List of Italian billionaires by net worth
2015 Italians billionaires list
- "The World's Billionaires". Forbes. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
|World ranking||Name||Citizenship||Net worth (USD)||Sources of wealth|
|32||Alex DIGiovanni||Italy||22.3 billion||Luxottica|
|38||Maria Franca Fissolo||Italy||22.1 billion||Ferrero|
|99||Stefano Pessina||Italy||12.1 billion||Alliance Boots|
|121||Massimiliana Landini Aleotti||Italy||10.4 billion||Menarini|
|174||Giorgio Armani||Italy||7.6 billion||Armani|
|179||Silvio Berlusconi||Italy||7.4 billion||Fininvest|
|246||Augusto & Giorgio Perfetti||Italy||6 billion||Perfetti Van Melle|
|291||Paolo & Gianfelice Mario Rocca||Italy||5.2 billion||Techint|
|405||Patrizio Bertelli||Italy||4.1 billion||Prada|
|405||Miuccia Prada||Italy||4.1 billion||Prada|
|557||Renzo Rosso||Italy||3.2 billion||Diesel|
|628||Carlo Benetton||Italy||2.9 billion||Benetton|
|628||Gilberto Benetton||Italy||2.9 billion||Benetton|
|628||Giuliana Benetton||Italy||2.9 billion||Benetton|
|628||Luciano Benetton||Italy||2.9 billion||Benetton|
|628||Giuseppe De'Longhi||Italy||2.9 billion||De'Longhi|
|628||Rosa Anna Magno Garavoglia||Italy||2.9 billion||Campari|
|847||Bernardo Caprotti||Italy||2.2 billion||Esselunga|
|894||Francesco Gaetano Caltagirone||Italy||2.1 billion||Caltagirone Group, Cementir, Acea, Caltagirone Editore|
|894||Ennio Doris & family||Italy||2.1 billion||Banca Mediolanum|
|949||Sandro Veronesi||Italy||2.0 billion||Calzedonia|
|1044||Mario Moretti Polegato||Italy||1.85 billion||Geox, Diadora|
|1054||Alberto Prada||Italy||1.8 billion||Prada|
|1054||Marina Prada||Italy||1.8 billion||Prada|
|1054||Luigi Rovati||Italy||1.8 billion||Rottapharm|
|1105||Diego Della Valle||Italy||1.75 billion||Tod's|
|1152||Gio Ferrero||Italy||1.68 billion||La Diamante Vita|
|1173||Domenico Dolce||Italy||1.65 billion||Dolce & Gabbana|
|1173||Stefano Gabbana||Italy||1.65 billion||Dolce & Gabbana|
|1250||Alberto Bombassei||Italy||1.5 billion||Brembo|
|1386||Paolo Bulgari||Italy||1.35 billion||Bulgari|
|1386||Pier Luigi Loro Piana||Italy||1.35 billion||Loro Piana|
|1415||Nicola Bulgari||Italy||1.3 billion||Bulgari|
|1415||Andrea Della Valle||Italy||1.3 billion||Tod's|
|1415||Massimo Moratti||Italy||1.3 billion||Saras|
|1500||Gian Marco Moratti||Italy||1.25 billion||Saras|
|1533||Luigi Cremonini||Italy||1.2 billion||Cremonini Group, Marr Group|
|1605||Remo Ruffini||Italy||1.15 billion||Moncler|
|1712||Brunello Cucinelli||Italy||1.05 billion||Brunello Cucinelli|
|1733||Sandro Salsano||Italy||1.05 billion||Salsano Group|
|1712||Gustavo Denegri||Italy||1.05 billion||DiaSorin|
1. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France, Spain and Austria. Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, Italia, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern worldItaly – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
2. Luxottica – Luxottica Group S. p. A. is an Italian eyewear company. Based in Milan, Italy, it is the worlds largest eyewear company. com and its best known brands are Ray-Ban, Persol, and Oakley. Leonardo Del Vecchio started the company in 1961, in Agordo north of Belluno, Italy, Del Vecchio began his career as the apprentice to a tool and die maker in Milan, but decided to turn his metalworking skills to making spectacle parts. So in 1961, he moved to Agordo in the province of Belluno, the new company was Luxottica s. a. s. a limited partnership with Del Vecchio as one of the founding partners. In 1967, he started selling complete eyeglass frames under the Luxottica brand, convinced of the need for vertical integration, in 1974, he acquired Scarrone, a distribution company. In 1981 the company set up its first international subsidiary, in Germany, the first of many licensing deals with a designer was struck with Armani, in 1988. The company listed in New York in 1990, and in Milan in December 2000, Luxottica later increased its presence in the retail sector by acquiring Sydney-based OPSM in 2003, Pearle Vision and Cole National in 2004. Luxottica acquired Oakley in November 2007 for US$2.1 billion, in August 2011 Luxoticca acquired Erroca for €20 million. In March 2014, it was announced that Luxottica would partner with Google on the development of Google Glass, on the 1st September 2014, a new organizational structure was announced, composed of two co-CEOs, one focusing on market development and the other overseeing corporate functions. After the exit of former CEO Andrea Guerra, Enrico Cavatorta was appointed CEO of Corporate Function, Enrico Cavatorta left the company 40 days after being appointed CEO. In 2016, it was reported that Luxottica had lost its chief executive in a year. In January 2017, the agreed on a €46 billion merger with Essilor. The deal will help to offer a succession plan for Leonardo Del Vecchio. Luxotticas two main product offerings are sunglasses and prescription frames, the company operates in two sectors, manufacturing & wholesale distribution, and retail distribution. Luxottica Retail has more than 7,200 retail locations in the United States, Latin America, Canada, China, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the headquarters of the retail division is in Mason, Ohio, United States. These three programs were founded in 1988, Luxottica came to a decision to unite all three charitable programs into one global foundation and called it One Sight. Luxottica also owns EyeMed Vision Care, a vision care organization in the United States. As of 2014, it is the second largest vision benefits company in the United States, the company has been criticised for the high price of its brand-name glasses, such as Ray-Ban, Oakley, and several othersLuxottica – Persol sunglasses
3. Ferrero SpA – Ferrero SpA is an Italian manufacturer of branded chocolate and confectionery products and it is the third biggest chocolate producer and confectionery company in the world. The company saw a period of growth and success under Pietros son Michele Ferrero. His son Pietro, who oversaw global business, died on April 18,2011, in a cycling accident in South Africa at the age of 47. The Ferrero Group worldwide – now headed by CEO Giovanni Ferrero – includes 38 trading companies,18 factories, Ferrero International SAs headquarters is in Luxembourg. Ferrero SpA is a company owned by the Ferrero family and has been described as one of the worlds most secretive firms. Reputation Institutes 2009 survey ranks Ferrero as the most reputable company in the world, the recently announced financial results for 2015/2016 show a +8. 2% increment from the previous year. In 1946, Pietro Ferrero invented a cream of hazelnuts and cocoa, derived from Gianduja and called it Giandujot, the initial product came in solid loaves wrapped in aluminium foil, which had to be sliced with a knife, and was succeeded by a spreadable version Supercrema. With assistance from his brother Giovanni Ferrero, Pietro Ferrero created his new company to produce, following his work, Pietro was succeeded by his son Michele Ferrero as chief executive. Michele and his wife Maria Franca relaunched his fathers recipe as Nutella, after World War II, they opened production sites and offices abroad and Nutella eventually became the worlds leading chocolate-nut spread brand. Ferrero is the worlds largest consumer of hazelnuts, buying up 25% of global production in 2014, the company is currently run by Giovanni Ferrero, grandson of Pietro and son to Michele Ferrero. The company places emphasis on secrecy, reportedly to guard against industrial espionage. It has never held a conference and does not allow media visits to its plants. Ferreros products are made with machines designed by an engineering department. Ferrero produces several lines of goods under various brand names, as well as the chocolate-hazelnut spread. The company has produced Nutella since 1964, the production of Nutella uses one-quarter of the worlds annual hazelnut supply. In 2014, Ferrero acquired Oltan Group, the largest hazelnut supplier in the world. Ferreros Kinder brand line of products include Kinder Surprise, Kinder Joy, Kinder Chocolate, Kinder Happy Hippo, Kinder Maxi, Kinder Duplo, Kinder Country, Kinder Délice. Ferrero has been producing Thorntons products since the company acquired the British chocolate retailer in June 2015 for £112 million, the company also produces Tic Tac candy, available in mint, cinnamon, and fruit flavors, along with sugar free versionsFerrero SpA – Ferrero Headquarter, Pino Torinese, Italy
4. Giorgio Armani – Giorgio Armani is an Italian fashion designer, particularly noted for his menswear. He is known today for his clean, tailored lines and he is credited with pioneering red-carpet fashion. Whilst at secondary school at the Liceo Scientifico Respighi in Piacenza, Armani aspired to a career in medicine and he enrolled in the Department of Medicine at the University of Milan, but after three years, in 1953, he left and joined the army. Due to his background, he was assigned to the Military Hospital in Verona. He eventually decided to look for a different career path, after his stint in the armed forces, Armani found a job as a window dresser at La Rinascente, a department store in Milan in 1957. He went on to become a seller for the menswear department, in the mid-1960s, Armani moved to the Nino Cerruti company, for which he designed menswear. His skills were in demand, and for the decade, while continuing to work for Cerutti, Armani also freelanced. In the late 1960s, Armani met Sergio Galeotti, an architectural draftsman, in 1973, Galeotti persuaded him to open a design office in Milan, at 37 Corso Venezia. The international press was quick to acknowledge Armanis importance following the shows at the Sala Bianca in the Pitti Palace in Florence. The experience provided Armani with an opportunity to develop his own style in new ways. He was now ready to devote his energy to his own label, in October of that same year, he presented his first collection of mens ready-to-wear for Spring and Summer 1976 under his own name. He also produced a line for the same season. In 1979, after founding the Giorgio Armani Corporation, Armani began producing for the United States, the label became one of the leading names in international fashion with the introduction of several new product lines, including G. A. Le Collezioni, Giorgio Armani Underwear and Swimwear, and Giorgio Armani Accessories, a new store was opened in Milan for the Emporio line, followed by the first Giorgio Armani boutique. Armanis concern for the end user culminated in the development of a more youthful product with the level of stylistic quality as his high-end line. Because of the nature of the Emporio line, Armani felt that he had to make use of new. These included television spots and enormous street ads, together with a magazine that was sent out by mail to consumers. Armani also felt that a relationship with the cinema was essential and he designed the costumes for American Gigolo, the success of which led to a long-term collaboration with the world of filmGiorgio Armani – Giorgio Armani at the Red day Party in GUM, Moscow
5. Fininvest – The Fininvest group is composed of a number of companies, such as Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Teatro Manzoni, Alba Servizi Aerotrasporti and Fininvest Gestione Servizi. The deal to sell Mediaset Premium was collapsed in 2016, Fininvest had a shareholders pact with Ennio Doris, the largest shareholder of Banca Mediolanum, making the pact had an absolute majority in the bank for 51% share capital. On 5 August 2016 Fininvest signed an agreement to sell 99. 93% stake of A. C. Milan to a Chinese private equity fund Sino-Europe Sports. On 15 February 2017 Fininvest announced that they bought an additional 2. 9% shares of Mondadori, Fininvest owned 0. 99% stake in Mediobanca, and was part of the shareholders pact that owned about 31% stake in the bank in total. The Berlusconi family does not control the company directly, instead, its shares are owned by 38 separate companies, all named Holding Italiana followed by a number, most of which are in turn controlled by Berlusconi. These Holding Italiane have repeatedly come under investigation by the police for financial and accounting irregularities, slush funds. All of them were created at the end of the 1970s by covert associates of Berlusconis, some of their liquidity was even deposited in cash. Much of the documentation of that time relative to the financial and banking operations of these companies has been lost. In 1998 the case was shelved because of lack of sufficient evidence to go to trialFininvest – Fininvest, S.p.A.
6. Perfetti Van Melle – Perfetti Van Melle is a privately held Italian-Dutch global manufacturer of confectionery and gum. It was formed in 2001 with the acquisition of Van Melle of Netherlands by the Perfetti group of Italy and its corporate headquarters is in Schiphol, Netherlands. Perfetti Van Melle is the third largest confectionery manufacturer in the world after Mondelēz International and Mars and it employs 17,000 people via 30 subsidiary companies and distributes its products in over 159 countries. Their US headquarters is located in Erlanger, Kentucky a suburb of CincinnatiPerfetti Van Melle – Perfetti Van Melle
7. Diesel (brand) – Diesel S. p. A. is an Italian retail clothing company, located in Breganze, Italy. It sells denim, and other clothing and accessories, the clothing line has two different brands, Diesel and Diesel Black Gold. Theres also a line for children, called Diesel Kid, the company is known for its surreal advertising campaigns. Since 2013 the creative director has been Nicola Formichetti, Diesel founder Renzo Rosso began stitching jeans on a sewing machine at the age of fifteen. He used his mother’s sewing machine to produce low-riding, bell bottomed jeans and he later attended an industrial textile manufacturing college in Padua. In 1976 Rosso began working for a manufacturer called Moltex. Rosso bought out Goldschmieds interest in the Diesel brand name in 1985 for US$500,000, Rosso has said that he learned marketing from the US, creativity from Italy, and systems from Germany. In 1990 Russ Togs, Inc. received the license to market and distribute Diesel lines in the United States, mitsubishi Co received the license to market and distribute in Japan. By 1991, Russ Togs was going out of business, as a result of Russ Togs collapse, the creation of made in the USA Diesel products never came to fruition, and Diesel instead placed its made in Italy jeans and clothing in US stores. In 1992, Diesel became the sponsor for the World Superbike racing circuit. In 1995, Diesel launched one of the first significant fashion retail websites, the first Diesel jeans to be sold online were available in Finland and Sweden starting in 1997. It then opened a store that allowed home delivery for further markets the following year. Further flagship stores opened, including stores in Berlin, Barcelona, Diesel also produces illustrated catalogs for its retail lines. The company also won the Premio Risultati award for Best Italian Company of the Year from the Bocconi Institute in 1996, in 1998 the Wall Street Journal called Diesel “the label of the moment”. Diesel founder Rosso began purchasing additional fashion companies in 2002, under the parent company Only The Brave, companies purchased by Only the Brave included Maison Martin Margiela, Viktor & Rolf, Marni, and licensing company Staff International. In 2005 Diesel released the book “Fifty” upon Rosso’s fiftieth birthday, Diesels denims products are produced exclusively in Italy, with much of its products produced by out-sourced factories. Its headquarters are in Breganze, and had twelve international subsidiaries as of 2005, as of 2008, the company had five thousand points of sale across eighty countries, with 270 mono-brand Diesel stores. Diesel itself owns 170 of those, with the rest owned by franchisees, turnover was over €1.3 billion in 2009, and by 2010 the company had over 400 storesDiesel (brand) – Diesel store in Kraków, Poland
8. Campari – Campari is an alcoholic liqueur, considered an apéritif, obtained from the infusion of herbs and fruit in alcohol and water. It is a bitter characterised by its red colour. Campari is often used in cocktails and is served with soda water or citrus juice. It is produced by the Alfredo Campari Group, a company based in Italy. Campari was invented in 1860 by Gaspare Campari in Novara, Italy and it was originally coloured with carmine dye, derived from crushed cochineal insects, which gave the drink its distinctive red colour. In 2006, Gruppo Campari ceased using carmine in its production, in 1904, Camparis first production plant was opened in Sesto San Giovanni, near Milan, Italy. The company required bars that bought Campari to display the Campari Bitters sign, under the direction of Davide Campari, Gaspares son, the company began to export the beverage, first to Nice in the heart of the French Riviera, then overseas. The Campari brand is now distributed in over 190 countries, in the Italian market, Campari mixed with soda water is sold in individual bottles as Campari Soda. Campari Soda is packaged in a bottle that was designed by Fortunato Depero in 1932. Campari is an ingredient in the classic Negroni cocktail, the Garibaldi cocktail, the Americano. Bill Murrays character Steve Zissou, in Wes Andersons film The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou, is seen drinking Campari, candice Bergens character in the Burt Reynoldss movie Stick drinks Campari and soda, ordering it by name several times. Campari is drunk in the BBC series Call the Midwife, del Boy orders a Campari and Diet Coke in Only Fools and Horses. In the Archer episode Skytanic, Pam Poovey orders a double Campari, in Matthew Weiners Mad Men, Salvatore Romano asks for a Campari with a twist, in the episode titled The Hobo Code. In The Day of the Jackal, the character is asked by his gunsmith. Wine Enthusiast has reviewed Campari on a number of occasions, most recently giving it a score of 96–100 in 2011, proof66 rates Campari in the Top 10 percentile of liqueurs in the worldCampari – Campari
9. Caltagirone Group – Francesco Gaetano Caltagirone is an Italian businessman. He controls the holding company Caltagirone S. p. A. with interests in cement manufacturing, real estate, construction and his grandfather constructed the first buildings in Palermo in the last decades of the 1800s. In 1984 he took over Vianini Lavori S. p. A. - now part of the Caltagirone Group - which operates worldwide in the field of infrastructure projects. After a complete industrial restructuring, he carried out the listing of the two subsidiaries Vianini Lavori S. p. A Industry and Vianini Industria S. p. A. In 1992 he took over Cementir S. p. A, in a few years, under the guidance of his son Francesco Caltagirone Jr. Cementir S. p. A became a multinational company with significant presence in Scandinavia, Turkey and the Far East. About 80% of the turnover is produced outside Italy, in the mid-nineties he assumed full control of the Caltagirone Group joining his shares with those of his cousin Gaetano Caltagirone in the company Finanziaria Italia. Francesco Gaetano Caltagirone holds approximately 70% of Finanziaria Italia, which controls about 51% of Caltagirone S. p. A, since 2000 all publishing and new media have been clustered in the Caltagirone Editore publishing group – the fifth biggest group in Italy. In 2006 he acquired the majority stake in the newspaper Il Gazzettino based in Venice, in 2006 he was appointed Knight of the Order of Merit for Labour. In the same year he became vice-president of Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, until early 2012, when he liquidated his share completely, he was the second largest shareholder and the most important private individual shareholder. In 2007 he was appointed Director of Assicurazioni Generali S. p. A of which he was appointed Vice President in April 2010. He is married to Luisa Farinon and has three children, Francesco Jr. Alessandro and Azzurra, the wife of the Italian politician Pier Ferdinando Casini, Italy, Knight of the Order of Merit for Labour 1 June 2006Caltagirone Group – Francesco Gaetano Caltagirone at Quirinale with Giorgio Napolitano, President of the Italian Republic
10. Mario Moretti Polegato – Mario Moretti Polegato is an Italian entrepreneur, active in the footwear sector, who founded the company Geox of which he is the president. According to Forbes magazine, in 2014 he ranks 13th among the richest men in Italy and he was born in Crocetta del Montello, into a family of entrepreneurs active in the agricultural and winemaking sector. Following in the footsteps, he studied oenology. For several years, the entrepreneur of the Veneto region devoted himself to the family business, when he returned to Italy, he designed a new sole with holes and a breathable and waterproof internal membrane. He was the first person in the world to create a breathable rubber sole, Mario Moretti Polegato began to think of the scope that his idea might have if launched on a large scale. Therefore, he established Geox in order to produce the shoe that breathes, the company, which employed 5 young graduates at the outset, now has about 30,000 direct and indirect employees. Geox is the leading Italian company and among major world leaders in the footwear category. During his working life, Mario Moretti Polegato has received many acknowledgements including Knight of the National Order of Merit from the President of Romania in 2000. In 2002, he was nominated Entrepreneur of the Year – a title given to him by Ernst & Young - and in 2003 he received the Best Italian Entrepreneur in the World award, the European School of Management Italia named him Affiliate Professor of Entrepreneurship. He has held the position of Honorary Consul General of Romania for North-East Italy since 1997. He has always devoted part of his time to teaching students and young entrepreneurs about “Intellectual Property” at the most prestigious universities in Italy, in July 2014, he became a member of the Regency Council of the Bank of Italy. He received the America Award of the Italy-USA Foundation in 2015, Mario Moretti Polegato is the President of the Geox Group, which he founded. It is the major Italian company in the footwear sector. For his company he chose the name “Geox”, which combines the word geo, with the letter x, therefore, right from the outset the choice of the brand shows the highly innovative vocation of the company in the footwear sector worldwide. This vocation is confirmed by the fact that Geox invests 2% of its turnover, every year, in research, after achieving great success in the footwear sector, Geox has also used its own brand to produce clothing with new breathable technologies. In 2004, Geox was listed on the Borsa Italiana, Mario Moretti Polegato is the President of LIR Srl, the finance company based in Treviso, which is entirely owned by the family. Through this company, he controls Geox and Diadora, the Italian brand that represents sport worldwide, LIR Srl is also active in the finance and real estate sectors. Montebelluna Classifica degli uomini più ricchi dItalia secondo Forbes Organizzazione europea dei Brevetti Geox Website Geox Group society InformationMario Moretti Polegato – Mario Moretti Polegato, President and founder at Geox Group (2013).
11. Geox – Geox is an Italian brand of shoe and clothing manufactured with waterproof/breathable fabrics. The company was founded in 1995 by Mario Polegato, the brand name, Geox, was created from a mixture between the Greek word “geo”, and “x”, a letter-element symbolizing technology. Polegato was born in 1952 near Treviso and he developed the idea into a viable product with the help of a small leather-goods business his family owned. That same year, he improved the original patent and extended the range to men’s and women’s footwear. The Geox group has invested in innovation, ever since it was founded. Its Montebelluna head offices are host to R&D facilities, which are unique in their kind, the Montebelluna-based team of scientists have created and patented new machinery to help them pursue their research. Geox also works with major research labs and universities to test, official website Corporate site Geox Retailers The Shoe Box of KnowleGeox – A Geox store in Vaughan Mills
12. Domenico Dolce – Domenico Dolce is an Italian fashion designer and entrepreneur. Along with Stefano Gabbana, he is one half of the fashion house Dolce & Gabbana. Since founding D&G in 1985, Dolce has become one of the worlds most influential fashion designers, Dolce was born in Polizzi Generosa, Sicily, in 1958. His father was a tailor and his mother sold fabrics and apparel and he moved to Milan to attend the fashion design school Istituto Marangoni, but he dropped out before graduating, confident he knew enough to work in the industry. His dream was to work for Armani, in 1980, Dolce met Milan native Stefano Gabbana through Dolces employer, designer Giorgio Correggiari. In 1983, Gabbana and Dolce left Correggiari to work on their own, in October 1985, the Dolce & Gabbana brand made its fashion show debut at Milano Collezionis Nuovi Talenti. In March 1986, D&G released its first collection and held its own show, in 1987, the first D&G store opened in Milan, at 7 Via Santa Cecilia. In 1988, D&G established a partnership with Dolces father, Saverio, in November 1990, D&G opened its New York City showroom at 532 Broadway in SoHo, Manhattan. D&G released its first fragrance, Dolce & Gabbana Parfum, in October 1992, in 1993, the Italian designers received worldwide fame when Madonna chose D&G to design the costumes for her Girlie Show World Tour. They have since gone on to design for Monica Bellucci, Kylie Minogue, Angelina Jolie, later additions to the D&G line included ties, belts, handbags, sunglasses, watches and footwear. By 2003, the company sold products in Italy than Armani, Gucci, Prada. In 2009, nearly 25 years after D&G opened, the company had 113 stores and 21 factory outlets, a staff of 3,500 people, Dolce and Gabbana were an open couple for many years. Following their success, they lived in a 19th-century villa in Milan and they ended their long-time relationship in 2003 or 2005, but the pair still work together at D&G. As of October 2015, Dolce was the 27th richest person in Italy with a net worth of approximately US$1.74 billion, in 2013, both Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana were convicted of tax evasion and sentenced to a 20-month suspended sentence in prison. An Italian court found the pair guilty of failing to declare millions of euros of revenue earned through a D&G subsidiary company, Gado and they denied the charges and appealed the case, in October 2014, they were both cleared of wrongdoing by the appellate court. In March 2015, Dolces comments about in vitro fertilization sparked a media storm of criticism. In an interview with Panorama magazine, Dolce said, I am gay, I believe you cannot have everything in life. You are born from a father and a mother, or at least that is how it should beDomenico Dolce – Dolce & Gabbana store in Kobe, Japan
13. Dolce & Gabbana – Dolce & Gabbana is a luxury Italian fashion house founded in 1985 in Legnano by Italian designers Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana. The two met in Milan in 1980 and designed for the fashion house. In 1982 they established a designer consulting studio, in time it grew to become Dolce & Gabbana and they presented their first womens collection in 1985 in Milan, where a year later their store would open its doors. In 1988, they launched their line, and in 1989 they began designing underwear. Dolce & Gabbana started to export their products to Japan and other countries like the U. S. where they founded their own showroom in 1990, in 1992, the same year they presented their mens collection, they also launched their first perfume Dolce & Gabbana. They won the Woolmark award in 1991, and the prize most feminine flavor of the year in 1993, towards the end of the 1990s their sales were around 500 million dollars and in 2003 their revenue reached $633 million. By 2005, their turnover was €600 million, Domenico Dolce began his career in the fashion industry after dropping out of a three-year course in fashion design at Marangoni Institute, believing that he knew everything the school had to teach. His dream was to work for Giorgio Armani so one day, inside the door, there was a long white carpet leading to the receptionists desk. Dolce was not sure if he should walk on it with his shoes on, I am such a cretino, he says. He decided that he would look ridiculous appearing at the front desk without shoes, so he approached by sidling along the wall and he handed the book to the receptionist and to this day, Dolce does not know if Armani ever saw the sketches. Dolce found a job as an assistant to a designer named Giorgio Correggiari, One night at a club, he met a young man named Stefano Gabbana. Dolce was impressed with Gabbanas good looks and outgoing personality and Gabbana was happy to hear Dolces advice on how to approach Correggiari for a job. Correggiari ended up hiring Gabbana to work on sportswear, and Dolce taught him how to sketch and the basics of tailoring, Dolce, We always filed two different invoices for the freelance work we did, even when we were working for the same client. Gabbana, Our accountant said, Why not just do one invoice for both of you, put Dolce and Gabbana at the top. So the brand was born, the brainchild of a Milanese bookkeeper, the first collection from the design duo was shown in October 1985 alongside five other up-and-coming Italian labels as part of Milan Fashion Week. The two did not have money to hire models or provide accessories for them, so they sought help from their friends. The models simply wore their personal items to complement the clothing and they used a bed sheet that Dolce had brought from home as their stage curtain. The pair labeled their first collection Real Women, due in part to the use of local women on the runwayDolce & Gabbana – 2007 D&G advertising image subject to controversy
14. Bulgari – Bulgari is an Italian jewelry and luxury goods brand that produces and markets several product lines including jewelry, watches, fragrances, accessories, and hotels. The name Voulgaris itself contains the root word Βούλγαρ Greek for Bulgarian, furthermore in the companys native Italy the word Bulgari means Bulgarians or people of Bulgarian descent. Sotirios Boulgaris, born in an Aromanian village known as Kalarites began his career as a jeweller in his home village Paramythia, in 1877, he left for Corfu and then Naples. In 1881 he finally moved to Rome, where in 1884 he founded his company, the store in Via Sistina was then replaced by the current flagship store in Via dei Condotti opened in 1905 by Bulgari with the help of his two sons, Costantino and Giorgio. During the Second World War, Costantino Bulgari and his wife Laura hid three Jewish women in their own Roman home and they were strangers to them, the Bulgaris opened their doors out of outrage for the raid of the Roman ghetto in October 1943. For their generous action, on 31 December 2003, they were awarded the title of Righteous among the Nations at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem, after Giorgios death in 1966, his son Gianni led the company as co-chief executive with his cousin Marina. As chairman and CEO of Bulgari in the early 1970s, Gianni initiated the internationalization of the company by opening shops in New York, Geneva, Monte-Carlo, for many years the company maintained a showroom in New Yorks The Pierre Hotel. In the late 1970s, Gianni led a complete overhaul of the company, establishing a new watch business, in 1985, Gianni resigned as CEO and in 1987, he left the family business after selling his one-third stake in the company to his brothers Nicola and Paolo. In 1984, Sotirios grandsons Paolo and Nicola Bulgari were named Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the company, trapanis goal to diversify the company was started in the early 1990s with the release of the Bulgari perfume line. Under his tenure the company has established itself as a luxury goods brand recognized throughout the world, in 1995, the company was listed on the Borsa Italiana. The company has seen 150% revenue growth between 1997 and 2003, under the deal, the Bulgari family sold their 50.4 per cent controlling stake in exchange for 3 per cent of LVMH, thereby becoming the second-biggest family shareholder behind the Arnaults in LVMH. The takeover doubled the size of LVMH’s watches and jewellery unit, the acquisition concluded on 4 October 2011 as Bulgari was delisted from the Borsa Italiana. Bulgari opened its first hotel in Milan in 2004, a resort in Bali in 2006, followed by a hotel in London in 2012, in 2011, Bulgari Bali has been chosen by the readers of Smart Travel Asia magazine as number-2 of top places to stay in Asia. Current locations include Milan, London, and Bali with restaurants in Osaka, future locations will include Shanghai, Beijing, Dubai, and Moscow. Bulgari jewelry design is distinctive and often imitated, in the 1970s, many of the more expensive Bulgari pieces were characterized by instantly recognizable, bold, architectural designs combining large and weighty gold links with interlocking steel. Bulgari is also famous for colored stones, especially sapphires mixed in unique formats, genuine Bulgari watches have a unique serial number that is registered with the company. Bulgari relies on a network of about 300 stores, located in the most exclusive shopping areas in the world. The largest Bulgari store in the world is the 10-story Bulgari Ginza Tower in Tokyo,940 square meters of floor space, including a restaurantBulgari – A Bulgari shop in Baku, Azerbaijan
15. Andrea Della Valle – Cardinal Andrea della Valle was an Italian clergyman and art collector. Andrea belonged to an ancient family of Roman nobles and he was the son of Filippo della Valle, a Roman patrician, the family tomb is in Santa Maria in Aracoeli, where an inscription to their father was placed by Andrea and his brother Bartolomeo. Andrea also had a sister, Sigismonda, Andrea was elected bishop of Crotone in 1496. In 1503-05 he directed the Apostolic Chancery, and served as Apostolic secretary during the pontificate of Pope Julius II and he was transferred to the titular diocese of Miletus in 1508, which he resigned in favor of his nephew Quinzio Rustici on 26 November 1523. He participated in the Fifth Lateran Council,1512, and was created cardinal priest in the consistory of 1 July 1517 and he participated in the conclaves of 1521-22 and 1523. As archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica he ceremonially opened and closed the Holy Door in the Jubilee Year of 1525, cardinal della Valle is best remembered, however, as the collector of one of the first collections of Roman antiquities that marked the High Renaissance. He inherited some antiquities, which had collected by the della Valle in the previous century, according to Vasari. Many visitors left written impressions during the 16th century, and more than one artist made sketches, a theatre was built in the Cardinals courtyard, which gave its name to the via Teatro Valle. Among identifiable pieces, the Marsyas of the Uffizi, the Apollo with Lyre of Poggio Imperiale, the Minerva of Palazzo Pitti and othersAndrea Della Valle – Supporting figure (telamon) of Pan, called a "Della Valle Satyr"
16. Massimo Moratti – From 1995 until 2013, Moratti was the chairman of F. C. Internazionale Milano. He is said to have spent around €1.5 billion of his fortune in the transfer market. He was Inters honorary chairman, and also a United Nations Goodwill Ambassador, in 2013, he was inducted into the Italian Football Hall of Fame. Massimo Moratti is the son of industrialist Angelo Moratti, who was the chairman of Football Club Internazionale Milano during the teams Golden Age from 1955 to 1968. Born in the villa in the Bosco Chiesanuova, close to Verona. Letizia Moratti, his brothers wife, was the Mayor of Milan from 2006 until 2011, on his fathers death, Massimo Moratti inherited his shares in the Saras Group, engaged in the refining of petroleum, where he is presently C. E. O. Moratti is also the owner of Sarlux, headquartered in Cagliari, married to the environmental activist Emilia Moratti, the couple have five children. On 10 September 2009, Sauro Gori announced that Moratti had been appointed a United Nations Goodwill Ambassador, in May 2011, Moratti supported Giuliano Pisapias bid to become mayor of Milan against his sister-in-law Letizia. His call for change was perceived as an extension of his rivalry with A. C. Milan, Silvio Berlusconi, Moratti took over as president of Inter from Ernesto Pellegrini in 1995, during a period where many considered Inter to be underachievers. Inter won the Scudetto, the Coppa Italia and the Champions League in the 2009-2010 season, Moratti is said to have spent around €1.5 billion of his personal fortune in the transfer market in his time as president. His most famous signing was that of Ronaldo from FC Barcelona in the summer of 1997, however, criticism also been levelled against Moratti, as he fired coaches frequently. Roberto Mancini and José Mourinho were the only two trophy winning and longest serving coach in recent years, before Mancini, Massimo employed more than 10 short-lived coaches, including Roy Hodgson, Marcello Lippi, Marco Tardelli, Héctor Cúper and Alberto Zaccheroni. The day after Ranieri was dismissed, chief scout of the first team Giovanni Battista Lanfranchi was fired and replaced by the technical commission of Udinese. Lanfranchi had served for Inter for 13 years in different positions, on 15 November 2013, International Sports Capital took control of 70% of the club. Indonesian businessman Erick Thohir, a part-owner of that company, was elected Chairman of Inter, but Moratti remained with the club as Honorary Chairman. On 28 June 2016 Massimo Morattis Internazionale Holding S. r. l. sold all its stake in F. C. Internazionale Milano S. p. A. to Erick Thohirs Nusantara Sports Ventures HK Limited for €60 million. Massimo Morattis wife, Milly Moratti, remained in the Advisory Board of Inter, however, Massimo Moratti himself, was no longer the Honorary Chairman of the clubMassimo Moratti – Moratti in 2009
17. Moncler – Moncler is an Italian apparel manufacturer and lifestyle brand founded in 1952 by René Ramillon most known for its down jackets and sportswear. Moncler took its name from the abbreviation of Monestier-de-Clermont, an Alpine town near Grenoble, in 2003, the brand was bought by the Italian entrepreneur Remo Ruffini. Moncler’s flagship store is on the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in Paris, Moncler is especially known for its down jackets. The name is an abbreviation of Monestier-de-Clermont, a village in the mountains near Grenoble, at the outset, Moncler produced quilted sleeping bags, a single model of a lined cagoule and tents with a telescopie structure and outside cover. The first quilted jackets were conceived for protecting workers from the cold and they used the jackets on top of their overalls in the small mountain establishment. The first to them and realize their potential was the French mountaineer Lionel Terray. All were put to the test in the course of expeditions and were gradually improved, Moncler also accompanied the French expedition which reached the summit of Makalù in 1995 and was the official supplier for expeditions in Alaska organised by Lionel Terray in 1964. On occasion of the Grenoble Winter Olympics, Moncler became the supplier of the French national downhill skiing team. It was a event that was also to mark the change in logo, Mount Eguit. In 2003, Moncler was bought out by the Italian entrepreneur Remo Ruffini, current President and Creative Director, the IPO of Moncler on the Milan Stock Exchange took place on 16 December 2013, with an initial value of €10.20 per share. The shares were 31 times oversubscribed and rose 47% on the first day, Moncler hired celebrity photographer Annie Leibovitz in August 2013 to shoot an ad campaign. Since 2008, the collection is presented during Paris Fashion Week, Moncler faces major issues with counterfeit products. There have been a number of incidents in which counterfeit Moncler jackets are sold online through fake websites, Moncler has set up an online code verification system, to check the validation of the product. Online fashion blogs are helping online customers to see the differences between the real moncler jackets and the fake onesMoncler – Moncler
18. Sandro Salsano – Sandro Salsano is an Italian entrepreneur, businessman, investor and philanthropist. He is the President and Chairman of Salsano Group and Chairman of Salsano Family Office, the group has investments in global real estate, luxury, private equity, venture capital, financials and technology. He is the Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Salsano Shahani Foundation and he sits on the Board of a number of companies. He was named Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum, born in Lecco, Italy, he grew up in Southern Italy where he was a professional basketball player until he decided to move to Milan to study at Bocconi University. His mother was a teacher and his father was employed with the State Railways and his first job was at Scottish Widows Investment Partnership in London. He later became a shareholder and partner in an investment bank in former Soviet Union and he co-founded what became one of the largest factoring companies for exporters to Central America and the Caribbean. He was a principal in a UK FCA regulated hedge fund, the group has its headquarter in Panama with presence in Miami, New York, San Francisco, San Juan, London, Zurich and Shanghai. The Group owns over 1,000 ha of land in Panama, Salsano sits on the board of different companies as both a shareholder and as an advisor. He joined in 2016 the Advisory Board of The Family Office Association, sandro Salsano is a producer with Nick Raynes, Julie Pacino, Jennifer DeLia and Nitsa Benchetrit of The First, Pickford, The Woman Who Made Hollywood. Salsano has been honoured by the World Economic Forum as a Young Global Leader in 2014 He is often featured on several medias like CNBC, FT, Bloomberg, Forbes, CNN and he was regarded as one of the top 50 business leaders in Latin America under 40. He has donated among others to the William J. Clinton Foundation, raisa Gorbachev Foundation, Elton John AIDS Foundation, Amfar, Leonardo DiCaprio Foundation, Olga Sinclair Foundation, Nuestro Pequenos Hermanos. He set up Salsano Shahani foundation with his wife Johanna Shahani to improve education in Panama. Sandro is the Chairman for Panama of Global Dignity, an independent and their project is the universal right of every human being to lead a dignified life. The organization was established in 2006 by Crown Prince Haakon of Norway, John Hope Bryant, Salsano is also a Fellow at the Aspen Institute, an international nonprofit organization founded in 1950, headquartered in Washington, D. C. USA, and campuses in Aspen, Colorado and at the Wye River in Maryland, Salsano Group has announced a commitment totaling $15 million to promote the conservation of natural areas and protect working landscapes in the Republic of Panama in 2016. He is also part of the academy of The Global Teacher Prize and he got married to Johanna Shahani on the 14th of March 2014 in Panama City. 2,000 guests attended the wedding and were entertained by Latin Grammy winner duo Chino & Nacho among others, sandro Salsano is an astronaut passenger with Sir Richard Bransons Virgin Galactic and he will enter space on board SpaceShipTwo. Other astronauts include Angelina Jolie, Philippe Stark, Justin Bieber and Leonardo DiCaprio Salsano family office website Salsano group website Salsano Shahani foundationSandro Salsano – Sandro Salsano, businessman and investor at 2015 Davos
19. List of richest people of Ukraine – Richest people of Ukraine are several ratings compiled and published often by two Ukrainian magazines Focus and Korrespondent. Korrespondent conducts its rating since 2006, while both magazines publish them simultaneously since 2007, both magazines only include the top performers such as top-50, top-100, top-200 etc. Five richest people Five richest people The Korrespondent criteria for the ratings stay almost unchanged since were initiated in 2006, the only change that took place it was extending of the ratings from top-50 top-100 for 2010. The ratings come out on June 11 every year, the calculations for the magazine are conducted by financial specialists of the investment company Dragon Capital. Those calculations are made by a system of assets evaluation based on the market capitalization of businesses. Korrespondent also contacts every potential candidate to the list to confirm the available information, the Focus criteria change slightly from year to year. Top-10 included Top-10 included Korrespondent ratings Focus ratingsList of richest people of Ukraine – Rinat Akhmetov (Donetsk)
20. History of Italy – The history of Italy begins with the arrival of the first hominins 850,000 years ago at Monte Poggiolo. Italy shows evidence of habitation by modern humans beginning about 43,000 years ago. It is reached by the Neolithic as early as 6000–5500 BC Cardium Pottery, among the Italic peoples, the Latins, originally situated in the Latium region, and their Latin language would come to dominate the peninsula with the Roman conquest of Italy in the 3rd century BC. The decline and collapse of the Western Empire by the end of the 5th century is taken to mark the end of Late Antiquity, a Lombard Kingdom of Italy was established, although parts of the peninsula remained under Byzantine rule and influence until the 11th century. With the rise of nationalism and the idea of the state in the 19th century. The new Kingdom of Italy, established in 1861, quickly modernized and built a colonial empire, colonizing parts of Africa. However, many regions of the nation remained rural and poor. Part of the allied powers of World War I, Italy defeated its historical enemy. Soon afterwards, however, the state collapsed to social unrest. Italy joined the Axis powers in World War II, falling into a bloody Civil War in 1943, in 1946, as a result of a Constitutional Referendum, the monarchy was abolished. The new republic was proclaimed on 2 June 1946, in the 1950s and 1960s, Italy saw a period of rapid modernization and sustained economic growth, the so-called Italian economic miracle. Italy plays a prominent role in regional and global military, cultural, in prehistoric times, the Italian peninsula was rather different from its current shape. During the last Ice Age, the islands of Elba and Sicily were connected to the mainland. The Adriatic Sea was far smaller, since it started at what is now the Gargano peninsula, the arrival of the first hominins was 850,000 years ago at Monte Poggiolo. The presence of the Homo neanderthalensis has been demonstrated in archaeological findings dating to c.50,000 years ago, Homo sapiens sapiens appeared during the upper Palaeolithic. Remains of the prehistoric age have been found in Liguria, Lombardy. The most famous is perhaps that of Ötzi the Iceman, the mummy of a hunter found in the Similaun glacier in South Tyrol. During the Copper Age, Indoeuropean people migrated to Italy, approximatively four waves of population from north to the Alps have been identifiedHistory of Italy – Matera, which dates from Palaeolithic 10th millennium BC, (region of Basilicata).
21. Prehistoric Italy – In prehistoric times, the Italian peninsula was rather different from how it is now. During glaciations, for example, the sea level was lower, the Adriatic Sea began at what is now the Gargano Peninsula, and what is now its surface up to Venice was a fertile plain with a humid climate. The presence of Homo neanderthalensis has been demonstrated in archaeological findings dating to c.50,000 years ago, there are some twenty such sites, the most important being that of the Grotta Guattari at San Felice Circeo, on the Tyrrhenian Sea south of Rome. Other are the grotta di Fumane and the Breuil grotto, also in San Felice, the first Cro Magnon inhabitants of Italy moved across the peninusula, establishing themselves in small settlements far from each one, most on high areas. In 2011 it has discovered the most ancient Sardinian complete human skeleton at Pistoccu, in Marina di Arbus. Cardium Pottery is a Neolithic decorative style that gets its name from the imprinting of the clay with the shell of the Cardium edulis, a marine mollusk. The alternative name Impressed Ware is given by archaeologists to define this culture, because impressions can be with sharp objects other than Cardium shell. Impressed Ware is found in the zone covering Italy to the Ligurian coast as distinct from the more western Cardial beginning in Provence, France and extending to western Portugal. This pottery style gives its name to the culture of the Mediterranean Neolithic. Since the Late-Neolithic, Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Liguria, Tuscany, later, in the Bronze Age, megalithic structures were built also in Latium, Puglia and Sicily. The Remedello, Rinaldone and Gaudo cultures are late Neolithic cultures of Italy, traces of which are found in the present-day regions of Lombardy, Tuscany, Latium. They are sometimes described as Eneolithic cultures, due to their use of copper tools. The earliest Statue menhirs, frequently depicting weapons, were erected by the populations of northern Italy and this sculptural tradition of possible steppe origin, lasted in some regions well into the Bronze Age and even into the Iron Age. The Beaker culture marks the transition between the Eneolitichic and the early Bronze Age and it was followed in the Middle Bronze Age by the facies of the pile dwellings and of the dammed settlements. Located in Sardinia, the Nuragic civilization, who lasted from the early Bronze Age to the second century A. D and it takes its name from the characteristic Nuraghe. The nuraghe towers are considered the best-preserved and largest megalithic remains in Europe. Their effective use is debated, while most scholars considered them as fortresses. A warrior and mariner people, the ancient Sardinians held flourishing trades with the other Mediterranean peoples, another important element of this civilitation are the Giants of Monte Prama, perhaps the oldest anthropomorphic statues of the western Mediterranean seaPrehistoric Italy – Figure of an Aurochs engraved at the Romito cave near Cosenza
22. Pre-Nuragic Sardinia – The Pre-Nuragic period refers to the prehistory of Sardinia from the Paleolithic till the middle Bronze age, when the Nuragic civilization flourished on the island. The discovery of Paleolithic lithic workshops indicate a presence in Sardinia in the period between 450,000 and 10,000 years ago. During the last ice age sea levels were lower than 130 meters, at that time Sardinia and Corsica formed a large island. The oldest remains of Homo sapiens in Sardinia date back to the Upper Paleolithic, Mesolithic human remains have been found at the Su Coloru cave of Laerru, in northern Sardinia. The material culture suggest that people came in Sardinia from the Italian peninsula after a difficult navigation with rudimentary boats. The oldest complete skeleton was found in 2011 in the territory of Arbus, it dates back to about 9,000 years ago. The culture of Su Carroppu represents the earliest phase of the Neolithic in Sardinia. There were also found the remains of ancient meals, with the discovery of bones of animals such as deer, Prolagus sardus, wild boar, the presence of two human skeletons, along with ornaments made of shells, according to the researchers witnessed the customs of burial cave. The Grotta Verde culture is named after a cave located at Capo Caccia near Alghero and it is dated back to the second phase of the Early Neolithic in the mid-fifth millennium BC. This culture was present in the north-west part of Sardinia and was characterized by the production of refined pottery, on a vase found in the cave, the handles depicted, in a stylized manner, human heads with small nose, eyes and mouth played. According to archaeologist Giovanni Lilliu, this would be the first anthropomorphic representation of Sardinian prehistory, on a wall inside the cave were also found particular graffiti, another singular testimony of these people. In 1971 the priest and caver Renato Loria found in the territory of Mara, the cave was subsequently investigated by archaeologists VR Switsur and David H. Trump, they discovered a series of different cultures that embraced in a very long period of time. The oldest has been dated to the fifth millennium BC, findings show that this culture was developed by people dedicated to agriculture, husbandry. The researchers noted the almost complete disappearance of the forms of pottery decoration and the appearance of big greenstone rings, also commons in Corsica. The Bonuighinu culture prevailed from 4000 BC up to 3400 BC and it spread widely throughout most of the island and one of the most important villages was that of Puisteris in Mogoro. The artifacts related to the village and necropolis of Cuccuru SArrius show a well-organized society, the site Cuccuru SArrius is indicated by many scholars belonging to the culture of San Ciriaco. The San Ciriaco culture characterizes the end of the Middle Neolithic and it is regarded by archaeologists as a cultural link between the Bonuighinu and the Ozieri and is currently undergoing an exact definition. It takes its name from the Church of St Cyriacus of Terralba, during this phase were built the first Domus de Janas, a type of hypogean tomb that will spread throughout the island, with the exception of GalluraPre-Nuragic Sardinia – Mother Goddess from Cuccuru s'Arrius, Cabras
23. Ancient Carthage – Carthage was the Phoenician city-state of Carthage and during the 7th to 3rd centuries BC, included its sphere of influence, the Carthaginian Empire. The empire extended over much of the coast of North Africa as well as encompassing substantial parts of coastal Iberia, Carthage was founded in 814 BC. At the height of the prominence it served as a major hub of trade. The city also had to deal with potentially hostile Berbers, the inhabitants of the area where Carthage was built. In 146 BC, after the third and final Punic War, Roman forces destroyed, redesigned, nearly all of the other Phoenician city-states and former Carthaginian dependencies subsequently fell into Roman hands. According to Roman sources, Phoenician colonists from modern-day Lebanon, led by Dido, Queen Elissa was an exiled princess of the ancient Phoenician city of Tyre. At its peak, the metropolis she founded, Carthage, came to be called the city, ruling 300 other cities around the western Mediterranean Sea. Elissas brother, Pygmalion of Tyre, had murdered Elissas husband, Elissa escaped the tyranny of her own country, founding the new city of Carthage and subsequently its later dominions. Details of her life are sketchy and confusing, but the following can be deduced from various sources, according to Justin, Princess Elissa was the daughter of King Belus II of Tyre. When he died, the throne was jointly bequeathed to her brother, Pygmalion and she married her uncle Acerbas, also known as Sychaeus, the High Priest of Melqart, a man with both authority and wealth comparable to the king. This led to increased rivalry between the elite and the monarchy. Pygmalion was a tyrant, lover of both gold and intrigue, who desired the authority and fortune enjoyed by Acerbas, Pygmalion assassinated Acerbas in the temple and kept the misdeed concealed from his sister for a long time, deceiving her with lies about her husbands death. At the same time, the people of Tyre called for a single sovereign, in the Roman epic of Virgil, the Aeneid, Queen Dido, the Greek name for Elissa, is first introduced as a highly esteemed character. In just seven years, since their exodus from Tyre, the Carthaginians have rebuilt a successful kingdom under her rule and her subjects adore her and present her with a festival of praise. Her character is perceived by Virgil as even more noble when she offers asylum to Aeneas and his men, who have recently escaped from Troy. A spirit in the form of the god, Mercury, sent by Jupiter, reminds Aeneas that his mission is not to stay in Carthage with his new-found love, Dido. Virgil ends his legend of Dido with the story that, when Aeneas tells Dido, her heart broken, as she lay dying, she predicted eternal strife between Aeneas people and her own, rise up from my bones, avenging spirit she says, an invocation of Hannibal. The settlements at Crete and Sicily were in conflict with the GreeksAncient Carthage – Carthage and its dependencies in 264 BC
24. Magna Graecia – The settlers who began arriving in the 8th century BC brought with them their Hellenic civilization, which was to leave a lasting imprint in Italy, such as in the culture of ancient Rome. Most notably the Roman poet Ovid referred to the south of Italy as Magna Graecia in his poem Fasti, according to Strabo, Magna Graecias colonization started already at the time of the Trojan War and lasted for several centuries. Also during that period, Greek colonies were established in places as widely separated as the eastern coast of the Black Sea, Eastern Libya and they included settlements in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula. The Romans called the area of Sicily and the foot of Italy Magna Graecia since it was so densely inhabited by the Greeks, the ancient geographers differed on whether the term included Sicily or merely Apulia and Calabria, Strabo being the most prominent advocate of the wider definitions. With colonization, Greek culture was exported to Italy, in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its religious rites, an original Hellenic civilization soon developed, later interacting with the native Italic civilisations. Many of the new Hellenic cities became very rich and powerful, like Neapolis, Syracuse, Acragas Paestum, other cities in Magna Graecia included Tarentum, Epizephyrian Locri, Rhegium, Croton, Thurii, Elea, Nola, Ancona, Syessa, Bari and others. Following the Pyrrhic War in the 3rd century BC, Magna Graecia was absorbed into the Roman Republic, a remarkable example of the influence is the Griko-speaking minority that still exists today in the Italian regions of Calabria and Apulia. Griko is the name of a language combining ancient Doric, Byzantine Greek, there is a rich oral tradition and Griko folklore, limited now but once numerous, to around 30,000 people, most of them having become absorbed into the surrounding Italian element. Some scholars, such as Gerhard Rohlfs, argue that the origins of Griko may ultimately be traced to the colonies of Magna Graecia, one example is the Griko people, some of whom still maintain their Greek language and customs. For example, Greeks re-entered the region in the 16th and 17th century in reaction to the conquest of the Peloponnese by the Ottoman Empire, especially after the end of the Siege of Coron, large numbers of Greeks took refuge in the areas of Calabria, Salento and Sicily. Greeks from Coroni, the so-called Coronians, were nobles, who brought with them substantial movable property and they were granted special privileges and tax exemptions. Other Greeks who moved to Italy came from the Mani Peninsula of the Peloponnese, the Maniots were known for their proud military traditions and for their bloody vendettas, many of which still continue today. Another group of Maniot Greeks moved to Corsica, Ancient Greek dialects Greeks in Italy Italiotes Graia Graïke Graecus Griko people Griko language Hellenic civilization Names of the Greeks Cerchiai L. Jannelli L. Longo F. The Greek Cities of Magna Graecia and Sicily, in Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. 21 June,2005,17,19 GMT18,19 UK, salentinian Peninsula, Greece and Greater Greece. Traditional Griko song performed by Ghetonia, traditional Griko song performed by amateur local group. Second Interdisciplinary Symposium on the Hellenic Heritage of Southern Italy, the Greeks in the West, genetic signatures of the Hellenic colonisation in southern Italy and SicilyMagna Graecia – Cities of Magna Graecia and other Greek settlements in Italy (in red)
25. Roman Republic – It was during this period that Romes control expanded from the citys immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. During the first two centuries of its existence, the Roman Republic expanded through a combination of conquest and alliance, by the following century, it included North Africa, most of the Iberian Peninsula, and what is now southern France. Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st century BC, it included the rest of modern France, Greece, and much of the eastern Mediterranean. By this time, internal tensions led to a series of wars, culminating with the assassination of Julius Caesar. The exact date of transition can be a matter of interpretation, Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. Over time, the laws that gave exclusive rights to Romes highest offices were repealed or weakened. The leaders of the Republic developed a tradition and morality requiring public service and patronage in peace and war, making military. Many of Romes legal and legislative structures can still be observed throughout Europe and much of the world in modern nation states, the exact causes and motivations for Romes military conflicts and expansions during the republic are subject to wide debate. While they can be seen as motivated by outright aggression and imperialism and they argue that Romes expansion was driven by short-term defensive and inter-state factors, and the new contingencies that these decisions created. In its early history, as Rome successfully defended itself against foreign threats in central and then northern Italy, with some important exceptions, successful wars in early republican Rome generally led not to annexation or military occupation, but to the restoration of the way things were. But the defeated city would be weakened and thus able to resist Romanizing influences. It was also able to defend itself against its non-Roman enemies. It was, therefore, more likely to seek an alliance of protection with Rome and this growing coalition expanded the potential enemies that Rome might face, and moved Rome closer to confrontation with major powers. The result was more alliance-seeking, on the part of both the Roman confederacy and city-states seeking membership within that confederacy. While there were exceptions to this, it was not until after the Second Punic War that these alliances started to harden into something more like an empire and this shift mainly took place in parts of the west, such as the southern Italian towns that sided with Hannibal. In contrast, Roman expansion into Spain and Gaul occurred as a mix of alliance-seeking, in the 2nd century BC, Roman involvement in the Greek east remained a matter of alliance-seeking, but this time in the face of major powers that could rival Rome. This had some important similarities to the events in Italy centuries earlier, with some major exceptions of outright military rule, the Roman Republic remained an alliance of independent city-states and kingdoms until it transitioned into the Roman Empire. It was not until the time of the Roman Empire that the entire Roman world was organized into provinces under explicit Roman controlRoman Republic – Route of Pyrrhus of Epirus
26. Roman Empire – Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was then unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperorRoman Empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
27. Italy in the Middle Ages – Late Antiquity in Italy lingered on into the 7th century under the Ostrogothic Kingdom and the Byzantine Empire under the Justinian dynasty, the Byzantine Papacy until the mid 8th century. The Middle Ages proper begin as the Byzantine Empire was weakening under the pressure of the Muslim conquests, Lombard rule ended with the invasion of Charlemagne in 773, who established the Kingdom of Italy and the Papal States. In the 11th century began a development unique to Italy. On the other hand, the Italian city states were in a state of constant warfare, adding to, each city aligned itself with one faction or the other, yet was divided internally between the two warring parties, Guelfs and Ghibellines. Since the 13th century, these wars had increasingly been fought by mercenaries, giving rise to the Italian institution of condottieri and the Swiss mercenary culture. The precarious balance between these powers came to an end in 1494 as the duke of Milan Ludovico Sforza sought the aid of Charles VIII of France against Venice, triggering the Italian War of 1494–98. The House of Habsburg would control Italy for the duration of the modern period. Italy was invaded by the Visigoths in the 5th century, the last Western Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus, was deposed in 476 by an Eastern Germanic general, Odoacer. He subsequently ruled in Italy for seventeen years as rex gentium, theoretically under the suzerainty of the Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno, the administration remained essentially the same as that under the Western Roman Empire, and gave religious freedoms to the Christians. Odoacer fought against the Vandals, who had occupied Sicily, in 489, however, Emperor Zeno decided to oust the Ostrogoths, a foederatum people living in the Danube, by sending them into Italy. On February 25,493 Theodoric the Great defeated Odoacer and became the king of the Ostrogoths, Theodoric, who had lived long in Constantinople, is now generally considered a Romanized German, and he in fact ruled over Italy largely through Roman personnel. The reign of Theodoric is generally considered a period of recovery for the country, infrastructures were repaired, frontiers were expanded, and the economy well cared for. The Latin culture flourished for the last time with figures like Boethius, Theodorics minister, however, Theodorics successors were not equal to him. This conflict, known as Gothic Wars, destroyed much of the life that had survived the barbarian invasions. Town life did not disappear, but they became smaller and considerably more primitive than they had been in Roman times, subsistence agriculture employed the bulk of the Italian population. Wars, famines, and disease epidemics had an effect on the demographics of Italy. The agricultural estates of the Roman era did not disappear and they produced an agricultural surplus that was sold in towns, however slavery was replaced by other labour systems such as serfdom. The withdrawal of Byzantine armies allowed another Germanic people, the Lombards, cividale del Friuli was the first main centre to fall, while the Byzantine resistance concentrated in the coast areasItaly in the Middle Ages – The maritime republics of medieval Italy
28. Odoacer – Flavius Odoacer, also known as Flavius Odovacer, was a soldier who in 476 became the first King of Italy. His reign is seen as marking the end of the Western Roman Empire. Though the real power in Italy was in his hands, he represented himself as the client of Julius Nepos and, after Nepos death in 480, Odoacer introduced few important changes into the administrative system of Italy. He had the support of the Roman Senate and was able to land to his followers without much opposition. Unrest among his warriors led to violence in 477–478, but no such disturbances occurred during the period of his reign. Although Odoacer was an Arian Christian, he intervened in the affairs of the orthodox. Probably of Scirian descent, Odoacer was a leader in Italy who led the revolt of Herulian, Rugian. With the backing of the Roman Senate, Odoacer thenceforth ruled Italy autonomously, paying lip service to the authority of Julius Nepos, the last Western emperor, and Zeno, upon Nepos murder in 480 Odoacer invaded Dalmatia, to punish the murderers. He did so, executing the conspirators, but within two years also conquered the region and incorporated it into his domain. When Illus, master of soldiers of the Eastern Empire, asked for Odoacer’s help in 484 in his struggle to depose Zeno, the emperor responded first by inciting the Rugi of present-day Austria to attack Italy. During the winter of 487–488 Odoacer crossed the Danube and defeated the Rugi in their own territory, Zeno also appointed the Ostrogoth Theoderic the Great who was menacing the borders of the Eastern Empire, to be king of Italy, turning one troublesome, nominal vassal against another. Theoderic invaded Italy in 489 and by August 490 had captured almost the entire peninsula, the city surrendered on 5 March 493, Theoderic invited Odoacer to a banquet of reconciliation and there killed him. Odoacer is the earliest ruler of Italy for whom an autograph of any of his legal acts has survived to the current day. The larger portion of a record of Odoacer granting properties in Sicily, except for the fact that he was not considered Roman, Odoacers ethnic origins are not completely known. Both the Anonymus Valesianus and John of Antioch state his fathers name was Edeko, since Sebastian Tillemont in the 17th century, all three have been considered to be the same person. In his Getica, Jordanes describes Odoacer as king of the Turcilingi, however, in his Romana, the same author defines him as a member of the Rugii. The Consularia Italica calls him king of the Heruli, while Theophanes appears to be guessing when he calls him a Goth, marcellinus Comes calls him the king of the Goths. One of these is that his name, Odoacer, for which an etymology in Germanic languages had not been found, could be a form of the Turkish Ot-togharOdoacer – Coin of Odoacer, Ravenna, 477, with Odoacer in profile, depicted with a "barbarian" moustache.
29. Kingdom of the Lombards – The king was traditionally elected by the highest-ranking aristocrats, the dukes, as several attempts to establish a hereditary dynasty failed. The kingdom was subdivided into a number of duchies, ruled by semi-autonomous dukes. The capital of the kingdom and the center of its life was Pavia in the modern northern Italian region of Lombardy. The Lombard invasion of Italy was opposed by the Byzantine Empire, because of this division, the southern duchies were considerably more autonomous than the smaller northern duchies. Over time, the Lombards gradually adopted Roman titles, names, by the time Paul the Deacon was writing in the late 8th century, the Lombardic language, dress and hairstyles had all disappeared. Initially the Lombards were Arianist Christians, at odds with the Papacy both religiously and politically, however, by the end of the 7th century, their conversion to Catholicism was all but complete. Nevertheless, their conflict with the Papacy continued and was responsible for their loss of power in the face of the Franks. Charlemagne, the king of the Franks, adopted the title King of the Lombards, although he never managed to control of Benevento. The only evidence for their use at the level comes from the Duchy of Benevento. The existence of seal rings testifies to the tenacity of Roman traditions of government, in the 6th century Byzantine Emperor Justinian attempted to reassert imperial authority in the territories of the Western Roman Empire. Problems were further exacerbated by widespread famine and a plague pandemic. In the spring of 568 the Lombards, led by King Alboin, moved from Pannonia, the Lombard arrival broke the political unity of the Italian Peninsula for the first time since the Roman conquest. The peninsula was now torn between territories ruled by the Lombards and the Byzantines, with boundaries that changed over time, the territories which remained under Byzantine control were called Romania in northeastern Italy and had its stronghold in the Exarchate of Ravenna. Arriving in Italy, King Alboin gave control of the Eastern Alps to one of his most trusted lieutenants, Gisulf, the duchy, established in the Roman town of Forum Iulii, constantly fought with the Slavic population across the Gorizia border. Justified by its military needs, the Duchy of Friuli thus had greater autonomy compared to other duchies of Langobardia Maior until the reign of Liutprand. Over time, other Lombard Duchies were created in cities of the kingdom. This was dictated primarily by military needs as Dukes were primarily military commanders, tasked to secure control of territory. However, the collection of duchies also contributed to political fragmentationKingdom of the Lombards – The Lombard possessions in Italy: The Lombard Kingdom (Neustria, Austria and Tuscia) and the Lombard Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento
30. Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire) – The Kingdom of Italy was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy. It comprised northern and central Italy, but excluded the Republic of Venice and its original capital was Pavia until the 11th century. In June 774, the collapsed and the Franks became masters of northern Italy. The southern areas remained under Lombard control in the Duchy of Benevento, Charlemagne adopted the title King of the Lombards and in 800 had himself crowned Emperor of the Romans in Rome. Members of the Carolingian dynasty continued to rule Italy until the deposition of Charles the Fat in 887, until 961, the rule of Italy was continually contested by several aristocratic families from both within and without the kingdom. In 961, King Otto I of Germany, already married to Adelaide, widow of a king of Italy. He continued on to Rome, where he had himself crowned emperor on 7 February 962, the union of the crowns of Italy and Germany with that of the so-called Empire of the Romans created the Holy Roman Empire, to which Burgundy was added in 1032. The resulting wars between Guelphs and Ghibellines, the anti-imperialist and imperialist factions, respectively, were characteristic of Italian politics in the 12th–14th centuries. The Lombard League was the most famous example of this situation, though not a declared separatist movement, by the 15th century, the power of the city-states was largely broken. A series of wars in Lombardy from 1423 to 1454 further reduced the number of competing states in Italy, the next forty years were relatively peaceful in Italy, but in 1494 the peninsula was invaded by France. The resulting Great Italian Wars lasted until 1559 as control of most of the Italian states passed to King Philip II of Spain. The Spanish branch of the Habsburg dynasty—the same dynasty of which another branch provided the Emperors—continued to rule most of imperial Italy down to the War of the Spanish Succession, after the Imperial Reform of 1495–1512, the Italian kingdom corresponded to the unencircled territories south of the Alps. The Imperial rule in Italy came to an end with the campaigns of the French Revolutionaries in 1792–97, in 1806, the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by the last emperor, Francis II, after its defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. After the Battle of Taginae, in which the Ostrogoth king Totila was killed, the battle lasted two days and Teia was killed in the fighting. The Kings of the Lombards ruled that Germanic people from their invasion of Italy in 567–68 until the Lombardic identity became lost in the ninth and tenth centuries, after 568, the Lombard kings sometimes styled themselves Kings of Italy. Upon the Lombard defeat at the 774 Siege of Pavia, the kingdom came under the Frankish domination of Charlemagne, the Iron Crown of Lombardy was used for the coronation of the Lombard kings, and the kings of Italy thereafter, for centuries. The primary sources for the Lombard kings before the Frankish conquest are the anonymous 7th-century Origo Gentis Langobardorum, the earliest kings listed in the Origo are almost certainly legendary. They purportedly reigned during the Migration Period, the first ruler attested independently of Lombard tradition is Tato, an initial phase of strong autonomy of the many constituent duchies developed over time with growing regal authority, even if the dukes desires for autonomy were never fully achievedKingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire) – The Iron Crown of Lombardy, now at Monza Cathedral
31. Norman conquest of southern Italy – The Norman conquest of southern Italy spanned most of the 11th and 12th centuries, involving many battles and independent conquerors. Itinerant Norman knights arrived in the Mezzogiorno as mercenaries in the service of Lombard and Byzantine factions and these groups gathered in several places, establishing fiefdoms and states of their own, uniting and elevating their status to de facto independence within fifty years of their arrival. Unlike the Norman conquest of England, which took a few years after one battle, the conquest of southern Italy was the product of decades. Many territories were conquered independently, and only later were unified into a single state, compared to the conquest of England it was unplanned and disorganised, but equally complete. The earliest reported date of the arrival of Norman knights in southern Italy is 999, in that year, according to several sources, Norman pilgrims returning from the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem via Apulia stayed with Prince Guaimar III in Salerno. The city and its environs were attacked by Saracens from Africa demanding payment of an annual tribute. While Guaimar began to collect the tribute the Normans ridiculed him and his Lombard subjects for cowardice, the Saracens fled, booty was confiscated and a grateful Guaimar asked the Normans to stay. They refused, but promised to bring his rich gifts to their compatriots in Normandy, some sources have Guaimar sending emissaries to Normandy to bring back knights, and this account of the arrival of the Normans is sometimes known as the Salerno tradition. The Salerno tradition was first recorded by Amatus of Montecassino in his Ystoire de li Normant between 1071 and 1086. Much of this information was borrowed from Amatus by Peter the Deacon for his continuation of the Chronicon Monasterii Casinensis of Leo of Ostia, beginning with the Annales Ecclesiastici of Baronius in the 17th century, the Salernitan story became the accepted history. Although its factual accuracy was questioned periodically during the following centuries, another historical account of the arrival of the first Normans in Italy, the Gargano tradition, appears in primary chronicles without reference to any previous Norman presence. Some scholars have combined the Salerno and Gargano tales, and John Julius Norwich suggested that the meeting between Melus and the Normans had been arranged by Guaimar, Melus had been in Salerno just before his visit to Monte Gargano. Another story involves the exile of a group of brothers from the Drengot family, one of the brothers, Osmund or Gilbert, murdered William Repostel in the presence of Robert I, Duke of Normandy after Repostel allegedly boasted about dishonouring his murderers daughter. Threatened with death, the Drengot brother fled with his siblings to Rome, Amatus dates the story to after 1027, and does not mention the pope. According to him, Gilberts brothers were Osmund, Ranulf, Asclettin, repostels murder is dated by all the chronicles to the reign of Robert the Magnificent and after 1027, although some scholars believe Robert was a scribal error for Richard. The earlier date is necessary if the emigration of the first Normans was connected to the Drengots, in the Histories of Ralph Glaber, Rodulfus leaves Normandy after displeasing Count Richard. The sources disagree about which brother was the leader on the southern trip, orderic and William of Jumièges, in the latters Gesta Normannorum Ducum, name Osmund, Glaber names Rudolph, and Leo, Amatus and Adhemar of Chabannes name Gilbert. According to most southern-Italian sources, the leader of the Norman contingent at the Battle of Cannae in 1018 was Gilbert, if Rudolf is identified with the Rudolf of Amatus history as a Drengot brother, he may have been the leader at CannaeNorman conquest of southern Italy – The imprisonment of Pandulf of Capua, after Emperor Henry II's 1022 campaign
32. Maritime republics – The maritime republics of the Mediterranean Basin were thalassocratic city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia during the Middle Ages. The best known among the republics are Venice, Genoa, Pisa, Ragusa. Less known are Gaeta, Ancona, Noli and they were generally republics in that they were formally independent, though most of them originated from territories once formally belonging to the Byzantine Empire. During the time of their independence, all cities had similar systems of government. The Fourth Crusade, originally intended to liberate Jerusalem, actually entailed the Venetian conquest of Zara, Venice stands out from the rest in that it maintained enormous tracts of land in Greece, Cyprus, Istria and Dalmatia until as late as the mid-17th century. The economic growth of Europe around the year 1000, together with the hazards of the trading routes. The growing independence acquired by some coastal cities gave them a role in this development. These cities, exposed to raids, organized their own defence. The independent cities formed autonomous republican governments, an expression of the merchant class that constituted the backbone of their power. The history of the maritime republics intertwines both with the launch of European expansion to the East and with the origins of capitalism as a mercantile. Using gold coins, the merchants of the Italian maritime republics began to develop new foreign exchange transactions, technological advances in navigation provided essential support for the growth of mercantile wealth. Nautical charts of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries all belong to the schools of Genoa, Venice, the Crusades offered opportunities for expansion. They increasingly relied on Italian sea transport, for which the republics extracted concessions of colonies as well as a cash price, pera in Constantinople, first Genoese and later Venetian, was the largest and best known Italian trading base. The history of the maritime republics is quite varied, reflecting their different lifespans. Other republics kept their independence until the Renaissance, Pisa came under the dominion of the Republic of Florence in 1406, and Ancona came under control of the Papal States in 1532. Amalfi and Gaeta, though, lost their independence soon, the first in 1131. Amalfi, perhaps the first of the republics to play a major role, had developed extensive trade with Byzantium. Amalfitan merchants wrested the Mediterranean trade monopoly from the Arabs and founded mercantile bases in Southern Italy, amalfitans were the first to create a colony in ConstantinopleMaritime republics – Map of the maritime republics in the 11th century and their coats of arms.
33. Italian unification – The process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. The memory of the Risorgimento is central to both Italian politics and Italian historiography, for short period is one of the most contested. Italian nationalism was based among intellectuals and political activists, often operating from exile, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Roman province of Italy remained united under the Ostrogothic Kingdom and later disputed between the Kingdom of the Lombards and the Byzantine Empire. Following conquest by the Frankish Empire, the title of King of Italy merged with the office of Holy Roman Emperor. However, the emperor was a foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state, as a result. This situation persisted through the Renaissance but began to deteriorate with the rise of modern nation-states in the modern period. Italy, including the Papal States, then became the site of proxy wars between the powers, notably the Holy Roman Empire, Spain and France. Harbingers of national unity appeared in the treaty of the Italic League, in 1454, leading Renaissance Italian writers Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated that the ancient valour in Italian hearts is not yet dead in Italia Mia, Niccolò Machiavelli later quoted four verses from Italia Mia in The Prince, which looked forward to a political leader who would unite Italy to free her from the barbarians. I am an Italian, he explained, the French Republic spread republican principles, and the institutions of republican governments promoted citizenship over the rule of the Bourbons and Habsburgs and other dynasties. The reaction against any outside control challenged Napoleons choice of rulers, as Napoleons reign began to fail, the rulers he had installed tried to keep their thrones further feeding nationalistic sentiments. After Napoleon fell, the Congress of Vienna restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments, vincenzo Gioberti, a Piedmontese priest, had suggested a confederation of Italian states under leadership of the Pope in his 1842 book, Of the Moral and Civil Primacy of the Italians. Pope Pius IX at first appeared interested but he turned reactionary, Giuseppe Mazzini and Carlo Cattaneo wanted the unification of Italy under a federal republic. That proved too extreme for most nationalists, the middle position was proposed by Cesare Balbo as a confederation of separate Italian states led by Piedmont. One of the most influential revolutionary groups was the Carbonari, a political discussion group formed in Southern Italy early in the 19th century. After 1815, Freemasonry in Italy was repressed and discredited due to its French connections, a void was left that the Carbonari filled with a movement that closely resembled Freemasonry but with a commitment to Italian nationalism and no association with Napoleon and his government. The response came from middle class professionals and business men and some intellectuals, the Carbonari disowned Napoleon but nevertheless were inspired by the principles of the French Revolution regarding liberty, equality and fraternity. They developed their own rituals, and were strongly anticlerical, the Carbonari movement spread across ItalyItalian unification – Five Days of Milan, 18–22 March 1848
34. History of the Italian Republic – This situation changed due to an external shock – the crisis and Dissolution of the Soviet Union – and an internal one – the Tangentopoli corruption scandal and operation Mani pulite. Although ousted after a few months of government, Berlusconi became one of Italys most important political and economic figures for the next two decades. After leading the Opposition to the Dini, Prodi I, DAlema I, DAlema II and he eventually lost the 2006 general election five years later to Romano Prodi and his Union coalition but won the 2008 general election and returned to power in June 2008. In November 2011, Berlusconi lost his majority in the Chamber of Deputies and his successor, Mario Monti formed a new government, composed by technicians and supported by both the center-left and the center-right parties. After the 2013 election resulted in a parliament, in April the Vice-Secretary of the Democratic Party, Enrico Letta. On 22 February 2014, after tensions in the Democratic Party, mussolini was killed by resistance fighters in April 1945. Victor Emmanuel formally abdicated on 9 May 1946, his son king as Umberto II of Italy. A Constitutional Referendum was held on 2 June 1946, republicans won, and the monarchy was abolished. The Kingdom of Italy was no more, the House of Savoy, the Italian royal family, was exiled. Victor Emmanuel left for Egypt where he died in 1947, Umberto, who had been king for only a month, moved to Portugal. A Constituent Assembly was in place between June 1946 and January 1948, it wrote the new Constitution of Italy which took effect on January 1,1948, the Peace Treaty between Italy and the Allies of World War II was signed in Paris in February 1947. The PSI and the PCI received some posts in a Christian Democrat–led coalition cabinet. PCI’s leader Palmiro Togliatti was minister of Justice, since the PSI and the PCI together received more votes than the Christian Democrats, they decided to unite in 1948 to form the Popular Democratic Front. The 1948 general elections were influenced by the then flaring cold-war confrontation between the Soviet Union and the US. In response, on March 1948 the United States National Security Council issued its first document proffering recommendations to avoid such an outcome which were widely and energetically implemented, ten million letters were sent by mostly Italian Americans urging Italians not to vote communist. US agencies made numerous short-wave propaganda radio broadcasts and funded the publishing of books and articles, the CIA also funded the centre-right political parties and was accused of publishing forged letters in order to discredit the leaders of the PCI. The PCI itself was accused of being funded by Moscow and the Cominform, for almost four decades, Italian elections were successively won by the Democrazia Cristiana centrist party. Italy also lost its colonial Empire, except Somalia, which formed the object of a UN trusteeship mandate, in the same years, Italy also became a founding member of the ECSC and of the European Economic Community, later developed into the European UnionHistory of the Italian Republic – Alcide De Gasperi, Prime Minister from 1945 to 1953.
35. Years of Lead (Italy) – The left-wing autonomist Marxist movement in Italy which was involved in many events of the period lasted from 1968 until the end of the 1970s. There was widespread social conflict and unprecedented acts of terrorism carried out by both right- and left-wing paramilitary groups, an attempt to endorse the neo-fascist Italian Social Movement by the Tambroni Cabinet led to rioting and was short-lived. The Christian Democrats were instrumental in the Italian Socialist Party gaining power in the 1960s, the assassination of the Christian Democrat leader Aldo Moro in 1978 ended the strategy of historic compromise between the DC and the Italian Communist Party. The assassination was carried out by the Red Brigades, then led by Mario Moretti, between 1969 and 1981, nearly 2,000 murders were attributed to political violence in the form of bombings, assassinations, and street warfare between rival militant factions. Public protests shook Italy during 1969, with the autonomist student movement being particularly active, on 19 November 1969, Antonio Annarumma, a Milanese policeman, was killed during a riot by far-left demonstrators. He was the first civil servant to die in the wave of violence, the Monument to Victor Emmanuel II, the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro in Rome and the Banca Commerciale Italiana and the Banca Nazionale dellAgricoltura in Milan were bombed in December. Local police arrested 80 or so suspects from left-wing groups, including Giuseppe Pinelli, an anarchist initially blamed for the bombing, and Pietro Valpreda. Their guilt was denied by left-wing members, especially by members of the student movement, then prominent in Milans universities, as they believed that the bombing was carried out by fascists. In 1975 Calabresi and other officials were acquitted by judge Gerardo DAmbrosio who decided that Pinellis fall had been caused by his being taken ill. Meanwhile, the anarchist Valpreda and five others were convicted and jailed for the bombing and they were later released after three years of preventive detention. Then, two neo-fascists, Franco Freda and Giovanni Ventura, were arrested accused of being the organizers of the massacre, in the 1990s, new investigations into the Piazza Fontana bombing, citing new witnesses testimony, implicated Freda and Ventura again. However, the pair cannot be put on again because of double jeopardy. The Red Brigades, the most prominent far-left terrorist organization, conducted an internal investigation that paralleled the official inquiry. They ordered that the inquiry remain secret, because of the light that it could shed on other terrorist organizations. The inquiry was discovered after a shootout between the Red Brigade and the Carabinieri at Robbiano di Mediglia in October 1974, the cover-up was exposed in 2000 by Giovanni Pellegrino, at the time President of the Commissione Stragi. The Red Brigades were founded in August 1970 by Renato Curcio and Margherita Cagol, who had met as students at the University of Trento and later married, and Alberto Franceschini. The first action of the RB was burning the car of Giuseppe Leoni on 17 September 1970, the Black Prince, Junio Valerio Borghese, took part in it. The coup, called off at the last moment, was discovered by the newspaper Paese Sera, on March 26, Alessandro Floris was assassinated in Genoa by a unit of the October 22 Group, a far-left terrorist organizationYears of Lead (Italy) – Attack at the Bologna railway station; it was the deadliest episode of the Years of Lead.
36. List of historic states of Italy – The following is a list of the various Italian states during that period. Under its terms, France restored Piedmont and Savoy to the Duke of Savoy, more importantly, the treaty confirmed Spanish direct control of Milan, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and the State of Presidi, and indirectly of northern Italy. The Pope was also their natural ally, the only truly independent entities on Italian soil were the Duchy of Savoy and the Republic of Venice. In Italy, the Congress restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments, either directly ruled or strongly influenced by the prevailing European powers, particularly Austria. The Congress also determined the end of two republics, Genoa was annexed by Sardinia, and Venice was incorporated with Milan into a new kingdom of the Austrian Empire. The Austrian Empire vigorously repressed nationalist sentiment growing on the Italian peninsula, as well as in the other parts of Habsburg domainsList of historic states of Italy – Dominions of the House of Habsburg in Europe, at the abdication of Charles V, map from the Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912.
37. Military history of Italy – The military history of Italy chronicles a vast time period, lasting from the overthrow of Tarquinius Superbus in 509 BC, through the Roman Empire, Italian unification, and into the modern day. The Etruscans were settled north of Rome in Etruria and they founded cities like Tarquinia, Veii and Volterra and deeply influenced Roman culture, as clearly shown by the Etruscan origin of some of the mythical Roman kings. The origins of the Etruscans are lost in prehistory, historians have no literature, no texts of religion or philosophy, therefore much of what is known about this civilization is derived from grave goods and tomb findings. The Italics were war-like as the Etruscans, the Italics and the Etruscans had a significant military tradition. In addition to marking the rank and power of individuals in their culture, warfare was a considerable economic boon to their civilization. It is also likely individuals taken in battle would be ransomed back to their families, the Greeks had founded many colonies in Southern Italy, such as Cumae, Naples and Taranto, as well as in the eastern two-thirds of Sicily, between 750 and 550 BC. After 650 BC, the Etruscans became dominant in central Italy, the early Roman army was, like those of other contemporary city-states influenced by Greek civilization, a citizen militia which practiced hoplite tactics. It was small and organized in five classes, with three providing hoplites and two providing light infantry, the early Roman army was tactically limited and its stance during this period was essentially defensive. Thirty maniples arranged in three lines with supporting troops constituted a legion, totaling between 4,000 and 5,000 men, with the new organization came a new orientation toward the offensive and a much more aggressive posture toward adjoining city-states. Legions were often significantly understrength from recruitment failures or following periods of service due to accidents, battle casualties, disease. This pattern also held true for auxiliary forces, harris suggests that down to 200 BC, the average rural farmer might participate in six or seven campaigns. Freedmen and slaves and urban citizens did not serve except in rare emergencies, after 200 BC, economic conditions in rural areas deteriorated as manpower needs increased, so that the property qualifications for service were gradually reduced. Terms of service became continuous and long—up to twenty years if emergencies required it although Brunt argues that six or seven years was more typical, cavalry and light infantry attached to a legion were often recruited in the areas where the legion served. Caesar formed a legion, the Fifth Alaudae, from non-citizens in Transalpine Gaul to serve in his campaigns in Gaul, by the time of Caesar Augustus, the ideal of the citizen-soldier had been abandoned and the legions had become fully professional. Legionaries were paid 900 sesterces a year and could expect a payment of 12,000 sesterces on retirement, at the end of the Civil War, Augustus reorganized Roman military forces, discharging soldiers and disbanding legions. He retained 28 legions, distributed through the provinces of the Empire, during the Principate, the tactical organization of the Army continued to evolve. The auxilia remained independent cohorts, and legionary troops often operated as groups of cohorts rather than as full legions and this increase in organizational flexibility over time helped ensure the long-term success of Roman military forces. The Emperor Gallienus began a reorganization that created the military structure of the late EmpireMilitary history of Italy – An Etruscan helmet
38. Geography of Italy – Italy is located in southern Europe and comprises the long, boot-shaped Italian Peninsula, the southern side of Alps, the large plain of the Po Valley and some islands including Sicily and Sardinia. Corsica, although belonging to the Italian geographical region, has been a part of France since 1769, Italy is part of the Eastern Hemisphere. Its total area is 301,340 km2, of which 294,140 km2 is land and 7,200 km2 is water and it lies between latitudes 35° and 48° N, and longitudes 6° and 19° E. Italy borders with Switzerland, France, Austria and Slovenia, san Marino and Vatican city are enclaves. Including islands, Italy has a coastline of 7,600 km on the Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Ligurian Sea, Sea of Sardinia and Strait of Sicily. Almost 40% of the Italian territory is mountainous, with the Alps as the northern boundary, in between the two lies a large plain in the valley of the Po, the largest river in Italy, which flows 652 km eastward from the Cottian Alps to the Adriatic. The Po Valley is the largest plain in Italy, with 46,000 km2, the Alpine mountain range is linked with the Apennines with the Colle di Cadibona pass in the Ligurian Alps. Worldwide-known mountains in Italy are Matterhorn, Monte Rosa, Gran Paradiso in the West Alps, the highest peak in Italy is Mont Blanc, at 4,810 meters above sea level. Many elements of the Italian territory are of volcanic origin, most of the small islands and archipelagos in the south, like Capraia, Ponza, Ischia, Eolie, Ustica and Pantelleria are volcanic islands. There are also active volcanoes, Etna, in Sicily, the largest active volcano in Europe, Vulcano, Stromboli, and Vesuvius, near Naples, the only active volcano on mainland Europe. Territorial sea,12 nmi Continental shelf, 200-metre depth or to the depth of exploitation In the north of the country are a number of subalpine moraine-dammed lakes, the largest of which is Garda. Other well known of these lakes are Lake Maggiore, whose most northerly section is part of Switzerland, Como, Orta, Lugano, Iseo. Other notable lakes in the Italian peninsula are Trasimeno, Bolsena, Bracciano, Vico, Varano and Lesina in Gargano, the largest are Sicily 25,708 km2 and Sardinia 24,090 km2Geography of Italy – Italy viewed from space
39. Italian Peninsula – The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula is the central and the smallest of the three large peninsulas of Southern Europe. It extends 1,000 km from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south, the peninsulas shape gives it the nickname lo Stivale. Three smaller peninsulas contribute to this shape, namely Calabria, Salento. Geographically, the Italian peninsula consists of the south of a line extending from the Magra to the Rubicon rivers. It excludes the Po Valley and the slopes of the Alps. All of the lies within the territory of the Italian Republic except for the microstates of San Marino. Additionally, Sicily, Elba and other islands, such as Palagruža, are usually considered as islands off the peninsula. The peninsula lies between the Tyrrhenian Sea on the west, the Ionian Sea on the south, and the Adriatic Sea on the east, the backbone of the Italian peninsula consists of the Apennine Mountains, from which it takes one of its names. Most of its coast is lined with cliffs, the Italian Peninsulas location between the centre of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea made it the target of many conquests. The peninsula has mainly a Mediterranean climate, though in the parts the climate is much cooler. Its natural vegetation includes macchia along the coasts and deciduous and mixed coniferous forests in the interior. Political divisions of the peninsula sorted by area, Apennine Mountains Roman Republic Roman Italy Insular Italy Media related to Italian Peninsula at Wikimedia CommonsItalian Peninsula – Satellite view of the peninsula in March 2003.
40. Southern Italy – It generally coincides with the administrative regions of Abruzzo, Apulia, Basilicata, Campania, Calabria, Molise, Sicily, and Sardinia. Some also include the most southern and eastern parts of Lazio within the Mezzogiorno, Southern Italy carries a unique legacy of culture. It features many major tourist attractions, such as the Palace of Caserta, there are also many ancient Greek cities in Southern Italy, such as Sybaris, which were founded several centuries before the start of the Roman Republic. These same subdivisions are at the bottom of the Italian First level NUTS of the European Union, the term Mezzogiorno first came into use in the 18th century and is an Italian rendition of meridies. The term was popularised by Giuseppe Garibaldi and it eventually came into vogue after the Italian unification. In a similar manner, Southern France is colloquially known as le Midi, Southern Italy forms the lower part of the Italian boot, containing the ankle, the toe, the arch, and the heel, along with the island of Sicily. Separating the heel and the boot is the Gulf of Taranto, named after the city of Taranto and it is an arm of the Ionian Sea. The island of Sardinia, right below the French island of Corsica, on the eastern coast is the Adriatic Sea, leading into the rest of the Mediterranean through the Strait of Otranto. Along the northern coast of the Salernitan Gulf and on the south of the Sorrentine Peninsula runs the Amalfi Coast, off the tip of the peninsula is the isle of Capri. The climate is mainly Mediterranean, except at the highest elevations and the eastern stretches in Apulia, along the Ionian Sea in Calabria. The largest city of Southern Italy is Naples, a name from the Greek that it has maintained for millennia. Bari, Taranto, Reggio Calabria, Foggia, and Salerno are the next largest cities in the area. The region is very active and highly seismic, the 1980 Irpinia earthquake killed 2,914 people, injured more than 10,000. Also during this period, Greek colonies were established in places as widely separated as the eastern coast of the Black Sea, Eastern Libya and they included settlements in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula. The Romans called the area of Sicily and the foot of Italy, Magna Graecia, the ancient geographers differed on whether the term included Sicily or merely Apulia and Calabria—Strabo being the most prominent advocate of the wider definitions. With this colonisation, Greek culture was exported to Italy, in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its religious rites, an original Hellenic civilization soon developed, later interacting with the native Italic and Latin civilisations. Many of the new Hellenic cities became very rich and powerful, like Neapolis, Syracuse, Acragas, other cities in Magna Graecia included Tarentum, Epizephyrian Locri, Rhegium, Croton, Thurii, Elea, Nola, Syessa, Bari, and others. After Pyrrhus of Epirus failed in his attempt to stop the spread of Roman hegemony in 282 BCE, from then to the Norman conquest of the 11th century, the south of the peninsula was constantly plunged into wars between Greece, Lombardy, and the Islamic CaliphateSouthern Italy – Satellite image of Southern Italy
41. Insular Italy – Insular Italy is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics, a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency. Insular Italy encompasses two of the countrys 20 regions, Sardinia and Sicily, Insular Italy occupies one-sixth of the national territory in surface area. Territorially, both Sicily and Sardinia include several islands and archipelagoes administratively dependent on the mother islands. Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean and one of the largest of Europe, the lowlands are generally limited in the geographic region and generally appear as narrow coastal belts. The only exceptions are the Campidano and Nurra in Sardinia and the Plain of Catania in Sicily that extend 1200 km2 and 430 km2 respectively, the rest of the area is prevalently hilly, with hills occupying 70% of the territory. Sicily is home to Mount Etna, Italys highest non-Alpine peak, Sardinia is home to the Gennargentu mountain range. The population of Insular Italy totals combined over 6.7 million residents, Insular Italy has a population density of less than half the national average mainly because of the scarce population of Sardinia, one of the least densely populated regions of Italy and Europe. Sicily, on the hand, has in fact a population density five times higher than Sardinia. However, the results in Insular Italy having a low population density. Their combined populations total just one-tenth of the population making Insular Italy the least populated macro-region of the country. The following is a list of cities with a population of greater than 100,000 residentsInsular Italy – Insular Italy
42. Fauna of Italy – Italy has the highest level of faunal biodiversity in Europe, with over 57,000 species recorded, representing more than a third of all European fauna. This is due to various factors, the Italian peninsula is in the centre of the Mediterranean Sea, forming a corridor between central Europe and North Africa, and has 8,000 km of coastline. Italy also receives species from the Balkans, Eurasia, the Middle East, portions of Italy are included in the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot. There are also many cave systems significant for Biodiversity, the Checklist of the Species of the Italian Fauna includes 4777 endemic animal species. Unique Mammals include the Corsican hare, the Sardinian long-eared bat, the Apennine shrew, the Udine shrew the Calabria pine vole and the Sardinian deer. Endemic fish include the Bergatino loach, the Italian barbel, the chub, the Arno goby, the Garda carp, the carpione del Fibreno. Endemic Lepidoptera are listed here it, Farfalle e falene endemiche dellItalia, a notable species is the European owl moth found only in Southern Italy. There are 102 mammal species in Italy, some of the species are Alpine Marmot, forest dormouse, Etruscan shrew, European snow vole, and Schreibers long-fingered bat. Italy has recorded 516 bird species, Italy is an important route for trans-Saharan bird migrants because it is a natural bridge connecting continental Europe to Africa across the Mediterranean. Most of these birds breed in central and northern Europe, the birds return to Africa in autumn by the same route. The Italian fauna includes 56213 species of invertebrates and this is 97. 8% of the total species richness. Of these 37303 species are insects. The species richness of the Italian fauna is one of the highest in a European country. For insects the species richness is the absolute highest, northern Italy has 33414 invertebrate species. This may be a faunistic gradient but less complete data are available for southern Italy, as a consequence many species, known as rare in the Mediterranean are found in large numbers in the straits. It is common to find deep species at the surface and vice versa, the upwelling water drags abyssal species to the surface and sometimes strands them on the shore. About 300 species native to the Red Sea have already identified in the Mediterranean Sea. The Italian fauna is rich in introduced species, many introductions date from the time of the Roman Empire, such as the carp. Two introduced parrot species, the parakeet and the rose-ringed parakeet, are found in city parksFauna of Italy – Geological map of Italy
43. Flora of Italy – The flora of Italy was traditionally, estimated to comprise about 5,500 vascular plant species. However, as of 2005,6,759 species are recorded in the Data bank of Italian vascular flora, geobotanically, the Italian flora is shared between the Circumboreal Region and Mediterranean Region. According to the compiled by the Italian Ministry for the Environment in 2001,274 vascular plant species are protected. Italy consists of a 1,000 km long peninsula extending out into the central Mediterranean, together with a number of islands to the South and West. The Apennines run north-south through the peninsula connecting the Alps in the North to Etna, northern Italy is dominated by the Alps and extensive valley of the Po river which is extensively agricultural and industrialised. Central Italy includes the regions of Tuscany, Umbria, Marche and it is dominated by the Apennines, from which a few major rivers flow. A process of land reclamation has replaced the coastal swamps and marshes with agricultural land, Southern Italy includes the regions of Abruzzo, Molise, Apulia, Basilicata and Campania. Agriculture and industry are less developed, the main islands are Sicily, Sardinia and the Aeolian Islands. Each region has a distinct flora, an ecoregion is an ecologically and geographically defined area with characteristic natural communities and species. Different ecoregions are distinguished by different vegetation features, in Italy Carlo Blasi et al. identify and map 2 Divisions,13 Provinces,33 Sections and approximately 80 Subsections. Each unit has a code that indicates its hierarchical level. The Temperate Division includes the Alps, the Po Plain, and it accounts for 64% of Italy. This area is characterized by almost absent summer aridity and by a marked differences between summer and winter temperatures, the natural vegetation mainly consist of forests, with broad-leaved deciduous plants. The Mediterranean Division includes the southern Apennines, the Tyrrhenian and Ionian coasts, the southern Adriatic coast and it accounts almost 36% of the Italian territory. This area is characterized by summer aridity, with precipitations concentrated in autumn, the natural vegetation mainly consists of mixed woods of evergreen and deciduous species, shrublands and Mediterranean maquis. The peninsula and islands are dominated by the characteristics of the Mediterranean climate, with mild and rainy winters and very warm, on the contrary in the northern of Italy you have lower temperatures in winter and a more uniform distribution of rainfall during the summer time. The species of plants present in Italy belong to the flora of the continental Europe or to the Mediterranean flora and we can distinguish in some cases Western species and eastern species. The last Ice Age, the Würm Glaciation, in the Alps ended about 12,000 years ago and you can still recognize its influence on vegetation, a well known example is the Etna birch, driven in Sicily at a time when the climate was much colderFlora of Italy – Sicilian Fir, a critically endangered species endemic to Sicily
44. Volcanology of Italy – Italy is a volcanically active country, containing the only active volcanoes in mainland Europe. The countrys volcanism is due chiefly to the presence, a distance to the south. The magma erupted by Italys volcanoes is thought to result from the forcing of rocks melted by the subduction of one plate below another. Three of Italys volcanoes have erupted in the last hundred years, Mount Etna, on Sicily Stromboli, one of the Aeolian Islands Mount Vesuvius, near Naples, at least nine other volcanic centres have seen eruptions in historic times, including some submarine volcanoes. In order of the most recent eruptions, they are, Pantelleria, off the coast of Tunisia, there was a submarine eruption a few kilometres north-east of the island in 1891, which was probably related to the main volcano. Vulcano, another of the Aeolian Islands, last erupted in 1888-1890, the short-lived Isola Ferdinandea erupted a few kilometres north-west of Pantelleria in 1831 and rose to a maximum height of 63 metres, but was eroded back down to sea level by 1835. The summit is now a few metres below the surface, a swarm of small earthquakes centred on the seamount in 2002 was thought to indicate that magma was moving beneath the volcano, but no eruption occurred. Vulcanello is a small volcano connected by an isthmus to the island of Vulcano, campi Flegrei, a huge caldera containing the western area of Naples, erupted in 1528, generating the small tuff cone named Monte Nuovo. Ischia, an island 20 kilometres west of Naples, last erupted in 1302, larderello, in southern Tuscany, last erupted in 1282 with a small phreatic eruption Lipari, an island a couple of kilometres from Vulcano, has a volcano which last erupted in 729. Vulsini, a complex at the northern end of the Roman magmatic province. Monte Albano, a quiescent volcanic complex near Rome, the most recent eruptions produced Lake Nemi and Lake Albano. Sabatini, a complex and caldera near Rome. Cimini, a complex and caldera at the north of Sabatini volcanic complex. Monte Vulture, a complex in Basilicata. Marsili, a volcano in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Marsili rises 3,000 metres from the seabed in the Tyrrhenian sea southwest of Naples and its summit is only 500 metres below the surface of the water. The volcano has not erupted during recorded history, but is activeVolcanology of Italy
45. Alps – The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc, Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, and at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4000 metres, the altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe, in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Wildlife such as live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era, a mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established, Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, and the Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800 Napoleon crossed one of the passes with an army of 40,000. The 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists, writers, in World War II, Adolf Hitler kept a base of operation in the Bavarian Alps throughout the war. The Alpine region has a cultural identity. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, French, at present, the region is home to 14 million people and has 120 million annual visitors. The English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes, maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp and this may be consistent with the theory that in Greek Alpes is a name of non-Indo-European origin. According to the Old English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might possibly derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb hill, Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe. In Roman times, Albania was a name for the eastern Caucasus, in modern languages the term alp, alm, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width, the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, the range continues onward toward Vienna, Austria, and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the border of Bavaria in GermanyAlps – Mont Blanc, the highest mountain in the Alps, view from the Savoy side
46. Politics of Italy – Politics of Italy is conducted through a constitutional republic with a multi-party system. The executive power is exercised collectively by the Council of Ministers, legislative power is vested in the two houses of parliament primarily, and secondarily on the Council of Ministers, which can introduce bills and holds the majority in the parliament. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislative branches and it is headed by the High Council of the Judiciary. The president is the head of state, though his position is separate from all branches, the current President is Sergio Mattarella and the current Prime Minister of Italy is Paolo Gentiloni. Article 1 of the Italian Constitution states Italy is a democratic Republic founded on labour, sovereignty belongs to the people and is exercised by the people in the forms and within the limits of the Constitution. By stating that Italy is a republic, the article solemnly declares the results of the constitutional referendum which took place on 2 June 1946. The State is not a property of the ruling monarch. The people who are called to administer the republic are not owners, but servants, and the governed are not subjects. And the sovereignty, that is the power to make choices that involve the community, belongs to the people, in accordance with the concept of a democracy, from the Greek demos. This power, however, is not to be exercised arbitrarily, as the head of state, the President of the Republic represents the unity of the nation and has many of the duties previously given to the king of Italy. The President serves as a point of connection between the three branches, he is elected by the lawmakers, he appoints the executive, and is the president of the judiciary, the president is also commander-in-chief in the time of war. These delegates are elected by their respective Regional Councils so as to guarantee representation to minorities, the election needs a wide majority that is progressively reduced from two-thirds to one-half plus one of the votes after the third ballot. The only Presidents ever to be elected on the first ballot are Francesco Cossiga, mr. Ciampi was replaced by Giorgio Napolitano, who was elected on 10 May 2006. While it is not forbidden by law, no president had ever served two terms, until 20 April 2013, when president Giorgio Napolitano was re-elected. According to the Constitution, any citizen that is fifty on the day of the election, the President cannot hold office in any other branch of power, and the offices salary and privileges are established by law. The President also presides over the High Council of the Judiciary, usually, the President tries to stay out of the political debate, and to be an institutional guarantee for all those involved in the political process. The president can also reject openly anti-constitutional acts as the guardian of the Constitution of Italy, with article 48 of the Constitution, which guarantees the right to vote, the people exercise their power through their elected representatives in the Parliament. The Italian legislative branch has rights to declare war with a majority vote, the Parliament has a bicameral system, and consists of the Chamber of deputies and the Senate, elected every five yearsPolitics of Italy – Sergio Mattarella, President of Italy since 3 February 2015.
47. Referendums in Italy – A referendum, in the Italian legal system is a request directed to the whole electorate to express their view on a determined question. It is the instrument of direct democracy in Italy. A constitutional referendum, which can be requested in cases when a new constitutional law is approved by Parliament. Similarly, a referendum can be requested to confirm the adoption of the Statute of ordinary regions, an advisory referendum is required to approve the modification of regions, provinces, or municipalities. A popular referendum on regional laws and regulations may be regulated by regional statutes, as a consequence of this, Italys first popular referendum was not held until 1974,27 years after the constitution was first approved. A popular referendum can only be called only at the request of five Regional Councils or 500,000 Italian voters, a popular referendum can only be asked to abolish an existing law, a referendum to adopt new legislation is not provided for by the Constitution. Some matters are not subject to referendum, tax laws, budget laws, amnesties and pardons. While these are the limits expressly stated by the Constitution, the Constitutional Court has identified further limitations, the petition, which must include the question of the referendum, must be deposited at the Court of Cassation, which is called to examine the validity of the petition. The Constitutional Court of Italy verifies the regularity of signatures and of the question of the referendum, the court has the power to reject it outright. Many fully valid petitions with the necessary 500,000 signatures have never accepted as referendums precisely for this reason. If the Court of Cassation judges the petition to be valid, the question must then be evaluated by the Constitutional Court. Unlike the Court of Cassation, which considers the conformity of the petition to ordinary law, if the Constitutional Court deems the referendum admissible, the President of the Republic has to set a date for the vote between April 15 and June 15. The final hurdle is that the result of the referendum is only valid if at least a majority of all eligible voters go to the polling station. If this quorum is not met, the referendum is invalid, the political party in Italy that is most closely associated with, and has made most use of, referendums in the last 40 years is the Radical Party led by Marco Pannella. They hold the record for most referendums presented and they will often use unconventional methods such as prolonged hunger strikes and/or thirst strikes by their leaders to draw attention to their cause. Their largest political battles came in the 1970s and 80s when they campaigned for the right to divorce. Other groups have made use of referendums to raise the profile of their own small political parties or their leaders or to raise awareness of their respective political agendas. However, often political parties who are even in the coalition will have very diverse opinions with regard to referendumsReferendums in Italy – Italian Republic
48. Foreign relations of Italy – Foreign relations of the Italian Republic are the Italian governments external relations with the outside world. Located in Europe, Italy has been considered a major Western power since its unification in 1861 and its main allies are the NATO countries, the EU states and the G7 nations, three entities of which Italy is a founding member. Italy has a role within the Christian world because Rome is the seat of the Pope. Italy is currently commanding various multinational forces, the country plays also a significant role in former colonies and territories of the Italian Empire and is considered a key player in the Mediterranean region. The Risorgimento was the era 1830–1870 that saw the emergence of a national consciousness, italians achieved independence from Austria, the House of Bourbon and from the Pope, securing national unification. The papacy called France to resist unification, fearing that giving up control of the Papal States would weaken the Church, Italy captured Rome in 1870 and later formed the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria. Italy defeated the Ottoman Empire in 1911–1912, by 1914, Italy had acquired in Africa a colony on the Red Sea coast, a large protectorate in Somalia and administrative authority in formerly Turkish Libya. Outside of Africa, Italy possessed a small concession in Tientsin in China, Austria took the offensive against the terms of the alliance and Italy decided to take part in World War I as a principal allied power with France, the UK and Japan. During the First World War, Italy occupied southern Albania to prevent if from falling to Austria-Hungary, in 1917, it established a protectorate over Albania, which remained in place until 1920. Italy defeated the Austrian Empire in 1918 and became one of the winners of the war. The Fascist government that came to power with Benito Mussolini in 1922 sought to increase the size of the Italian empire, in 1935–36, in its second invasion of Ethiopia Italy was successful and merged its new conquest with its older east African colonies. In 1939, Italy invaded Albania and incorporated it into the Fascist state, during the Second World War, Italy formed the axis alliance with Japan and Germany and occupied several territories but was forced in the final peace to abandon all its colonies and protectorates. Following the civil war and the depression caused by World War II, Italy enjoyed an economic miracle, promoted European unity, joined NATO. Italy was granted a United Nations trust to administer Somaliland in 1950, when Somalia became independent in 1960, Italys eight-decade experience with colonialism ended. Italy leads the Uniting for Consensus and participates in prominent decision-making groups such as the EU big four, the Quint, the Historiography of Fascist Foreign Policy, Historical Journal 36#1 pp. 187–203 in JSTOR Bosworth, Richard. Italy, The Least of the Great Powers, Italian Foreign Policy Before the First World War Bosworth, Mussolini excerpt and text search Burgwyn, H. James. Italian Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period, 1918-1940 excerpt and text search Cassels, Italian Foreign Policy, 1918-1945, A Guide to Research and Research Materials Chabod, Federico. Italian Foreign Policy excerpt and text search Faherty, Douglas M. Italian Foreign Policy, Trends for the Twenty-First Century excerpt Gooch, JohnForeign relations of Italy – Italian Republic
49. Judiciary of Italy – In Italy, judges are public officials and, since they exercise one of the sovereign powers of the State, only Italian citizens are eligible for judgeship. In order to become a judge, applicants must obtain a degree of education as well as pass written. However, most training and experience is gained through the judicial organization, the potential candidates then work they way up from the bottom through promotions. Italys independent judiciary enjoys special protection from the executive branch. Once appointed, judges serve for life and cannot be removed without specific disciplinary proceedings conducted in due process before the Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura, the Ministry of Justice handles the administration of courts and judiciary, including paying salaries or constructing new courthouses. The Ministry of Justice and that of the Infrastructures fund and the Ministry of Justice, lastly, the Ministry of Justice receives and processes applications for presidential pardons and proposes legislation dealing with matters of civil or criminal justice. Note, There exist significant problems with applying non-Italian terminology and concepts related to law, for that reason, some of the words used in the rest of the article shall be defined. Appello, for almost all courts in Italy, it is possible to appeal the ruling, avvocatura dello Stato, the public organ, composed of lawyers, which represents the State, whenever it is plaintiff or defendant in a lawsuit. Cassazione, the Court of Cassazione acts as cassation jurisdictions, which means that it has jurisdiction on quashing the judgments of inferior courts if those courts misapplied law. Generally, cassation is based not on outright violations of law, cassation is not based on the facts of the case. Cassation is always open as a final recourse, codice, collection of enacted statutory law or regulations relating to a single topic. Modern Italian law codes date back to the 19th century, though all codes have since been abolished and substituted, contraddittorio Contravvenzione, lowest kind of crimes punishable by fines or at most short jail sentences. Delitto, more severe crimes, punishable by fines, prison sentences or life imprisonment, Giudice collegiale, it is important to note that, in this case, Giudice refers both to every single person composing the panel and to the panel itself. Inamovibilità, Judges cannot be removed from office, except through specific disciplinary proceedings and they may be moved or promoted only with their own will. These protections are meant to ensure that they are independent from the executive power, magistrato, general term encompassing Judges and prosecutors, the Magistratura, or judiciary, is a collective term for all judicial officers. Magistrati are government employees, but statutorily kept separate and independent from the branches of government. g. Refrain from making political statements. Magistratura amministrativa, courts of this order judge most cases against the government, Magistratura ordinaria, courts of this order judge civil and criminal casesJudiciary of Italy – Italian Court system
50. Law enforcement in Italy – Law enforcement in Italy is provided by multiple police forces, five of which are national, Italian agencies. Italy divides police enforcement into Military and Civil guards, distinguishing each corps for duties, all police are under the Ministero dellInterno, the highest police and public safety authority, which - through the Department of Public Safety - coordinates the enforcements. Locally, Polizia di Stato is under the Authority of the Prefetto, however, in this numbers are included the members of the Arma dei Carabinieri, one of the four Italian Armed Forces, that does not have the unique role of police enforcement. The Polizia di Stato is the national police of Italy. Along with patrolling, investigative and law enforcement duties, it patrols the Autostrada and it is a civilian police force, while the Carabinieri and the Guardia di Finanza are military. While its internal organization and mindset is somewhat military, its personnel is composed of civilians and its headquarters are in Rome, and there are Regional and Provincial divisions throughout Italian territory. A program Polizia di Quartiere has been implemented which increases police presence, pairs of poliziotti or carabinieri patrol areas of major cities on foot. The Guardia di Finanza, is a corps under the authority of the Minister of Economy and Finance. The Guardia di Finanza has a strength of around 68,000 soldiers working as agents, NCOs and its militaries are in service in the Europol and the European Anti-Fraud Office. Its Latin motto since 1933 is Nec recisa recedit, the Guardia di Finanza also maintains over 600 boats and ships and more than 100 aircraft to fulfill its mission of patrolling Italys territorial waters. During demonstrations and very big events, the Guardia di Finanza is often called on duty as riot police, the Carabinieri is the common name for the Arma dei Carabinieri, a Gendarmerie-like military corps with police duties. They also serve as the police for the Italian armed forces. The Carabinieri have become an armed force, thus ending their long-standing tradition as the First Corps of the Italian Army. They are referred to as the Arma or La Benemerita, Carabinieri units have been dispatched all over the world in peacekeeping missions, including Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq. In November 2003, twelve Carabinieri were killed in a bomb attack on their base in Nasiriyah. This was Italys largest military loss in a single action since World War II, until 2001, only men were allowed to become part of the Arma, but military reforms allow women to serve in the Italian military, including Carabinieri. Having both military police duties and civil duties, the Arma is usually called on duty as riot police during big events. The Polizia Penitenziaria operate the Italian prison system and handle the transportation of inmates, the training academies for the Polizia Penitenziaria are located in Aversa, Monastir, Cairo Montenotte, Castiglione delle Stiviere, Parma, Portici, Rome, San Pietro Clarenza, Verbania and SulmonaLaw enforcement in Italy – Carabinieri.
51. Chamber of Deputies (Italy) – The Chamber of Deputies is a house of the bicameral Parliament of Italy. The two houses form a perfect bicameral system, meaning they perform identical functions, but do so separately. Pursuant to article 56 of the Italian Constitution, the Chamber of Deputies has 630 seats, of which 618 are elected from Italian constituencies, Deputies are styled The Honourable and meet at Palazzo Montecitorio. Previously, the seat of the Chamber of Deputies of the Kingdom of Italy had been briefly at the Palazzo Carignano in Turin and the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. Under the Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini, from 1939 to 1943, the Chamber is composed of all members meeting in session at the Montecitorio. The assembly also has the right to meetings of the Government. If required, the Government is obligated to attend the session, conversely, the Government has the right to be heard every time it requires. The term of office of the House is five years,61.2 of the Constitution, states that representatives whose term has expired shall continue to exercise their functions until the first meeting of the new Chamber. An extension of the term, provided for by art,60.2, can be enacted only in case of war. Election of members to the Chamber of Deputies is by voluntary, universal, terms last for a total of five years, unless an early dissolution of the Chamber is called by the President of the Republic, at which point a snap election is held. Unlike the Senate, which members to be 40 years of age. The current system for elections to the Chamber of Deputies has been in operation since 2015, the territory of Italy is divided into 100 constituencies electing between 3 and 9 deputies depending on their size. For each constituency, the parties designate a list of candidates, head of list candidates can run in up to 10 constituencies, if two preference votes are expressed, they must be of a different sex, otherwise, the second preference is discarded. Only parties passing a 3% minimum threshold in the first round are assigned seats, if the party receiving the plurality of the votes passes a 40% threshold, it is attributed a minimum of 340 seats. The remaining 277 seats are allocated to the other parties using the largest remainder method. This provision was however rendered null and void by a Constitutional Courts judgment in January 2017, the President of the Chamber of Deputies performs the role of speaker of the house and is elected during the first session after the election. During this time the prerogatives of speaker are assumed by the vicepresident of Chamber of Deputies of the legislature who was elected first. If two were elected simultaneously, the oldest deputy serves as president of Chamber of Deputies, the President of Chamber of Deputies has also the role of President during the Parliament joint sessions, when the upper and lower houses have to vote togetherChamber of Deputies (Italy)
52. List of political parties in Italy – Political parties in Italy are numerous and there are hundreds of parties which are no longer active. Since World War II, no party has gained enough support to govern alone. Parties thus form political alliances and coalition governments, in November 2013 The People of Freedom was dissolved and merged into the new Forza Italia, provoking the formation of the split-away New Centre-Right. In December 2016 Left Ecology Freedom was dissolved in order to part to the formation of Italian Left. Between 1945 and 1994, Italian politics was dominated by two parties, Christian Democracy, the main party of government, and the Italian Communist Party. The other opposition party was the post-fascist Italian Social Movement, for 46 consecutive years, the Christian Democrats led the government except for five years. Between 1983 and 1991, they led a government with the Socialists, the Republicans, the Democratic Socialists. These were the years when several regional parties demanding autonomy organised themselves at the regional level. In 1991 they federated themselves into the Northern League, which became the fourth largest party in the 1992 general election. In 1992–94, the system was shaken by a series of corruption scandals known collectively as Tangentopoli. These events led to the disappearance of the five parties of government, consequently, the Communists, who had evolved to become Democratic Party of the Left in 1991, and the post-fascists, who launched National Alliance in 1994, gained strength. Between 1996 and 2008, Italian political parties were organised into two big coalitions, the centre-right Pole for Freedoms and The Olive Tree on the centre-left. The centre-left governed from 1996 to 2001 and again between 2006 and 2008, while the House of Freedoms was in government between 2001 and 2006. In 2008 The Union ceased to exist as the newly founded Democratic Party decided to break the alliance with its left-wing partners, notably including the Communist Refoundation Party. On the centre-right, Forza Italia and National Alliance merged to form The People of Freedom, in November 2013 The People of Freedom was dissolved and merged into the new Forza Italia, provoking the formation of the split-away New Centre-Right. In December 2016 Left Ecology Freedom was dissolved in order to part to the formation of Italian LeftList of political parties in Italy – Italian Republic
53. Economy of Italy – The economy of Italy is the 3rd-largest national economy in the eurozone, the 8th-largest by nominal GDP in the world, and the 12th-largest by GDP. The country is a member of the European Union, the Eurozone, the OECD, the G7. Italy is the eighth largest exporter in the world with $514 billion exported in 2016 and its closest trade ties are with the other countries of the European Union, with whom it conducts about 59% of its total trade. The largest trading partners, in order of market share, are Germany, France, United States, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and Spain. According to the Human Development Index, the country enjoys a high standard of living. Italy owns the worlds third-largest gold reserve, and is the third net contributor to the budget of the European Union, Italy is the largest market for luxury goods in Europe and the countrys private wealth is one of the largest in the world. Despite these important achievements, the economy today suffers from structural and non-structural problems. After strong GDP growth in 1945–1990, the last two decades average annual growth rates lagged below the EU average, moreover, Italy was hit hard by the late-2000s recession. The stagnation in economic growth, and the efforts to revive it with massive government spending from the 1980s onwards. After the unification, industrialization was largely artisanal, and located in the former political capitals, the resulting Italian diaspora concerned nearly 26 million Italians, the most part immigrated in the period 1880–1914, and it is considered the biggest mass migration of contemporary times. During the Great War, the Italian Royal Army increased in size and this came at a terrible cost, by the end of the war, Italy had lost 700,000 soldiers and had a budget deficit of billions of lira. Italy emerged from World War I in a poor and weakened condition, the National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini came to power in 1922, at the end of a period of social unrest. However, once Mussolini acquired a firmer hold of power, laissez-faire and free trade were progressively abandoned in favour of government intervention, in 1929, Italy was hit hard by the Great Depression. A number of mixed entities were formed, whose purpose it was to bring representatives of the government. These representatives discussed economic policy and manipulated prices and wages so as to both the wishes of the government and the wishes of business. This economic model based on a partnership between government and business was extended to the political sphere, in what came to be known as corporatism. At the same time, the foreign policy of Mussolini led to an increasing military expenditure. After the invasion of Ethiopia, Italy intervened to support Francos nationalists in the Spanish Civil War, by 1939, Italy had the highest percentage of state-owned enterprises after the Soviet UnionEconomy of Italy – Milan is the financial centre of Italy
54. Economy of Milan – Milan is one of the EUs and the worlds major financial and business centres, with the Milan metropolitan area having a 2004 GDP of €241.2 billion, which means that it has Europes 4th highest GDP. This means that, if Milan were a country, it would have the worlds 28th largest economy, Milan is the 2nd richest European Union City, after Paris. The city has a GDP of $115 billion, making it the worlds 26th richest city by purchasing power. Also, the hinterland is Italys largest industrial area. Milan, also, has one of Italys highest GDP, about €35,137, which is 161. 6% of the EU average GDP per capita. Major fashion houses and labels, such as Versace, Gucci, Armani, Valentino, Prada, Dolce & Gabbana, Moschino and Missoni are headquartered in Milan, which greatly contribute to the citys economy. Milan was, in the late 12th century, a wealthy and industrious city, as the production of armours and wool, the city experienced a strong flow of immigrants, and became a major international and cosmopolitan centre for expatriate employees. A study showed that by the late-1990s, more than 10% of the workers were foreigners. In January 2008, according to ISTAT statistics, it was estimated that 181,393 foreign-born immigrants lived in the city, representing 13. 9% of the total population. Milan had an industrial and economic production after the war, however, it fell slightly in the late 1990s and early 2000s. The bulk of the plastic, chemicals and mechanics industries show a downward trend, publishing production decreased by -2. 6%, while the wood-processing industry production decreased by -1. 2%. In contrast, despite a decrease in production, Milan has had a rapid and strong growth in the tertiary and quaternary sectors, with logistics and transport. Milan also has an important role in production and publishing. It is the most important city in the nation for publishing, banks throughout Italy went through many changes in the late 1800s to early 1900s. One of the Milanese banks, the SBI, had many issues resolving its resources and it did not have support from foreign banks nor enough savings domestically. Other banks during this time in Italy, specifically during the 1907 international crisis, had high liquid assets, a group of industrialists and bankers from Milan transformed the banking institute Figli di Weil Schott e C. into the Società Bancaria Milanese. Most traditional industries have relocated to other locations other than cities or have closed down since the late 1970s in Italy. However, Milan, became Italys most successful postindustrial city, milans service sector has benefited from the efficiency of the citys banks and the stock market, the Borsa Italiana located in Piazza degli Affari in the centre of the city. The majority of the services revolve around the Fashion industry, there are specialties in the city in furniture design, graphic design, among other specialtiesEconomy of Milan – Borsa Italiana, the Stock Exchange in Milan
55. Economy of Naples – Naples is Italys fourth most important city for economic strength, coming after Milan, Rome and Turin. It is the worlds 91st richest city by purchasing power, with a GDP of $43 billion, were Naples a country, it would have the worlds 68th biggest economy, near the size of that of Qatar. The city has had an economic growth since the war. Naples used to be an industrial city, though many of the factories are no longer there. Naples also hosted important electronics industries such as Olivetti research department in Pozzuoli, also Naples is important for its light aircraft industries Partenavia and Vulcanair and hosted several departments of big aircraft industries of Aeritalia. Aeritalia then joined with Selenia with the name of Alenia, Alenia is still present in Naples, but its production relevance is important but nowadays shrinking. One of the first large Italian companies producing canned vegetables, Cirio, was founded in Turin, Naples and the surrounding area also has a large number of smaller firms manufacturing canned vegetables, mostly tomato sauce. Family-sized pasta companies in Torre Annunziata collapsed around 1949-1950 due to the rise of industrial pasta makers in northern Italy, only the slow food typical artisan-made pasta in Gragnano survived and it is one of the most apprecciated typical products of Naples surroundings. Fior di latte cheese is made in the territory of Agerola, Lettere, the wine industry is also prevalent in the Naples area, mainly in Gragnano, Lettere, Ercolano and Pozzuoli. Naples is also known worldwide for Neapolitan coffee made with the historical Neapolitan flip coffee pot, there are still some little industries roasting coffee beans and producing ground coffee to be used with Neapolitan coffee machines. Tourism is one of the biggest sectors of the Neapolitan economy, Naples is, and has always been, one of Italy and Europes top tourist city destinations, with the first tourists coming in the 18th century during the Grand Tour. In terms of arrivals, Naples came 166th in the world in 2008, with 381,000 visitors, coming after Lille. Despite this, however, there are far many more tourists who live in Italy, Naples is popular due to its beautiful scenery, rich history, unique culture and interesting monuments and cityscape. The economy is measured on a level, the province of Naples is placed 94th out of the total of 103 provinces in Italy in terms of gross value added. Statistics do not include wealth generated by the market or untaxed wages. It is not uncommon for Neapolitan workers to move North because unemployment is at around 28%, however, the unemployment level in Campania has been decreasing, and today is only 11. 2%. The business centre of Naples is the Centro Direzionale, in recent times, there has been a move away from traditional agriculture-based economy in the province to one based on service industries. In early 2002 there were over 249,590 enterprises operating in the province of Naples registered in the Chamber of Commerce Public Register, employment in the province of Naples in different sectors breaks down as followsEconomy of Naples – An airplane in Naples airport, in the August 2009.
56. Economy of Rome – Rome is a major EU and international financial, cultural and a business centre. Romes trade is 0. 001% of world economic trade, Rome grows +4. 4% annually and continues to grow at a higher rate in comparison to any other city in the rest of the country. This means that were Rome a country, it would be the worlds 52nd richest country by GDP, near to the size to that of Egypt. Rome also had a 2003 GDP per capita of €29,153, which was second in Italy, and is more than 134. 1% of the EU average GDP per capita. Rome is currently a world city, along with other metropoleis such as Berlin and Montreal. Rome was in 2008, also ranked 15th out of all the cities of the world for global importance, ancient Rome commanded a vast area of land, with tremendous natural and human resources. As such, Romes economy remained focused on farming and trade, agricultural free trade changed the Italian landscape, and by the 1st century BC, vast grape and olive estates had supplanted the yeoman farmers, who were unable to match the imported grain price. The annexation of Egypt, Sicily and Tunisia in North Africa provided a supply of grains. In turn, olive oil and wine were Italys main exports, two-tier crop rotation was practiced, but farm productivity was overall low, around 1 ton per hectare. Some economists like Peter Temin consider the Roman Empire a market economy, similar in its degree of capitalistic practices to 17th century Netherlands and 18th century England. After the Decline of the Roman Empire, Rome fell into decay, with its ex-economic and political power passing on to other cities, such as Milan, Florence, Venice and Palermo. Even though Rome still had the pope, the city ceased to be a major centre for commerce, trade. The Roman economy, however, boomed in the 16th and 17th centuries, especially when the Medici popes Leo X and Clement VII were in power. The renaissance transformed Rome into a city of the arts, culture, politics, banking, commerce and trade, especially when the Florentine merchants involved in papal affairs, yielded huge profits. Rome grew momentously after the war, as one of the forces behind the Italian economic miracle of post-war reconstruction and modernisation. Among the most significant resources, plenty of museums - — aqueducts, fountains, churches, palaces, historical buildings, the monuments and ruins of the Roman Forum, and the Catacombs. Rome is the 3rd most visited city in the EU, after London and Paris, and receives an average of 7-10 million tourists a year, the Colosseum and the Vatican Museums are the 39th and 37th most visited places in the world, according to a recent study. In 2005 the city registered 19.5 million of global visitors, in 2006 Rome has been visited by 6.03 million of international tourists, reaching the 8th place in the ranking of the worlds 150 most visited citiesEconomy of Rome – Night view of the Trajan's Market which was built by Apollodorus of Damascus
57. Taxation in Italy – Taxation in Italy is levied by the central and regional governments and is collected by the Italian Agency of Revenue. Total tax revenue in 2012 was 44. 4% of the GDP, the total tax receipts in 2013 were €782 billion. The most important revenue sources are income tax, social security, corporate tax and the value added tax, personal income taxation in Italy is progressive. Employment income is subject to an income tax applying to all workers. The area exempt from Irpef increases further if there are dependent family members, the corporate income tax in Italy is 24% since 1.1.2017. Some corporations are exempted from tax, such as charitable foundations, church institutions. Value added tax is a tax at a standard rate of 22%. Reduced VAT rates apply at 10% for pharmaceuticals, passenger transport, admission to cultural and entertainment events, hotels, restaurants and 4% on foodstuffs, medical, the Italian VAT is part of the European Union value added tax system. Social security contributions apply to everyone in the workforce, employers withhold 9. 19% of the employees wage and the employer contributes 34. 08% of gross pay. Self-employed individuals must enrol with the Gestione Separata, unless specific rules apply. The contributions to the INPS are calculated at a rate ranging from 18% to 27. 72% on annual income up to a maximum income of €96,149 in 2012. Italy has the largest number of tax evaders in Europe, counting, according to the estimated figures. On the other hand, the problem is the best way to ensure the right of defense from the tax claim of the State, eight per thousand How to, Register the VAT number in Italy How to calculate your net salary in ItalyTaxation in Italy – Taxation
58. Tourism in Italy – With 48.6 million tourists a year, Italy is the fifth most visited country in international tourism arrivals. People mainly visit Italy for its art, cuisine, history, fashion and culture, its beautiful coastline and beaches, its mountains. Italy also contains more World Heritage Sites than any country in the world. Tourism is one of Italys fastest growing and most profitable industrial sectors, traders and merchants came to Italy from several different parts of the world. Pilgrims, for centuries and still today, would come to the city, the trade empires of Venice, Pisa and Genoa meant that several traders, businessmen and merchants from all over the world would also regularly come to Italy. In the 16th and early 17th century, with the height of the Renaissance, several came to Italy to study Italian architecture. Real tourism only affected in Italy in the half of the 17th century. This was a period in which European aristocrats, many of whom were British, visited parts of Europe, Italy, Greece and this was in order to study ancient architecture and the local culture. The Grand Tour was in essence triggered by the book Voyage to Italy, by Roman Catholic priest Richard Lassels, due to the Grand Tour, tourism became even more prevalent - making Italy one of the most desired destinations for millions of people. Once inside what would be modern-day Italy, these tourists would begin by visiting Turin for a short while. On the way there, Milan was also a stop, yet a trip to the city was not considered essential. If a person came via boat, then they would remain a few days in Genoa, yet, the main destination in Northern Italy was Venice, which was considered a vital stop, as well as cities around it such as Verona, Vicenza and Padua. Tourists rarely, yet occasionally, got to Trieste, as the Tour went on, Tuscan cities were also very important itinerary stops. Florence was an attraction, and other Tuscan towns, such as Siena, Pisa, Lucca. The most prominent stop in Central Italy, however, was Rome, later, they would go down to the Bay of Naples, and after their discovery in 1756, Pompeii and Herculaneum were popular too. Sicily was considered a significant part of the trail, and several, such as Goethe, throughout the 17th to 18th centuries, the Grand Tour was mainly reserved for academics or the elite. Nevertheless, circa 1840, rail transport was introduced and the Grand Tour started to fall out of vogue, hence. The 1840s saw the period in which the Victorian middle classes toured the country, several Americans were also able to visit Italy, and many more tourists came to the peninsulaTourism in Italy – The Amalfi Coast seen from Ravello in Campania. This is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Italy.
59. Transport in Italy – Italy has well developed and private transportation options. Italian rail network is extensive, especially in the north, generally eclipsing the need for a such as bus or air. Italy has 2,507 people and 12.46 km2 per kilometer of rail track, Italys road network is also widespread, with a total length of about 487,700 km. It comprises both a motorway network, mostly toll roads, and national and local roads. Because of its long seacoast, Italy also has a number of harbors for the transportation of both goods and passengers. Italy has been a seafaring peninsula dating back to the days of the Etruscans, Transport networks in Italy are fully integrated into the Trans-European Transport Networks. The Italian railway system has a length of 19,394 km, the active lines are 16,723 km. The network is growing with the construction of the new high-speed rail network. The narrow gauge tracks are,112 km of 1,000 mm gauge,1,211 km of 950 mm gauge A major part of the Italian rail network is managed and operated by Ferrovie dello Stato, a state owned company. Other regional agencies, mostly owned by entities such as regional governments. The Italian railways are subsidised by the government, receiving €8.1 billion in 2009, travellers who often make use of the railway during their stay in Italy might use Rail Passes, such as the European Inter-Rail or Italys national and regional passes. These rail passes allow travellers the freedom to use regional trains during the validity period, regional passes, such as Io viaggio ovunque Lombardia, offer one-day, multiple-day and monthly period of validity. There are also passes for adults, who travel as a group. Foreign travellers should purchase these passes in advance, so that the passes could be delivered by post prior to the trip, when using the rail passes, the date of travel needs to be filled in before boarding the trains. In 1967, the Bologna-Florence high-speed line, with speeds up to 230 km/h, opened to passenger traffic, subsequently, high-speed rail tracks connect Milan to Bologna, Florence to Rome and Rome to Naples. The Bologna-Florence high-speed line was upgraded to 300 km/h and the current journey time is 35 minutes, a new high-speed line linking Milan and Turin, operating at 300 km/h, opened to passenger traffic in 2009, reducing the journey time from 2 hours to 1 hour. The high-speed line between Naples and Salerno are still under construction, construction of the Milan-Venice high-speed line has begun in 2013. The operator of high-speed trains is Trenitalia, since 2012, a new and Italys first private train operator, NTV Italo, run high-speed services in competition with TrenitaliaTransport in Italy – A Frecciarossa high-speed train
60. Capital punishment in Italy – The use of capital punishment in Italy has been banned since 1889, with the exception of the period 1926-1947, encompassing the rule of Fascism in Italy and the early restoration of democracy. Before the unification of Italy in 1860, capital punishment was performed in almost all states, except for Tuscany. It is currently out of use as a result of the adoption of the current constitution, so Tuscany was the first modern European state in the world to do away with torture and capital punishment. Afterwards the death penalty was abolished in the Penal Code in 1889 with the almost unanimous approval of both Houses of Parliament under suggestion of Minister Zanardelli. However executions in Italy had not been carried out since 1877, ironically, as a result of this pardon, Gaetano Bresci could not be sentenced to death after he assassinated Umberto I in 1900. The death penalty was still present in military and colonial penal codes, the Rocco Code added more crimes to the list of those punishable with the death penalty, and reintroduced capital punishment for some common crimes. The last people executed for crimes were three Sicilian robbers, also convicted of murder, who battered and threw into a well ten people on a farm near Villarbasse in 1945. The president, Enrico de Nicola, declined to pardon them and this was the last execution in Italy. The Italian Constitution, approved on December 27,1947 and in force since January 1,1948, completely abolished the death penalty for all common military and this measure was implemented by the legislative decree 22/48 of January 22,1948. In 2007 a constitutional amendment was adopted, article 27 of Italian Constitution was changed to fully ban the death penalty. Prior to abolition, the penalty was sanctioned in article 21 of the Italian penal code. It stated that Death penalty is to be carried out by shooting inside a penitentiary or in any other place suggested by the Ministry of Justice, the execution is not public, unless the Ministry of Justice determines otherwise. A draft law to ratify the 13th Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights had been approved by the Senate on October 9,2008 and it was ratified on March 3,2009. Fewer than half of Italians approved of the 2006 execution of Saddam Hussein, Italy proposed the UN moratorium on the death penalty, which urges states to establish a moratorium on executions with a view toward abolition and urged states around the world to approve it. The former Italian Foreign Minister Massimo DAlema also stated that the step was to work on abolishing the death penalty. The 2008 European Values Study found that 62. 6% of respondents in Italy said that the penalty can never be justified. Cesare Beccaria Death penalty in Pre-unitarian ItalyCapital punishment in Italy – Execution of capital punishment by guillotine in 1868, shortly after the birth of modern Italy. It was subsequently abolished in 1889 and only revived under Italian Fascism.
61. Corruption in Italy – Corruption in Italy is a major problem. In Transparency Internationals annual surveys, Italy has consistently been regarded as the most corrupt country in the Eurozone, according to 2016 results of Corruption Perception Index of Transparency International, Italy ranks 60th place out of 176 countries. Corruption costs Italy a reported €60 billion a year, which amount to four percent of its GDP, on the 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index, Italy took 61st place out of 174 countries, scoring on a par with Senegal, Montenegro, and South Africa. Political corruption remains a major problem particularly in Southern Italy including Calabria, parts of Campania, political parties are ranked the most corrupt institution in Italy, closely followed by public officials and Parliament, according to Transparency Internationals Global Corruption Barometer 2013. Regarding business and corruption, foreign investments and economic growth are hindered by organized crime, Business executives from World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014 consider corruption one of the problems for doing business in Italy. Procurement process, mainly in water, roads and railway projects, Italian culture has been described as being characterized by “an ambiguous attitude to graft. “Many Italians, ” maintained a 2010 report, have accepted corruption, the Mafia plays a key role in both public and private corruption. Arising “out of business deals, ” as Forbes put it, the Mafia historically “acted as a guarantor for contracts, until relatively recent history, almost every deal in the country was enforced by a ‘man of honor. Similarly, the 2009 LAquila earthquake, in which over 300 people died, was described as a reminder to Italians of the risks they take by tolerating a corrupt political system. A 1992–94 corruption scandal called Tangentopoli, uncovered by the so-called Mani pulite investigation, “rocked Italy to its core”, but the probes “fizzled out” and afterwards the bribery just got worse. The political impact of Mani Pulite remains the worst scandal of all modern Italy, the public outrage over the corruption led to “the sudden extinction of five different political factions that had controlled Italys government since 1946. A new political establishment took their place, but corruption resumed, one target of the 1992 through 1994 corruption probes was Gianstefano Frigerio, then a Christian Democrat MP. During 1992–94, he was the defendant in four trials, one case fell afoul of the statute of limitations, but in the remaining three cases he was found guilty. He managed to have his six-year prison sentence reduced, then turned into a community service sentence and he was then re-elected to parliament in 2001, and arrested again in 2014 for participation in the massive corruption scheme surrounding the Expo in Milan. It is widely believed that two judges, Paolo Borsellino and Giovanni Falcone, were murdered in 1992 because of their efforts to punish corrupt ties between Mafia and politicians, in 2012, 65% of Italians told Transparency International that they thought corruption had intensified during the previous three years. In April 2016, Italian Supreme Court judge Piercamillo Davigo, who had prosecuted widespread political corruption in the 1990s, “The politicians haven’t stopped stealing, they’ve stopped being ashamed of it, ” he said. “Now they blatantly claim a right to do what they used to do secretly. ”Nicola Gratteri, a 2013 report in The Guardian identified “Organised crime and corruption” as one of six problems currently facing Italy. The Mafia, once confined largely to the south, now operated nationwide, and had spread beyond drug trafficking and prostitution to transport, public health, since 2000, Italy has experienced perceived corruption levels on par with Post-Soviet, Eastern European transition nationsCorruption in Italy – Political corruption
62. Crime in Italy – Crime in Italy is combated by the spectrum of Italian law enforcement agencies. In 2012, Italy had a rate of 0.9 per 100,000 population. There were a total of 530 murders in Italy in 2012, the Mafia originated in Italy, and its influence is widespread in Italian society, directly affecting a reported 22% of Italians and 14. 6% of Italys Gross Domestic Product. Public figures such as former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi have been charged with association in organized criminal acts, the fight against the Mafia has cost many lives, including victims of high-profile assassinations, such as judges Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino. Together, they exert influence over 13 million Italians and their business involvement is on a European and global scale. Businesses, entrepreneurs, shopkeepers, and craftsmen in these regions are expected to pay a pizzo, or protection money. There is rarely any possibility of escaping payment, and those not complying find their business premises and lives at risk, people not able to meet demands might find their business partly or completely taken over by organized crime. In 2009, organized crime in Italy generated $189 billion in revenue, Italy has a lower per capita rate of rape than most of the advanced Western countries in the European Union. According to Police authorities data, the rate of sexual assaults per 100,000 inhabitants is significantly higher in the Northern region than in the Southern ones. In 2009, Lombardia and Emilia Romagna were the regions with the highest rate of sexual offences per 100.000 inhabitants, followed by Trentino Alto Adige and Tuscany, Piedmont and Liguria, Umbria. In this respect, all major Southern regions like Sicily, Calabria, Puglia, Campania were the safest in the national territory, with the only exception of Friuli Venezia Giulia in the North. Fraud is a contributor to Italys crime rate, with some level of fraud appearing in all sectors of the economy since the countrys founding in 1861. Notable cases of financial fraud include the collapse of Parmalat in the years of the 21st century. The percentage rose above ten percent in some of the southern provinces, a case was revealed in 2010 where in one quartiere of Naples alone,400 people were found to be claiming mental illness although healthy. Political corruption remains a problem in Italy, particularly in Southern Italy including Calabria, parts of Campania. Political parties are ranked as the most corrupt institution in Italy, closely followed by public officials and Parliament, levels of crime are unevenly spread throughout the peninsula. High unemployment and waste management problems continue to affect Naples, Italian media have attributed the citys waste disposal issues to the activity of the Camorra organised crime network, in 2007, Silvio Berlusconis government held senior meetings in Naples to demonstrate their intention to solve these problems. In June 2012, allegations of blackmail, extortion and illicit contract tendering emerged in relation to the waste management issuesCrime in Italy – Italian police in Perugia in central Italy.
63. Secondary education in Italy – The Scuola secondaria di primo grado it is mandatory, lasts three years and is the first stage in which different specialized professors teach different subjects. It provides further education on the subjects studied at the scuola primaria, with the addition of technology and it has a common programme for all pupils, and covers all the classical subjects. Before the Moratti reform it was called scuola media di primo grado or scuola media inferiore, the scuola secondaria di secondo grado – formerly known as scuola media superiore – lasts five years. Every tier involves an exam at the end of the year, called esame di maturità. Any type of school that lasts five years grants access to the final exam, called esame di maturità or esame di stato. It is designed to give students the skills to progress to any university or higher educational institution, for historical reasons, there are three types of Scuola secondaria di secondo grado, subsequently divided into further specializations. Liceo Istituto tecnico Istituto professionale Programmes are generally decided at national level, moreover, students in state-owned schools perform better than students in private schools. A typical Italian student is age 19 when they enter university, the Italian school system also features the scuola serale, aimed at adults and working students. The education received in a liceo is mostly theoretical, with a specialization in a field of studies. Types of liceo include, Liceo classico – dedicated to studies, features Latin, Ancient Greek, Italian, history. Liceo artistico – which is oriented toward arts teaching – both in a theoretical and practical way and its subjects are painting, sculpture, decoration, graphics, design, audiovisual, multimedia, scenography and architecture. Liceo delle scienze umane – where the emphasis is more on relational, behavioral and educational, such as pedagogy, anthropology, psychology, sociology and it replaces the previous istituto magistrale. Liceo musicale e coreutico – often linked with a conservatory, which comprises two sectors, musicale – which specializes in music and teaches students to play an instrument, coreutico – which specializes in dance and choreography. The istituto darte was a form of istituto professionale, which offered an education focused on art history. Today it is part of the liceo artistico, the subjects are chosen between the ones of the last year by each examining board, excluding those of the first and second test. Up to 30 points on an oral exam regarding all the subjects of the last year up to 5 points in cases the examining board judges appropriate to meriting students. The exam is passed with a score of 60 or more, and any secondary school diploma is valid for access to any university course. itSecondary education in Italy – A scuola secondaria di primo grado (aka scuola media), in Morbio
64. Health in Italy – As with any developed country, Italy has adequate and sufficient water and food distribution, and levels of nutrition and sanitation are high. Italy has a good and sufficient water supply, yet, especially due to droughts, a problem which often presents itself regarding drinking water is water pollution and the presence of harmful purifying chemicals and/or herbicides, which can cause several health problems. According to an issued by the state, the maximum presence of herbicides or similar materials in Italy drinking water is 0.5 μg per litre. Italys nutritious and generally healthy cuisine ensures that Italians are well-nourished, the relatively recent addition of several drugs to meats has meant that controls have increased from 4,000 in 1988 to 56,831 in 1991. Despite this, the greatest risk from exposure to radiation is found indoors, Italy has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. However, Italys high average varies greatly by regions, in the more affluent north, the life expectancy at birth in 1990 for a man would be lower than in the south yet for a woman, the average is higher in the north than in the south. Central Italy has the highest average, with 74.7 for men and 81.0 for women, in 2003, the average national life expectancy at birth for a woman was 78~84, and for a man 71~77. By 2009, this average had increased to 77.26 for men. Italy also has a low rate of infant mortality, that of 5.51 out of 1000 people. From 1970 to 1989, the rate went down dramatically, from 11 and 10.3 for men and women. Smoking in Italy has decreased greatly in the past decades for men, from a country where in 1966 a 68. 5% average of the male population smoked, this had gone down to a ~37% average in 1991. Yet, for women, it increased from ~15% for women in 1966, to ~16. 5%, notably in the centre, healthcare in Italy Timeline of healthcare in ItalyHealth in Italy – An old social insurance card (dated 1921) belonging to the Istituto Nazionale della Previdenza Sociale, which makes sure that workers are not injured from work, and if they are, that they are insured.
65. Healthcare in Italy – Thanks to its good healthcare system, the life expectancy at birth in Italy was 82.3 years in 2012, which is over two years above the OECD average. After World War II Italy established its social security system including a health insurance administered by sickness funds. In the 1970s the social health insurance faced several equity problems as coverage differed between the funds and around 7% of the population remained uninsured. Moreover, sickness funds went practically bankrupt by the mid-1970s, due to growing public dissatisfaction with the existing healthcare system, Italian policymakers fostered a structural reform. In 1978, the government established the SSN — the Italian version of a National Health Service — including universal coverage, healthcare is provided to all citizens and residents by a mixed public-private system. The public part is the health service, Sistema sanitario nazionale. Family doctors are paid by the SSN, must offer visiting time at least five days a week and have a limit of 1500 patients. Patients can choose and change their GP, subjected to availability, prescription drugs can be acquired only if prescribed by a doctor. If prescribed by the doctor, they are generally subsidized, requiring only a copay that depends on the medicine type. Both prescription and over-the-counter drugs can only be sold in specialized shops, in a sample of 13 developed countries, Italy was sixth in its population weighted usage of medication in 14 classes in 2009 and fifth in 2013. The study noted considerable difficulties in cross-border comparison of medication use, patients, however, can opt for the free market option, provided by both public and private hospitals, which is paid completely out-of-pocket and has generally much shorter waiting times. Surgeries and hospitalization provided by the hospitals or by conventioned private ones are completely free of charge for everyone. For planned surgery waiting times can be up to many months, the Italian National Outcomes Programme permits measurement of variation in the quality and outcomes of care by region, which is very considerable. Measured at Local Health Authority level the levels varied between 5% and more than 60% and this geographic variability was the greatest of any of the 11 countries studied by the OECD. There is evidence of patient movement, generally south to north, probably driven, at least in part. The emergency telephone number for medical service in Italy is 118. Emergency medical service is free of charge. First aid is provided by all the hospitals, for urgent cases it is completely free of charge for everyoneHealthcare in Italy – An Italian National Health Service card.
66. Nobility of Italy – They often held lands as fiefs and were sometimes endowed with hereditary titles or nobiliary particles. From the Middle Ages until 1861, Italy was not a country but was a number of separate kingdoms and other states. These were often related through marriage to other and to other European royal families. Before Italian Unification there was a relatively large nobility in Italy, there were also families which had been part of Italian nobility for many decades or even centuries. These families freely intermarried with aristocratic nobility, like other noble families, those with both papal power and money were able to purchase comunes or other tracts of land and elevate family patriarchs and other relatives to noble titles. Hereditary patriarchs were appointed Duke, Marquis and even Prince of various 16th-, according to Ranke, Popes commonly elevated members of prominent families to the position of Cardinal, especially second and third sons who would not otherwise inherit hereditary titles. Popes also elevated their own family members – especially nephews – to the position of Cardinal-Nephew. The period was famous for papal nepotism and many families, such as the Barberini and Pamphili, modern Italy is dotted with the fruits of their success – various family palazzi remain standing today as a testament to their sometimes meteoric rise to power. The architect of Italian unification was Count Camillo Benso di Cavour, rome itself remained for a further decade under the Papacy, and became part of the Kingdom of Italy only in 1870. Those nobles who maintained allegiance to the pope became known as the Black Nobility, after the unification, the kings of Italy continued to create titles of nobility to eminent Italians, this time with a validity for all of the Italian territory. For example, General Enrico Cialdini was created Duca di Gaeta for his role during the unification, the practice continued until the 20th century, when nominations would be made by the Prime Minister of Italy and approved by the Crown. In the aftermath of the First World War, most Italians who were ennobled received their titles through the patronage of the Mussolini government, examples include General Armando Diaz, Admiral Paolo Thaon di Revel, Commodore Luigi Rizzo, Costanzo Ciano, Dino Grandi and Cesare Maria de Vecchi. Many of these were victory titles for services rendered to the nation in the Great War, the writer and aviator Gabriele dAnnunzio was created Principe di Montenevoso in 1924, and the physicist, inventor, and Nobel laureate Guglielmo Marconi was also ennobled in 1924 as Marchese Marconi. In 1937, Ettore Tolomei was ennobled as Conte della Vetta, after the successful Italian invasion of Abyssinia, the Mussolini government recommended further Italians to the king for titles of nobility. For example, Marshal Pietro Badoglio was created Marchese del Sabotino and later Duke of Addis Abeba, in 1946, the Kingdom of Italy was replaced by a republic. Under the Italian Constitution adopted in 1948, titles of nobility are not legally recognised, certain predicati recognised before 1922 may continue to be attached to surnames and used in legal documents. Often these were historic feudal territories of noble families, a high court ruling in 1967 definitively established that the heraldic-nobiliary legislation of the Kingdom of Italy is not current law. The southern kingdoms of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia, as well as the Papal states, granted the titles typical of such as Spain, France or England, Prince, Duke, Marquis, CountNobility of Italy – Caserta Palace
67. Racism in Italy – Racism in Italy deals with the relations of Italians and outgroups in the history of Italy. Racism like bigotry is encountered in most societies, and Italy has been no exception, for decades after unification, the country lacked a cohesive national identity, and hostility to outsiders was mainly a matter of regional antipathies. Italys colonial adventures led to an upsurge in explicit racial antipathies for the peoples colonized, under Benito Mussolinis fascist state, once the régime consolidated its pact with Nazi Germany, anti-Semitic laws were passed, as were laws prohibiting internal migration under certain circumstances. The post-war mass migrations from the south towards the industrialized north engendered a degree of anti-southern prejudice, in 2011, a report by Human Rights Watch pointed to growing indications of a rise in xenophobia within Italian society. In Medieval Italy, slavery was widespread, but was justified more often on rather than racial grounds. Almost all slaves in Genoa belonged to non-European races, the situation was different in Venice and Palermo, scientific racism was popularized in Italy by criminologist Cesare Lombroso. Lombrosos theory of atavism compared white civilization and other races with primitive or savage societies and his theories connecting physiognomy to criminal behavior explicitly blamed higher homicide rates in southern Italy on the influence of African and Asian blood on its population. In 1871 Lombroso published The White Man and the Man of Color, Lombroso equated the criminal tendencies of the white population to residual blackness. The ideas of Lombroso about race would spread around Europe at the end of the 19th century, other Italian anthropologists and sociologists also explored Lombrosos path of scientific racism. Niceforo held these views as late as 1952, claiming that Negroid and Mongoloid types were frequent in the lower classes. In 1907 anthropologist Ridolfo Livi attempted to show that Mongolian facial features correlated with poorer populations, however, he maintained that the superiority of the Italian race was proven by its capability to positively assimilate other ethnic components. Italian Jews had one of the highest rates of integration in mixed marriages in the diaspora and it is still debated whether Italian Fascism was originally anti-Semitic. Mussolini originally distinguished his position Hitlers fanatical racism while affirming he himself was a Zionist, more broadly, he even proposed building a mosque in Rome as a sign that Italy was the Protector of Islam, a move blocked by a horrified Pope. German propagandists often derided what they called Italys Kosher Fascism, there were however some Fascists, Roberto Farinacci and Giovanni Preziosi being prime examples, who held fringe extremist racist views before the alliance with Nazi Germany. The book however had little impact until the mid-1930s and it has also been indicated Benito Mussolini had his own, if somewhat different from Nazi, brand of racist views. Mussolini was quoted as saying, the man has to subdue the black, brown. Mussolini had held the view that a contingent of Italian Jews had lived in Italy since the days of the Kings of Rome. One of Mussolinis mistresses, Margherita Sarfatti, was Jewish, there were even some Jews in the National Fascist Party, such as Ettore Ovazza who founded the Jewish Fascist paper La Nostra Bandiera in 1935Racism in Italy – Front page of the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera on 11 November 1938: the fascist regime has approved the racial laws, enacting persecution of the Italian Jews. The title reads: The laws for the defense of race approved by the Council of Ministers.
68. Women in Italy – Italian Women refers to females who are from in Italy. The legal and social status of Italian women has undergone rapid transformations and this includes family laws, the enactment of anti-discrimination measures, and reforms to the penal code. For the Roman period, see Women in Ancient Rome, during the Middle ages, Italian women were considered to have very few social power and resources, although some widows inherited ruling positions from their husbands. Educated women could find opportunities of leadership only in relgious convents, the Renaissance challenged conventional customs from the Medieval period. Venetian-born Christine de Pizan wrote, The City of Ladies in 1404, some women were able to gain an education on their own, or received tutoring from father or husband. Lucrezia Tornabuoni in Florence, Veronica Gambara at Correggio, Veronica Franco and Moderata Fonte in Venice, powerful women rulers of the Italian Renaissance, such as Isabella dEste, Catherine de Medici or Lucrezia Borgia, combined political skill with cultural interests and patronage. Unlike her peers, Isabella di Morra was kept a prisoner in her own castle. By the late 16th and early 17th century, Italian women intellectuals presented were embraced by contemporary culture as learned daughters, wives, mothers, among them were composers Francesca Caccini and Leonora Baroni, and painter Artemisia Gentileschi. Outside the family setting, Italian women continued to find opportunities in the convent and now increasingly, also as singers in the theatre, in 1678 Elena Cornaro Piscopia was the first woman in Italy to receive an academical degree, in philosophy, from the University of Padua. Italian sopranos and primedonne continued to be all around Europe, Vittoria Tesi, Caterina Gabrielli, Lucrezia Aguiari. Other notable women of the period include painter Rosalba Carriera, the Napoleonic Age and the Italian Risorgimento offered for the first time to Italian women the opportunity to be politically engaged. In 1799 in Naples, poet Eleonora Fonseca Pimentel was executed as one of the protagonists of the short-lived Parthenopean Republic, between 1861 and 1925, women were granted no right to vote in the new Italian state. In 1864, Anna Maria Mozzoni triggered a widespread movement in Italy through the publication of Woman. In 1868 Alaide Gualberta Beccari began publishing the journal Women in Padua, a growing percentage of young women were now employed in factories. Excluded from the life, women were particularly exploited. Under the influence of socialist leaders, such as Anna Kuliscioff, in 1902 the first law to protect the labor of women was approved. It forbade them working in the mines and limited hours to 12 hours for women. By the 1880s, women were making inroads towards higher education, in 1877 Ernestina Puritz Manasse-Paper was the first woman to get a university degree in modern Italy, in medicine, and in 1907 Rina Monti was the first female professor in an Italian UniversityWomen in Italy – Sophia Loren, one of Italy's best known actresses
69. Trecento – The Trecento refers to the 14th century in Italian cultural history. Commonly the Trecento is considered to be the beginning of the Renaissance in art history, important sculptors included two pupils of Giovanni Pisano, Arnolfo di Cambio and Tino di Camaino, and Bonino da Campione. The Trecento was also famous as a time of heightened literary activity, dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio were the leading writers of the age. Dante produced his famous La divina commedia, a summation of the medieval worldview, in music, the Trecento was a time of vigorous activity in Italy, as it was in France, with which there was a frequent interchange of musicians and influences. Antiquity and the Middle Ages, From Ancient Greece to the 15th Century, media related to 14th-century in Italy at Wikimedia CommonsTrecento – Giotto masterpiece in Padova 's "Cappella degli Scroveni"
70. History of Italian culture (1700s) – The 1700s refers to a period in Italian history and culture which occurred during the 18th century, the Settecento. In the 18th century, the political and socio-cultural condition of Italy began to improve, under Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, and his successors. These princes were influenced by philosophers, who in their turn felt the influence of a movement of ideas at large in many parts of Europe. All this led to a revival in the 18th centurys second half. The 18th century saw the capital of Europes architectural world transferred from Rome to Paris, the Italian Rococo, which flourished in Rome from the 1720s onward, was profoundly influenced by the ideas of Borromini. In the 18th century much sculpture continued on Baroque lines, the Trevi Fountain was only completed in 1762 after 30 years. Rococo style was suited to smaller works, and arguably found its ideal sculptural form in early European porcelain. Antonio Vivaldi was the most important composer in Italy at the end of the Baroque period and he wrote more than 400 concertos for various instruments, especially for the violin. The scores of 21 operas, including his first and last, are still intact and his best known work is a series of violin concertos known as The Four Seasons. Johann Sebastian Bach was deeply influenced by Vivaldis concertos and arias, the introduction of the symphony originated from Italian operas, called Sinfonias. Carlo Goldoni was the most important Italian literate of the Settecento, giambattista Vico and Lodovico Muratori were the most notable Italian historians of this century, while the leading figure of the literary revival in poetry was Giuseppe Parini. Count Vittorio Alfieri was an Italian dramatist and poet, considered the founder of Italian tragedy, Alfieri is often indicated as one of the precursors of the Romanticism in Europe. Italy was affected during the Settecento by the enlightenment, a movement which was a consequence of the Renaissance, followers of the group often met to discuss in private salons and coffeehouses, notably in the cities of Milan, Rome and Venice. Italian society also changed during the Enlightenment. Cesare Beccaria was also one of the greatest Italian Enlightenment writers, who was famous for his masterpiece Of Crimes and Punishments, in it, Beccaria put forth some of the first modern arguments against the death penalty. His treatise was also the first full work of penology, advocating reform of the law system. The book was the first full-scale work to tackle criminal reform, so Tuscany was the first civil state in the world to do away with torture and capital punishment. In 2000 Tuscanys regional authorities instituted a holiday on 30 November to commemorate the eventHistory of Italian culture (1700s) – The Trevi fountain in Rome was done between 1732 and 1762
71. Architecture of Italy – Italy has a very broad and diverse architectural style, which cannot be simply classified by period or region, due to Italys division into several city-states until 1861. However, this has created a diverse and eclectic range in architectural designs. Italy has an total of 100,000 monuments of all varieties. Now Italy is in the forefront of modernist and sustainable design with Architects like Renzo Piano, Italian architecture has also widely influenced the architecture of the world. Along with pre-historic architecture, the first people in Italy to truly begin a sequence of designs were the Greeks, in Northern and Central Italy, it was the Etruscans who led the way in architecture in that time. Etruscan buildings were made from brick and wood, thus few Etruscan architectural sites are now in evidence in Italy, with the exception of a few in Volterra, the Etruscans strongly influenced Roman architecture, as they too used to build temples, fora, public streets and aqueducts. The heavy pillars and porches created by the Etruscans, and their city gates were also a significant influence on Roman architecture. In Southern Italy, from the 8th century BC, the Greek colonists who created what was known as Magna Graecia used to build their buildings in their own style. The Greeks built bigger, better and more technologically advanced houses that people in the Iron and Bronze Age, yet, by the 4th century BC, the Hellenistic Age, less concentration was put on constructing temples, more rather the Greeks spent more time building theatres. The theatres were semi-circular and had an auditorium and a stage and they used to be built only on hills, unlike the Romans who would artificially construct the audiences seats. The Greek temples were known for containing bulky stone or marble pillars, today, there are several remains of Greek architecture in Italy, notably in Calabria, Apulia and Sicily. An example could be the remains of Agrigento, Sicily, which are currently UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Architecture of Ancient Rome adopted the external Greek architecture around the 2nd century BC for their own purposes, creating a new architectural style. The two styles that are considered one body of classical architecture. Social elements such as wealth and high densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to go discover new solutions of their own. Examples include the aqueducts of Rome, the Baths of Diocletian and the Baths of Caracalla, the basilicas and perhaps most famously of all and they were reproduced at smaller scale in most important towns and cities in the Empire. Some surviving structures are almost complete, such as the walls of Lugo in Hispania Tarraconensis. Italy was widely affected by the Early Christian age, with Rome being the new seat of the pope, after the Justinian reconquest of Italy, several buildings, palaces and churches were built in the Roman-Byzantine style. The Christian concept of a Basilica was invented in Rome and they were known for being long, rectangular buildings, which were built in an almost ancient Roman style, often rich in mosaics and decorationsArchitecture of Italy – The Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi, which has the largest brick dome in the world, and is considered a masterpiece of world architecture.
72. Italian art – Since ancient times, Greeks, Etruscans and Celts have inhabited the south, centre and north of the Italian peninsula respectively. Ancient Rome finally emerged as the dominant Italian and European power, Italy retained its artistic dominance into the 17th century with Mannerism and the Baroque, and cultural tourism became a major prop to an otherwise faltering economy. In the 18th century Neoclassicism originated in Rome, but this was the last such Italian-born style that spread to all Western art, Italian art has influenced several major movements throughout the centuries and has produced several great artists, including painters, architects and sculptors. Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the largest number of any country in the world, Etruscan bronze figures and a terracotta funerary reliefs include examples of a vigorous Central Italian tradition which had waned by the time Rome began building her empire on the peninsula. The Etruscan paintings that have survived to modern times are mostly wall frescoes from graves and these are the most important example of pre-Roman figurative art in Italy known to scholars. The frescoes consist of painting on top of fresh plaster, so that when the plaster is dried the painting part of the plaster and an integral part of the wall. Colours were made from stones and minerals in different colours that ground up and mixed in a medium, from the mid 4th century BC chiaroscuro began to be used to portray depth and volume. Sometimes scenes of life are portrayed, but more often traditional mythological scenes. The concept of proportion does not appear in any surviving frescoes, one of the best-known Etruscan frescoes is that of Tomb of the Lioness at Tarquinia. The Etruscan were responsible for constructing Romes earliest monumental buildings, Roman temples and houses were closely based on Etruscan models. Elements of Etruscan influence in Roman temples included the podium and the emphasis on the front at the expense of the three sides. Large Etruscan houses were grouped around a hall in much the same way as Roman town Large houses were later built around an atrium. The influence of Etruscan architecture gradually declined during the republic in the face of influences from elsewhere, Etruscan architecture was itself influenced by the Greeks, so that when the Romans adopted Greek styles, it was not a totally alien culture. During the 2nd century BC, the flow of these works, by the end of the republic, when Vitruvius wrote his treatise on architecture, Greek architectural theory and example were dominant. With the expansion of the empire, Roman architecture spread over a wide area, in many areas elements of style were influenced by local tastes, particularly decoration, but the architecture remained recognizably Roman. Styles of vernacular architecture were influenced to varying degrees by Roman architecture, by the 1st century AD, Rome had become the biggest and most advanced city in the world. The ancient Romans came up with new technologies to improve the citys sanitation systems, roads and they developed a system of aqueducts that piped freshwater into the city, and they built sewers that removed the citys waste. The wealthiest Romans lived in houses with gardensItalian art – Rome under the emperor Constantine.
73. List of castles in Italy – This is a list of castles in Italy by location. Built in 1430 by the Calepio family, camozzi Vertova Castle, Costa di Mezzate. Built in the 15th century by the Counts Martinengo-Colleoni, built in the 15th century by the warlord Bartolomeo Colleoni. Built in the 14th century by the Avogadri family, built around 1450–70 by the Sforza family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Province of Brescia Brescia Castle, Brescia, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family and the Republic of Venice. Commonly known as Rocca Magna, built in the 9th–12th centuries, built in the 13th century by the Scaliger family. Province of Como Castello Baradello, Como, built in the 12th century by Frederick Barbarossa. Province of Cremona Soncino Castle, Soncino, built in the 10th century and renovated in the 15th century by the Sforza family. Province of Lecco Castello Andriani, Dervio, Lombardy Province of Lodi Province of Mantua Castles Asola Castle, built in the 14th century by the Gonzaga family. Castiglione delle Stiviere Castle, Castiglione delle Stiviere, towers Castel Goffredo Civic Tower Castle, Castel Goffredo. Province of Milan Castles Abbiategrasso Castle, Abbiategrasso, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 13th–14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 13th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Borromeo family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family but it dates back to the 10th century, built in the 13th century by the Della Torre family. Known as Castello Mediceo, it was built in the 13th century by the Visconti family, built in the 15th century by the Borromeo familyList of castles in Italy – Forte Spagnolo, L'Aquila
74. Italian cuisine – Italian cuisine is the culinary typical or originating from Italy. It has developed through centuries of social and political changes, with roots stretching to antiquity, Italian cuisine is characterized by its simplicity, with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients. Italian cooks rely chiefly on the quality of the rather than on elaborate preparation. Ingredients and dishes vary by region, many dishes that were once regional, however, have proliferated with variations throughout the country. Cheese and wine are a part of the cuisine, with many variations. Coffee, specifically espresso, has become important in Italian cuisine, Italian cuisine has developed over the centuries. Although the country known as Italy did not unite until the 19th century, Italian food started to form after the fall of the Roman Empire, when different cities began to separate and form their own traditions. Many different types of bread and pasta were made, and there was a variation in cooking techniques and preparation. For example, the north of Italy is known for its risottos, the central/middle of the country is known for its tortellini, the first known Italian food writer was a Greek Sicilian named Archestratus from Syracuse in the 4th century BCE. He wrote a poem that spoke of using top quality and seasonal ingredients and he said that flavors should not be masked by spices, herbs or other seasonings. He placed importance on simple preparation of fish, simplicity was abandoned and replaced by a culture of gastronomy as the Roman Empire developed. By the time De re coquinaria was published in the 1st century CE, it contained 470 recipes calling for heavy use of spices, the Romans employed Greek bakers to produce breads and imported cheeses from Sicily as the Sicilians had a reputation as the best cheesemakers. The Romans reared goats for butchering, and grew artichokes and leeks, with culinary traditions from Rome and Athens, a cuisine developed in Sicily that some consider the first real Italian cuisine. Arabs invaded Sicily in the 9th century, introducing spinach, almonds, Normans also introduced casseroles, salt cod and stockfish, which remain popular. Food preservation was either chemical or physical, as refrigeration did not exist, meats and fish would be smoked, dried or kept on ice. Brine and salt were used to pickle items such as herring, root vegetables were preserved in brine after they had been parboiled. Other means of preservation included oil, vinegar or immersing meat in congealed, rendered fat, for preserving fruits, liquor, honey and sugar were used. The northern Italian regions show a mix of Germanic and Roman culture while the south reflects Arab influence, the oldest Italian book on cuisine is the 13th century Liber de coquina written in NaplesItalian cuisine – Italian cuisine
75. List of Italian orders of knighthood – There are five orders of knighthood awarded in recognition of service to the Italian Republic. Below these sit a number of decorations, associated and otherwise. However, the former Royal House of Savoy also continues to award knighthoods in three orders of chivalry previously recognised by the Kingdom of Italy. The degrees of knighthood, not all of which apply to all orders, are Knight, Officer, Commander, Grand Officer, Knight Grand Cross and Knight Grand Cross with cordon. The use of awards of the Holy See is subject to permission, today these continue merely as dynastic orders of the former Royal house in exile. While their bestowal is suppressed by law in Italy, the use of those decorations conferred prior to 1951 is permitted, exclusive of any right of precedence in official ceremonies. The Sardinian orders of the Most Holy Annunciation, of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, in contrast to the Republican orders, the feminine style Dama is used for women. The Knight Bachelor, usually transmitted by male primogeniture, was similar to a British baronetcy and these Cavaliere Ereditario were not, however, members of an order of chivalry. Nobility of Italy Italian honorifics Order Presidenza della Repubblica - Le Onorificenze Ordini dinastici della Real Casa di SavoiaList of Italian orders of knighthood – Letters patent of a Knight of Vittorio Veneto, shown with badge and miniature.
76. Italian design – Italian design refers to all forms of design in Italy, including interior design, urban design, fashion design and architectural design. Italy today still exerts a vast influence on design, industrial design and fashion design worldwide. The rest of Italy was characterized by fragmented political and geographical condition, after the Unification of Italy, despite the slow consolidation of the cotton industry and factories, you could not even talk about industrialization of the country prior to 1870-80. At the beginning of the century formed the first great Italian designers such as Vittorio Ducrot. Italy is a trendsetter, and has produced some of the greatest furniture designers in the world, such as Gio Ponti. Italian interior design in the 1900s was particularly well-known and grew to the heights of class, however, Italian art deco reached its pinnacle under Gio Ponti, who made his designs sophisticated, elegant, stylish and raffined, but also modern, exotic and creative. In 1926, a new style of furnishing emerged in Italy, known as Razionalismo, the most successful and famous of the Rationalists were the Gruppo 7, led by Luigi Figini, Gino Pollini and Giuseppe Terragni. There styles used tubular steel and was known as being plain and simple. After World War II, however, was the period in which Italy had a true avant-garde in interior design. Ever since the late 1970s and early 1980s, some equipment began to be logoed by notable Italian fashion houses, such as Prada, Versace, Armani, Gucci, the bookcase became huge a cultural icon and design event of the 1980s. Modern Italian design has changed the meaning of style and elegance, stunning examples are found in the ranges by Slide Designs, Belta Frajumar and Lumen Italia Center. Italian design is borne of smooth elegant lines with a purpose in mind. In addition to design, Italy has also set trends for industrial design with first protype of the light Luminator Bernocchi in 1928. The Moka pot, designed by Alfonso Bialetti, was a design upon its release in 1933. Olivetti is notable for its office and electronic equipment designs, most notably the Programma 101 computer, Italy also is very influential in car design, and has produced some of the greatest status symbols of the century. The automobile industry in the nation is a large employer in the country. Italy is the fifth largest automobile producer in Europe, over the ages, Italian cars have been recognized worldwide for their stylishness and practicality. Famous Italian cars include the Alfa Romeo converitbles of the 1950s, Italy is also home to world-renowned car design firms such as Pininfarina, Zagato, Italdesign, and BertoneItalian design – A chair by designer Michele de Lucchi, made in 1983.
77. Italian fashion – Italy is one of the leading countries in fashion design, alongside others such as France, United States, United Kingdom, Germany and Japan. Cities such as Palermo, Venice, Milan, Naples, Florence and Vicenza started to produce goods, hats, cosmetics, jewelry. Milan is generally considered to be one of the big four fashion capitals, along with New York City, Paris, and London, occasionally. Italian fashion can be connected to the most generalized concept of Made in Italy. Italian luxury goods are renowned for the quality of their own textiles. The non profit making association which disciplines, co-ordinates and promotes the development of Italian Fashion is the National Chamber of Italian Fashion and it was set up in 1958 in Rome and now is settled in Milan and represents all the highest cultural values of Italian Fashion. This association has pursued a policy of organisational support aimed at the knowledge, promotion and development of fashion through events with a highly intellectual image in Italy, a few Italian designers head some important fashion brands outside Italy. Among the newest labels or younger designers, the most prominent are Aquilano. Piccione, Andrea Pompilio, Fausto Puglisi, San Andres Milano, Francesco Scognamiglio, Vivetta and Alberto Zambelli. Italy also is home to fashion magazines, such as Vogue Italia, Vanity Fair, Elle, Glamour, Grazia, Amica, Flair. Italian fashion reached its peak during the Renaissance, until the 1970s, Italian fashion was mainly designed for the rich and famous, more or less like the French Haute Couture. Yet, in the 1970s and 80s, Italian fashion started to concentrate on ready-to-wear clothes, such as coats, jackets, trousers, shirts, jeans, jumpers and miniskirts. Today, Milan and Rome are Italys fashion capitals, and are international centres for fashion design, competing with other cities such as Tokyo, Los Angeles, London, Paris. Also, other such as Venice, Florence, Naples, Vicenza, Bologna, Genoa. The countrys main shopping districts are the Via Montenapoleone fashion district and the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele, Via dei Condotti, and Via de Tornabuoni. Italian fashion is dominated by Milan, Rome, and to an extent, Florence. Nonetheless, there are other cities which play an important role in Italian fashion. In 2009, Milan was regarded as the fashion capital, even surpassing New York, Paris, Rome. In 2011, Milan was ranked #4, behind London, New York, international fashion labels also operate shops in Milan, including an Abercrombie & Fitch flagship store which has become a main consumer attractionItalian fashion – Clothes by Valentino
78. Italophilia – Italophilia is the admiration, appreciation or emulation of Italy, its people, its ideals, its civilization or its culture. The extent to which Italian civilization has shaped Western civilization and, by extension, appreciation of the legacy of Italic ideals, civilization and culture has existed for many centuries, into the present day. Rome was the center of an empire that stretched across a large segment of the then-known world and it was possible for the people in the provinces to attain Roman citizenship, rise to the Senate, and even to become Roman emperor. The Roman provinces, having received much of the benefit of Roman civilization, the Christian religion was viewed in Rome as contrary to prevailing religious and political beliefs and, consequently, was suppressed. Many Christians in Rome and elsewhere were persecuted, after the conversion of the Emperor Constantine to Christianity in 312 AD, Christianity flourished and became an integral part of Roman life. Roman Catholicism, in an easily recognizable today, emerged and took root in Rome. The cultural patrimony of Roman literature, architecture and sculpture inspired many of the achievements of the Middle Ages and Renaissance in Italy and the rest of Europe. Works by poets, authors and historians, such as Ovid, Horace, Catullus, Cicero, Virgil, Livy, the bishops, rather than the Roman prefects became the source of order and the seat of power. In many important ways, the Roman Catholic Church became the successor of the Roman Empire, the Church and its Pope were major stabilizing influences in Europe in the centuries that followed. In the words of historian Will Durant, Rome died in giving birth to the Church, the civilization of Italy continued to be a cultural force that helped preserve Greco-Roman civilization and ideals during this period. Latin, the language of the Italic people, became the universal language of the Catholic Church and, generally, of culture. Western Monasticism, as first practiced by the followers of Saint Benedict, born in Nursia in 480 AD, the Benedictine monks were a very important factor in preserving Greco-Roman culture and learning for later centuries. Gregorian Chant, an outgrowth of Roman plain chant, strongly influenced both liturgical and secular music during the Middle Ages, an Italian monk, Guido of Arezzo, developed the form of musical notation that became the basis of Western music and, subsequently, of music worldwide. Saint Francis of Assisi was a friar who founded the mens Order of Friars Minor and he became one of the most venerated religious figures in Catholic Church history. Saint Thomas Aquinas, a Dominican priest born in Aquino in 1225, was a philosopher and he was one of the greatest minds of the Middle Ages, and he had a widespread influence on Western thought. He was considered then, as he is now, to be the greatest theologian and he is best known for his major work, the Summa Theologica. These works had a significant influence on Shakespeare, Chaucer and many writers of the Middle Ages. Students and scholars came from all over Europe to study at institutions of learning in ItalyItalophilia – Statue of Augustus, first Roman emperor and creator of "Italia" as an entity
79. Italian language – By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian, is the closest to Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is a language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City. Italian is spoken by minorities in places such as France, Montenegro, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Crimea and Tunisia and by large expatriate communities in the Americas. Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and other regional languages, Italian is the fourth most studied language in the world. Italian is a major European language, being one of the languages of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe. It is the third most widely spoken first language in the European Union with 65 million native speakers, including Italian speakers in non-EU European countries and on other continents, the total number of speakers is around 85 million. Italian is the working language of the Holy See, serving as the lingua franca in the Roman Catholic hierarchy as well as the official language of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical terminology and its influence is also widespread in the arts and in the luxury goods market. Italian has been reported as the fourth or fifth most frequently taught foreign language in the world, Italian was adopted by the state after the Unification of Italy, having previously been a literary language based on Tuscan as spoken mostly by the upper class of Florentine society. Its development was influenced by other Italian languages and to some minor extent. Its vowels are the second-closest to Latin after Sardinian, unlike most other Romance languages, Italian retains Latins contrast between short and long consonants. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive, however, Italian as a language used in Italy and some surrounding regions has a longer history. What would come to be thought of as Italian was first formalized in the early 14th century through the works of Tuscan writer Dante Alighieri, written in his native Florentine. Dante is still credited with standardizing the Italian language, and thus the dialect of Florence became the basis for what would become the language of Italy. Italian was also one of the recognised languages in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Italy has always had a dialect for each city, because the cities. Those dialects now have considerable variety, as Tuscan-derived Italian came to be used throughout Italy, features of local speech were naturally adopted, producing various versions of Regional Italian. Even in the case of Northern Italian languages, however, scholars are not to overstate the effects of outsiders on the natural indigenous developments of the languagesItalian language – Dante Alighieri (above) and Petrarch (below) were influential in establishing their Tuscan dialect as the most prominent literary language in all of Italy in the Late Middle Ages
80. Italian literature – Italian literature is written in the Italian language, particularly within Italy. It may also refer to literature written by Italians or in Italy in other languages spoken in Italy, an early example of Italian literature is the tradition of vernacular lyric poetry performed in Occitan, which reached Italy by the end of the 12th century. In 1230, the Sicilian School is notable for being the first style in standard Italian, Dante Alighieri, one of the greatest of Italian poets, is notable for his Divine Comedy. Petrarch did classical research and wrote lyric poetry, Renaissance humanism developed during the 14th and the beginning of the 15th centuries. Humanists sought to create a citizenry able to speak and write with eloquence, early humanists, such as Petrarch, were great collectors of antique manuscripts. Lorenzo de Medici shows the influence of Florence on the Renaissance, Leonardo da Vinci wrote a treatise on painting. The development of the drama in the 15th century was very great, the fundamental characteristic of the era following Renaissance is that it perfected the Italian character of its language. Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini were the originators of the science of history. Pietro Bembo was a figure in the development of the Italian language. In 1690 the Academy of Arcadia was instituted with the goal of restoring literature by imitating the simplicity of the ancient shepherds with sonnets, madrigals, canzonette and blank verse. In the 18th century, the condition of Italy began to improve. Apostolo Zeno and Metastasio are two of the figures of the age. Carlo Goldoni, a Venetian, created the comedy of character, the leading figure of the literary revival of the 18th century was Giuseppe Parini. The ideas behind the French Revolution of 1789 gave a direction to Italian literature in the second half of the 18th century. Love of liberty and desire for equality created a literature aimed at national object, patriotism and classicism were the two principles that inspired the literature that began with Vittorio Alfieri. Other patriots included Vincenzo Monti and Ugo Foscolo, the romantic school had as its organ the Conciliatore established in 1818 at Milan. The main instigator of the reform was Manzoni, the great poet of the age was Giacomo Leopardi. History returned to its spirit of learned research, after the Risorgimento, political literature becomes less importantItalian literature – A depiction of Boetius teaching his students (1385). Boetius, a 6th-century Christian philosopher, helped keep alive the classic tradition in post-Roman Italy.
81. Italian classical music – More specific terms such as Gregorian chant, Ambrosian chant, Gallican chant are also found. Generally speaking, they all refer to a style of monophonic, unaccompanied, early Christian singing performed by monks, the differences may be marginal—or even great, in some cases. These differences reflect the ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversity that existed after the fall of the Roman Empire on the Italian peninsula. Different monastic traditions arose within the Roman Catholic Church throughout Italy, yet, in spite of the differences, the similarities are great. Obviously, where Greek rites were practiced, the chants were sung in the Greek language and not in Latin, the Trecento, from about 1300 to 1420, was a period of vigorous activity in Italy in the arts, including painting, architecture, literature, and music. The music of the Trecento pioneered new forms of expression, especially in secular song and in the use of vernacular language, secular music before the year 1500 was largely the work of jongleurs, troubadours and mimes. Thus, Dante showed with the Divine Comedy in 1300 that the language could be a vehicle for fine literature. Logically, that extended to the lyrics of the songs that people sang, two points are worth mentioning in this regard, we know much more about the words of songs than we know about the actual sound of the music. Words were written down much more ease than melodies were notated. We only know that southern French folk music, today, sounds quite a bit different from Sicilian folk music, most people do not think of music when they hear the term Renaissance. The years between 1500 and 1600 are the most revolutionary period in European musical history, it is the century in which harmony was developed and the century that gave birth to opera. Readers will have noted the move from the monophony of Gregorian chants to the complicated polyphonies of madrigals, the desire—perhaps need—for homophonic music arose from a number of factors. Thus, if you generate notes at 400,600,800, the important city in Italy in this development of music in the 16th century was Florence. Besides Florence, two other Italian cities are particularly worthy of mention in the period around 1600, there is somewhat of a friendly rivalry between advocates of the two cities as to which one is more important in the history of the development of music in Italy. The period from about 1600 to 1750 encompasses the musical Baroque, many important things happened in this period. This latter element is an extension of the concept of homophonic music, instrumental forms include such things as the sonata and fugue. Important names in music within this period in Italy are Alessandro Scarlatti, from the early 18th century to the end of that century encompasses what historians call classical music. The term classical is appropriate for this period of music in that it marks the standardization of forms such as the symphonyItalian classical music – Francesco Landini, the most famous composer of the Trecento, playing a portative organ (illustration from the Fifteenth-century Squarcialupi Codex)
82. Italian folk music – Italian folk music has a deep and complex history. National unification came late to the Italian peninsula, so its many hundreds of separate cultures remained un-homogenized until quite recently compared to many other European countries. Italys rough geography and the dominance of small city states has allowed quite diverse musical styles to coexist in close proximity. Today, Italys folk music is divided into several spheres of geographic influence. The Celtic and Slavic influences on the group and open-voice choral works of the north contrast with the Arabic, Greek, in central Italy these influences combine, while indigenous traditions like narrative and ballad singing remain. The music of the island of Sardinia is distinct from that of the rest of Italy, the modern understanding of Italian folk music has its roots in the growth of ethnomusicology in the 1940s and 1950s and in the resurgence of regionalism in Italy at the time. The Centro Nazionale di Studi di Musica Popolare, now part of the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia, was started in 1948 to study and archive the various musical styles throughout Italy. In the 1950s, a number of important field recordings were conducted by American Alan Lomax and Italians Diego Carpitella, Franco Coggiola, the early 1960s saw the rise of social and political popular music, including a vast number of releases by the I Dischi del Sole label. Several important groups had their birth around the time, including Cantacronache in 1958. The Italian folk revival was accelerating by 1966, when the Istituto Ernesto de Martino was founded by Gianni Bosio in Milan to document Italian oral culture and traditional music. With the emergence of the Nuova Compagnia di Canto Popolare in 1970, many of the best known Italian folk revival bands got their start in the following decade, including La Lionetta, Tre Martelli, La Ciapa Rusa, Re Niliu, Calicanto, and Baraban. The northern regions of Italy historically exhibited Celtic and Slavic influences in their cultures, roots revivalists have revived traditional songs, though, from Piedmont, Lombardy and Veneto. The Genoese docks are the home of trallalero, a vocal style with five voices. It arose in the 1920s and includes modern groups like La Squadra -- Compagnia del Trallalero, the highly urban provinces of northern and central Italy are also known for the medieval sung poetry ottava rima, especially in Tuscany, Lazio and Abruzzo. Ottava rima is performed by the poeti contadini who use the poems of Homer or Dante and it is often completely improvised, and sometimes competitive in nature. Tuscan folk poetry is closer in form and style to high-culture poetry than is typical elsewhere in Italy, the saltarello dance is also popular throughout the region. Canzoniere del Lazio is one of the biggest names from central Italy during the 1970s roots revival, with socially aware lyrics, this new wave of Italian roots revivalists often played entirely acoustic songs with influences from jazz and others. More modern musicians in the field include Lucilla Galeazzi, La PiazzaItalian folk music – Italian folk musicians performing in Edinburgh
83. Italian opera – Italian opera is both the art of opera in Italy and opera in the Italian language. Opera was born in Italy around the year 1600 and Italian opera has continued to play a dominant role in the history of the form until the present day, many famous operas in Italian were written by foreign composers, including Handel, Gluck and Mozart. Dafne by Jacopo Peri was the earliest composition considered opera, as understood today, peris works, however, did not arise out of a creative vacuum in the area of sung drama. An underlying prerequisite for the creation of opera proper was the practice of monody, from this, it was only a small step to fully-fledged monody. Such spectacles were staged to commemorate significant state events, weddings, military victories, and the like. They were lavishly staged, and led the scenography of the half of the 16th century. Another popular court entertainment at this time was the madrigal comedy and this consisted of a series of madrigals strung together to suggest a dramatic narrative, but not staged. There were also two staged musical pastorals, Il Satiro and La Disperazione di Fileno, both produced in 1590 and written by Emilio de Cavalieri. Other pastoral plays had long included some musical numbers, one of the earliest, the music of Dafne is now lost. The first opera for which music has survived was performed in 1600 at the wedding of Henry IV of France, the opera, Euridice, with a libretto by Rinuccini, set to music by Peri and Giulio Caccini, recounted the story of Orpheus and Eurydice. The style of singing favored by Peri and Caccini was a form of natural speech. Recitative thus preceded the development of arias, though it became the custom to include separate songs. Both Dafne and Euridice also included choruses commenting on the action at the end of each act in the manner of Greek tragedy. The theme of Orpheus, the demi-god of music, was popular and attracted Claudio Monteverdi who wrote his first opera, La Favola dOrfeo. Monteverdi insisted on a relationship between the words and music. When Orfeo was performed in Mantua, an orchestra of 38 instruments, Opera had revealed its first stage of maturity in the hands of Monteverdi. LOrfeo also has the distinction of being the earliest surviving opera that is regularly performed today. Within a few decades opera had spread throughout Italy, in Rome, it found an advocate in the prelate and librettist Giulio RospigliosiItalian opera – Interior of La Fenice opera house in Venice in 1837. Venice was, along with Florence and Rome, one of the cradles of Italian opera.
84. Il Canto degli Italiani – Il Canto degli Italiani is the national anthem of Italy. It is best known among Italians as Inno di Mameli, after the author of the lyrics, or Fratelli dItalia, the words were written in the autumn of 1847 in Genoa, by the then 20-year-old student and patriot Goffredo Mameli. Two months later, they were set to music in Turin by another Genoese, the hymn enjoyed widespread popularity throughout the period of the Risorgimento and in the following decades. After the Second World War, Italy became a republic, and on 12 October 1946 and this choice was made official in law only on 23 November 2012. The first manuscript of the poem, preserved at the Istituto Mazziniano in Genoa, appears in a personal copybook of the poet, of uncertain dating, the manuscript reveals anxiety and inspiration at the same time. The poet begins with È sorta dal feretro then seems to change his mind, leaves some room, begins a new paragraph, the handwriting appears nervy and frenetic, with numerous spelling errors, among which are Ilia for Italia and Ballilla for Balilla. The second manuscript is the copy that Goffredo Mameli sent to Michele Novaro for setting to music and it shows a much steadier handwriting, fixes misspellings, and has a significant modification, the incipit is Fratelli dItalia. This copy is in the Museo del Risorgimento in Turin, the hymn was also printed on leaflets in Genoa, by the printing office Casamara. The Istituto Mazziniano has a copy of these, with annotations by Mameli himself. This sheet, subsequent to the two manuscripts, lacks the last strophe for fear of censorship and these leaflets were to be distributed on the December 10 demonstration, in Genoa. In this occasion the flag was shown and Mamelis hymn was publicly sung for the first time. After December 10 the hymn spread all over the Italian peninsula, in the 1848, Mamelis hymn was very popular among the Italian people and it was commonly sung during demonstrations, protests and revolts as a symbol of the Italian Unification in most parts of Italy. In the Five Days of Milan, the rebels sang the Song of the Italians during clashes against the Austrian Empire, in the 1860, the corps of volunteers led by Giuseppe Garibaldi used to sing the hymn in the battles against the Bourbons in Sicily and Southern Italy. During the period of Italian Fascism, the Song of the Italians continued to play an important role as patriotic hymn along with several popular fascist songs. After the armistice of Cassibile, Mamelis hymn was sung by both the Italian partisans and the people who supported the Italian Social Republic. After the Second World War, following the birth of the Italian Republic, on 23 November 2012, this choice was made official in law. This is the text of the original poem written by Goffredo Mameli. However, the Italian anthem, as performed in official occasions, is composed of the first stanza sung twiceIl Canto degli Italiani – Original text
85. Italia turrita – Italia Turrita is the national personification or allegory of Italy, characterised by a mural crown typical of Italian civic heraldry of Medieval communal origin. In broader terms, the crown symbolizes its mostly urban history and she often holds in her hands a bunch of corn ears, during the fascist era, she held a bundle of the lictors. Italy’s first allegory, a female head, appears on the coins coined during the Social War between the Roman Republic and several other cities of Central Italy from 91 to 88 BC. Under the emperor Augustus, a representation of Italy known as Saturnia Tellus was sculpted in marble on Ara Pacis’ external wall in Rome. Another allegory of Italy appears on the coins coined during the reign of emperor Nerva in 97 AD and this mythographical setting-up of the Italian land became also popular during the Middle Ages. In 1490, Ludovico Sforza, duke of Milan, had an Italia turrita painted on a medallion of the castle in Piazza Ducale, the Caesaris Astrum appeared again in 1574 on the cover of Historiarium de Regno Italiae, a book written by the historian Carlo Sigonio. Over her head, a star is usually seen shining radiant. Emblem of Italy National personification Mural crown Stella dItalia Giovanni Lista, La Stella dItalia, Edizioni Mudima, the front page of La Domenica del Corriere on 25 May 1958 depicted Italia Turrita voting in that day’s general electionItalia turrita – Statue of Italia Turrita in Reggio Calabria.
86. List of World Heritage Sites in Italy – Italy ratified the convention on June 23,1978, making its historical sites eligible for inclusion on the list. As of 2016, Italy has a total of 51 inscribed properties, making it the party with the most World Heritage Sites. Sites in Italy were first inscribed on the list at the 3rd Session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Cairo and Luxor, at that session, one site was added, the Rock Drawings in Valcamonica. A total of 25, of all Italian sites were added during the 1990s with 10 sites added at the 21st session held in Naples, four World Heritage Sites in Italy are of the natural type, all others are cultural sites. Therefore, Italy has the largest number of cultural heritage sites followed by Spain with 39 cultural sites. Nominations for the World Heritage list are accepted if the site has previously been listed on the tentative list. As of 2016, Italy was recording forty such sites on its tentative list and these sites, along with the year they were first included in the tentative list areList of World Heritage Sites in Italy – 18th-Century Royal Palace at Caserta with the Park, the Aqueduct of Vanvitelli, and the San Leucio Complex