List of counts of Aversa
- Rainulf I 1020-1045
- Asclettin 1045 (nephew)
- Rainulf II Trincanocte 1045-1048 (cousin)
- Herman 1048-1049 (son)
- Richard I 1049-1078 (cousin)
1. Normans – The Normans were the people who in the 10th and 11th centuries gave their name to Normandy, a region in France. The Norman dynasty had a major political, military impact on medieval Europe and even the Near East. The Normans were famed eventually for their Christian piety, becoming exponents of the Catholic orthodoxy into which they assimilated. They adopted the Gallo-Romance language of the Frankish land they settled, their dialect becoming known as an important literary language. The Normans are noted both for their significant military accomplishments and innovations. Their chief men were specially lavish through their desire of good report. The Duchy would eventually extend west beyond the Seine. The territory reproduced the Roman administrative structure of Gallia Lugdunensis II. Before Rollo's arrival, its populations did not differ from the Île-de-France, which were considered "Frankish". The new Norman rulers were ethnically distinct from the old French aristocracy, most of whom traced their lineage to Franks of the Carolingian dynasty. By 1066 Normandy had been exporting fighting horsemen for more than a generation. Many Normans of Italy, France and England eventually served as the Anglo-Norman king Richard the Lion-Heart. Opportunistic bands of Normans successfully established a foothold in Southern Italy. Probably as the result of returning pilgrims' stories, the Normans entered Southern Italy at the latest. According to Amatus of Montecassino, Norman pilgrims returning from Jerusalem called in at the port of Salerno when a Saracen attack occurred.Normans – Victorian interpretation of the Normans' national dress, 1000–1100
2. Mezzogiorno – It generally coincides with Sardinia. Southern Italy carries a unique legacy of culture. It features major tourist attractions, such as the Palace of Caserta, the Amalfi Coast, Pompeii and other archaeological sites. There are also many ancient Greek cities such as Sybaris, which were founded several centuries before the start of the Roman Republic. These same subdivisions are at the bottom of the Italian constituencies for the European Parliament. The Mezzogiorno first came into use in the 18th century and is an Italian rendition of meridies. It eventually came into vogue after the Italian unification. In a similar manner, Southern France is colloquially known as le Midi. Southern Italy forms the lower part of the Italian "boot", containing the ankle, the toe, the heel, along with the island of Sicily. It is an arm of the Ionian Sea. On the eastern coast is the Adriatic Sea, leading into the rest of the Mediterranean through the Strait of Otranto. Along the northern coast of the Salernitan Gulf and on the south of the Sorrentine Peninsula runs the Amalfi Coast. Off the tip of the peninsula is the isle of Capri. The largest city of Southern Italy is a name from the Greek that it has historically maintained for millennia. Bari, Taranto, Reggio Calabria, Salerno are the next largest cities in the area.Mezzogiorno – Satellite image of Southern Italy
3. Sergius IV of Naples – Sergius IV was Duke of Naples from 1002 to 1036. He was one of the prime catalysts in the growth of Norman power in the Mezzogiorno in the first half of the eleventh century. He was nominally a Byzantine vassal, like his father, John IV, before him. In 1026, Pandulf, returned from captivity, besieged his old capital, now ruled by Pandulf V, the count of Teano. The Greek catapan of Italy, gave Pandulf V safe conduct to Naples, where Sergius offered him asylum. By this, Sergius incurred Pandulf IV's enmity. In the next year, after Sergius' ally Boiannes was recalled, Pandulf attacked Naples and quickly captured it, some say by treachery. Pandulf V fled to Rome and Sergius went into hiding. For Sergius, however, fortune reversed itself when Pandulf IV was abandoned by his Norman ally, Rainulf Drengot in 1029. John V, sent an embassy to the Norman to ask his assistance in regaining the Neapolitan duchy. With Rainulf's help, Pandulf IV was chased from Naples and Sergius reinstated. Early in 1030, Sergius gave Rainulf the county of Aversa as a fief, the first Norman principality in the region. Sergius also gave his sister in marriage to the new count. In 1034, Pandulf IV instigated a revolt in Sorrento and annexed it to Capua. In the same year, Sergius' sister died and Rainulf returned to Pandulf's side.Sergius IV of Naples – Italy in the time of Sergius IV.
4. Aversa – Aversa is a city and comune in the Province of Caserta in Campania southern Italy, about 5 kilometres north of Naples. It is the centre of an agricultural district, the agro aversano, cheese. Aversa is also the main seat of the Seconda università degli studi di Napoli. It is located in a fertile plain north of Naples, thus serving as a market for agricultural products to the city. The plain on which it sits was known as the Campania Felix. However, some say that the founding of the city took place with the Etruscans. In any case, because of endemic malaria that ravaged the region, the primitive city was abandoned. A.D. via the Roman road that ran towards Rome. See also List of Counts of Aversa. One of the first bishops was the Norman Guitmund, a Benedictine monk, opponent of Berengar of Tours. In particular Queen Joanna I chose Aversa for her preferred seat. There a group of nobles threw her husband Andrew with a rope around his neck. Soon the subdivisions of land caused it to be relegated as a peripheral urban center of Naples. In the fourteenth or century the County of Aversa was taken over by a family from Valencia, the Pròixida. In fact, the palace of the Count of Almenara in Almenara is also known as the palace of the Count of Aversa.Aversa – Facade of the cathedral.
5. Rainulf I – Rainulf Drengot was a Norman adventurer and mercenary in southern Italy. In 1030 he became the first count of Aversa. He was a member of the Drengot family. When Rainulf was exiled by Richard II of Normandy for a violent criminal act. They brought with them a band of 250 warriors, formed of other exiles, landless cadets and similar adventurers. In 1017 they arrived in the Mezzogiorno, in a state of virtual anarchy. Gilbert, was killed. They took at bands of pilgrims headed from the depredations of other marauders. Rainulf also served the Lombard Pandulf IV of Capua. "Under his protection," Amatus reports, "they hastened to plunder the neighboring places and to harass his enemies. But since human thoughts are inclined to greed and money always triumphs in the end, from time to time they abandoned him... They sold their services as they could, according to circumstances, offering most to him who gave most." But now supporting the one and then aiding the other, they prevented anyone being completely ruined." Norman reinforcements and local miscreants, who found a welcome in Rainulf's encampment with no questions asked, swelled the numbers at Rainulf's command. Their Norman language and Norman customs welded a disparate group into the semblance of a nation, as Amatus observed.Rainulf I – Italy in 1000 AD, prior to Rainulf's arrival in southern Italy
6. Principality of Capua – It was originally a gastaldate, then a county, within the principality of Salerno. Old Capua was the greatest Roman city of the south. It was the centre of Lombard gastaldate in the duchy of Benevento, although little is known of this part of its history. It first enters history as a Lombard state under Landulf the Old with the death of the Beneventan duke Sicard in 839. His sons were partisans of Siconulf of Salerno. In 841, Capua was completely destroyed by Saracens in the pay of Radelchis I of Benevento. Pando the Rapacious declared Capua independent of Salerno in 862. On his death in the same year, the succession to the county was thrown into dispute. His son was deposed by Bishop Landulf who thus united the secular rule of the region as Athanasius was to do near-contemporaneously in Naples. Salerno allied with Pandenulf. Atenulf established himself and his princely status with the aid of the aforementioned Athanasius of Naples. Atenulf would try to vindicate the independent pretensions of Capua à la those of Benevento and Salerno. In 899, Atenulf I conquered Benevento. In this, he was only moderately successful. His son, Landulf II, allied against the Lombard principality of Salerno, but failed to oust Gisulf I.Principality of Capua – A map of Italy, showing the Principality of Capua, as it appeared in 1000 CE.