suggested that Rubens may have traveled to Rome to view a temporarily-displayed dead hippopotamus preserved in brine prior to the painting of the picture, Rubens created the genre of the large hunting scene and his studio produced dozens for aristocratic patrons in the 1610s and 1620s. Rubens and his studio produced the four large canvases in Antwerp over the years 1615–16, the Wittelsbach collection formed the nucleus of Alte Pinakothek in Munich, the present location of the Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt and The Lion Hunt from the same cycle. The cycle of paintings were looted from the palace during the Napoleonic Wars, only the Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt was returned to Munich, at which time it was added to the collection that is now the Alte Pinakothek. The complexity of the grouping, representation of turbulent motion and violent action, high drama. In the notice of January 25,1847, Eugène Delacroix admired the crocodile as a masterpiece of execution, remarking, however, that its action could have been more interestingThe Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt – The Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt
18. Adoration of the Magi (Rubens, Lyon) – For other treatments of this subject by the same artist, see Adoration of the Magi. The Adoration of the Magi is a c. 1617-18 painting by Peter Paul Rubens and it is now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon Since it is horizontal rather than vertical it was probably commissioned for a private collection rather than as an altarpiece. 1608-09, might suggest that the Lyon painting was also a secular commission, Rubens made a considerable fortune via the paintings reproduction in engravings and tapestries. The painting arranges full-length figures across the canvas, backed by a frieze-like crowd showing a variety of mature male types, the dim stable is lit by shafts of light. It languished as a copy until Jacques Fouquart resuscitated its reputation, recognized as a work of Rubens, in the exhibition Le siècle de Rubens, ParisAdoration of the Magi (Rubens, Lyon) – The Adoration of the Magi
19. The Five Senses (series) – They are now in the Prado Museum in Madrid. They are all painted in oils on panel, approximately 65 by 110 centimetres in dimensions. The series constitutes one of the best known and most successful collaborations by Brueghel and Rubens and his approach was widely copied in later Flemish painting. Rubens painted the female figures, accompanied by a putto or a winged Cupid in Sight, Hearing, Smell and Touch. The figure in Hearing is playing the lute amongst a collection of musical instruments, in Smell, she sits among flowers in a garden, with a perfume distillery visible on the left. In Taste, seated at a table groaning with food fit for a banquet, she is eating an oyster, in Touch, she embraces a putto in a superbly equipped armoury where there are also medical instruments, pain being an aspect of touch. In Hearing, the music is a dedicated to the couple. Ferdinand in turn offered them through the Duke of Medina de las Torres to his brother King Philip IV of Spain and they were subsequently housed in other royal palaces in Madrid and became part of the founding collection of the Prado in 1819. The Five Senses, executed in the period by Brueghel and 11 others Sight, PD1394, Hearing, PD1395, Smell, PD1396, Taste, PD1397, Touch, PD1398The Five Senses (series) – Sight, 1617
20. The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus – The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus is a 1618 painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It is now on show in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich, the painting depicts the mortal Castor and the immortal Pollux abducting Phoebe and Hilaeira, daughters of Leucippus. Castor the horse-tamer is recognisable from his armour, whilst Pollux the boxer is shown with a bare and they are also distinguished by their horses - Castors is well-behaved and supported by a putto, whereas Polluxs is rearing. The puttos black wing shows the ultimate fate. Phoebe and Hilaeira do not have distinguishing attributes and so which sister is which is unclear and it was bought in Antwerp in 1716 by Johann Wilhelm and Elector Palatine. Initially sent to Mannheim, by 1805/06 it had reached Munich, the painting is also notable for featuring in the Loriot sketch Eheberatung. Evelyn Hamann plays a marriage counsellor, with Loriot and Ingeborg Heydorn playing a couple coming for counselling, the husband replies The men are really helping out the ladies. Alte Pinakothek-Ausgewählte Werke, München, Pinakothek-DuMont,2005, ISBN 978-3-8321-7592-4,50 Klassiker, Gemälde, H. Johannsen, Gerstenberg,2001, ISBN 380-672-516-0The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus – The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus
21. The Union of Earth and Water – The pair is crowned by the goddess Victoria and the union is heralded through a conch by the Triton below. The painting features a pyramidal composition, symmetry and the balance of forms and it was influenced by late Italian Renaissance, particularly by Venetian artists. A smaller copy of the made in the Rubens workshop was owned by the Russian businessman Vladimir Logvinenko. Following the abolition of a thirty per cent import duty on artworks in 2004, the painting is housed in the Rubens Hall of the Hermitage Museum, Russia. Previously it had been in the Chigi Collection in Rome from which it was acquired by the Hermitage Museum between 1798 and 1800The Union of Earth and Water – The Union of Earth and Water
22. Feast in the House of Simon the Pharisee – Feast in the House of Simon the Pharisee, also known as Christ in the Home of Simon the Pharisee, is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens. 1618-1620, and is in The Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, the painting depicts an incident from Luke 7 where Jesus visits Simon the Pharisee, and has his feet anointed by a sinful woman. Jesus proceeds to tell the Parable of the Two DebtorsFeast in the House of Simon the Pharisee – Feast in the House of Simon the Pharisee
23. Saint George and the Dragon (Rubens) – Saint George and the Dragon is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens, based upon the motif with the same name. It is housed in the Museo del Prado of Madrid and it was painted in Genoa while Rubens was in Italy to complete his artistic training. The princess presence on the left is included to represent the Church, media related to Saint George and the Dragon by Rubens at Wikimedia CommonsSaint George and the Dragon (Rubens) – Saint George and the Dragon
24. The Three Graces (Rubens, monochrome) – The Three Graces is a grisaille painting by Peter Paul Rubens, dating to 1620-1623. It is now held in the Galleria Palatina in Florence and it was acquired by Monsignor Francesco Airoldi, nuncio to Brussels, who offered it to cardinal Leopoldo de Medici, a great admirer of Rubens. The cardinals art collection passed to the Uffizi after his death - the grisaille was transferred to the Palatina in 1928The Three Graces (Rubens, monochrome) – External links 
25. Isabella Brant (drawing) – Isabella Brant, a portrait drawing, was executed in Antwerp around 1621 by Flemish artist and diplomat, Peter Paul Rubens. Brant was Rubens first wife and modelled for some of his portraits until her death in 1626. The portrait is drawn in black and red chalk with white heightening on brown wash paper and this drawing is noted for its immediacy and attractiveness and was the basis for three oil paintings. The first was painted in 1621 by Rubens pupil, Anthony van Dyck as a gift to his mentor and this portrait now hangs in the National Gallery of Art in Washington. The second, painted by Rubens between 1620 and 1625, is located in the Cleveland Museum of Art and the third painted by Rubens in 1625, is located in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. Following Rubens death, the drawing passed through five known collectors and was acquired by the British Museum in 1893. During re-mounting work in 1964, a sketch was discovered on the reverse side of the portrait. The sketch, also in red and black chalk is presumed to be a self-portrait of Rubens, the portrait of Isabella Brant was drawn by Rubens around 1621, when she was about 30 years old and had been married to Rubens for 12 years. Rubens employed the aux trois crayons technique, using red and black chalk, the head of the portrait was sketched in detail while the eyes had been retouched with pen and black ink. This drawing, which is the only one sketched of Isabella Brant in this medium, has been admired for centuries as a example of Rubens portrait drawing. Rubens intimate drawing was intended to capture the sweetness and vivacity of his first wife, the sitters head is shown with a slight downward tilt — facing slightly to the left and looking directly at the observer. She is shown wearing drop earrings and her hair and features are depicted with care, while her clothes are sketchily portrayed. Her mischievous smile is further enhanced by the dimples in her plump cheeks, the great detail and animation of the portrait suggests that Rubens had great affection for his wife. The drawing was used as a basis for three oil portraits, the 1621 painting of Brant outside the portico of the family home, was done by Rubens pupil, Anthony van Dyck as a parting gift to his mentor. The striking similarity between the portrait and drawing meant that van Dyck would have had access to the sketch for this work. The Cleveland portrait by Rubens, painted between 1620 and 1625, displays such as the pulled-back hair and the mocking smile. The Uffizi, portrait was produced close to Brants death in June 1626, although the pose is similar, the face exhibits puffiness as a result of her illness. In 1964, the drawing was re-mounted in preparation for its showing at the 1965 Masterpieces of the Print Room exhibition at the British MuseumIsabella Brant (drawing) – A portrait of Isabella Brant
26. Marie de' Medici cycle – The Marie de Medici Cycle is a series of twenty-four paintings by Peter Paul Rubens commissioned by Marie de Medici, widow of Henry IV of France, for the Luxembourg Palace in Paris. Rubens received the commission in the autumn of 1621, after negotiating the terms of the contract in early 1622, the project was to be completed within two years, coinciding with the marriage of Maries daughter, Henrietta Maria. Twenty-one of the paintings depict Maries own struggles and triumphs in life, the remaining three are portraits of herself and her parents. The paintings now hang in the Louvre in Paris, much speculation exists on the exact circumstances under which Marie de Medici decided to commission Rubens to paint such a grandiose project, conceived in truly heroic proportions. The immortalizing of her life, however, seems to be the most apparent reason for the Queens choice to commission a painter who was capable of executing such a demanding task. The contract stated that Rubens was to paint all the figures, Marie de Medici became the second wife to King Henry IV of France in a marriage by proxy on 5 October 1600 by the power invested in her uncle, Grand Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany. When Henry was assassinated in 1610, Louis XIII, his son, Louis mother, Marie, acted as his regent as commanded by the Frankish Salic law in case of an infant ruler. However, even after Louis came of age at thirteen in 1614, in 1617, Louis XIII finally decided to take governing matters in his own hands at the age of fifteen and the queen was exiled to Blois. Louis and his mother were not reconciled for over four years, upon her return, Marie focused on building and decorating the Luxembourg Palace, an enormous undertaking in which Peter Paul Rubens played a key role. Rubens, then court painter to the Duchy of Mantua under Vincenzo I Gonzaga, had first met Marie at her wedding in Florence in 1600. In 1621, Marie de Medici commissioned Rubens to paint two large series depicting the lives of herself and her husband, Henry IV, to adorn both wings of the first floor of the Luxembourg Palace. The cycle of paintings dedicated to the life of Henry IV was never completed, the fact that the Henry IV series was not realized can be attributed in part to Marie de Medici being permanently banned from France by her son in 1631. She escaped to Brussels, and later died in exile in 1642 in the house that the Peter Paul Rubenss family had occupied more than fifty years prior. While this cycle was one of Rubenss first great commissions, Marie de Medicis life proved a one to portray. Rubens had the task of creating twenty-one paintings about a woman whose life could be measured by her marriage to Henry IV, furthermore, unlike her husband, Maries life was neither graced with triumphant victories nor punctuated by vanquished foes. Rather, implications of political scandal in her life made any literal depiction of the far too controversial for Rubens to execute without incurring the disapproval from others in government. Rubens painted extravagant images of the Queen Mother surrounded by ancient gods, the ambiguity of the figures was essentially used to depict Marie in a positive light. Rubenss Medici commission was an inspiration for artists as well, particularly the French painters Jean-Antoine WatteauMarie de' Medici cycle – Maria de' Medici
27. The History of Constantine – An additional five designs were painted by Cortona in 1630 and woven in the atelier of Cardinal Francesco Barberini in Rome over the next decade. The series was commissioned in 1622 when Rubens was in Paris discussing the paintings he was designing for the Luxembourg Palace for Marie de Médicis. New evidence, such the fact that the designs were listed as the property of de la Planche upon his death, establishing a weak form of copyright, has muddied the issue. One theory is that Rubens only cited the king as the commissioner of the tapestries in the letter in order to increase their perceived importance because his payment was overdue. He repeated only one design from the Rubens set, the apparition of the cross, Cortona also designed several smaller tapestries such as portieres and a baldachin to furnish an entire room, and painted the ceiling of the salon where they were displayed. The dossal he designed, featuring a golden statue of Constantine, hung behind the throne of Urban VIII. The life of the first Christian monarch would have relevance for a king whose own father experienced such a notable conversion to Catholicism. While the subject matter could plausibly have been chosen by Louis XIII himself, it also may have been selected by Comans and de la Planche to appeal to him, Rubens drew on Cardinal Cesare Baronios Annales Ecclesiastici for inspiration and historical detail. Baronio based his writings on the accounts of Eusebius. Rubens designs proved popular and were woven several times by the Comans-La Planche workshop over the next decades. Cortonas tapestries were only woven once, the sole complete set remained with the Barberini collection in Rome until 1889. The tapestries were split up and passed through various hands before being reunited by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, the sketches remain widely scattered, many of them in private hands. Sketch, private collection,18.625 x 25.375 tapestry, the event occurs in a temple of Jupiter and Juno, who preside in the form of statuary. However, in the tapestry, Jupiter wears a more beneficent mien and holds his thunderbolt less threatening. In a dream, he learns that placing this emblem on his banner assures him of triumph over Maxentius, Rubens follows Eusebius quite closely, but replaces the flaming cross he described with the monogram in Lactantius chronicle. One soldier, looking at Constantine rather than the vision, points with the labarum, or military standard, to the next scene. Sketch, private collection,13.9 x 10.8 tapestry, Paris, Mobilier National This episode depicts the moments just before the Battle of Milvian Bridge and this has been emblazoned with Christs symbol, as he was instructed. The monogram of Rubens usual panel maker, Michiel Vrient, is impressed on the back of the panel, along with a branded A that indicates the panel was prepared about 1621-22The History of Constantine – The History of Constantine
28. The Conversion of Saint Bavo – The Conversion of Saint Bavo is a 1623-1624 altarpiece by Peter Paul Rubens. It was commissioned as the altarpiece for Sint-Baafskathedraal in Ghent by bishop Antoon Triest. It is still sited in the cathedral, an oil sketch for it is now in the National Gallery, London. 72, Arcade, Brussel,1972 Gent, duizend jaar kunst en cultuur, Bijlokemuseum, Gent,1975The Conversion of Saint Bavo – Bibliography 
29. Adoration of the Magi (Rubens, Antwerp) – For other treatments of this subject by the same artist, see Adoration of the Magi. The Adoration of the Magi is a 1624 oil on canvas painting by Peter Paul Rubens and it was commissioned by Matthæus Yrsselius, abbot of St. Michaels Abbey, Antwerp, as an altarpiece, and paid for in two instalments of 750 guilders each in 1624 and 1626. The Virgin Mary is thought to have been modelled on Rubens first wife Isabella Brant, the painting is now in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts Antwerp. The painting is an important story arc in the comic book album De Raap van Rubens in the Belgian comic book series Suske en Wiske, the characters visit it in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts in Antwerp. Later the man in the red cloak on the painting comes alive, in order to find out why the man does this Lambik travels back in time, to the era of Peter Paul RubensAdoration of the Magi (Rubens, Antwerp) – References 
30. The Reconciliation of Esau and Jacob – The Reconciliation of Esau and Jacob is a 1624 painting by Peter Paul Rubens. Originally in the Spanish royal collection, it was sent to Germany by Maria Anna of Neuburg to her brother Johann Wilhelm and it is now in the Staatsgalerie Schleissheim near Munich. It shows the story of meeting between Jacob and Esau. It was the model for a painting by Abraham Willemsen and this painting was featured in Willem van Haechts Gallery of Cornelis van der Geest with Joseph and Potiphars wife, 1630sThe Reconciliation of Esau and Jacob – A study for the work (National Galleries of Scotland)
31. The Annunciation (Rubens) – The Annunciation is the title of two paintings by Peter Paul Rubens. The first was commissioned by the Jesuit college in Antwerp and painted in 1609 and it is now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Around 1610 Rubens composed the second version and painted the righthand half, in 1627-1628 he completed it and also modified the figure of Mary. It is now in the Rubenshuis in Antwerp, who acquired it in 1954, the two compositions are strikingly different. The Vienna painting is a traditional composition. The angel Gabriel is on the right and he has just alighted on the ground, his robe still billowing from his flight, and he kneels as if in reverence or supplication. Mary stands on the left facing Gabriel, but she leans back slightly as if in surprise or alarm, the Antwerp painting is a more original composition. Mary kneels on the right, her body is turned away from Gabriel, Gabriel is still airborne, he reaches with his left hand toward Mary and points with his right hand toward heaven. The Rubenshuis painting was in Madrid during Rubens stay there from 28 August 1628 to 29 April 1629, there it was acquired by Diego Messia, marquis de Leganés, commander of the Spanish artillery and cavalry in the Spanish Netherlands. In 1655, the painting was in the inventory of the collection then it was left to the Altamira family. It then passed through the Smith, Hamlet, earl of Caldon and Graupe collections in Britain before being acquired by the Brussels collector Gaston DulièreThe Annunciation (Rubens) – History 
32. The Rape of the Sabine Women (Rubens) – The Rape of the Sabine Women is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It is now in the Belfius Collection and it was commissioned by Philip IV of Spain in 1639 but was still incomplete on Rubens death a year later. It was completed by the Brussels painter Gaspar de Crayer, palais des Beux-Arts de Lille RUBENSThe Rape of the Sabine Women (Rubens) – Bibliography 
33. The Origin of the Milky Way (Rubens) – The Origin of the Milky Way, or The Birth of the Milky Way, is a painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, featuring the Greco-Roman myth of the origin of the Milky Way. The painting depicts Hera, spilling her breast milk, the infant Heracles and Zeus in the background, identifiable by his eagle, Heras face is modelled on Rubens wife, Hélène Fourment. The carriage is pulled by Heras favourite animals, peacocks, due to the dark background of the night sky the figures gain a greater sense of volume. The image was a part of the commission from Philip IV of Spain to decorate Torre de la Parada, Rubens also painted other Greco-Roman mythological subjects, such as Hercules Fighting the Nemean Lion or Perseus Freeing Andromeda. The Origin of the Milky WayThe Origin of the Milky Way (Rubens) – The Origin of the Milky Way
34. Consequences of War – Consequences of War, also known as Horror of war, was executed between 1638-1639 by Peter Paul Rubens in oil paint on canvas. It was painted for Ferdinando II de Medici, although commissioned by an Italian, art historians characterize both the work and the artist as Flemish Baroque. It serves as a commentary on a European continent ravaged by the Thirty Years War, Mars, Mars is the central figure in the composition. The Roman god of war charges with shield and sword as well as breastplate, the figure’s skin and cape are dominated by the color red to further emphasize his identity as the Roman god. Book and Drawing, Underneath Mars’s feet lie a book and a drawing and these represent the manner in which the arts and letters are forgotten and destroyed in the chaos and violence of war. Temple of Janus, To the far left of the painting, in Ancient Rome, the Temple of Janus would be closed to indicate times of peace while an open door denoted war. This phenomenon is referenced in Fasti by Ovid, Venus, The Roman goddess of love endeavors to restrain Mars and keep the peace. Her arm is looped ineffectually around his in a physical gesture and her expression, meanwhile, plaintively entreaties Mars to stop his charge. Venus is depicted in typical Rubensian fashion with characteristic rolls of exposed flesh The goddess is accompanied by Amors, Fury Alekto, Alekto drags Mars on to his destructive purpose with a torch held high. Alekto was the Greek and Roman incarnation of anger and she appears in both Virgil’s Aeneid and Dante’s Inferno. Alekto translates from the Greek to “the implacable or unceasing anger. ”Pestilence and Famine, in addition, they deliberately refer to the apocalypse. Harmony, Rubens depicts Harmony as a holding a lute. However the chaos has pushed her to the ground and broken her lute, the damage to the lute represents the discord of war. Mother, Beside Harmony a mother clutches a child. This, Rubens writes, shows how “War corrupts and disrupts and destroys everything” including “procreation and charity. ”Architect, An architect and his instruments have similarly fallen to the ground, showing how in times of war destruction and not creation is the norm. Arrows, Arrows lie on the ground near Venus and the Amors, when bound together they represent Concord but in their present state show its absence. Next to them lie the olive branch and caduceus, the symbols of peace and they too are depicted cast upon the ground to signify their absence in Europe. Woman in black, The figure to Venus’s left represents Europe and her cross-topped globe represents the Christian world and is carried by the small angel to her immediate leftConsequences of War – Consequences of War
35. Deianira Listens to Fame – Deianira Listens to Fame or Deianira delivering the fatal tunic to the Fury is a 1638 oil painting on canvas. It is now in the Sabauda Gallery in Turin and it is a pendant to another Rubens painting, Hercules in the Garden of the Hesperides. It shows Hercules wife Deianira and another holding an bloody tunicDeianira Listens to Fame – Paintings and drawings
36. The Judgement of Paris (Rubens) – The large versions of 1636 and 1638 are among the best known. These both show Rubens version of idealised beauty, with the goddesses Venus, Minerva and Juno on one side. This version follows the story as narrated in Lucians Judgement of the Goddesses and it shows the award of the golden apple, though alterations show Rubens first painted an earlier point in the story, when the goddesses are ordered to undress by Mercury. It was bought for the National Gallery in London in 1844, painted in 1638 or 1639, this version is now in the Prado and was completed shortly before his death while he was ill with gout. It was commissioned by Philip IV of Spains brother Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria, in 1788 Charles III of Spain decided it was immodest and ordered it to be burned, but he died before that order could be carried outThe Judgement of Paris (Rubens) – The Judgement of Paris
37. Jan Rubens – Jan Rubens was a Flemish magistrate of Antwerp, best known today as the father of Peter Paul Rubens. Rubens was born in Antwerp to an old merchant family and he was trained as a scholar and travelled to Italy where he received his diploma in Canon law in Rome in 1550. He returned north in 1557 and set up his practise in Antwerp where he married Maria Pypelinckx in 1558, on 7 May 1562 he became magistrate of Antwerp and served until 1568, when he fled to Cologne with his family, probably to avoid the Council of Troubles. His position and that of his fellow magistrates became precarious when the Duke of Alva came north to suppress the rebellion after the Beeldenstorm. In Cologne he could renew his work as a lawyer, because there were many Dutch refugees there who wanted to recover seized property they had left behind and he began to work as an advisor to Anna of Saxony and they had an affair at her home in Siegen. By the time it was discovered, she was pregnant and Rubens was arrested during a trip he took to Siegen to visit her and his wife, who knew nothing of the affair, came to support him after he wrote to tell her he feared he would be executed. She supported him throughout his imprisonment and his illegitimate daughter Christina van Diez was born 22 August 1571. Rubens remained in prison, but was allowed to live in Siegen with his family under house arrest in 1573 and was completely released after the death of Anna. In 1574 Philips was born and in 1577 Peter Paul was born, Rubens died in Cologne and his wife wrote an epitaph in Latin that was installed on his gravestone in the St. Peters church there. After the burial she took her back to Antwerp where she stayedJan Rubens – Latin Epitaph for Jan Rubens, written in Latin by Maria complimenting him as a husband, but with the poignant remark that she bore 7 children "all by him".
38. Isabella Brant – Isabella Brant was a Flemish artists model who was the first wife of painter Peter Paul Rubens. She was the daughter of Jan Brant, an important city official in Antwerp and her aunt Mary was married to Phillipe I Rubens, brother of her future husband. Isabella Brant married the brother of her uncle Peter Paul on 3 October 1609 in St. Michaels Abbey and they had three children, Clara, Nicolaas, Lord of Rameyen and Albert. She was 34 years old when she died of the plague, several paintings of Brant and one important drawing of her by Rubens survive, in addition to a portrait of her by Rubens disciple and assistant, Anthony van Dyck. In 1977, Brant appeared on a stamp of Anguilla. Liedtke, Walter A. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, new York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Media related to Isabella Brant at Wikimedia CommonsIsabella Brant – Portrait of Isabella Brant by Rubens, c. 1620-1625 (Cleveland Museum of Art)
39. Helena Fourment – Helena Fourment or Hélène Fourment was the second wife of Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens. She was the subject of a few portraits by Rubens, and also modeled for other religious, Hélène Fourment was the daughter and youngest child of Daniël Fourment, an Antwerp silk merchant, and Clara Stappaerts. They had four sons and seven daughters, Helena Fourment was buried together with her husband, children and parents in the Saint James church, Antwerp. Most of the daughters married into important families, Clara Stappaerts Daniel II Fourment, Lord of Wijtvliet, marr. Clara Brant, sister of Isabella Brant,23 october 1627 to Nicolas Pycqueri, died 1661, almoner of Antwerp. Who were both painted by Rubens. Hélène Fourment married Rubens on 6 December 1630, when she was 16 years old and his first wife, Isabella Brant, had died in 1626. Hélènes brother Daniël Fourment the younger was married to Clara Brant, 2nd to Hélène Fourment, Clara-Joanna Rubens, baptized 18 January 1632, marr. Philips van Parys, knight François I Rubens, bapt,12 July 1633, alderman of Antwerp in 1659, marr. Isabella-Helena Rubens, baptized 3 May 1635 Peter III Paul Rubens, baptized 1 March 1637, constantia-Albertina Rubens, baptized 3 February 1641, entered La Cambre Abbey in l668. After the death of Rubens, Helena started a relationship with Jan-Baptist de Brouchoven, count of Bergeyck assessor and alderman of Antwerp and they had five further children together. Liedtke, Walter A. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, media related to Hélène Fourment at Wikimedia CommonsHelena Fourment – Helena Fourment, circa 1630, by Jan Boeckhorst
40. Tobias Verhaecht – Tobias Verhaecht was a Flemish painter primarily of landscapes. His style was indebted to the mannerist world landscape developed by artists like Joachim Patinir and it is not clear with whom he studied. Before 1590 he travelled to Italy and first worked in Florence where Francesco I de Medici and he then moved on to Rome where he was active as a painter of landscape frescos. He returned to Antwerp where he became a master of the Guild of St. Luke in 1590–91 and he married Suzanna van Mockenborch, who was the granddaughter of Peter Paul Rubens stepfather and a cousin of his mother. After the death of his first wife in 1595, he remarried the next year, Verhaecht was a member of a local Chamber of rhetoric and wrote a comedy for it in 1620. He was the first teacher of Rubens who studied with him around 1592 and his other pupils included his son Willem van Haecht, Jacques Backereel, Geeraert van Beemel, Cornelis Bol, Pieter van den Hoeck and Abraham Matthyssens. Verhaecht specialized in landscapes and also produced versions of the Tower of Babel. The landscapes depict imaginary mountains characterized by rocky peaks seen from a high viewpoint and his work closely resembles in style the set of 12 large landscape prints published by Hieronymus Cock after designs by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Some of Verhaecht’s landscapes were made into prints and he collaborated with other local painters such as Jan Brueghel the Elder, Frans Francken the Younger, Sebastian Vrancx and Gillis Coignet who painted the figures in his paintings. ISBN 0-300-07038-1 Tobias Verhaecht on ArtcyclopediaTobias Verhaecht – St John the Evangelist at Patmos, Tobias Verhaecht and Gillis Coignet
41. Antwerp school – Antwerp took over from Bruges as the main trading and commercial center of the Low Countries around 1500. Painters, artists and craftsmen joined the Guild of Saint Luke, the first school of artists that emerged in the city were the Antwerp Mannerists, a group of anonymous late Gothic painters active in the city from about 1500 to 1520. They were followed by Mannerist painters in the Italian tradition that developed at the end of the High Renaissance, Jan Gossaert was a major artist in the city at this time. Other artists, such as Frans Floris, continued this style, artists such as Otto van Veen and members of the Francken family, working in a late mannerist style, provided new religious decoration. It also marked a beginning of decline in the city. The city experienced a renewal in the 17th century. The large workshops of Peter Paul Rubens and Jacob Jordaens, the city was an internationally significant publishing centre, and had a huge production of old master prints and book illustrations. Antwerp animaliers or animal painters, such as Frans Snyders, Jan Fyt, many artists joined the Guild of Romanists, a society for which having visited Rome was a condition of membership. The artistic legacy of Antwerp is represented in museumsAntwerp school – Paul de Vos, Ark van Noah
42. Poussinists and Rubenists – In 1671 an argument broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris about whether drawing or color was more important in painting. On one side stood the Poussinists who were a group of French artists, named after the painter Nicolas Poussin, on the other side were the Rubenists, named after Peter Paul Rubens, who prioritize color. There was a strong nationalistic flavour to the debate as Poussin was French but Rubens was Flemish, by that time the French Rococo was in full swing. The Poussinists believed in the Platonic idea of the existence in the mind of objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by the selection, using reason. For the Poussinists, therefore, color was a decorative addition to form and drawing. Their leader was Charles Lebrun, Director of the Academy, and their heroes were Raphael, the Carracci and their touchstones were the forms of classical art. They were opposed by the Rubenists who believed that colour, not drawing, was superior as it was true to nature. Their models were the works of Rubens who had prioritised the accurate depiction of nature over the imitation of classical art, the Rubenists argued that the aim of painting was to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of nature. Drawing, according to the Rubenists, although based on reason, to a certain extent, the debate was simply about whether it was acceptable to paint purely in order to give pleasure to the viewer without the nobler purposes typical of a history painting. Watteaus acceptance was, however, perhaps not everything that he could have hoped for, charles-Antoine Coypel, the son of its then director, tellingly said, The charming paintings of this gracious painter would be a bad guide for whoever wished to paint the Acts of the Apostles. Watteau is considered the greatest of the Rubenist artists, other important Rubenists include François Boucher and Jean-Honoré Fragonard. Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin benefited from the new found interest in still-life and genre painting, the debate and the overlapping development of the Rococo in eighteenth century France have been seen as a form of revival. Jean-Baptiste Dubos observed that what was comprehended through the mind paled compared to what was apprehended through the senses, quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns Poussinistes vs. RubenistesPoussinists and Rubenists – Poussin's Et in Arcadia ego (Les Bergers d’Arcadie), late 1630s.
43. Flemish art – Flemish painting flourished from the early 15th century until the 17th century. These painters were invited to work at foreign courts and had a Europe-wide influence, since the end of the Napoleonic era, Flemish painters had again been contributing to a reputation that had been set by the Old Masters. The Franco-Flemish School of musical composition flourished at the same time, the so-called Flemish Primitives were the first to popularize the use of oil paint. Their art has its origins in the painting of the late Gothic period. Chief among them were Jan van Eyck, Hans Memling, Hugo van der Goes, Robert Campin, the court of the Duchy of Burgundy was an important source of patronage. From the early 16th century, the Italian Renaissance started to influence the Flemish painters, the result was very different from the typical Italian Renaissance painting. The leading artist was Pieter Brueghel the Elder, who avoided direct Italian influence, after the Siege of Antwerp, the Southern Provinces of the Netherlands remained under Spanish rule and were separated from the independent Dutch Republic. Following the deaths of major artists like Rubens in 1640 and the end of the Eighty Years War in 1648, a revival of painting in this region came in the advent of the Belgian Revolution of 1830 and work around that time is often considered Flemish. The painters, who flourished in the aftermath of this period, are usually referred to as Belgian rather than Flemish. That kingdom comprising Flanders, often influences also more recent artistss categorization, new York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Moderne Vlaamse schilderkunst van 1850 tot 1950 van Leys tot Permeke, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Liedtke, Walter A. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of ArtFlemish art – The Arnolfini portrait by Jan van Eyck.
44. Palazzi di Genova – Palazzi di Genova is a 1622 book written and illustrated by Peter Paul Rubens, depicting and describing the palaces of Genoa, Italy in 72 plates. A second volume with 67 further plates was added the same year, the illustrations of the second part are usually considered not to be by Rubens though. It is the only book Rubens published himself, the first volume contained plans, facades and additional views of 12 of the palaces of Genoa, the second book contained a further 19 palaces and 4 churches. Included are many of the Palazzi dei Rolli and they were seen by Rubens during his trips to Italy. Rubens was an admirer of the architecture of Italy, as evidenced in his own house, the Genoese style, developed by architects like Galeazzo Alessi, became very popular, and their distribution in Northern Europe was at least partially due to the book by Rubens. Examples of this include the Hôtel de Ville, Lyon, rubenss Palazzi di Genova during the 17th Century in Europe, Questions and Problems. The 1924 German edition from archive. orgPalazzi di Genova – Plate 57 of the first volume of Palazzi di Genova, 1622