1. Castle – A castle is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by nobility. Usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble. Usage of the term has been applied to structures as diverse as hill forts and country houses. Although their military origins are often emphasised in castle studies, the structures also served as symbols of power. Many castles were originally built from timber, but had their defences replaced later by stone. Early castles often exploited natural defences, relying on a central keep. In the late early 13th centuries, a scientific approach to castle defence emerged. This led with an emphasis on flanking fire. Some grand castles had long winding approaches intended to dominate their landscape. As a result, true castles were replaced by artillery forts with no role in civil administration, country houses that were indefensible. The castle is derived from the Latin word castellum, a diminutive of the word castrum, meaning "fortified place". The castle was introduced into English shortly before the Norman Conquest to denote this type of building, then new to England. In its simplest terms, the definition of a castle accepted amongst academics is "a fortified residence". Castles served a range of purposes, the most important of which were military, domestic. As well as defensive structures, castles were also offensive tools which could be used as a base of operations in territory.Castle – The Alcázar of Segovia in Spain overlooking the city
2. Belarus – Most populous city is Minsk. Over 40% of its 207,600 square kilometres is forested. Its strongest economic sectors are manufacturing. Belarus lost almost half of its territory after the Polish -- Soviet War of 1919 -- 1921. During WWII, military operations devastated Belarus, which lost more than half of its economic resources. The republic was redeveloped in the post-war years. In 1945 Belarus became a founding member of the United Nations, along with the Ukrainian SSR. Alexander Lukashenko has served since 1994. Lukashenko continued a number such as state ownership of large sections of the economy. In 2000 Belarus and Russia signed a treaty for greater cooperation, with some hints of forming a Union State. Over 70 % of Belarus's population of million resides in urban areas. More than 80% of the population is ethnic Belarusian, with sizable minorities of Russians, Poles and Ukrainians. Since a referendum in 1995, the country has had two official languages: Belarusian and Russian. The Constitution of Belarus does not declare any official religion, although the primary religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Belarus is the only country in Europe to retain punishment in law and practice.Belarus – Stamp with the Cross of St. Euphrosyne from 1992
3. Babruysk fortress – The Babruysk Fortress is a historic fortress in the city of Babruysk, Belarus, built between 1810 and 1836. It is one of the best surviving examples in the first half of the 19th century. The fortress was constructed at the confluence of the Babruyka and Berezina rivers. It was one of the Russian fortresses. However, after his investigation, Narbut advised his superiors that a more strategic position would be near Babruysk. This decision was approved by the Chief of Count Carl Operman, who at the time had authority over all of Russian forts. On June 1810, the Tsar issued an order for the Babruysk fortress to be constructed. Narbut was replaced by General Major Gabriel Ignatiev. The early fortress comprised five bastions, water channels. The basis for the Babruysk fortress was a smaller Polish fortress, which were built earlier. Partially completed, the fortress had to face Napoleon's invading army in the summer of 1812. Soldiers from The Second Russian Army were provided with the wounded received medical treatment. After that they were ferried to Smolensk, where the main Russian army was stationed. General Ignatiev oversaw its defence. The city faced an attack by the forces of the Polish Corps Commander of Napoleon's Army.Babruysk fortress – Babruysk fortress in 1811
4. Brest Fortress – Brest Fortress, formerly known as Brest-Litovsk Fortress, is a 19th-century Russian fortress in Brest, Belarus, the former Byelorussian SSR. The title Hero-Fortress corresponds to Hero City, awarded to an eventual total of twelve Soviet cities. Brest Fortress is situated at an height of 135 meters. The Brest fortress has sustained its original outline of a star shaped fortification since its construction in the 19th century. The core of the fortress, was on the central island formed by the Bug River and the two branches of the Mukhavets River. The island was skirted with 4 semi-towers. The km long barrack comprised 500 rooms to accommodate 12,000 soldiers within thick walls built from super strong red bricks. Originally there were 4 gates to enter the Citadel. Today only Kholm Gate and Terespol Gate can be seen, most part of the barrack lies in ruins. The 3 fortifications were named after two towns: a region in the Ukraine. The Terespol Fortification was the western bridgehead, featuring 4 detached lunettes. The Volyn Fortification was the southeastern bridgehead, featuring 2 fortification curtains with detached ravelins. A ring of outlying forts was built later around the old fortress. In the late 1960s, the construction of the war complex "Brest Hero-Fortress" was started. The complex was opened on September 1971.Brest Fortress – Brest Fortress
5. HajciunishkiHajciunishki – The fortified house of Hajciunishki
6. Halshany Castle – Also known as the Black Castle, the residence formerly rivaled Mir Castle as the most elegant private château of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The name Black Castle in fact originally applies by Uladzimir Karatkievich, loosely based on Halshany Castle. The last Polish landlords. Currently, the castle continues to crumble away. An annual tournament is held near its walls each summer. М.А. Ткачоў, I.М. Чарняўскі. Збор помнікаў гісторыі і культуры Беларусі: Гродзенская вобласць. Minsk, 1986. Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich. , Warszawa: nakł. 1880-1914, Volume III, p. 102-103.Halshany Castle – The castle in 1853
7. Hrodna Old Castle – The 13th-century keep of the castle belonged to a type of Belarusian defensive tower represented by the Tower of Kamyanyets. Vytautas the Great added five Brick Gothic towers in 1391–98, transforming the castle into one of his main residences. Casimir IV Jagiellon also favoured Hrodna over Lithuania's official capital. It was there that he died in 1495. The notable tenant of the castle was Stephen Báthory who envisaged Hrodna as the capital of his vast empire in Eastern Europe. He engaged Scotto of Parma to replace the Vytautas Castle with his own residence in the advanced Renaissance taste of Northern Italy. After Bathory's death in Hrodna in 1586, his pet project was abandoned. The citadel was devastated during a Russo-Polish War in 1655. The castle's revival was owing to Krzysztof Zygmunt Pac who raised sufficient funds to finance the refurbishing of the royal residence. The restored castle was selected as the location for every third Sejm of the Polish -- Lithuanian Commonwealth. The castle suffered extensive damage during the Great Northern War, forcing the royal court to move into the New Hrodna Castle. After the partitions of Poland the castle was housed a barracks. The authorities of interwar Poland restored the chamber of the Sejm Hall. At present the castle is classed as a museum. Ф.Hrodna Old Castle – Bathory's Castle in Hrodna, Belarus.
8. Hrodna New Castle – New Hrodna Castle is 116 metres above level. The two castles are joined by a 300-year-old bridge. The compound was designed by Carl Friedrich Pöppelmann. Construction was carried out between 1751 under the supervision of several other Saxon architects, including Johann Friedrich Knöbel and Joachim Daniel von Jauch. The palace remained home for King Stanisław II August until 1797. Used throughout most of the 19th century, the palace was renovated by the Polish administration in the interwar period. Scarcely anything is left of the original fabric of the castle, whose refined Rococo detailing vanished during World War II. There followed a hasty and rather superficial refurbishing of the palace by the Soviets to making it the headquarters of a local obkom. A plaque on the wall of the palace commemorates the council of war held by Tadeusz Kościuszko on 30 October 1794. Ф. Д. Гуревич. "Древности Белорусского Понеманья". Ленинград, Изд-во Академии наук СССР, 1962. New Grodno Castle on globus.tut.byHrodna New Castle – New Castle as seen from across the Neman River, with the Old Hrodna Castle looming in the distance.
9. Tower of Kamyanyets – The Tower of Kamyenyets, often called by the misnomer the White Tower, is the main landmark of the town of Kamyenyets in Belarus. Standing atop a gentle rise overlooking the Liasnaja river, the tower is the main landmark of Kamyenyets today. The first record in the chronicles about the foundation of the tower dates from 1276. It was erected in the 1270s. Today it is a national historic site. Since 1960 the tower houses a branch of the Brest regional museum. Once similar towers were built in Brest, Grodno, Turaw, Navahradak, but they were destroyed in the course of wars. The tower of Kamieniec is the only one that survived in Belarus until the present. Vladimir Vasilkovich, the prince of Volhynia, liked the place and ordered Oleksa to build the castle. The castle was built as an enclosed community. It is 30 meters high, the redbrick walls are about 2.5 m thick, with a pitched roof at the top. The tower was entirely built of brick, that makes it unique. Till the 16th century mostly rubbleworks prevailed in fortifications and churches and monasteries, only some parts of exterior were built of brick. The tower traces the influence of Western Europe, where brickwork was used extensively in the late 13th – early 14th century. The openings of the windows and niches were plastered and whitewashed.Tower of Kamyanyets – The tower of Kamyenyets today
10. Kosava castle – Kosava castle is a ruined castellated palace in Gothic Revival style located in Kosava, Belarus. It was built by Count Wandalin Puslowski close to the house where Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko was born. The architect of the castle was Franciszek Jaszczołd. The palace was reconstructed by Władysław Marconi in the 19th century. After the collapse of the Polish January Uprising in 1863, ownership was transferred to other Russian aristocrats. During World War II, the place was severely damaged. Currently, the castle is in the process of restoration. Castles in BelarusKosava castle – Kosava castle ruin
11. Kreva Castle – Kreva Castle is the ruins of a major fortified residence of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania in the village of Kreva, Belarus. Algirdas's brother Kęstutis was murdered in the Kreva Castle in 1382. Kreva Castle is 220 metres above level. The first step towards the Polish -- Lithuanian Commonwealth, was signed in the castle three years later. The castle stood unoccupied for a long time. By the 19th century, much of the walls had crumbled away. The World War I dealt a final blow to the decaying structure, since the castle stood on the front line between German armed forces. In 20th centuries, the ruins were partially conserved, particularly by Poland in 1929. However, the monument crumbles further.Kreva Castle – The present-day ruins of the Kreva Castle
12. Liahavichy – Liahavichy Castle was a fortified Belarus castle. It was one of the most significant castles in Belarus in the 17th century. It may have been as a hill fort since the eleventh or twelfth century. It stood on the bank of the Vedz ` river, surrounded by a moat regulated by a dam. In the centre stood a two-storey palace. Eromin's son, the hetman of the Great Lithuanian Principality, reconstructed and fortified the castle. The castle survived a siege in the only fortress in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania not to be captured by Russia during the Russo-Polish War. The Swedish army burned a Catholic church to the ground in 1706. History of Belarus Mir Castle Complex Nesvizh Castle Liahavichy Castle, Belarus Liahovichi district history Historical Sites of LyakhovichiLiahavichy – The castle in the 17th century
13. Lida Castle – Other links in this chain of defense included Trakai. The modern town of Lida, Belarus grew up around this castle. Lida Castle is 141 metres above level. The site selected for the castle is naturally defended to east and west. Construction of boulder walls was carried out in 1323, 1325. Later they were faced with red brick. The castle had a church, moved outside the walls in 1533. The upper storeys of both towers were lived in. Despite its strong fortifications, Lida was taken on several occasions. Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas gave it to his ally, Khan Tokhtamysh, who settled "in a yurt near the castle". In 1433, Lida was a point of contention between his cousin Sigismund Kęstutaitis. The following decades were somewhat less stormy. It was stormed by the Russians during the Russo-Polish War in 1659. The Swedes, taking it twice during the Great Northern War, had both towers blown up. In 1794, the castle grounds were the site of the Russians.Lida Castle – The recently reconstructed portions of the tower and wall are scarlet in colour.
14. Lubcha Castle – Lubcha Castle was a residential castle of the Radziwill family on the left bank of the Neman River at Lubcha near Navahradak. The castle began its life as a fortified residence of Jan Kiszka, a powerful Calvinist magnate. It was surrounded by moats on three sides, the fourth side protected by the river. Lubcha later passed to Great Hetman of Lithuania, who expanded the castle by adding three stone towers. In 1655 it was devastated by the rebellious Cossacks under Ivan Zolotarenko. Only one other tower were left standing after the Cossack incursion. The deserted estate changed several times remaining untenanted until the mid-19th century, when a Gothic Revival palace was built on the grounds. The Lubcha estate suffered much damage during both world wars. The palace was remodeled into a school building by the Soviets in 1947. Lyubchа Castle at globus.tut.by History and Restoration of Lyubcha CastleLubcha Castle – Currently, the castle is being restored by a team of volunteers.
15. Mir Castle Complex – The Mirsky Castle Complex is a UNESCO World Heritage site in Belarus. Mir Castle Complex is 164 metres above level. From 1921 to 1939 the castle belonged to the territory of Poland. Duke Yuri Ivanovich Ilyinich began construction of the castle near the village of Mir after the turn of the 16th century in the Belarusian Gothic style. Five towers surrounded the courtyard of the walls of which formed a square of 75 metres on each side. Plastered facades were decorated with limestone portals, plates, porches in the Renaissance style. Later the castle became a possession of their daughter Maria, who married Prince Chlodwig Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst. Maurice Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, sold the castle to Nikolai Svyatopolk-Mirsky, of the Bialynia clan, in 1895. Nikolai's son Mikhail began to rebuild the castle according to the plans of architect Teodor Bursze. The Svyatopolk-Mirsky family owned the castle until 1939, when the Soviet Union occupied eastern Poland. Between 1956, the castle was used as a housing facility, resulting in damage to the castle's interior. In December 2000, the Mir Castle was listed as a World Heritage Site. Старажытнае дойлідства Міра Photos on Globus.tut.by Mir Castle on 3D F4 MapMir Castle Complex – UNESCO World Heritage Site
16. Navahrudak Castle – Modern historians cannot make up their minds as to the true location of Mindaugas's coronation. As early as the 14th century, Navahrudak is known to have possessed a tower along the lines of Tower of Kamyanyets. Other fortifications were of timber. The castle was stormed under Heinrich von Plötzke in 1314. Although the attack was not successful, the tower sustained substantial damage. During the reign of Vytautas the Great four new stone towers were added to the system of Navahrudak fortifications. In the 17th century the main castle boasted 7 towers, apart from those of the Lesser Castle. Navahrudak was one of the northernmost forts besieged in the 16th century. Navahrudak was twice occupied by Russian forces during the Russo-Polish War. Further destruction was inflicted by the Swedes who sacked Navahrudak in 1706. Attempts to preserve the ruins from further decay were undertaken in the 1920s. The castle grounds at present provide the setting for theatrical jousting.Navahrudak Castle – The ruins of Navahrudak Castle.
17. Niasvizh Castle – Nesvizh Castle or Niasvizh Castle is a residential castle of the Radziwiłł family in Nesvizh, Belarus. It is 183 metres above level. From 1921 to 1939 the complex was considered one of the most beautiful Polish castles in the Kresy region. In 1586 the estate was turned into an ordynacja. After the Union of Lublin the castle became one of the most important residences in the central part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1582 Mikołaj Krzysztof "Sierotka" Radziwiłł, Voivode of Trakai -- Vilnius and castellan of Šiauliai, started the construction of an imposing square three-storey "château". Although the works were based on a pre-existing structure of a medieval castle, the former fortifications were entirely turned into a renaissance-baroque house. They added several galleries half a century later. The château's corners were fortified with four octagonal towers. During the Great Northern War, Charles XII's army sacked the castle and destroyed its fortifications. Several decades later, the Radziwiłłs invited some Italian architects to substantially renovate and enlarge the castle. Antoni Zaleski decorated its yellow facades with baroque work. The two-storey gatehouse tower was crowned with a helm. It was at this time that the three separate buildings surrounding the central courtyard were joined into a single structure. Apart from elaborate princely sepulchers, its interior features some baroque frescoes from 1760s and the Holy Cross altar, executed by Venetian sculptors in 1583.Niasvizh Castle – UNESCO World Heritage Site
18. Pischalauski – Pishchalauski Castle, also spelled Pischalauski Castle, is a castle in Minsk, Belarus. The castle is also sometimes called the Belarusian Bastille. It is a registered state architectural monument. The castle was built in 1825. It formerly served as a prison. The architect was named Pishchala. The castle was the site of the imprisonment of Belarusian writer Yakub Kolas from 1908 to 1911. One of the building where among other offenders political prisoners are kept, has collapsed. A portion of the castle's four towers collapsed in April 2008. Belarus Castles, Palaces and historical Manors database of Belarusian State ArchivePischalauski – Pishchalauski Castle
19. Ruzhany Palace – Ruzhany Palace is a ruined palace compound in Ruzhany village, Pruzhany Raion, Brest Voblast, Western Belarus. Castle is currently with the palace ornate gate and building being already restored. Ruzhany began its life as the site of the palace being completed in 1602. Aside from the palace, there was several other outbuildings. Becker also designed the local church. By the time of King Stanisław II's visit in 1784, work on the palace had been suspended. The Sapieha estates were nationalised in the aftermath of the November Uprising. Three years later, the compound was sold to be weaving factory. In 1914 the palace was accidentally set on fire by factory workers. The ornate gate has recently been restored. Photos at Globus Belarus Guide Unofficial Ruzhany siteRuzhany Palace – The ruins of Ruzhany castle and theatre in 2007.
20. Zaslawye – Zaslawye or Zaslaŭje is a historic city in Minsk Province of Belarus, 20 kilometres northwest of Minsk. In 2009 its population was 14,400. The town's current name derives from Izyaslav's name. In the early Middle Age the town was centre of the Duchy of Zaslawye. In the 11th century, the town was heavily fortified; much of its territory has been designated an archaeological reservation. There is also a modern outdoor statue on the grounds. During the period of Reformation, the town was a nest for followers of Calvinism and Socinianism. This center was under German occupation from 1941 to 1944. In 1939, Jews comprised 9 % of numbering 248 people. In October 1941, the Germans gathered 100 Jews of the city in a ghetto, a building formerly occupied by Soviet border guards. It was forbidden to go outside, they didn’t received food. The ghetto was supervised day and night. On September 26 and 1941, all the Jewish males were killed, at least 20 people in total, 12 of them burned in the ghetto building. They were all shot in a pit in the forest near the village of Sloboda. For a month following the liquidation of the ghetto, 35 Jewish women were kept in one of the houses on Bazarnaya Street.Zaslawye – Church of the Saviour's Transfiguration (35 meters (115 ft) high)
23. List of castles in Belgium – This is an incomplete list of châteaus and castles in Belgium. Both the French word château refer both to fortified defensive buildings and to stately aristocratic homes. As a result, it common to see both types of building translated as ` castle' although many of them are not castles proper. "Castles of Belgium". Eupedia.com. 2014. Retrieved August 2014.List of castles in Belgium – Belvédère Castle Château du Belvédère / Kasteel Belvédère
26. List of castles in Croatia – List of castles in Croatia includes castles, remains of castles and other fortifications like fortresses which used to be a castles at some point in history. A castle is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages. In its simplest terms, the definition of a castle accepted amongst academics is "a fortified residence". "Castles & Manor Houses of Croatia: Winning or Losing". Croatia: Aspects of Art, Architecture and Cultural Heritage. Pp. 174–193. Croatian castles Dvorci, kurije i ljetnikovci u Hrvatskoj Croatia - Castles and Manors Castle and Fortress Ruins in Zagreb CountyList of castles in Croatia – Bajnski Dvori Castle
30. List of castles in France – This is a list of castles in France, arranged by Region and Department. Occasionally, where there is not a specific article on a castle, links are given to another article that includes details, typically an article on a town. Italics indicate links to articles in the French Wikipedia. If no article appears in either English or French Wikipedias, a link is given to an external website. The number in parentheses after the name of each department indicates the number used for administrative purposes.List of castles in France – Château du Fleckenstein
31. List of castles in Georgia (country) – There are two known castles and 13 known forts in Georgia, which were constructed between the years 800 and 1700 by various provincial kings. Most are still standing, are preserved by the United Nations. The earliest castle in Georgia was the Ananuri castle, built in the period from 1200–1249. The Ananuri castle consisted of two castles with a big wall surrounding it. It was the seat of the dukes of the Duchy of Aragvi, one of feudal dynasties during the period. The last castle to be built in Georgia was the Rabati Castle, built between 1299. The original town was built from 700–800, with the castle being built in the 1260s. The 13 forts of Georgia lie in varying states of ruin. The oldest was built in the 9th century, while some were built late as the 17th century. While many still stand, most have been heavily damaged by various causes. Tbilisi Anonymous. History of the Five Reigns Noble, John; Kohn, Michael; Systermans, Daniel. . Georgia, Armenia & Azerbaijan. London, UK: Lonely Planet.List of castles in Georgia (country) – View from the tower at Ananuri
35. List of castles in the Republic of Ireland – OPW info Belvelly Castle Ballyva Manor, built in the 1850s by Timothy Hurley. 19th century, on site of earlier castle. Clontarf Castle, Clontarf. Restored Castle, Hotel. NIAH survey Conn Castle, intact Dalkey, 2 remaining of original 7 castles Donabate, intact Drimnagh Castle, Drimnagh. Restored Castle. NIAH survey Drumcondra Castle, Richmond. Conference centre Dublin Castle, Dublin City. Restored Castle Dundrum Castle, Dundrum. Ruins Dunsoghly Castle, Restored Castle Howth Castle, Howth.NIAH survey Grange, intact? Irishtown Castle, ruin Kilgobbin Castle, ruin, History Killiney Castle, Scalpwilliam or Mount Mapas.NIAH survey Killininny Castle, Firhouse Kilsallaghan Castle Knocklyne Castle, Knocklyon. Intact, private residence. NIAH survey Lambay Castle, Lambay Island NIAH survey Lanestown, intact Luttrellstown Castle, Malahide Demesne. Restored Castle Merrion Castle, Merrion. Monkstown Castle, Monkstown Castlefarm.List of castles in the Republic of Ireland – Castle Donovan
36. List of castles in Italy – This is a list of castles in Italy by location. Built in the 15th century. Calepio Castle, Castelli Calepio. Built by the Calepio family. Bianzano Castle, Bianzano. Built around 1220–1230. Camozzi Vertova Castle, Costa di Mezzate. Built in the 12th century. Cavernago Castle, Cavernago. Built by the Counts Martinengo-Colleoni. Malpaga Castle, Cavernago. Built by the warlord Bartolomeo Colleoni. Marne Castle, Filago. Built by the Avogadri family. Pagazzano Castle, Pagazzano.List of castles in Italy – Forte Spagnolo, L'Aquila
37. List of castles in Latvia – There are about 140 medieval castles in the area, therefore this list is not complete. After the name of the castle comes the year of construction and a short description of its present-day condition. Latvijas pilis un muižas. Castles and manors of Latvia. Riga. ISBN 9984-785-05-X. OCLC 72358861. Ose, I.. Latvijas 12. Gadsimta beigu - 17. Gadsimta vācu piļu leksikons. Riga. Ambermarks - Medieval castles of Latvia - listList of castles in Latvia – Riga Castle
44. List of castles in Norway – This is a consolidated list of castles and palaces in Norway. Fort or festning means fortress. To see list of fortresses in Norway, see List of Norwegian fortresses. In Norway there tend to be many more manor houses compared to castles. This is due to Norway's past as a poor nation.List of castles in Norway – Akershus Castle by night
47. List of castles in Romania – Castles are declared historic monuments by the Romanian Culture Ministry. This is a list of castles in Romania. Castele, şi conace din România. Bucureşti: Editura Fundaţiei Culturale Române. ISBN 973-577-320-1.List of castles in Romania – Bánffy Castle
49. List of castles in Serbia – This is a list of fortifications in Serbia. The list includes remains of military constructions; fortresses, towers, etc.. There are over 30 preserved more than hundreds of sites with remains of old fortifications. Forts in Serbia are preserved from post-Ottoman eras. The majority of forts have been renovated with changing rule and adaptations to war technology development. Many forts are foundations such as the Belgrade Fortress. Later, Western, Austro-Hungarian architecture exists in Vojvodina; Bač castle, Vršac. The fortified monasteries of Mileševa, Manasija and Ravanica served as protection during harsh times. Fortifications located within Kosovo are indicated in grey. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia. Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received recognition as an independent state from 110 of 193 United Nations member states. Deroko, Aleksandar. Srednjevekovni gradovi u Srbiji.List of castles in Serbia – Bač Fortress
52. List of castles in Spain – Castles in Spain were built mainly for defensive purposes. However, due to sporadic threats of war, they kept their military purposes, for enemy invasions were common. After the Conquest of Granada in 1492, the Catholic monarchs ordered all the castles in their realms to be handed over to the Crown. Most of castles in Spain were dismantled, Spanish kings fearing noble and peasant revolts, especially in the newly conquered lands. Nowadays in Spain there are around 2500 castles corresponding only to this kind of fortification. This is a list of castles in Spain. Castle of Aguilar del Río Alhama, there are only a few ruins.List of castles in Spain – Castle of Loarre
57. List of castles in the United Kingdom – Castles have played an important military, economic and social role in Great Britain and Ireland since their introduction following the Norman invasion of England in 1066. During the 12th century the Normans began to build more castles in stone, with square keeps that played both military and political roles. Following the Norman invasion of Ireland under Henry II, castles were established there too. The tower style would also be adopted in the north of England and Ireland in later years. In North Wales Edward I built a sequence of militarily powerful castles in the 1270s. By the 14th century castles were combining defences with heavily landscaped gardens and parks. Many baronial castles were left to decline, so that by the 15th century only a few were maintained for defensive purposes. A small number of castles in England and Scotland were developed into Renaissance Era palaces that hosted lavish celebrations amid their elaborate architecture. Such structures were, however, beyond the richest of the late-medieval barons. Nevertheless, across the British Isles during the 1640s and 1650s, castles played a key role in England. , in many cases, castles successfully withstood more than one siege. At the end of the war many castles were slighted to prevent future use. Other castles were used as county jails, until parliamentary legislation in the 19th closed most of them down. Such renovations raised concerns over their protection so that today castles across the British Isles are safeguarded by legislation. Primarily used as tourist attractions, castles form a key part of the national industry.List of castles in the United Kingdom – Conwy Castle, Wales