List of Italian billionaires by net worth
2015 Italians billionaires list
- "The World's Billionaires". Forbes. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
|World ranking||Name||Citizenship||Net worth (USD)||Sources of wealth|
|32||Leonardo Del Vecchio||Italy||22.3 billion||Luxottica|
|38||Maria Franca Fissolo||Italy||22.1 billion||Ferrero|
|99||Stefano Pessina||Italy||12.1 billion||Alliance Boots|
|121||Massimiliana Landini Aleotti||Italy||10.4 billion||Menarini|
|174||Giorgio Armani||Italy||7.6 billion||Armani|
|179||Silvio Berlusconi||Italy||7.4 billion||Fininvest|
|246||Augusto & Giorgio Perfetti||Italy||6 billion||Perfetti Van Melle|
|291||Paolo & Gianfelice Mario Rocca||Italy||5.2 billion||Techint|
|405||Patrizio Bertelli||Italy||4.1 billion||Prada|
|405||Miuccia Prada||Italy||4.1 billion||Prada|
|557||Renzo Rosso||Italy||3.2 billion||Diesel|
|628||Carlo Benetton||Italy||2.9 billion||Benetton|
|628||Gilberto Benetton||Italy||2.9 billion||Benetton|
|628||Giuliana Benetton||Italy||2.9 billion||Benetton|
|628||Luciano Benetton||Italy||2.9 billion||Benetton|
|628||Giuseppe De'Longhi||Italy||2.9 billion||De'Longhi|
|628||Rosa Anna Magno Garavoglia||Italy||2.9 billion||Campari|
|847||Bernardo Caprotti||Italy||2.2 billion||Esselunga|
|894||Francesco Gaetano Caltagirone||Italy||2.1 billion||Caltagirone Group, Cementir, Acea, Caltagirone Editore|
|894||Ennio Doris & family||Italy||2.1 billion||Banca Mediolanum|
|949||Sandro Veronesi||Italy||2.0 billion||Calzedonia|
|1044||Mario Moretti Polegato||Italy||1.85 billion||Geox, Diadora|
|1054||Alberto Prada||Italy||1.8 billion||Prada|
|1054||Marina Prada||Italy||1.8 billion||Prada|
|1054||Luigi Rovati||Italy||1.8 billion||Rottapharm|
|1105||Diego Della Valle||Italy||1.75 billion||Tod's|
|1152||Gio Ferrero||Italy||1.68 billion||La Diamante Vita|
|1173||Domenico Dolce||Italy||1.65 billion||Dolce & Gabbana|
|1173||Stefano Gabbana||Italy||1.65 billion||Dolce & Gabbana|
|1250||Alberto Bombassei||Italy||1.5 billion||Brembo|
|1386||Paolo Bulgari||Italy||1.35 billion||Bulgari|
|1386||Pier Luigi Loro Piana||Italy||1.35 billion||Loro Piana|
|1415||Nicola Bulgari||Italy||1.3 billion||Bulgari|
|1415||Andrea Della Valle||Italy||1.3 billion||Tod's|
|1415||Massimo Moratti||Italy||1.3 billion||Saras|
|1500||Gian Marco Moratti||Italy||1.25 billion||Saras|
|1533||Luigi Cremonini||Italy||1.2 billion||Cremonini Group, Marr Group|
|1605||Remo Ruffini||Italy||1.15 billion||Moncler|
|1712||Brunello Cucinelli||Italy||1.05 billion||Brunello Cucinelli|
|1733||Sandro Salsano||Italy||1.05 billion||Salsano Group|
|1712||Gustavo Denegri||Italy||1.05 billion||DiaSorin|
1. Luxottica – Luxottica Group S. p. A. is an Italian eyewear company. Based in Milan, Italy, it is the worlds largest eyewear company. com and its best known brands are Ray-Ban, Persol, and Oakley. Leonardo Del Vecchio started the company in 1961, in Agordo north of Belluno, Italy, Del Vecchio began his career as the apprentice to a tool and die maker in Milan, but decided to turn his metalworking skills to making spectacle parts. So in 1961, he moved to Agordo in the province of Belluno, the new company was Luxottica s. a. s. a limited partnership with Del Vecchio as one of the founding partners. In 1967, he started selling complete eyeglass frames under the Luxottica brand, convinced of the need for vertical integration, in 1974, he acquired Scarrone, a distribution company. In 1981 the company set up its first international subsidiary, in Germany, the first of many licensing deals with a designer was struck with Armani, in 1988. The company listed in New York in 1990, and in Milan in December 2000, Luxottica later increased its presence in the retail sector by acquiring Sydney-based OPSM in 2003, Pearle Vision and Cole National in 2004. Luxottica acquired Oakley in November 2007 for US$2.1 billion, in August 2011 Luxoticca acquired Erroca for €20 million. In March 2014, it was announced that Luxottica would partner with Google on the development of Google Glass, on the 1st September 2014, a new organizational structure was announced, composed of two co-CEOs, one focusing on market development and the other overseeing corporate functions. After the exit of former CEO Andrea Guerra, Enrico Cavatorta was appointed CEO of Corporate Function, Enrico Cavatorta left the company 40 days after being appointed CEO. In 2016, it was reported that Luxottica had lost its chief executive in a year. In January 2017, the agreed on a €46 billion merger with Essilor. The deal will help to offer a succession plan for Leonardo Del Vecchio. Luxotticas two main product offerings are sunglasses and prescription frames, the company operates in two sectors, manufacturing & wholesale distribution, and retail distribution. Luxottica Retail has more than 7,200 retail locations in the United States, Latin America, Canada, China, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the headquarters of the retail division is in Mason, Ohio, United States. These three programs were founded in 1988, Luxottica came to a decision to unite all three charitable programs into one global foundation and called it One Sight. Luxottica also owns EyeMed Vision Care, a vision care organization in the United States. As of 2014, it is the second largest vision benefits company in the United States, the company has been criticised for the high price of its brand-name glasses, such as Ray-Ban, Oakley, and several othersLuxottica – Persol sunglasses
2. Stefano Pessina – Stefano Pessina is an Italian-born Monegasque billionaire businessman and the vice chairman, chief executive officer, and the single largest shareholder of Walgreens Boots Alliance. Pessina was born in Pescara and grew up between Milan, Como and Naples and he graduated from the Polytechnic University of Milan in nuclear engineering. In 1977, he took over his familys pharmaceutical wholesaler in Naples and turned it into Alliance Santé, in 1997, it merged with Alliance UniChem, and he joined its board of directors. From 2001 to 2004, he served as its CEO and he served as deputy chairman, and later as chairman. Pessina was chairman of Alliance Boots from 2007 to 2014 and a director of Walgreens until August 2014 and he is a director of Walgreens Boots Alliance. He is a director of the Consumer Goods Forum, Pessina is divorced from his wife Barbara, and they have two children. He has been the partner of Ornella Barra, co-chief operating officer of Walgreens Boots Alliance, as of February 2015, he is worth US$11.4 billion, owning around 15% of Walgreens Boots Alliance. He has lived in Monte Carlo, Monaco, for many years and his son, a banker, works at Walgreens Boots Alliance. The problem is would they act that way or not, one thing is to threaten and to shout but it is completely different to be in charge and to manage the country day-to-day. He described Labour’s business policies as not helpful for business, not helpful for the country, the Sunday Telegraph noted that Pessina declined to elaborate on which specific policies he disliked. On 2 February, in a live Q&A session with Sky News, I dont think people should take kindly to being told how to vote by someone who avoids paying his taxes. On 2 February, Walgreens Boots Alliance stated, The comments made by Stefano Pessina were a part of a much larger conversation and have been taken out of context. Stefano Pessina was expressing his personal views only and is not campaigning against Ed Miliband or the Labour PartyStefano Pessina – Stefano Pessina, 2010
3. Alliance Boots – Alliance Boots GmbH was a multinational pharmacy-led health and beauty group with corporate headquarters in Bern, Switzerland and operational headquarters in Nottingham and Weybridge, United Kingdom. The company had a presence in over 27 countries including associates and joint ventures and in 2013/14, in 2007 it was bought out in a private equity transaction by AB Acquisitions Limited, led by Stefano Pessina and Kohlberg Kravis Roberts. Alliance Boots GmbH was established in Switzerland during 2008 and is a subsidiary of AB Acquisitions Holdings Limited. In August 2012, the US company Walgreens purchased 45% of shares as part of a plan to merge the two businesses, with an option to acquire the shares within three years. It exercised that option in August 2014, and following shareholder and regulatory approvals, the groups operations were mainly carried out under the Boots and Alliance Healthcare brands. Boots UK is the UKs leading pharmacy-led health and beauty retailer, Alliance Boots is also the largest pharmaceutical wholesaler in the UK through its Alliance Healthcare Ltd business. The company employs over 120,000 staff and operates more than 4,600 retail stores, Alliance Boots pharmaceutical wholesale division serves over 180,000 pharmacies, doctors, hospitals and health centres from over 370 distribution centres in 20 countries. Both companies became subsidiaries of Walgreens Boots Alliance on completion of the merger, rival firm Celesio, owner of the Lloyds Pharmacy chain, challenged the deal, although were rejected by the Competition Appeal Tribunal. The merger received approval from the Office of Fair Trading in February 2006 and completed on 31 March 2006. Former Boots Group shareholders held 50. 2% of the new company, Alliance Boots was the first company on the FTSE100 share index to be bought-out by a private equity firm. Almost £9 billion was advanced by investment banks, including Deutsche Bank, Citigroup, J. P. Morgan, UniCredit, Barclays, Merrill Lynch, the Bank of America and the Royal Bank of Scotland. Simultaneously the banks, as so-called equity underwriters“, together invested around £1.4 billion in the buyout company, the reverse takeover and subsequent privatisation was dubbed as the best deal ever struck by a managing partner at a private equity firm in June 2008. Alliance Boots GmbH was established in Switzerland during 2008 and is a subsidiary of AB Acquisitions Holdings Limited. It was announced on 19 June 2012 that Walgreens would purchase a 45% stake in Alliance Boots, the two companies had established Walgreens Boots Alliance Development Company in late 2012 to further their integration. Walgreens shareholders approved the purchase on 29 December 2014, and it was completed on 31 December, under the terms of the merger, the two companies became subsidiaries of a new holding company, Walgreens Boots Alliance Inc. which remains headquartered in Deerfield, Illinois. The new company is organised into four divisions, of which Walgreens, the two remaining divisions are Pharmaceutical Wholesale and International Retail, which includes Alliance Healthcare, and Global Brands. Alliance Boots operations are split into two areas, pharmacy-led health and beauty retailing and pharmaceutical wholesaling and distribution, the Group also has a stand-alone contract manufacturing business called BCM and increasingly develops and internationalises its product brands. Boots UK formed the retail business of Alliance Boots in the United KingdomAlliance Boots – Interior of a Boots store
4. Giorgio Armani – Giorgio Armani is an Italian fashion designer, particularly noted for his menswear. He is known today for his clean, tailored lines and he is credited with pioneering red-carpet fashion. Whilst at secondary school at the Liceo Scientifico Respighi in Piacenza, Armani aspired to a career in medicine and he enrolled in the Department of Medicine at the University of Milan, but after three years, in 1953, he left and joined the army. Due to his background, he was assigned to the Military Hospital in Verona. He eventually decided to look for a different career path, after his stint in the armed forces, Armani found a job as a window dresser at La Rinascente, a department store in Milan in 1957. He went on to become a seller for the menswear department, in the mid-1960s, Armani moved to the Nino Cerruti company, for which he designed menswear. His skills were in demand, and for the decade, while continuing to work for Cerutti, Armani also freelanced. In the late 1960s, Armani met Sergio Galeotti, an architectural draftsman, in 1973, Galeotti persuaded him to open a design office in Milan, at 37 Corso Venezia. The international press was quick to acknowledge Armanis importance following the shows at the Sala Bianca in the Pitti Palace in Florence. The experience provided Armani with an opportunity to develop his own style in new ways. He was now ready to devote his energy to his own label, in October of that same year, he presented his first collection of mens ready-to-wear for Spring and Summer 1976 under his own name. He also produced a line for the same season. In 1979, after founding the Giorgio Armani Corporation, Armani began producing for the United States, the label became one of the leading names in international fashion with the introduction of several new product lines, including G. A. Le Collezioni, Giorgio Armani Underwear and Swimwear, and Giorgio Armani Accessories, a new store was opened in Milan for the Emporio line, followed by the first Giorgio Armani boutique. Armanis concern for the end user culminated in the development of a more youthful product with the level of stylistic quality as his high-end line. Because of the nature of the Emporio line, Armani felt that he had to make use of new. These included television spots and enormous street ads, together with a magazine that was sent out by mail to consumers. Armani also felt that a relationship with the cinema was essential and he designed the costumes for American Gigolo, the success of which led to a long-term collaboration with the world of filmGiorgio Armani – Giorgio Armani at the Red day Party in GUM, Moscow
5. Fininvest – The Fininvest group is composed of a number of companies, such as Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Teatro Manzoni, Alba Servizi Aerotrasporti and Fininvest Gestione Servizi. The deal to sell Mediaset Premium was collapsed in 2016, Fininvest had a shareholders pact with Ennio Doris, the largest shareholder of Banca Mediolanum, making the pact had an absolute majority in the bank for 51% share capital. On 5 August 2016 Fininvest signed an agreement to sell 99. 93% stake of A. C. Milan to a Chinese private equity fund Sino-Europe Sports. On 15 February 2017 Fininvest announced that they bought an additional 2. 9% shares of Mondadori, Fininvest owned 0. 99% stake in Mediobanca, and was part of the shareholders pact that owned about 31% stake in the bank in total. The Berlusconi family does not control the company directly, instead, its shares are owned by 38 separate companies, all named Holding Italiana followed by a number, most of which are in turn controlled by Berlusconi. These Holding Italiane have repeatedly come under investigation by the police for financial and accounting irregularities, slush funds. All of them were created at the end of the 1970s by covert associates of Berlusconis, some of their liquidity was even deposited in cash. Much of the documentation of that time relative to the financial and banking operations of these companies has been lost. In 1998 the case was shelved because of lack of sufficient evidence to go to trialFininvest – Fininvest, S.p.A.
6. De'Longhi – DeLonghi S. p. A is an Italian small appliance manufacturer based in Treviso, Italy. The company was founded by the DeLonghi family in 1902 as an industrial parts manufacturing workshop. DeLonghi is especially known for the Artista Series espresso machines, the DeLonghi gelato maker. DeLonghi is known for the design of its products and its Esclusivo line of kitchen appliances won the Red Dot design award in 2007. Home Furnishing News recognized DeLonghi Design Director Giocomo Borin as one of the 50 most influential designers in the world in 2006, DeLonghis 2000 acquisition of Climaveneta SpA and DLRadiators allowed DeLonghi to enter the commercial HVACR market. DeLonghis £45.9 million 2001 acquisition of the British appliance maker Kenwood gave DeLonghi access to Kenwoods Chinese factory, as a result, many of DeLonghis products are now imported from China, while design and engineering remain largely in Italy. Acquisition of a majority stake in RC Group, a player in information technology cooling. In all, DeLonghi operates 13 production facilities and 30 international subsidiaries that support sales to 75 countries worldwide, international sales account for nearly 75 percent of the groups total revenues, which topped €1.63 billion in 2010. On 2 January 2012 the DeLclima group was set up as a demerger from DeLonghi, on 16 April 2012, DeLonghi bought perpetual rights to manufacture Braun branded products from Procter & Gamble in the small appliance segment. Procter & Gamble will continue to own the Braun brand, €50 million was paid immediately and €90 million will be paid over the next 15 years. Shares in the company are traded on Milans stock exchangeDe'Longhi – De'Longhi
7. Campari – Campari is an alcoholic liqueur, considered an apéritif, obtained from the infusion of herbs and fruit in alcohol and water. It is a bitter characterised by its red colour. Campari is often used in cocktails and is served with soda water or citrus juice. It is produced by the Alfredo Campari Group, a company based in Italy. Campari was invented in 1860 by Gaspare Campari in Novara, Italy and it was originally coloured with carmine dye, derived from crushed cochineal insects, which gave the drink its distinctive red colour. In 2006, Gruppo Campari ceased using carmine in its production, in 1904, Camparis first production plant was opened in Sesto San Giovanni, near Milan, Italy. The company required bars that bought Campari to display the Campari Bitters sign, under the direction of Davide Campari, Gaspares son, the company began to export the beverage, first to Nice in the heart of the French Riviera, then overseas. The Campari brand is now distributed in over 190 countries, in the Italian market, Campari mixed with soda water is sold in individual bottles as Campari Soda. Campari Soda is packaged in a bottle that was designed by Fortunato Depero in 1932. Campari is an ingredient in the classic Negroni cocktail, the Garibaldi cocktail, the Americano. Bill Murrays character Steve Zissou, in Wes Andersons film The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou, is seen drinking Campari, candice Bergens character in the Burt Reynoldss movie Stick drinks Campari and soda, ordering it by name several times. Campari is drunk in the BBC series Call the Midwife, del Boy orders a Campari and Diet Coke in Only Fools and Horses. In the Archer episode Skytanic, Pam Poovey orders a double Campari, in Matthew Weiners Mad Men, Salvatore Romano asks for a Campari with a twist, in the episode titled The Hobo Code. In The Day of the Jackal, the character is asked by his gunsmith. Wine Enthusiast has reviewed Campari on a number of occasions, most recently giving it a score of 96–100 in 2011, proof66 rates Campari in the Top 10 percentile of liqueurs in the worldCampari – Campari
8. Mario Moretti Polegato – Mario Moretti Polegato is an Italian entrepreneur, active in the footwear sector, who founded the company Geox of which he is the president. According to Forbes magazine, in 2014 he ranks 13th among the richest men in Italy and he was born in Crocetta del Montello, into a family of entrepreneurs active in the agricultural and winemaking sector. Following in the footsteps, he studied oenology. For several years, the entrepreneur of the Veneto region devoted himself to the family business, when he returned to Italy, he designed a new sole with holes and a breathable and waterproof internal membrane. He was the first person in the world to create a breathable rubber sole, Mario Moretti Polegato began to think of the scope that his idea might have if launched on a large scale. Therefore, he established Geox in order to produce the shoe that breathes, the company, which employed 5 young graduates at the outset, now has about 30,000 direct and indirect employees. Geox is the leading Italian company and among major world leaders in the footwear category. During his working life, Mario Moretti Polegato has received many acknowledgements including Knight of the National Order of Merit from the President of Romania in 2000. In 2002, he was nominated Entrepreneur of the Year – a title given to him by Ernst & Young - and in 2003 he received the Best Italian Entrepreneur in the World award, the European School of Management Italia named him Affiliate Professor of Entrepreneurship. He has held the position of Honorary Consul General of Romania for North-East Italy since 1997. He has always devoted part of his time to teaching students and young entrepreneurs about “Intellectual Property” at the most prestigious universities in Italy, in July 2014, he became a member of the Regency Council of the Bank of Italy. He received the America Award of the Italy-USA Foundation in 2015, Mario Moretti Polegato is the President of the Geox Group, which he founded. It is the major Italian company in the footwear sector. For his company he chose the name “Geox”, which combines the word geo, with the letter x, therefore, right from the outset the choice of the brand shows the highly innovative vocation of the company in the footwear sector worldwide. This vocation is confirmed by the fact that Geox invests 2% of its turnover, every year, in research, after achieving great success in the footwear sector, Geox has also used its own brand to produce clothing with new breathable technologies. In 2004, Geox was listed on the Borsa Italiana, Mario Moretti Polegato is the President of LIR Srl, the finance company based in Treviso, which is entirely owned by the family. Through this company, he controls Geox and Diadora, the Italian brand that represents sport worldwide, LIR Srl is also active in the finance and real estate sectors. Montebelluna Classifica degli uomini più ricchi dItalia secondo Forbes Organizzazione europea dei Brevetti Geox Website Geox Group society InformationMario Moretti Polegato – Mario Moretti Polegato, President and founder at Geox Group (2013).
9. Tod's – Tods Group is an Italian company which produces luxury shoes and other leather goods, and is presided over by businessman Diego Della Valle. Dorino Della Valle started the business out of a basement in the late 1920s. Diego Della Valle, Dorinos elder son, expanded the workshop, Diego brought in innovative marketing strategies in the early 1980s, kept the handmade manufacturing process and went on to create brands of lifestyle named Tods, Hogan and Fay. Roger Vivier, maker of high luxury shoes was acquired in the mid-1990s, in 2003, Italian designer Bruno Frisoni was hired as Roger Viviers Creative Director. The Della Valle family, which owns a vast majority of the luxury maker also has stakes in RCS MediaGroup, all members of the family were born in the middle Italian region of Marche, and many of them continue to reside there. Tods has numerous stores around the world, including flagship stores in Europe, US, China, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia. In November 2015, Tod’s acquired further stock in the Roger Vivier shoe brand for €415 million and it had previously owned a 57. 5% stake, now up to 60. 7%Tod's – A shop in Hong Kong
10. Domenico Dolce – Domenico Dolce is an Italian fashion designer and entrepreneur. Along with Stefano Gabbana, he is one half of the fashion house Dolce & Gabbana. Since founding D&G in 1985, Dolce has become one of the worlds most influential fashion designers, Dolce was born in Polizzi Generosa, Sicily, in 1958. His father was a tailor and his mother sold fabrics and apparel and he moved to Milan to attend the fashion design school Istituto Marangoni, but he dropped out before graduating, confident he knew enough to work in the industry. His dream was to work for Armani, in 1980, Dolce met Milan native Stefano Gabbana through Dolces employer, designer Giorgio Correggiari. In 1983, Gabbana and Dolce left Correggiari to work on their own, in October 1985, the Dolce & Gabbana brand made its fashion show debut at Milano Collezionis Nuovi Talenti. In March 1986, D&G released its first collection and held its own show, in 1987, the first D&G store opened in Milan, at 7 Via Santa Cecilia. In 1988, D&G established a partnership with Dolces father, Saverio, in November 1990, D&G opened its New York City showroom at 532 Broadway in SoHo, Manhattan. D&G released its first fragrance, Dolce & Gabbana Parfum, in October 1992, in 1993, the Italian designers received worldwide fame when Madonna chose D&G to design the costumes for her Girlie Show World Tour. They have since gone on to design for Monica Bellucci, Kylie Minogue, Angelina Jolie, later additions to the D&G line included ties, belts, handbags, sunglasses, watches and footwear. By 2003, the company sold products in Italy than Armani, Gucci, Prada. In 2009, nearly 25 years after D&G opened, the company had 113 stores and 21 factory outlets, a staff of 3,500 people, Dolce and Gabbana were an open couple for many years. Following their success, they lived in a 19th-century villa in Milan and they ended their long-time relationship in 2003 or 2005, but the pair still work together at D&G. As of October 2015, Dolce was the 27th richest person in Italy with a net worth of approximately US$1.74 billion, in 2013, both Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana were convicted of tax evasion and sentenced to a 20-month suspended sentence in prison. An Italian court found the pair guilty of failing to declare millions of euros of revenue earned through a D&G subsidiary company, Gado and they denied the charges and appealed the case, in October 2014, they were both cleared of wrongdoing by the appellate court. In March 2015, Dolces comments about in vitro fertilization sparked a media storm of criticism. In an interview with Panorama magazine, Dolce said, I am gay, I believe you cannot have everything in life. You are born from a father and a mother, or at least that is how it should beDomenico Dolce – Dolce & Gabbana store in Kobe, Japan
11. Dolce & Gabbana – Dolce & Gabbana is a luxury Italian fashion house founded in 1985 in Legnano by Italian designers Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana. The two met in Milan in 1980 and designed for the fashion house. In 1982 they established a designer consulting studio, in time it grew to become Dolce & Gabbana and they presented their first womens collection in 1985 in Milan, where a year later their store would open its doors. In 1988, they launched their line, and in 1989 they began designing underwear. Dolce & Gabbana started to export their products to Japan and other countries like the U. S. where they founded their own showroom in 1990, in 1992, the same year they presented their mens collection, they also launched their first perfume Dolce & Gabbana. They won the Woolmark award in 1991, and the prize most feminine flavor of the year in 1993, towards the end of the 1990s their sales were around 500 million dollars and in 2003 their revenue reached $633 million. By 2005, their turnover was €600 million, Domenico Dolce began his career in the fashion industry after dropping out of a three-year course in fashion design at Marangoni Institute, believing that he knew everything the school had to teach. His dream was to work for Giorgio Armani so one day, inside the door, there was a long white carpet leading to the receptionists desk. Dolce was not sure if he should walk on it with his shoes on, I am such a cretino, he says. He decided that he would look ridiculous appearing at the front desk without shoes, so he approached by sidling along the wall and he handed the book to the receptionist and to this day, Dolce does not know if Armani ever saw the sketches. Dolce found a job as an assistant to a designer named Giorgio Correggiari, One night at a club, he met a young man named Stefano Gabbana. Dolce was impressed with Gabbanas good looks and outgoing personality and Gabbana was happy to hear Dolces advice on how to approach Correggiari for a job. Correggiari ended up hiring Gabbana to work on sportswear, and Dolce taught him how to sketch and the basics of tailoring, Dolce, We always filed two different invoices for the freelance work we did, even when we were working for the same client. Gabbana, Our accountant said, Why not just do one invoice for both of you, put Dolce and Gabbana at the top. So the brand was born, the brainchild of a Milanese bookkeeper, the first collection from the design duo was shown in October 1985 alongside five other up-and-coming Italian labels as part of Milan Fashion Week. The two did not have money to hire models or provide accessories for them, so they sought help from their friends. The models simply wore their personal items to complement the clothing and they used a bed sheet that Dolce had brought from home as their stage curtain. The pair labeled their first collection Real Women, due in part to the use of local women on the runwayDolce & Gabbana – 2007 D&G advertising image subject to controversy
12. Stefano Gabbana – Stefano Gabbana is an Italian fashion designer and, along with Domenico Dolce, the co-founder of the Dolce & Gabbana luxury fashion house. He is one of the worlds most influential fashion designers, Gabbana was born in Milan to a father who worked in a printing factory and a mother who worked for a laundry service. His family is from Veneto, his father was born in Ceggia and he graduated from the Istituto Superiore per le Industrie Artistiche, a design institute in Rome. In 1980, Gabbana met Sicilian Domenico Dolce through Dolces employer, designer Giorgio Correggiari, Correggiari, who died in 2012, was extremely influential on the pair, Gabbana said in 2013, He was not very famous. But for us he was important and he taught us especially what not to do. In 1983, Gabbana and Dolce left Correggiari to work on their own, in October 1985, the Dolce & Gabbana brand made its fashion show debut at Milano Collezionis Nuovi Talenti. In March 1986, D&G released its first collection and held its own show, in 1987, the first D&G store opened in Milan, at 7 Via Santa Cecilia. In 1988, D&G established a partnership with Dolces father, Saverio, in November 1990, D&G opened its New York City showroom at 532 Broadway in SoHo, Manhattan. D&G released its first fragrance, Dolce & Gabbana Parfum, in October 1992, in 1993, the Italian designers received worldwide fame when Madonna chose D&G to design the costumes for her Girlie Show World Tour. They have since gone on to design for Monica Bellucci, Kylie Minogue, Angelina Jolie, later additions to the D&G line included ties, belts, handbags, sunglasses, watches and footwear. By 2003, the company sold products in Italy than Armani, Gucci, Prada. In 2009, nearly 25 years after D&G opened, the company had 113 stores and 21 factory outlets, a staff of 3,500 people, Gabbana and Dolce were an open couple for many years. Following their success, they lived in a 19th-century villa in Milan and they ended their long-time relationship in 2005, but the pair still works together at D&G. As of March 2015, Gabbana was the 27th richest person in Italy with a net worth of approximately US$1.56 billion, in 2013, both Stefano Gabbana and Domenico Dolce were convicted of tax evasion and sentenced to a 20-month suspended sentence in prison. An Italian court found the pair guilty of failing to declare millions of euros of revenue earned through a D&G subsidiary company, Gado and they denied the charges and appealed the case, in October 2014 they were both cleared of wrongdoing by the appellate court. This sparked a war of words, with Gabbana later calling John a fascist, however, he later clarified that his views on IVF were separate than that of Dolce. When asked on CNN whether he supported IVF, he responded, Yeah, I dont have anything bad, because the beauty of the world is freedom and its just an express of my private point of view. Gabbana and Dolce have received honours for their fashion and cultural contributionsStefano Gabbana – Dolce & Gabbana store in Shanghai
13. Brembo – Brembo S. p. A. is an Italian manufacturer of automotive brake systems, especially for high-performance cars and motorcycles based in Bergamo, near Milan. Brembo was established in Bergamo, Italy in 1961, soon after the company was formed, it specialised in disc brakes, which were imported from the UK at the time. The company entered into a contract with Alfa Romeo in 1964. It became the supplier of components to Moto Guzzi in 1966. In the 1980s, Brembo began supplying BMW, Chrysler, Ferrari, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, the company went public on the Milan Stock Exchange in 1995. Corporate headquarters are located in Bergamo, and the company has more than 6,000 employees within Italy and at branches in Brazil, China, Japan, Mexico, US, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the UK. In 2000 Brembo purchased the UK-based racing brake and clutch manufacturer AP Racing, on November 9,2007, the Automotive Brake Components division of Hayes Lemmerz was acquired by Brembos North American subsidiary. The approximately €39.6 million sale included production facilities in Homer, Michigan and Apodaca, Mexico, an official press release on May 21,2014 announced an €83 million expansion of the Michigan facility. On December 2,2014, Brembo announced plans to invest €32 million into a 31,500 square meter production facility, the current expectation is initial operation beginning in 2016 and full operation by the end of 2018. Brembos deputy chairman Matteo Tiraboschi reported on March 5,2015 the companys 2014 sales growth of 15% up to €1.8 billion, and he also reported that possibilities for acquiring assets were being explored, with focus on the automotive and aviation sectors. Brembo specialises in performance braking systems and components, as well as conducting research on braking systems, Brembo sells over 1,300 products worldwide, and is known for their aftermarket automotive brake components, including calipers, drums, rotors, and brake lines. Except in the North American market, Brembo owns the foundries which produce their initial materials, in all other markets the company controls the entire production system from raw materials through distribution. The company holds QS9000 and ISO9001 certifications, Brembo brakes are also used by a variety of Formula One teams including Ferrari, and brake supplier of the majority of MotoGP teams. Since 2012 season, Brembo is also an official supplier for IndyCar SeriesBrembo – Brembo plant
14. Bulgari – Bulgari is an Italian jewelry and luxury goods brand that produces and markets several product lines including jewelry, watches, fragrances, accessories, and hotels. The name Voulgaris itself contains the root word Βούλγαρ Greek for Bulgarian, furthermore in the companys native Italy the word Bulgari means Bulgarians or people of Bulgarian descent. Sotirios Boulgaris, born in an Aromanian village known as Kalarites began his career as a jeweller in his home village Paramythia, in 1877, he left for Corfu and then Naples. In 1881 he finally moved to Rome, where in 1884 he founded his company, the store in Via Sistina was then replaced by the current flagship store in Via dei Condotti opened in 1905 by Bulgari with the help of his two sons, Costantino and Giorgio. During the Second World War, Costantino Bulgari and his wife Laura hid three Jewish women in their own Roman home and they were strangers to them, the Bulgaris opened their doors out of outrage for the raid of the Roman ghetto in October 1943. For their generous action, on 31 December 2003, they were awarded the title of Righteous among the Nations at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem, after Giorgios death in 1966, his son Gianni led the company as co-chief executive with his cousin Marina. As chairman and CEO of Bulgari in the early 1970s, Gianni initiated the internationalization of the company by opening shops in New York, Geneva, Monte-Carlo, for many years the company maintained a showroom in New Yorks The Pierre Hotel. In the late 1970s, Gianni led a complete overhaul of the company, establishing a new watch business, in 1985, Gianni resigned as CEO and in 1987, he left the family business after selling his one-third stake in the company to his brothers Nicola and Paolo. In 1984, Sotirios grandsons Paolo and Nicola Bulgari were named Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the company, trapanis goal to diversify the company was started in the early 1990s with the release of the Bulgari perfume line. Under his tenure the company has established itself as a luxury goods brand recognized throughout the world, in 1995, the company was listed on the Borsa Italiana. The company has seen 150% revenue growth between 1997 and 2003, under the deal, the Bulgari family sold their 50.4 per cent controlling stake in exchange for 3 per cent of LVMH, thereby becoming the second-biggest family shareholder behind the Arnaults in LVMH. The takeover doubled the size of LVMH’s watches and jewellery unit, the acquisition concluded on 4 October 2011 as Bulgari was delisted from the Borsa Italiana. Bulgari opened its first hotel in Milan in 2004, a resort in Bali in 2006, followed by a hotel in London in 2012, in 2011, Bulgari Bali has been chosen by the readers of Smart Travel Asia magazine as number-2 of top places to stay in Asia. Current locations include Milan, London, and Bali with restaurants in Osaka, future locations will include Shanghai, Beijing, Dubai, and Moscow. Bulgari jewelry design is distinctive and often imitated, in the 1970s, many of the more expensive Bulgari pieces were characterized by instantly recognizable, bold, architectural designs combining large and weighty gold links with interlocking steel. Bulgari is also famous for colored stones, especially sapphires mixed in unique formats, genuine Bulgari watches have a unique serial number that is registered with the company. Bulgari relies on a network of about 300 stores, located in the most exclusive shopping areas in the world. The largest Bulgari store in the world is the 10-story Bulgari Ginza Tower in Tokyo,940 square meters of floor space, including a restaurantBulgari – A Bulgari shop in Baku, Azerbaijan
15. Andrea Della Valle – Cardinal Andrea della Valle was an Italian clergyman and art collector. Andrea belonged to an ancient family of Roman nobles and he was the son of Filippo della Valle, a Roman patrician, the family tomb is in Santa Maria in Aracoeli, where an inscription to their father was placed by Andrea and his brother Bartolomeo. Andrea also had a sister, Sigismonda, Andrea was elected bishop of Crotone in 1496. In 1503-05 he directed the Apostolic Chancery, and served as Apostolic secretary during the pontificate of Pope Julius II and he was transferred to the titular diocese of Miletus in 1508, which he resigned in favor of his nephew Quinzio Rustici on 26 November 1523. He participated in the Fifth Lateran Council,1512, and was created cardinal priest in the consistory of 1 July 1517 and he participated in the conclaves of 1521-22 and 1523. As archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica he ceremonially opened and closed the Holy Door in the Jubilee Year of 1525, cardinal della Valle is best remembered, however, as the collector of one of the first collections of Roman antiquities that marked the High Renaissance. He inherited some antiquities, which had collected by the della Valle in the previous century, according to Vasari. Many visitors left written impressions during the 16th century, and more than one artist made sketches, a theatre was built in the Cardinals courtyard, which gave its name to the via Teatro Valle. Among identifiable pieces, the Marsyas of the Uffizi, the Apollo with Lyre of Poggio Imperiale, the Minerva of Palazzo Pitti and othersAndrea Della Valle – Supporting figure (telamon) of Pan, called a "Della Valle Satyr"
16. Massimo Moratti – From 1995 until 2013, Moratti was the chairman of F. C. Internazionale Milano. He is said to have spent around €1.5 billion of his fortune in the transfer market. He was Inters honorary chairman, and also a United Nations Goodwill Ambassador, in 2013, he was inducted into the Italian Football Hall of Fame. Massimo Moratti is the son of industrialist Angelo Moratti, who was the chairman of Football Club Internazionale Milano during the teams Golden Age from 1955 to 1968. Born in the villa in the Bosco Chiesanuova, close to Verona. Letizia Moratti, his brothers wife, was the Mayor of Milan from 2006 until 2011, on his fathers death, Massimo Moratti inherited his shares in the Saras Group, engaged in the refining of petroleum, where he is presently C. E. O. Moratti is also the owner of Sarlux, headquartered in Cagliari, married to the environmental activist Emilia Moratti, the couple have five children. On 10 September 2009, Sauro Gori announced that Moratti had been appointed a United Nations Goodwill Ambassador, in May 2011, Moratti supported Giuliano Pisapias bid to become mayor of Milan against his sister-in-law Letizia. His call for change was perceived as an extension of his rivalry with A. C. Milan, Silvio Berlusconi, Moratti took over as president of Inter from Ernesto Pellegrini in 1995, during a period where many considered Inter to be underachievers. Inter won the Scudetto, the Coppa Italia and the Champions League in the 2009-2010 season, Moratti is said to have spent around €1.5 billion of his personal fortune in the transfer market in his time as president. His most famous signing was that of Ronaldo from FC Barcelona in the summer of 1997, however, criticism also been levelled against Moratti, as he fired coaches frequently. Roberto Mancini and José Mourinho were the only two trophy winning and longest serving coach in recent years, before Mancini, Massimo employed more than 10 short-lived coaches, including Roy Hodgson, Marcello Lippi, Marco Tardelli, Héctor Cúper and Alberto Zaccheroni. The day after Ranieri was dismissed, chief scout of the first team Giovanni Battista Lanfranchi was fired and replaced by the technical commission of Udinese. Lanfranchi had served for Inter for 13 years in different positions, on 15 November 2013, International Sports Capital took control of 70% of the club. Indonesian businessman Erick Thohir, a part-owner of that company, was elected Chairman of Inter, but Moratti remained with the club as Honorary Chairman. On 28 June 2016 Massimo Morattis Internazionale Holding S. r. l. sold all its stake in F. C. Internazionale Milano S. p. A. to Erick Thohirs Nusantara Sports Ventures HK Limited for €60 million. Massimo Morattis wife, Milly Moratti, remained in the Advisory Board of Inter, however, Massimo Moratti himself, was no longer the Honorary Chairman of the clubMassimo Moratti – Moratti in 2009
17. Saras S.p.A. – Raffinerie Sarde is an Italian energy provider founded in 1962, operating in the area of oil refining and the production of electricity, located in the island of Sardinia. The company was founded in 1962 by Angelo Moratti and is now run by his heirs. To date, the Saras group meets more than 30% of the needs of Sardinia, with production in 2006 of nearly 4.5 million MWh. Sarlux was born as a joint venture with Enron, but was acquired by Saras on June 28,2006. The company is listed on the Borsa Italiana, in 2009, the documentary-film by Massimiliano Mazzotta Oil about pollution and low workers security of the refinery was subject to censorship in Italy. As of 29 February 2016 As of 26 April 2016 Gian Marco Moratti Massimo Moratti Rosneft others As of 31 December 2015 Oil and it explores the impact of oil development on the earth and the life of the local populationSaras S.p.A. – Saras S.p.A.
18. Moncler – Moncler is an Italian apparel manufacturer and lifestyle brand founded in 1952 by René Ramillon most known for its down jackets and sportswear. Moncler took its name from the abbreviation of Monestier-de-Clermont, an Alpine town near Grenoble, in 2003, the brand was bought by the Italian entrepreneur Remo Ruffini. Moncler’s flagship store is on the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in Paris, Moncler is especially known for its down jackets. The name is an abbreviation of Monestier-de-Clermont, a village in the mountains near Grenoble, at the outset, Moncler produced quilted sleeping bags, a single model of a lined cagoule and tents with a telescopie structure and outside cover. The first quilted jackets were conceived for protecting workers from the cold and they used the jackets on top of their overalls in the small mountain establishment. The first to them and realize their potential was the French mountaineer Lionel Terray. All were put to the test in the course of expeditions and were gradually improved, Moncler also accompanied the French expedition which reached the summit of Makalù in 1995 and was the official supplier for expeditions in Alaska organised by Lionel Terray in 1964. On occasion of the Grenoble Winter Olympics, Moncler became the supplier of the French national downhill skiing team. It was a event that was also to mark the change in logo, Mount Eguit. In 2003, Moncler was bought out by the Italian entrepreneur Remo Ruffini, current President and Creative Director, the IPO of Moncler on the Milan Stock Exchange took place on 16 December 2013, with an initial value of €10.20 per share. The shares were 31 times oversubscribed and rose 47% on the first day, Moncler hired celebrity photographer Annie Leibovitz in August 2013 to shoot an ad campaign. Since 2008, the collection is presented during Paris Fashion Week, Moncler faces major issues with counterfeit products. There have been a number of incidents in which counterfeit Moncler jackets are sold online through fake websites, Moncler has set up an online code verification system, to check the validation of the product. Online fashion blogs are helping online customers to see the differences between the real moncler jackets and the fake onesMoncler – Moncler
19. Sandro Salsano – Sandro Salsano is an Italian entrepreneur, businessman, investor and philanthropist. He is the President and Chairman of Salsano Group and Chairman of Salsano Family Office, the group has investments in global real estate, luxury, private equity, venture capital, financials and technology. He is the Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Salsano Shahani Foundation and he sits on the Board of a number of companies. He was named Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum, born in Lecco, Italy, he grew up in Southern Italy where he was a professional basketball player until he decided to move to Milan to study at Bocconi University. His mother was a teacher and his father was employed with the State Railways and his first job was at Scottish Widows Investment Partnership in London. He later became a shareholder and partner in an investment bank in former Soviet Union and he co-founded what became one of the largest factoring companies for exporters to Central America and the Caribbean. He was a principal in a UK FCA regulated hedge fund, the group has its headquarter in Panama with presence in Miami, New York, San Francisco, San Juan, London, Zurich and Shanghai. The Group owns over 1,000 ha of land in Panama, Salsano sits on the board of different companies as both a shareholder and as an advisor. He joined in 2016 the Advisory Board of The Family Office Association, sandro Salsano is a producer with Nick Raynes, Julie Pacino, Jennifer DeLia and Nitsa Benchetrit of The First, Pickford, The Woman Who Made Hollywood. Salsano has been honoured by the World Economic Forum as a Young Global Leader in 2014 He is often featured on several medias like CNBC, FT, Bloomberg, Forbes, CNN and he was regarded as one of the top 50 business leaders in Latin America under 40. He has donated among others to the William J. Clinton Foundation, raisa Gorbachev Foundation, Elton John AIDS Foundation, Amfar, Leonardo DiCaprio Foundation, Olga Sinclair Foundation, Nuestro Pequenos Hermanos. He set up Salsano Shahani foundation with his wife Johanna Shahani to improve education in Panama. Sandro is the Chairman for Panama of Global Dignity, an independent and their project is the universal right of every human being to lead a dignified life. The organization was established in 2006 by Crown Prince Haakon of Norway, John Hope Bryant, Salsano is also a Fellow at the Aspen Institute, an international nonprofit organization founded in 1950, headquartered in Washington, D. C. USA, and campuses in Aspen, Colorado and at the Wye River in Maryland, Salsano Group has announced a commitment totaling $15 million to promote the conservation of natural areas and protect working landscapes in the Republic of Panama in 2016. He is also part of the academy of The Global Teacher Prize and he got married to Johanna Shahani on the 14th of March 2014 in Panama City. 2,000 guests attended the wedding and were entertained by Latin Grammy winner duo Chino & Nacho among others, sandro Salsano is an astronaut passenger with Sir Richard Bransons Virgin Galactic and he will enter space on board SpaceShipTwo. Other astronauts include Angelina Jolie, Philippe Stark, Justin Bieber and Leonardo DiCaprio Salsano family office website Salsano group website Salsano Shahani foundationSandro Salsano – Sandro Salsano, businessman and investor at 2015 Davos
20. Prehistoric Italy – In prehistoric times, the Italian peninsula was rather different from how it is now. During glaciations, for example, the sea level was lower, the Adriatic Sea began at what is now the Gargano Peninsula, and what is now its surface up to Venice was a fertile plain with a humid climate. The presence of Homo neanderthalensis has been demonstrated in archaeological findings dating to c.50,000 years ago, there are some twenty such sites, the most important being that of the Grotta Guattari at San Felice Circeo, on the Tyrrhenian Sea south of Rome. Other are the grotta di Fumane and the Breuil grotto, also in San Felice, the first Cro Magnon inhabitants of Italy moved across the peninusula, establishing themselves in small settlements far from each one, most on high areas. In 2011 it has discovered the most ancient Sardinian complete human skeleton at Pistoccu, in Marina di Arbus. Cardium Pottery is a Neolithic decorative style that gets its name from the imprinting of the clay with the shell of the Cardium edulis, a marine mollusk. The alternative name Impressed Ware is given by archaeologists to define this culture, because impressions can be with sharp objects other than Cardium shell. Impressed Ware is found in the zone covering Italy to the Ligurian coast as distinct from the more western Cardial beginning in Provence, France and extending to western Portugal. This pottery style gives its name to the culture of the Mediterranean Neolithic. Since the Late-Neolithic, Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Liguria, Tuscany, later, in the Bronze Age, megalithic structures were built also in Latium, Puglia and Sicily. The Remedello, Rinaldone and Gaudo cultures are late Neolithic cultures of Italy, traces of which are found in the present-day regions of Lombardy, Tuscany, Latium. They are sometimes described as Eneolithic cultures, due to their use of copper tools. The earliest Statue menhirs, frequently depicting weapons, were erected by the populations of northern Italy and this sculptural tradition of possible steppe origin, lasted in some regions well into the Bronze Age and even into the Iron Age. The Beaker culture marks the transition between the Eneolitichic and the early Bronze Age and it was followed in the Middle Bronze Age by the facies of the pile dwellings and of the dammed settlements. Located in Sardinia, the Nuragic civilization, who lasted from the early Bronze Age to the second century A. D and it takes its name from the characteristic Nuraghe. The nuraghe towers are considered the best-preserved and largest megalithic remains in Europe. Their effective use is debated, while most scholars considered them as fortresses. A warrior and mariner people, the ancient Sardinians held flourishing trades with the other Mediterranean peoples, another important element of this civilitation are the Giants of Monte Prama, perhaps the oldest anthropomorphic statues of the western Mediterranean seaPrehistoric Italy – Figure of an Aurochs engraved at the Romito cave near Cosenza
21. Italic peoples – The Italic peoples were an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group identified by speaking Italic languages. The Italics were all the peoples who spoke an idiom belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages and had settled in the Italian peninsula. The first Italic tribes, the Latino-Falisci, entered Italy across the eastern Alpine passes into the plain of the Po River about 1200 BC, later, they crossed the Apennine Mountains and eventually occupied the region of Latium, which included the area of Rome. Before 1000 BC, the Osco-Umbrians followed, which divided into various groups and gradually moved to central. According to David W. Anthony, between 3100–2800/–2600 BCE, a real folk migration of Proto-Indo-European speakers from the Yamna culture took place into the Danube Valley and these migrations probably split off Pre-Italic, Pre-Celtic and Pre-Germanic from Proto-Indo-European. Hydronymy shows that Proto-Germanic homeland is in Central Germany, which would be close to the homeland of Italic and Celtic languages as well. The origin of a hypothetical ancestral Italo-Celtic people is to be found in todays eastern Hungary and this is further confirmed by the fact that Germanic language family shares more vocabulary with the Italic family than with the Celtic language family. Remains of the prehistoric age have been found in Liguria. The most famous is perhaps that of Ötzi the Iceman, the mummy of a hunter found in the Similaun glacier in South Tyrol. During the Copper Age, at the time as metalworking appeared. Approximatively four waves of population from north to the Alps have been hypothesized on the basis of archaeological evidence, the Remedello culture is associated by some with the first identified wave of Proto-Indo-Europeans who entered Italy and took over the Po Valley. In the mid-2nd millennium BC, the Terramare culture developed in the Po Valley, the Terramare culture takes its name from the black earth residue of settlement mounds, which have long served the fertilizing needs of local farmers. The Latino-Faliscan people have associated with this culture, especially by the archaeologist Luigi Pigorini. The Proto-Villanovans practiced cremation and buried the ashes of their dead in pottery urns of a distinctive double-cone shape, the most important settlements excavated are those of Frattesina in Veneto region, Bismantova in Emilia-Romagna and near the Monti della Tolfa, north of Rome. The Osco-Umbrians, the Veneti, and possibly the Latino-Faliscans too, have associated with this culture. In the early Iron Age, the relatively homogeneous Proto-Villanovan culture shows a process of fragmentation, in Tuscany and in part of Emilia-Romagna, Latium and Campania, the Proto-Villanovan culture was followed by the Villanovan culture. The earliest remains of Villanovan culture date back to approx, in the region south of the Tiber, the Latial culture of the Latins emerges, while in the north-east of the peninsula the Este culture of the Veneti appeared. This corresponds with the emergence of the Terni culture, which had similarities with the Celtic cultures of HallstattItalic peoples – Indo-European Migrations. Source David Anthony (2007), The Horse, The Wheel and Language
22. List of ancient peoples of Italy – This is a list of ancient peoples living in Italy before the Roman conquest. Many of the names are either scholarly inventions or exonyms assigned by the ancient writers of works in ancient Greek, the following peoples are believed to have spoken languages that were not Indo-European, although most on scanty evidence. Some of them were pre-Indo-Europeans, and some not, for some has been also proposed the definition of Peri-Indo-European. Therefore, many of these cultures may not necessarily correspond to a specific group of ancient people and, in factList of ancient peoples of Italy – Peoples of Cisalpine Gaul 391-192 BC.
23. Pre-Nuragic Sardinia – The Pre-Nuragic period refers to the prehistory of Sardinia from the Paleolithic till the middle Bronze age, when the Nuragic civilization flourished on the island. The discovery of Paleolithic lithic workshops indicate a presence in Sardinia in the period between 450,000 and 10,000 years ago. During the last ice age sea levels were lower than 130 meters, at that time Sardinia and Corsica formed a large island. The oldest remains of Homo sapiens in Sardinia date back to the Upper Paleolithic, Mesolithic human remains have been found at the Su Coloru cave of Laerru, in northern Sardinia. The material culture suggest that people came in Sardinia from the Italian peninsula after a difficult navigation with rudimentary boats. The oldest complete skeleton was found in 2011 in the territory of Arbus, it dates back to about 9,000 years ago. The culture of Su Carroppu represents the earliest phase of the Neolithic in Sardinia. There were also found the remains of ancient meals, with the discovery of bones of animals such as deer, Prolagus sardus, wild boar, the presence of two human skeletons, along with ornaments made of shells, according to the researchers witnessed the customs of burial cave. The Grotta Verde culture is named after a cave located at Capo Caccia near Alghero and it is dated back to the second phase of the Early Neolithic in the mid-fifth millennium BC. This culture was present in the north-west part of Sardinia and was characterized by the production of refined pottery, on a vase found in the cave, the handles depicted, in a stylized manner, human heads with small nose, eyes and mouth played. According to archaeologist Giovanni Lilliu, this would be the first anthropomorphic representation of Sardinian prehistory, on a wall inside the cave were also found particular graffiti, another singular testimony of these people. In 1971 the priest and caver Renato Loria found in the territory of Mara, the cave was subsequently investigated by archaeologists VR Switsur and David H. Trump, they discovered a series of different cultures that embraced in a very long period of time. The oldest has been dated to the fifth millennium BC, findings show that this culture was developed by people dedicated to agriculture, husbandry. The researchers noted the almost complete disappearance of the forms of pottery decoration and the appearance of big greenstone rings, also commons in Corsica. The Bonuighinu culture prevailed from 4000 BC up to 3400 BC and it spread widely throughout most of the island and one of the most important villages was that of Puisteris in Mogoro. The artifacts related to the village and necropolis of Cuccuru SArrius show a well-organized society, the site Cuccuru SArrius is indicated by many scholars belonging to the culture of San Ciriaco. The San Ciriaco culture characterizes the end of the Middle Neolithic and it is regarded by archaeologists as a cultural link between the Bonuighinu and the Ozieri and is currently undergoing an exact definition. It takes its name from the Church of St Cyriacus of Terralba, during this phase were built the first Domus de Janas, a type of hypogean tomb that will spread throughout the island, with the exception of GalluraPre-Nuragic Sardinia – Mother Goddess from Cuccuru s'Arrius, Cabras
24. List of Nuragic tribes – This is a list of ancient Corsican and Sardinian tribes, listed in order of the province or the general area in which they lived. Some closely fit the concept of a tribe, others are confederations or even unions of tribes. With the Roman conquest, the province of Corsica and Sardinia was created, there is also the possibility that the Nuragic peoples may have been related to the Etruscans and other Tyrsenian peoples and languages. One of the Sea Peoples may have either a population hailing from Sardinia or a group of tribes that migrated to the island in the Late Bronze Age. Corsi Belatones Cervini Cilebenses Corsi Proper, they dwelt at the extreme north-east of Sardinia, near the Tibulati, aesaronenses, they dwelt south of the Salcitani and the Lucuidonenses and north of the Æchilenenses or Cornenses. Beronicenses Carenses, they dwelt south of the Coracenses and north of the Salcitani, celsitani, they dwelt south of the Rucensi and north of the Scapitani and the Siculensi. Coracenses, they dwelt south of the Tibulati and the Corsi and north of the Carenses and the Cunusitani Corpicenses, they dwelt south of the Rucensi and north of the Scapitani, Cunusitani, they dwelt south of the Coracenses and north of the Salcitani and the Lucuidonenses. Galillenses Maltamonenses Moddoli Neapolitani, they dwelt south of the Scapitani and the Siculensi and north of the Solcitani, laurent-Jacques Costa,2004, Corse préhistorique, Éditions Errance, Paris. Giovanni Ugas, Lalba dei nuraghi, Cagliari, Fabula Editore,2005, raimondo Zucca, La Corsica romana, Oristano, SAlvure,1996, ISBN9788873831266. La lingua dei Sardi Nuragici e degli Etruschi, Origine e parentela dei sardi e degli etruschi. La lingua sardiana o dei protosardi, lacusCurtius, Into the Roman World -51 complete works of authors from Classical Antiquity. Location of Sardinia island, Ptolemy, Book III, Chapter 3 Massimo Pittau, Massimo Pittau Massimo Pittau, lingua e civiltà di Sardegna Massimo Pittau, la lingua dei Sardi Nuragici e degli Etruschi Massimo Pittau, Origine e parentela dei Sardi e degli EtruschiList of Nuragic tribes – Nuragic tribes according to the Greek geographer Ptolemy
25. Etruscan civilization – The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio. Culture that is identifiably Etruscan developed in Italy after about 800 BC, the latter gave way in the 7th century BC to a culture that was influenced by ancient Greece, Magna Graecia, and Phoenicia. The decline was gradual, but by 500 BC the political destiny of Italy had passed out of Etruscan hands, the last Etruscan cities were formally absorbed by Rome around 100 BC. Politics were based on the city, and probably the family unit. In their heyday, the Etruscan elite grew very rich through trade with the Celtic world to the north and the Greeks to the south, archaic Greece had a huge influence on their art and architecture, and Greek mythology was evidently very familiar to them. The study also excluded recent Anatolian connection, the ancient Romans referred to the Etruscans as the Tuscī or Etruscī. Their Roman name is the origin of the terms Tuscany, which refers to their heartland, and Etruria, which can refer to their wider region. In Attic Greek, the Etruscans were known as Tyrrhenians, from which the Romans derived the names Tyrrhēnī, Tyrrhēnia, the word may also be related to the Hittite Taruisa. The Etruscans called themselves Rasenna, which was syncopated to Rasna or Raśna, the origins of the Etruscans are mostly lost in prehistory, although Greek historians as early as the 5th century BC, repeatedly associated the Tyrrhenians with Pelasgians. Strabo as well as the Homeric Hymn to Dionysus make mention of the Tyrrhenians as pirates, pliny the Elder put the Etruscans in the context of the Rhaetian people to the north and wrote in his Natural History, Adjoining these the Noricans are the Raeti and Vindelici. All are divided into a number of states, the Raeti are believed to be people of Tuscan race driven out by the Gauls, their leader was named Raetus. Historians have no literature and no original Etruscan texts of religion or philosophy, therefore, much of what is known about this civilization is derived from grave goods, another source of genetic data on Etruscan origins is from four ancient breeds of cattle. Analyzing the mitochondrial DNA of these and seven other breeds of Italian cattle, the other Italian breeds were linked to northern Europe. Etruscan expansion was focused both to the north beyond the Apennine Mountains and into Campania, some small towns in the sixth century BC disappeared during this time, ostensibly consumed by greater, more powerful neighbours. However, it is certain that the structure of the Etruscan culture was similar to, albeit more aristocratic than. The mining and commerce of metal, especially copper and iron, led to an enrichment of the Etruscans and to the expansion of their influence in the Italian peninsula and the western Mediterranean Sea. Here, their interests collided with those of the Greeks, especially in the sixth century BC and this led the Etruscans to ally themselves with Carthage, whose interests also collided with the Greeks. Around 540 BC, the Battle of Alalia led to a new distribution of power in the western Mediterranean, from the first half of the 5th century BC, the new political situation meant the beginning of the Etruscan decline after losing their southern provincesEtruscan civilization – Etruscan pendant with swastika symbols, Bolsena, Italy, 700-650 BC. Louvre Museum
26. Ancient Carthage – Carthage was the Phoenician city-state of Carthage and during the 7th to 3rd centuries BC, included its sphere of influence, the Carthaginian Empire. The empire extended over much of the coast of North Africa as well as encompassing substantial parts of coastal Iberia, Carthage was founded in 814 BC. At the height of the prominence it served as a major hub of trade. The city also had to deal with potentially hostile Berbers, the inhabitants of the area where Carthage was built. In 146 BC, after the third and final Punic War, Roman forces destroyed, redesigned, nearly all of the other Phoenician city-states and former Carthaginian dependencies subsequently fell into Roman hands. According to Roman sources, Phoenician colonists from modern-day Lebanon, led by Dido, Queen Elissa was an exiled princess of the ancient Phoenician city of Tyre. At its peak, the metropolis she founded, Carthage, came to be called the city, ruling 300 other cities around the western Mediterranean Sea. Elissas brother, Pygmalion of Tyre, had murdered Elissas husband, Elissa escaped the tyranny of her own country, founding the new city of Carthage and subsequently its later dominions. Details of her life are sketchy and confusing, but the following can be deduced from various sources, according to Justin, Princess Elissa was the daughter of King Belus II of Tyre. When he died, the throne was jointly bequeathed to her brother, Pygmalion and she married her uncle Acerbas, also known as Sychaeus, the High Priest of Melqart, a man with both authority and wealth comparable to the king. This led to increased rivalry between the elite and the monarchy. Pygmalion was a tyrant, lover of both gold and intrigue, who desired the authority and fortune enjoyed by Acerbas, Pygmalion assassinated Acerbas in the temple and kept the misdeed concealed from his sister for a long time, deceiving her with lies about her husbands death. At the same time, the people of Tyre called for a single sovereign, in the Roman epic of Virgil, the Aeneid, Queen Dido, the Greek name for Elissa, is first introduced as a highly esteemed character. In just seven years, since their exodus from Tyre, the Carthaginians have rebuilt a successful kingdom under her rule and her subjects adore her and present her with a festival of praise. Her character is perceived by Virgil as even more noble when she offers asylum to Aeneas and his men, who have recently escaped from Troy. A spirit in the form of the god, Mercury, sent by Jupiter, reminds Aeneas that his mission is not to stay in Carthage with his new-found love, Dido. Virgil ends his legend of Dido with the story that, when Aeneas tells Dido, her heart broken, as she lay dying, she predicted eternal strife between Aeneas people and her own, rise up from my bones, avenging spirit she says, an invocation of Hannibal. The settlements at Crete and Sicily were in conflict with the GreeksAncient Carthage – Carthage and its dependencies in 264 BC
27. Roman Kingdom – The Roman Kingdom was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories. The site of the founding of the Roman Kingdom and eventual Republic, the Palatine Hill and hills surrounding it presented easily defensible positions in the wide fertile plain surrounding them. All of these contributed to the success of the city. The Gauls destroyed much of Romes historical records when they sacked the city after the Battle of the Allia in 390 BC, with no contemporary records of the kingdom existing, all accounts of the kings must be carefully questioned. The insignia of the kings of Rome were twelve lictors wielding the fasces bearing axes, the right to sit upon a Curule chair, the purple Toga Picta, red shoes, of all these insignia, the most important was the purple toga. The imperium of the king was held for life and protected him from ever being brought to trial for his actions. As being the owner of imperium in Rome at the time. Also, the laws that kept citizens safe from magistrates misuse of imperium did not exist during the monarchical period, another power of the king was the power to either appoint or nominate all officials to offices. The king would appoint a tribunus celerum to serve as both the tribune of Ramnes tribe in Rome and as the commander of the personal bodyguard. The king was required to appoint the tribune upon entering office, the tribune was second in rank to the king and also possessed the power to convene the Curiate Assembly and lay legislation before it. Another officer appointed by the king was the praefectus urbi, who acted as the warden of the city. When the king was absent from the city, the prefect held all of the powers and abilities. The king even received the right to be the person to appoint patricians to the Senate. The people knew the king as a mediator between them and the gods and thus viewed the king with religious awe and this made the king the head of the national religion and its chief executive. Having the power to control the Roman calendar, he conducted all religious ceremonies and appointed lower religious offices and it is said that Romulus himself instituted the augurs and was believed to have been the best augur of all. Likewise, King Numa Pompilius instituted the pontiffs and through them developed the foundations of the dogma of Rome. They could only be called together by the king and could discuss the matters the king laid before them. While the Curiate Assembly did have the power to pass laws that had submitted by the kingRoman Kingdom – Capitoline Wolf
28. Roman Empire – Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was then unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperorRoman Empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
29. Ostrogothic Kingdom – The Ostrogothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of Italy, was established by the Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas from 493 to 553. Under Theoderic, its first king, the Ostrogothic kingdom reached its zenith, most of the social institutions of the late Western Roman Empire were preserved during his rule. Theodoric called himself Gothorum Romanorumque rex, demonstrating his desire to be a leader for both peoples, starting in 535, the Eastern Roman Empire invaded Italy under Justinian I. The Ostrogothic ruler at that time, Witiges, could not defend successfully and was captured when the capital Ravenna fell. The Ostrogoths rallied around a new leader, Totila, and largely managed to reverse the conquest, the last king of the Ostrogothic Kingdom was Teia. The Ostrogoths were the branch of the Goths. They settled and established a state in Dacia, but during the late 4th century. After the collapse of the Hunnic empire in 454, large numbers of Ostrogoths were settled by Emperor Marcian in the Roman province of Pannonia as foederati, but in 460, during the reign of Leo I, because the payment of annual sums had ceased, they ravaged Illyricum. Peace was concluded in 461, whereby the young Theoderic Amal, son of Theodemir of the Amals, was sent as a hostage to Constantinople, where he received a Roman education. The period 477-483 saw a complex three-way struggle among Theoderic the Amal, who had succeeded his father in 474, Theodoric Strabo, in this conflict, alliances shifted regularly, and large parts of the Balkans were devastated by it. In the end, after Strabos death in 481, Zeno came to terms with Theoderic, parts of Moesia and Dacia ripensis were ceded to the Goths, and Theoderic was named magister militum praesentalis and consul for 484. Barely a year later, Theoderic and Zeno fell out, orestes had reneged on the promise of land in Italy for Odoacers troops, a pledge made to ensure their neutrality in his attack on Nepos. Odoacer retained the Roman administrative system, cooperated actively with the Roman Senate and he evicted the Vandals from Sicily in 477, and in 480 he occupied Dalmatia after the murder of Julius Nepos. An agreement was reached between Zeno and Theoderic, stipulating that Theoderic, if victorious, was to rule in Italy as the emperors representative. Theoderic with his people set out from Moesia in the autumn of 488, passed through Dalmatia, the first confrontation with the army of Odoacer was at the river Isonzo on August 28. Odoacer was defeated and withdrew towards Verona, where a month later another battle was fought, resulting in a bloody, Odoacer fled to his capital at Ravenna, while the larger part of his army under Tufa surrendered to the Goths. Theoderic then sent Tufa and his men against Odoacer, but he changed his allegiance again, in 490, Odoacer was thus able to campaign against Theoderic, take Milan and Cremona and besiege the main Gothic base at Ticinum. At that point, however, the Visigoths intervened, the siege of Ticinum was lifted, Odoacer fled again to Ravenna, while the Senate and many Italian cities declared themselves for TheodericOstrogothic Kingdom – The Palace of Theoderic, as depicted on the walls of St. Apollinare Nuovo. The figures between the columns, representing Theoderic and his court, were removed after the East Roman conquest.
30. Kingdom of the Lombards – The king was traditionally elected by the highest-ranking aristocrats, the dukes, as several attempts to establish a hereditary dynasty failed. The kingdom was subdivided into a number of duchies, ruled by semi-autonomous dukes. The capital of the kingdom and the center of its life was Pavia in the modern northern Italian region of Lombardy. The Lombard invasion of Italy was opposed by the Byzantine Empire, because of this division, the southern duchies were considerably more autonomous than the smaller northern duchies. Over time, the Lombards gradually adopted Roman titles, names, by the time Paul the Deacon was writing in the late 8th century, the Lombardic language, dress and hairstyles had all disappeared. Initially the Lombards were Arianist Christians, at odds with the Papacy both religiously and politically, however, by the end of the 7th century, their conversion to Catholicism was all but complete. Nevertheless, their conflict with the Papacy continued and was responsible for their loss of power in the face of the Franks. Charlemagne, the king of the Franks, adopted the title King of the Lombards, although he never managed to control of Benevento. The only evidence for their use at the level comes from the Duchy of Benevento. The existence of seal rings testifies to the tenacity of Roman traditions of government, in the 6th century Byzantine Emperor Justinian attempted to reassert imperial authority in the territories of the Western Roman Empire. Problems were further exacerbated by widespread famine and a plague pandemic. In the spring of 568 the Lombards, led by King Alboin, moved from Pannonia, the Lombard arrival broke the political unity of the Italian Peninsula for the first time since the Roman conquest. The peninsula was now torn between territories ruled by the Lombards and the Byzantines, with boundaries that changed over time, the territories which remained under Byzantine control were called Romania in northeastern Italy and had its stronghold in the Exarchate of Ravenna. Arriving in Italy, King Alboin gave control of the Eastern Alps to one of his most trusted lieutenants, Gisulf, the duchy, established in the Roman town of Forum Iulii, constantly fought with the Slavic population across the Gorizia border. Justified by its military needs, the Duchy of Friuli thus had greater autonomy compared to other duchies of Langobardia Maior until the reign of Liutprand. Over time, other Lombard Duchies were created in cities of the kingdom. This was dictated primarily by military needs as Dukes were primarily military commanders, tasked to secure control of territory. However, the collection of duchies also contributed to political fragmentationKingdom of the Lombards – The Lombard possessions in Italy: The Lombard Kingdom (Neustria, Austria and Tuscia) and the Lombard Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento
31. Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire) – The Kingdom of Italy was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy. It comprised northern and central Italy, but excluded the Republic of Venice and its original capital was Pavia until the 11th century. In June 774, the collapsed and the Franks became masters of northern Italy. The southern areas remained under Lombard control in the Duchy of Benevento, Charlemagne adopted the title King of the Lombards and in 800 had himself crowned Emperor of the Romans in Rome. Members of the Carolingian dynasty continued to rule Italy until the deposition of Charles the Fat in 887, until 961, the rule of Italy was continually contested by several aristocratic families from both within and without the kingdom. In 961, King Otto I of Germany, already married to Adelaide, widow of a king of Italy. He continued on to Rome, where he had himself crowned emperor on 7 February 962, the union of the crowns of Italy and Germany with that of the so-called Empire of the Romans created the Holy Roman Empire, to which Burgundy was added in 1032. The resulting wars between Guelphs and Ghibellines, the anti-imperialist and imperialist factions, respectively, were characteristic of Italian politics in the 12th–14th centuries. The Lombard League was the most famous example of this situation, though not a declared separatist movement, by the 15th century, the power of the city-states was largely broken. A series of wars in Lombardy from 1423 to 1454 further reduced the number of competing states in Italy, the next forty years were relatively peaceful in Italy, but in 1494 the peninsula was invaded by France. The resulting Great Italian Wars lasted until 1559 as control of most of the Italian states passed to King Philip II of Spain. The Spanish branch of the Habsburg dynasty—the same dynasty of which another branch provided the Emperors—continued to rule most of imperial Italy down to the War of the Spanish Succession, after the Imperial Reform of 1495–1512, the Italian kingdom corresponded to the unencircled territories south of the Alps. The Imperial rule in Italy came to an end with the campaigns of the French Revolutionaries in 1792–97, in 1806, the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by the last emperor, Francis II, after its defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. After the Battle of Taginae, in which the Ostrogoth king Totila was killed, the battle lasted two days and Teia was killed in the fighting. The Kings of the Lombards ruled that Germanic people from their invasion of Italy in 567–68 until the Lombardic identity became lost in the ninth and tenth centuries, after 568, the Lombard kings sometimes styled themselves Kings of Italy. Upon the Lombard defeat at the 774 Siege of Pavia, the kingdom came under the Frankish domination of Charlemagne, the Iron Crown of Lombardy was used for the coronation of the Lombard kings, and the kings of Italy thereafter, for centuries. The primary sources for the Lombard kings before the Frankish conquest are the anonymous 7th-century Origo Gentis Langobardorum, the earliest kings listed in the Origo are almost certainly legendary. They purportedly reigned during the Migration Period, the first ruler attested independently of Lombard tradition is Tato, an initial phase of strong autonomy of the many constituent duchies developed over time with growing regal authority, even if the dukes desires for autonomy were never fully achievedKingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire) – The Iron Crown of Lombardy, now at Monza Cathedral
32. History of Islam in southern Italy – The history of Islam in southern Italy began with the first Muslim settlement in Sicily, at Mazara, which was captured in 827. The subsequent rule of Sicily and Malta started in the 10th century, Islamic rule over all Sicily began in 902, and the Emirate of Sicily lasted from 965 until 1061. The Muslim raids were part of a struggle for power in Italy and Europe, with Christian Byzantine, Frankish, Norman. Muslims were sometimes sought as allies by various Christian factions against other factions, the first permanent Arab settlement on Sicily occurred in 827, but it was not until Taormina fell in 902 that the entire island fell under their sway, though Rometta held out until 965. In that year the Kalbids established the independence of their emirate from the Fatimid caliphate, in 1061 the first Norman conquerors took Messina, and by 1071 Palermo and its citadel were captured. In 1091 Noto fell to the Normans, and the conquest was complete, Malta fell later that year, though the Arab administration was kept in place, marking the final chapter of this period. Widespread conversion ensued, leading to the disappearance of Islam in Sicily by the 1280s, in 1245, Muslim Sicilians were deported to the settlement of Lucera, by order of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. In 1300, Giovanni Pipino di Barletta, count of Altamura, seized Lucera and exiled or sold into slavery its population, the first attacks by Islamic ships on Sicily, then part of the Byzantine Empire, occurred in 652 under the Rashidun Caliphate of Uthman. These were Arab warriors directed by the Governor of Syria, Muawiyah I, and led by Muawiya ibn Hudayj of the Kindah tribe, olympius, the Byzantine exarch of Ravenna, came to Sicily to oust the invaders but failed. Soon after, the Arabs returned to Syria after collecting a large amount of booty. A second Arab expedition to Sicily occurred in 669 and this time, a strong, ravaging force consisting of 200 ships from Alexandria attacked the island. They sacked Syracuse, Sicily and returned to Egypt after a month of pillaging, after the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, attacks from Muslim fleets repeated in 703,728,729,730,731,733, and 734. The last two Arab assaults were met with substantial Byzantine resistance, the first true conquest expedition was launched in 740. In that year, Habib ibn Abi Obeida al-Fihri, who had participated in the 728 attack, though ready to conquer the whole island, the expedition was forced to return to Tunisia by a Berber revolt. A second attack in 752 aimed only to sack Syracuse again, in 812, Ibrahims son, Abdallah I, sent an invasion force to conquer Sicily. His ships were first harassed by the intervention of Gaeta and Amalfi and were destroyed in great number by a tempest. However, they managed to conquer the island of Lampedusa and to ravage Ponza, a further agreement between the new patrician Gregorius and the emir established the freedom of commerce between southern Italy and Ifriqiya. After a further attack in 819 by Mohammed ibn-Adballad, cousin of Amir Ziyadat Allah I of Ifriqiya, the Muslim conquest of Sicily and parts of southern Italy lasted 75 yearsHistory of Islam in southern Italy – Arabic painting made for the Norman kings (c. 1150) in the Palazzo dei Normanni, originally the emir's palace at Palermo.
33. Guelphs and Ghibellines – The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, rivalry between two parties formed a particularly important aspect of the internal politics of medieval Italy. The struggle for power between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire had arisen with the Investiture Controversy, which began in 1075, the division between the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Italy, however, persisted until the 15th century. Guelph is an Italian form of the name of the House of Welf, the names were likely introduced to Italy during the reign of Frederick Barbarossa. When Frederick conducted military campaigns in Italy to expand imperial power there, the Lombard League and its allies were defending the liberties of the urban communes against the Emperors encroachments and became known as Guelphs. The Ghibellines were thus the party, while the Guelphs supported the Pope. Broadly speaking, Guelphs tended to come from wealthy mercantile families, the Lombard League defeated Frederick at the Battle of Legnano in 1176. Frederick recognized the autonomy of the cities of the Lombard league under his nominal suzerainty. The division developed its own dynamic in the politics of medieval Italy, smaller cities tended to be Ghibelline if the larger city nearby was Guelph, as Guelph Republic of Florence and Ghibelline Republic of Siena faced off at the Battle of Montaperti,1260. Pisa maintained a staunch Ghibelline stance against her fiercest rivals, the Guelph Republic of Genoa, adherence to one of the parties could therefore be motivated by local or regional political reasons. Within cities, party allegiances differed from guild to guild, rione to rione, moreover, sometimes traditionally Ghibelline cities allied with the Papacy, while Guelph cities were even punished with interdict. Contemporaries did not use the terms Guelph and Ghibellines much until about 1250, at the beginning of the 13th century, Philip of Swabia, a Hohenstaufen, and his son-in-law Otto of Brunswick, a Welf, were rivals for the imperial throne. Philip was supported by the Ghibellines as a relative of Frederick I, Frederick II also introduced this division to the Crusader states in the Levant during the Sixth Crusade. After the death of Frederick II in 1250 the Ghibellines were supported by Conrad IV of Germany and later Manfred, King of Sicily, the Sienese Ghibellines inflicted a noteworthy defeat on Florentine Guelphs at the Battle of Montaperti. In that period the stronghold of Italian Ghibellines was the city of Forlì and that city remained with the Ghibelline factions, partly as a means of preserving its independence, rather than out of loyalty to the temporal power, as Forlì was nominally in the Papal States. Over the centuries, the papacy tried several times to control of Forlì. Essentially the two sides were now fighting either against German influence, or against the power of the Pope. In Florence and elsewhere the Guelphs usually included merchants and burghers and they also adopted peculiar customs such as wearing a feather on a particular side of their hats, or cutting fruit a particular way, according to their affiliationGuelphs and Ghibellines – Painting of the Guelph and Ghibelline families, by Ottavio Baussano (Asti).
34. Italian city-states – The Italian city-states were a political phenomenon of small independent states mostly in the central and northern Italian peninsula between the 9th and 15th centuries. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, urban settlements in Italy generally enjoyed a greater continuity than in the rest of western Europe, many of these towns were survivors of earlier Etruscan, Umbrian and Roman towns which had existed within the Roman Empire. The republican institutions of Rome had also survived, the very first Italian city-state can be considered the Republic of Venice, which de facto broke apart from Byzantine Empire since 742, becoming also de jure independent in the following centuries. The other first Italian city-states appeared in northern Italy as a result of a struggle to gain greater autonomy when not independent from the German Holy Roman Empire, other city-states were associated to these commune cities, like Genoa, Turin and, in the Adriatic, Ragusa. It is important to say that Venice was never subjected to the Holy Roman Empire, around 1100, Genoa and Venice emerged as independent Maritime republics. For Genoa – nominally – the Holy Roman Emperor was sovereign, pisa and Amalfi also emerged as maritime republics, trade, shipbuilding and banking helped support their powerful navies in the Mediterranean in those medieval centuries. Between the 12th and 13th centuries, Italy was vastly different from feudal Europe north of the Alps, the Peninsula was a melange of political and cultural elements, not a unified state. Marc Bloch and Fernand Braudel have argued that geography determined the history of the region, the very mountainous nature of Italys landscape was a barrier to effective inter-city communication. The Po plain, however, was an exception, it was the large contiguous area. Those that survived the longest were in the more rugged regions, such as Florence or Venice, while those Roman, urban, republican sensibilities persisted, there were many movements and changes afoot. Italy first felt the changes in Europe from the 11th to the 13th centuries and he argues that these states were mostly republics, unlike the great European monarchies of France and Spain, where absolute power was vested in rulers who could and did stifle commerce. Even northern cities and states were also notable for their merchant republics, geographically, and because of trade, Italian cities such as Venice became international trading and banking hubs and intellectual crossroads. It is estimated that the per capita income of northern Italy nearly tripled from the 11th century to the 15th century and this was a highly mobile, demographically expanding society, fueled by the rapidly expanding Renaissance commerce. In the 14th century, just as the Italian Renaissance was beginning, Italy was the capital of Western Europe. However, with the Bubonic Plague in 1348, the birth of the English woolen industry and general warfare, however, by the late 15th century Italy was again in control of trade along the Mediterranean Sea. It found a new niche in luxury items like ceramics, glassware, lace, however, Italy would never regain its strong hold on textiles. And though it was the birthplace of banking, by the 16th century German, by the 13th century, northern and central Italy had become the most literate society in the world. More than one third of the population could read in the vernacular, as could a smallItalian city-states – Florence was one of the most important city-states in Italy
35. Italian Renaissance – The term Renaissance is in essence a modern one that came into currency in the 19th century, in the work of historians such as Jules Michelet and Jacob Burckhardt. The French word renaissance means Rebirth, and the era is best known for the renewed interest in the culture of classical antiquity after the period that Renaissance humanists labeled the Dark Ages. Though today perhaps best known for Italian Renaissance art and architecture, the period saw major achievements in literature, music, philosophy, Italy became the recognized European leader in all these areas by the late 15th century, and to varying degrees retained this lead until about 1600. This was despite a turbulent and generally disastrous period in Italian politics, the European Renaissance began in Tuscany, and centred in the city of Florence. It later spread to Venice, where the remains of ancient Greek culture were brought together, the Renaissance later had a significant effect on Rome, which was ornamented with some structures in the new allantico mode, then was largely rebuilt by humanist sixteenth-century popes. The Italian Renaissance peaked in the century as foreign invasions plunged the region into the turmoil of the Italian Wars. However, the ideas and ideals of the Renaissance endured and spread into the rest of Europe, setting off the Northern Renaissance, the Italian Renaissance is best known for its cultural achievements. Accounts of Renaissance literature usually begin with Petrarch and his friend, famous vernacular poets of the 15th century include the renaissance epic authors Luigi Pulci, Matteo Maria Boiardo, and Ludovico Ariosto. 15th century writers such as the poet Poliziano and the Platonist philosopher Marsilio Ficino made extensive translations from both Latin and Greek, the same is true for architecture, as practiced by Brunelleschi, Leon Battista Alberti, Andrea Palladio, and Bramante. Their works include Florence Cathedral, St. Peters Basilica in Rome, yet cultural contributions notwithstanding, some present-day historians also see the era as one of the beginning of economic regression for Italy. By the Late Middle Ages, Latium, the heartland of the Roman Empire. Rome was a city of ancient ruins, and the Papal States were loosely administered, and vulnerable to external interference such as that of France, and later Spain. The Papacy was affronted when the Avignon Papacy was created in southern France as a consequence of pressure from King Philip the Fair of France, in the south, Sicily had for some time been under foreign domination, by the Arabs and then the Normans. Sicily had prospered for 150 years during the Emirate of Sicily, in contrast Northern and Central Italy had become far more prosperous, and it has been calculated that the region was among the richest of Europe. The Crusades had built lasting trade links to the Levant, the main trade routes from the east passed through the Byzantine Empire or the Arab lands and onwards to the ports of Genoa, Pisa, and Venice. Luxury goods bought in the Levant, such as spices, dyes, moreover, the inland city-states profited from the rich agricultural land of the Po valley. From France, Germany, and the Low Countries, through the medium of the Champagne fairs, land and river trade routes brought goods such as wool, wheat, and precious metals into the region. The extensive trade that stretched from Egypt to the Baltic generated substantial surpluses that allowed significant investment in mining, thus, while northern Italy was not richer in resources than many other parts of Europe, the level of development, stimulated by trade, allowed it to prosperItalian Renaissance – Renaissance
36. Italian Wars – Ludovico Sforza of Milan, seeking an ally against the Republic of Venice, encouraged Charles VIII of France to invade Italy, using the Angevin claim to the throne of Naples as a pretext. For several months, French forces moved through Italy virtually unopposed, Charles VIII made triumphant entries into Pisa on November 8,1494, Florence on November 17,1494, and Rome on December 31,1494. Upon reaching the city of Monte San Giovanni in the Kingdom of Naples, Charles VIII sent envoys to the town, the garrison killed and mutilated the envoys and sent the bodies back to the French lines. This enraged the French army so that reduced the castle in the town with blistering artillery fire on February 9,1495 and stormed the fort. This was the sack of Naples. News of the French Armys sack of Naples provoked a reaction among the city-states of Northern Italy, the League was specifically formed to resist French aggression. The League was established on 31 March after negotiations by Venice, Milan, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. Later on the League consisted of the Holy Roman Empire, the Duchy of Milan, Spain, the Papal States, the Republic of Florence, the Duchy of Mantua and this coalition, effectively, cut Charles army off from returning to France. After establishing a government in Naples, Charles started to march north on his return to France. However, in the town of Fornovo he met the League army. In contemporary tradition, though, the battle counted as a Holy League victory, because the French forces had to leave, to the Italian coalition, however, it was at best a pyrrhic victory, in that its strategic outcome and long-term consequences were unfavorable. Although the League managed to force Charles VIII off the battlefield, it suffered much higher casualties and could not prevent the opposing army crossing the Italian lands as it returned to France. As a result of Charles VIIIs expedition, the states of Italy were shown once. In fact, the individual Italian states could not field armies comparable to those of the feudal monarchies of Europe in numbers. Thus, Charles VIII lost all that he conquered in Italy, King Charles VIII died on April 7,1498 and was succeeded to the throne of France by his cousin, Louis II, Duke of Orléans, who became Louis XII of France. Ludovico Sforza retained his throne in Milan until 1499, when Charless successor, Louis XII of France, invaded Lombardy, Louis XII justified his claim to the Duchy of Milan by right of his paternal grandfather, Louis duc dOrléans having married Valentina Visconti in 1387. Valentina Visconti was the heir to the Duchy of Milan in the Visconti dynasty, the marriage contract between Valentina Visconti and Louis, duc dOrléans, guaranteed that in failure of male heirs, she would inherit the Visconti dominions. However, when the Visconti dynasty died out in 1447, the Milanese ignored the Orleans claim to the Duchy of Milan, however, bitter factionalism arose under the new republic which set the stage for Francisco Sforza to seize control of Milan in 1450Italian Wars – The Battle of Pavia by an unknown Flemish artist (oil on panel, 16th century).
37. Kingdom of Italy – The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866, Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882, victory in the war gave Italy a permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. Fascist Italy is the era of National Fascist Party rule from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government, according to Payne, Fascist regime passed through several relatively distinct phases. The first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, then came the second phase, the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper from 1925 to 1929. The third phase, with activism, was 1929–34. The war itself was the phase with its disasters and defeats. Italy was allied with Nazi Germany in World War II until 1943 and it switched sides to the Allies after ousting Mussolini and shutting down the Fascist party in areas controlled by the Allied invaders. Shortly after the war, civil discontent led to the referendum of 1946 on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, the Kingdom of Italy claimed all of the territory which is modern-day Italy. The development of the Kingdoms territory progressed under Italian re-unification until 1870, the state for a long period of time did not include Trieste or Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, which are in Italy today, and only annexed them in 1919. After the Second World War, the borders of present-day Italy were founded, the Kingdom of Italy was theoretically a constitutional monarchy. Executive power belonged to the monarch, as executed through appointed ministers, two chambers of parliament restricted the monarchs power—an appointive Senate and an elective Chamber of Deputies. The kingdoms constitution was the Statuto Albertino, the governing document of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In theory, ministers were responsible to the king. However, in practice, it was impossible for an Italian government to stay in office without the support of Parliament, members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected by plurality voting system elections in uninominal districts. A candidate needed the support of 50% of those voting, and of 25% of all enrolled voters, if not all seats were filled on the first ballot, a runoff was held shortly afterwards for the remaining vacancies. After a brief multinominal experimentation in 1882, proportional representation into large, regional, Socialists became the major party, but they were unable to form a government in a parliament split into three different factions, with Christian Populists and classical liberalsKingdom of Italy – Italian unification process.
38. Italy in World War I – This article is about Italian military operations in World War I. Although member of the Triple Alliance, the Kingdom of Italy did not join the Central Powers, the German Empire and the Empire of Austria-Hungary, when the war started in August 1914. Almost a year after the commencement, after secret parallel negotiations with both sides Italy entered the war on the side of the Allied Powers. Italy fought mostly against Austria-Hungary along the border, including high up in the now-Italian Alps. In October 1918 the Italians attacked again, the Austrian army broke, and the Italians drove deep into Austrian territory, leading to the collapse of Austria-Hungary. Fighting ended on 3 November 1918, Italy and the Allies had been victorious. Italian armed forces were involved in the Western Front and in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. At the end of World War I, Italy was recognized a permanent seat in the League of Nations executive council along with Britain, France, Italy was a member of the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary. Despite this, in the years before the war, Italy had enhanced its diplomatic relationships with the United Kingdom and France. This was because the Italian government had grown convinced that support of Austria would not gain Italy the territories it wanted, Trieste, Istria, Zara and Dalmatia, in fact, a secret agreement signed with France in 1902 sharply conflicted with Italys membership in the Triple Alliance. Thereafter Salandra and the minister of Foreign Affairs, Sidney Sonnino, pro-interventionist socialists believed that, once that weapons had been distributed to the people, they could have transformed the war into a revolution. The negotiation with the Allies led to the London Pact, signed by Sonnino without the approval of the Italian Parliament, other agreements concerned the sovereignty of the port of Valona, the province of Antalya in Turkey and part of the German colonies in Africa. On 3 May 1915 Italy officially revoked the Triple Alliance, in the following days Giolitti and the neutralist majority of the Parliament opposed declaring war, while nationalist crowds demonstrated in public areas for it. On 23 May, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary and this was followed by declarations of war on the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria and the German Empire. The front on the Austrian border was 650 km long, stretching from the Stelvio Pass to the Adriatic Sea, Italian forces were numerically superior but this advantage was negated by the difficult terrain. Further, the Italians lacked strategic and tactical leadership, the Italian commander-in-chief was Luigi Cadorna, a staunch proponent of the frontal assault whose tactics cost the lives of hundreds of thousands of Italian soldiers. His plan was to attack on the Isonzo front, with the dream of breaking over the Karst Plateau into the Carniolan Basin, taking Ljubljana and threatening the Austro-Hungarian Empires capital Vienna. It was a Napoleonic plan, which had no chance of success in an age of barbed wire, machine gunsItaly in World War I – Italian Front 1915–1917
39. History of the Italian Republic – This situation changed due to an external shock – the crisis and Dissolution of the Soviet Union – and an internal one – the Tangentopoli corruption scandal and operation Mani pulite. Although ousted after a few months of government, Berlusconi became one of Italys most important political and economic figures for the next two decades. After leading the Opposition to the Dini, Prodi I, DAlema I, DAlema II and he eventually lost the 2006 general election five years later to Romano Prodi and his Union coalition but won the 2008 general election and returned to power in June 2008. In November 2011, Berlusconi lost his majority in the Chamber of Deputies and his successor, Mario Monti formed a new government, composed by technicians and supported by both the center-left and the center-right parties. After the 2013 election resulted in a parliament, in April the Vice-Secretary of the Democratic Party, Enrico Letta. On 22 February 2014, after tensions in the Democratic Party, mussolini was killed by resistance fighters in April 1945. Victor Emmanuel formally abdicated on 9 May 1946, his son king as Umberto II of Italy. A Constitutional Referendum was held on 2 June 1946, republicans won, and the monarchy was abolished. The Kingdom of Italy was no more, the House of Savoy, the Italian royal family, was exiled. Victor Emmanuel left for Egypt where he died in 1947, Umberto, who had been king for only a month, moved to Portugal. A Constituent Assembly was in place between June 1946 and January 1948, it wrote the new Constitution of Italy which took effect on January 1,1948, the Peace Treaty between Italy and the Allies of World War II was signed in Paris in February 1947. The PSI and the PCI received some posts in a Christian Democrat–led coalition cabinet. PCI’s leader Palmiro Togliatti was minister of Justice, since the PSI and the PCI together received more votes than the Christian Democrats, they decided to unite in 1948 to form the Popular Democratic Front. The 1948 general elections were influenced by the then flaring cold-war confrontation between the Soviet Union and the US. In response, on March 1948 the United States National Security Council issued its first document proffering recommendations to avoid such an outcome which were widely and energetically implemented, ten million letters were sent by mostly Italian Americans urging Italians not to vote communist. US agencies made numerous short-wave propaganda radio broadcasts and funded the publishing of books and articles, the CIA also funded the centre-right political parties and was accused of publishing forged letters in order to discredit the leaders of the PCI. The PCI itself was accused of being funded by Moscow and the Cominform, for almost four decades, Italian elections were successively won by the Democrazia Cristiana centrist party. Italy also lost its colonial Empire, except Somalia, which formed the object of a UN trusteeship mandate, in the same years, Italy also became a founding member of the ECSC and of the European Economic Community, later developed into the European UnionHistory of the Italian Republic – Alcide De Gasperi, Prime Minister from 1945 to 1953.
40. Italian economic miracle – As summed up by one historian, by the end of the 1970s, social security coverage had been made comprehensive and relatively generous. The material standard of living had improved for the great majority of the population. In addition, the creation in 1957 of the European Common Market, of which Italy was among the members, provided more investments. The above-mentioned highly favorable historical backgrounds, combined with the presence of a large and cheap stock of labour force, the Italian economy experienced an average rate of growth of GDP of 5. 8% per year between 1951–63, and 5. 0% per year between 1964-73. Italian rates of growth were second only, but very close, to the German rates, in Europe, in 1963, US President John F. The impact of the miracle on Italian society was huge. Fast economic expansion induced massive inflows of migrants from rural Southern Italy to the cities of the North. Emigration was especially directed to the factories of the industrial triangle. Between 1955 and 1971, around 9 million people are estimated to have involved in inter-regional migrations in Italy, uprooting entire communities. The needs of an economy and society created a great demand for new transport. A concomitant boom of the real market, increasingly under pressure by strong demographic growth and internal migrations. Vast neighborhoods of low-income apartments and social housing were built in the outskirts of cities, leading over the years to severe problems of congestion, urban decay. At the same time, the doubling of Italian GDP between 1950 and 1962 had a impact on society and culture. From 1951 to 1971, average per capita income in real terms trebled, in 1955, for instance, only 3% of households owned refrigerators and 1% washing machines, while by 1975 the respective figures were 94% and 76%. In addition, 66% of all homes had come to possess cars, in 1954 the national public broadcasting RAI began a regular television service. Economic history of Italy Economic miracle Post–World War II economic expansion Years of Lead, rivista di storia economica 19#2 pp, 139-180, in English Rota, Mauro. Credit and growth, reconsidering Italian industrial policy during the Golden Age, European Review of Economic History 17#4 pp, 431-451. Tolliday, Steven W. Introduction, enterprise and state in the Italianeconomic miracle, enterprise and Society 1#2 pp, 241-248Italian economic miracle – One of a number of posters created to promote the Marshall Plan in Europe.
41. Years of Lead (Italy) – The left-wing autonomist Marxist movement in Italy which was involved in many events of the period lasted from 1968 until the end of the 1970s. There was widespread social conflict and unprecedented acts of terrorism carried out by both right- and left-wing paramilitary groups, an attempt to endorse the neo-fascist Italian Social Movement by the Tambroni Cabinet led to rioting and was short-lived. The Christian Democrats were instrumental in the Italian Socialist Party gaining power in the 1960s, the assassination of the Christian Democrat leader Aldo Moro in 1978 ended the strategy of historic compromise between the DC and the Italian Communist Party. The assassination was carried out by the Red Brigades, then led by Mario Moretti, between 1969 and 1981, nearly 2,000 murders were attributed to political violence in the form of bombings, assassinations, and street warfare between rival militant factions. Public protests shook Italy during 1969, with the autonomist student movement being particularly active, on 19 November 1969, Antonio Annarumma, a Milanese policeman, was killed during a riot by far-left demonstrators. He was the first civil servant to die in the wave of violence, the Monument to Victor Emmanuel II, the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro in Rome and the Banca Commerciale Italiana and the Banca Nazionale dellAgricoltura in Milan were bombed in December. Local police arrested 80 or so suspects from left-wing groups, including Giuseppe Pinelli, an anarchist initially blamed for the bombing, and Pietro Valpreda. Their guilt was denied by left-wing members, especially by members of the student movement, then prominent in Milans universities, as they believed that the bombing was carried out by fascists. In 1975 Calabresi and other officials were acquitted by judge Gerardo DAmbrosio who decided that Pinellis fall had been caused by his being taken ill. Meanwhile, the anarchist Valpreda and five others were convicted and jailed for the bombing and they were later released after three years of preventive detention. Then, two neo-fascists, Franco Freda and Giovanni Ventura, were arrested accused of being the organizers of the massacre, in the 1990s, new investigations into the Piazza Fontana bombing, citing new witnesses testimony, implicated Freda and Ventura again. However, the pair cannot be put on again because of double jeopardy. The Red Brigades, the most prominent far-left terrorist organization, conducted an internal investigation that paralleled the official inquiry. They ordered that the inquiry remain secret, because of the light that it could shed on other terrorist organizations. The inquiry was discovered after a shootout between the Red Brigade and the Carabinieri at Robbiano di Mediglia in October 1974, the cover-up was exposed in 2000 by Giovanni Pellegrino, at the time President of the Commissione Stragi. The Red Brigades were founded in August 1970 by Renato Curcio and Margherita Cagol, who had met as students at the University of Trento and later married, and Alberto Franceschini. The first action of the RB was burning the car of Giuseppe Leoni on 17 September 1970, the Black Prince, Junio Valerio Borghese, took part in it. The coup, called off at the last moment, was discovered by the newspaper Paese Sera, on March 26, Alessandro Floris was assassinated in Genoa by a unit of the October 22 Group, a far-left terrorist organizationYears of Lead (Italy) – Attack at the Bologna railway station; it was the deadliest episode of the Years of Lead.
42. Economic history of Italy – A series of tables showing different Italian economic sectors, GDP growth. The Italian Renaissance was remarkable in economic development, venice and Genoa were the economic pioneers. Reasons for their development are for example the relative military safety of Venetian lagoons, the high population density. During the 17th and 18th centuries Italy experienced a decline in relative economic standing, military conflicts, political fractionalization, limited fiscal capacity and the shift of world trade to north-western Europe are factors which slowed down Italian development. The breakdown of feudalism, however, and redistribution of land did not necessarily lead to small farmers in the winding up with land of their own or land they could work. Many remained landless, and plots grew smaller and smaller and thus more and more unproductive as land was subdivided among heirs, the Italian diaspora did not affect all regions of the nation equally, principally low income agricultural areas with a high proportion of small peasant land holdings. In the second phase of emigration most emigrants were from the south and most of them were from rural areas, driven off the land by inefficient land management policies. Robert Foerster, in Italian Emigration of our Times says, …well nigh expulsion, it has been exodus, in the sense of depopulation, although owning land was the basic yardstick of wealth, farming in the south was socially despised. People did not invest in agricultural equipment but in things as low-risk state bonds. Italy had emerged from World War I in a poor and weakened condition, the National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy in 1922, at the end of a period of social unrest. However, once Mussolini acquired a firmer hold of power, in 1929, Italy was hit hard by the Great Depression. Trying to handle the crisis, the Fascist government nationalized the holdings of large banks which had accrued significant industrial securities, a number of mixed entities were formed, whose purpose it was to bring together representatives of the government and of the major businesses. These representatives discussed economic policy and manipulated prices and wages so as to both the wishes of the government and the wishes of business. This economic model based on a partnership between government and business was extended to the political sphere, in what came to be known as corporatism. Throughout the 1930s, the Italian economy maintained the corporatist model that had established during the Great Depression. At the same time, however, Mussolini had growing ambitions of extending Italys foreign influence through both diplomacy and military intervention and these foreign interventions required increased military spending, and the Italian economy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of its armed forces. By 1939, Italy had the highest percentage of state-owned enterprises after the Soviet Union, finally, Italys involvement in World War II as a member of the Axis powers required the establishment of a war economy. The Allied invasion of Italy in 1943 caused the Italian political structure —, the Allies, on the one hand, and the Germans on the other, took over the administration of the areas of Italy under their controlEconomic history of Italy – A graph which shows the current account balance of Italy (% of GDP) from 1980 to 2012. Data source: IMF
43. List of historic states of Italy – The following is a list of the various Italian states during that period. Under its terms, France restored Piedmont and Savoy to the Duke of Savoy, more importantly, the treaty confirmed Spanish direct control of Milan, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and the State of Presidi, and indirectly of northern Italy. The Pope was also their natural ally, the only truly independent entities on Italian soil were the Duchy of Savoy and the Republic of Venice. In Italy, the Congress restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments, either directly ruled or strongly influenced by the prevailing European powers, particularly Austria. The Congress also determined the end of two republics, Genoa was annexed by Sardinia, and Venice was incorporated with Milan into a new kingdom of the Austrian Empire. The Austrian Empire vigorously repressed nationalist sentiment growing on the Italian peninsula, as well as in the other parts of Habsburg domainsList of historic states of Italy – Dominions of the House of Habsburg in Europe, at the abdication of Charles V, map from the Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912.
44. Music history of Italy – The modern state of Italy did not come into being until 1861, though the roots of music on the Italian Peninsula can be traced back to the music of Ancient Rome. However, the underpinnings of much modern Italian music come from the Middle Ages, Italy was the site of several key musical developments in the development of the Christian liturgies in the West. Around 230, well before Christianity was legalized, the Apostolic Tradition of Hippolytus attested the singing of Psalms with refrains of Alleluia in Rome. In 386, in imitation of Eastern models, St. Ambrose wrote hymns, some of whose texts still survive, later, around 530, St. Benedict would arrange the weekly order of monastic psalmody in his Rule. Later, in the 6th century, Venantius Fortunatus created some of Christianitys most enduring hymns, including Vexilla regis prodeunt, which would later become the most popular hymn of the Crusades. Although Gregorian chant has its roots in Roman chant and is associated with Rome, it is not indigenous to Italy. Gregorian chant, which supplanted the indigenous Old Roman and Beneventan traditions, Gregorian chant later came to be strongly identified with Rome, especially as musical elements from the north were added to the Roman Rite, such as the Credo in 1014. This was part of a general trend wherein the manuscript tradition in Italy weakened, Gregorian chant supplanted all the other Western plainchant traditions, Italian and non-Italian, except for Ambrosian chant, which survives to this day. Crucial in the transmission of chant were the innovations of Guido dArezzo, whose Micrologus, written around 1020, described the musical staff, solmization, and this early form of do-re-mi created a technical revolution in the speed at which chants could be learned, memorized, and recorded. Even as the northern chant traditions were displacing indigenous Italian chant, the Albigensian Crusade, supposedly to attack Cathar heretics, brought southern France under northern French control and crushed Occitan culture and language. Most troubadours fled, especially to Spain and Italy, Italy developed its own counterparts to troubadours, called trovatori, including Sordello of Mantua. Italian secular music was largely the province of these jongleurs, troubadors, also around this time, Italian flagellants developed the Italian folk hymns known as spiritual laude. The early madrigal was simpler than the more well-known later madrigals, the caccia was often in three-part harmony, with the top two lines set to words in musical canon. The early ballata was often a poem in the form of a set to a monophonic melody. The Rossi Codex included music by Jacopo da Bologna, the first famous Trecento composer. The Ivrea Codex, dated around 1360, and the Squarcialupi Codex, dated around 1410, were sources of late Trecento music, including the music of Francesco Landini. Landinis name was attached to his characteristic Landini cadence, in which the note of the melody dips down two notes before returning, such as C-B-A-C. Trecento music influenced northern musicians such as Johannes Ciconia, whose synthesis of the French, during the 15th century, Italy entered a slow period in native composition, with the exception of a few bright lights such as the performer and anthologist Leonardo GiustinianMusic history of Italy – The Guidonian Hand
45. Postage stamps and postal history of Italy – This is an introduction to the postal and philatelic history of Italy. As Italy was not unified until 1861, its postal history is tied to the various kingdoms. The Cavallini of Sardinia was a private mail service, notable for the introduction of prepaid stamped lettersheets in 1819. The reform became law in November, and went into effect 1 January 1851, after some casting around for expertise in the newfangled art of stamp printing, the government settled on the house of Francesco Matraire in Turin. Matraire produced stamps with a profile of Victor Emmanuel II. Other states in Italy also issued stamps during the 1850s, Modena, Naples, the Papal States, Parma, Romagna, Sicily, matraires stamps were reprinted several times, and those printed after 17 March 1861 are normally considered the first stamps of Italy. Perforated stamps began in 1862 and, starting on 1 January 1863, in 1862 Count Ambjörn Sparre won the stamp contract, but his designs were not liked, and he seemed unable to produce the stamps. In danger of running out of stamps altogether, at the end of 1862 the Italian government once again turned to Matraire, who quickly produced a 15c value by lithography. Sparres contract was cancelled in March 1863, and a new contract let to the British printer De La Rue and they continued in use until the end of 1889. Italy joined the Universal Postal Union on 1 July 1875, humbert succeeded his father in 1878, which necessitated a new issue of stamps. First appearing on 15 August 1879, they were the first stamps of the kingdom to be designed, engraved. The new series incorporated rates and colors mandated by the Universal Postal Union, the worlds first official airmail stamps were issued in 1917 when Poste italiane overprinted their existing special delivery stamps. In 2007, the issue of an Italian stamp featuring the Croatian city of Rijeka caused a controversy, the stamp referred to the city in its usual Italian name of Fiume, claiming it was former Italian territory. This is seen as offensive in Croatia, revenue stamps of Italy References Sources Dehn, Roy A. Italian Stamps, a Handbook for Collectors, encyclopaedia of Postal Authorities Rossiter, Stuart & John Flower. ISBN 0-356-10862-7 Tony Claytons Stamps of Italy and Italian ColoniesPostage stamps and postal history of Italy – The first stamp of the Duchy of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, 1852, 5 centesimi
46. Southern Italy – It generally coincides with the administrative regions of Abruzzo, Apulia, Basilicata, Campania, Calabria, Molise, Sicily, and Sardinia. Some also include the most southern and eastern parts of Lazio within the Mezzogiorno, Southern Italy carries a unique legacy of culture. It features many major tourist attractions, such as the Palace of Caserta, there are also many ancient Greek cities in Southern Italy, such as Sybaris, which were founded several centuries before the start of the Roman Republic. These same subdivisions are at the bottom of the Italian First level NUTS of the European Union, the term Mezzogiorno first came into use in the 18th century and is an Italian rendition of meridies. The term was popularised by Giuseppe Garibaldi and it eventually came into vogue after the Italian unification. In a similar manner, Southern France is colloquially known as le Midi, Southern Italy forms the lower part of the Italian boot, containing the ankle, the toe, the arch, and the heel, along with the island of Sicily. Separating the heel and the boot is the Gulf of Taranto, named after the city of Taranto and it is an arm of the Ionian Sea. The island of Sardinia, right below the French island of Corsica, on the eastern coast is the Adriatic Sea, leading into the rest of the Mediterranean through the Strait of Otranto. Along the northern coast of the Salernitan Gulf and on the south of the Sorrentine Peninsula runs the Amalfi Coast, off the tip of the peninsula is the isle of Capri. The climate is mainly Mediterranean, except at the highest elevations and the eastern stretches in Apulia, along the Ionian Sea in Calabria. The largest city of Southern Italy is Naples, a name from the Greek that it has maintained for millennia. Bari, Taranto, Reggio Calabria, Foggia, and Salerno are the next largest cities in the area. The region is very active and highly seismic, the 1980 Irpinia earthquake killed 2,914 people, injured more than 10,000. Also during this period, Greek colonies were established in places as widely separated as the eastern coast of the Black Sea, Eastern Libya and they included settlements in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula. The Romans called the area of Sicily and the foot of Italy, Magna Graecia, the ancient geographers differed on whether the term included Sicily or merely Apulia and Calabria—Strabo being the most prominent advocate of the wider definitions. With this colonisation, Greek culture was exported to Italy, in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its religious rites, an original Hellenic civilization soon developed, later interacting with the native Italic and Latin civilisations. Many of the new Hellenic cities became very rich and powerful, like Neapolis, Syracuse, Acragas, other cities in Magna Graecia included Tarentum, Epizephyrian Locri, Rhegium, Croton, Thurii, Elea, Nola, Syessa, Bari, and others. After Pyrrhus of Epirus failed in his attempt to stop the spread of Roman hegemony in 282 BCE, from then to the Norman conquest of the 11th century, the south of the peninsula was constantly plunged into wars between Greece, Lombardy, and the Islamic CaliphateSouthern Italy – Satellite image of Southern Italy
47. Fauna of Italy – Italy has the highest level of faunal biodiversity in Europe, with over 57,000 species recorded, representing more than a third of all European fauna. This is due to various factors, the Italian peninsula is in the centre of the Mediterranean Sea, forming a corridor between central Europe and North Africa, and has 8,000 km of coastline. Italy also receives species from the Balkans, Eurasia, the Middle East, portions of Italy are included in the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot. There are also many cave systems significant for Biodiversity, the Checklist of the Species of the Italian Fauna includes 4777 endemic animal species. Unique Mammals include the Corsican hare, the Sardinian long-eared bat, the Apennine shrew, the Udine shrew the Calabria pine vole and the Sardinian deer. Endemic fish include the Bergatino loach, the Italian barbel, the chub, the Arno goby, the Garda carp, the carpione del Fibreno. Endemic Lepidoptera are listed here it, Farfalle e falene endemiche dellItalia, a notable species is the European owl moth found only in Southern Italy. There are 102 mammal species in Italy, some of the species are Alpine Marmot, forest dormouse, Etruscan shrew, European snow vole, and Schreibers long-fingered bat. Italy has recorded 516 bird species, Italy is an important route for trans-Saharan bird migrants because it is a natural bridge connecting continental Europe to Africa across the Mediterranean. Most of these birds breed in central and northern Europe, the birds return to Africa in autumn by the same route. The Italian fauna includes 56213 species of invertebrates and this is 97. 8% of the total species richness. Of these 37303 species are insects. The species richness of the Italian fauna is one of the highest in a European country. For insects the species richness is the absolute highest, northern Italy has 33414 invertebrate species. This may be a faunistic gradient but less complete data are available for southern Italy, as a consequence many species, known as rare in the Mediterranean are found in large numbers in the straits. It is common to find deep species at the surface and vice versa, the upwelling water drags abyssal species to the surface and sometimes strands them on the shore. About 300 species native to the Red Sea have already identified in the Mediterranean Sea. The Italian fauna is rich in introduced species, many introductions date from the time of the Roman Empire, such as the carp. Two introduced parrot species, the parakeet and the rose-ringed parakeet, are found in city parksFauna of Italy – Geological map of Italy
48. Flora of Italy – The flora of Italy was traditionally, estimated to comprise about 5,500 vascular plant species. However, as of 2005,6,759 species are recorded in the Data bank of Italian vascular flora, geobotanically, the Italian flora is shared between the Circumboreal Region and Mediterranean Region. According to the compiled by the Italian Ministry for the Environment in 2001,274 vascular plant species are protected. Italy consists of a 1,000 km long peninsula extending out into the central Mediterranean, together with a number of islands to the South and West. The Apennines run north-south through the peninsula connecting the Alps in the North to Etna, northern Italy is dominated by the Alps and extensive valley of the Po river which is extensively agricultural and industrialised. Central Italy includes the regions of Tuscany, Umbria, Marche and it is dominated by the Apennines, from which a few major rivers flow. A process of land reclamation has replaced the coastal swamps and marshes with agricultural land, Southern Italy includes the regions of Abruzzo, Molise, Apulia, Basilicata and Campania. Agriculture and industry are less developed, the main islands are Sicily, Sardinia and the Aeolian Islands. Each region has a distinct flora, an ecoregion is an ecologically and geographically defined area with characteristic natural communities and species. Different ecoregions are distinguished by different vegetation features, in Italy Carlo Blasi et al. identify and map 2 Divisions,13 Provinces,33 Sections and approximately 80 Subsections. Each unit has a code that indicates its hierarchical level. The Temperate Division includes the Alps, the Po Plain, and it accounts for 64% of Italy. This area is characterized by almost absent summer aridity and by a marked differences between summer and winter temperatures, the natural vegetation mainly consist of forests, with broad-leaved deciduous plants. The Mediterranean Division includes the southern Apennines, the Tyrrhenian and Ionian coasts, the southern Adriatic coast and it accounts almost 36% of the Italian territory. This area is characterized by summer aridity, with precipitations concentrated in autumn, the natural vegetation mainly consists of mixed woods of evergreen and deciduous species, shrublands and Mediterranean maquis. The peninsula and islands are dominated by the characteristics of the Mediterranean climate, with mild and rainy winters and very warm, on the contrary in the northern of Italy you have lower temperatures in winter and a more uniform distribution of rainfall during the summer time. The species of plants present in Italy belong to the flora of the continental Europe or to the Mediterranean flora and we can distinguish in some cases Western species and eastern species. The last Ice Age, the Würm Glaciation, in the Alps ended about 12,000 years ago and you can still recognize its influence on vegetation, a well known example is the Etna birch, driven in Sicily at a time when the climate was much colderFlora of Italy – Sicilian Fir, a critically endangered species endemic to Sicily
49. Volcanology of Italy – Italy is a volcanically active country, containing the only active volcanoes in mainland Europe. The countrys volcanism is due chiefly to the presence, a distance to the south. The magma erupted by Italys volcanoes is thought to result from the forcing of rocks melted by the subduction of one plate below another. Three of Italys volcanoes have erupted in the last hundred years, Mount Etna, on Sicily Stromboli, one of the Aeolian Islands Mount Vesuvius, near Naples, at least nine other volcanic centres have seen eruptions in historic times, including some submarine volcanoes. In order of the most recent eruptions, they are, Pantelleria, off the coast of Tunisia, there was a submarine eruption a few kilometres north-east of the island in 1891, which was probably related to the main volcano. Vulcano, another of the Aeolian Islands, last erupted in 1888-1890, the short-lived Isola Ferdinandea erupted a few kilometres north-west of Pantelleria in 1831 and rose to a maximum height of 63 metres, but was eroded back down to sea level by 1835. The summit is now a few metres below the surface, a swarm of small earthquakes centred on the seamount in 2002 was thought to indicate that magma was moving beneath the volcano, but no eruption occurred. Vulcanello is a small volcano connected by an isthmus to the island of Vulcano, campi Flegrei, a huge caldera containing the western area of Naples, erupted in 1528, generating the small tuff cone named Monte Nuovo. Ischia, an island 20 kilometres west of Naples, last erupted in 1302, larderello, in southern Tuscany, last erupted in 1282 with a small phreatic eruption Lipari, an island a couple of kilometres from Vulcano, has a volcano which last erupted in 729. Vulsini, a complex at the northern end of the Roman magmatic province. Monte Albano, a quiescent volcanic complex near Rome, the most recent eruptions produced Lake Nemi and Lake Albano. Sabatini, a complex and caldera near Rome. Cimini, a complex and caldera at the north of Sabatini volcanic complex. Monte Vulture, a complex in Basilicata. Marsili, a volcano in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Marsili rises 3,000 metres from the seabed in the Tyrrhenian sea southwest of Naples and its summit is only 500 metres below the surface of the water. The volcano has not erupted during recorded history, but is activeVolcanology of Italy
50. Alps – The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc, Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, and at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4000 metres, the altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe, in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Wildlife such as live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era, a mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established, Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, and the Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800 Napoleon crossed one of the passes with an army of 40,000. The 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists, writers, in World War II, Adolf Hitler kept a base of operation in the Bavarian Alps throughout the war. The Alpine region has a cultural identity. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, French, at present, the region is home to 14 million people and has 120 million annual visitors. The English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes, maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp and this may be consistent with the theory that in Greek Alpes is a name of non-Indo-European origin. According to the Old English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might possibly derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb hill, Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe. In Roman times, Albania was a name for the eastern Caucasus, in modern languages the term alp, alm, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width, the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, the range continues onward toward Vienna, Austria, and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the border of Bavaria in GermanyAlps – Mont Blanc, the highest mountain in the Alps, view from the Savoy side
51. List of rivers of Italy – This is a list of rivers, which are at least partially located in Italy. They are organized according to body of water they drain into, with the exceptions of Sicily and Sardinia. At the bottom all of the rivers are listed alphabetically, Reno di Lei After entering Switzerland, the Reno di Lei drains via the Reno di Avers and the Hinterrhein into the Rhine. Drava The Drava drains into the Danube on the Croatia–Serbia border, Slizza After entering Austria, the Slizza drains via the Gail into the Drava. Acqua Granda After entering Switzerland, the Spöl drains into the Inn, beyond this point, rivers empty into the Ionian Sea rather than the Adriatic. The lists are ordered from the river closest to the source of the Po to the river closest to the mouth of the Po, sicilian rivers are excluded because they are listed in their own section below. The rivers are ordered according to how far east their mouth is, the first river having the easternmost mouth, sicilian and Sardinian rivers are excluded from this list because those rivers are in their own sections below. The rivers are ordered according to how far south their mouth is, the first river having the southernmost mouth, Sardinian rivers are excluded from this list because those rivers are in their own section below. The rivers are ordered according to how close their mouth is to San Pietro PointList of rivers of Italy – Main Italian rivers location.
52. Politics of Italy – Politics of Italy is conducted through a constitutional republic with a multi-party system. The executive power is exercised collectively by the Council of Ministers, legislative power is vested in the two houses of parliament primarily, and secondarily on the Council of Ministers, which can introduce bills and holds the majority in the parliament. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislative branches and it is headed by the High Council of the Judiciary. The president is the head of state, though his position is separate from all branches, the current President is Sergio Mattarella and the current Prime Minister of Italy is Paolo Gentiloni. Article 1 of the Italian Constitution states Italy is a democratic Republic founded on labour, sovereignty belongs to the people and is exercised by the people in the forms and within the limits of the Constitution. By stating that Italy is a republic, the article solemnly declares the results of the constitutional referendum which took place on 2 June 1946. The State is not a property of the ruling monarch. The people who are called to administer the republic are not owners, but servants, and the governed are not subjects. And the sovereignty, that is the power to make choices that involve the community, belongs to the people, in accordance with the concept of a democracy, from the Greek demos. This power, however, is not to be exercised arbitrarily, as the head of state, the President of the Republic represents the unity of the nation and has many of the duties previously given to the king of Italy. The President serves as a point of connection between the three branches, he is elected by the lawmakers, he appoints the executive, and is the president of the judiciary, the president is also commander-in-chief in the time of war. These delegates are elected by their respective Regional Councils so as to guarantee representation to minorities, the election needs a wide majority that is progressively reduced from two-thirds to one-half plus one of the votes after the third ballot. The only Presidents ever to be elected on the first ballot are Francesco Cossiga, mr. Ciampi was replaced by Giorgio Napolitano, who was elected on 10 May 2006. While it is not forbidden by law, no president had ever served two terms, until 20 April 2013, when president Giorgio Napolitano was re-elected. According to the Constitution, any citizen that is fifty on the day of the election, the President cannot hold office in any other branch of power, and the offices salary and privileges are established by law. The President also presides over the High Council of the Judiciary, usually, the President tries to stay out of the political debate, and to be an institutional guarantee for all those involved in the political process. The president can also reject openly anti-constitutional acts as the guardian of the Constitution of Italy, with article 48 of the Constitution, which guarantees the right to vote, the people exercise their power through their elected representatives in the Parliament. The Italian legislative branch has rights to declare war with a majority vote, the Parliament has a bicameral system, and consists of the Chamber of deputies and the Senate, elected every five yearsPolitics of Italy – Sergio Mattarella, President of Italy since 3 February 2015.
53. Elections in Italy – The President of the Republic is elected for a seven-year term by the two houses of Parliament in joint session. Italy has historically had many parties, both national and regional, with different party systems. The most recent Italian general election was held on 24 and 25 February 2013, on 24 April 2013, Napolitano, gave the task to form a new government to the Deputy-Secretary of the Democratic Party, Enrico Letta. On 28 April he sworn in as Prime Minister, the voter turnout in 2013 explains how the people of Italy really feel about the instability of their government. This graph shows the results of elections held in Italy from 1946 to today, with the percentages of consensus gathered by the various parties, passing your mouse over the different colored sections will display the name of the grouping and the percentage in the corresponding election. Clicking on a region will direct you to the article on the party or election selected, the constitution of Italy provides for two kinds of binding referendums. A legislative referendum can be called in order to abrogate a law totally or partially and this kind of referendum is valid only if at least a majority of electors goes to the polling station. It is forbidden to call a referendum regarding financial laws or laws relating to pardons or the ratification of international treaties, a constitutional referendum is valid no matter how many electors go to the polling station. Any citizen entitled to vote in an election to the Chamber of Deputies may participate in a referendumElections in Italy
54. Foreign relations of Italy – Foreign relations of the Italian Republic are the Italian governments external relations with the outside world. Located in Europe, Italy has been considered a major Western power since its unification in 1861 and its main allies are the NATO countries, the EU states and the G7 nations, three entities of which Italy is a founding member. Italy has a role within the Christian world because Rome is the seat of the Pope. Italy is currently commanding various multinational forces, the country plays also a significant role in former colonies and territories of the Italian Empire and is considered a key player in the Mediterranean region. The Risorgimento was the era 1830–1870 that saw the emergence of a national consciousness, italians achieved independence from Austria, the House of Bourbon and from the Pope, securing national unification. The papacy called France to resist unification, fearing that giving up control of the Papal States would weaken the Church, Italy captured Rome in 1870 and later formed the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria. Italy defeated the Ottoman Empire in 1911–1912, by 1914, Italy had acquired in Africa a colony on the Red Sea coast, a large protectorate in Somalia and administrative authority in formerly Turkish Libya. Outside of Africa, Italy possessed a small concession in Tientsin in China, Austria took the offensive against the terms of the alliance and Italy decided to take part in World War I as a principal allied power with France, the UK and Japan. During the First World War, Italy occupied southern Albania to prevent if from falling to Austria-Hungary, in 1917, it established a protectorate over Albania, which remained in place until 1920. Italy defeated the Austrian Empire in 1918 and became one of the winners of the war. The Fascist government that came to power with Benito Mussolini in 1922 sought to increase the size of the Italian empire, in 1935–36, in its second invasion of Ethiopia Italy was successful and merged its new conquest with its older east African colonies. In 1939, Italy invaded Albania and incorporated it into the Fascist state, during the Second World War, Italy formed the axis alliance with Japan and Germany and occupied several territories but was forced in the final peace to abandon all its colonies and protectorates. Following the civil war and the depression caused by World War II, Italy enjoyed an economic miracle, promoted European unity, joined NATO. Italy was granted a United Nations trust to administer Somaliland in 1950, when Somalia became independent in 1960, Italys eight-decade experience with colonialism ended. Italy leads the Uniting for Consensus and participates in prominent decision-making groups such as the EU big four, the Quint, the Historiography of Fascist Foreign Policy, Historical Journal 36#1 pp. 187–203 in JSTOR Bosworth, Richard. Italy, The Least of the Great Powers, Italian Foreign Policy Before the First World War Bosworth, Mussolini excerpt and text search Burgwyn, H. James. Italian Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period, 1918-1940 excerpt and text search Cassels, Italian Foreign Policy, 1918-1945, A Guide to Research and Research Materials Chabod, Federico. Italian Foreign Policy excerpt and text search Faherty, Douglas M. Italian Foreign Policy, Trends for the Twenty-First Century excerpt Gooch, JohnForeign relations of Italy – Italian Republic
55. Judiciary of Italy – In Italy, judges are public officials and, since they exercise one of the sovereign powers of the State, only Italian citizens are eligible for judgeship. In order to become a judge, applicants must obtain a degree of education as well as pass written. However, most training and experience is gained through the judicial organization, the potential candidates then work they way up from the bottom through promotions. Italys independent judiciary enjoys special protection from the executive branch. Once appointed, judges serve for life and cannot be removed without specific disciplinary proceedings conducted in due process before the Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura, the Ministry of Justice handles the administration of courts and judiciary, including paying salaries or constructing new courthouses. The Ministry of Justice and that of the Infrastructures fund and the Ministry of Justice, lastly, the Ministry of Justice receives and processes applications for presidential pardons and proposes legislation dealing with matters of civil or criminal justice. Note, There exist significant problems with applying non-Italian terminology and concepts related to law, for that reason, some of the words used in the rest of the article shall be defined. Appello, for almost all courts in Italy, it is possible to appeal the ruling, avvocatura dello Stato, the public organ, composed of lawyers, which represents the State, whenever it is plaintiff or defendant in a lawsuit. Cassazione, the Court of Cassazione acts as cassation jurisdictions, which means that it has jurisdiction on quashing the judgments of inferior courts if those courts misapplied law. Generally, cassation is based not on outright violations of law, cassation is not based on the facts of the case. Cassation is always open as a final recourse, codice, collection of enacted statutory law or regulations relating to a single topic. Modern Italian law codes date back to the 19th century, though all codes have since been abolished and substituted, contraddittorio Contravvenzione, lowest kind of crimes punishable by fines or at most short jail sentences. Delitto, more severe crimes, punishable by fines, prison sentences or life imprisonment, Giudice collegiale, it is important to note that, in this case, Giudice refers both to every single person composing the panel and to the panel itself. Inamovibilità, Judges cannot be removed from office, except through specific disciplinary proceedings and they may be moved or promoted only with their own will. These protections are meant to ensure that they are independent from the executive power, magistrato, general term encompassing Judges and prosecutors, the Magistratura, or judiciary, is a collective term for all judicial officers. Magistrati are government employees, but statutorily kept separate and independent from the branches of government. g. Refrain from making political statements. Magistratura amministrativa, courts of this order judge most cases against the government, Magistratura ordinaria, courts of this order judge civil and criminal casesJudiciary of Italy – Italian Court system
56. Law enforcement in Italy – Law enforcement in Italy is provided by multiple police forces, five of which are national, Italian agencies. Italy divides police enforcement into Military and Civil guards, distinguishing each corps for duties, all police are under the Ministero dellInterno, the highest police and public safety authority, which - through the Department of Public Safety - coordinates the enforcements. Locally, Polizia di Stato is under the Authority of the Prefetto, however, in this numbers are included the members of the Arma dei Carabinieri, one of the four Italian Armed Forces, that does not have the unique role of police enforcement. The Polizia di Stato is the national police of Italy. Along with patrolling, investigative and law enforcement duties, it patrols the Autostrada and it is a civilian police force, while the Carabinieri and the Guardia di Finanza are military. While its internal organization and mindset is somewhat military, its personnel is composed of civilians and its headquarters are in Rome, and there are Regional and Provincial divisions throughout Italian territory. A program Polizia di Quartiere has been implemented which increases police presence, pairs of poliziotti or carabinieri patrol areas of major cities on foot. The Guardia di Finanza, is a corps under the authority of the Minister of Economy and Finance. The Guardia di Finanza has a strength of around 68,000 soldiers working as agents, NCOs and its militaries are in service in the Europol and the European Anti-Fraud Office. Its Latin motto since 1933 is Nec recisa recedit, the Guardia di Finanza also maintains over 600 boats and ships and more than 100 aircraft to fulfill its mission of patrolling Italys territorial waters. During demonstrations and very big events, the Guardia di Finanza is often called on duty as riot police, the Carabinieri is the common name for the Arma dei Carabinieri, a Gendarmerie-like military corps with police duties. They also serve as the police for the Italian armed forces. The Carabinieri have become an armed force, thus ending their long-standing tradition as the First Corps of the Italian Army. They are referred to as the Arma or La Benemerita, Carabinieri units have been dispatched all over the world in peacekeeping missions, including Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq. In November 2003, twelve Carabinieri were killed in a bomb attack on their base in Nasiriyah. This was Italys largest military loss in a single action since World War II, until 2001, only men were allowed to become part of the Arma, but military reforms allow women to serve in the Italian military, including Carabinieri. Having both military police duties and civil duties, the Arma is usually called on duty as riot police during big events. The Polizia Penitenziaria operate the Italian prison system and handle the transportation of inmates, the training academies for the Polizia Penitenziaria are located in Aversa, Monastir, Cairo Montenotte, Castiglione delle Stiviere, Parma, Portici, Rome, San Pietro Clarenza, Verbania and SulmonaLaw enforcement in Italy – Carabinieri.
57. Italian Parliament – The Italian Parliament is the national parliament of the Italian Republic. The Parliament is the body of Italian citizens and is the successor to the Parliament of the Kingdom of Sardinia. It is a legislature with 950 elected members and a small number of unelected members. The two houses are independent from one another and never meet jointly except under circumstances specified by the Constitution, on the other hand, no distinction is made between deputies and senators. The Chamber of Deputies has 630 elected members, while the Senate has 315 elected members, the Senate of the Republic also includes a small number of unelected members. There are two categories of senators for life, former Presidents of the Republic are senators for life by law, unless they renounce this privilege. Furthermore, Presidents of the Republic can appoint up to five Italian citizens as senators for life for outstanding merits in the social, scientific, artistic or literary field. Similarly, the two houses have a different age of candidacy, deputies are required to be 25 or older, no explicit age limit is required to be appointed senator for life. The main prerogative of the Parliament is the exercise of legislative power, for a bill to become law, it must receive the support of both houses independently in the same text. A bill is first introduced in one of the houses, amended, and then approved or rejected, if approved, it is passed to the other house, if approved without amendments, the bill is then promulgated by the President of the Republic and becomes law. If approved with amendments, it is back to the other house. The process continues until the bill is approved in the text by both houses or is rejected by one house. The Council of Ministers, which is led by the Prime Minister and is the executive of Italy. If the President of the Republic is unable to find a new Prime Minister able to receive the support of both houses, he or she can dissolve one or both houses and new elections are held. The process by which the Italian Parliament makes law, the iter legis, is as follows, proposals can be made by the Government, individual Members of Parliament, private citizens, individual Regional Councils, and the National Council for Economics and Labour. Once a proposal is introduced in one of the two Chambers, it is assigned to a committee to carry out preliminary inspection of the proposal. At this point, two different procedures can be taken and this must be completed in no more than four months for the Chamber of Deputies and two months for the Senate. Once the bill has come before one of the chambers, a discussion takes place, followed by the review article by article, and finally a vote on the whole billItalian Parliament – Palazzo Madama seat of the Senate.
58. Chamber of Deputies (Italy) – The Chamber of Deputies is a house of the bicameral Parliament of Italy. The two houses form a perfect bicameral system, meaning they perform identical functions, but do so separately. Pursuant to article 56 of the Italian Constitution, the Chamber of Deputies has 630 seats, of which 618 are elected from Italian constituencies, Deputies are styled The Honourable and meet at Palazzo Montecitorio. Previously, the seat of the Chamber of Deputies of the Kingdom of Italy had been briefly at the Palazzo Carignano in Turin and the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. Under the Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini, from 1939 to 1943, the Chamber is composed of all members meeting in session at the Montecitorio. The assembly also has the right to meetings of the Government. If required, the Government is obligated to attend the session, conversely, the Government has the right to be heard every time it requires. The term of office of the House is five years,61.2 of the Constitution, states that representatives whose term has expired shall continue to exercise their functions until the first meeting of the new Chamber. An extension of the term, provided for by art,60.2, can be enacted only in case of war. Election of members to the Chamber of Deputies is by voluntary, universal, terms last for a total of five years, unless an early dissolution of the Chamber is called by the President of the Republic, at which point a snap election is held. Unlike the Senate, which members to be 40 years of age. The current system for elections to the Chamber of Deputies has been in operation since 2015, the territory of Italy is divided into 100 constituencies electing between 3 and 9 deputies depending on their size. For each constituency, the parties designate a list of candidates, head of list candidates can run in up to 10 constituencies, if two preference votes are expressed, they must be of a different sex, otherwise, the second preference is discarded. Only parties passing a 3% minimum threshold in the first round are assigned seats, if the party receiving the plurality of the votes passes a 40% threshold, it is attributed a minimum of 340 seats. The remaining 277 seats are allocated to the other parties using the largest remainder method. This provision was however rendered null and void by a Constitutional Courts judgment in January 2017, the President of the Chamber of Deputies performs the role of speaker of the house and is elected during the first session after the election. During this time the prerogatives of speaker are assumed by the vicepresident of Chamber of Deputies of the legislature who was elected first. If two were elected simultaneously, the oldest deputy serves as president of Chamber of Deputies, the President of Chamber of Deputies has also the role of President during the Parliament joint sessions, when the upper and lower houses have to vote togetherChamber of Deputies (Italy)
59. List of political parties in Italy – Political parties in Italy are numerous and there are hundreds of parties which are no longer active. Since World War II, no party has gained enough support to govern alone. Parties thus form political alliances and coalition governments, in November 2013 The People of Freedom was dissolved and merged into the new Forza Italia, provoking the formation of the split-away New Centre-Right. In December 2016 Left Ecology Freedom was dissolved in order to part to the formation of Italian Left. Between 1945 and 1994, Italian politics was dominated by two parties, Christian Democracy, the main party of government, and the Italian Communist Party. The other opposition party was the post-fascist Italian Social Movement, for 46 consecutive years, the Christian Democrats led the government except for five years. Between 1983 and 1991, they led a government with the Socialists, the Republicans, the Democratic Socialists. These were the years when several regional parties demanding autonomy organised themselves at the regional level. In 1991 they federated themselves into the Northern League, which became the fourth largest party in the 1992 general election. In 1992–94, the system was shaken by a series of corruption scandals known collectively as Tangentopoli. These events led to the disappearance of the five parties of government, consequently, the Communists, who had evolved to become Democratic Party of the Left in 1991, and the post-fascists, who launched National Alliance in 1994, gained strength. Between 1996 and 2008, Italian political parties were organised into two big coalitions, the centre-right Pole for Freedoms and The Olive Tree on the centre-left. The centre-left governed from 1996 to 2001 and again between 2006 and 2008, while the House of Freedoms was in government between 2001 and 2006. In 2008 The Union ceased to exist as the newly founded Democratic Party decided to break the alliance with its left-wing partners, notably including the Communist Refoundation Party. On the centre-right, Forza Italia and National Alliance merged to form The People of Freedom, in November 2013 The People of Freedom was dissolved and merged into the new Forza Italia, provoking the formation of the split-away New Centre-Right. In December 2016 Left Ecology Freedom was dissolved in order to part to the formation of Italian LeftList of political parties in Italy – Italian Republic
60. Metropolitan cities of Italy – The metropolitan city is an administrative division of Italy, operative since 2015. In 2009, amendments added Reggio Calabria to the list, the metropolitan areas individuated by the autonomous regions were, Trieste in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Cagliari in Sardinia, Catania, Messina and Palermo in Sicily. On 3 April 2014 the Italian Parliament approved a law that establishes 10 metropolitan cities in Italy, the new metropolitan cities have been operative since 1 January 2015. The metropolitan city is composed by the municipalities that before had been members of the same province, each metropolitan city is headed by a metropolitan mayor assisted by a legislative body, the Metropolitan council, and by a non-legislative assembly, the metropolitan conference. Members of the Metropolitan council are elected and chosen by mayors and city councilors of each municipality in the metropolitan city, the metropolitan conference is composed by the mayors of the municipalities closest to the capital. The main functions devolved to the new cities are, local planning and zoning, provision of local police services, transport. Regions of Italy Provinces of Italy Municipalities of Italy Media related to Metropolitan cities of Italy at Wikimedia CommonsMetropolitan cities of Italy – Metropolitan cities of Italy.
61. Economy of Turin – Turin is Italys third largest economic center after Rome and Milan. In 2004, Turin produced a GDP of 25,439 billion euros,2. 2% of the national figure, the Turin greater metropolitan area produced 44,146 billion euros,3. 8% of the Italian GDP. Turins taxable income was 12,455 billion euros, the Province of Turin, is Italys second largest export market with a share of 5. 2% of the national total. Its industries include manufacturing and engineering, production of confectionery and chocolate, there has also been growth in construction, tourism and service industries. Founded in 1826, Caffarel is the oldest chocolate factory in the world, National banks with a presence in Turin include Intesa Sanpaolo and UniCredit Group. In 2006, there were 231,645 businesses registered in the Province of Turin and 112,255 in the city and these numbers represent just under 50% of all those in the Piedmont region and 4% of the Italian total. There were 21,987 foreign entrepreneurs, with the majority being non-EU, difficulties which industry in Turin has faced include a long phase of industrial restructuring, a crisis in Fiat, and transfer of production to developing nations. Data from 2006 indicated that growth in Italian GDP at that time was due to resumption of exports of cars from the Fiat Group, such automotive companies include Iveco, Alfa Romeo, Abarth and Lancia, Pininfarina, Bertone and Giugiaro). General Motors, while breaking a commercial and productive alliance with Fiat, the automotive components industry has expanded and modernised in response to Fiats success. There is a network of over 350 companies, the Turin Chamber of Commerces From Concept to Car project, involving 145 companies aimed to promote the excellence of the sector throughout the world. Beginning in the 1980s, tertiary sector industry in Turin has grown in importance, Turin hosts headquarters of the Intesa Sanpaolo banking group, the second largest group in Italy measured by market capitalization. Fondazione CRT, Reale Mutua Assicurazioni, Alleanza Toro and Fondiaria Sai are also present, in Turin, there are programs, for example, the New Turin Economy Project working to assist collaboration in the private technology sector. Companies and institutions involved include, Polytechnic Institute Mario Boella, Istituto Galileo Ferraris and the Centro ricerche Fiat, Torino Wireless, there is a concentration of such companies at Environment Park and Virtual Reality & Multi Media Park. The 2006 Winter Olympics contributed to Turins progress after a period of economic doldrums, however, some were not sure of its effect. Giorgetto Giugiaro, whose classic industrial designs range from Canon cameras to VW, if the villas we have in La Collinas were in Milan, people would call them the Beverly Hills of Europe. But our problem is that we are not able to talk about what we have, Giugiaro told me about a friend who owns two Rolls-Royces but wont take them out, for fear of showing off. So he drives around town in a car and leaves his Rolls in the garage. In 2008, the Turin area was visited by 5.3 million tourists, the conversion of large urban areas, previously occupied by factories has contributed to recent economic growthEconomy of Turin – Fiat 500 (2007)
62. Italian government debt – The Italian government debt is the public debt owed by the government of Italy to all public and private lenders. As of January 2014, the Italian government debt stands at €2.1 trillion, however, Italy has the lowest share of public debt held by non-residents of all eurozone countries and the countrys national wealth is four times larger than its public debt. Italy ran a deficit of 4. 6% of GDP in 2010. Italian debt was almost 120% of GDP and this led investors to view Italian debt bonds as a risky asset. On 15 July and 14 September 2011, Italys government passed austerity measures meant to save €124 billion, on 8 November 2011 the Italian bond yield was 6. 74% for 10-year bonds, climbing above the 7% level where the country is thought to lose access to financial markets. The interim government expected to put the new laws into practice was led by former European Union Competition Commissioner Mario Monti, government debt reached 127. 0% of GDP in 2012. Government debt reached 130. 4% of GDP in 2013, government debt reached 131. 1% of GDP in 2014. The Italian government has sought to privatise government assets in 2014 in order to reduce debt, in January 2014 the Italian government also agreed to offer citizens a chance to use a new voluntary disclosure scheme to repatriate assets held abroad, often in Swiss banks. Italy has offered several tax amnesties over the past few years, in 2014, the Bank of Italy estimated that Italians held €180 billion in undeclared assets abroad, a figure that was three times as high as in 2004. Taxation in Italy Italian welfare state Europe, Eurozone crisisItalian government debt – The debt to GDP ratio of selected countries, 2010. Italy is displayed in purple.
63. Science and technology in Italy – Italy has a long tradition in science and technology, going back to the Renaissance and the Roman era. By the first century AD, Rome had become the biggest and most advanced city in the world, the ancient Romans came up with new technologies to improve the citys sanitation systems, roads, and buildings. They developed a system of aqueducts that piped freshwater into the city, the wealthiest Romans lived in large houses with gardens. Most of the population, however, lived in apartment buildings made of stone, concrete, the Romans developed new techniques and used materials such as volcanic soil from Pozzuoli, a village near Naples, to make their cement harder and stronger. This concrete allowed them to large apartment buildings called insulae. Italy had a golden age during the Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci, was trained to be a painter, and he conceived of ideas vastly ahead of his time. In addition, he advanced the fields of knowledge in anatomy, astronomy, civil engineering, optics. The scientist Galileo Galilei is called the first modern scientist and his work constitutes a significant break from that of Aristotle and medieval philosophers and scientists. Galileo’s achievements include improvements to the telescope, various astronomical observations, Galileo was suppressed by the Catholic Church, but was a founder of modern science. Guglielmo Marconi received the Nobel Prize in Physics in recognition of his work to the development of wireless telegraphy, fermi played a major role in the building of the first atomic bomb. One of his assistants Bruno Pontecorvo was also a Soviet agent who defected to the Soviet Union in 1950, watching Vesuvius, A History of Science and Culture in Early Modern Italy Cocco, Sean. Locating the Natural Sciences in Early Modern Naples, ch 20 in A Companion to Early Modern Naples pp, Physics in Italy between 1900 and 1940, The universities, physicists, funds, and research. Historical studies in the physical and biological sciences, 115-136, Physics in the 1930s, Jewish Physicists Contribution to the Realization of the New Tasks of Physics in Italy. Historical studies in the physical and biological sciences, 141-181, vito volterra, Cosmopolitan ideals and nationality in the Italian scientific community between the belle époque and the first world war. Science in the Italian universities in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries Turchetti, the Pontecorvo Affair, A Cold War Defection and Nuclear Physics Science in Italy, 2003-07Science and technology in Italy – Galileo Galilei, the Father of modern science, physics and astronomy
64. Taxation in Italy – Taxation in Italy is levied by the central and regional governments and is collected by the Italian Agency of Revenue. Total tax revenue in 2012 was 44. 4% of the GDP, the total tax receipts in 2013 were €782 billion. The most important revenue sources are income tax, social security, corporate tax and the value added tax, personal income taxation in Italy is progressive. Employment income is subject to an income tax applying to all workers. The area exempt from Irpef increases further if there are dependent family members, the corporate income tax in Italy is 24% since 1.1.2017. Some corporations are exempted from tax, such as charitable foundations, church institutions. Value added tax is a tax at a standard rate of 22%. Reduced VAT rates apply at 10% for pharmaceuticals, passenger transport, admission to cultural and entertainment events, hotels, restaurants and 4% on foodstuffs, medical, the Italian VAT is part of the European Union value added tax system. Social security contributions apply to everyone in the workforce, employers withhold 9. 19% of the employees wage and the employer contributes 34. 08% of gross pay. Self-employed individuals must enrol with the Gestione Separata, unless specific rules apply. The contributions to the INPS are calculated at a rate ranging from 18% to 27. 72% on annual income up to a maximum income of €96,149 in 2012. Italy has the largest number of tax evaders in Europe, counting, according to the estimated figures. On the other hand, the problem is the best way to ensure the right of defense from the tax claim of the State, eight per thousand How to, Register the VAT number in Italy How to calculate your net salary in ItalyTaxation in Italy – Taxation
65. Internet in Italy – The Internet country code top-level domain for Italy is. it and is sponsored by Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. The. eu domain is used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. Currently Internet access is available to businesses and home users in forms, including dial-up, fiber, cable, DSL. The Fibre for Italy project aims to reach 20 million people in Italys 15 largest cities by 2015, the government has also started the Italia Digitale project, which aims to provide at least 50% of Italians with high-speed internet access by 2020. The government aims to extend the network to rural areas. Despite this, theres a debate going because the company is investing on copper and on the fiber-to-the-cabinet technology. The FTTC and VDSL2 technologies can bring up to 100/20 Mbit/s connections to the final customer. TIM and Fastweb have plans to increase FTTC speeds with vectoring to up to 200/50 Mbit/s streams before the end of 2016. The FTTH network is developing as well, with a standard 300/20 Mbit/s connection at the same price as FTTC. Figures published by the National Institute of Statistics showed at end-2011 that 58, 8% of Italian families had a computer,54, 5% had access to the internet. Over one-fourth of Italian internet users aged 14 and older made a purchase during 2011. This has inhibited the opening of hotspots across Italy, with a number of hotspots 5 times lower than France and the conspicuous absence of Municipal wireless networks. Considering the above-mentioned law at too shrink, a law should facilitate the opening and access of Wi-Fi Hotspots. Only at the end of 2010, a bipartisan bill allowed for the repeal of article 7 of the Pisanu law. The abrogation was finally made by the Monti Cabinet, which has not entered the renewal extension in the decree of 2011, currently internet filtering in Italy is applied on web-sites which display child pornography and on some P2P web-sites. A pervasive filtering is applied to gambling websites who dont have a local license to operate in Italy. Telecommunications in Italy Censorship in Italy Italy profile, on OpenNet Initiative website, «Non è un paese per Internet. In cinque anni dieci leggi contro la Rete», article from the newspaper Il Fatto Quotidiano, Internet access and use in the EU27 in 2008, Eurostat news releaseInternet in Italy – A sign posted on the door of an internet cafe in Florence regarding Italian Law No. 155 of 31 July 2005
66. Secondary education in Italy – The Scuola secondaria di primo grado it is mandatory, lasts three years and is the first stage in which different specialized professors teach different subjects. It provides further education on the subjects studied at the scuola primaria, with the addition of technology and it has a common programme for all pupils, and covers all the classical subjects. Before the Moratti reform it was called scuola media di primo grado or scuola media inferiore, the scuola secondaria di secondo grado – formerly known as scuola media superiore – lasts five years. Every tier involves an exam at the end of the year, called esame di maturità. Any type of school that lasts five years grants access to the final exam, called esame di maturità or esame di stato. It is designed to give students the skills to progress to any university or higher educational institution, for historical reasons, there are three types of Scuola secondaria di secondo grado, subsequently divided into further specializations. Liceo Istituto tecnico Istituto professionale Programmes are generally decided at national level, moreover, students in state-owned schools perform better than students in private schools. A typical Italian student is age 19 when they enter university, the Italian school system also features the scuola serale, aimed at adults and working students. The education received in a liceo is mostly theoretical, with a specialization in a field of studies. Types of liceo include, Liceo classico – dedicated to studies, features Latin, Ancient Greek, Italian, history. Liceo artistico – which is oriented toward arts teaching – both in a theoretical and practical way and its subjects are painting, sculpture, decoration, graphics, design, audiovisual, multimedia, scenography and architecture. Liceo delle scienze umane – where the emphasis is more on relational, behavioral and educational, such as pedagogy, anthropology, psychology, sociology and it replaces the previous istituto magistrale. Liceo musicale e coreutico – often linked with a conservatory, which comprises two sectors, musicale – which specializes in music and teaches students to play an instrument, coreutico – which specializes in dance and choreography. The istituto darte was a form of istituto professionale, which offered an education focused on art history. Today it is part of the liceo artistico, the subjects are chosen between the ones of the last year by each examining board, excluding those of the first and second test. Up to 30 points on an oral exam regarding all the subjects of the last year up to 5 points in cases the examining board judges appropriate to meriting students. The exam is passed with a score of 60 or more, and any secondary school diploma is valid for access to any university course. itSecondary education in Italy – A scuola secondaria di primo grado (aka scuola media), in Morbio
67. Higher education in Italy – Higher education in Italy is mainly provided by a large and international network of public and state affiliated universities. State-run universities of Italy are under the supervision of Italians Ministry of Education, there is also a number of private universities and state-run post-secondary educational centers providing a vocational instruction. Italian universities are among the oldest universities in the world, in particular the University of Bologna, the University of Padua, founded in 1222, and the University of Naples, founded in 1224, are among the most ancient state universities in Europe. Most universities in Italy are state-supported, Universities in Italy fits the framework of the Bologna Process since the adoption, in 1999, of the so-called 3+2 system. The first level degree is the Laurea triennale that can be achieved three years of studies. Selected students can complete their studies in the following step. The Laurea triennale corresponds roughly to a Bachelor Degree while the Laurea Magistrale corresponds to a Master Degree, only the Laurea Magistrale grants access to third cycle programmes, that last 2 to 5 years. However, there is just a unique five-year degree Laurea Magistrale Quinquennale for some such as Law, Arts. Medical schools are part of universities and they only offer six-year courses. The title for MA/MFA/MD/MEd graduate students is Dottore and this title is not to be confused with the PhD and Post-MA graduates, whose title is Dottore di Ricerca. Universities in Italy can be divided into 4 groups, state-funded public universities, Universities funded by other public authority, this is the case of the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano. Private universities officially recognized by the Ministry of Education, Superior graduate schools, which focus only on postgraduate education. e. Research Doctorate or Doctor Philosophiae i. e. Ph. D. and are recognized by the Ministry of Education, Universities, some of them also organize courses Masters degree, individually, or jointly with the universities with whom they work. There are three Superior Graduate Schools with university status, three institutes with the status of Doctoral Colleges, which function at graduate and post-graduate level, nine further schools are direct offshoots of the universities. The first one is the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, taking the model of organization from the famous École Normale Supérieure and these institutions are commonly referred to as Schools of Excellence. Higher education in Italy is mainly covered by universities and superior graduate schools and this is considered a weak point of the Italian post-secondary education. However, Italian system provides a few schools and courses. There are two main vocational paths after having obtained a degree, those courses called Istruzione e Formazione Tecnica SuperioreHigher education in Italy – University of Bologna, Italy and Europe's oldest university, founded in 1088
68. Italian diaspora – The Italian diaspora is the large-scale emigration of Italians from Italy. There are two major Italian diasporas in Italian history, the first diaspora began in 1861 with the Unification of Italy and ended in the 1920s with the rise of the Italian Fascism. The second diaspora started after the end of World War II, between the period of 1880 and 1976, the largest voluntary emigration in documented history, with about 13 million Italians leaving the country. By 1978, it was estimated that about 25 million Italians were residing outside of Italy, the Italian Diaspora, a large-scale migration of Italians away from Italy during the 19th and 20th centuries, occurred in three different waves. Poverty was the reason for the diaspora, specifically the lack of land as property became subdivided over generations. Secondary reasons for the diaspora include internal political and economic problems, Italy was until the 1860s a partially rural society where land management practices, especially in the South and North-East, did not easily convince farmers to stay on the land and work the soil. Another characteristic was related to the overpopulation of southern Italy after the improvements of the socio-economic conditions, indeed, southern Italian families after 1861 started to have access to hospitals, improved hygienic conditions and normal food supply. This created a boom and forced the new generations to emigrate en masse at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. Between 1861 and 1985,29,036,000 Italians immigrated to other countries, about 10,275,000 returned to Italy while 18,761,000 permanently settled abroad. In 2011 in the world there were 4,115,235 Italian citizens living outside Italy and several tens of millions of descendants of Italians, who emigrated in the last two centuries. The breakdown of feudalism, however, and redistribution of land did not necessarily lead to small farmers in the winding up with land of their own or land they could work. Many remained landless, and plots grew smaller and smaller and so less and less productive as land was subdivided among heirs, between 1860 and World War I,9,000,000 Italians left, most from the south and most going to North or South America. It has been termed persistent and path-dependent emigration flow, friends and relatives who left first sent back money for tickets and helped relatives as they arrived. That tended to support an emigration flow since even improving conditions in the country took a while to trickle down to potential emigrants to convince them not to leave. Examples of such restrictions in the United States were the Emergency Quota Act of 1921, restrictive legislation to limit emigration from Italy was introduced by the fascist government of the 1920s and 30s. The Italian diaspora did not affect all regions of the nation equally, robert Foerster, in Italian Emigration of our Times says, … well nigh expulsion, it has been exodus, in the sense of depopulation, it has been characteristically permanent. The south lacked entrepreneurs, and absentee landlords were common, although owning land was the basic yardstick of wealth, farming there was socially despised. People invested not in agricultural equipment but in things as low-risk state bondsItalian diaspora – Italian emigrants leaving Italy in the 1890s.
69. Gambling in Italy – Gambling in Italy has existed for centuries and has taken on many forms. The history of gambling in Italy dates back to the days of the Roman Empire and it is also due to them that the game came to other European countries. It was in Venice, that in 1638 the first gambling house Ridotto was opened and it was sanctioned by the government aiming to control gambling activity of the citizens. Although the admission to that house was free, only rich people could afford to play there. The games played were biribi resembling lottery and bassetta, both games had a very high house edge. In 1774 Ridotto was closed which resulted in the growth of popularity of the closed gambling clubs and these clubs were called casinos, so the word casino itself is of Italian origin. Baccarat originated in Italy in the 15th century, bingo is also of an Italian origin. In the 1530s, the Italians played game called Lo Giuoco del Lotto D’Italia that resembled bingo, the Italian Criminal law proclaims gambling illegal, be it organized in a public place, an open-to-public place or a private club. At the same time, according to the Italian law, theres a difference between the games of luck and games where the outcome depends on the players skills, sports-betting, lotteries and some other activities fall into the category of legal and regulated gambling activities. Only the State has the right to allow gambling, AAMS is granted the power to issue licenses and regulate other gambling matters. The punishment for breaking the law ranges from fines to imprisonment, Italy has come a long way from totally prohibiting all gambling activities, to legalizing some of them under certain conditions. The main reason why the Italian government adhered to strict rules was the desire to avoid the negative effects associated with the industry. The Finance Act 2007 was another milestone in the regulation of gambling in Italy and it legalized card games of skill, specifying that such games should be played in the form of a tournament with the stake equal to the tournament entry fee. Other poker games as well as video games based on the same rules were prohibited as being dependent wholly on pure luck. The Comunitaria decree was a breakthrough for the gambling industry in Italy. It provided a regulation for cash poker games and casino games, one of its most notable aspects was the new tax regime based on the profit rather than on the turnover. A flat rate of 20% was to be applied to all newly legalized games except the video lottery games, operators organizing sports and horse betting, lotteries and skill games still had to pay 3% of total tournament buy-ins sold. Also, the new decree obliged operators to pay back to players at least 90% of the money in the form of winningsGambling in Italy – Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum
70. Health in Italy – As with any developed country, Italy has adequate and sufficient water and food distribution, and levels of nutrition and sanitation are high. Italy has a good and sufficient water supply, yet, especially due to droughts, a problem which often presents itself regarding drinking water is water pollution and the presence of harmful purifying chemicals and/or herbicides, which can cause several health problems. According to an issued by the state, the maximum presence of herbicides or similar materials in Italy drinking water is 0.5 μg per litre. Italys nutritious and generally healthy cuisine ensures that Italians are well-nourished, the relatively recent addition of several drugs to meats has meant that controls have increased from 4,000 in 1988 to 56,831 in 1991. Despite this, the greatest risk from exposure to radiation is found indoors, Italy has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. However, Italys high average varies greatly by regions, in the more affluent north, the life expectancy at birth in 1990 for a man would be lower than in the south yet for a woman, the average is higher in the north than in the south. Central Italy has the highest average, with 74.7 for men and 81.0 for women, in 2003, the average national life expectancy at birth for a woman was 78~84, and for a man 71~77. By 2009, this average had increased to 77.26 for men. Italy also has a low rate of infant mortality, that of 5.51 out of 1000 people. From 1970 to 1989, the rate went down dramatically, from 11 and 10.3 for men and women. Smoking in Italy has decreased greatly in the past decades for men, from a country where in 1966 a 68. 5% average of the male population smoked, this had gone down to a ~37% average in 1991. Yet, for women, it increased from ~15% for women in 1966, to ~16. 5%, notably in the centre, healthcare in Italy Timeline of healthcare in ItalyHealth in Italy – An old social insurance card (dated 1921) belonging to the Istituto Nazionale della Previdenza Sociale, which makes sure that workers are not injured from work, and if they are, that they are insured.
71. Healthcare in Italy – Thanks to its good healthcare system, the life expectancy at birth in Italy was 82.3 years in 2012, which is over two years above the OECD average. After World War II Italy established its social security system including a health insurance administered by sickness funds. In the 1970s the social health insurance faced several equity problems as coverage differed between the funds and around 7% of the population remained uninsured. Moreover, sickness funds went practically bankrupt by the mid-1970s, due to growing public dissatisfaction with the existing healthcare system, Italian policymakers fostered a structural reform. In 1978, the government established the SSN — the Italian version of a National Health Service — including universal coverage, healthcare is provided to all citizens and residents by a mixed public-private system. The public part is the health service, Sistema sanitario nazionale. Family doctors are paid by the SSN, must offer visiting time at least five days a week and have a limit of 1500 patients. Patients can choose and change their GP, subjected to availability, prescription drugs can be acquired only if prescribed by a doctor. If prescribed by the doctor, they are generally subsidized, requiring only a copay that depends on the medicine type. Both prescription and over-the-counter drugs can only be sold in specialized shops, in a sample of 13 developed countries, Italy was sixth in its population weighted usage of medication in 14 classes in 2009 and fifth in 2013. The study noted considerable difficulties in cross-border comparison of medication use, patients, however, can opt for the free market option, provided by both public and private hospitals, which is paid completely out-of-pocket and has generally much shorter waiting times. Surgeries and hospitalization provided by the hospitals or by conventioned private ones are completely free of charge for everyone. For planned surgery waiting times can be up to many months, the Italian National Outcomes Programme permits measurement of variation in the quality and outcomes of care by region, which is very considerable. Measured at Local Health Authority level the levels varied between 5% and more than 60% and this geographic variability was the greatest of any of the 11 countries studied by the OECD. There is evidence of patient movement, generally south to north, probably driven, at least in part. The emergency telephone number for medical service in Italy is 118. Emergency medical service is free of charge. First aid is provided by all the hospitals, for urgent cases it is completely free of charge for everyoneHealthcare in Italy – An Italian National Health Service card.
72. Nobility of Italy – They often held lands as fiefs and were sometimes endowed with hereditary titles or nobiliary particles. From the Middle Ages until 1861, Italy was not a country but was a number of separate kingdoms and other states. These were often related through marriage to other and to other European royal families. Before Italian Unification there was a relatively large nobility in Italy, there were also families which had been part of Italian nobility for many decades or even centuries. These families freely intermarried with aristocratic nobility, like other noble families, those with both papal power and money were able to purchase comunes or other tracts of land and elevate family patriarchs and other relatives to noble titles. Hereditary patriarchs were appointed Duke, Marquis and even Prince of various 16th-, according to Ranke, Popes commonly elevated members of prominent families to the position of Cardinal, especially second and third sons who would not otherwise inherit hereditary titles. Popes also elevated their own family members – especially nephews – to the position of Cardinal-Nephew. The period was famous for papal nepotism and many families, such as the Barberini and Pamphili, modern Italy is dotted with the fruits of their success – various family palazzi remain standing today as a testament to their sometimes meteoric rise to power. The architect of Italian unification was Count Camillo Benso di Cavour, rome itself remained for a further decade under the Papacy, and became part of the Kingdom of Italy only in 1870. Those nobles who maintained allegiance to the pope became known as the Black Nobility, after the unification, the kings of Italy continued to create titles of nobility to eminent Italians, this time with a validity for all of the Italian territory. For example, General Enrico Cialdini was created Duca di Gaeta for his role during the unification, the practice continued until the 20th century, when nominations would be made by the Prime Minister of Italy and approved by the Crown. In the aftermath of the First World War, most Italians who were ennobled received their titles through the patronage of the Mussolini government, examples include General Armando Diaz, Admiral Paolo Thaon di Revel, Commodore Luigi Rizzo, Costanzo Ciano, Dino Grandi and Cesare Maria de Vecchi. Many of these were victory titles for services rendered to the nation in the Great War, the writer and aviator Gabriele dAnnunzio was created Principe di Montenevoso in 1924, and the physicist, inventor, and Nobel laureate Guglielmo Marconi was also ennobled in 1924 as Marchese Marconi. In 1937, Ettore Tolomei was ennobled as Conte della Vetta, after the successful Italian invasion of Abyssinia, the Mussolini government recommended further Italians to the king for titles of nobility. For example, Marshal Pietro Badoglio was created Marchese del Sabotino and later Duke of Addis Abeba, in 1946, the Kingdom of Italy was replaced by a republic. Under the Italian Constitution adopted in 1948, titles of nobility are not legally recognised, certain predicati recognised before 1922 may continue to be attached to surnames and used in legal documents. Often these were historic feudal territories of noble families, a high court ruling in 1967 definitively established that the heraldic-nobiliary legislation of the Kingdom of Italy is not current law. The southern kingdoms of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia, as well as the Papal states, granted the titles typical of such as Spain, France or England, Prince, Duke, Marquis, CountNobility of Italy – Caserta Palace
73. Women in Italy – Italian Women refers to females who are from in Italy. The legal and social status of Italian women has undergone rapid transformations and this includes family laws, the enactment of anti-discrimination measures, and reforms to the penal code. For the Roman period, see Women in Ancient Rome, during the Middle ages, Italian women were considered to have very few social power and resources, although some widows inherited ruling positions from their husbands. Educated women could find opportunities of leadership only in relgious convents, the Renaissance challenged conventional customs from the Medieval period. Venetian-born Christine de Pizan wrote, The City of Ladies in 1404, some women were able to gain an education on their own, or received tutoring from father or husband. Lucrezia Tornabuoni in Florence, Veronica Gambara at Correggio, Veronica Franco and Moderata Fonte in Venice, powerful women rulers of the Italian Renaissance, such as Isabella dEste, Catherine de Medici or Lucrezia Borgia, combined political skill with cultural interests and patronage. Unlike her peers, Isabella di Morra was kept a prisoner in her own castle. By the late 16th and early 17th century, Italian women intellectuals presented were embraced by contemporary culture as learned daughters, wives, mothers, among them were composers Francesca Caccini and Leonora Baroni, and painter Artemisia Gentileschi. Outside the family setting, Italian women continued to find opportunities in the convent and now increasingly, also as singers in the theatre, in 1678 Elena Cornaro Piscopia was the first woman in Italy to receive an academical degree, in philosophy, from the University of Padua. Italian sopranos and primedonne continued to be all around Europe, Vittoria Tesi, Caterina Gabrielli, Lucrezia Aguiari. Other notable women of the period include painter Rosalba Carriera, the Napoleonic Age and the Italian Risorgimento offered for the first time to Italian women the opportunity to be politically engaged. In 1799 in Naples, poet Eleonora Fonseca Pimentel was executed as one of the protagonists of the short-lived Parthenopean Republic, between 1861 and 1925, women were granted no right to vote in the new Italian state. In 1864, Anna Maria Mozzoni triggered a widespread movement in Italy through the publication of Woman. In 1868 Alaide Gualberta Beccari began publishing the journal Women in Padua, a growing percentage of young women were now employed in factories. Excluded from the life, women were particularly exploited. Under the influence of socialist leaders, such as Anna Kuliscioff, in 1902 the first law to protect the labor of women was approved. It forbade them working in the mines and limited hours to 12 hours for women. By the 1880s, women were making inroads towards higher education, in 1877 Ernestina Puritz Manasse-Paper was the first woman to get a university degree in modern Italy, in medicine, and in 1907 Rina Monti was the first female professor in an Italian UniversityWomen in Italy – Sophia Loren, one of Italy's best known actresses
74. Duecento – As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 through 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages, 1202—Introduction of Liber Abaci by Fibonacci. 1202—Battle of Basian occurred on July 27, between Kingdom of Georgia and Seljuks, 1204—Fourth Crusade of 1202–1204 captures Zara for Venice and sacks Byzantine Constantinople, creating the Latin Empire. 1204—Fall of Normandy from Angevin hands to the French King, Philip Augustus, 1205—The Battle of Adrianople occurred on April 14,1205 between Bulgarians under Tsar Kaloyan of Bulgaria, and Crusaders under Baldwin I, the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. 1206—Genghis Khan is declared Great Khan of the Mongols, 1213—France defeats the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon at the Battle of Muret. 1214—France defeats English and Imperial German forces at the Battle of Bouvines, 1215—King John signs Magna Carta at Runnymede. 1217–1221—Fifth Crusade captures Egyptian Ayyubid port city of Damietta, ultimately the Crusaders withdraw, 1221—Venice signs a trade treaty with the Mongol Empire. 1222—Andrew II of Hungary signs the Golden Bull which affirms the privileges of Hungarian nobility, 1233—Battle of Ganter, Ken Arok defeated Kertajaya, the last king of Kediri, thus established Singhasari kingdom Ken Arok ended the reign of Isyana Dynasty and started his own Rajasa dynasty. 1223-The Signoria, of the Republic of Venice is formed and consists of the Doge, the Minor Council, 1223—The Mongol Empire defeats various Russian principalities at the Battle of the Kalka River. 1223-Volga Bulgaria defeats the army of The Mongol Empire at the Battle of Samara Bend 1227 - Estonians are finally subjugated to German crusader rule during the Livonian Crusade, 1228-1229—Sixth Crusade under the excommunicated Frederick II Hohenstaufen, who returns Jerusalem to the Crusader States. 1228-1230- First clash between Gregory IX and Frederick II, 1226-1250- Dispute between the so-called second Lombard League and Frederick II. 1232—The Mongols besiege Kaifeng, the capital of the Jin dynasty, 1239–1250—Third conflict between Holy Roman Empire–Papacy. 1238—Sukhothai was the first capital of Sukhothai Kingdom, 1241—Mongol Empire defeats Hungary at the Battle of Mohi and defeats Poland at the Battle of Legnica. 1242—Russians defeat the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Lake Peipus, 1244—Ayyubids and Khwarezmians defeat the Crusaders and their Arab allies at the Battle of La Forbie. 1249—End of the Portuguese Reconquista against the Moors, when King Afonso III of Portugal reconquers the Algarve, 1248–1254—Seventh Crusade captures Egyptian Ayyubid port city of Damietta, Crusaders ultimately withdraw. 1257—Baab Mashur Malamo established The Kingdom of Ternate in Maluku, 1258—Baghdad captured and destroyed by the Mongols, effective conclusion of the Caliphate 1259—Treaty of Paris. 1260—Toluid Civil War begins between Kublai Khan and Ariq Böke for the title of Great Khan, 1261—Byzantines under Michael VIII retake Constantinople from the Crusaders and Venice. 1262—Iceland was brought under Norwegian rule, with the Old Covenant 1265—Dominican friar and theologian, 1268—Fall of the Crusader State of Antioch to the MamelukesDuecento – The gold florin of Firenze started to be the main currency of european trade during the Duecento
75. Architecture of Italy – Italy has a very broad and diverse architectural style, which cannot be simply classified by period or region, due to Italys division into several city-states until 1861. However, this has created a diverse and eclectic range in architectural designs. Italy has an total of 100,000 monuments of all varieties. Now Italy is in the forefront of modernist and sustainable design with Architects like Renzo Piano, Italian architecture has also widely influenced the architecture of the world. Along with pre-historic architecture, the first people in Italy to truly begin a sequence of designs were the Greeks, in Northern and Central Italy, it was the Etruscans who led the way in architecture in that time. Etruscan buildings were made from brick and wood, thus few Etruscan architectural sites are now in evidence in Italy, with the exception of a few in Volterra, the Etruscans strongly influenced Roman architecture, as they too used to build temples, fora, public streets and aqueducts. The heavy pillars and porches created by the Etruscans, and their city gates were also a significant influence on Roman architecture. In Southern Italy, from the 8th century BC, the Greek colonists who created what was known as Magna Graecia used to build their buildings in their own style. The Greeks built bigger, better and more technologically advanced houses that people in the Iron and Bronze Age, yet, by the 4th century BC, the Hellenistic Age, less concentration was put on constructing temples, more rather the Greeks spent more time building theatres. The theatres were semi-circular and had an auditorium and a stage and they used to be built only on hills, unlike the Romans who would artificially construct the audiences seats. The Greek temples were known for containing bulky stone or marble pillars, today, there are several remains of Greek architecture in Italy, notably in Calabria, Apulia and Sicily. An example could be the remains of Agrigento, Sicily, which are currently UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Architecture of Ancient Rome adopted the external Greek architecture around the 2nd century BC for their own purposes, creating a new architectural style. The two styles that are considered one body of classical architecture. Social elements such as wealth and high densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to go discover new solutions of their own. Examples include the aqueducts of Rome, the Baths of Diocletian and the Baths of Caracalla, the basilicas and perhaps most famously of all and they were reproduced at smaller scale in most important towns and cities in the Empire. Some surviving structures are almost complete, such as the walls of Lugo in Hispania Tarraconensis. Italy was widely affected by the Early Christian age, with Rome being the new seat of the pope, after the Justinian reconquest of Italy, several buildings, palaces and churches were built in the Roman-Byzantine style. The Christian concept of a Basilica was invented in Rome and they were known for being long, rectangular buildings, which were built in an almost ancient Roman style, often rich in mosaics and decorationsArchitecture of Italy – The Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi, which has the largest brick dome in the world, and is considered a masterpiece of world architecture.
76. List of castles in Italy – This is a list of castles in Italy by location. Built in 1430 by the Calepio family, camozzi Vertova Castle, Costa di Mezzate. Built in the 15th century by the Counts Martinengo-Colleoni, built in the 15th century by the warlord Bartolomeo Colleoni. Built in the 14th century by the Avogadri family, built around 1450–70 by the Sforza family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Province of Brescia Brescia Castle, Brescia, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family and the Republic of Venice. Commonly known as Rocca Magna, built in the 9th–12th centuries, built in the 13th century by the Scaliger family. Province of Como Castello Baradello, Como, built in the 12th century by Frederick Barbarossa. Province of Cremona Soncino Castle, Soncino, built in the 10th century and renovated in the 15th century by the Sforza family. Province of Lecco Castello Andriani, Dervio, Lombardy Province of Lodi Province of Mantua Castles Asola Castle, built in the 14th century by the Gonzaga family. Castiglione delle Stiviere Castle, Castiglione delle Stiviere, towers Castel Goffredo Civic Tower Castle, Castel Goffredo. Province of Milan Castles Abbiategrasso Castle, Abbiategrasso, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 13th–14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 13th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Borromeo family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family but it dates back to the 10th century, built in the 13th century by the Della Torre family. Known as Castello Mediceo, it was built in the 13th century by the Visconti family, built in the 15th century by the Borromeo familyList of castles in Italy – Forte Spagnolo, L'Aquila
77. Cinema of Italy – The Cinema of Italy comprises the films made within Italy or by Italian directors. As of 2014, Italian films have won 14 Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film, the most of any country, as well as 12 Palmes dOr, early Italian films were typically adaptations of books or stage plays. One of the first cinematic avante-garde movements, Italian Futurism, took place in Italy in the late 1910s, after a period of decline in the 1920s, the Italian film industry was revitalized in the 1930s with the arrival of sound film. A popular Italian genre during this period, the Telefoni Bianchi, post-World War II Italy saw the rise of the influential Italian neorealist movement, which launched the directorial careers of Luchino Visconti, Roberto Rossellini, and Vittorio De Sica. Neorealism declined in the late 1950s in favor of lighter films, such as those of the Commedia allitaliana genre and important directors like Federico Fellini, actresses such as Sophia Loren, Giulietta Masina and Gina Lollobrigida achieved international stardom during this period. The Spaghetti Western achieved popularity in the mid-1960s, peaking with Sergio Leones Dollars Trilogy, erotic Italian thrillers, or giallos, produced by directors such as Mario Bava and Dario Argento in the 1970s, influenced the horror genre worldwide. During the 1980s and 1990s, directors such as Ermanno Olmi, Bernardo Bertolucci, Giuseppe Tornatore, Gabriele Salvatores, lumière trainees produced short films documenting everyday life and comic strips in the late 1890s and early 1900s. Pioneering Italian cinematographer Filoteo Alberini patented his Kinetograph during this period, the Italian film industry took shape between 1903 and 1908, led by three major organizations, Cines, based in Rome, and the Turin-based companies Ambrosio Film and Itala Film. Other companies soon followed in Milan and Naples, and these early companies quickly attained a respectable production quality and were able to market their products both within Italy and abroad. Early Italian films typically consisted of adaptations of books or stage plays, such as Mario Caserinis Otello and Arturo Ambrosios 1908 adaptation of the novel, also popular during this period were films about historical figures, such as Caserinis Beatrice Cenci and Ugo Falenas Lucrezia Borgia. LInferno, produced by Milano Films in 1911, was the first full-length Italian feature film ever made, popular early Italian actors included Emilio Ghione, Alberto Collo, Bartolomeo Pagano, Amleto Novelli, Lyda Borelli, Ida Carloni Talli, Lidia Quaranta and Maria Jacobini. Enrico Guazzones 1913 film Quo Vadis was one of the earliest blockbusters in history, utilizing thousands of extras. Giovanni Pastrones 1914 film Cabiria was a larger production, requiring two years and a record budget to produce. Nino Martoglios Lost in Darkness, also produced in 1914, documented life in the slums of Naples, between 1911 and 1919, Italy was home to the first avant-garde movement in cinema, inspired by the countrys Futurism movement. The 1916 Manifesto of Futuristic Cinematography was signed by Filippo Marinetti, Armando Ginna, Bruno Corra, Giacomo Balla, to the Futurists, cinema was an ideal art form, being a fresh medium, and able to be manipulated by speed, special effects and editing. The Italian film industry struggled against rising foreign competition in the years following World War I, several major studios, among them Cines and Ambrosio, formed the Unione Cinematografica Italiana to coordinate a national strategy for film production. This effort was unsuccessful, however, due to a wide disconnect between production and exhibition. Among the notable Italian films of the silent era were Mario Camerinis RotaioCinema of Italy – Thaïs (1917)
78. Italian cuisine – Italian cuisine is the culinary typical or originating from Italy. It has developed through centuries of social and political changes, with roots stretching to antiquity, Italian cuisine is characterized by its simplicity, with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients. Italian cooks rely chiefly on the quality of the rather than on elaborate preparation. Ingredients and dishes vary by region, many dishes that were once regional, however, have proliferated with variations throughout the country. Cheese and wine are a part of the cuisine, with many variations. Coffee, specifically espresso, has become important in Italian cuisine, Italian cuisine has developed over the centuries. Although the country known as Italy did not unite until the 19th century, Italian food started to form after the fall of the Roman Empire, when different cities began to separate and form their own traditions. Many different types of bread and pasta were made, and there was a variation in cooking techniques and preparation. For example, the north of Italy is known for its risottos, the central/middle of the country is known for its tortellini, the first known Italian food writer was a Greek Sicilian named Archestratus from Syracuse in the 4th century BCE. He wrote a poem that spoke of using top quality and seasonal ingredients and he said that flavors should not be masked by spices, herbs or other seasonings. He placed importance on simple preparation of fish, simplicity was abandoned and replaced by a culture of gastronomy as the Roman Empire developed. By the time De re coquinaria was published in the 1st century CE, it contained 470 recipes calling for heavy use of spices, the Romans employed Greek bakers to produce breads and imported cheeses from Sicily as the Sicilians had a reputation as the best cheesemakers. The Romans reared goats for butchering, and grew artichokes and leeks, with culinary traditions from Rome and Athens, a cuisine developed in Sicily that some consider the first real Italian cuisine. Arabs invaded Sicily in the 9th century, introducing spinach, almonds, Normans also introduced casseroles, salt cod and stockfish, which remain popular. Food preservation was either chemical or physical, as refrigeration did not exist, meats and fish would be smoked, dried or kept on ice. Brine and salt were used to pickle items such as herring, root vegetables were preserved in brine after they had been parboiled. Other means of preservation included oil, vinegar or immersing meat in congealed, rendered fat, for preserving fruits, liquor, honey and sugar were used. The northern Italian regions show a mix of Germanic and Roman culture while the south reflects Arab influence, the oldest Italian book on cuisine is the 13th century Liber de coquina written in NaplesItalian cuisine – Italian cuisine
79. Italian fashion – Italy is one of the leading countries in fashion design, alongside others such as France, United States, United Kingdom, Germany and Japan. Cities such as Palermo, Venice, Milan, Naples, Florence and Vicenza started to produce goods, hats, cosmetics, jewelry. Milan is generally considered to be one of the big four fashion capitals, along with New York City, Paris, and London, occasionally. Italian fashion can be connected to the most generalized concept of Made in Italy. Italian luxury goods are renowned for the quality of their own textiles. The non profit making association which disciplines, co-ordinates and promotes the development of Italian Fashion is the National Chamber of Italian Fashion and it was set up in 1958 in Rome and now is settled in Milan and represents all the highest cultural values of Italian Fashion. This association has pursued a policy of organisational support aimed at the knowledge, promotion and development of fashion through events with a highly intellectual image in Italy, a few Italian designers head some important fashion brands outside Italy. Among the newest labels or younger designers, the most prominent are Aquilano. Piccione, Andrea Pompilio, Fausto Puglisi, San Andres Milano, Francesco Scognamiglio, Vivetta and Alberto Zambelli. Italy also is home to fashion magazines, such as Vogue Italia, Vanity Fair, Elle, Glamour, Grazia, Amica, Flair. Italian fashion reached its peak during the Renaissance, until the 1970s, Italian fashion was mainly designed for the rich and famous, more or less like the French Haute Couture. Yet, in the 1970s and 80s, Italian fashion started to concentrate on ready-to-wear clothes, such as coats, jackets, trousers, shirts, jeans, jumpers and miniskirts. Today, Milan and Rome are Italys fashion capitals, and are international centres for fashion design, competing with other cities such as Tokyo, Los Angeles, London, Paris. Also, other such as Venice, Florence, Naples, Vicenza, Bologna, Genoa. The countrys main shopping districts are the Via Montenapoleone fashion district and the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele, Via dei Condotti, and Via de Tornabuoni. Italian fashion is dominated by Milan, Rome, and to an extent, Florence. Nonetheless, there are other cities which play an important role in Italian fashion. In 2009, Milan was regarded as the fashion capital, even surpassing New York, Paris, Rome. In 2011, Milan was ranked #4, behind London, New York, international fashion labels also operate shops in Milan, including an Abercrombie & Fitch flagship store which has become a main consumer attractionItalian fashion – Clothes by Valentino
80. Italophilia – Italophilia is the admiration, appreciation or emulation of Italy, its people, its ideals, its civilization or its culture. The extent to which Italian civilization has shaped Western civilization and, by extension, appreciation of the legacy of Italic ideals, civilization and culture has existed for many centuries, into the present day. Rome was the center of an empire that stretched across a large segment of the then-known world and it was possible for the people in the provinces to attain Roman citizenship, rise to the Senate, and even to become Roman emperor. The Roman provinces, having received much of the benefit of Roman civilization, the Christian religion was viewed in Rome as contrary to prevailing religious and political beliefs and, consequently, was suppressed. Many Christians in Rome and elsewhere were persecuted, after the conversion of the Emperor Constantine to Christianity in 312 AD, Christianity flourished and became an integral part of Roman life. Roman Catholicism, in an easily recognizable today, emerged and took root in Rome. The cultural patrimony of Roman literature, architecture and sculpture inspired many of the achievements of the Middle Ages and Renaissance in Italy and the rest of Europe. Works by poets, authors and historians, such as Ovid, Horace, Catullus, Cicero, Virgil, Livy, the bishops, rather than the Roman prefects became the source of order and the seat of power. In many important ways, the Roman Catholic Church became the successor of the Roman Empire, the Church and its Pope were major stabilizing influences in Europe in the centuries that followed. In the words of historian Will Durant, Rome died in giving birth to the Church, the civilization of Italy continued to be a cultural force that helped preserve Greco-Roman civilization and ideals during this period. Latin, the language of the Italic people, became the universal language of the Catholic Church and, generally, of culture. Western Monasticism, as first practiced by the followers of Saint Benedict, born in Nursia in 480 AD, the Benedictine monks were a very important factor in preserving Greco-Roman culture and learning for later centuries. Gregorian Chant, an outgrowth of Roman plain chant, strongly influenced both liturgical and secular music during the Middle Ages, an Italian monk, Guido of Arezzo, developed the form of musical notation that became the basis of Western music and, subsequently, of music worldwide. Saint Francis of Assisi was a friar who founded the mens Order of Friars Minor and he became one of the most venerated religious figures in Catholic Church history. Saint Thomas Aquinas, a Dominican priest born in Aquino in 1225, was a philosopher and he was one of the greatest minds of the Middle Ages, and he had a widespread influence on Western thought. He was considered then, as he is now, to be the greatest theologian and he is best known for his major work, the Summa Theologica. These works had a significant influence on Shakespeare, Chaucer and many writers of the Middle Ages. Students and scholars came from all over Europe to study at institutions of learning in ItalyItalophilia – Statue of Augustus, first Roman emperor and creator of "Italia" as an entity
81. Languages of Italy – There are a large number of local languages spoken in Italy, most of which are indigenous evolutions of Vulgar Latin, and thus are classified as Romance languages. The official and most widely spoken language is Italian, a descendant of Tuscan and this is generally not the case in regards to the languages of Italy, as they are, for the most part, not varieties of Standard Italian. In fact, Standard Italian is itself either a continuation of, or a dialect heavily based on, there are several minority languages that belong to other Indo-European branches, such as Cimbrian, Arbëresh, the Slavomolisano dialect of Serbo-Croatian, and Griko. Other non-indigenous languages are spoken by a percentage of the population due to immigration. The following minority languages are recognized as historical language minorities by the Law no. 482/1999, Albanian, Catalan, German, Greek, Slovene, Croatian, French, Franco-Provençal, Friulian, Ladin, the selection of those varieties to the exclusion of numerous others is a matter of some controversy. The law also makes a distinction between those who are considered minority groups and those who are not, the original Italian Constitution does not explicitly express that Italian is the official national language. Code for civil procedure – In tutto il processo è prescritto luso della lingua italiana, code for criminal procedure – Gli atti del procedimento penale sono compiuti in lingua italiana. Article 1 of law 482/1999 – La lingua ufficiale della Repubblica è litaliano, aosta Valley, French is co-official in the whole region, German is unofficial but recognised in the Lys Valley. Campania, Neapolitan is promoted, but not recognised, by the region, friuli-Venezia Giulia, Friulian and Slovene are promoted, but not recognised, by the region. Piedmont, Piedmontese is unofficial but recognised as the language, the region promotes, without recognising. Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, German is co-official in the province of South Tyrol, Ladin, Cimbrian and Mòcheno are unofficial, veneto, Venetian is unofficial but recognised. According to the UNESCOs Atlas of the Worlds Languages in Danger, the degree of endangerment is classified in different categories ranging from safe to extinct. The source for the distribution is the Atlas of the Worlds Languages in Danger unless otherwise stated. 30 settlements in northern Calabria as well as San Costantino Albanese and San Paolo Lucano in southern Basilicata, settlements in southern Calabria, all living languages indigenous to Italy are part of the Indo-European language family. The source is the SILs Ethnologue unless otherwise stated, language classification can be a controversial issue, when a classification is contested by academic sources, this is reported in the notes column. They can be divided into Romance languages and non-Romance languages, not included is Corsican, which is mainly spoken on the French island of Corsica. Istriot is only spoken in Croatia, Sardinian is a distinct language group with significant phonological and morphological differences among its varietiesLanguages of Italy – Languages of Italy by groups [not in citation given]
82. Italian language – By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian, is the closest to Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is a language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City. Italian is spoken by minorities in places such as France, Montenegro, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Crimea and Tunisia and by large expatriate communities in the Americas. Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and other regional languages, Italian is the fourth most studied language in the world. Italian is a major European language, being one of the languages of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe. It is the third most widely spoken first language in the European Union with 65 million native speakers, including Italian speakers in non-EU European countries and on other continents, the total number of speakers is around 85 million. Italian is the working language of the Holy See, serving as the lingua franca in the Roman Catholic hierarchy as well as the official language of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical terminology and its influence is also widespread in the arts and in the luxury goods market. Italian has been reported as the fourth or fifth most frequently taught foreign language in the world, Italian was adopted by the state after the Unification of Italy, having previously been a literary language based on Tuscan as spoken mostly by the upper class of Florentine society. Its development was influenced by other Italian languages and to some minor extent. Its vowels are the second-closest to Latin after Sardinian, unlike most other Romance languages, Italian retains Latins contrast between short and long consonants. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive, however, Italian as a language used in Italy and some surrounding regions has a longer history. What would come to be thought of as Italian was first formalized in the early 14th century through the works of Tuscan writer Dante Alighieri, written in his native Florentine. Dante is still credited with standardizing the Italian language, and thus the dialect of Florence became the basis for what would become the language of Italy. Italian was also one of the recognised languages in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Italy has always had a dialect for each city, because the cities. Those dialects now have considerable variety, as Tuscan-derived Italian came to be used throughout Italy, features of local speech were naturally adopted, producing various versions of Regional Italian. Even in the case of Northern Italian languages, however, scholars are not to overstate the effects of outsiders on the natural indigenous developments of the languagesItalian language – Dante Alighieri (above) and Petrarch (below) were influential in establishing their Tuscan dialect as the most prominent literary language in all of Italy in the Late Middle Ages
83. Television in Italy – Television in Italy was introduced in 1939, when the first experimental broadcasts began. The third largest player, the Italian branch of Discovery Communications, had a share of 5. 8%. Apart from these three free to air companies, News Corporations satellite pay TV platform Sky Italia is increasing in viewing, according to BBC, the Italian television industry is widely considered both inside and outside the country to be overtly politicized. Unlike the BBC which is controlled by an independent trust, the public broadcaster RAI is under control of the parliament. The Berlusconi II Cabinet started promoting the digital format in December 2003 by granting a public contribution for the purchase of a MHP digital television decoder. Starting from January 2005 Mediaset and Telecom Italia Media started offering pay TV services through a prepaid smartcard, including games, movies. On February 2006, during the 2006 Winter Olympics held in Turin, RAI experimentally broadcast a number of events using a 1080i signal. Beginning October 31,2008, in the first region of Italy planned to interrupt transmission, Sardinia. Licence fee payers from the region were entitled to a 50 euros discount off the price of a digital television decoder or a new, Italy has had digital satellite broadcasts since the 1990s, with the launch of Stream TV and TELE+. In 2003 these merged into SKY Italia, today this pay TV platform is broadcasting from Hotbird satellites, HDTV regular services started in June 2006 under the name SKY HD, with the broadcasting of the 2006 FIFA World Cup in High Definition. Additional movie and sport channels are planned for the service, tivù Sat, a Free Satellite Service similar to the UK version Freesat, was launched in June 2009, ensuring access to national television channels from digital terrestrial television networks. Shareholders include Mediaset, Telecom Italia Media and the State Owned Company RAI, Italy currently has the lowest percentage of transmissions from cable television of almost all of the worlds developed countries. In the 1960s the public television network RAI was a monopoly, giuseppe Sacchi, a former RAI editor, launched on April 21,1971 the first free television station, called Telebiella and based in Biella. It started to broadcast on April 6,1972, devoted primarily to news, immediately the government led by Giulio Andreotti forced Sacchi to dismantle Telebiella. Later a new law was issued to regulate and allow cable broadcasting, although with limitations, only one cable system for every city. Cable television remained undeveloped for many years, with the exception of a few amateur projects, in the 1990s, first Telecom Italia and then FASTWEB created Optical fiber networks and launched their IPTV offers. IPTV was the service to offer Video On Demand up until 2009. The channels from 10 to 19 are made available for Italian regional television, RAI is Italys national public broadcasting company, owned by the Ministry of Economy and FinanceTelevision in Italy – Contents
84. Emblem of Italy – The emblem of Italy was formally adopted by the newly formed Italian Republic on 5 May 1948. Although often referred to as a coat of arms, it is technically an emblem as it was not designed to conform to heraldic rules. The emblem is used extensively by the Italian government, between 1848 and 1861, a sequence of events led to the independence and unification of Italy, this period of Italian history is known as the Risorgimento, or resurgence. During this period, the green, white and red became the symbol which united all the efforts of the Italian people towards freedom. The Italian tricolour, defaced with the coat of arms of the House of Savoy, was first adopted as war flag by the Regno di Sardegna-Piemonte army in 1848. As the arms mixed with the white of the flag, it was fimbriated azure, the lions held lances flying the national flag. From the helmet fell a royal mantle, engulfed by a pavilion under the Stellone dItalia, after twenty years, on 1 January 1890, the arms exterior were slightly modified more in keeping with those of Sardinia. The fur mantling and lances disappeared and the crown was taken from the helmet to the pavilion, now sewn with crosses and roses. The Iron Crown of Lombardy was placed on the helmet, under the traditional Savoyan crest and these arms remained in official use for 56 years until the birth of the Italian Republic and continue today as the dynastic arms of the head of the House of Savoy. On 11 April 1929, the Savoy lions were replaced by Mussolini with fasces from the National Fascist Party shield and this is celebrated in Italy as Festa della Repubblica. Italian fascism derived its name from the fasces, which symbolises authority and/or strength through unity, the fasces has been used to show the imperium of the Roman Empire, and was thus considered an appropriate heraldic symbol. Additionally, Roman legions had carried the aquila, or eagle and this shield had previously been displayed alongside the Royal arms from 1927 to 1929, when the latter was modified to incorporate elements of both. On 25 April 1945, commemorated as Festa della Liberazione, the government of Benito Mussolini fell, the separate Italian Social Republic had existed for slightly more than one and a half years. The decision to provide the new Italian Republic with an emblem was taken by the government of Alcide De Gasperi in October 1946. The five winners were assigned further requirements for the design of the emblem, below a representation of the sea, and above, the gold star, with the legend Unità e Libertà or Unity and Liberty in the Italian language. This version, however, did not meet with approval, so a new competition was held. The new emblem was approved by the Constituent Assembly in February 1948, as it was not designed to conform to traditional heraldic rules, it does not have a formal blazon. The dominant element, however, is the five-pointed Stellone dItalia, iconographic of the Risorgimento, it is usually seen shining radiant over Italia Turrita, the personification of ItalyEmblem of Italy – Emblem of Italy
85. Flag of Italy – The flag of Italy is a tricolour featuring three equally sized vertical pales of green, white and red, with the green at the hoist side. Its current form has been in use since 18 June 1946 and was adopted on 1 January 1948. The first entity to use the Italian tricolour was the Cisalpine Republic in 1797, a more religious interpretation is that the green represents hope, the white represents faith, and the red represents charity, this references the three theological virtues. The tricolour was used for the first time on November 13–14. The law students defined themselves as patriots and wore tricolour cockades to signal they were insipred by Jacobin revolutionary ideals, standard or flag of three colours, green, white, and red. The flag was maintained until 1802, when it was renamed the Napoleonic Italian Republic, and a new flag was adopted, in 1799, the independent Republic of Lucca came under French influence and adopted as its flag a horizontal tricolour with green uppermost, this lasted until 1801. In 1805 Napoleon installed his sister, Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi, as Princess of Lucca and this affair is commemorated in the opening of Leo Tolstoys War and Peace. In the same year, after Napoleon had crowned himself first French Emperor, the flag of the Kingdom of Italy was that of the Republic in rectangular form, charged with the golden Napoleonic eagle. This remained in use until the abdication of Napoleon in 1814, between 1848 and 1861, a sequence of events led to the independence and unification of Italy, this period of Italian history is known as the Risorgimento, or resurgence. During this period, the became the symbol which united all the efforts of the Italian people towards freedom. The Italian tricolour, defaced with the Savoyan coat of arms, was first adopted as war flag by the Kingdom of Sardinia–Piedmont army on 1848, in his Proclamation to the Lombard-Venetian people, Charles Albert said. In order to more clearly with exterior signs the commitment to Italian unification. Have the Savoy shield placed on the Italian tricolour flag, as the arms, blazoned gules a cross argent, mixed with the white of the flag, it was fimbriated azure, blue being the dynastic colour, although this does not conform to the heraldic rule of tincture. The rectangular civil and state variants were adopted in 1851 and it is worthy of note, however, that the arms bear the red-white-red flag of Austria, the opponent of Italian unification. This flag lasted from 3 April 1848 until 19 May 1849, the Provisional Government of Sicily, which lasted from 12 January 1848 to 15 May 1849, adopted the Italian tricolour, defaced with the trinacria, or triskelion. These lasted until 6 and 24 August 1849 respectively, in 1849, the new Roman Republic adopted an Italian tricolour, sent from Venice, bearing the legend DIO E POPOLO in red capital letters. This lasted for four months, while the Papal States of the Church was in abeyance, in 1860, the flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was again modified to the defaced Italian tricolour with the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies coat of arms. On 15 April 1861, the flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia was declared the flag of the newly formed Kingdom of ItalyFlag of Italy – Italian soldiers with the RSI flag in Rome, March 1944
86. Italians – Italians are a nation and ethnic group native to Italy who share a common culture, ancestry and speak the Italian language as a native tongue. The majority of Italian nationals are speakers of Standard Italian. Italians have greatly influenced and contributed to the arts and music, science, technology, cuisine, sports, fashion, jurisprudence, banking, Italian people are generally known for their localism and their attention to clothing and family values. The term Italian is at least 3,000 years old and has a history that goes back to pre-Roman Italy. According to one of the common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, Italia, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. The Etruscan civilization reached its peak about the 7th century BC, but by 509 BC, when the Romans overthrew their Etruscan monarchs, its control in Italy was on the wane. By 350 BC, after a series of wars between Greeks and Etruscans, the Latins, with Rome as their capital, gained the ascendancy by 272 BC, and they managed to unite the entire Italian peninsula. This period of unification was followed by one of conquest in the Mediterranean, in the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. Finally, in 146 BC, at the conclusion of the Third Punic War, with Carthage completely destroyed and its inhabitants enslaved, octavian, the final victor, was accorded the title of Augustus by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. After two centuries of rule, in the 3rd century AD, Rome was threatened by internal discord and menaced by Germanic and Asian invaders. Emperor Diocletians administrative division of the empire into two parts in 285 provided only temporary relief, it became permanent in 395, in 313, Emperor Constantine accepted Christianity, and churches thereafter rose throughout the empire. However, he moved his capital from Rome to Constantinople. The last Western emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed in 476 by a Germanic foederati general in Italy and his defeat marked the end of the western part of the Roman Empire. During most of the period from the fall of Rome until the Kingdom of Italy was established in 1861, Odoacer ruled well for 13 years after gaining control of Italy in 476. Then he was attacked and defeated by Theodoric, the king of another Germanic tribe, Theodoric and Odoacer ruled jointly until 493, when Theodoric murdered Odoacer. Theodoric continued to rule Italy with an army of Ostrogoths and a government that was mostly Italian, after the death of Theodoric in 526, the kingdom began to grow weakItalians – Amerigo Vespucci, the notable geographer and traveller from whose name the word America is derived.
87. List of World Heritage Sites in Italy – Italy ratified the convention on June 23,1978, making its historical sites eligible for inclusion on the list. As of 2016, Italy has a total of 51 inscribed properties, making it the party with the most World Heritage Sites. Sites in Italy were first inscribed on the list at the 3rd Session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Cairo and Luxor, at that session, one site was added, the Rock Drawings in Valcamonica. A total of 25, of all Italian sites were added during the 1990s with 10 sites added at the 21st session held in Naples, four World Heritage Sites in Italy are of the natural type, all others are cultural sites. Therefore, Italy has the largest number of cultural heritage sites followed by Spain with 39 cultural sites. Nominations for the World Heritage list are accepted if the site has previously been listed on the tentative list. As of 2016, Italy was recording forty such sites on its tentative list and these sites, along with the year they were first included in the tentative list areList of World Heritage Sites in Italy – 18th-Century Royal Palace at Caserta with the Park, the Aqueduct of Vanvitelli, and the San Leucio Complex