1. Castle – A castle is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by European nobility. Scholars debate the scope of the castle, but usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble. Usage of the term has varied over time and has applied to structures as diverse as hill forts. Over the approximately 900 years that castles were built, they took on a great many forms with different features, although some, such as curtain walls. A European innovation, castles originated in the 9th and 10th centuries, after the fall of the Carolingian Empire resulted in its territory being divided among individual lords and princes. Although their military origins are often emphasised in castle studies, the structures served as centres of administration. Many castles were built from earth and timber, but had their defences replaced later by stone. Early castles often exploited natural defences, lacking features such as towers and arrowslits, in the late 12th and early 13th centuries, a scientific approach to castle defence emerged. This led to the proliferation of towers, with an emphasis on flanking fire, many new castles were polygonal or relied on concentric defence – several stages of defence within each other that could all function at the same time to maximise the castles firepower. These changes in defence have been attributed to a mixture of castle technology from the Crusades, such as concentric fortification, not all the elements of castle architecture were military in nature, so that devices such as moats evolved from their original purpose of defence into symbols of power. Some grand castles had long winding approaches intended to impress and dominate their landscape, while castles continued to be built well into the 16th century, new techniques to deal with improved cannon fire made them uncomfortable and undesirable places to live. As a result, true castles went into decline and were replaced by artillery forts with no role in civil administration, and country houses that were indefensible. From the 18th century onwards, there was a renewed interest in castles with the construction of castles, part of a romantic revival of Gothic architecture. The word castle is derived from the Latin word castellum, which is a diminutive of the word castrum, meaning fortified place. The Old English castel, Old French castel or chastel, French château, Spanish castillo, Italian castello, the word castle was introduced into English shortly before the Norman Conquest to denote this type of building, which was then new to England. In its simplest terms, the definition of a castle accepted amongst academics is a fortified residence. Feudalism was the link between a lord and his vassal where, in return for service and the expectation of loyalty. Castles served a range of purposes, the most important of which were military, administrative, as well as defensive structures, castles were also offensive tools which could be used as a base of operations in enemy territoryCastle – The Alcázar of Segovia in Spain overlooking the city
2. Belarus – Its capital and most populous city is Minsk. Over 40% of its 207,600 square kilometres is forested and its strongest economic sectors are service industries and manufacturing. In the aftermath of the 1917 Russian Revolution, Belarus declared independence as the Belarusian Peoples Republic, the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia became a founding constituent republic of the Soviet Union in 1922 and was renamed as the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Belarus lost almost half of its territory to Poland after the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921, during WWII, military operations devastated Belarus, which lost about a third of its population and more than half of its economic resources. The republic was redeveloped in the post-war years, in 1945 the Byelorussian SSR became a founding member of the United Nations, along with the Soviet Union and the Ukrainian SSR. The parliament of the declared the sovereignty of Belarus on 27 July 1990. Alexander Lukashenko has served as the president since 1994. Belarus has been labeled Europes last dictatorship by some Western journalists, Lukashenko continued a number of Soviet-era policies, such as state ownership of large sections of the economy. Though not directly espousing communism like the five remaining communist countries of China, Cuba, Laos, Vietnam and North Korea, in 2000 Belarus and Russia signed a treaty for greater cooperation, with some hints of forming a Union State. Over 70% of Belaruss population of 9.49 million resides in urban areas, more than 80% of the population is ethnic Belarusian, with sizable minorities of Russians, Poles and Ukrainians. Since a referendum in 1995, the country has had two official languages, Belarusian and Russian, the Constitution of Belarus does not declare any official religion, although the primary religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Belarus is the only European country to retain capital punishment in both law and practice, the name Belarus is closely related with the term Belaya Rus, i. e. White Rus. There are several claims to the origin of the name White Rus, an alternate explanation for the name comments on the white clothing worn by the local Slavic population. A third theory suggests that the old Rus lands that were not conquered by the Tatars had been referred to as white, other sources claim that, before 1267, the land not conquered by the Mongols was considered White Rus. The name Rus is often conflated with its Latin forms Russia and Ruthenia, in some languages, including German and Dutch, the country is generally called White Russia to this day. The Latin term Alba Russia was used again by Pope Pius VI in 1783 to recognize the Society of Jesus there, exclaiming Approbo Societatem Jesu in Alba Russia degentem, approbo, approbo. The first known use of White Russia to refer to Belarus was in the century by Englishman Sir Jerome Horsey. During the 17th century, the Russian tsars used White Rus to describe the lands added from the Grand Duchy of LithuaniaBelarus – Stamp with the Cross of St. Euphrosyne from 1992
3. Babruysk fortress – The Babruysk Fortress is a historic fortress in the city of Babruysk, Belarus that was built between 1810 and 1836. It is one of the best surviving examples of fortification architecture, the fortress was constructed in the historic center of the city, at the confluence of the Babruyka and Berezina rivers. It was one of the western Russian fortresses, however, after his investigation, Narbut advised his superiors that a more strategic position would be on the shore of the Berezina river near Babruysk. This decision was approved by the Chief of Military Engineers, Count Carl Operman, on June 4,1810, the Tsar issued an order for the Babruysk fortress to be constructed. Narbut had to resign for reasons and was replaced by General Major Gabriel Ignatiev. The early fortress comprised five bastions, multiple soil ridges, the basis for the Babruysk fortress was the Babruysk Jesuit house and a smaller Polish fortress, which were built earlier. Only partially completed, the fortress had to face Napoleons invading army in the summer of 1812, after the French army captured Minsk, General Ignatiev took command of the fort and the city of Babruysk, which served as a holdout for the retreating Russian forces. Soldiers from The Second Russian Army were provided food and the wounded received medical treatment. After that they were ferried by the Berezina and Dniper to Smolensk, General Ignatiev remained in the fortress and oversaw its defence. The city faced an attack by the forces of General Dombrawski, the siege lasted for four months, however the fortress held until the French forces began their retreat. Throughout this time Ignatiev was instrumental in collecting intelligence and forwarding it to the command of the Russian army. Following the Napoleonic wars, in 1820, the fortress was further expanded by the addition of 18 more bastions. The fort Freidrich Wilhelm was designed according to the plans of the architect A. Staubert in 1822, Tsar Alexander I himself and his brother arrived in Babruysk on September 24,1825, at the completion of this building phase. By 1900 the fortress lost its significance and was converted into a jail, used by Polish occupation forces. The Babruysk Fortress was registered as an architectural monument of Belarus. However, the ruins of the Bobruysk fortress were removed in 2008 when the Bobruysk Ice Palace was erectedBabruysk fortress – Babruysk fortress in 1811
4. Brest Fortress – Brest Fortress, formerly known as Brest-Litovsk Fortress, is a 19th-century Russian fortress in Brest, Belarus, the former Byelorussian SSR. The title Hero-Fortress corresponds to the title Hero City, that was awarded to a total of twelve Soviet cities. Brest Fortress is situated at a height of 135 meters, the Brest fortress has sustained its original outline of a star shaped fortification since its construction in the early 19th century. The Citadel, the core of the fortress, was on the island formed by the Bug River. The island was skirted by a ring of a two-storied barrack with 4 semi-towers, the 1.8 km long barrack comprised 500 rooms to accommodate 12,000 soldiers within thick walls built from super strong red bricks. Originally there were 4 gates to enter the Citadel, today only Kholm Gate and Terespol Gate can be seen, most part of the barrack lies in ruins. The Citadel was surrounded by 3 fortifications as bridgeheads, that were made up by branches of the Mukhavets River and moats, the 3 fortifications were named after two towns, Kobrin in Belarus, Terespol in Poland and Volyn, a region in the Ukraine. The Terespol Fortification was the western bridgehead, featuring 4 detached lunettes, the Volyn Fortification was the southeastern bridgehead, featuring 2 fortification curtains with 2 detached ravelins. A ring of outlying forts was built later around the old fortress, as the post-1945 border along the Bug river runs through the fortress area, some of the fortification works are now in Poland, around the town of Terespol. In the early morning hours of June,22,1941 the German Wehrmacht attacked the Brest fortress, the fighting went on for eight days, most of the defenders ended up in captivity. After the war Soviet propaganda claimed the fortress held out for 32 days with no-one surrendering to the Germans, in the late 1960s, the construction of the war memorial complex Brest Hero-Fortress was started. The complex was opened on September 25,1971, the memorial complex is still a national place of grief and pride, a popular tourist attraction. This site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on January 30,2004, preservation and development is being carried out by the Brest Fortress Development FoundationBrest Fortress – Brest Fortress
5. Halshany Castle – Paweł Stefan Sapieha commissioned its construction and it was erected circa 1610 to replace the older castle, built by of the Holszanski princely family, of whom Sapiehas were descendants and heirs. Also known as the Black Castle, the residence formerly rivaled Mir Castle as the most elegant private château of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The name Black Castle in fact applies to a fictional building from a book by Uladzimir Karatkievich. The castle and the estates were devastated, robbed and looted, twice, by the invading Swedes troops during the Deluge. Due to financial stress experienced by the Sapiehas in the wake of the Domestic War and ongoing Great Northern War, the castle had never been fully restored. Later during the 18th century the castle with its estate diminished by creditors passed to the Żaba family, currently, the castle continues to crumble away. An annual tournament is held near its walls each summer, Збор помнікаў гісторыі і культуры Беларусі, Гродзенская вобласць. Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, filipa Sulimierskiego i Władysława Walewskiego, 1880-1914, Volume III, p. 102-103. Halshany Castle page at radzima. org Halshany Castle page at globus. tut. by International Festival Golshany Castle 2010 on the Official Website of Belarus Charity account opened for Halshany CastleHalshany Castle – The castle in 1853
6. Hrodna Old Castle – The Old Grodno Castle originated in the 11th century as the seat of a dynasty of Black Ruthenian rulers, descended from a younger son of Yaroslav the Wise of Kiev. The 13th-century keep of the castle belonged to a type of Belarusian defensive tower represented by the Tower of Kamyanyets, Vytautas the Great added five Brick Gothic towers in 1391–98, transforming the castle into one of his main residences. Casimir IV Jagiellon also favoured Hrodna over Lithuanias official capital and it was there that the Polish Crown was offered to him, and it was there that he died in 1492. The next notable tenant of the castle was Stephen Báthory who envisaged Hrodna as the capital of his vast empire in Eastern Europe and he engaged Scotto of Parma to replace the Vytautas Castle with his own residence in the advanced Renaissance taste of Northern Italy. After Bathorys death in Hrodna in 1586, his pet project was abandoned, the citadel was devastated by the Russians during a Russo-Polish War in 1655. The castles revival was owing to Krzysztof Zygmunt Pac who raised sufficient funds to finance the refurbishing of the royal residence, the restored castle was selected by King Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki of Poland as the location for every third Sejm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The castle suffered damage during the Great Northern War, forcing the royal court to move into the New Hrodna Castle. After the partitions of Poland the castle was given over to the Russian army, the authorities of interwar Poland restored the chamber of the ambassadors and the Sejm Hall. At present the castle is classed as a museum, Ленинград, Изд-во Академии наук СССР,1962Hrodna Old Castle – Bathory's Castle in Hrodna, Belarus.
7. Hrodna New Castle – The New Castle in Hrodna, Belarus is a royal palace of Augustus III of Poland and Stanisław August Poniatowski where the famous Grodno Sejm took place in 1793. New Hrodna Castle is 116 metres above sea level, the two castles are joined by a 300-year-old arch bridge. The palace compound was designed by Carl Friedrich Pöppelmann, construction was carried out between 1734 and 1751 under the supervision of several other Saxon architects, including Johann Friedrich Knöbel and Joachim Daniel von Jauch. The palace was completed under the direction of Giuseppe de Sacco in 1789, used as a hospital and barracks throughout most of the 19th century, the palace was renovated by the Polish administration in the interwar period. Scarcely anything is left of the fabric of the castle. There followed a hasty and rather superficial refurbishing of the palace by the Soviets with a view to making it the headquarters of a local obkom. A plaque on the wall of the palace commemorates the council of war held in the residence by Tadeusz Kościuszko on 30 October 1794. Ленинград, Изд-во Академии наук СССР,1962Hrodna New Castle – New Castle as seen from across the Neman River, with the Old Hrodna Castle looming in the distance.
8. Tower of Kamyanyets – The Tower of Kamyenyets, often called by the misnomer the White Tower, is the main landmark of the town of Kamyenyets in Belarus. Erected in 1271–1289 by the architect Oleksa as a stronghold on the northern border of the principality of Volhynia. Standing atop a rise overlooking the Liasnaja river, the tower is the main landmark of Kamyenyets today. The first record in the chronicles about the foundation of the dates from 1276. It was erected in the 1270s, today it is a national historic site. Since 1960 the tower houses a branch of the Brest regional museum, once similar towers were built in Brest, Grodno, Turaw, Navahradak, but they were destroyed in the course of wars. The tower of Kamieniec is the one that survived in Belarus until the present. Vladimir Vasilkovich, the prince of Volhynia, liked the place, the castle was built as an enclosed community. Like many European castles, it had a round tower, on the raised mound, enclosed by a moat and the river on the northern side, and an adjoining enclosure. The red-brick tower with service and residential rooms on 5 levels inside was actually a donjon or a keep and it is 30 meters high, the redbrick walls are about 2.5 m thick, with a pitched roof at the top. The tower was built of brick, that makes it unique. The brick construction was used in this part of Europe until the close of the Middle Ages. Till the 16th century mostly rubbleworks prevailed in fortifications and churches and monasteries, the tower traces the influence of Western Europe, where brickwork was used extensively in the late 13th – early 14th century. Unlike the narrow loopholes on lower levels, the pointed big lancet windows, the openings of the windows and niches were plastered and whitewashed. The windows were designed to permit the entry of light into the apartments, glass windows was another contribution to Gothic architecture. It is apparent that the residents were eager to make themselves at home in the keep, the upper part of the tower was furnished with battlements and a pattern of surface modeling of the brickwork, several nice ring dog tooth courses running below the battlements. The brickwork features a peculiar Baltic bond, a course consists of 2 stretchers and 1 header, some bricks on the exterior were damaged or dismantled by the local peasants, the brickwork was repaired in 1903 while the archeological excavations were going on around the tower. 10,000 bricks were used for the work, Oleksa lived in the 13th centuryTower of Kamyanyets – The tower of Kamyenyets today
9. Kosava castle – Kosava castle is a ruined castellated palace in Gothic Revival style located in Kosava, Belarus. It was built in 1838 by Count Wandalin Puslowski close to the house where Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko was born, the architect of the castle was Franciszek Jaszczołd. The palace was reconstructed by Władysław Marconi in the late 19th century, after the collapse of the Polish January Uprising in 1863, ownership was transferred to the Trubetskoy family and other Russian aristocrats. During World War I and World War II, the place was severely damaged, currently, the castle is in the process of restorationKosava castle – Kosava castle ruin
10. Kreva Castle – Kreva Castle is the ruins of a major fortified residence of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania in the village of Kreva, Belarus. Algirdass brother Kęstutis was imprisoned and murdered in the Kreva Castle in 1382, Kreva Castle is 220 metres above sea level. The Union of Krewo, the first step towards the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, was signed in the three years later. The castle was sacked by the Crimean Tatars in the early 16th century, by the 19th century, much of the walls had crumbled away. The World War I dealt a blow to the decaying structure. In 19th and 20th centuries, the ruins were partially conserved, media related to Kreva Castle at Wikimedia Commons Krevo Castle on official website of the Republic of Belarus Kreva Castle on globus. tut. by History of the Kreva Castle The Kreva Castle Charity FundKreva Castle – The present-day ruins of the Kreva Castle
11. Liahavichy – Liahavichy Castle was a fortified Belarus castle. It was one of the most significant castles in Belarus in the 17th century and it may have been in existence as a hill fort since the eleventh or twelfth century. It was built at the end of the 16th century by the hetman Yan Eromin of the Hadkevich family and it stood on the bank of the Vedzma river, surrounded by a moat regulated by a dam. In the centre stood a two-storey palace, eromins son, Yan Korol, the hetman of the Great Lithuanian Principality, reconstructed and fortified the castle. The 17th century occupants, the Sapieha family, fortified the castle such that it was the castle in the region to survive the Cossack Khmelnitzky massacres. The castle survived a siege in 1660, the fortress in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania not to be captured by Russia during the Russo-Polish War. The castle and surrounding settlement was destroyed during the Great Northern War of 1700–21, the Swedish army burned the castle and a Catholic church to the ground in 1706. History of Belarus Mir Castle Complex Nesvizh Castle Liahavichy Castle, Belarus Liahovichi district history Historical Sites of LyakhovichiLiahavichy – The castle in the 17th century
12. Lida Castle – Lida Castle was one of several citadels erected by Grand Duke Gediminas of Lithuania in the early 14th century to defend his lands against the expansion of the Teutonic Knights. Other links in this chain of defense included Hrodna, Navahrudak, Kreva, Medininkai, the modern town of Lida, Belarus grew up around this castle. Lida Castle is 141 metres above sea level, the site selected for the castle is naturally defended by the Kamenka and Lida rivers to east and west. Construction of boulder walls was carried out in 1323,1324, later they were faced with red brick. The castle had two towers and a church, which was moved outside the walls in 1533. The upper storeys of both towers were lived in, despite its strong fortifications, Lida was taken by the Teutonic Knights on several occasions. Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas gave it to his ally, Khan Tokhtamysh, in 1406, the family of Yury of Smolensk was locked up in Lida as hostages, his attempt to take the castle and liberate them was not successful. In 1433, Lida was a point of contention between Švitrigaila and his cousin Sigismund Kęstutaitis, the following decades were somewhat less stormy. Lida was ravaged by the Crimean Tatars in 1506 and it was stormed by the Russians during the Russo-Polish War in 1659, the Swedes, taking it twice during the Great Northern War, had both towers blown up. In 1794, the grounds were the site of a battle between Kościuszkos followers and the Russians. After the city fire of 1891, the tower and parts of the western wall of the castle were torn down to provide stone for repairing fire-damaged houses. A team of archaeologists from St. Petersburg intervened to halt vandalism, there was only a slight restoration of the walls in the 1920s. During much of the 20th century, an itinerant zoo or circus occupied the castle compound, every December a Christmas tree was placed within the walls. It was not until 1982 that a campaign was launched. The red brick was used to denote the newly reconstructed sections, each year, the Lida Castle hosts a medieval-style tournament. A museum is being created within its towers, Город Лида и Лидский замок Lida Castle on official website of the Republic of BelarusLida Castle – The recently reconstructed portions of the tower and wall are scarlet in colour.
13. Lubcha Castle – Lubcha Castle was a residential castle of the Radziwill family on the left bank of the Neman River at Lubcha near Navahradak. The castle began its life in 1581 as a residence of Jan Kiszka. It had timber walls, a stone tower, and was surrounded by moats on three sides, the fourth side protected by the river. Lubcha later passed to Janusz Radziwiłł, Great Hetman of Lithuania, in 1655 it was taken and devastated by the rebellious Cossacks under Ivan Zolotarenko. Only the barbican and one other tower were left standing after the Cossack incursion, the deserted estate changed owners several times, remaining untenanted until the mid-19th century, when a Gothic Revival palace was built on the grounds. The Lubcha estate suffered much damage during both world wars, the palace was reduced to a shell in 1914 and was remodeled into a school building by the Soviets in 1947. Lyubchа Castle at globus. tut. by History and Restoration of Lyubcha CastleLubcha Castle – Currently, the castle is being restored by a team of volunteers.
14. Mir Castle Complex – The Mirsky Castle Complex is a UNESCO World Heritage site in Belarus. It is in the town of Mir, in the Karelichy District of the Hrodna voblast, at 53°27′4. 46″N 26°28′22. 80″E,29 kilometres north-west of another World Heritage site, Mir Castle Complex is 164 metres above sea level. From 1921 to 1939 the castle belonged to the territory of Poland, duke Yuri Ivanovich Ilyinich began construction of the castle near the village of Mir after the turn of the 16th century in the Belarusian Gothic style. Five towers surrounded the courtyard of the citadel, the walls of which formed a square of 75 metres on each side, plastered facades were decorated with limestone portals, plates, balconies and porches in the Renaissance style. Later the castle became a possession of their daughter Maria, who married Prince Chlodwig Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst and their son, Maurice Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, sold the castle to Nikolai Svyatopolk-Mirsky, of the Bialynia clan, in 1895. Nikolais son Mikhail began to rebuild the castle according to the plans of architect Teodor Bursze, the Svyatopolk-Mirsky family owned the castle until 1939, when the Soviet Union occupied eastern Poland. When German forces invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, they occupied the castle and converted it to a ghetto for the local Jewish population, between 1944 and 1956, the castle was used as a housing facility, resulting in damage to the castles interior. In December 2000, the Mir Castle was listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, Старажытнае дойлідства Міра Photos on Globus. tut. by Mir Castle on 3D F4 MapMir Castle Complex – UNESCO World Heritage Site
15. Navahrudak Castle – Modern historians cannot make up their minds as to the true location of Mindaugass coronation. As early as the 14th century, Navahrudak is known to have possessed a tower along the lines of Tower of Kamyanyets. The castle was stormed by the Teutonic Knights under Heinrich von Plötzke in 1314, although the attack was not successful, the tower sustained substantial damage. During the reign of Vytautas the Great four new towers were added to the system of Navahrudak fortifications. In the 17th century the main castle boasted 7 towers, apart from those of the Lesser Castle, Navahrudak was one of the northernmost forts besieged by the Crimean Tatars in the 16th century. Navahrudak was twice occupied by Russian forces during the Russo-Polish War, further destruction was inflicted by the Swedes who sacked Navahrudak as part of the Great Northern War in 1706. Attempts to preserve the ruins from further decay were undertaken in the 1920s, the castle grounds at present provide the setting for medieval reenactment and theatrical joustingNavahrudak Castle – The ruins of Navahrudak Castle.
16. Niasvizh Castle – Niasvizh Castle or Nesvizh Castle is a residential castle of the Radziwiłł family in Nesvizh, Belarus. It is 183 metres above sea level, from 1921 to 1939 the complex was in Poland and was considered one of the most beautiful Polish castles in the Kresy region. The estate was owned by the Radziwiłł magnate family from 1533, in 1586 the estate was turned into an ordynacja. After the Union of Lublin the castle one of the most important residences in the central part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1582 Mikołaj Krzysztof Sierotka Radziwiłł, the Marshal of Lithuania, Voivode of Trakai–Vilnius and castellan of Šiauliai, although the works were based on a pre-existing structure of a medieval castle, the former fortifications were entirely turned into a renaissance-baroque house. Construction was completed by 1604, and they added several galleries half a century later, the châteaus corners were fortified with four octagonal towers. In 1706, during the Great Northern War, Charles XIIs army sacked the castle, several decades later, the Radziwiłłs invited some German and Italian architects to substantially renovate and enlarge the castle. Antoni Zaleski decorated its yellow facades with baroque stucco work, the 16th-century castle gates were also reconstructed, and the two-storey gatehouse tower was crowned with a helm. It was at time that the three separate buildings surrounding the central courtyard were joined into a single structure. Apart from elaborate princely sepulchers, its interior features some late baroque frescoes from 1760s, in 1772, following the third and last partition of Poland, the castle was seized by Russian forces and the Radziwiłł family was expelled. Abandoned both by the owners and by the Russian army, the palace gradually fell into disrepair. However, it was restored by the Radziwiłłs and between 1881 and 1886 the castles interiors were renovated by Prince Antoni Radziwiłł and his French wife and they also designed a landscape park in English style. With an area of more than one kilometre, the park is one of the biggest such facilities in Europe. After the Polish–Bolshevik War of 1920 the surrounding area and the complex became part of the newly established Second Polish Republic. During the invasion of Poland in 1939, the Radziwiłł family was expelled from the castle by the Red Army, in Soviet times, the castle was used a sanatorium, while the park gradually fell into neglect. In 1994, the complex was designated the national historical and cultural reserve. In 2005 the castle complex was listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, the ongoing reconstruction has drawn sharp criticism for its unjustified reconstruction of several long-demolished structures, notably a bell-tower. In 2002, the upper storey of the residence was destroyed by fire, olyka Castle Lubcha Castle Mir Castle Biržai Castle Dubingiai Castle Official website of the Nesvizh Museums Nesvizh castle on official website of the Republic of BelarusNiasvizh Castle – UNESCO World Heritage Site
17. Pischalauski – Pishchalauski Castle, also spelled Pischalauski Castle, is a castle in Minsk, Belarus. The castle is sometimes called the Belarusian Bastille. It is a registered state architectural monument, the castle was built in 1825. It formerly served as a prison, the castle was the site of the imprisonment of Belarusian writer Yakub Kolas from 1908 to 1911. In 2008 the castle was in use as a detention center, Pishchalauski Сastle in Valadarski Street in Minsk. One of these days a part of the building where among other political prisoners are kept, has collapsed. A portion of one the four towers collapsed in April 2008. Belarus Castles, Palaces and historical Manors database of Belarusian State ArchivePischalauski – Pishchalauski Castle
18. Ruzhany Palace – Ruzhany Palace is a ruined palace compound in Ruzhany village, Pruzhany Raion, Brest Voblast, Western Belarus. Between the 16th and 19th centuries Ruzhany, then called Różany, was the seat of the senior line of the Sapieha noble family. The castle is currently under reconstruction, with the palace ornate gate. Ruzhany began its life in the late 16th century as the site of Lew Sapiehas castle, the Sapieha residence was destroyed in the course of the internecine strife in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania when it was attacked by Michał Serwacy Wiśniowieckis forces in 1700. Aside from the palace, there was a theatre, an orangery, becker also designed the local church. By the time of King Stanisław IIs visit in 1784, work on the palace had been suspended, the Sapieha estates were nationalised in the aftermath of the November Uprising. Three years later, the compound was sold to be used as a textile mill. In 1914 the palace was set on fire by factory workers. The ornate palace gate survives and has recently been restored, biaroza monastery, a family vault of the Sapieha family not far from Ruzhany Halshany Castle, another ruined Sapieha residence in Belarus List of castles in Belarus Photos at Radzima org. Photos at Globus Belarus Guide Unofficial Ruzhany siteRuzhany Palace – The ruins of Ruzhany castle and theatre in 2007.
19. Zaslawye – Zaslawye or Zaslaŭje is a historic city in Minsk Province of Belarus,20 kilometres northwest of Minsk. In 2009 its population was 14,400, according to chronicles, Zaslawye was founded in 985 by Vladimir the Great who sent his wife Rogneda to live here with their son Izyaslav of Polotsk, the founder of the princely house of Polatsk. The towns current name derives from Izyaslavs name, in the early Middle Age the town was centre of the Duchy of Zaslawye. In the 11th century, the town was fortified, much of its territory has been designated an archaeological reservation. There is also an outdoor statue of Rogneda and Izyaslav on the grounds. During the period of Reformation, the town was a nest for followers of Calvinism and Socinianism and this district center was under German occupation from 1941 to 1944. In 1939, Jews comprised 9% of the total population. In October 1941, the Germans gathered 100 Jews of the city in a ghetto which was a formerly occupied by Soviet border guards. It was forbidden to go outside, they received food. The ghetto was surrounded by a fence and was supervised day, on September 26 and 27,1941, all the Jewish males were killed, at least 20 people in total,12 of them burned in the ghetto building. On September 29, around 100 Jews, mostly women, children and they were all shot in a pit in the forest near the village of Sloboda. For a month following the liquidation of the ghetto,35 Jewish women were kept in one of the houses on Bazarnaya Street and they were used for different kinds of forced labor until they were all shot on October 29,1941. Situated in north-western suburb of Minsk, is part of its area and one of its main towns also with Fanipol. Considering that the Belarusian capital, seat of Minsk Raion, is separated from it. All historical attractions of Zaslaŭje are situated in the not far from the Belarus Railway Station. Symon Budny Views of Zaslavl Jurkau kutoczak — Юркаў куточак — Yurys CornerZaslawye – Church of the Saviour's Transfiguration (35 meters (115 ft) high)
20. List of castles in Belgium – This is an incomplete list of châteaus and castles in Belgium. Both the Dutch word kasteel and the French word château refer both to fortified defensive buildings and to stately aristocratic homes, as a result, it common to see both types of building translated into English as castle, although many of them are not castles proper. Most of the old Families still live in the castles, see Belgian nobilityList of castles in Belgium – Belvédère Castle Château du Belvédère / Kasteel Belvédère
21. List of castles in Croatia – List of castles in Croatia includes castles, remains of castles and other fortifications like fortresses which used to be a castles at some point in history. A castle is a type of fortified structure built in Europe, in its simplest terms, the definition of a castle accepted amongst academics is a private fortified residence. Castles & Manor Houses of Croatia, Winning or Losing, Croatia, Aspects of Art, Architecture and Cultural Heritage. Croatian castles Dvorci, kurije i ljetnikovci u Hrvatskoj Croatia - Castles and Manors Castle and Fortress Ruins in Zagreb CountyList of castles in Croatia – Bajnski Dvori Castle
22. List of castles in France – This is a list of castles in France, arranged by Region and Department. Notes The French word château has a wider meaning than the English castle, it includes architectural entities that are properly called palaces, mansions or vineyards in English. This list focuses primarily on architectural entities that may be properly termed castle or fortress, occasionally, where there is not a specific article on a castle, links are given to another article that includes details, typically an article on a town. Italics indicate links to articles in the French Wikipedia, if no article appears in either English or French Wikipedias, a link is given to an external website. The number in parentheses after the name of each department indicates the department number used for administrative purposesList of castles in France – Château du Fleckenstein
23. List of castles in Georgia (country) – There are two known castles and 13 known forts in Georgia, which were constructed between the years 800 and 1700 by various provincial kings. The castles and forts have long abandoned, but most are still standing. The earliest castle in Georgia was the Ananuri castle, which was built in the period from 1200–1249, the Ananuri castle consisted of two castles with a big curtain wall surrounding it. It was the seat of the dukes of the Duchy of Aragvi, the last castle to be built in Georgia was the Rabati Castle, which was built between 1250 and 1299. The original town was built from 700–800, with the castle being built in the 1260s, from the 1260s to the 1340s the castle and the surrounding town was the capital city of the province of Samtskhe-Saatabago, which was ruled by the House of Jaqeli. The 13 forts of Georgia lie in varying states of ruin, the oldest was built in the 9th century, while some were built as late as the 17th century. While many still stand, most have been damaged by various causes. History of the Five Reigns Noble, John, Kohn, Michael, Systermans, Georgia, A Sovereign Country of the Caucasus. ISBN 962-217-748-4 Wood, James, ed. Redoubt Kali, london and New York, Frederick WarneList of castles in Georgia (country) – View from the tower at Ananuri
24. List of castles in the Republic of Ireland – This List of Castles in Ireland, be they in the Northern Ireland and thus United Kingdom or in the Republic of Ireland, is organized by county within their respective country. OPW info Belvelly Castle Ballyva Manor, built in the 1850s by Timothy Hurley, 19th century, on site of earlier castle. NIAH survey Conn Castle, intact Dalkey,2 remaining of original 7 castles Donabate, intact Drimnagh Castle, conference centre Dublin Castle, Dublin City. Ruins Dunsoghly Castle, Restored Castle Howth Castle, Howth. NIAH survey Grange, irishtown Castle, ruin Kilgobbin Castle, ruin, History Killiney Castle, Scalpwilliam or Mount Mapas. NIAH survey Killininny Castle, Firhouse Kilsallaghan Castle Knocklyne Castle, Knocklyon. NIAH survey Lambay Castle, Lambay Island NIAH survey Lanestown, intact Luttrellstown Castle, Restored Castle Merrion Castle Malahide Castle, Ruin Murphystown, ruins, the proposed Luas line B1 runs approximately 28m west of the ruins of Murphystown Castle and through its area of archaeological potential. Brief history & photos, Ruin Rathfarnham Castle, Rathfarnham Demesne, Restored Castle Rathmines Castle, Rathmines West. NIAH survey Robswall, intact Roebuck Castle, Roebuck, hall of residence UCD campus NIAH survey Sarsfield Castle, intact Seatown Shangannagh Castle, ruins, not to be confused with the late 18th-century house of the same name Shankill Castle, Shankill. NIAH survey, brief history, Ruin Simmonscourt Castle, Smotscourt. NIAH survey Stillorgan Castle, 18th-century house on site of earlier castle, now incorporated into the modern St John of God hospital complex. NIAH survey Swords Castle, Castle Ruins, undergoing restoration Templeogue House NIAH survey Thorncastle Tullys Castle, Clondalkin, ruins, Picture Tymon Castle, demolished in the 1970s Williamstown Castle, Williamstown. B. Yeats former holiday home, restored as a Museum, aghalard Castle, Castle Ruins Ahena Castle, Castle Ruins. Lisheen Castle, Restored Castle Loughmoe Castle, Castle Ruins Moorstown Castle, Castle Ruins, nenagh Castle, Intact Castle Ormonde Castle, Manor House. Barntown Castle, Tower House and Castle Ruins Clougheast Castle, Restored Castle Dungulph Castle, Intact Castle Enniscorthy Castle, Restored Castle Ferns Castle, Tower House Ruins, built in the late 16th century. Castle Howard Wicklow, Intact Castle with the addition of a 19th-century Mansion, remains of a large late-17th century U-plan house and early 17th century tower. Intact Castle in use as a hotel, built in 1536 by Master Tresover currently in ruins. C.1550, now in use as a folly, built by the Earl of Ormond in 1433 currently in ruins. Castle ruins, built in 1169 on an old Viking site, largely intact late 14th/15th-century castle marking the boundary of the Pale. In 834 AD the Vikings fortified a rocky promontory at the mouth of the Vartry River in Wicklow Town. Following the Norman invasion a castle was built, now known as the Black CastleList of castles in the Republic of Ireland – Castle Donovan
25. List of castles in Italy – This is a list of castles in Italy by location. Built in 1430 by the Calepio family, camozzi Vertova Castle, Costa di Mezzate. Built in the 15th century by the Counts Martinengo-Colleoni, built in the 15th century by the warlord Bartolomeo Colleoni. Built in the 14th century by the Avogadri family, built around 1450–70 by the Sforza family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Province of Brescia Brescia Castle, Brescia, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family and the Republic of Venice. Commonly known as Rocca Magna, built in the 9th–12th centuries, built in the 13th century by the Scaliger family. Province of Como Castello Baradello, Como, built in the 12th century by Frederick Barbarossa. Province of Cremona Soncino Castle, Soncino, built in the 10th century and renovated in the 15th century by the Sforza family. Province of Lecco Castello Andriani, Dervio, Lombardy Province of Lodi Province of Mantua Castles Asola Castle, built in the 14th century by the Gonzaga family. Castiglione delle Stiviere Castle, Castiglione delle Stiviere, towers Castel Goffredo Civic Tower Castle, Castel Goffredo. Province of Milan Castles Abbiategrasso Castle, Abbiategrasso, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 13th–14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 13th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Borromeo family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family but it dates back to the 10th century, built in the 13th century by the Della Torre family. Known as Castello Mediceo, it was built in the 13th century by the Visconti family, built in the 15th century by the Borromeo familyList of castles in Italy – Forte Spagnolo, L'Aquila
26. List of castles in Latvia – This is the List of castles in Latvia, which includes fortified residences of Western European conquerors built in the area of present-day Latvia before the 17th century. There are about 140 medieval castles in the area, therefore this list is not complete, after the name of the castle comes the year of construction and a short description of its present-day condition. List of castles List of castles in Estonia List of palaces and manor houses in Estonia List of palaces and manor houses in Latvia List of castles in Lithuania Zarāns, ambermarks - Medieval castles of Latvia - listList of castles in Latvia – Riga Castle
27. List of castles in Norway – This is a consolidated list of castles and palaces in Norway. The Norwegian word slott means castle, palass means palace, to see list of fortresses in Norway, see List of Norwegian fortresses. In Norway there tend to be many more manor houses compared to castles and this is due to Norways past as a poor nationList of castles in Norway – Akershus Castle by night
28. List of castles in Romania – Castles are declared historic monuments by the Romanian Culture Ministry. This is a list of castles in Romania, castele, palate şi conace din RomâniaList of castles in Romania – Bánffy Castle
29. List of castles in Serbia – This is a list of fortifications in Serbia. The list includes remains of constructions, fortresses, castles, towers. There are over 30 preserved forts in Serbia, and more than hundreds of sites with remains of old fortifications, forts in Serbia are preserved from the Roman, Byzantine, medieval Serbian and post-Ottoman eras. The majority of forts have been renovated throughout history with changing rule, many forts are foundations of modern towns and cities, such as the Belgrade Fortress. Later, Western, Habsburg and Austro-Hungarian architecture exists in Vojvodina, Bač castle, the fortified monasteries of Mileševa, Manasija and Ravanica served as protection to locals during harsh times. Fortifications located within Kosovo are indicated in grey, ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, the two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received recognition as an independent state from 111 out of 193 United Nations member states. Лексикон градова и тргова средњовековних српских земаља, према писаним изворима, zdravković, Ivan M. Srednjovekovni gradovi u Srbiji. Zdravković, Ivan M. Srednjovekovni gradovi i dvorci na Kosovu u Srbiji, List of cities in Serbia List of military conflicts involving Serbia List of castles in KosovoList of castles in Serbia – Bač Fortress
30. List of castles in Spain – Castles in Spain were built mainly for defensive purposes. When the Reconquista advanced, those border castles lost their initial purpose, however, due to sporadic threats of war, they kept their military purposes, for enemy invasions were common. In some locations, such as the Basque country, fiefdoms did not exist as such, after the Conquest of Granada in 1492, the Catholic monarchs ordered all the castles in their realms to be handed over to the Crown. Most of castles in Spain were successively abandoned and dismantled, Spanish kings fearing noble and peasant revolts, nowadays in Spain there are around 2500 castles corresponding only to this kind of fortification. This is a list of castles in Spain, castle of Aguilar del Río Alhama, there are only a few ruinsList of castles in Spain – Castle of Loarre
31. List of castles in the United Kingdom – Castles have played an important military, economic and social role in Great Britain and Ireland since their introduction following the Norman invasion of England in 1066. During the 12th century the Normans began to build castles in stone – with characteristic square keeps – that played both military and political roles. Royal castles were used to control key towns and the economically important forests, following the Norman invasion of Ireland in the 1170s, under Henry II, castles were established there too. Castles continued to grow in sophistication and comfort during the 12th century, leading to a sharp increase in the complexity. The tower house style would also be adopted in the north of England and Ireland in later years, in North Wales Edward I built a sequence of militarily powerful castles after the destruction of the last Welsh polities in the 1270s. By the 14th century castles were combining defences with luxurious, sophisticated living arrangements and heavily landscaped gardens, many royal and baronial castles were left to decline, so that by the 15th century only a few were maintained for defensive purposes. A small number of castles in England and Scotland were developed into Renaissance Era palaces that hosted lavish feasts, such structures were, however, beyond the means of all but royalty and the richest of the late-medieval barons. The defences of castles around the British Isles were improved to deal with this threat. Nevertheless, in the civil and religious conflicts across the British Isles during the 1640s and 1650s. Modern defences were built alongside existing medieval fortifications and, in many cases, castles successfully withstood more than one siege. At the end of the war castles were slighted to prevent future use. Other castles were used as county gaols, until parliamentary legislation in the 19th closed most of them down, such renovations raised concerns over their protection so that today castles across the British Isles are safeguarded by legislation. Primarily used as tourist attractions, castles form a key part of the heritage industry. The English word castle derives from the Latin word castellum and is used to refer to the fortified residence of a lord or noble. The presence of castles in Britain and Ireland dates primarily from the Norman invasion of 1066, before the arrival of the Normans the Anglo-Saxons had built burhs, fortified structures with their origins in 9th-century Wessex. Most of these, especially in areas, were large enough to be best described as fortified townships rather than private dwellings and are therefore not usually classed as castles. Although rural burhs were relatively secure their role was primarily ceremonial, there were, however, a small number of castles which were built in England during the 1050s, probably by Norman knights in the service of Edward the Confessor. These include Hereford, Clavering, Richards Castle and possibly Ewyas Harold Castle, William, Duke of Normandy, invaded England in 1066 and one of his first actions after landing was to build Hastings Castle to protect his supply routesList of castles in the United Kingdom – Conwy Castle, Wales