List of Italian billionaires by net worth
2015 Italians billionaires list
- "The World's Billionaires". Forbes. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
|World ranking||Name||Citizenship||Net worth (USD)||Sources of wealth|
|32||Leonardo Del Vecchio||Italy||22.3 billion||Luxottica|
|38||Maria Franca Fissolo||Italy||22.1 billion||Ferrero|
|99||Stefano Pessina||Italy||12.1 billion||Alliance Boots|
|121||Massimiliana Landini Aleotti||Italy||10.4 billion||Menarini|
|174||Giorgio Armani||Italy||7.6 billion||Armani|
|179||Silvio Berlusconi||Italy||7.4 billion||Fininvest|
|246||Augusto & Giorgio Perfetti||Italy||6 billion||Perfetti Van Melle|
|291||Paolo & Gianfelice Mario Rocca||Italy||5.2 billion||Techint|
|405||Patrizio Bertelli||Italy||4.1 billion||Prada|
|405||Miuccia Prada||Italy||4.1 billion||Prada|
|557||Renzo Rosso||Italy||3.2 billion||Diesel|
|628||Carlo Benetton||Italy||2.9 billion||Benetton|
|628||Gilberto Benetton||Italy||2.9 billion||Benetton|
|628||Giuliana Benetton||Italy||2.9 billion||Benetton|
|628||Luciano Benetton||Italy||2.9 billion||Benetton|
|628||Giuseppe De'Longhi||Italy||2.9 billion||De'Longhi|
|628||Rosa Anna Magno Garavoglia||Italy||2.9 billion||Campari|
|847||Bernardo Caprotti||Italy||2.2 billion||Esselunga|
|894||Francesco Gaetano Caltagirone||Italy||2.1 billion||Caltagirone Group, Cementir, Acea, Caltagirone Editore|
|894||Ennio Doris & family||Italy||2.1 billion||Banca Mediolanum|
|949||Sandro Veronesi||Italy||2.0 billion||Calzedonia|
|1044||Mario Moretti Polegato||Italy||1.85 billion||Geox, Diadora|
|1054||Alberto Prada||Italy||1.8 billion||Prada|
|1054||Marina Prada||Italy||1.8 billion||Prada|
|1054||Luigi Rovati||Italy||1.8 billion||Rottapharm|
|1105||Diego Della Valle||Italy||1.75 billion||Tod's|
|1152||Gio Ferrero||Italy||1.68 billion||La Diamante Vita|
|1173||Domenico Dolce||Italy||1.65 billion||Dolce & Gabbana|
|1173||Stefano Gabbana||Italy||1.65 billion||Dolce & Gabbana|
|1250||Alberto Bombassei||Italy||1.5 billion||Brembo|
|1386||Paolo Bulgari||Italy||1.35 billion||Bulgari|
|1386||Pier Luigi Loro Piana||Italy||1.35 billion||Loro Piana|
|1415||Nicola Bulgari||Italy||1.3 billion||Bulgari|
|1415||Andrea Della Valle||Italy||1.3 billion||Tod's|
|1415||Massimo Moratti||Italy||1.3 billion||Saras|
|1500||Gian Marco Moratti||Italy||1.25 billion||Saras|
|1533||Luigi Cremonini||Italy||1.2 billion||Cremonini Group, Marr Group|
|1605||Remo Ruffini||Italy||1.15 billion||Moncler|
|1712||Brunello Cucinelli||Italy||1.05 billion||Brunello Cucinelli|
|1733||Sandro Salsano||Italy||1.05 billion||Salsano Group|
|1712||Gustavo Denegri||Italy||1.05 billion||DiaSorin|
1. Forbes – Forbes is an American business magazine. Published bi-weekly, it features original articles on marketing topics. Forbes also reports on related subjects such as law. Its headquarters is located in Jersey City, New Jersey. Primary competitors in the national category include Bloomberg Businessweek. The magazine is well known for its lists and rankings, including its lists of the richest Americans and rankings of world's top companies. Another well-known list by the magazine is the The World's Billionaires list. The motto of Forbes magazine is "The Capitalist Tool". Its chairman and editor-in-chief is Steve Forbes, its CEO is Mike Perlis. B. C. Forbes provided the money and the name and Drey provided the publishing expertise. The original name of the magazine was Forbes: Devoted to Doers and Doings. Drey became vice-president of the B.C. Forbes Publishing Company, while B.C. Forbes became editor-in-chief, a post he held until his death in 1954. B.C. Forbes was assisted by Malcolm Stevenson Forbes. Bruce Forbes took over on his father's death, his strengths lay in streamlining operations and developing marketing.Forbes – Cover for December 20, 2010, featuring Julian Assange
2. Citizenship – Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state. A person who does not have citizenship of any state is said to be stateless. E.g. the United States, the United Kingdom, nationality and citizenship can have different meanings. Each country has its own policies, criteria as to, entitled to its citizenship. A person can be granted citizenship on a number of bases. Usually citizenship based on the place of birth is automatic; in other cases an application may be required. Parents are citizens. Sex equality became common since the late twentieth century. Citizenship is related to the concept of a nation state common in China. Where jus sanguinis holds, a person born outside a country, both of whose parents are citizens of the country, is also a citizen. States normally limit the right to citizenship to a certain number of generations born outside the state. This form of citizenship is not common in civil law countries. Born within a country. Some people are automatically citizens of the state in which they are born. In many cases both jus solis and jus sanguinis hold; citizenship either by parentage.Citizenship – Legal status of persons
3. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with Vatican City. With million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state. Rome ultimately emerged as the dominant power, becoming the leading cultural, political, religious centre of Western civilisation. The legacy of the Roman Empire can be observed in the global distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity and the Latin script. Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo, Machiavelli. However, the southern areas of the country remained largely excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Italy has eighth largest economy in the world. It enjoys the highest life expectancy in the EU. The corpus of the solutions proposed by historians and linguists is very wide. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. But by his time the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. Excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible non-Indo-European origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni, known for their rock carvings. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily.Italy – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
4. Luxottica – Luxottica Group S.p.A. is an Italian eyewear company. Based in Milan, Italy, it is the world's largest company. Its best known brands are Ray-Ban, Persol, Oakley. Leonardo Del Vecchio started the company in Agordo north of Belluno, Italy; today the company is headquartered in Milan. So in 1961, he moved in the province of Belluno, home to most of the Italian eyewear industry. The new company was Luxottica s.a.s. a limited partnership with Del Vecchio as one of the founding partners. In 1967, he started selling complete eyeglass frames under the Luxottica brand, which proved successful enough that by 1971 he ended the contract business. Convinced of the need for vertical integration, in 1974, he acquired a distribution company. In 1981 the company set up its first international subsidiary, in a rapid period of international expansion. The first of many licensing deals with a designer was struck in 1988. The company listed in December 2000 joining the MIB-30 index in September 2003. Luxottica later increased its presence by acquiring Sydney-based OPSM in 2003, Pearle Vision and Cole National in 2004. In March 2014, it was announced that Luxottica would its integration into Luxottica's eyewear. On the 1st September 2014, a organizational structure was announced, composed of two co-CEOs, one focusing on market development and the other overseeing corporate functions. After the exit of former CEO Andrea Guerra, Enrico Cavatorta was appointed Interim CEO of Market.Luxottica – Persol sunglasses
5. Ferrero SpA – Ferrero SpA is an Italian manufacturer of branded chocolate and confectionery products and it is the third biggest chocolate producer and confectionery company in the world. The company saw a period of tremendous growth and success under Pietro's son Michele Ferrero, who in turn handed over the daily operations to his sons. His son Pietro, who oversaw global business, died on April 18, 2011, in a cycling accident in South Africa at the age of 47. Ferrero International SA's headquarters is in Luxembourg. Ferrero SpA is a private company owned by the Ferrero family and has been described as "one of the world's most secretive firms". Reputation Institute's 2009 survey ranks Ferrero as the most reputable company in the world. In 1946, Pietro Ferrero invented a cream of hazelnuts and cocoa, derived from Gianduja and called it "Giandujot", or Pasta Gianduja. With assistance from his brother Giovanni Ferrero, Pietro Ferrero created his new company to produce and market the initial product. Following his work, Pietro was succeeded by his son Michele Ferrero as chief executive. Michele and his wife Maria Franca relaunched his father's recipe as Nutella, first sold in 1964. After World War II, Nutella eventually became the world's chocolate-nut brand. Ferrero is the world's largest consumer of hazelnuts, buying up 25% of global production in 2014. The company is currently run by Giovanni Ferrero, grandson of Pietro and son to Michele Ferrero. The company places great emphasis on secrecy, reportedly to guard against industrial espionage. It has never held a press conference and does not allow media visits to its plants.Ferrero SpA – Ferrero Headquarter, Pino Torinese, Italy
6. Stefano Pessina – Stefano Pessina is an Italian-born Monegasque billionaire businessman and the Executive Vice Chairman, Chief Executive Officer, the single largest shareholder of Walgreens Boots Alliance. Pessina grew up between Milan, Como and Naples. He graduated in nuclear engineering. In 1977, he turned it into Alliance Santé, a Franco-Italian pharmaceutical wholesale group. In 1997, he joined its Board of Directors. From 2001 to 2004, he served as its Chief Executive. He served as Executive Deputy Chairman, later as Executive Chairman. Stefano sat on the Board of Directors of Walgreens until Aug 2014. He now serves on the Board of Directors at Walgreens Boots Alliance. He also serves on the Board of Directors of the Consumer Goods Forum. They have two children. He has been the partner of Ornella Barra for over 30 years. As of February 2015, he is worth US$ billion, owning around 15 % of Walgreens Boots Alliance. He has lived for many years. A banker, works at Walgreens Boots Alliance.Stefano Pessina – Stefano Pessina, 2010
7. Alliance Boots – Alliance Boots GmbH was a multinational pharmacy-led health and beauty group with corporate headquarters in Bern, Switzerland and operational headquarters in Nottingham and Weybridge, United Kingdom. The company in 2013/14, reported revenue in excess of # 23.4 billion. In 2007 it was bought out by AB Acquisitions Limited, led by Stefano Pessina and Kohlberg Kravis Roberts. Alliance Boots GmbH is a direct subsidiary of AB Acquisitions Holdings Limited, which held all shares in the company. Following shareholder and regulatory approvals, the two businesses merged on 31 December 2014 to form Walgreens Boots Alliance. The group's operations were mainly carried out under the Boots and Alliance Healthcare brands. Boots UK is beauty retailer. Alliance Boots is also the largest pharmaceutical wholesaler in the UK through its Alliance Healthcare Ltd business. The company operates more than 4,600 retail stores, of which just over 4,450 have pharmacies. Pharmaceutical wholesale division serves over 180,000 pharmacies, doctors, hospitals and health centres from over 370 distribution centres in 20 countries. Both companies became subsidiaries of Walgreens Boots Alliance on completion of the merger. Owner of the Lloyds Pharmacy chain, challenged the deal, although were rejected by the Competition Appeal Tribunal. Former Boots Group shareholders held 50.2% of the new company, with former Alliance UniChem shareholders owning 49.8%. Alliance Boots was the first company on the FTSE 100 index to be bought-out by a private equity firm. Simultaneously the banks, as so-called "equity underwriters“, together invested around £1.4 billion in the buyout company.Alliance Boots – Interior of a Boots store
8. Giorgio Armani – Giorgio Armani is an Italian fashion designer, particularly noted for his menswear. Armani is known today for his tailored lines. Armani is credited with red-carpet fashion. Whilst at secondary school in Piacenza, he aspired to a career in medicine, particularly after reading A. J. Cronin's The Citadel. After three years, in 1953, he left and joined the army. Due to his medical background, Armani was assigned in Verona, where he would attend shows at the Arena. Armani eventually decided to look for a different path. After his stint in the armed forces, he found a job at La Rinascente, a department store in Milan. Armani went on to become a seller for the department, in which capacity he gained valuable experience in the marketing aspect of the fashion industry. In the mid-1960s, he moved to the Nino Cerruti company, for which he designed menswear. In the late 1960s, he met an architectural draftsman, which marked the beginning of a personal and professional relationship that lasted for many years. In 1973, Galeotti persuaded him to open a design office at 37 corso Venezia. The international press was quick to acknowledge Armani's importance following the runway shows at the Sala Bianca in the Pitti Palace in Florence. The experience provided Armani with an opportunity to develop his own style in new ways. In 1975 he founded Giorgio Armani S.p.A. in Milan, with his friend Galeotti.Giorgio Armani – Giorgio Armani at the Red day Party in GUM, Moscow
9. Armani – The brand utilizes the association of the Armani name with high-fashion, benefiting from its prestige in the industry. By the end of 2005, estimated sales of the company were around $ billion. Armani is the fastest growing brand. The company already operates a range of cafés worldwide, in addition to nightclub. Giorgio Armani is a high-end label specializing in women's ready-to-wear, accessories, glasses, cosmetics, perfumes. It is available only in Giorgio Armani boutiques, select high-end department stores. The logo is a curved "G" completing a curved "A", forming a circle. In addition, selling at lower prices are Armani Collezioni, Armani Jeans." Emporio Armani is the second brand of Armani family, features ready-to-wear and runway collections. Emporio Armani focuses on modern traits. Emporio Armani usually only sold in freestanding its official website. Dj Ruru starred to Fall/Winter 2009-2010. Beckham appeared with his wife, former Spice Girl and fashion designer Victoria, in 2009. All campaigns were photographed by Marcus Piggott. In January 2010, Hollywood movie star Megan Fox became the male and female face and body of Emporio Armani.Armani – A Giorgio Armani boutique in Chicago
10. Silvio Berlusconi – Silvio Berlusconi is an Italian media tycoon and politician who served as Prime Minister of Italy in four governments. Berlusconi has owned the Italian football club A.C. Milan since 1986. He is nicknamed Il Cavaliere for his Order of Merit for Labour, although he voluntarily resigned in March 2014. In 2016, Forbes magazine ranked him with a net worth of US$7.1 billion. In 2009, Forbes ranked him 12th due to his domination in Italian politics. Its successor party The People of Freedom from 2009 to 2013. Since November 2013, he has led a revived Forza Italia. He currently holds the record of G8 Summit hosting. On 1 he was convicted of tax-fraud by the final appeal instance, Court of Cassation along with a public office ban for two years. As his age exceeded 70 years, he was exempted from direct imprisonment, instead served his sentence by doing social community work. Berlusconi has pledged to stay leader of Forza Italia throughout the period where he serves his imprisonment sentence and public ban. Berlusconi is famous for brash, overbearing personality. Berlusconi was born in 1936 where he was raised in a middle-class family. Luigi Berlusconi, was a bank employee, his mother, Rosa Bossi, a housewife. Silvio was the first of three children; he has a brother, Paolo Berlusconi.Silvio Berlusconi – Silvio Berlusconi
11. Fininvest – The Fininvest group is composed of a number such as Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Teatro Manzoni, Alba Servizi Aerotrasporti and Fininvest Gestione Servizi. The deal to sell Mediaset Premium was collapsed in 2016. On 5 August 2016 Fininvest signed a preliminary agreement to sell stake of A.C. Milan to a Chinese private equity fund Sino-Europe Sports. Fininvest was part of the shareholders' pact that owned about 31 % stake in the bank in total. The Berlusconi family does not control the company directly. Instead, its shares are owned by 38 separate companies, all named'Holding Italiana' followed by a number, most of which are in turn controlled by Berlusconi. These'Holding Italiane' have repeatedly come by the police for various financial and accounting irregularities, slush funds and money-laundering. All of them received significant investments from still unknown sources. Some of their liquidity was even deposited in cash. In 1998 the case was temporarily shelved because of lack of sufficient evidence to go to trial. Official websiteFininvest – Fininvest, S.p.A.
12. Perfetti Van Melle – Perfetti Van Melle is a privately held Italian-Dutch global manufacturer of confectionery and gum. It was formed in 2001 by the Perfetti group of Italy. Its corporate headquarters is in Schiphol, Netherlands. Perfetti Van Melle is the third largest confectionery manufacturer in the world after Mars, Incorporated. It distributes its products in over 159 countries. Their US headquarters is located in a Kentucky suburb of Cincinnati.Perfetti Van Melle – Perfetti Van Melle
13. Paolo Rocca – He is also Chairman of Ternium. Paolo Rocca was born in Milan, Italy in 1952. He is the son of Roberto Rocca, grandson of Agostino Rocca, founder of this industrial group. Paolo Rocca earned a degree from the Università degli Studi di Milano. In 1985 he pursued an MBA in Harvard Business School. In 1990 he assumed as Executive Vice-president of Siderca. Since 2002, he is the CEO of Tenaris and Techint. Rocca led Techint in a series of acquisitions in the world, which led to the development of operations in more than 20 countries. Paolo Rocca was the chairman of this association during the 2009-2010 period. He was a member of the International Advisory Committee of New York Stock Exchange, of the Advisory Board of the Inter-American Development Bank private sector. In 2004 within the "Argentina-México: y Perspectivas" forum, he was awarded with the Orden Mexicana del Aguila Azteca. In 2013 the Columbia Business School honored Paolo Rocca with the "Deming Cup" to the impact of his leadership on Tenaris's competitiveness.Paolo Rocca – Paolo Rocca
14. Prada – The company was started in 1913 as a leather goods shop -- Fratelli Prada -- in Milan, Italy. Initially, the shop handbags. Mario Prada did not believe so he prevented female family members from entering into his company. Miuccia Prada, joined the company in 1970, eventually taking over for her mother in 1978. Miuccia began making waterproof backpacks out of Pocone. He advised Miuccia—and she followed the advice—on better decisions for the Prada company. It was his advice to change the existing luggage. Miuccia inherited the company by which time sales were up to U.S. $450,000. With Bertelli as business manager, Miuccia was allowed time to implement her creativity in the company's designs. She would go on to incorporate her ideas into the house of Prada that would change it. She released her first set of totes in 1979. They were made out of a tough military black nylon that her grandfather had used as coverings for steamer trunks. Next, Miuccia and Bertelli sought out wholesale accounts for the bags in upscale department boutiques worldwide. The big release was a nylon tote. A line was also released in 1984.Prada – Prada
15. Renzo Rosso – Renzo Rosso is an Italian fashion entrepreneur. Rosso was born in the northeastern Italian region of Veneto. He grew up under simple conditions, regularly helping his father after school. There, he produced, at the age of 15, a pair of low-waist bell-bottomed jeans using his mother's Singer sewing machine. He would give each pair to friends or sell them at school for about 3500 lire. The Genius Group, was run by Adriano Goldschmied who would eventually become Rosso's mentor and future business partner. During Rosso's first two years at Moltex the company grew rapidly. However, Goldschmied convinced Rosso to stay by agreeing to form a new company together, thus forming Diesel. Following the new partnership, Rosso also became shareholder of the Genius Group, which gathered brands such as Replay, King Jeans and Vivai. Created Goldie label which Katharine Hamnett designed a collection before launching DIESEL among others. In an article by The NY Times in August 2013, it was estimated that Diesel had sold more than 100,000,000 jeans since 1978. Wanting to focus on denim, Rosso began experimenting with different ways of treating the fabric with washes. Then, after handpicking team of likeminded designers in the late 1980s, the company began a period of remarkable expansion. During the first of the 1990s Rosso set the grounds for its establishment in global markets. In 1991 the company launched its first international marketing effort for successful living' campaign series.Renzo Rosso – OTB Group's logo
16. Diesel (brand) – Diesel S.p.A. is an Italian retail clothing company, located in Breganze, Italy. It sells other clothing and accessories. The line has two different brands: Diesel and Diesel Black Gold. There's also a line for children, called Diesel Kid. The company is known for its surreal advertising campaigns. Since 2013 the creative director has been Nicola Formichetti. Diesel founder Renzo Rosso began stitching jeans at the age of fifteen. He later attended an textile manufacturing college in Padua. In 1976 Rosso began working for a manufacturer called Moltex, owned by Adriano Goldschmied. Rosso bought out Goldschmied's interest for US$500,000 becoming the sole owner of the company. Rosso has said that he learned marketing from the US, systems from Germany. In 1990 Russ Togs, Inc. received the license to distribute Diesel lines in the United States and Mexico. Mitsubishi Co received the license to distribute in Japan. By 1991, Russ Togs sold Diesel Sportswear to Rosso upon ending the licensing deal. In 1992, Diesel became the sponsor for the World Superbike racing circuit.Diesel (brand) – Diesel store in Kraków, Poland
17. Benetton Group – Benetton Group S.r.l. is a global fashion brand, based in Ponzano Veneto, Italy. The name comes from the Benetton family who founded the company in 1965. Benetton has a network of about 5,000 stores in the international markets. In 1963, the oldest of four children, was a 30-year-old salesman in Treviso. He sold a younger brother's bicycle in order to buy his first second-hand knitting machine. In 1965, the entity known as the "Benetton Group" was formed. The company's business remains their clothing lines: United Colors of Benetton, Sisley. The Group has a network of about 5,000 stores around the world. The company is known for the provocative and original "United Colors" publicity campaign. The latter originated when photographer Oliviero Toscani was given carte blanche by the Benetton management. Under Toscani's direction, ads were created that contained striking images unrelated to any actual products being sold by the company. These billboard-sized ads included depictions of a variety of shocking subjects, one of which featured a deathbed scene of a man dying from AIDS. Others included a bloodied, newborn baby with umbilical cord still attached, highly controversial. In most the company's logo served as the only text accompanying the image. This campaign was created as the group's social responsibility strategy and not as a cosmetic exercise.Benetton Group – United Colors of Benetton in Prague, Czech Republic
18. De'Longhi – De'Longhi S.p.A is an Italian small appliance manufacturer based in Treviso, Italy. The company was founded as a small industrial parts manufacturing workshop. The company incorporated in 1950. De'Longhi is especially well known for the Artista Series espresso machines, the Pinguino portable air conditioner. De'Longhi is known for the design of its products. Its Esclusivo line of kitchen appliances won the Red Dot award in 2007. Home Furnishing News recognized De'Longhi Design Director Giocomo Borin of the 50 most influential designers in the world in 2006. De'Longhi's 2000 acquisition of Climaveneta SpA and DLRadiators allowed De'Longhi to enter the commercial market. De'Longhi's # million 2001 acquisition of the British appliance maker Kenwood gave De'Longhi access to Kenwood's Chinese factory. As a result, many of De'Longhi's products are now imported from China, while engineering remain largely in Italy. Acquisition of a stake in RC Group, a leading player in information technology cooling, in 2006 has strengthened De'Longhi's presence in the HVACR market. In all, De'Longhi operates 30 international subsidiaries that support sales to 75 countries worldwide. International sales account for nearly 75 percent of the group's total revenues, which topped $ billion in 2010. On January 2012 the DeLclima group was set up as a demerger from De'Longhi. On 16 De'Longhi bought perpetual rights to manufacture Braun branded products from Procter & Gamble in the small appliance segment.De'Longhi – De'Longhi
19. Campari – Campari is an alcoholic liqueur, considered an apéritif, obtained from the infusion of herbs and fruit in alcohol and water. It is a bitter characterised by its red colour. Campari is commonly served with soda water or citrus juice. It is produced by a multi-national company based in Italy. Campari was invented by Gaspare Campari in Novara, Italy. It was originally coloured with carmine dye, derived from cochineal insects, which gave the drink its distinctive red colour. In 2006, Gruppo Campari ceased using carmine in its production. In 1904, Campari's first plant was opened in Sesto San Giovanni, near Milan, Italy. The company required bars that bought Campari to display the Campari Bitters sign. The Campari brand is now distributed in over 190 countries. In the Italian market, Campari mixed with water is sold in individual bottles as Campari Soda. Campari Soda is packaged in a distinctive bottle, designed by Fortunato Depero in 1932. Bill Murray's character Steve Zissou, in The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou, is seen drinking Campari. Candice Bergen's character in the Burt Reynolds's movie "Stick" drinks soda, ordering it by name several times. Campari is drunk in the BBC series Call the Midwife.Campari – Campari
20. Francesco Gaetano Caltagirone – Francesco Gaetano Caltagirone is an Italian businessman. He controls the holding company Caltagirone S.p.A. with interests in real estate, construction and publishing. His grandfather constructed the first buildings in the last decades of the 1800s. With the inherited capital the three brothers started the company together with their cousin Gaetano Caltagirone, an architect already working as a manufacturer. After a industrial restructuring, he carried out the listing of the two subsidiaries Vianini Lavori S.p.A Industry and Vianini Industria S.p.A.. In 1992 he took over the fourth biggest Italian company in the cement industry, acquired by IRI through a public auction. About 80% of the turnover is produced outside Italy. In the mid-nineties he assumed full control of the Caltagirone Group joining his shares with those of his cousin Gaetano Caltagirone in the company Finanziaria Italia. Francesco Gaetano Caltagirone holds approximately 70% of Finanziaria Italia, which controls about 51% of Caltagirone S.p.A. Since 2000 new media have been clustered in the Caltagirone Editore publishing group -- the fifth biggest group in Italy. In 2006 he acquired the majority stake based in Venice. In 2006 he was appointed Knight of the Order of Merit for Labour. In the same year he became vice-president of Banca Monte dei di Siena. Until early 2012, when he liquidated his share completely, he was the most important private individual shareholder. In 2007 he was appointed Director of Assicurazioni Generali S.p.A of which he was appointed Vice President in April 2010.Francesco Gaetano Caltagirone – Francesco Gaetano Caltagirone at Quirinale with Giorgio Napolitano, President of the Italian Republic
21. Caltagirone Group – Francesco Gaetano Caltagirone is an Italian businessman. He controls the holding company Caltagirone S.p.A. with interests in real estate, construction and publishing. His grandfather constructed the first buildings in the last decades of the 1800s. With the inherited capital the three brothers started the company together with their cousin Gaetano Caltagirone, an architect already working as a manufacturer. After a industrial restructuring, he carried out the listing of the two subsidiaries Vianini Lavori S.p.A Industry and Vianini Industria S.p.A.. In 1992 he took over the fourth biggest Italian company in the cement industry, acquired by IRI through a public auction. About 80% of the turnover is produced outside Italy. In the mid-nineties he assumed full control of the Caltagirone Group joining his shares with those of his cousin Gaetano Caltagirone in the company Finanziaria Italia. Francesco Gaetano Caltagirone holds approximately 70% of Finanziaria Italia, which controls about 51% of Caltagirone S.p.A. Since 2000 new media have been clustered in the Caltagirone Editore publishing group -- the fifth biggest group in Italy. In 2006 he acquired the majority stake based in Venice. In 2006 he was appointed Knight of the Order of Merit for Labour. In the same year he became vice-president of Banca Monte dei di Siena. Until early 2012, when he liquidated his share completely, he was the most important private individual shareholder. In 2007 he was appointed Director of Assicurazioni Generali S.p.A of which he was appointed Vice President in April 2010.Caltagirone Group – Francesco Gaetano Caltagirone at Quirinale with Giorgio Napolitano, President of the Italian Republic
22. Mario Moretti Polegato – Mario Moretti Polegato is an Italian entrepreneur, active in the footwear sector, who founded the company Geox of which he is the president. He was born into a family of entrepreneurs active in the agricultural and winemaking sector. Following in the family footsteps, he studied oenology. For several years, the entrepreneur of the Veneto region devoted himself to the business. When he returned to Italy, he designed a new sole with a breathable and waterproof internal membrane. He was the first person in the world to create a breathable sole, immediately patented in over 100 countries worldwide. Mario Moretti Polegato began to think of the scope that his idea might have if launched on a large scale. Therefore, he established Geox in order to produce the shoe that breathes. The company, which employed 5 young graduates at the outset, now has about 30,000 indirect employees. Geox is the leading Italian company and among major world leaders in the "lifestyle" category. During his working life, Mario Moretti Polegato has received many acknowledgements including Knight of the National Order of Merit from the President of Romania in 2000. The European School of Management Italia named Affiliate Professor of Entrepreneurship. In July 2014, he became a member of the Regency Council of the Bank of Italy. He received the America Award of the Italy-USA Foundation in 2015. Mario Moretti Polegato is the President of the Geox Group, which he founded.Mario Moretti Polegato – Mario Moretti Polegato, President and founder at Geox Group (2013).
23. Geox – Geox is an Italian brand of shoe and clothing manufactured with waterproof/breathable fabrics. The company was founded by Mario Polegato. Geox, was created from a mixture between the Greek word "geo", "x", a letter-element symbolizing technology. Polegato was born in 1952 near Treviso. He developed the idea with the help of a small leather-goods business his family owned. He improved the original patent and extended the product range to men's and women's footwear. The Geox group has consistently invested in innovation, ever since it was founded. It's Montebelluna head offices are host to R&D facilities, which are unique in their kind. The Montebelluna-based team of scientists have patented new machinery to help them pursue their research. Geox also works with major research universities to test and refine new technology. Official website Corporate site Geox Retailers The Shoe Box of KnowleGeox – A Geox store in Vaughan Mills
24. Diadora – Danieli, helped by his wife, managed to successfully launch mountain climbing boots. During the 1950s, a reputation for quality helped the company grow and become a familiar name throughout the Italian market. During the economic boom of the 1960s, people began to enjoy increased recreation. Danieli once again met the needs of the market by manufacturing ski boots and the first apres-ski boots. Next, Diadora introduced running shoes and thereafter, tennis shoes. With the 1970s came a young generation whose explosive interest in athletics initiated a boom in the sporting goods industry. The mid-'70s also marked Diadora's entry into the football category, aided by Roberto Bettega, who both provided invaluable consulting information. Diadora America is the # 3 brand in the share in football. On 30 Invicta, an outdoor athletics equipment company, was acquired by Diadora. In 2007, Diadora signed a contract with Croatia. Sheffield Wednesday F.C. wore kits in the mid 2000s. Maccabi Netanya and Beitar Jerusalem also wore kits to late 2000s. Excludes articles found in Category:Sportswear brands. Nordica Playlife Sergio Tacchini Tecnica Official website Wristwatches Diadora SoccerDiadora – Diadora Mythos Axeler, 2009
25. Luigi RovatiLuigi Rovati – 1932 Olympic Silver Medalists Boxing
26. Diego Della Valle – Diego Della Valle is the President and CEO of the Italian leather goods company, Tod's. Diego Della Valle is grandson of Filippo Della Valle. Filippo started his shoemaking business in the 1920s, which Diego expanded into the now famous Tod's brand. Even during his younger days, he was savvy. He got the then FIAT boss, to wear Tod's shoes when attending Juventus football matches, which were widely televised. This placement prompted a spike in sales. Della Valle now manages Tod's with his Andrea. Emanuele, is also involved with the family business as the creative director. The factory in Casette d'Ete was designed by Barbara. Della Valle has publicly attacked Silvio Berlusconi for his failure to support smaller Italian business. In return Berlusconi has talked of suing Della Valle for defamation. Della Valle sits on the board of a number such as Ferrari, Maserati, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro and LVMH. He bought ACF Fiorentina, in 2002. He owns Maison Schiaparelli which he is reviving. In 2013 Della Valle announced, that Tod's will take the costs for the colosseo in Rome - more that 30 mio Euros.Diego Della Valle – Diego Della Valle speaking (2003)
27. Tod's – Tod's Group is an Italian company which produces luxury shoes and other leather goods, is presided over by businessman Diego Della Valle. Dorino Della Valle started the shoemaking business out of a basement in the late 1920s. Dorino's elder son, expanded the workshop and turned it into a factory that started manufacturing shoes for American department stores in the 1970s. Maker of high luxury shoes was acquired in the mid-1990s and developed starting in 2000. In 2003, Italian designer Bruno Frisoni was hired as Roger Vivier's Creative Director. The Della Valle family, which owns a vast majority of the maker also has stakes in RCS MediaGroup, the football team Fiorentina and other companies. Many of them continue to reside there. Tod's has numerous stores including large flagship stores in Europe, US, China, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Australia. In November 2015, Tod's acquired further stock in the Roger Vivier brand for $415 million. It had previously owned a 57.5 stake, now up to 60.7 %. Official websiteTod's – A shop in Hong Kong
28. Domenico Dolce – Domenico Dolce is an Italian fashion designer and entrepreneur. Along with Stefano Gabbana, he is one half of the luxury house Dolce & Gabbana. Since founding D&G in 1985, Dolce has become one of an industry icon. Dolce was born in 1958. His mother sold fabrics and apparel. His dream was to work for Armani. In 1980, Dolce met Milan native Stefano Gabbana through designer Giorgio Correggiari. In 1983, Gabbana and Dolce left Correggiari to work on their own; two years later, they launched Dolce & Gabbana S.p.A.. In October 1985, the Dolce & Gabbana brand made its fashion debut at Milano Collezioni's Nuovi Talenti. In March 1986, D&G held its own show, "Real Women." In 1987, the first D&G store opened at 7 Via Santa Cecilia. In 1988, D&G established a partnership with Saverio, who owned the manufacturing company Dolce Saverio in Legnano, near Milan. In November 1990, D&G opened its New York City showroom in SoHo, Manhattan. D&G released Dolce & Gabbana Parfum, in October 1992. In 1993, the Italian designers received worldwide fame when Madonna chose D&G to design the costumes for her Girlie Show World Tour.Domenico Dolce – Dolce & Gabbana store in Kobe, Japan
29. Dolce & Gabbana – Dolce & Gabbana is a luxury Italian fashion house founded in 1985 in Legnano by Italian designers Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana. The two designed for the same house. In 1982 they established a studio; in time it grew to become "Dolce & Gabbana". They presented their first women's collection in Milan where their store would open its doors. In 1988, in 1989 they began designing swimming costumes. Dolce & Gabbana started to export their products to Japan and other countries like the U.S. where they founded their own showroom in 1990. In the same year they presented their men's collection, they also launched Dolce & Gabbana. They won the Woolmark award in 1991, the prize "most feminine flavor of the year" in 1993. In 2003 their revenue reached $ million. By 2005, their turnover was €600 million. Inside the door, there was a long white carpet leading to the receptionist's desk. Dolce was not sure if he should walk on. "I am such a cretino", he says. "I know nothing". He handed the book to the receptionist and to this day, Dolce does not know if Armani ever saw the sketches.Dolce & Gabbana – 2007 D&G advertising image subject to controversy
30. Stefano Gabbana – Stefano Gabbana is an Italian fashion designer and, along with Domenico Dolce, the co-founder of the Dolce & Gabbana luxury fashion house. He is one of the world's most influential fashion designers. Gabbana was born to a father who worked in a printing factory and a mother who worked for a laundry service. His family is Venezian; his father was born in Cessalto. He graduated from the Istituto Superiore le Industrie Artistiche, a design institute in Rome. In 1980, Gabbana met Sicilian Domenico Dolce through designer Giorgio Correggiari. Correggiari, who died in 2012, was extremely influential on the pair, Gabbana said in 2013: "He was not very famous. But for us he was important. He taught us especially what'not' to do." In 1983, Gabbana and Dolce left Correggiari to work on their own; two years later, they launched Dolce & Gabbana S.p.A.. In October 1985, the Dolce & Gabbana brand made its fashion debut at Milano Collezioni's Nuovi Talenti. In March 1986, D&G held its own show, "Real Women." In 1987, the first D&G store opened at 7 Via Santa Cecilia. In 1988, D&G established a partnership with Saverio, who owned the manufacturing company Dolce Saverio in Legnano, near Milan. In November 1990, D&G opened its New York City showroom in SoHo, Manhattan.Stefano Gabbana – Dolce & Gabbana store in Shanghai
31. Brembo – Brembo S.p.A. is an Italian manufacturer of automotive brake systems, especially for high-performance cars and motorcycles based in Bergamo, near Milan. Brembo was established in Bergamo, Italy in 1961. Soon after the company was formed, it specialised in disc brakes, which were imported at the time. The company entered with Alfa Romeo in 1964. It became the supplier of brake components to Moto Guzzi in 1966. In the 1980s, Brembo began supplying Porsche with brakes. The company went public in 1995. In 2000 Brembo purchased clutch manufacturer AP Racing. On November 2007, the Automotive Brake Components division of Hayes Lemmerz was acquired by Brembo's North American subsidiary. The approximately $ million sale included production facilities in Homer, Michigan and Apodaca, Mexico and approximately 250 employees. An official release on May 21, 2014 announced an $83 million expansion of the Michigan facility. The current expectation is initial operation beginning by the end of 2018. He also reported that possibilities for acquiring assets were being explored, with focus on the automotive and aviation sectors. Brembo specialises in performance components, as well as conducting research on braking systems. Brembo is known for their aftermarket automotive brake components, including calipers, drums, rotors, brake lines.Brembo – Brembo plant
32. Bulgari – Bulgari is an Italian jewelry and luxury goods brand that produces and markets several product lines including jewelry, watches, fragrances, accessories, hotels. The name Voulgaris itself contains the root Βούλγαρ Greek for "Bulgarian". Furthermore in the company's native Italy the word Bulgari means people of Bulgarian descent. In 1877, he then Naples. In 1881 he finally moved to Rome, where in 1884 he opened his second shop in Via Sistina. During the Second World War, his wife Laura hid three Jewish women in their own Roman home. They were strangers to them; the Bulgaris opened their doors out of outrage in October 1943. On 31 December 2003, they were awarded the title of Righteous among the Nations at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem. After Giorgio's death in 1966, his son Gianni led the company with his cousin Marina. In the late 1970s, Gianni led a complete overhaul of the company, focusing on product design. Bulgari opened its international locations in New York City, Paris, Geneva and Monte Carlo in the 1970s. For many years the company maintained a showroom in New York's The Pierre Hotel. In 1984, Sotirio's grandsons Paolo and Nicola Bulgari were named Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the nephew Francesco Trapani was named CEO. Trapani's goal to diversify the company was started with the release of the Bulgari perfume line. Under his tenure the company has established itself as a luxury goods brand recognized throughout the world.Bulgari – A Bulgari shop in Baku, Azerbaijan
33. Andrea Della Valle – Cardinal Andrea della Valle was an Italian clergyman and art collector. Of an ancient family of Roman nobles whose family tomb is in Santa Maria in Aracoeli, he was elected bishop of Crotone in 1496. In 1503-05 he served as Apostolic secretary during the pontificate of Pope Julius II. He was transferred in 1508, which he resigned in favor of his nephew Quinzio Rustici on 26 November 1523. He was created cardinal priest in the consistory of 1 July 1517. He participated in the conclaves of 1523. As archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica he ceremonially closed the Holy Door in the Jubilee Year of 1525. Cardinal della Valle is best remembered, however, as the collector of one of the first collections of Roman antiquities that marked the High Renaissance. He inherited some antiquities, collected by the della Valle in the previous century, according to Vasari. and eagerly acquired more. More than one artist made sketches. A theatre was built in the Cardinal's courtyard, which gave its name to the via Teatro Valle. Illustrated. . Among identifiable pieces, the Marsyas of the Uffizi, the Apollo with Lyre of Poggio Imperiale, the Minerva of Palazzo Pitti and others.Andrea Della Valle – Supporting figure (telamon) of Pan, called a "Della Valle Satyr"
34. Massimo Moratti – From 1995 until 2013, Moratti was the president of F.C. Internazionale Milano. He was famous for signing numerous football superstars. Currently he is Inter's Honorary President, also a United Nations Goodwill Ambassador. In 2013, he was inducted into the Italian Football Hall of Fame. His brother's wife, was the Mayor of Milan from 2006 until 2011. On his father's death, Massimo Moratti inherited his shares in the Saras Group, engaged in the refining of petroleum, where he is presently C.E.O. Moratti is also the owner of Sarlux, headquartered in Cagliari, which focuses on the production of electricity from the waste oil. Married to the environmental activist Emilia Moratti, the couple have five children. On 10 Sauro Gori announced that Moratti had been appointed a United Nations Goodwill Ambassador. In May 2011, Moratti supported Giuliano Pisapia's bid to become mayor of Milan against his Letizia. His call for ` change' was perceived as an extension of his rivalry with A.C. Milan, Silvio Berlusconi, to the political sphere. Moratti took over as president of Inter during a period where many considered Inter to be underachievers. Inter won the Scudetto, the Champions League in the 2009-2010 season, becoming the first Italian team that managed to achieve the Treble. Moratti is said to have spent around $1.5 billion of his personal fortune as president. However, criticism also been levelled against Moratti, as he fired coaches frequently.Massimo Moratti – Moratti in 2009
35. Saras S.p.A. – The company is now run by his heirs. Sarlux was wholly acquired by Saras on June 28, 2006. The company is listed on the Borsa Italiana. In 2009, the documentary-film by Massimiliano Mazzotta Oil of the refinery was subject to censorship in italy. At December 2006 the Group employed 1810 employees Saras, whose staff in 1172 to the parent. Oil, documentary film directed by Massimiliano Mazzotta. It explores the impact of the life of the local population. Budget Journal operating and consolidated 31 December 2006 Communications CONSOB on the shareholders and the relevant administrative bodies of listed companies, found at Official websiteSaras S.p.A. – Saras S.p.A.
36. Moncler – Moncler is a French apparel manufacturer and lifestyle brand founded in 1952 by René Ramillon most known for its down jackets and sportswear. Moncler took its name from the abbreviation of Monestier-de-Clermont, an Alpine town near Grenoble, France. In 2003, the brand was bought by the Italian entrepreneur Remo Ruffini. Moncler's store is on the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in Paris. Moncler is especially known for its down jackets. The name is an abbreviation of a village in the mountains near Grenoble. At the outset, Moncler produced quilted sleeping bags, tents with a telescopie structure and outside cover. The quilted jackets were conceived for protecting workers from the cold. They used the jackets in the small mountain establishment. The first to realize their potential was the French mountaineer Lionel Terray. All were gradually improved. On occasion of the Grenoble Winter Olympics, Moncler became the official supplier of the French national downhill team. The IPO of Moncler on the Milan Stock Exchange took place on 16 December 2013, with an initial value of €10.20 per share. The shares rose 47 % on the first day, resulting in a market capitalization of nearly $4 billion. Moncler hired celebrity photographer Annie Leibovitz in August 2013 to shoot an campaign.Moncler – Moncler
37. Sandro Salsano – Sandro Salsano is an Italian self-made entrepreneur, businessman, investor and philanthropist. He is the President and Chairman of Salsano Family Office. The group has investments in global real estate, luxury, private equity, venture capital, technology. He is the Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Salsano Shahani Foundation. He sits on the Board of a number of companies. He was named Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum. His father was employed with the State Railways. His first job was at Scottish Widows Investment Partnership in London. He later became a shareholder and partner in former Soviet Union, he sold his shares after Goldman Sachs acquired a stake. He co-founded what became one of the largest factoring companies for exporters to the Caribbean. He started investing in distressed real estate from a very early age. The group has its headquarter in Panama with presence in Miami, New York, San Francisco, San Juan, London, Shanghai. The Group owns over 1,000 ha of land in Panama. Salsano sits as both a shareholder and as an advisor. He joined in 2016 the Advisory Board of The Family Office Association.Sandro Salsano – Sandro Salsano, businessman and investor at 2015 Davos
38. List of richest people of Ukraine – Richest people of Ukraine are several ratings compiled and published often by two Ukrainian magazines Focus and Korrespondent. Korrespondent conducts its rating since 2006, while both magazines publish them simultaneously since 2007. Both magazines only include the top performers such as top-50, top-200 etc.. Five richest people The Korrespondent criteria for the ratings stay almost unchanged since were initiated in 2006. The only change that took place it was extending from top-50 top-100 for 2010. The ratings come out on every year. The calculations for the magazine are conducted by financial specialists of the company Dragon Capital. Those calculations are made based on the market capitalization of businesses and the method of comparable evaluation. Korrespondent also contacts every potential candidate to the list to confirm the available information. The Focus criteria change slightly to year. See below for more information. Top-10 included Top-10 included Korrespondent ratings Focus ratingsList of richest people of Ukraine – Rinat Akhmetov (Donetsk)
40. List of wealthiest historical figures – The list of the wealthiest historical figures gathers published estimates as to the net-worth and fortunes of the wealthiest historical figures in comparison. Accordingly -- of the previously mentioned difficulties -- it is not possible to determine the single richest person in all of history. Marcus Licinius Crassus and Musa I of Mali are considered the wealthiest people in Antiquity and Middle Ages, respectively. Frequently, one of these few people is considered to be the richest person of all time, depending on source. The richest among the Rothschilds was the head of its English branch—Nathan Mayer Rothschild—the richest person of his time. According to Close, the wealthiest woman excluding monarchs, is L'Oréal heiress Liliane Bettencourt, whose net worth was at $40.7 billion in 2015. Including monarchs, he mentions Empress Wu for Antiquity, Catherine the Great for modern history. Listed individuals have the lowest net estimate of at least 100 billion in 2010 USD. Therefore, it excludes figures such as Andrew W. Mellon, Richard B. Mellon, Stephen Van Rensselaer, A.T. Stewart, Heshen, J.P. Morgan, others. Absolute conquerors are sometimes listed for the territory they controlled rather than for their immediate personal wealth. Michael Klepper, Robert Gunther, The Wealthy 100: From Benjamin Franklin to Bill Gates—A Ranking of the Richest Americans, Past and Present, Citadel Press, 1996.List of wealthiest historical figures – John D. Rockefeller is considered to be one of the wealthiest Americans in recorded history.
41. List of richest Americans in history – Virtually all sources agree on John D. Rockefeller Sr. being the richest American in history. Further places are a matter of even bigger debate. Bill Gates was the top person, coming in fifth. American Heritage published a list of 40 richest Americans ever in 1998. It is available here. 1. John D. Rockefeller 2. Cornelius Vanderbilt 3. John Jacob Astor 4. Stephen Girard 5. Richard Mellon 6. Andrew Carnegie 7. Stephen Van Rensselaer 8. A.T. Stewart 9.List of richest Americans in history – A caricature of John D. Rockefeller published in Puck in 1901
43. History of Italy – The history of Italy begins with the arrival of the first hominins 850,000 years ago at Monte Poggiolo. Italy shows evidence of habitation by modern humans beginning about 43,000 years ago. It is reached by the Neolithic early as 6000-5500 BC Cardium Pottery and Impressed ware. The collapse of the Western Empire by the end of the 5th century is taken to mark the end of Late Antiquity. A Lombard Kingdom of Italy was established, although parts of the peninsula remained until the 11th century. With the idea of the nation state in the 19th century, the peninsula was unified in the late 19th century. The new Kingdom of Italy, established in 1861, quickly modernized and built a large colonial empire, colonizing parts of Africa, countries along the Mediterranean. However, many regions of the young nation remained poor, originating the Italian diaspora. Part of the victorious allied powers of World War I, Italy defeated the Austrian Empire. Soon however, the liberal state collapsed to social unrest: the Fascists, led by Benito Mussolini, took over and set up an authoritarian dictatorship. As a result of a Constitutional Referendum, the monarchy was abolished. The new republic was proclaimed on 2 June 1946. In the 1960s, Italy saw a period of rapid modernization and sustained economic growth, the so-called Italian economic miracle. Italy plays a prominent role in regional and global military, diplomatic affairs. In prehistoric times, the Italian peninsula was rather different from its current shape.History of Italy – Matera, which dates from Palaeolithic 10th millennium BC, (region of Basilicata).
44. Prehistoric Italy – In prehistoric times, the Italian peninsula was rather different from how it is now. During glaciations, the islands of Elba and Sicily were connected to the mainland. The arrival of the first hominins was 850,000 years ago at Monte Poggiolo. The presence of Homo neanderthalensis has been demonstrated in archaeological findings dating to c. 50,000 years ago. There are the most important being that of the Grotta Guattari at San Felice Circeo, on the Tyrrhenian Sea south of Rome. Other are the Breuil grotto, also in San Felice. The first Cro Magnon inhabitants of Italy moved across the peninusula, establishing themselves far from each one, most on high areas. In 2011 it has been discovered the most ancient Sardinian complete human skeleton at Pistoccu, in Marina di Arbus; scientists date it to 8500 years ago. Since the Late-Neolithic, Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Liguria, Tuscany and Sardinia in particular were involved in the pan-Western European Megalithic phenomenon. Later, in the Age, megalithic structures were built also in Latium, Puglia and Sicily. They are sometimes described as Eneolithic cultures, due to their use of primitive copper tools. The earliest Statue menhirs, frequently depicting weapons, were erected during this period. This sculptural tradition of possible origin, lasted in some regions well into the Bronze Age and even into the Iron Age. The Beaker culture marks the transition between the early Bronze Age. Pottery was blackish.Prehistoric Italy – Figure of an Aurochs engraved at the Romito cave near Cosenza
45. Italic peoples – The Italic peoples were an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group identified by speaking Italic languages. The Italics were all the peoples who spoke an idiom belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages and had settled in the Italian peninsula. The Latino-Falisci, entered Italy into the plain of the Po River about 1200 BC. Later, they crossed the Apennine Mountains and eventually occupied the region of Latium, which included the area of Rome. Before 1000 BC, the Osco-Umbrians followed, which later divided into various groups and gradually moved to central and southern Italy. According to David W. Anthony between 3100-2800/2600 BCE, a real folk migration of Proto-Indo-European speakers from the Yamna culture took place into the Danube Valley. These migrations probably split-off Pre-Germanic from Proto-Indo-European. Hydronymy shows that Proto-Germanic homeland is in Central Germany which would be very close to the homeland of Italic and Celtic languages as well. The origin of a hypothetical ancestral "Italo-Celtic" people is to be found in today's eastern Hungary, "kurganized" around 3100 BC by the Yamna-culture. This is further confirmed by the fact that Germanic family shares more vocabulary than with the Celtic language family. Remains of the later prehistoric age have been found in Liguria and Lombardy. During the Copper Age, at the same time as metalworking appeared, Indo-European people migrated to Italy. Approximatively four waves of population from north to the Alps have been hypothesized on the basis of archaeological evidence. The Remedello culture is associated by some with the first identified wave of Proto-Indo-Europeans who entered Italy and took over the Po Valley. In the mid-2nd millennium BC, the Terramare culture developed in the Po Valley.Italic peoples – Indo-European Migrations. Source David Anthony (2007), The Horse, The Wheel and Language
46. List of ancient peoples of Italy – This is a list of ancient peoples living in Italy before the Roman conquest. Many of the names are either scholarly exonyms assigned by the ancient writers of works in ancient Greek and Latin. The following peoples are believed to have spoken languages that were not Indo-European, although most on scanty evidence. Some of them were some not. For some has been also proposed the definition of Peri-Indo-European.List of ancient peoples of Italy – Peoples of Cisalpine Gaul 391-192 BC.
47. Pre-Nuragic Sardinia – The Pre-Nuragic period refers to the prehistory of Sardinia from the Paleolithic till the middle Bronze age, when the Nuragic civilization flourished on the island. The discovery of lithic workshops indicate a human presence in Sardinia in the period between 450,000 and 10,000 years ago. Human remains have been found at the "Su Coloru cave" of Laerru, in northern Sardinia. The culture suggest that these people came in Sardinia from the Italian peninsula after a difficult navigation with rudimentary boats. The culture of Su Carroppu represents the earliest phase of the Neolithic in Sardinia. The presence of two human skeletons, along with ornaments made according to the researchers witnessed the customs of burial cave. The Grotta Verde culture is named after a cave located at Capo Caccia near Alghero, where in 1979, important findings had been made. It is dated back in the mid-fifth millennium BC. This culture was characterized by the production of refined pottery, decorated with a toothed tool. On a vase found in a stylized manner, human heads with small nose, eyes and mouth played. According to archaeologist Giovanni Lilliu, this would be the anthropomorphic representation of Sardinian prehistory. On a wall inside the cave were also found particular graffiti, another singular testimony of these people. In 1971 caver Renato Loria found in the territory of Mara, between Villanova Monteleone and Bosa, a ravine of about sixty square meters. The Bonuighinu culture prevailed from 4000 BC up to 3400 BC. One of the most important villages was that of "Puisteris" in Mogoro.Pre-Nuragic Sardinia – Mother Goddess from Cuccuru s'Arrius, Cabras
48. List of Nuragic tribes – This is a list of Nuragic tribes, listed in order of the province or the general area in which they lived. Some closely fit the concept of a tribe. Others are confederations or even unions of tribes. The linguistic affiliation of the Nuragic people and tribes remains to be further studied. Current knowledge indicates that they may have been related to Iberians the Aquitanians, these peoples were Pre-Indo-Europeans and spoke Pre-Indo-European languages: Aquitanian and Iberian. There is also the possibility that the Nuragic peoples may have been related to the Etruscans and other Tyrsenian languages. Because of this, their languages may also have been Pre-Indo-European. They dwelt at the extreme north-east of Sardinia, near the Tibulati and immediately north of the Coracenses. Aesaronenses, they dwelt north of the Æchilenenses or Cornenses. Beronicenses Carenses, they dwelt north of the Salcitani and the Lucuidonenses. Celsitani, they dwelt north of the Scapitani and the Siculensi. Cunusitani, they dwelt north of the Salcitani and the Lucuidonenses. They dwelt south of the Scapitani and the Siculensi and north of the Solcitani and the Noritani. Paleo-Sardinian History of Sardinia Nuragic civilization Sardinian people Torrean civilization Corsican people Ethnic group Tribe PITTAU, Massimo.. .List of Nuragic tribes – Nuragic tribes according to the Greek geographer Ptolemy
49. Etruscan civilization – Culture, identifiably Etruscan developed in Italy after about 800 BC, approximately over the range of the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture. The latter gave way in the 7th century to a culture, influenced by ancient Greece, Magna Graecia, Phoenicia. The decline was gradual, but by 500 BC the political destiny of Italy had passed out of Etruscan hands. The last Etruscan cities were formally absorbed by Rome around 100 BC. Politics were based on the small city, probably the family unit. Archaic Greece had a huge influence on their art and architecture, Greek mythology was evidently very familiar to them. The latest mitochondrial DNA study shows that Etruscans appear to fall very close to a Neolithic population from Central Europe and to other Tuscan populations. The ancient Romans referred to the Etruscans as the Tusci or Etrusci. Their Roman name is the origin of the terms Tuscany, which refers to their heartland, Etruria, which can refer to their wider region. The word may also be related to the Hittite Taruisa. The Etruscans called themselves Rasenna, syncopated to Rasna or Raśna. The origins of the Etruscans are mostly lost in prehistory, although Greek historians as early as the 5th century BC, repeatedly associated the Tyrrhenians with Pelasgians. Strabo as well as the Homeric Hymn to Dionysus make mention of the Tyrrhenians as pirates. All are divided into a number of states. The Raeti are believed to be people of Tuscan race driven out by the Gauls, their leader was named Raetus.Etruscan civilization – Etruscan pendant with swastika symbols, Bolsena, Italy, 700-650 BC. Louvre Museum
50. Nuragic civilization – The Nuragic civilization, born and developed in Sardinia, the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, lasted from the Bronze Age to the 2nd century AD. The civilization's name derives from the nuraghe, a tower-fortress type of construction built in numerous exemplars starting from about 1800 BC. Some 7,000 nuraghes dot the Sardinian landscape. No written records of this civilization have been discovered. The only written information that we have may be considered more mythological than historical. The most ancient settlements have been discovered both in central Sardinia and Anglona. Later several cultures developed on the island, such as the Ozieri culture. The economy was based with the mainland. With the diffusion of metallurgy, copper objects and weapons also appeared on the island. According to some scholars, the similarity between those found in Mesopotamia are due to cultural influxes coming from the Eastern Mediterranean. The beakers appeared through the Italian Peninsula. The Bonnanaro culture displayed several similarities with the contemporary Polada culture of northern Italy. These two cultures shared common features with axe-shaped handles. These influences may have spread to Sardinia via Corsica, where they absorbed architectural techniques that were already widespread on the island. The widespread diffusion of bronze brought numerous improvements to the tools used in agriculture, warfare.Nuragic civilization – Su Nuraxi of Barumini, included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites since 1997
51. Ancient Carthage – Carthage was the Phoenician city-state of Carthage and during the 7th to 3rd centuries BC, included its sphere of influence, the Carthaginian Empire. Carthage was founded in 814 BC. At the height of the city's prominence it served with trading stations extending throughout the region. The city also had to deal with the indigenous inhabitants of the area where Carthage was built. After the third and final Punic War, Roman forces destroyed, redesigned, then occupied Carthage. Nearly all of former Carthaginian dependencies subsequently fell into Roman hands. According to Roman sources, Phoenician colonists from modern-day Lebanon, led by Dido, founded Carthage circa 814 BC. Queen Elissa was an exiled princess of the ancient Phoenician city of Tyre. Pygmalion of Tyre, had murdered Elissa's husband, the high priest. Elissa escaped the tyranny of her own country, founding the "new city" of Carthage and subsequently its later dominions. The following can be deduced from various sources. According to Justin, Princess Elissa was the daughter of King Belus II of Tyre. When he died, the throne was jointly bequeathed to her brother, her. She also known as Sychaeus, the High Priest of Melqart, a man with both authority and wealth comparable to the king. This led to increased rivalry between the monarchy.Ancient Carthage – Carthage and its dependencies in 264 BC
52. Magna Graecia – Most notably the Roman poet Ovid referred in his poem Fasti. According to Strabo Great Greece started already at the time of the Tojan War and lasted for several centuries. Also during that period, Greek colonies were established in places widely separated as the eastern coast of the Black Sea, Massalia. They included settlements in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula. The Romans called the area of Sicily and the foot of Italy Magna Graecia since it was so densely inhabited by the Greeks. The ancient geographers differed on whether the term included Sicily or merely Apulia and Calabria: Strabo being the most prominent advocate of the wider definitions. With colonization, Greek culture was exported in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its traditions of the independent polis. An original Hellenic civilization soon developed, later interacting with the native Italic civilisations. Many of the Hellenic cities became very powerful, like Neapolis, Syracuse, Acragas Paestum and Sybaris. Other cities in Magna Graecia included others. Following the Pyrrhic War in the 3rd century BC, Magna Graecia was absorbed into the Roman Republic. A remarkable example of the influence is the Griko-speaking minority that still exists today in the Italian regions of Calabria and Apulia. Some scholars, such as Gerhard Rohlfs, argue that the origins of Griko may ultimately be traced to the colonies of Magna Graecia. One example is the Griko people, some of whom still maintain their Greek language and customs. For example, Greeks re-entered the region by the Ottoman Empire.Magna Graecia – Cities of Magna Graecia and other Greek settlements in Italy (in red)
53. Ancient Rome – Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. In its approximately 12 centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through assimilation, it came to dominate Southern and Western Europe, Asia Minor, parts of Northern and Eastern Europe. Rome was preponderant throughout the Mediterranean region and was one of the most powerful entities of the ancient world. Societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Roman society has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, society. The Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would have lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe. King Numitor was deposed by Amulius, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins.Ancient Rome – Senātus Populus que Rōmānus
54. Roman Kingdom – The Roman Kingdom was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories. The site of the founding of Empire had a ford where the Tiber could be crossed. Hills surrounding it presented easily defensible positions in the wide fertile plain surrounding them. All of these features contributed to the success of the city. With no contemporary records of the kingdom existing, all accounts of the kings must be carefully questioned. Of all these insignia, the most important was the purple toga. The imperium of the king was protected him from ever being brought to trial for his actions. Also, the laws that kept citizens safe from magistrates' misuse of imperium did not exist during the monarchical period. Another power of the king was the power to either nominate all officials to offices. The tribune left office upon the king's death. The tribune also possessed the power to convene the Curiate Assembly and lay legislation before it. Another officer appointed by the king was the praefectus urbi, who acted as the warden of the city. The king even received the right to be the only person to appoint patricians to the Senate. The people knew the king as a mediator between them and the gods and thus viewed the king with religious awe. This made the head of its chief executive.Roman Kingdom – Capitoline Wolf
55. Roman Republic – It was during this period that Rome's control expanded to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. By the following century, it included Spain, what is now southern France. Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st century BC, it included much of the eastern Mediterranean. The exact date of transition can be a matter of interpretation. Roman government was headed by two consuls, advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. Many of Rome's legislative structures can still be observed throughout Europe and much of the world in modern nation states and international organizations. The exact causes and motivations during the republic are subject to wide debate. While they can be seen as motivated by outright imperialism, historians typically take a much more nuanced view. They argue that Rome's expansion was driven by the new contingencies that these decisions created. It was also less able to defend itself against its non-Roman enemies, which made attack by these enemies more likely. It was, therefore, more likely to seek an alliance of protection with Rome. This growing coalition moved Rome closer to confrontation with major powers. The result was more alliance-seeking, on the part of both the Roman confederacy and city-states seeking membership within that confederacy. This shift mainly took place in parts such as the southern Italian towns that sided with Hannibal. In contrast, Roman expansion into Spain and Gaul occurred as a mix of military occupation.Roman Republic – Route of Pyrrhus of Epirus
56. Roman Empire – The imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empire's existence were "Roman Peace". Following Octavian's victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, but the Praetorian Guard proclaimed Claudius emperor instead. Under Claudius, the empire invaded its major expansion since Augustus. His short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors. The empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. Commodus' assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, renamed "Constantinople" in his honour. It remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the official state religion of the empire. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time.Roman Empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
57. Italy in the Middle Ages – Lombard rule ended with the invasion of Charlemagne in 773, who established the Kingdom of Italy and the Papal States. In the 11th century began a political development unique to Italy, the transformation of medieval communes into powerful city states modelled on ancient Roman Republicanism. Each city aligned itself with the other, yet was divided internally between the two warring parties, Guelfs and Ghibellines. Since the 13th century, these wars had increasingly been fought by mercenaries, giving rise to the Italian institution of the Swiss mercenary culture. The House of Habsburg would control Italy for the duration of the modern period, until Napoleon's invasion of Italy in 1796. Rome was sacked by Alaric in 410. Romulus Augustus, was deposed in 476 by an Eastern Germanic general, Odoacer. He subsequently ruled for seventeen years as rex gentium, theoretically under the suzerainty of the Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno, but practically in total independence. The administration gave religious freedoms to the Christians. Odoacer fought against other Germanic tribes that periodically invaded the peninsula. In 489, however, Emperor Zeno decided to oust a foederatum people living in the Danube, by sending them into Italy. On February 493 Theodoric the Great defeated Odoacer and became the king of the Ostrogoths. He in fact ruled over Italy largely through Roman personnel. The reign of Theodoric is generally considered a period of recovery for the country. Infrastructures were repaired, frontiers were expanded, the economy well cared for.Italy in the Middle Ages – The maritime republics of medieval Italy
58. Odoacer – Flavius Odoacer, also known as Flavius Odovacer, was a soldier who in 476 became the first King of Italy. His reign is commonly seen as marking the end of the Western Roman Empire. Odoacer introduced important changes into the administrative system of Italy. He was able to distribute land to his followers without much opposition. No such disturbances occurred during the later period of his reign. Although Odoacer was an Arian Christian, he rarely intervened in the affairs of the orthodox and trinitarian church of the Roman Empire. Upon Nepos' murder in 480 Odoacer invaded Dalmatia, to punish the murderers. Within two years also conquered the region and incorporated it into his domain. When master of soldiers of the Eastern Empire, asked for Odoacer's help in 484 in his struggle to depose Zeno, Odoacer invaded Zeno's westernmost provinces. The emperor responded first by inciting the Rugi of present-day Austria to attack Italy. During the winter of 487 -- 488 Odoacer defeated the Rugi in their own territory. Theoderic by August 490 had captured almost the entire peninsula, forcing Odoacer to take refuge in Ravenna. The city surrendered on 5 March 493; there killed him. Odoacer is the earliest ruler of Italy for whom an autograph of any of his legal acts has survived to the current day. For the fact that he was not considered Roman, Odoacer's ethnic origins are not completely known.Odoacer – Coin of Odoacer, Ravenna, 477, with Odoacer in profile, depicted with a "barbarian" moustache.
59. Ostrogothic Kingdom – The Ostrogothic Kingdom was established by the Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas from 493 to 553. Under its first king, the Ostrogothic kingdom reached its zenith, stretching from modern France in the west in the southeast. Most of the social institutions of the late Western Roman Empire were preserved during his rule. Theodoric called himself Gothorum Romanorumque rex, demonstrating his desire to be a leader for both peoples. Starting in 535, the Eastern Roman Empire invaded Italy under Justinian I. The Ostrogothic ruler at Witiges, was finally captured when the capital Ravenna fell. The Ostrogoths were eventually defeated. The last king of the Ostrogothic Kingdom was Teia. The Ostrogoths were the eastern branch of the Goths. During the 4th century, they came under the dominion of the Huns. After the collapse of the Hunnic empire in 454, large numbers of Ostrogoths were settled by Emperor Marcian in the Roman province of Pannonia as foederati. But in 460, during the reign of Leo I, because the payment of annual sums had ceased, they ravaged Illyricum. In this conflict, alliances shifted regularly, large parts of the Balkans were devastated by it. After Strabo's death in 481, Zeno came with Theoderic. Theoderic was named magister praesentalis consul for 484.Ostrogothic Kingdom – The Palace of Theoderic, as depicted on the walls of St. Apollinare Nuovo. The figures between the columns, representing Theoderic and his court, were removed after the East Roman conquest.
60. Kingdom of the Lombards – The king was traditionally elected as several attempts to establish a hereditary dynasty failed. The kingdom was subdivided into a varying number of duchies, ruled by semi-autonomous dukes, which were in turn subdivided into gastaldates at the municipal level. The capital of the center of its political life was Pavia in the modern northern Italian region of Lombardy. The Lombard invasion of Italy was opposed by the Byzantine Empire, which retained control of much of the peninsula until the mid-8th century. Because of this division, the southern duchies were considerably more autonomous than the smaller northern duchies. Over time, the Lombards gradually adopted Roman titles, traditions. By the time Paul the Deacon was writing in the 8th century, the Lombardic language, dress and hairstyles had all disappeared. Initially the Lombards were Arianist Christians, at odds with the Papacy both religiously and politically. However, by the end of the 7th century, their conversion to Catholicism was all but complete. The king of the Franks, adopted the title "King of the Lombards", although he never managed to gain control of Benevento, the southernmost Lombard duchy. The existence of seal rings "testifies of government". In the 6th century Byzantine Emperor Justinian attempted to reassert imperial authority in the territories of the Western Roman Empire. The Lombard arrival broke the political unity of the Italian Peninsula for the first time since the Roman conquest. The peninsula was now torn between territories ruled with boundaries which changed over time. The territories which remained under Byzantine control had its stronghold in the Exarchate of Ravenna.Kingdom of the Lombards – The Lombard possessions in Italy: The Lombard Kingdom (Neustria, Austria and Tuscia) and the Lombard Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento
61. Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire) – The Kingdom of Italy was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, Burgundy. It excluded the Republic of Venice. Its original capital was Pavia until the 11th century. In June 774, the Franks became masters of northern Italy. The southern areas remained in the Duchy of Benevento. In 800 had himself crowned "Emperor of the Romans" in Rome. Until 961, the rule of Italy was continually contested from both within and without the kingdom. He continued on to Rome, where he had himself crowned February 962. The resulting wars between Guelphs and Ghibellines, imperialist factions, respectively, were characteristic of Italian politics in the 12th -- 14th centuries. The Lombard League was the most famous example of this situation; though not a declared separatist movement, it openly challenged the emperor's claim to power. By the 15th century, the power of the city-states was largely broken. A series of wars in Lombardy from 1423 to 1454 further reduced the number of competing states in Italy. In 1494 the peninsula was invaded by France. The resulting Great Italian Wars lasted until 1559, when control of most of the Italian states passed to King Philip II of Spain. After the Imperial Reform of 1495–1512, the Italian kingdom corresponded to the unencircled territories south of the Alps.Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire) – The Iron Crown of Lombardy, now at Monza Cathedral
62. History of Islam in southern Italy – The history of Islam in southern Italy began with the first Muslim settlement in Sicily, at Mazara, captured in 827. The subsequent rule of Sicily and Malta started in the 10th century. The Emirate of Sicily lasted until 1061. Muslims were sometimes sought by Christian factions against other factions. In that year the Kalbids established the independence of their emirate from the Fatimid caliphate. By 1071 its citadel were captured. In 1091 Noto fell to the Normans, the conquest was complete. Malta fell later that year, though the Arab administration was kept in place, marking the final chapter of this period. Widespread conversion ensued, leading to the disappearance of Islam in Sicily by the 1280s. In 1245, Muslim Sicilians were deported to the settlement of Lucera, by order of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. The first attacks by Islamic ships on Sicily, then part of the Byzantine Empire, occurred in 652 under the Rashidun Caliphate of Uthman. The Byzantine exarch of Ravenna, failed. Soon after, the Arabs returned to Syria after collecting a sufficiently large amount of booty. A second Arab expedition to Sicily occurred in 669. A ravaging force consisting of 200 ships from Alexandria attacked the island.History of Islam in southern Italy – Arabic painting made for the Norman kings (c. 1150) in the Palazzo dei Normanni, originally the emir's palace at Palermo.
63. Norman conquest of southern Italy – The Norman conquest of southern Italy spanned most of the 11th and 12th centuries, involving many battles and independent conquerors. Many territories were conquered independently, only later were unified into a single state. Compared to the conquest of England it was unplanned and disorganised, but equally complete. The earliest reported date of the arrival of Norman knights in southern Italy is 999, although it may be assumed that they had visited before then. According to several sources, Norman pilgrims returning in Jerusalem via Apulia stayed with Prince Guaimar III in Salerno. Its environs were attacked from Africa demanding payment of an overdue annual tribute. While Guaimar began to collect the tribute the Normans ridiculed him and his Lombard subjects for cowardice, they assaulted their besiegers. A grateful Guaimar asked the Normans to stay. They promised to tell them about possibly lucrative military service in Salerno. The Salerno tradition was first recorded in his Ystoire de Normant between 1071 and 1086. Beginning with the Annales Ecclesiastici of Baronius in the 17th century, the Salernitan story became the accepted history. Although its factual accuracy was questioned periodically during the following centuries, it has been accepted by most scholars since. The "Gargano tradition", appears without reference to any previous Norman presence. Melus had been in Salerno just before his visit to Monte Gargano. Another story involves the exile of a group of brothers from the Drengot family.Norman conquest of southern Italy – The imprisonment of Pandulf of Capua, after Emperor Henry II's 1022 campaign
64. Guelphs and Ghibellines – The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, rivalry between these two parties formed a particularly important aspect of the internal politics of medieval Italy. The division between the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Italy, however, persisted until the 15th century. Guelph is an Italian form of the name of the House of Welf, the family of the dukes of Bavaria. The names were likely introduced to Italy during the reign of Frederick Barbarossa. When Frederick conducted military campaigns in Italy to expand imperial power there, his supporters became known as Ghibellines. The Lombard League and its allies were defending the liberties of the urban communes against the Emperor's encroachments and became known as Guelphs. The Ghibellines were thus the imperial party, while the Guelphs supported the Pope. Broadly speaking, Guelphs tended to come from wealthy mercantile families, whereas Ghibellines were predominantly those whose wealth was based on agricultural estates. The Lombard League defeated Frederick at the Battle of Legnano in 1176. Frederick recognized the full autonomy of the cities of the Lombard league under his nominal suzerainty. The division developed its own dynamic in the politics of medieval Italy, it persisted long after the direct confrontation between Emperor and Pope had ceased. Pisa maintained a staunch Ghibelline stance against her fiercest rivals, the Guelph Republic of Genoa and Florence. Adherence to one of the parties could therefore be motivated by local or regional political reasons. Within cities, party allegiances differed from guild to guild, rione to rione, a city could easily change party after internal upheaval.Guelphs and Ghibellines – Painting of the Guelph and Ghibelline families, by Ottavio Baussano (Asti).
65. Italian city-states – The Italian city-states were a political phenomenon of small independent states mostly in the central and northern Italian peninsula between the 9th and 15th centuries. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, urban settlements in Italy generally enjoyed a greater continuity than in the rest of western Europe. Many of these towns were survivors of earlier Etruscan, Umbrian and Roman towns which had existed within the Roman Empire. The republican institutions of Rome had also survived. Other city-states were associated like Genoa, in the Adriatic, Ragusa. Around 1100, Genoa and Venice emerged as independent Maritime republics. Pisa and Amalfi also emerged as maritime republics: banking helped support their powerful navies in the Mediterranean in those medieval centuries. Between the 12th and 13th centuries, Italy was vastly different from feudal Europe north of the Alps. The Peninsula was a melange of political and cultural elements, not a unified state. Marc Bloch and Fernand Braudel have argued that geography determined the history of the region; other scholars emphasize the absence of central political structures. The very mountainous nature of Italy's landscape was a barrier to effective inter-city communication. The Po plain, however, was an exception: it was the only large contiguous area, most city states that fell to invasion were located there. Those that survived the longest were in the more rugged regions, such as Florence or Venice, protected by its lagoon. While those Roman, republican sensibilities persisted, there were many changes afoot. Italy first felt the changes in Europe from the 11th to the 13th centuries.Italian city-states – Florence was one of the most important city-states in Italy
66. Maritime republics – The maritime republics of the Mediterranean Basin were thalassocratic city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia during the Middle Ages. The best known among the maritime republics are Venice, Genoa, Pisa, Ragusa, Amalfi. Less known are Gaeta, Ancona, Noli. The maritime republics were city-states. They were generally republics in that they were formally independent, though most of them originated from territories once formally belonging to the Byzantine Empire. During the time of their independence, all these cities had similar systems of government, in which the merchant class had considerable power. The Fourth Crusade, originally intended to liberate Jerusalem, actually entailed the Venetian conquest of Zara and Constantinople. The growing independence acquired by some coastal cities gave them a leading role in this development. These cities, exposed to pirate raids, organized their own defence, providing themselves substantial war fleets. The independent cities formed autonomous an expression of the class that constituted the backbone of their power. Using gold coins, the merchants of the maritime republics began to develop foreign exchange transactions and accounting. Technological advances in navigation provided essential support for the growth of mercantile wealth. Nautical charts of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries all belong to the schools of Genoa, Venice and Ancona. The Crusades offered opportunities for expansion. They increasingly relied on Italian transport, for which the Republics extracted concessions of colonies well as a cash price.Maritime republics – Map of the maritime republics in the 11th century and their coats of arms.
67. Italian Renaissance – Italy became the recognized European leader in all these areas to varying degrees retained this lead until about 1600. The European Renaissance centred in the city of Florence. It later spread to Venice, where the remains of Greek culture were brought together, providing humanist scholars with new texts. The Italian Renaissance peaked in the mid-16th century as foreign invasions plunged the region into the turmoil of the Italian Wars. However, the ideals of the Renaissance endured and spread into the rest of Europe, setting off the Northern Renaissance, the English Renaissance. The Italian Renaissance is best known for its cultural achievements. Accounts of Renaissance literature usually begin with his friend and contemporary Boccaccio. Famous vernacular poets of the 15th century include Luigi Pulci, Matteo Maria Boiardo, Ludovico Ariosto. 15th century writers such as the Platonist philosopher Marsilio Ficino made extensive translations from both Latin and Greek. The same is true for architecture, as practiced by Brunelleschi, Leon Battista Alberti, Bramante. Their works include Florence Cathedral, the Tempio Malatestiano in Rimini. Yet cultural contributions notwithstanding, some present-day historians also see the era as one of the beginning of economic regression for Italy. By the Late Middle Ages, southern Italy were generally poorer than the North. The Papacy was affronted when the Avignon Papacy was created as a consequence of pressure from King Philip the Fair of France. In the south, Sicily had for some time been by the Arabs and then the Normans.Italian Renaissance – Renaissance
68. Italian Wars – For several months, French forces moved through Italy virtually unopposed, since the condottieri armies of the Italian city-states were unable to resist them. Charles VIII made triumphant entries into Rome on December 31, 1494. The garrison sent the bodies back to the French lines. This was the famous "sack of Naples". The League was specifically formed to resist French aggression. The League was established on 31 March after negotiations by Venice, the Holy Roman Empire. This coalition, effectively, cut Charles' army off from returning to France. After establishing a pro-French government in Naples, Charles started to march north on his return to France. However, in the small town of Fornovo he met the League army. In contemporary tradition, though, the battle counted as a Holy League victory, because the French forces had to leave and lost their provisions. To the Italian coalition, however, it was at best a pyrrhic victory, in that its strategic outcome and long-term consequences were unfavorable. In fact, the Italian states could not field armies comparable to those of the feudal monarchies of Europe in numbers and equipment. Thus, Charles VIII lost all that he conquered in Italy. Ludovico Sforza retained his throne until 1499 when Louis XII of France, invaded Lombardy and seized Milan on September 17, 1499. Louis XII justified his claim to the Duchy of Milan by right of his paternal grandfather, Louis duc d'Orléans having married Valentina Visconti in 1387.Italian Wars – The Battle of Pavia by an unknown Flemish artist (oil on panel, 16th century).
69. Italian unification – The process was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. Italian nationalism was based among political activists, often operating from exile. Following conquest by the Frankish Empire, the title of King of Italy merged with the office of Holy Roman Emperor. This situation began to deteriorate with the rise of modern nation-states in the early modern period. Italy, including the Papal States, then became the site of proxy wars between the major powers, France. Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated that the "ancient valour in Italian hearts is not yet dead" in Italia Mia. 'Then what are you?' they asked. 'I am an Italian,' he explained." The institutions of republican governments promoted citizenship over the rule of the Bourbons and Habsburgs and other dynasties. The reaction against any outside control challenged Napoleon's choice of rulers. As Napoleon's reign began to fail, the rulers he had installed tried to keep their thrones further feeding nationalistic sentiments. After Napoleon fell the Congress of Vienna restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments. Exiles dreamed of unification. Three ideals of unification appeared.Italian unification – Five Days of Milan, 18–22 March 1848
70. Kingdom of Italy – The Kingdom of Italy was a state founded in 1861 when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy. Italy received the region of Veneto following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, ending more than thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary following strong disagreements with France about the respective colonial expansions. Victory in the war gave a permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. "Fascist Italy" is the era of National Fascist Party rule from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government. According to Payne, " Fascist regime passed through several relatively distinct phases". The first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, albeit with a "legally organized dictatorship". Then came the second phase, "the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper from 1925 to 1929". The third phase, with less activism, was 1929–34. The war itself defeats, while the rump Salò regime under German control was the final stage. Italy was allied until 1943. It switched sides after ousting Mussolini and shutting down the Fascist party in areas controlled by the Allied invaders. Shortly after the war, civil discontent led on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to form the Italian Republic, the present form of Italy today.Kingdom of Italy – Italian unification process.
71. Italian Empire – The Italian Empire comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic. The genesis of the colonial empire was the purchase, in 1869, by a commercial company of the coastal town of Assab on the Red Sea. This was taken over by the Italian government in 1882, becoming Italy's overseas territory. Over the next two decades the pace of European acquisitions in Africa increased, causing the so-called "Scramble for Africa". Outside of Africa, Italy possessed a small concession off the coast of Turkey. During the First World War, Italy occupied southern Albania to prevent it from falling to Austria-Hungary. In 1917, it established a protectorate over Albania, which remained until 1920. In 1939, Italy incorporated it into the Fascist state. During the Second World War, Italy was forced in the final peace to abandon all its colonies and protectorates. It was granted a United Nations trust to administer Italian Somaliland in 1950. When Somalia became independent in 1960, Italy's eight-decade experience with colonialism ended. Italy had long considered the Ottoman province of Tunisia, where a large community of Tunisian Italians lived, within its economic sphere of influence. Italian annexation of Massawa prevented any expansion of French Somaliland. At the same time, Italy occupied territory on the south side of the horn of Africa, forming what would become Italian Somaliland. However, in 1887, Italian Prime Minister Agostino Depretis ordered an invasion.Italian Empire – Francesco Crispi promoted the Italian colonialism in Africa in the late 1800s.
72. History of the Italian Republic – Although ousted after a few months of government, Berlusconi became one of economic figures for the next two decades. In November 2011, Berlusconi resigned. Mario Monti formed a new government, composed by "technicians" and supported by both the center-left and the center-right parties. After tensions in the Democratic Party, the PD's Secretary Matteo Renzi sworn as new Prime Minister. Mussolini was killed by resistance fighters in April 1945. Victor Emmanuel formally abdicated on 9 May 1946; his son became king as Umberto II of Italy. A Constitutional Referendum was held on 2 June 1946. The monarchy was abolished. The Kingdom of Italy was no more. The Italian royal family, was exiled. Victor Emmanuel left for Egypt where he died in 1947. Umberto, king for only a month, moved to Portugal. A Constituent Assembly was in place between January 1948; it wrote the new Constitution of Italy which took effect on January 1, 1948. The Peace Treaty of World War II was signed in Paris in February 1947. The PCI received some ministerial posts in a Christian Democrat -- led coalition cabinet.History of the Italian Republic – Alcide De Gasperi, Prime Minister from 1945 to 1953.
73. Years of Lead (Italy) – The left-wing Marxist movement in Italy, involved in many events of the period lasted from 1968 until the end of the 1970s. There was widespread social conflict and unprecedented acts of terrorism carried out by both right- and left-wing paramilitary groups. An attempt to endorse the Italian Social Movement by the Tambroni Cabinet led to rioting and was short-lived. They created a coalition. The assassination of the Christian Democrat leader Aldo Moro in 1978 ended the strategy of historic compromise between the Italian Communist Party. The assassination was carried out by the Red Brigades, then led by Mario Moretti. Between 1981, nearly 2,000 murders were attributed to political violence in the form of bombings, assassinations, street warfare between rival militant factions. Public protests shook Italy with the autonomist student movement being particularly active, leading to the occupation of the Fiat automobile factory in Milan. On 19 Antonio Annarumma, a Milanese policeman, was killed during a riot by far-left demonstrators. He was the civil servant to die in the wave of violence. Local police arrested 80 or so suspects including Giuseppe Pinelli, an anarchist initially blamed for the bombing, Pietro Valpreda. Meanwhile, five others were convicted and jailed for the bombing. They were later released after three years of preventive detention. In the 1990s, new investigations into the Piazza Fontana bombing, citing new witnesses testimony, implicated Freda and Ventura again. However, the pair can not be put again because of double jeopardy, as they were acquitted of the crime in 1987.Years of Lead (Italy) – Attack at the Bologna railway station; it was the deadliest episode of the Years of Lead.
74. History of coins in Italy – Italy has a long history of different coinage types, which spans thousands of years. Italy adopts the euro currency. Spite the fact that the Italian coinage systems were used in the Magna Graecia and Etruscan civilization, the Romans introduced a widespread currency. Unlike most modern coins, Roman coins had intrinsic value. While they contained precious metals, the value of a coin was higher than its precious content, so they were not bullion. The florin was struck with no significant change in its design or metal content standard. It had 54 grains of gold. In the fourteenth century, local coin issuing authorities made their own copies of the florin. The most important of these was the Hungarian forint because the Kingdom of Hungary was a major source of gold mined in Europe. They corresponded to 4.5 grams of silver. The Papal States scudo was the coinage system used until 1866. Between 1799, the revolutionary French forces established the Roman Republic, sued coins denominated in baiocco and scudo. In addition, the states of Ancona, Civitavecchia, Clitunno, Foligno, Gubbio, Pergola and Perugia changed their coinage system to that of the Roman Republic. In 1808, French francs circulated as the official coins. When the Pope's authority was restored in 1814, the scudo was restored as the currency.History of coins in Italy – A Papal States scudo with Pope Pius VII.
75. Economic history of Italy – A series of tables showing different Italian economic sectors, GDP growth. The Italian Renaissance was remarkable in economic development. Venice and Genoa were the economic pioneers. Reasons for their early development are for example the military safety of Venetian lagoons, the high population density and the institutional structure which inspired entrepreneurs. During the 18th centuries Italy experienced a decline in relative economic standing. Military conflicts, political fractionalization, the shift of world trade to north-western Europe are factors which slowed down Italian development. Plots grew smaller and smaller and thus more and more unproductive as land was subdivided among heirs. The Italian diaspora did not affect all regions of agricultural areas with a high proportion of small peasant land holdings.". ". Although owning land was the basic yardstick of wealth, farming in the south was socially despised. People did not invest in agricultural equipment but as low-risk state bonds. Italy had emerged from World War I in a weakened condition. The National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy at the end of a period of social unrest. In 1929, Italy was hit hard by the Great Depression. Trying to handle the crisis, the Fascist government nationalized the holdings of large banks which had accrued industrial securities.Economic history of Italy – A graph which shows the current account balance of Italy (% of GDP) from 1980 to 2012. Data source: IMF
76. History of Italian fashion – The History of Italian fashion refers to important events and occasions which marked Italian fashion and how it evolved to being how it is today. Italian fashion reached its peak during the Renaissance. The fashions of Queen Catherine de' Medici of France, were considered amongst the most fashionable in Europe. Italian designs were well known for their expensive accessories, such as velvets, brocades, ribbons and jewels. During the Italian Renaissance, men wore closely fitted waistcoats underneath pleated overcoats called giornea, which were often made from brocade. They wore different kinds of hats, ranging from caps to berets. They also had an overcoat called Cioppa. Its lining was than the main fabric, a feature of the Italian Renaissance. They also wore hose or tights to emphasize their lower bodies. As hair styles, anything from short to shoulder-length hair was common; it was often curled inwards. Women's dress consisted of fitted garments worn underneath a belted dress, also called giornea. Unlike the men's version, the women's covered their feet. Women's giorneas, originally evolved from the houppelande, had separate bodices. The lower part of the dress was often pleated. They were cut at the sides to display the rich undergarments.History of Italian fashion – A dress made by Valentino for Audrey Hepburn.
78. Genetic history of Italy – The genetic history of the Italians is greatly influenced by the geography and history. , being of heavy Early Neolithic Farmer ancestry. The only exception are certain Italian populations who cluster with Germanic and Slavic speaking Central Europeans. Molecular anthropology found no evidence of Northern geneflow into the Italian peninsula over the last 1500 years. On the other hand, the bulk of Italian ethnogenesis non European invasions. Geneticists agree that no migrations other than the Greek settlement in Southern Italy and Sicily had any biological impact on Italians. Modern man appeared during the Upper Paleolithic. Specimens of Aurignacian age were dated back about 34,000 years ago. During the Magdalenian period the first men from the Pyrenees populated Sardinia. In the Neolithic era the use of copper spreads and villages are built over piles near lakes. In Sardinia, part of Mainland Italy the Beaker culture spreads from Western Europe. In Sardinia the Nuragic civilization flourishes. From the 8th century BC Greek colonists found cities, initiating what was later called Magna Graecia. The Etruscan civilization developed on the coast of Tuscany and Latium. In the 5th century Celtic tribes from continental Europe settled in parts of Central Italy.Genetic history of Italy – Y-haplogroups in Europe.
79. List of historic states of Italy – The following is a list of the various Italian states during that period. Under its terms, France restored Piedmont and Savoy to the Republic of Genoa. More importantly, the treaty indirectly of northern Italy. The Pope was also their natural ally. The truly independent entities on Italian soil were the Duchy of Savoy and the Republic of Venice. In Italy, the Congress directly ruled or strongly influenced by the prevailing European powers, particularly Austria. The Austrian Empire vigorously repressed nationalist sentiment growing on the Italian peninsula, well as in the other parts of Habsburg domains.List of historic states of Italy – Dominions of the House of Habsburg in Europe, at the abdication of Charles V, map from the Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912.
80. Military history of Italy – The Italian peninsula has been a centre of military conflict throughout European history. The Etruscans were settled north of Rome in Etruria. The origins of the Etruscans are lost in prehistory. The Italics were war-like as the Etruscans. The Etruscans had a significant military tradition. In addition to marking the power of certain individuals in their culture, warfare was a considerable economic boon to their civilization. It is also likely individuals taken in battle would be ransomed back at high cost. After 650 BC, the Etruscans expanded into north Italy founding cities like Mutina and Felsina. The early Roman army was, like those of contemporary city-states influenced by Greek civilization, a citizen militia which practiced hoplite tactics. It was small and organized in five classes, with three providing two providing light infantry. Its stance during this period was essentially defensive. Thirty maniples arranged in three lines with supporting troops constituted a legion, totaling between 5,000 men. With the new organization came a new orientation toward the offensive and a much more aggressive posture toward adjoining city-states. Legions were often significantly understrength from following periods of active service due to accidents, battle casualties, disease and desertion. This pattern also held true for auxiliary forces.Military history of Italy – An Etruscan helmet
81. Music history of Italy – However, the underpinnings of much Italian music come from the Middle Ages. Italy was the site of several musical developments in the development of the Christian liturgies in the West. Around 230, well before Christianity was legalized, the Apostolic Tradition of Hippolytus attested the singing of Psalms in Rome. In imitation of Eastern models, St. Ambrose wrote hymns, some of whose texts still survive, introduced antiphonal psalmody to the West. Later, around 530, St. Benedict would arrange the weekly order of monastic psalmody in his Rule. Chant, which supplanted the indigenous Old Roman and Beneventan traditions, derived from a synthesis of Roman and Gallican chant in Carolingian France. This was part of a general trend wherein Rome began to follow northern plainchant traditions. Gregorian chant supplanted all the Western plainchant traditions, Italian and non-Italian, except for Ambrosian chant, which survives to this day. Crucial in the transmission of chant were the innovations of Guido d'Arezzo, whose Micrologus, written around 1020, described the musical staff, the Guidonian hand. This early form of do-re-mi created a technical revolution in the speed at which chants could be learned, recorded. Even as the northern chant traditions were displacing indigenous chant, displaced musicians from the north contributed to a new thriving musical culture in 12th-century Italy. The Albigensian Crusade, supposedly to attack Cathar heretics, crushed Occitan culture and language. Most troubadours fled, especially to Spain and Italy. Italy called trovatori, including Sordello of Mantua. Italian music was largely the province of these jongleurs, troubadors, mimes.Music history of Italy – The Guidonian Hand
82. Postage stamps and postal history of Italy – This is an introduction to the postal and philatelic history of Italy. As Italy was not unified until 1861, its postal history is tied to the various kingdoms and smaller realms that ruled in the peninsula. The Cavallini of Sardinia was an private mail service, notable for the introduction of prepaid stamped lettersheets in 1819. The reform went into effect 1 January 1851. After some casting around for expertise in the newfangled art of printing, the government settled on the house of Francesco Matraire in Turin. Matraire produced stamps with an embossed profile of Victor Emmanuel II. Other states in Italy also issued stamps during the 1850s: Modena, Naples, the Papal States, Parma, Romagna, Tuscany. Those printed after 17 March 1861 are normally considered the first stamps of Italy. Starting on 1 January 1863, uniform postal rates went into effect. His designs were not liked, he seemed unable to produce the stamps. They continued until the end of 1889. Italy joined July 1875. Humbert succeeded his father in 1878, which necessitated a new issue of stamps. First appearing on 15 August 1879, they were the first stamps of the kingdom to be entirely designed, printed by Italians. The new series incorporated colors mandated by the Universal Postal Union.Postage stamps and postal history of Italy – The first stamp of the Duchy of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, 1852, 5 centesimi
83. History of rail transport in Italy – The Italian railway system is one of the most important parts of the infrastructure of Italy, with a total length of 24,227 km. Railways were introduced in Italy when it was still a divided country. On request of the Milanese and Venetian industries, but also for construction of the Milan -- Venice line was begun. In the Kingdom of Sardinia, King Charles Albert ordered on July 1844 the construction of the Turin -- Genoa railway, inaugurated on December 6, 1853. This was followed by the opening of other sections which connected with France, Switzerland and Lombardy-Venetia. A factory was also founded in Genoa, in order to avoid the English monopoly in the field. This became the modern Ansaldo. At the creation of the unified Kingdom of Italy, railroads in the country were the following: for a total of 2,064 active railroads. Lines in the Papal States were still in construction, while Sicily had its short railroad only in 1863. The existing lines did not form an organized net: property of the line was private, the latter in turn for private or statal use. A organic structure began to be created in 1865 with the connections of the existing sections. In 1870 the last remnant of Papal States was also annexed to Italy: it comprised the railway connection to Frascati, Civitavecchia, Terni and Cassino. This, among the other benefit, granted the fulfillment of social exigences in transportation, that a profit-oriented policy could not afford. Only in 1878 and 1880, respectively, the largely deficitaire SFAI and SFR went under state administration. In 1884 the Italian Parliament issued a commission study in which it was declared preferable a private administration of railways.History of rail transport in Italy – An ETR 300 Italian fast EMU of the 1950s, used for Settebello service
84. Geography of Italy – Corsica, although belonging to the geographical region, has been a part of France since 1769. Italy is part of the Eastern Hemisphere. 7,200 km2 is water. It lies between latitudes 35° and 48° N, longitudes 6° and 19° E. Italy borders with Switzerland, France, Austria and Slovenia. Vatican city are enclaves. Including islands, Italy has a coastline of Sicily. It represents over 70 % of the total plain area in the country. The Alpine range is linked with the Apennines with the Colle di Cadibona pass in the Ligurian Alps. Worldwide-known mountains in Italy are Matterhorn, Monte Rosa, Bernina, Stelvio and Dolomites along the eastern side of the Alps. The highest peak in Italy is Mont Blanc, at 4,810 meters above level. Many elements of the Italian territory are of volcanic origin. Most of the small islands and archipelagos like Capraia, Ponza, Ischia, Eolie, Ustica and Pantelleria are volcanic islands. Other well known of these subalpine lakes are Lake Maggiore, whose most northerly section is part of Como, Orta, Lugano, Iseo, Idro. Notable lakes in the Italian peninsula are Trasimeno, Bolsena, Bracciano, Vico, Varano and Lesina in Gargano and Omodeo in Sardinia.Geography of Italy – Italy viewed from space
85. Italian Peninsula – The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula is the central and the smallest of the three large peninsulas of Southern Europe. It extends 1,000 km from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. The peninsula's shape gives the nickname lo Stivale. Three smaller peninsulas contribute to this characteristic shape, namely Calabria, Salento and Gargano. Geographically, the Italian peninsula consists of the south of a line extending from the Magra to the Rubicon rivers, north of the Tuscan -- Emilian Apennines. It excludes the southern slopes of the Alps. All of the peninsula lies except for the microstates of San Marino and Vatican City. The peninsula lies between the Tyrrhenian Sea on the west, the Adriatic Sea on the east. The backbone of the Italian peninsula consists of the Apennine Mountains, from which it takes one of its names. Most of its coast is lined with cliffs. The Italian Peninsula's location between the centre of the Mediterranean Sea made it the target of many conquests. The peninsula has mainly a Mediterranean climate, though in the mountainous parts the climate is much cooler. Its natural vegetation includes macchia along the mixed deciduous coniferous forests in the interior. Political divisions of the peninsula sorted by area: Apennine Mountains Roman Republic Roman Italy Insular Italy Media related to Italian Peninsula at Wikimedia CommonsItalian Peninsula – Satellite view of the peninsula in March 2003.
86. Northwest ItalyNorthwest Italy – Northwest Italy
87. Northeast ItalyNortheast Italy – Northeast Italy
88. Central ItalyCentral Italy – Central Italy
89. Southern Italy – It generally coincides with Sardinia. Southern Italy carries a unique legacy of culture. It features major tourist attractions, such as the Palace of Caserta, the Amalfi Coast, Pompeii and other archaeological sites. There are also many ancient Greek cities such as Sybaris, which were founded several centuries before the start of the Roman Republic. These same subdivisions are at the bottom of the Italian constituencies for the European Parliament. The Mezzogiorno first came into use in the 18th century and is an Italian rendition of meridies. It eventually came into vogue after the Italian unification. In a similar manner, Southern France is colloquially known as le Midi. Southern Italy forms the lower part of the Italian "boot", containing the ankle, the toe, the heel, along with the island of Sicily. It is an arm of the Ionian Sea. On the eastern coast is the Adriatic Sea, leading into the rest of the Mediterranean through the Strait of Otranto. Along the northern coast of the Salernitan Gulf and on the south of the Sorrentine Peninsula runs the Amalfi Coast. Off the tip of the peninsula is the isle of Capri. The largest city of Southern Italy is a name from the Greek that it has historically maintained for millennia. Bari, Taranto, Reggio Calabria, Salerno are the next largest cities in the area.Southern Italy – Satellite image of Southern Italy
90. South ItalySouth Italy – South Italy
91. Insular Italy – Insular Italy encompasses two of the country's 20 regions: Sardinia and Sicily. Insular Italy occupies one-sixth of the national territory in area. Territorially, both Sicily and Sardinia archipelagoes administratively dependent on the mother islands. Sicily is one of the largest of Europe, while Sardinia is only slightly less extensive. The lowlands are generally limited in the geographic region and generally appear as coastal belts. The only exceptions are the Plain of Catania in Sicily that extend 1200 km2 and 430 km2 respectively. The rest of the area is prevalently hilly, with hills occupying 70% of the territory. Sicily is home to Italy's highest non-Alpine peak and Europe's largest active volcano. Sardinia is home to the Gennargentu range. The population of Insular Italy totals combined over million residents. Sicily, on the other hand, has in fact a population density five times higher than Sardinia. However, the average results in Insular Italy having a low density. Their combined populations total just one-tenth of the national population making the least populated macro-region of the country. The following is a list of cities with a population of greater than 100,000 residents.Insular Italy – Insular Italy
92. Fauna of Italy – Italy has the highest level of faunal biodiversity in Europe, with over 57,000 species recorded, representing more than a third of all European fauna. This is due to various factors. The Italian peninsula is in the centre of the Mediterranean Sea, forming a corridor between central Europe and North Africa, has 8,000 km of coastline. Italy also receives species from Eurasia, the Middle East. Portions of Italy are included in the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot. There are also many cave systems significant for Biodiversity. The Checklist of the Species of the Italian Fauna includes 4777 endemic animal species. Unique Mammals include the Sardinian long-eared bat, the Apennine shrew, the Udine shrew the Calabria pine vole and the Sardinian deer. Endemic fish include the Bergatino loach, the Italian barbel, the brook chub, the Arno goby, the Garda carp, the Timavo sculpin. Endemic Lepidoptera are listed here it:Farfalle e falene endemiche dell'Italia. A notable species is the European moth found only in Southern Italy. There are 102 mammal species in Italy. Some of the species are Alpine Marmot, forest dormouse, Etruscan shrew, Schreiber's long-fingered bat. Italy has recorded 516 bird species. Italy is an important route for trans-Saharan bird migrants because it is a natural bridge connecting continental Europe to Africa across the Mediterranean.Fauna of Italy – Geological map of Italy
93. Flora of Italy – The flora of Italy was traditionally, estimated to comprise about 5,500 vascular plant species. However, as of 2005, 6,759 species are recorded in the Data bank of Italian vascular flora. Geobotanically, the Italian flora is shared between the Circumboreal Region and Mediterranean Region. According to the index compiled by the Italian Ministry for the Environment in 2001, 274 plant species are protected. Italy consists of a 1,000 km long peninsula extending out into the central Mediterranean, together with a number of islands to the South and West. Northern Italy is dominated by the extensive valley of the Po river, extensively agricultural and industrialised. Central Italy includes the regions of Tuscany, Umbria, Marche and Lazio. It is dominated by the Apennines, from which a major rivers flow. There are natural plains. A process of reclamation has replaced the coastal swamps and marshes with agricultural land. Southern Italy includes the regions of Abruzzo, Molise, Apulia, Basilicata and Campania. Industry are less developed. The main islands are Sicily, the Aeolian Islands. Each region has a distinct flora. An ecoregion is an geographically defined area with characteristic natural communities and species.Flora of Italy – Sicilian Fir, a critically endangered species endemic to Sicily
94. Volcanology of Italy – Italy is a volcanically active country, containing the only active volcanoes in mainland Europe. The country's volcanism is chiefly to the presence, a short distance to the south, of the boundary between the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate. The magma erupted by Italy's volcanoes is thought to result from the upward forcing of rocks melted below another. At least nine other volcanic centres have seen eruptions including some submarine volcanoes. In order of the most recent eruptions, they are: Pantelleria, off the coast of Tunisia, probably last erupted around 1000 BC. There was a few kilometres north-east of the island in 1891, probably related to the main volcano. Another of the Aeolian Islands, last erupted in 1888-1890. The summit is now a few metres below the surface. No eruption occurred. A huge caldera containing the western area of Naples, erupted in 1528, generating the small tuff cone named Monte Nuovo. An island 20 kilometres west of Naples, last erupted in 1302. Vulsini, a caldera complex at the northern end of the Roman magmatic province. Last erupted in 104 BC. Monte Albano, a quiescent volcanic complex near Rome. The most recent eruptions produced Lake Albano.Volcanology of Italy
95. Alpine foothillsAlpine foothills – Kolomansberg, Salzkammergut Mountains, Austria
96. Alps – The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4,000 m, known as the "four-thousanders". The size of the range affects the climate in Europe; in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era. A mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established. The Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800 Napoleon crossed one of the mountain passes with an army of 40,000. In World War II, Adolf Hitler kept a base of operation throughout the war. The Alpine region has a cultural identity. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, French, Italian, German Alps. At present the region has 120 million annual visitors. The English Alps derives from the Latin Alpes. An ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts.Alps – Mont Blanc, the highest mountain in the Alps, view from the Savoy side
97. Apennine Mountains – The Apennines or Apennine Mountains are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending c. 1,200 km along the length of peninsular Italy. In the northwest they join with the Ligurian Alps at Altare. In the southwest they end at Reggio di Calabria, the coastal city at the tip of the peninsula. The system forms an arc enclosing the east side of the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Seas. The name originally applied to the north Apennines. However, historical linguists have never found a derivation with which they are universally comfortable. Wilhelm Deecke said: "...its etymology is doubtful but some derive it from the Ligurian-Celtish Pen or Ben, which means mountain peak." The mountains lend their name to the Apennine peninsula, which forms the major part of Italy. They are mostly verdant, although one side of Corno Grande is partially covered by the only glacier in the Apennines. It has been receding since 1794. The southern mountains are semi-arid. The eastern slopes down to the Adriatic Sea are steep, while the western slopes form foothills on which most of peninsular Italy's cities are located. The mountains tend to be named from the province or provinces in which they are located; for example, the Ligurian Apennines are in Liguria. As the provincial borders have not always been stable, this practice has resulted in some confusion about exactly where the montane borders are. Always a geographical feature can be found that lends itself to being a border.Apennine Mountains – Abruzzo National Park
99. List of caves in Italy – The following article shows a list of caves in Italy. Main concentration of Italian caves is close to the Apennine Mountains, principally due to karst. The main touristic caves are Castellana and Frasassi. Notable show caves are Pertosa, the Wind Cave, the Giant Cave, Castelcivita, Villanova, Toirano and Pastena. There are shown the main touristic caves and other notable underground voids. Grotto List of caves Index of the show caves of Italy Photos of Italian caves on FlickrList of caves in Italy – View of Castellana Caves
102. List of national parks of Italy – The Italian national parks cover about five per cent of the country's land. The parks are managed based in Rome. Conservation in Italy List of regional parks of Italy Black, Charles Bertram. The Riviera, Or The Coast from Marseilles to Leghorn: Including the Interior towns of Carrara, Lucca, Pisa, Pistoia. London: Adam & Charles Black. Hydrographic Office, Admiralty. The Mediterranean Pilot. Volume I. London: Taylor, Garnett, Evans & Co. "Italia". ENIT - Italian Government Tourist Board.List of national parks of Italy – Gennargentu National Park, Sardinia
103. List of rivers of Italy – This is a list of rivers, which are at least partially located in Italy. They are organized according to what body of water they drain with the exceptions of Sicily and Sardinia, which are listed separately. At the bottom all of the rivers are listed alphabetically. Reno di Lei After entering Switzerland, the Reno di Lei drains into the Rhine. Drava The Drava drains on the Croatia -- Serbia border. Slizza After entering Austria, the Slizza drains into the Drava. Acqua Granda After entering Switzerland, the Spöl drains into the Inn, which meets the Danube in Germany. Beyond this point, rivers empty into the Ionian Sea rather than the Adriatic. The lists are ordered to the river closest to the mouth of the Po. Sicilian rivers are excluded because they are listed in their own section below. The rivers are ordered according to how far east their mouth is, the first river having the last having the westernmost mouth. Sicilian and Sardinian rivers are excluded from this list because those rivers are in their own sections below. The rivers are ordered according to how south their mouth is, the first river having the southernmost mouth and the last having the northernmost mouth. Sardinian rivers are excluded from this list because those rivers are in their own section below. The rivers are ordered according to how close their mouth is to San Pietro Point.List of rivers of Italy – Main Italian rivers location.
104. Politics of Italy – Politics of Italy is conducted through a constitutional republic with a multi-party system. The executive power is exercised collectively by the Council of Ministers, led by the Prime Minister, officially referred as President of the Council. The judiciary is independent of the legislative branches. It is headed by the High Council of the Judiciary. The president is the head of state, though his position is separate from all branches. The current President is Sergio Mattarella and the current Prime Minister of Italy is Paolo Gentiloni. Article 1 of the Italian Constitution states Italy is a democratic Republic founded on labour. Sovereignty is exercised by the people in the forms and within the limits of the Constitution. By stating that Italy is a democratic republic, the article solemnly declares the results of the constitutional referendum which took place on 2 June 1946. It is instead a Res Publica, belonging to everyone. The people who are called to temporarily administer the republic are not servants; and the governed are not subjects, but citizens. This power, however, is not to be in the forms and within the limits established by the rule of law. The president is also commander-in-chief in the time of war. These delegates are elected by their respective Regional Councils as to guarantee representation to minorities. The election needs a wide majority, progressively reduced after the third ballot.Politics of Italy – Sergio Mattarella, President of Italy since 3 February 2015.
105. Constitution of Italy – The Constitution of the Italian Republic was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against. The text, which has since been amended 15 times, was promulgated in the extraordinary edition of Gazzetta Ufficiale No. 298 on 27 December 1947. The Constituent Assembly was elected by universal suffrage June 1946 at the same time as a referendum on the abolition of the monarchy. The Constitution came into force on 1 January one century after the Statuto Albertino had been enacted. Although the latter remained in force in 1922, it had become devoid of substantive value. Wherever an Italian died to redeem freedom and dignity, ponder: because, where our Constitution was born. All social views of the Assembly contributed in shaping and influencing the final text of the Constitution. All the parties that shaped the Constitution were referred to as the arco costituzionale. It is important to note that the Constitution primarily contains general principles; it is not possible to apply them directly. With many written constitutions, only few articles are considered to be self-executing. The majority require enabling legislation, referred to as accomplishment of constitution. Some contend that, due to various political considerations, it is still not complete. While the Principles recognise the territorial integrity of the State, they also recognise and promote local autonomies and safeguard linguistic minorities. They also safeguard the environmental, historical and artistic heritage of the nation. The Church are recognised as independent and sovereign, each within its own sphere.Constitution of Italy – The provisional head of state, Enrico De Nicola, signing the Constitution by virtue of Provision XVIII.
106. Elections in Italy – The President of the Republic is elected for a seven-year term in joint session. Italy has historically had political parties, both national and regional, with different party systems. The most recent general election was held on 24 and 25 February 2013. On 24 Napolitano, gave the task to form a new government to the Deputy-Secretary of the Democratic Party, Enrico Letta. On April he sworn in as Prime Minister. The turnout in 2013 explains how the people of Italy really feel about the instability of their government. Passing your mouse over the colored sections will display the name of the grouping and the percentage in the corresponding election. Clicking on a region will direct you to the article on the election selected. The constitution of Italy provides for two kinds of binding referendums. A legislative referendum can be called in order to abrogate a law partially, if requested by 500,000 electors or five regional councils. This kind of referendum is valid only if at least a majority of electors goes to the station. It is forbidden to call a referendum regarding financial laws relating to pardons or the ratification of international treaties. A constitutional referendum is valid no matter how many electors go to the station. Any citizen entitled to vote to the Chamber of Deputies may participate in a referendum.Elections in Italy
107. Referendums in Italy – A referendum, in the Italian legal system is a request directed to the whole electorate to express their view on a determined question. It is the main instrument of direct democracy in Italy. A constitutional referendum, which can be requested in some cases when a new constitutional law is approved by Parliament. Similarly, a referendum can be requested to confirm the adoption of the Statute of ordinary regions. An advisory referendum is required to approve the modification of regions, municipalities. A popular referendum on regional regulations may be regulated by regional statutes. As a consequence of this, Italy's popular referendum was not held until 1974, 27 years after the constitution was first approved. A popular referendum can only be called only at the request of Regional Councils or 500,000 Italian voters. A popular referendum can only be asked to abolish an existing law; a referendum to adopt new legislation is not provided for by the Constitution. Some matters are not subject to popular referendum: tax laws, laws that authorize the ratification of international treaties. While these are the limits expressly stated by the Constitution, the Constitutional Court has identified further limitations. The Constitutional Court of Italy verifies of the question of the referendum. The court has the power to reject it outright. Many fully valid petitions with the necessary 500,000 signatures have never been accepted precisely for this reason. Unlike the Court of Cassation, which considers the conformity of the petition to ordinary law, the reference for the Constitutional Court's judgment is the Constitution.Referendums in Italy – Italian Republic
108. Foreign relations of Italy – Foreign relations of the Italian Republic are the Italian government's external relations with the outside world. Located in Europe, Italy has been considered a Western power since its unification in 1861. Its main allies are three entities of which Italy is a founding member. Italy has a particular role within the Christian world because Rome is the center of the Catholic Church. Italy is currently commanding multinational forces. The country is considered a key player in the mediterranean region. The Risorgimento was 1830 -- 1870 that saw the emergence of a national consciousness. Italians achieved independence from the Pope, securing national unification. Italy later formed the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria. Italy defeated the Ottoman Empire in 1911-1912. By 1914, Italy had acquired in Africa a colony on the Red Sea coast, administrative authority in formerly Turkish Libya. Outside of Africa, Italy possessed a small concession off the coast of Turkey. During the First World War, Italy occupied southern Albania to prevent if from falling to Austria-Hungary. In 1917, it established a protectorate over Albania, which remained until 1920. Italy became one of the main winners of the war.Foreign relations of Italy – Italian Republic
110. Judiciary of Italy – In Italy, judges are public officials and, since they exercise one of the sovereign powers of the State, only Italian citizens are eligible for judgeship. In order to become a judge, applicants must obtain a degree of higher education well as pass written and oral examinations. However, most experience is gained through the judicial organization, itself. The potential candidates then work they way up from the bottom through promotions. Italy's independent judiciary enjoys constitutional protection from the executive branch. Once appointed, judges can not be removed without specific disciplinary proceedings conducted in due process before the Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura. The Ministry of Justice handles the administration including paying salaries or constructing new courthouses. That of the Infrastructures fund and the Ministry of Justice and that of the Interiors administer the prison system. Lastly, the Ministry of Justice processes applications for presidential pardons and proposes legislation dealing with matters of civil or criminal justice. Note: There exist significant problems with applying non-Italian terminology and concepts related to the Italian justice system. For that reason, some of the words used in the rest of the article shall be defined. Avvocatura dello Stato: the public organ, composed of lawyers, which represents the State, whenever it is plaintiff or defendant in a lawsuit. Generally, cassation is based not on diverging interpretations of law between the courts. Cassation is not based on the facts of the case. Cassation is always open as a final recourse.Judiciary of Italy – Italian Court system
111. Law enforcement in Italy – Law enforcement in Italy is provided by multiple police forces, five of which are national, Italian agencies. Italy divides enforcement into Military and Civil guards, distinguishing each "corps" for duties and jurisdictions. All police are under the Ministero dell ` the highest police and public safety authority, which - through the Department of Public Safety - coordinates the enforcements. Locally, Polizia di Stato is under the Authority of the Prefetto, who collaborates with the Questore to organise the enforcements. The Polizia di Stato is the national police of Italy. Along with patrolling, investigative and enforcement duties, it patrols the Autostrada, oversees the security of railways, bridges and waterways. It is a civilian force, while the Carabinieri and the Guardia di Finanza are military. While mindset is somewhat military, its personnel is composed of civilians. There are Regional and Provincial divisions throughout Italian territory. A program Polizia di Quartiere has been implemented which deters crime. Pairs of poliziotti or carabinieri patrol areas of major cities on foot. The Guardia di Finanza, is a military corps under the authority of the Minister of Economy and Finance, with a role as force. The Guardia di Finanza has a strength of around 68,000 soldiers working as agents, officers. Its militaries are in service in the European Anti-Fraud Office. Its Latin motto since 1933 is Nec recedit.Law enforcement in Italy – Carabinieri.
112. Italian Armed Forces – The Italian Armed Forces encompass the Italian Army, the Italian Navy and the Italian Air Force. According to article 78, the Parliament has the authority to vest the necessary powers in the Government. The force of Italy, the Regio Esercito dates back to the unification of Italy in the 1850s and 1860s. During the Cold War the army prepared itself to defend from the east. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, it has seen extensive peacekeeping service in Lebanon, Afghanistan, Iraq. On July 2004 it became a professional all-volunteer force when conscription was finally ended. The navy of Italy was created in 1861, as the Regia Marina. The new navy's baptism of fire came against the Austrian Empire. During the First World War, it spent its major efforts in the Adriatic Sea, fighting the Austro-Hungarian Navy. In the Second World War, it engaged the Royal Navy for the control of the Mediterranean Sea. After the war, the new Marina Militare, being a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, has taken part in many peacekeeping operations. The Guardia Costiera is a component of the navy. The force of Italy was founded as an independent service arm on 28 March 1923, by King Vittorio Emanuele III as the Regia Aeronautica. During the 1930s, it was involved in Ethiopia in 1935, later in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939. Eventually, Italy entered World War II alongside Germany.Italian Armed Forces – Alpini of the 4th Alpini Parachutist Regiment in Afghanistan in 2007.
113. Italian Parliament – The Italian Parliament is the national parliament of the Italian Republic. It is a bicameral legislature with 945 elected members. The Constitution does not make distinctions between them. The two houses are independent from one another and never meet jointly under circumstances specified by the Constitution. As of February 2016 there are five life senators. The main prerogative of the Parliament is the exercise of legislative power, the power to enact laws. For a bill to become law, it must receive the support of both houses independently in the same text. If approved without amendments, the bill becomes law. If approved with amendments, it is goes back to the other house. The process continues until the bill is rejected by one house. The Council of Ministers, the national executive of Italy, needs to have the confidence of both houses. The election of the Senate is still regulated by Law no. 270, December 21, 2005, which however was judged to be partly unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court in December 2013. Parties can run in coalitions. Except for three, at least 55 % of the seats are assigned to the coalition or list which received the most votes.Italian Parliament – Palazzo Madama seat of the Senate.
114. Chamber of Deputies (Italy) – The Chamber of Deputies is a house of the bicameral Parliament of Italy. The two houses together do so separately. Deputies are meet at Palazzo Montecitorio. The election of members to the Chamber of Deputies is by all citizens of age on election day. Unlike the Senate, which requires members to be 40 years of age, members of the Chamber of Deputies may be elected at 25. The territory of Italy is divided into 100 constituencies electing between 9 deputies depending on their size. If two preference votes are expressed, they must be of a different sex: otherwise, the second preference is discarded. Only parties passing a 3% minimum threshold in the first round are assigned seats. If the party receiving the plurality of the votes passes a 40% threshold, it is attributed a minimum of 340 seats. No second round takes place. The Chamber is composed at the Montecitorio. The assembly also has the right to attend meetings of its ministers. If required, the Government is obligated to attend the session. Conversely, the Government has the right to be heard every time it requires. The term of office of the House can be extended in two cases: The "prorogatio", as provided by art.Chamber of Deputies (Italy)
115. Senate of the Republic (Italy) – The Senate of the Republic is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament. The two houses together do separately. They meet at Rome. The Senate consists of 315 elected members, as of 2016 five senators for life. The elected senators must be over 40 years of age and are elected by Italian citizens aged 25 or older. The Senate is elected on a regional basis. The 309 senators are assigned to each region proportionally according to their population. However, Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than seven senators representing it, for Molise. Until a Constitutional change on February 9, 1963, the Senate was elected for six-year terms. The Senate may be dissolved before the expiration of its normal term by the President of the Republic. In 2016, Italian Parliament passed a constitutional law that "effectively abolishes the Senate as an elected chamber and sharply restricts its ability to veto legislation". The law was rejected on December 4, 2016 by a referendum, leaving the Senate unchanged. The election of the Senate is still regulated by Law no. 270, December 21, 2005, which however was judged to be partly unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court in December 2013. Parties can run in coalitions.Senate of the Republic (Italy)
116. List of political parties in Italy – Political parties in Italy are numerous and there are hundreds of parties which are no longer active. Since World War II, no one party has ever gained enough support to govern alone. Parties thus form party coalitions and coalition governments. In November 2013 The People of Freedom was merged into the new Forza Italia, provoking the formation of the split-away New Centre-Right. The other party was the post-fascist Italian Social Movement. For 46 consecutive years, the Christian Democrats led the government except for five years. Between 1991, they led a coalition government with the Socialists, the Republicans, the Democratic Socialists and the Liberals. These were the years when several regional parties demanding autonomy organised themselves at the regional level. In 1991 they federated themselves into the Lega Nord, which became the country's fourth largest party in the 1992 general election. In 1992–94, the political system was shaken by a series of corruption scandals known collectively as Tangentopoli. These events led to the disappearance of the five parties of government. Consequently, the Communists, who had evolved to become Democratic Party of the Left in 1991, the post-fascists, who launched National Alliance in 1994, gained strength. Between 2008, Italian political parties were organised into two big coalitions, the centre-right Pole for Freedoms and The Olive Tree on the centre-left. The centre-left governed to 2001 and again between 2006 and 2008 while the House of Freedoms was in government between 2001 and 2006. In November 2013 The People of Freedom was dissolved and merged into the new Forza Italia, provoking the formation of the split-away New Centre-Right.List of political parties in Italy – Italian Republic
117. President of Italy – The president's term of office lasts for seven years. On 31 former Constitutional judge Sergio Mattarella, was elected at the fourth ballot with 665 votes out of 1,009. The framers of the Constitution of Italy intended for the President to be an elder statesman of some stature. Article 84 states that any citizen who enjoys political rights can be elected President. Those citizens who already hold any other office are prohibited from becoming President, unless they resign their previous office once they are elected. The 1948 Italian Constitution does not have term limits although until 2013 no Italian President of the Republic had run for a second term of office. He made it clear, however, that he would not serve his full term, retired in January 2015. Three representatives come from each region, save for the Aosta Valley, which appoints one, as to guarantee representation for all minorities. A two-thirds vote is required to elect on any of the first three rounds of balloting; after that, a simple majority suffices. The election is presided over by the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies, who calls for the public counting of the votes. The vote is held in home of the Chamber of Deputies, re-configured for the event. The President assumes office after having taken an oath before Parliament and delivering a presidential address. Former Presidents of the Republic are called Presidents Emeritus of the Republic and are appointed Senator for life. In the absence of the President of the Republic, including travel abroad, presidential functions are performed by the President of the Senate. In judicial matters: Presiding over the Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura; Naming one-third of the Constitutional Court; and Granting pardons and commutations.President of Italy – Incumbent Sergio Mattarella since 3 February 2015
118. Prime Minister of Italy – The office of Prime Minister is established through to 96 of the Constitution of Italy. Prior to the establishment of the Italian Republic, the position was called "President of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy". The position was restored with Marshal Pietro Badoglio becoming Prime Minister in 1943. Alcide De Gasperi became the first Prime Minister of the Italian Republic in 1946. The Prime Minister is the President of the Council of Ministers—which holds executive power. The position is similar to those in most parliamentary systems. The Italian order of precedence lists the office as being ceremonially the fourth most important Italian state office. As the "President of the Council of Ministers" the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition the Prime Minister generally commands the majority in the Parliament. Article 95 of the Italian constitution provides that the Prime Minister "coordinates the activity of the ministers". The office was first established in Italy's predecessor state, the Kingdom of Sardinia -- although it was not mentioned in its constitution, the Albertine Statute. From 1848 to 1861 ten Prime Ministers governed most of them being right-wing politicians. After the establishment of the kingdom, the procedure did not change. In fact the candidate for office presided over a very unstable political system. From 1861 to 1911 Historical Right and Left Prime Ministers alternatively governed the country.Prime Minister of Italy – Incumbent Matteo Renzi since 22 February 2014
119. Council of Ministers (Italy) – The Council of Ministers is the principal executive organ of the Government of Italy. It comprises the President of the Council, the undersecretary to the President of the Council. Junior ministers are not members of the Council of Ministers. The Italian government is led by Paolo Gentiloni. As of December 2016, the government has 16 Ministers, of whom three are without portfolio.Council of Ministers (Italy) – Italian Republic
120. Provinces of Italy – In Italy, a province is an administrative division of intermediate level between a municipality and a region. The reorganization of the Italian provinces became operative by January 2015. A province of the Italian Republic is composed of many municipalities. The three main functions devolved to provinces are: local planning and zoning; provision of local police and fire services; transportation regulation. The number of provinces in Italy has been steadily growing in recent years, as new ones are carved out of older ones. Usually, the province's name is the same as that of its city. Members of Council are elected together by mayors and city councilors of each municipality of the province. The Executive is chaired by the President who appoint members, called assessori. Since 2015 the President and members of the Council will not receive a salary. In each province there is also a representative of the central government who heads an agency called prefettura-ufficio territoriale del governo. His office is called questura. There is also a province's force depending from local government, called provincial police. Sardinia - following the outcome of the regional referendums of 2012 it was decreed that such institutions should be reformed or abolished by March 2013. In January 2014 the Sardinian Regional Administrative Court declared "unconstitutional" the abolition of the Sardinian provinces, which occurred in 2013. Sicily - provinces were replaced by Free Communal Consortia in 2013.Provinces of Italy – Italian Republic
121. Metropolitan cities of Italy – The metropolitan city is an administrative division of Italy, operative since 2015. In 2009, amendments added Reggio Calabria to the list. The metropolitan areas individuated by the autonomous regions were: Trieste in Friuli-Venezia Giulia; Cagliari in Sardinia; Catania, Messina and Palermo in Sicily. On April 2014 the Italian Parliament approved a law that establishes 10 metropolitan cities in Italy, excluding the autonomous regions. The metropolitan cities have been operative since 1 January 2015. The metropolitan city is composed by the municipalities that before had been members of the same province. Each metropolitan city is headed by a metropolitan mayor assisted by a non-legislative assembly, the metropolitan conference. The metropolitan conference is composed by the mayors of the municipalities closest to the capital. The main functions devolved to the new metropolitan cities are: local planning and zoning; provision of local police services; transport and city services regulation. Regions of Italy Provinces of Italy Municipalities of Italy Media related to Metropolitan cities of Italy at Wikimedia CommonsMetropolitan cities of Italy – Metropolitan cities of Italy.
124. Economy of Italy – The economy of Italy is the 3rd-largest national economy in the Euro Zone, the 8th-largest by nominal GDP in the world, the 12th-largest by GDP. The country is a founding member of the European Union, the Eurozone, the OECD, the G8. Italy is the eighth largest exporter in the world with $ billion exported in 2016. Ties are with the other countries of the European Union, with whom it conducts about 59 % of its total trade. The largest trading partners, in order of share, are Germany, France, United States, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Spain. Italy is the third net contributor to the budget of the European Union. Italy is the largest market for luxury goods in Europe. Despite these important achievements, the country's today suffers from structural and non-structural problems. After the unification, industrialization was largely artisanal, located in the political capitals; factory industry was instead attracted by the waterfalls of the subalpine Northwest. During the Great War, the Italian Royal Army increased with 5 million recruits in total entering service during the war. This came at a terrible cost: by the end of the war, Italy had a budget deficit of billions of lira. Italy emerged in a poor and weakened condition. The National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini came to power at the end of a period of social unrest. During the first years of the new regime, the Fascist pursued a economic policy: they initially reduced taxes, regulations and trade restrictions on the whole. However, once Mussolini acquired a firmer hold of power, free trade were progressively abandoned in favour of government intervention and protectionism.Economy of Italy – Milan is the financial centre of Italy
125. Economy of Milan – This means that, if Milan were a country, it would have almost the size of that of the economy of Austria. The city, on the other hand, has a GDP of $ billion, making it the world's 26th richest city by purchasing power. Also, the FieraMilano fair is considered the largest in Europe. Milan, also, has one of Italy's highest GDP, about $35,137, 161.6 % of the EU GDP per capita. Milan was, as the production of armours and wool, led the Lombard town to become rich. The city became a major international and cosmopolitan centre for expatriate employees. A study showed that by the late-1990s, more than 10% of the city's workers were foreigners. According to ISTAT statistics, it was estimated that 181,393 foreign-born immigrants lived in the city, representing 13.9 % of the total population. The bulk of the plastic, chemicals and industries show a downward trend. Publishing production decreased by -2.6 %, while the wood-processing production decreased by -1.2 %. Milan also has an important role in book publishing. It is the most important city in the nation for publishing. Banks throughout Italy went to early 1900s. The SBI, had many issues resolving its resources. It did not have support from foreign banks nor enough savings domestically.Economy of Milan – Borsa Italiana, the Stock Exchange in Milan
126. Economy of Naples – Naples is Italy's fourth most important city for economic strength, coming after Milan, Rome and Turin. It is the world's 91st richest city with a GDP of $43 billion. It would have the world's 68th biggest economy, near the size of that of Qatar. Unemployment in the region has gone down dramatically since 1999. Naples also hosted important electronics industries such as Olivetti department in Pozzuoli, now dismissed. Also Naples hosted several departments of big aircraft industries of Aeritalia. Aeritalia then joined with the name of Alenia. Its production relevance is important but nowadays shrinking. One of the first Italian companies producing canned vegetables, Cirio, was founded in Turin. The surrounding area also has a large number of smaller firms manufacturing canned vegetables, mostly tomato sauce. Family-sized pasta companies in Torre Annunziata collapsed due to the rise of industrial pasta makers in northern Italy. It is one of the most apprecciated typical products of Naples surroundings. Fior di latte cheese is made in the territory of Agerola, Lettere and Gragnano. The industry is also prevalent in the Naples area, mainly in Gragnano, Lettere, Ercolano and Pozzuoli. There are still some little industries producing ground coffee to be used with Neapolitan coffee machines.Economy of Naples – An airplane in Naples airport, in the August 2009.
127. Economy of Rome – Rome is a major EU and international financial, cultural and a business centre. Rome's trade is 0.001% of world economic trade. Rome continues to grow at a higher rate in comparison to any other city in the rest of the country. This means that were Rome a country, it would be the world's 52nd richest country by GDP, near to the size to that of Egypt. Rome was in 2008, also ranked 15th out for cultural experience. Ancient Rome commanded a vast area of land, with tremendous human resources. As such, Rome's economy remained focused on trade. The annexation in North Africa provided a continuous supply of grains. In turn, wine were Italy's main exports. Farm productivity was overall low, around 1 ton per hectare. Even though Rome still had the powerful pope, the city ceased to be a major centre for commerce, finance. The Roman economy, however, boomed in the 17th centuries, especially when the Medici popes Leo X and Clement VII were in power. Rome grew momentously as one of the driving forces behind the "Italian economic miracle" of post-war reconstruction and modernisation. The Vatican Museums are the 39th and 37th most visited places in the world, according to a recent study. In 2005 the city registered million of global visitors, up of 22.1 % from 2001.Economy of Rome – Night view of the Trajan's Market which was built by Apollodorus of Damascus
128. Economy of Turin – Turin is Italy's third largest economic center after Rome and Milan. In 2004, Turin produced a GDP of 2.2 % of the national figure. The Turin greater metropolitan area produced 3.8 % of the Italian GDP. Turin's taxable income was billion euros. The Province of Turin, is Italy's second largest market with a share of 5.2 % of the national total. Its industries include engineering; production of confectionery and chocolate; and banking and telecommunications. There has also been growth in construction, service industries. Founded in 1826, Caffarel is the oldest factory in the world. National banks with a presence in Turin include UniCredit Group. In 2006, there were 231,645 businesses registered in 112,255 in the city. These numbers represent just under 4 % of the Italian total. There were 21,987 foreign entrepreneurs, with the majority being non-EU. Difficulties which industry in Turin has faced include a long phase of industrial restructuring; a crisis in Fiat; and transfer of production to developing nations. Data from 2006 indicated that growth in Italian GDP at that time was due to resumption of exports of cars from the Fiat Group. Associated automotive industries also benefited.Economy of Turin – Fiat 500 (2007)
130. Automotive industry in Italy – The automotive industry in Italy is a quite large employer in the country, it had over 2,131 firms and employed almost 250,000 people in 2006. Italy's automotive industry is best known of small city cars, sports and supercars. The automotive industry makes a contribution of 8.5% to Italian GDP. Italy is one of the significant automobile producers in the World. The Italian automotive industry is almost totally dominated by Fiat Group; in 2001 over 90 % of vehicles were produced by it. As well as its own, mass market model range, Fiat owns the upmarket Alfa Romeo and Lancia brands and the exotic Ferrari and Maserati. - the Fiat 4 HP. The Welleyes / F.I.A.T 4 HP had a 679 cc engine and was capable of 35 km/h. Isotta Fraschini was founded at first assembling Renault model automobiles. Rapid, SPA, Zust. In the 1970s Italy restored own large auto industry, 3rd-4th in Europe and 5th-6th in the World. The 1980s were a time of great change for the car industry in Europe. Rear-wheel drive, particularly on family cars, gradually gave way to front-wheel drive. The bodystyle, first seen on the Renault 16 from France in 1965, became the most popular bodystyle on smaller cars by the mid 1980s. Fiat moved into the hatchback market at the small car end in 1971 followed by the Ritmo family car in 1978.Automotive industry in Italy – Fiat 4 HP (1899) is the first model of car produced by Fiat.
131. Energy in Italy – Italy consumed about 185 Mtoe of primary energy in 2010. This came mostly from fossil fuels. Among the most used resources are petroleum, natural gas, coal and renewables. An important share of electricity comes from import, mainly from Switzerland and France. The share of primary energy dedicated to production is above 35 %, grew steadily since the 1970s. Electricity is produced mainly from natural gas, which accounts for the source of more than half of the total electric energy produced. Another important source is hydroelectric power, practically the only source of electricity until 1960. Solar power grew rapidly between 2010 and 2013 thanks to high incentives. Most of supplies are imported. In 2014 Italy consumed 291.083 TWh in electricity, consumption in household were 1057 kWh/person. Italy is a net importer of electricity: the country exported 3,031.1 GWh in 2014. Gross production in 2014 was 279.8 TWh. The main power sources are natural hydroelectricity. Italy has no nuclear power since it was banished by referendum. In Tuscany was built the geothermal power station.Energy in Italy – Gross production Italy 2014 by sources
132. Italian government debt – The Italian government debt is the public debt owed by the government of Italy to all public and private lenders. As of January 2014, the Italian debt stands at $2.1 trillion. Italy ran a deficit of 4.6 % of GDP in 2010. Italian debt was almost 120% of GDP. This led investors to view Italian debt bonds as a risky asset. On 14 September 2011, Italy's government passed austerity measures meant to save $124 billion. The interim government expected to put the new laws into practice was led by former European Union Competition Commissioner Mario Monti. Government debt reached 127.0% of GDP in 2012. Government debt reached 130.4% of GDP in 2013. Government debt reached 131.1% of GDP in 2014. Taxation in Italy Italian welfare state Europe: Eurozone crisisItalian government debt – The debt to GDP ratio of selected countries, 2010. Italy is displayed in purple.
133. Science and technology in Italy – Italy has a long tradition in science and technology, going back to the Renaissance and the Roman era. By the first AD, Rome had become the biggest and most advanced city in the world. The ancient Romans came up with new technologies to improve the city's sanitation systems, buildings. They built sewers that removed the city's waste. The wealthiest Romans lived with gardens. Most of the population, however, lived in apartment buildings made of stone, limestone. The Romans used materials such as volcanic soil from Pozzuoli, a village near Naples, to make their cement harder and stronger. This concrete allowed them to build large apartment buildings called insulae. Italy had a scientific "golden age" during the Renaissance. He conceived of ideas ahead of his time. In addition, he greatly advanced the fields of knowledge in anatomy, astronomy, civil engineering, hydrodynamics. The scientist Galileo Galilei is called the modern scientist. His work constitutes a significant break from that of medieval philosophers and scientists. Galileo's achievements include improvements to the telescope, initial formulation of the first and second laws of motion. Galileo was suppressed by the Catholic Church, but was a founder of modern science.Science and technology in Italy – Galileo Galilei, the Father of modern science, physics and astronomy
134. Borsa Italiana – The Borsa Italiana S.p.A. based in Milan, is Italy's main stock exchange. It was privatised in 1997 and is a subsidiary of the London Stock Exchange Group plc since 2007. In 2005, the companies listed on the Borsa were worth US$890 billion. It is also informally known after the square of Milan where its headquarters is located. It operated under public ownership until 1998. Borsa Italiana has managing responsibility for its fixed market. In addition, it performs promotional activities aimed at developing high value-added services for the financial community. 3) Nuovo Mercato is dedicated to innovation-driven companies. 4) Stocks, bonds, warrants, options not admitted to the official exchange are traded on Mercato Ristretto. 5) Premi Market is for premium contracts on stock exchange products. The after-hours market enables trading of financial instruments after the daytime session closes. Other indices include the MIDEX, the now defunct MIB 30 index. For a full list see Category:Companies listed on the Borsa Italiana: List of stock exchanges Notes Borsa Italiana MIB30 index methodologyBorsa Italiana – Italian Stock Exchange Borsa Italiana
135. Taxation in Italy – Taxation in Italy is levied by the central and regional governments and is collected by the Italian Agency of Revenue. Total revenue in 2012 was 44.4 % of the GDP. The total tax receipts in 2013 were $ billion. The most important revenue sources are income tax, corporate tax and the value added tax, which are all applied at the national level. Personal taxation in Italy is progressive. Employment income is subject to a progressive tax applying to all workers. The area exempt from Irpef increases further if there are dependent family members. The corporate tax in Italy is 27.50 % since the last tax reform. Some corporations are exempted from corporate tax, such as charitable foundations, sports clubs. Value added tax is a tax at a standard rate of 22 %. Reduced VAT rates apply on foodstuffs, medical and books. The Italian VAT is part of the European Union value added system. Social security contributions apply to everyone in the workforce. The employer contributes 34.08 % of gross pay. Self-employed individuals must enrol with the Gestione Separata, unless specific rules apply.Taxation in Italy – Taxation
136. Internet in Italy – The Internet country code top-level domain for Italy is.it and is sponsored by Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. The.eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. Currently access is available to businesses and home users in various forms, including dial-up, fiber, cable, DSL, wireless. The government has also started the Italia Digitale project, which aims to provide at least 50 % of Italians by 2020. The government aims to extend the fibre-optic network to rural areas. The FTTC and VDSL2 technologies can currently bring up to the final customer. TIM and Fastweb have plans to increase FTTC speeds with vectoring to up to 200/50 Mbit/s streams before the end of 2016. Over one-fourth of Italian internet users aged older made an online purchase during 2011. Only at the end of 2010, a bipartisan bill allowed for the repeal of article 7 of the Pisanu law. Currently internet filtering in Italy is applied on some P2P web-sites. A pervasive filtering is applied to those gambling websites who don't have a local license to operate in Italy. Telecommunications in Italy Censorship on OpenNet Initiative website. "Non è paese per Internet. In cinque anni dieci contro la Rete", article from the newspaper Il Fatto Quotidiano. Internet use in the EU27 in 2008, Eurostat news release.Internet in Italy – A sign posted on the door of an internet cafe in Florence regarding Italian Law No. 155 of 31 July 2005
137. Tourism in Italy – With 48.6 million tourists a year, Italy is the fifth most visited country in international tourism arrivals. People mainly visit Italy for its rich art, cuisine, history, fashion and culture, its beautiful coastline and beaches, priceless ancient monuments. Italy also contains more World Heritage Sites than any other country in the world. Tourism is one of Italy's most profitable industrial sectors, with an estimated revenue of $189.1 billion. Merchants came to Italy from several different parts of the world. That would have been the early equivalent of "tourism" or "religious tourism". The trade empires of Venice, Pisa and Genoa meant that several traders, merchants from all over the world would also regularly come to Italy. In the early 17th century, with the height of the Renaissance, several students came to Italy to study Italian architecture, such as Inigo Jones. Real "tourism" only affected in Italy with the beginning of the Grand Tour. This was in order to study the local culture. The Grand Tour was in essence published in 1670. Due to the Grand Tour, tourism became even more prevalent - making Italy one of the most desired destinations for millions of people. Inside what would be modern-day Italy, these tourists would begin by visiting Turin for a short while. If a person came via boat, then they would remain a few days in Genoa. Tourists occasionally, got to Trieste.Tourism in Italy – The Amalfi Coast seen from Ravello in Campania. This is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Italy.
138. Transport in Italy – Italy has well developed and private transportation options. Italian network is extensive, especially in the north, generally eclipsing the need for an alternative such as bus or air. Italy has 12.46 km2 per kilometer of rail track, giving Italy the world's 13th largest rail network. Italy's network is also widespread, with a total length of about 487,700 km. It comprises both an extensive motorway network, national and local roads. Because of its long seacoast, Italy also has a large number of harbors for the transportation of both passengers. Italy has been a seafaring peninsula dating back to the days of Etruscans the Greeks. Transport networks in Italy are fully integrated into the Trans-European Transport Networks. The Italian system has a length of 19,394 km, of which 18,071 km standard gauge and 11,322 km electrified. The active lines are 16,723 km. The network is recently growing with the construction of the high-speed rail network. Regional agencies, mostly owned by public entities such as regional governments, operate on the Italian network. The Italian railways are subsidised by the government, receiving $ billion in 2009. All high-speed and intercity trains require a 10-euro reservation fee. Regional passes, such as "Io viaggio ovunque Lombardia", offer one-day, monthly period of validity.Transport in Italy – A Frecciarossa high-speed train
139. Capital punishment in Italy – Before the unification of Italy in 1860, punishment was performed in almost all pre-unitarian states, except for Tuscany, where it was historically abolished in 1786. It is currently defunct as of 1 January 1948. So Tuscany was the first European state in the world to do away with torture and capital punishment. However executions in Italy had not been carried out since 1877, when King Umberto I granted a general pardon. Ironically, as a result of this pardon, Gaetano Bresci could not be sentenced to death after he assassinated Umberto I in 1900. The penalty was still present in military and colonial penal codes. The Rocco Code added more crimes to the list of reintroduced capital punishment for some common crimes. This was the last execution in Italy. This measure was implemented by the legislative decree 22/48 of January 1948. In 2007 a constitutional amendment was adopted. Article 27 of Italian Constitution was changed to fully ban the penalty. Prior to abolition, the penalty was sanctioned in article 21 of the Italian penal code. It stated that penalty is to be carried out by shooting inside a penitentiary or in any other place suggested by the Ministry of Justice. The execution is not public, unless the Ministry of Justice determines otherwise. A law to ratify the 13th Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights had been approved by the Senate on October 9, 2008.Capital punishment in Italy – Execution of capital punishment by guillotine in 1868, shortly after the birth of modern Italy. It was subsequently abolished in 1889 and only revived under Italian Fascism.
140. Corruption in Italy – Corruption in Italy is a major problem. In Transparency International's annual surveys, Italy has consistently been regarded as the most corrupt country in the Eurozone. Corruption costs Italy a reported €60 billion a year, which amount to four percent of its GDP. On the 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index, Italy took 61st place out of scoring on a par with Senegal, Montenegro, South Africa. Political corruption remains a major problem particularly in Southern Italy including parts of Campania and Sicily where corruption perception is at a high level. Political parties are ranked the most corrupt institution in Italy, closely followed by Parliament, according to Transparency International's Global Corruption Barometer 2013. Regarding corruption, foreign investments and economic growth are hindered by organized crime and corruption. Business executives from World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014 consider corruption one of the problems for doing business in Italy. Procurement process, mainly in water, railway projects, in Italy is affected by corruption. Italian culture has been described as being characterized by “an ambiguous attitude to graft.” “Many Italians,” maintained a 2010 report, have accepted corruption and poor governance as part of their lives. The Mafia plays a key role in both private corruption. Arising "out of business deals," as Forbes put it, the Mafia historically "acted for contracts, when the judiciary was viewed as weak. A 1992-94 scandal called Tangentopoli, uncovered by the so-called Mani pulite investigation, "rocked Italy to its core" and brought down the First Republic. But the probes “fizzled out” and afterwards the bribery just got worse.Corruption in Italy – Political corruption
141. Crime in Italy – Crime in Italy is combated by the spectrum of Italian law enforcement agencies. In 2012, Italy had a murder rate per 100,000 population, one of the lower rates in Western Europe. There were a total of 530 murders in Italy in 2012. Public figures such as former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi have been charged with association in organized criminal acts. The fight against the Mafia has cost many lives, such as judges Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino. Together, they exert influence over million Italians. Their involvement is on a European and global scale. Businesses, entrepreneurs, craftsmen in these southern regions are expected to pay a pizzo, or protection money, to crime syndicates controlling their area. Those not complying find their business premises and lives at risk. People not able to meet demands might find their business completely taken over by organized crime. In 2009, organized crime in Italy generated $ billion in revenue. Italy has a lower per capita rate of rape than most of the Western countries in the European Union. According to Police data, the rate of sexual assaults per 100,000 inhabitants is significantly higher in the Northern region than in the Southern ones. Notable cases of financial fraud include the Lockheed bribery scandal in the 1970s. The percentage rose in some of the southern provinces.Crime in Italy – Italian police in Perugia in central Italy.
142. Demographics of Italy – However the distribution of the population is widely uneven. After centuries of net emigration, from the 1980s Italy has experienced large-scale immigration for the first time in modern history. According to the Italian government, there were an estimated 5,000,073 foreign nationals resident in Italy. High birth rates persisted until the 1970s, after which they started to dramatically decline, leading to rapid population aging. At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, one in five Italians was over 65 years old. However, in recent years Italy experienced a significant growth in birth rates. The total rate has also climbed from an all-time low of 1.18 children per woman in 1995 to 1.41 in 2008. Since the 1984 Lateran Treaty agreement, Italy has no official religion. However, it recognizes the role the Catholic Church plays in Italian society. 87.8 % of the population identify as Catholic, 5.8 % as non-believers or atheists, 3.8 % adhere to other religions. About 68 % of Italian population is classified as a relatively low figure among developed countries. However, none of these local authorities has yet become fully operative. Between 1914, the peak years of Italian diaspora, approximately 750,000 Italians emigrated each year. Italian communities once thrived in the African colonies of Eritrea, Somalia and Libya. All of Libya's Italians were expelled from the African country in 1970.Demographics of Italy – Rome Milan
143. Education in Italy – Italy has both private education systems. In Italy Education System has existed since 1859, when the Legge Casati mandated educational responsibilities for the forthcoming Italian state. The Casati Act had the goal of increasing literacy. The universities were managed by the State. The important law concerning the Italian education system was the Legge Gentile. This act was issued in 1923, thus when his National Fascist Party were in power. In fact, Giovanni Gentile was appointed the task of creating an system deemed fit for the fascist system. The Liceo Classico was the only secondary school that gave access until 1968. He considered the Catholic religion to be the "fundament and crowning" of education. In 1962 all children until 14 years had to follow a single program, encompassing primary education and middle school. In accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Bologna Process, the Italian university system switched from the old system, to the new system. The ordinamento split the former Laurea into two tracks: the Laurea triennale, followed by the 2-year Laurea specialistica, the latter renamed Laurea Magistrale in 2007. Scuola primaria, also known as elementare, is commonly preceded by three years of non-compulsory nursery school. Scuola elementare lasts five years. The students are given a basic education in Italian, English, mathematics, natural sciences, history, geography, social studies, visual and musical arts.Education in Italy – An elementary school in Aosta Valley, with the name both in Italian and French
144. Secondary education in Italy – The Scuola secondaria di grado it is mandatory, lasts three years and is the first stage in which different specialized professors teach different subjects. It provides further education on the subjects studied with the addition of technology and a language other than English. It covers all the classical subjects. Before the Moratti reform it was called "scuola media di grado" or "scuola media inferiore". The scuola secondaria di grado -- formerly known as "scuola media superiore" -- lasts five years. It is designed to give the skills to progress to any university or higher educational institution. For historical reasons, there are three types of Scuola secondaria di grado, subsequently divided into further specializations. Liceo Istituto tecnico Istituto professionale Programmes are generally decided at national level. Moreover, students in state-owned schools perform better than students in private schools. A Italian student is age 19 when they enter university, while in other countries 18 is the more common age. The Italian system also features the scuola serale, aimed at adults and working students. The education received in a liceo is mostly theoretical, with a specialization in a specific field of studies. Types of liceo include: Liceo classico – dedicated to humanistic studies, features Latin, Ancient Greek, Italian, history and philosophy as its most important subjects. Liceo artistico –, oriented toward arts teaching – both in a theoretical and practical way. Its subjects are painting, sculpture, decoration, graphics, design, audiovisual, multimedia, architecture.Secondary education in Italy – A scuola secondaria di primo grado (aka scuola media), in Morbio
145. Higher education in Italy – Higher education in Italy is mainly provided by a large and international network of public and state affiliated universities. State-run universities of Italy are under the supervision of Italian's Ministry of Education. There is also state-run post-secondary educational centers providing a vocational instruction. Italian universities are among the oldest universities in the world. Most universities in Italy are state-supported. Universities in Italy fits the framework of the Bologna Process since the adoption, in 1999, of the so-called +2 system. The first degree is the Laurea triennale that can be achieved after three years of studies. Selected students can then complete their studies in the following step: two additional years of specialization which leads to the Laurea Magistrale. The "Laurea triennale" corresponds roughly to a Bachelor Degree while the "Laurea Magistrale" corresponds to a Master Degree. Only the Laurea Magistrale grants access to that last 2 to 5 years. However, there is just a five-year degree "Laurea Magistrale Quinquennale" for some programmes such as Law, Arts and Music. They only offer six-year courses. The title for MA/MFA/MD/MEd graduate students is Dottore. This title is not to be confused with the PhD and Post-MA graduates, whose title is Dottore di Ricerca. Universities in Italy can be divided into 4 groups: public universities: this category comprises most of Italian university, particularly the largest institutions.Higher education in Italy – University of Bologna, Italy and Europe's oldest university, founded in 1088
146. Italian diaspora – The Italian diaspora is the large-scale emigration of Italians from Italy. There are two Italian diasporas in Italian history. The first diaspora ended in the 1920s with the rise of the Italian Fascism. The second diaspora roughly concluded in the 1970s. Between the period of 1976, the largest voluntary emigration in documented history, with about 13 million Italians leaving the country. By 1978, it was estimated that about million Italians were residing outside of Italy. A large-scale migration of Italians away from Italy during the 19th and 20th centuries, occurred in three different waves. Secondary reasons for the diaspora include internal economic problems, as well as organized crime from economic difficulties in the South. Another characteristic was related after the improvements of the socio-economic conditions, following the unification process. Indeed, Italian families after 1861 started to have access to hospitals, improved hygienic conditions and normal food supply. Between 1985, 29,036,000 Italians immigrated to other countries; of whom 16 million arrived before the outbreak of WWI. About 10,275,000 returned to Italy while 18,761,000 permanently settled abroad. Plots grew smaller and smaller and so less and less productive as land was subdivided among heirs. Between World War I, 9,000,000 Italians left, most from the north and most going to North or South America. It has been termed "path-dependent emigration flow".Italian diaspora – Italian emigrants leaving Italy in the 1890s.
147. Feminism in Italy – Feminism in Italy originated during the Italian renaissance period, beginning in the late 13th century. Italian writers such as Christine de Pizan, Moderata Fonte, others developed the theoretical ideas behind gender equality. In contrast to feminist movements in France and United Kingdom, early women's advocates in Italy emphasized women's education and improvement in social conditions. In the post-war period, feminist movements surged, with public activism during the 1970s. Renaissance thinkers regularly challenged conventional wisdom from the Medieval period and earlier. Humanism became the new way of looking at politics, science, the arts, other fields. Humanism pushed aside the Christian concept of a hierarchical social order that placed regular citizens in a subservient position relative to members of the clergy. The Renaissance man was the ideal to emulate. However, she tempered her assertions by writing that men were created to women to follow. Renaissance Italy saw the development of higher education, including the establishment of several universities, to which women were not admitted. Education intended to create leaders was seen as wasted on women. Outside of a setting, where they had been confined during the Middle Ages, educated women were stepping out into the secular intellectual arena. By the late Renaissance, educated Italian women were writing "even theology". At a time when most women belonged to the class, most were illiterate. Educated women who could write about feminism's various aspects were in an isolated position.Feminism in Italy – The Virgin Reading (1505–10), by Vittore Carpaccio. Literacy spread among upper class women in Italy during the Renaissance.
148. Gambling in Italy – Gambling in Italy has existed for centuries and has taken on many forms. It is also due to them that the game came to European countries. It was in Venice, that in 1638 the first house "Ridotto" was opened. It was sanctioned by the government aiming to control gambling activity of the citizens. Although the admission to that house was free, only rich people could afford to play there, because the stakes were high. The games played were biribi resembling bassetta. Both games had a very high edge. In 1774 "Ridotto" was closed which resulted in the growth of popularity of the closed gambling clubs. These clubs were called'casinos', so the word'casino' itself is of Italian origin. There is an opinion that baccarat was invented in Italy by an Italian gambler Felix Falguerein. Bingo is also of an Italian origin. In the 1530s, the Italians played game called'Lo Giuoco del Lotto D’Italia' that resembled bingo. The Criminal law proclaims gambling illegal, be it organized in a public place, an open-to-public place or a private club. Sports-betting, some other activities fall into the category of legal and regulated gambling activities. Only the State has the right to allow gambling.Gambling in Italy – Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum
149. Health in Italy – As with any developed country, levels of nutrition and sanitation are high. Italy has a good and sufficient water supply, yet, especially due to droughts, water shortages can frequently occur. According to a decree issued by the state, the maximum presence of similar materials in Italy drinking water is 0.5 μg per litre. Generally healthy cuisine ensures that Italians are well-nourished and eat good food. The relatively recent addition of several drugs to meats has meant that controls have increased in 1988 to 56,831 in 1991. Despite this, the greatest risk from exposure to radiation is found indoors. Italy has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. However, Italy's high average varies greatly by regions. Central Italy has the highest average, with 81.0 for women. In 2003, the national life expectancy at birth for a woman was 78 ~ 84, for a man 71 ~ 77. By 2009, this average had rapidly increased to 83.33 for women. Italy also has a very low rate of infant mortality, the 185th lowest in the world. From 1970 to 1989, the rate went down dramatically, from 11 and 10.3 for men and women, to 8.3 and 6.7. Women have had a less definitive pattern. From a country where in 1966 a 68.5 average of the male population smoked, this had gone down to a ~ 37 % average in 1991.Health in Italy – An old social insurance card (dated 1921) belonging to the Istituto Nazionale della Previdenza Sociale, which makes sure that workers are not injured from work, and if they are, that they are insured.
150. Healthcare in Italy – After World War II Italy established its social system including a social health insurance administered by sickness funds. Around 7 % of the population remained uninsured. Moreover, sickness funds went practically bankrupt by the mid-1970s. Due to growing public dissatisfaction with the existing system, Italian policymakers fostered a structural reform. In 1978, the government established the SSN -- the Italian version of a National Health Service -- including universal coverage and funding. Healthcare is provided by a mixed public-private system. The public part is Sistema sanitario nazionale, organized under the Ministry of Health and is administered on a regional basis. Family doctors are entirely paid by the SSN, have a limit of 1500 patients. Patients can change their GP, subjected to availability. Prescription drugs can be acquired only if prescribed by a doctor. If prescribed by the doctor, they are generally subsidized, requiring only a copay that depends on the medicine type and on the patient income. Over-the-counter drugs are paid out-of-pocket. Over-the-counter drugs can only be sold in specialized shops. In a sample of 13 developed countries, Italy was sixth in its population fifth in 2013. The study noted considerable difficulties in cross-border comparison of use.Healthcare in Italy – An Italian National Health Service card.
151. Immigration to Italy – Immigration to Italy occurs from a variety of countries. As of 1 there were 5,014,437 foreign nationals resident in Italy. This represented an increase of 92,352 over the previous year. They also exclude illegal immigrants whose numbers are difficult to determine. In May 2008, The Boston Globe quoted an estimate of 670,000 for this group. The children born to foreign mothers were 102.000 in 2012, 99.000 in 2013 and 97.000 in 2014. Illegal immigrants from Africa make the dangerous boat journey across the Mediterranean Sea to Italy. About a million Romanians, around 10% of them being Roma, are officially registered as living in Italy. As of 2013, the foreign born origin was subdivided as follows: Europe, Africa, Asia, America, Oceania. Due to this booming economy, the European nations began looking to migrant workers. Another wave of the earliest groups to travel to Italy were the Filipino. Many women came to Italy to work in care-taker jobs in order to provide for their families back home. In 2004, the Italian governments reached a secret agreement that obliged Libya to accept those deported from Italian territories. This resulted in the mass return of many people from Lampedusa without the endorsement of European Parliament. By 2006, many immigrants were paying smugglers in Libya to help get them to Lampedusa by boat.Immigration to Italy – Senegalese workers at the Potato festival in Vimercate (Lombardy) in 2015
152. Nobility of Italy – They often were sometimes endowed with hereditary titles or nobiliary particles. From the Middle Ages until 1861, "Italy" was not a single country but was a number of other states, with many reigning dynasties. These were often related to each other and to other European royal families. Before Italian Unification there was a relatively large nobility in Italy. There were also families, part of Italian nobility for even centuries. These families freely intermarried with aristocratic nobility. Hereditary patriarchs were appointed Duke, Marquis and even Prince of various 16th- and 17th-century principalities. Popes also elevated their own family members – especially nephews – to the special position of Cardinal-Nephew. Many families, such as the Barberini and Pamphili, benefited greatly from having a papal relative. The architect of Italian unification was the Chief Minister of Victor Emmanuel. Rome itself became part of the Kingdom of Italy only in 1870. Those nobles who maintained allegiance to the pope became known as the Black Nobility. For example, General Enrico Cialdini was created Duca di Gaeta for his role during the unification. The practice continued until the 20th century, when nominations would be approved by the Crown. In the aftermath of the First World War, most Italians who were ennobled received their titles through the patronage of the Mussolini government.Nobility of Italy – Caserta Palace
153. Racism in Italy – Racism in Italy deals with the relations of Italians and outgroups in the history of Italy. Italy has been no exception. For decades after unification, hostility to outsiders was mainly a matter of regional antipathies. Italy's colonial adventures led to an upsurge in racial antipathies for the peoples colonized. The mass migrations from the south towards the industrialized north engendered a degree of anti-southern prejudice. In 2011, a report by Human Rights Watch pointed to growing indications of a rise in xenophobia within Italian society. In Medieval Italy, slavery was justified more often on religious rather than racial grounds. Scientific racism was popularized by criminologist Cesare Lombroso. Lombroso's theory of atavism compared white civilization and other races with "primitive" or "savage" societies. His theories connecting physiognomy to criminal behavior explicitly blamed higher homicide rates on the influence of African and Asian blood on its population. Lombroso equated the criminal tendencies of the white population to residual "blackness". The ideas of Lombroso about race would spread at the end of the 19th century. Sociologists also explored Lombroso's path of scientific racism. Niceforo held these views as 1952 claiming that "Negroid and Mongoloid types were more frequent in the lower classes". In 1907 anthropologist Ridolfo Livi attempted to show that facial features correlated with poorer populations.Racism in Italy – Front page of the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera on 11 November 1938: the fascist regime has approved the racial laws, enacting persecution of the Italian Jews. The title reads: The laws for the defense of race approved by the Council of Ministers.
154. Religion in Italy – Religion in Italy is characterised by the predominance of Christianity, especially the Catholic Church, an increasing diversity of religious practices, beliefs and denominations. Among religious minorities, Islam is the largest, followed by Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, Protestantism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Judaism. According to a 2006 survey by Eurispes, Catholics made up 87.8 % of the population, with 36.8 % describing themselves as observants. According to the same poll in 2010, those percentages fell to 76.5% and 24.4%, respectively. Other sources give different accounts of Italy's Islamic population, usually around 2%. Their religious practice was on the rise at 25.4 %. The country's Catholic patron saints are Francis of Siena. According to a 2006 survey by Eurispes, Catholics made up 87.8% of the population, with 36.8% describing themselves as observants. According to the same poll in 2010, those percentages fell to 76.5% and 24.4%, respectively. Other sources give different accounts of Italy's Islamic population, usually around 2%. In 2016 Eurispes found that 71.1% of Italians were Catholic, 5 points down from 2010, but their religious practice was on the rise at 25.4%. Additionally, there are significant differences in religious beliefs by gender, geography. The State of Vatican City, is an enclave within the city of Rome and, thus, the Italian territory. The Pope, is the Bishop of Rome, hence the special relationship between Italians and the Church -- and the latter's entanglement with Italian politics. The current Pope is Francis, born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, who, before his election in 2013, had been Archbishop of Buenos Aires since 1998.Religion in Italy – The St. Peter's Basilica, viewed from the Tiber, the Vatican Hill / City in the back and Castel Sant'Angelo to the right, Rome
155. Women in Italy – Italian Women are females who are from or live in Italy. For the Roman period, see Women in Ancient Rome. Italian women had very little opportunities to distinguished themselves during the Middle Ages, if not as a result of some extraordinary circumstances. Some widows inherited ruling positions such in the case of Matilde of Canossa. Educated women could find opportunities of leadership to Catherine of Siena. The Renaissance challenged conventional wisdom from the Medieval period. Powerful women rulers such as Isabella d'Este, Catherine de' Medici or Lucrezia Borgia, combined political skill with cultural interests and patronage. Among them were composers Francesca Caccini and Leonora Baroni, painter Artemisia Gentileschi. In 1678 Elena Cornaro Piscopia was the first woman in Italy to receive an academical degree, in philosophy, from the University of Padua. Primedonne continued to be famous all around Europe: Vittoria Tesi, Caterina Gabrielli, Lucrezia Aguiari and Faustina Bordoni. Notable women of the period include painter Rosalba Carriera, composer Maria Margherita Grimani. The Italian Risorgimento offered for the first time to Italian women the opportunity to be politically engaged. In 1799 in Naples, poet Eleonora Fonseca Pimentel was executed as one of the protagonists of the short-lived Parthenopean Republic. Women were granted right to vote in the new Italian state. In 1868 Alaide Gualberta Beccari began publishing the journal Women in Padua.Women in Italy – Sophia Loren, one of Italy's best known actresses
156. Culture of Italy – Italy is considered the birthplace of Western civilization and a cultural superpower. During its history, the nation gave birth to an enormous number of notable people. Etruscan and Samnite cultures incorporated them. The Greek settlements in particular developed into thriving classical civilizations. The Greek ruins in southern Italy are perhaps best preserved anywhere. For more than 2,000 years Italy experienced migrations, was divided into many independent states until 1861 when it became a nation-state. Despite the social isolation of these regions, Italy's contributions to the cultural and historical heritage of Europe and the world remain immense. The famous elements of Italian culture are its art, music, iconic food. For generations the language of opera was Italian, irrespective of the nationality of the composer. Before being exported to France, the famous Ballet genre also originated in Italy. The country boasts world-famous cities. Rome was seat of the Pope of the Catholic Church. Florence was the heart of a period of great achievements in the arts at the end of the Middle Ages. Important cities include Turin, which used to be the capital of Italy, is now one of the world's great centers of automobile engineering. Milan is the industrial, fashion capital of Italy.Culture of Italy – Florence Cathedral, Arnolfo di Cambio, campanile by Giotto dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi.
157. Duecento – 1202—Introduction of Liber Abaci by Fibonacci. 1202—Battle of Basian occurred on July 27, between Kingdom of Georgia and Seljuks. 1204—Fourth Crusade of 1202–1204 captures Zara for Venice and sacks Byzantine Constantinople, creating the Latin Empire. 1204—Fall of Normandy from Angevin hands to the French King, Philip Augustus, end of Norman domination of France. 1206—Genghis Khan is declared Great Khan of the Mongols. 1213—France defeats the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon at the Battle of Muret. 1214—France defeats English and Imperial German forces at the Battle of Bouvines. 1215—King John signs Magna Carta at Runnymede. 1217–1221—Fifth Crusade captures Egyptian Ayyubid port city of Damietta; ultimately the Crusaders withdraw. 1221—Venice signs a trade treaty with the Mongol Empire. 1222—Andrew II of Hungary signs the Golden Bull which affirms the privileges of Hungarian nobility. 1223-The Signoria, of the Republic of Venice consists of the Doge, the Minor Council and the three leaders of the Quarantia. 1223—The Mongol Empire defeats various Russian principalities at the Battle of the Kalka River. 1228-1229—Sixth Crusade under the excommunicated Frederick II Hohenstaufen, who returns Jerusalem to the Crusader States. 1228-1230- First clash between Gregory IX and Frederick II.Duecento – The gold florin of Firenze started to be the main currency of european trade during the Duecento
158. Trecento – The Trecento refers to the 14th century in Italian cultural history. Commonly the Trecento is considered to be the beginning of the Renaissance in history. Important sculptors included two pupils of Giovanni Pisano: Bonino da Campione. The Trecento was also famous as a time of heightened literary activity, with writers working in the vernacular instead of Latin. Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio were the leading writers of the age. "Trecento Italy". In McKinnon, James. Antiquity and the Middle Ages: From Ancient Greece to the 15th Century. Music and Society Series. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Pp. 241–268. ISBN 0130361615. Media related to 14th-century in Italy at Wikimedia CommonsTrecento – Giotto masterpiece in Padova 's "Cappella degli Scroveni"
159. Quattrocento – Quattrocento encompasses the artistic styles of the late Middle Ages and the early Renaissance. In 476 economic disorder and disruption of trade spread across Europe. In Italy, urban centers arose that were populated by trade classes, who were able to defend themselves. Increasing numbers of serfs became freedmen. The decline of feudalism paved the way for social, cultural, economic changes. Instead, Quattrocento sculptors incorporated the more classic forms developed by Roman and Greek sculptors. Since the Quattrocento overlaps with part of the Renaissance movement, it would be inaccurate to say that a particular artist was Quattrocento or Renaissance. Artists of the time probably would not have identified themselves as members of a movement. The Robert Lehman Collection I, Italian Paintings. New York, Princeton: The Metropolitan Museum of Art in association with Princeton University Press. ISBN 0870994794. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listQuattrocento – Sandro Botticelli 's Annunciation, painted from 1489-1490, is an example of Quattrocento art.
160. Seicento – The Seicento is Italian history and culture during the 17th century. The seicento saw the end of the beginning of the Counter-Reformation and the Baroque era. The seicento means "six hundred". It was also the period in which the Baroque era came into place. This period also saw advancements in Italian science, technology. This was due to persistent conflicts, revolts, the rise in popularity of French, English and Spanish culture. For additional information, see Baroque Italian art during the 17th century was predominantly Baroque in essence. His paintings were predominantly oil, used intense colours, usually having dramatic themes. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was a prominent mid to late-17th century Baroque sculptor, known for his statues, such as the "Ecstasy of Saint Theresa". Building styles for 17th-century architecture, most notably the Baroque, were very different all across the country. Turin was well known for its French-style Baroque architecture. This began during the late-17th century. Yet, the painted designs were more ornate and in touch with the popular Baroque designs. Milan was less influenced by French designs, more by the Spanish ones. Venice started to construct more ornate Baroque buildings ever in 1650s.Seicento – The 17th century Baroque architectural style used in St Peter's Basilica, Rome.
161. History of Italian culture (1700s) – The 1700s refers to a period in Italian history and culture which occurred during the 18th century: the Settecento. In the 18th century, the socio-cultural condition of Italy began to improve, under Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, his successors. All this led in the 18th century's second half: the Age of Reason and Reform. The 18th century saw the capital of Europe's architectural world transferred to Paris. The Italian Rococo, which flourished from the 1720s onward, was profoundly influenced by the ideas of Borromini. In the 18th century much sculpture continued on Baroque lines: the Trevi Fountain was only completed after 30 years. Antonio Vivaldi was the most important composer in Italy at the end of the Baroque period. He wrote more than 400 concertos for various instruments, especially for the violin. The scores including his first and last, are still intact. His best known work is a series of violin concertos known as The Four Seasons. Johann Sebastian Bach was deeply influenced by Vivaldi's arias. The introduction of the symphony originated from Italian operas, called Sinfonias. Carlo Goldoni was the most important Italian literate of the Settecento. He produced over 150 comedies. Count Vittorio Alfieri was an Italian poet, considered the "founder of Italian tragedy."History of Italian culture (1700s) – The Trevi fountain in Rome was done between 1732 and 1762
162. Architecture of Italy – However, this has created a highly eclectic range in architectural designs. Italy has an estimated total of 100,000 monuments of all varieties. Now Italy is in the forefront of sustainable design with Architects like Renzo Piano and Carlo Mollino. Italian architecture has also widely influenced the architecture of the world. Being inspired by Andrea Palladio. Along with pre-historic architecture, the first people in Italy to truly begin a sequence of designs were the Etruscans. In Northern and Central Italy, it was the Etruscans who led the way in that time. The Etruscans strongly influenced Roman architecture, as they too used to build temples, fora, aqueducts. Their city gates were also a significant influence on Roman architecture. The Greeks built bigger, more technologically advanced houses that people in the Iron and Bronze Age, also influenced Roman architecture too. Yet, by the 4th BC, the Hellenistic Age, less concentration was put on constructing temples, more rather the Greeks spent more time building theatres. The theatres had an auditorium and a stage. They used to be built only unlike the Romans who would artificially construct the audience's seats. The Greek temples were known for containing bulky marble pillars. There are several remains of Greek architecture in Italy, notably in Calabria, Apulia and Sicily.Architecture of Italy – The Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi, which has the largest brick dome in the world, and is considered a masterpiece of world architecture.
163. Italian art – Since prehistoric times, Greeks, Etruscans and Celts have inhabited the south, centre and north of the Italian peninsula respectively. Ancient Rome finally emerged as the dominant European power. Cultural tourism became a major prop to an otherwise faltering economy. This was the last such Italian-born style that spread to all Western art. Italian art has produced several great artists, including painters, architects and sculptors. Italy is home to 51 the largest number of any country in the world. The Etruscan paintings that have survived to modern times are mostly wall frescoes from graves, mainly from Tarquinia. These are the most important example of figurative art in Italy known to scholars. Fine brushes were made of animal hair. From the 4th century BC chiaroscuro began to be used to portray depth and volume. Sometimes scenes of everyday life are more often traditional mythological scenes. We frequently find portrayals of animals or men with some body-parts out of proportion. One of the best-known Etruscan frescoes is that of Tomb of the Lioness at Tarquinia. The Etruscan were responsible for constructing Rome's earliest monumental buildings. Roman houses were closely based on Etruscan models.Italian art – Rome under the emperor Constantine.
164. List of castles in Italy – This is a list of castles in Italy by location. Built in the 15th century. Calepio Castle, Castelli Calepio. Built by the Calepio family. Bianzano Castle, Bianzano. Built around 1220–1230. Camozzi Vertova Castle, Costa di Mezzate. Built in the 12th century. Cavernago Castle, Cavernago. Built by the Counts Martinengo-Colleoni. Malpaga Castle, Cavernago. Built by the warlord Bartolomeo Colleoni. Marne Castle, Filago. Built by the Avogadri family. Pagazzano Castle, Pagazzano.List of castles in Italy – Forte Spagnolo, L'Aquila
165. Cinema of Italy – The Cinema of Italy comprises the films made within Italy or by Italian directors. Early Italian films were typically adaptations of books or stage plays. One of Italian Futurism, took place in Italy in the late 1910s. After a period of decline in the 1920s, the Italian industry was revitalized in the 1930s with the arrival of sound film. A Italian genre during this period, the Telefoni Bianchi, consisted of comedies with glamorous backgrounds. Actresses such as Sophia Loren, Gina Lollobrigida achieved international stardom during this period. The Spaghetti Western achieved popularity in the mid-1960s, peaking with Sergio Leone's Dollars Trilogy, which featured enigmatic scores by composer Ennio Morricone. Giallos, produced by directors such as Mario Bava and Dario Argento in the 1970s, influenced the horror genre worldwide. During the 1990s, directors such as Ermanno Olmi, Bernardo Bertolucci, Giuseppe Tornatore, Gabriele Salvatores and Roberto Benigni brought critical acclaim back to Italian cinema. Lumière trainees produced short films documenting everyday life and comic strips in early 1900s. Pioneering Italian cinematographer Filoteo Alberini patented his "Kinetograph" during this period. Also popular during this period were films such as Caserini's Beatrice Cenci and Ugo Falena's Lucrezia Borgia. L'Inferno, produced by Milano Films in 1911, was the first Italian feature film ever made. Popular Italian actors included Emilio Ghione, Alberto Collo, Bartolomeo Pagano, Amleto Novelli, Lyda Borelli, Ida Carloni Talli, Lidia Quaranta and Maria Jacobini. Enrico Guazzone's 1913 film Quo Vadis was one of the earliest "blockbusters" in utilizing thousands of extras and a lavish set design.Cinema of Italy – Thaïs (1917)
166. Italian cuisine – Italian cuisine has developed through centuries of social and political changes, with roots stretching to antiquity. Italian cuisine is noted for its regional diversity, abundance of difference in taste, with influences abroad. Italian cuisine is characterized with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients. Italian cooks rely chiefly on the quality of the ingredients rather than on elaborate preparation. Dishes vary by region. Many dishes that were once regional, however, have proliferated with variations throughout the country. Denominazione di origine controllata laws. Coffee, specifically espresso, has become important in Italian cuisine. Italian cuisine has developed over the centuries. Through the centuries, neighbouring regions, conquerors, high-profile chefs, the discovery of the New World have influenced its development. Italian food started to form after the fall of the Roman Empire, when different cities began to form their own traditions. There was a variation in cooking techniques and preparation. The country was split. The first Italian food writer was a Greek Sicilian named Archestratus from Syracuse in the 4th century BCE. He wrote a poem that spoke of using "top quality and seasonal" ingredients.Italian cuisine – Italian cuisine
167. Italian wine – Italy is home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world, Italian wines are known worldwide for their broad variety. Italy, closely followed by France, is the world's largest producer by volume. Its contribution represents about 1/3 of global production. There are more than one million vineyards under cultivation. Although vines had been cultivated from the wild Vitis grape for millennia, it wasn't until the Greek colonization that wine-making flourished. Viticulture was well established when the extensive Greek colonization transpired around 800 BC. It was during the Roman defeat of the Carthaginians in the 2nd BC that Italian wine production began to further flourish. During this time, viticulture outside of Italy was prohibited under Roman law. As the laws on provincial viticulture were relaxed, vast vineyards began to flourish in the rest of Europe, especially Gaul and Hispania. This coincided like biturica. These vineyards became hugely successful, to the point that Italy ultimately became an centre for provincial wines. Depending on the vintage, modern Italy is the world's largest or second largest producer. In 2005, production was about 20% of the global total, second only to France, which produced 26%. In the same year, Italy's share in dollar value of table wine imports into the U.S. was 32 %, France's was 20 %. Along with Australia, Italy's share has rapidly increased in recent years.Italian wine – A classic Italian vineyard scene, with vines growing together with olive trees.
168. List of Italian orders of knighthood – There are five orders of knighthood awarded in recognition of service to the Italian Republic. Otherwise, that do not confer knighthoods. However, the former Royal House of Savoy also continues to award knighthoods in three orders of chivalry previously recognised by the Kingdom of Italy. The use of awards of the Holy See is subject to permission, while the use of those of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta is unregulated. These continue merely as dynastic orders of the former Royal house in exile. In contrast to the Republican orders, the feminine Dama is used for women. The Knight Bachelor, usually transmitted by male primogeniture, was older. These Cavaliere Ereditario were not, however, members of an order of chivalry. Nobility of Italy Italian honorifics Order Presidenza della Repubblica - Le Onorificenze Ordini dinastici della Real Casa di SavoiaList of Italian orders of knighthood – Letters patent of a Knight of Vittorio Veneto, shown with badge and miniature.
169. Italian design – Italian design refers to all forms of design in Italy, including interior design, urban design, fashion design and architectural design. The threshold of 1860 was farming and backward. At the beginning of the twentieth century formed the first Italian designers such as Vittorio Ducrot and Ernesto Basile. Italy has produced some of the greatest furniture designers in the world, such as Gio Ponti and Ettore Sottsass. Interior design in the 1900s was particularly well-known and grew to the heights of class and sophistication. However, Italian deco reached its pinnacle under Gio Ponti, who made his designs sophisticated, elegant, stylish and raffined, but also modern, exotic and creative. In 1926, a new style of furnishing emerged in Italy, known as "Razionalismo", or "Rationalism". The most famous of the Rationalists were the Gruppo 7, led by Luigi Figini, Gino Pollini and Giuseppe Terragni. There styles was known as being more plain and simple, almost Fascist in style after c. 1934. 1934. After World War II, however, was the period in which Italy had a true avant-garde in interior design. The bookcase became huge a cultural icon and event of the 1980s. In addition to design, Italy has also set trends for industrial design. Olivetti is notable for its office and electronic equipment designs, most notably the Valentine portable typewriter designed by Ettore Sottsass. Italy also has produced some of the greatest status symbols of the century.Italian design – A chair by designer Michele de Lucchi, made in 1983.
170. Italian fashion – Italy is one of the leading countries in fashion design, alongside others such as France, United States, United Kingdom, Germany and Japan. Cities such as Palermo, Venice, Milan, Naples, Florence and Vicenza started to produce luxury goods, hats, jewelry and rich fabrics. Italian fashion can be also connected of "Made in Italy" a sort of merchandise brand expressing excellence of creativity and craftsmanship. It was now is settled in Milan and represents all the highest cultural values of Italian Fashion. A Italian designers head some important and iconic fashion brands outside Italy. Italy also is home such as Vogue Italia, Vanity Fair, Elle, Glamour, Grazia, Amica, Flair, Gioia. Italian fashion reached its peak during the Renaissance. Until the 1970s, Italian fashion was mainly designed like the French "Haute Couture". Yet, in the 80s, Italian fashion started to concentrate on ready-to-wear clothes, such as coats, jackets, trousers, shirts, jeans, jumpers and miniskirts. Also, other cities such as Venice, Florence, Naples, Vicenza, Bologna, Genoa and Turin are important centres. The country's main shopping districts are the Via Montenapoleone fashion district and the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele, Via de' Tornabuoni. Nonetheless, there are other cities which play an important role in Italian fashion. In 2009, Milan was regarded as the world capital, even surpassing New York, Paris, Rome and London. In 2011, Milan was ranked # 4, behind London, Paris. International fashion labels also operate shops in Milan, including an Abercrombie & Fitch store which has become a main consumer attraction.Italian fashion – Clothes by Valentino
171. Italophilia – Italophilia is the admiration, appreciation or emulation of Italy, its people, its ideals, its civilization or its culture. Its opposite is Italophobia. The civilization of the whole world, acknowledged. Appreciation of the legacy of Italic ideals, culture has existed into the present day. Rome was the center of an empire that stretched across a large segment of the then-known world, later became the center of the Christian faith. It was possible for the people in the provinces to attain Roman citizenship, rise to the Senate, even to become Roman emperor. The Roman provinces, having received much of the benefit of Roman civilization, became Romanized to a large degree. The Christian religion was viewed in Rome as contrary to prevailing religious and political beliefs and, consequently, was suppressed. Many Christians in Rome and elsewhere were persecuted. After the conversion of the Emperor Constantine to Christianity in 312 AD, Christianity flourished and became an integral part of Roman life. Roman Catholicism, in a form easily recognizable today, took much of the Roman Empire. Works by poets, authors and historians, such as Ovid, Horace, Catullus, Cicero, Virgil, Livy and Tacitus had a far reaching impact on the Western world. The bishops, rather than the Roman prefects became the source of order and the seat of power. In many important ways, the Roman Catholic Church became the successor of the Roman Empire. The Church and its Pope were major stabilizing influences in Europe in the centuries that followed.Italophilia – Statue of Augustus, first Roman emperor and creator of "Italia" as an entity
172. Languages of Italy – Most widely spoken language is Italian, a descendant of Tuscan. This is generally not the case in regards to the languages of Italy, as they are, for the most part, not varieties of Standard Italian. In fact, Standard Italian is itself either a continuation of, or a dialect heavily based on, the Florentine Tuscan language. Most regional languages in Italy are thus better classified as separate languages descended independently from variations of the Standard Italian language. There are several minority languages that belong to Indo-European branches, such as Cimbrian, Arbëresh, the Slavomolisano dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Griko. Non-indigenous languages are spoken by a substantial percentage of the population due to immigration. The law also makes a distinction between those who are not. The Italian Constitution does not explicitly express that Italian is the official national language. Code for civil procedure – "In tutto il processo è prescritto l'uso della lingua italiana. Code for criminal procedure – "Gli atti del procedimento penale sono compiuti in lingua italiana." Article 1 of law 482/1999 – "La lingua ufficiale della Repubblica è l'italiano." Aosta Valley: French is co-official in the whole region; German is unofficial but recognised in the Lys Valley. Campania: Neapolitan is "promoted", but not recognised, by the region. Friuli-Venezia Giulia: Friulian and Slovene are "promoted", but not recognised, by the region;. Piedmont: Piedmontese is unofficial but recognised as the regional language; the region "promotes", without recognising, the Occitan, Franco-Provençal and Walser languages.Languages of Italy – Languages of Italy by groups [not in citation given]
173. Italian language – Italian is a Romance language. It is the second-closest to Latin in terms of vocabulary after Sardinian. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Istria. Italian is spoken by small minorities in places such as Crimea, France, Belgium, Montenegro and Tunisia. Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and regional languages. Including Italian speakers on other continents, the total number of speakers is around 85 million. Italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical opera. Its influence is also widespread in the luxury goods market. Italian has been reported as the fifth most frequently taught foreign language in the world. Its development was also influenced by the Germanic languages of the post-Roman invaders. Unlike most Romance languages, Italian retains Latin's contrast between short and long consonants. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive. However, some surrounding regions has a longer history. Italian was also one of the many recognised languages in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Italy has always had a distinctive dialect for each city, because the cities, until recently, were thought of as city-states.Italian language – Dante Alighieri (above) and Petrarch (below) were influential in establishing their Tuscan dialect as the most prominent literary language in all of Italy in the Late Middle Ages
174. Italian literature – Italian literature is written in the Italian language, particularly within Italy. An early example of Italian literature is the tradition of vernacular poetry performed in Occitan, which reached Italy by the end of the 12th century. In 1230, the Sicilian School is notable for being the first style in standard Italian. One of the greatest of Italian poets, is notable for his Divina Commedia. Petrarch wrote lyric poetry. Renaissance humanism developed during the beginning of the 15th centuries. Humanists sought to create a citizenry able to write with eloquence and clarity. Early humanists, such as Petrarch, were great collectors of antique manuscripts. Lorenzo de Medici shows the influence of Florence on the Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci wrote a treatise on painting. The development of the drama in the 15th century was very great. The fundamental characteristic of the era following Renaissance is that it perfected the Italian character of its language. Machiavelli and Guicciardini were the chief originators of the science of history. In the 18th century, philosophers throughout Europe in the period known as The Enlightenment. Apostolo Zeno and Metastasio are two of the notable figures of the age.Italian literature – A depiction of Boetius teaching his students (1385). Boetius, a 6th-century Christian philosopher, helped keep alive the classic tradition in post-Roman Italy.
175. Monuments of ItalyMonuments of Italy – Leaning Tower of Pisa and Colosseum, perhaps the two most famous monuments of Italy
176. Music of Italy – Music holds an important position in society and in politics. Vocal classical music is an iconic part of Italian identity, spanning experimental art music and international fusions to symphonic music and opera. Opera has become a major segment of popular music. Spans a diverse array of regional styles, instruments and dances. Many pieces of Italian music are considered high art. More than other elements of Italian culture, Italian music is unique from other nations' music. As a result, Italian music has kept elements of the many peoples that have influenced the country, including French, German, Spanish. The country's historical contributions to music are also an important part of national pride. Cultural, social issues are often also expressed through music in Italy. No single style has been considered a characteristic "national style". Most folk musics are unique to a small region or city. The musical output of Italy remains characterized by "creative independence a rich variety of types of expression". With the growing industrialization that accelerated during the 21st century, Italian society gradually moved from an agricultural base to an urban and industrial center. Immigration from North Africa, other European countries led to further diversification of Italian music. Traditional music came to exist only in small pockets, especially as part of dedicated campaigns to retain musical identities.Music of Italy – Some common geographical names used as points of reference in Italy.
177. Italian classical music – Plainsong is also called plainchant. More specific terms such as Ambrosian chant, Gallican chant are also found. The differences may be marginal—or even great, in some cases. These differences reflect the great ethnic, linguistic diversity that existed after the fall of the Roman Empire on the Italian peninsula. Monastic traditions arose within the Roman Catholic Church throughout Italy, but at different places and at different times. Yet, in spite of the differences, the similarities are great. Obviously, where Greek rites were practiced, the chants were sung in Latin as they were in the Roman Catholic liturgy. The Trecento, from about 1300 to 1420, was a period of vigorous activity in Italy including painting, architecture, literature, music. The music of the Trecento pioneered new forms of expression, especially in the use of vernacular language, Italian. Secular music before the year 1500 was largely the work of jongleurs, mimes. Thus, Dante showed with the Divine Comedy in 1300 that the common language could be a vehicle for fine literature. Logically, that extended to the lyrics of the songs that people sang. Words were written down with much more ease than melodies were notated. . We only know that today, sounds quite a bit different from Sicilian folk music.Italian classical music – Francesco Landini, the most famous composer of the Trecento, playing a portative organ (illustration from the Fifteenth-century Squarcialupi Codex)
178. Italian folk music – Italian folk music has a deep and complex history. The historic dominance of small city states has allowed quite diverse musical styles to coexist in close proximity. Italy's folk music is often divided into several spheres of geographic influence, a classification system proposed by Alan Lomax in 1956 and often repeated since. In central Italy these influences combine, while indigenous traditions like narrative and singing remain. In the 1950s, a number of important field recordings were conducted by Roberto Leydi among others. The early 1960s saw the rise of political popular music, including a vast number of releases by the I Dischi del Sole label. Important groups had their birth around the same time, including Cantacronache in 1958 and the Nuovo Canzoniere Italiano in 1962. The northern regions of Italy historically exhibited Celtic and Slavic influences in their cultures. Roots revivalists have revived traditional songs, though, from Piedmont, Lombardy and Veneto. The Genoese docks are the home of a polyphonic vocal style with five voices, one of which imitates a guitar. It includes modern groups like La Squadra -- Compagnia del Trallalero and Laura Parodi. The highly urban provinces of central Italy are also known for the medieval sung poetry ottava rima, especially in Tuscany, Lazio and Abruzzo. It is often sometimes competitive in nature. Tuscan poetry is closer in form and style to high-culture poetry than is typical elsewhere in Italy. The dance is also popular throughout the region.Italian folk music – Italian folk musicians performing in Edinburgh
179. Italian opera – Italian opera is both the art of opera in Italy and opera in the Italian language. Famous operas in Italian were written by foreign composers, including Handel, Gluck and Mozart. Dafne by Jacopo Peri was the earliest composition considered opera, as understood today. Peri's works, however, did not arise out of a creative vacuum in the area of sung drama. An underlying prerequisite for the creation of opera proper was the practice of monody. From this, it was only a small step to fully-fledged monody. Such spectacles were usually alternated in performance with the acts of plays. They led the scenography of the second half of the 16th century. Another popular entertainment at this time was the "madrigal comedy," later also called "madrigal opera" by musicologists familiar with the later genre. This consisted of a series of madrigals strung together to suggest a dramatic narrative, but not staged. There were also two staged musical "pastoral"s, Il Satiro and La Disperazione di Fileno, both produced in 1590 and written by Emilio de' Cavalieri. The music of Dafne is now lost. Euridice, with a libretto by Rinuccini, set to music by Peri and Giulio Caccini, recounted the story of Orpheus and Eurydice. The style of singing favored by Peri and Caccini was a heightened form of dramatic recitative supported by instrumental string music. Recitative thus preceded the development of arias, though it soon became the custom to include separate songs and instrumental interludes during periods when voices were silent.Italian opera – Interior of La Fenice opera house in Venice in 1837. Venice was, along with Florence and Rome, one of the cradles of Italian opera.
181. Il Canto degli Italiani – "Il Canto degli Italiani" is the national anthem of Italy. It is best known among Italians after the author of the lyrics, or "Fratelli d'Italia", from its opening line. The words were written in the autumn of 1847 by the then 20-year-old student and patriot Goffredo Mameli. They were set to music in Turin by another Genoese, Michele Novaro. The hymn enjoyed widespread popularity in the following decades. This choice was made official in law only on 23 November 2012. Of uncertain dating, the manuscript reveals inspiration at the same time. The handwriting appears frenetic, with numerous spelling errors, among which are "Ilia" for "Italia" and "Ballilla" for "Balilla". The second manuscript is the copy that Goffredo Mameli sent for setting to music. It has a significant modification: the incipit is "Fratelli d'Italia". This copy is in the Museo del Risorgimento in Turin. The hymn was also printed by the printing office Casamara. The Istituto Mazziniano has a copy of these, with hand annotations by Mameli himself. This sheet, subsequent to the two manuscripts, lacks the last strophe for fear of censorship. These leaflets were to be distributed in Genoa.Il Canto degli Italiani – Original text
182. Emblem of Italy – The emblem of Italy was formally adopted by the newly formed Italian Republic on 5 May 1948. Although often referred to as a coat of arms, it is technically an emblem as it was not designed to conform to heraldic rules. The emblem is used extensively by the Italian government. During this period, the green, red tricolore became the symbol which united all the efforts of the Italian people towards freedom and independence. As the arms mixed with the white of the flag, it was fimbriated azure, blue being the dynastic colour. The lions held lances flying the national flag. From the helmet fell a royal mantle, engulfed under the Stellone d'Italia, purported to protect the nation. After twenty years, on 1 January 1890, the arms' exterior were slightly modified more in keeping with those of Sardinia. The crown was taken from the helmet to the pavilion, now sewn with crosses and roses. On 11 the Savoy lions were replaced by Mussolini with fasces from the National Fascist Party shield. This is celebrated as Festa della Repubblica. Italian fascism derived its name from the fasces, which symbolises authority and/or "strength through unity". The fasces was thus considered an appropriate heraldic symbol. Additionally, Roman legions had carried the eagle, as signa militaria. This shield had previously been displayed from 1927 to 1929, when the latter was modified to incorporate elements of both.Emblem of Italy – Emblem of Italy
183. Flag of Italy – The flag of Italy is a tricolour featuring three equally sized vertical pales of green, white and red, with the green at the hoist side. Its current form was formally adopted on 1 January 1948. The first entity to use the Italian tricolour was the Cisalpine Republic in 1797, which supplanted Milan after Napoleon's victorious army crossed Italy in 1796. A more religious interpretation is that the green represents hope, the white represents faith, the red represents charity; the three theological virtues. The tricolour was reportedly used for the first time on November 13–14. On May 18. In 1799, the independent Republic of Lucca adopted as its flag a horizontal tricolour with green uppermost; this lasted until 1801. In 1805 Napoleon installed Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi, as Princess of Lucca and Piombino. This affair is commemorated in the opening of Leo Tolstoy's Peace. The flag of the Kingdom of Italy was that in rectangular form charged with the golden Napoleonic eagle. This remained in use in 1814. During this period, the tricolore became the symbol which united all the efforts of the Italian people towards independence. The Italian tricolour, defaced with the Savoyan coat of arms, was first adopted by the Kingdom of Sardinia -- Piedmont army on 1848. The civil state variants were adopted in 1851. It is worthy of note, however, that the arms bear the red-white-red flag of the opponent of Italian unification.Flag of Italy – Italian soldiers with the RSI flag in Rome, March 1944
185. Italia turrita – Italia Turrita is the national personification or allegory of Italy, characterised by a mural crown typical of Italian civic heraldry of Medieval communal origin. In broader terms, the crown symbolizes its mostly urban history. She often holds in her hands a bunch of corn ears; during the fascist era, she held a bundle of the lictors. Under the emperor Augustus, an allegorical representation of Italy known as Saturnia Tellus was sculpted on Ara Pacis' external wall in Rome. Another allegory of Italy appears on the coins coined during the reign of emperor Nerva in 97 AD. This mythographical setting-up of the Italian land became also popular during the Middle Ages. In 1490, duke of Milan, had an Italia turrita painted on a medallion of the castle in Piazza Ducale, Vigevano. The Caesaris Astrum appeared again on the cover of Historiarium de Regno Italiae, a book written by the historian Carlo Sigonio. Emblem of Italy National personification Mural crown Stella d'Italia Giovanni Lista, La Stella d'Italia, Edizioni Mudima, Milan, 2011. The front page of La Domenica del Corriere on 25 May 1958 depicted Italia Turrita voting in that day’s general electionItalia turrita – Statue of Italia Turrita in Reggio Calabria.
186. Italians – Italians are a nation and ethnic group native to Italy who share a common Italian culture, ancestry and speak the Italian language as a mother tongue. Italians have greatly contributed to science, arts, technology, cuisine, sports, jurisprudence and banking both abroad and worldwide. Italian people are generally known to clothing and family values. The term Italian has a history that goes back to pre-Roman Italy. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. This period of unification was followed by one of conquest beginning with the First Punic War against Carthage. In the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. The final victor, was accorded the title of Augustus by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. Emperor Diocletian's administrative division of the empire into two parts in 285 provided only temporary relief; it became permanent in 395. In 313, churches thereafter rose throughout the empire. However, he also moved his capital to Constantinople greatly reducing the importance of the former. Romulus Augustulus, was deposed in 476 by a Germanic foederati general in Italy, Odoacer. His defeat marked the end of the western part of the Roman Empire. Odoacer ruled well after gaining control of Italy in 476. Then he was defeated by Theodoric, the king of another Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths.Italians – Amerigo Vespucci, the notable geographer and traveller from whose name the word America is derived.
187. Italian philosophy – Roman philosophy was heavily influenced by that of Greece. Medieval philosophy was mainly Christian, included several important philosophers and theologians such as St Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas was the student of a brilliant Dominican experimentalist, much like the Franciscan, Roger Bacon of Oxford in the 13th century. Aquinas reintroduced Aristotelian philosophy to Christianity. He believed that there was no contradiction between faith and reason. He was a professor at the prestigious University of Paris. The Renaissance was also a great period of the arts and philosophy. As with all periods, there is a wide drift of reasons for categorization and boundaries. In particular, more than later periods, is thought to begin in Italy with the Italian Renaissance and roll through Europe. The humanist movement developed by European scholars of Latin literary and Greek literary texts. Initially, a humanist was simply a teacher of Latin literature. Humanism offered the necessary philological tools for the first critical analysis of texts. An early triumph of textual criticism by Lorenzo Valla revealed the Donation of Constantine to be an medieval forgery produced in the Curia. Italian Renaissance humanists believed that the liberal arts should be practiced by all levels of "richness". They also approved of self, individual dignity.Italian philosophy – St Thomas Aquinas.
188. Sculpture of Italy – Italy is considered the birthplace of Western civilization and a cultural superpower. During its history, the nation gave birth to an enormous number of notable people. Etruscan and Samnite cultures incorporated them. The Greek settlements in particular developed into thriving classical civilizations. The Greek ruins in southern Italy are perhaps best preserved anywhere. For more than 2,000 years Italy experienced migrations, was divided into many independent states until 1861 when it became a nation-state. Despite the social isolation of these regions, Italy's contributions to the cultural and historical heritage of Europe and the world remain immense. The famous elements of Italian culture are its art, music, iconic food. For generations the language of opera was Italian, irrespective of the nationality of the composer. Before being exported to France, the famous Ballet genre also originated in Italy. The country boasts world-famous cities. Rome was seat of the Pope of the Catholic Church. Florence was the heart of a period of great achievements in the arts at the end of the Middle Ages. Important cities include Turin, which used to be the capital of Italy, is now one of the world's great centers of automobile engineering. Milan is the industrial, fashion capital of Italy.Sculpture of Italy – Florence Cathedral, Arnolfo di Cambio, campanile by Giotto dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi.
189. Sport in Italy – Sport in Italy has a long tradition. In numerous sports, team, Italy has a good representation and many successes. Football is the most popular sport in Italy. Basketball, volleyball, cycling are the next most popular/played sports, with Italy having a rich tradition in all three. Italy also has strong traditions in swimming, water polo, rugby union, tennis, athletics, Formula One. This list, published by Italian National Olympic Committee, refers to a survey made in 2000. Football is the most popular sport in Italy. The national football team has won the FIFA World Cup four times, trailing only Brazil and tying Germany. Serie A clubs have seen success in the premier European club competition, winning it twelve times. Often, Italian children can be seen playing on the street with relatives. Italians have won the World Cycling Championship more than any other country, except Belgium. Italy is one of the main basketball nations in France. It has a rich tradition in the sport. The national basketball team's best results were gold at Eurobasket 1983 and EuroBasket 1999, as well as silver at the Olympics in 1980 and 2004. Until the 2000s, the Italian League was considered the strongest domestic outside of North America.Sport in Italy – The Italian national football team at the 1982 FIFA World Cup.
190. Television in Italy – Television in Italy was introduced in 1939, when the first experimental broadcasts began. The Italian branch of Discovery Communications, had a viewing share of 5.8 %. Apart from these three free to air companies, News Corporation's satellite pay platform Sky Italia is increasing in viewing and shares. According to BBC, the Italian industry is widely considered both inside and outside the country to be overtly politicized. Unlike the BBC, controlled by an independent trust, the public RAI is under direct control of the parliament. Starting from January 2005 Telecom Italia Media started offering pay TV services through a prepaid smartcard, including football games, movies and TV shows. During the 2006 Winter Olympics held in Turin, RAI experimentally broadcast a number of sport events using a 1080i signal and H264 coding. Beginning October 2008, in the first region of Italy planned to interrupt analog transmission, Sardinia, television networks broadcast multiplexes only in digital format. Italy has had digital satellite broadcasts with the launch of Stream TV and TELE +. In 2003 these merged into SKY Italia, today this pay platform is broadcasting from Hotbird satellites. HDTV regular services started in June 2006 with the broadcasting of the 2006 FIFA World Cup in High Definition. Additional sport channels are planned for the service. Shareholders include Mediaset, the State Owned Company RAI. Italy currently has the lowest percentage of transmissions from television of almost all of the world's developed countries. In the 1960s the public network RAI was a monopoly and the only network authorized to broadcast in Italy.Television in Italy – Contents
191. List of World Heritage Sites in Italy – Italy ratified the convention on June 1978, making its historical sites eligible for inclusion on the list. Sites in Italy were first held in Cairo and Luxor, Egypt in 1979. At that session, one site was added: the "Rock Drawings in Valcamonica". Four World Heritage Sites in Italy are of the natural type, all others are cultural sites. Therefore, Italy has the largest number of "cultural" heritage sites followed by Spain with 39 cultural sites. Nominations for the World Heritage list are only accepted if the site has previously been listed on the tentative list. As of 2016, Italy was recording such sites on its tentative list. These sites, along with the year they were first included in the tentative list are:List of World Heritage Sites in Italy – 18th-Century Royal Palace at Caserta with the Park, the Aqueduct of Vanvitelli, and the San Leucio Complex