List of DNA-tested mummies

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This is a purported list of ancient humans remains, including mummies, that may have been DNA tested. Provided as evidence of the testing are links to the mitochondrial DNA sequences, and/or to the human haplogroups to which each case has been assigned. Also provided is a brief description of when and where they lived.[according to whom?] Entries lacking a citation should be viewed with skepticism; in particular, cases with no sequence or haplogroup links, with citation, have no evidentiary basis for appearing.

mtDNA tests[edit]

The following mummies have undergone an mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) test, of remains with the indicated name, from the indicated locations:[citation needed]

Name Original Location
of Remains
Date Lived
(years ago)
Mitochondrial DNA sequence mtDNA Haplogroup Y-DNA Haplogroup
Paglicci 23 Italy 28,000[1] CRS [2] H[citation needed]
Paglicci 25 Italy 23,000[3] 7,025 AluI, 00073A, 11719G, 12308A [4] HV[4]|
Cheddar Man England >9,000[citation needed] 16192T,[citation needed] 16270T[citation needed] U5a[citation needed]
Ötzi the Iceman Austria/Italy 5,300 [5] K.[6][7] G2a2b[8]
Ahmose I Egypt 3,550[citation needed]
Seknet-re Egypt 3,550[citation needed]
Thutmose I Egypt 3,500[citation needed]
Amenhotep I Egypt 3,500[citation needed]
Ramesses III Egypt 3,200[9] E1b1a[10]
The Norwich Anglo-Saxon England 1,000[citation needed] 16189A,[citation needed] 16223T,[citation needed] 16271C,[citation needed] 16278T[citation needed] X[citation needed]
Juanita the Ice Maiden Peru 500[citation needed] 16111T,[citation needed] 16223T,[citation needed] 16290T,[citation needed] 16319A[citation needed] A[citation needed]
Young Man of Byrsa Tunisia late 6th century BCE U5b2c1[11]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Kambiz Kamrani (2006). "The 28,000 Year Old Paglicci 23 Cro-Magnon mtDNA Ain't Neandertal — It Is More Modern Than Anything Else". Archived from the original on January 20, 2016. Retrieved January 26, 2015. 
  2. ^ Caramelli, David; Vai, Stefania (July 2008). "A 28,000 Years Old Cro-Magnon mtDNA Sequence Differs from All Potentially Contaminating Modern Sequences". PLoS ONE. Public Library of Science. 3 (7): e2700. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002700. PMC 2444030Freely accessible. PMID 18628960. Retrieved February 4, 2016. 
  3. ^ Mallegni, F; Bertoldi, F; Manolis, S.K. (1999). "The Gravettian female human skeleton from Grotta Paglicci, south Italy". HOMO: Journal of Comparative Human Biology. Elsevier. 50 (2): 127–148. 
  4. ^ a b Caramelli, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; et al. (May 27, 2003). "Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans". PNAS. NAS. 100 (11): 6593–6597. doi:10.1073/pnas.1130343100. PMC 164492Freely accessible. PMID 12743370. 
  5. ^ Bonani, Georges; Ivy, Susan D.; et al. (1994). "AMS 14
    Age Determination of Tissue, Bone and Grass Samples from the Ötzal Ice Man"
    (PDF). Radiocarbon. The Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona. 36 (2): 247–250. doi:10.1017/s0033822200040534. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
  6. ^ Ermini, Luca; Olivieri, Cristina; et al. (November 11, 2008). "Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Tyrolean Iceman". Current Biology. Elsevier. 18 (21): 1687–93. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.09.028. PMID 18976917. 
  7. ^ Endicott, Phillip; Sanchez, Juan J; et al. (2009). "Genotyping human ancient mtDNA control and coding region polymorphisms with a multiplexed Single-Base-Extension assay: The singular maternal history of the Tyrolean Iceman". BMC Genetics. BioMed Central. 10: 29. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-29. PMC 2717998Freely accessible. PMID 19545382. 
  8. ^ Keller, Andreas; Graefen, Angela; et al. (February 28, 2012). "New insights into the Tyrolean Iceman's origin and phenotype as inferred by whole-genome sequencing". Nature Communications. Nature Publishing Group. 3: 698. doi:10.1038/ncomms1701. PMID 22426219. 
  9. ^ "Study reveals that Pharaoh's throat was cut during royal coup". BMJ. 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2016. 
  10. ^ Hawass, Zahi; Ismail, Somaia; Selim, Ashraf; Saleem, Sahar N.; Fathalla, Dina; Wasef, Sally; Gad, Ahmed Z.; Saad, Rama; Fares, Suzan; Amer, Hany; Gostner, Paul; Gad, Yehia Z.; Pusch, Carsten M.; Zink, Albert R. (December 17, 2012). "Revisiting the harem conspiracy and death of Ramesses III: anthropological, forensic, radiological,and genetic study". BMJ. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. 345: e8268. doi:10.1136/bmj.e8268. PMID 23247979. Retrieved 8 February 2016. 
  11. ^ Matisoo-Smith EA, Gosling AL, Boocock J, Kardailsky O, Kurumilian Y, Roudesli-Chebbi S, et al. (May 25, 2016). "A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa" (PDF). PLoS ONE. 11 (5): e0155046. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155046. PMC 4880306Freely accessible. PMID 27224451. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]