1. Budapest – Budapest is the capital and most populous city of Hungary, one of the largest cities in the European Union and sometimes described as the primate city of Hungary. It has an area of 525 square kilometres and a population of about 1.8 million within the limits in 2016. Budapest became a single city occupying both banks of the Danube river with the unification of Buda and Óbuda on the west bank, the history of Budapest began with Aquincum, originally a Celtic settlement that became the Roman capital of Lower Pannonia. Hungarians arrived in the territory in the 9th century and their first settlement was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241–1242. The re-established town became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist culture by the 15th century, following the Battle of Mohács and nearly 150 years of Ottoman rule, the region entered a new age of prosperity, and Budapest became a global city after its unification in 1873. It also became the co-capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a power that dissolved in 1918. Budapest was the point of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Hungarian Republic of Councils in 1919, the Battle of Budapest in 1945. Budapest is an Alpha- global city, with strengths in arts, commerce, design, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, services, research, and tourism. Its business district hosts the Budapest Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks and it is the highest ranked Central and Eastern European city on Innovation Cities Top 100 index. Budapest attracts 4.4 million international tourists per year, making it the 25th most popular city in the world, further famous landmarks include Andrássy Avenue, St. It has around 80 geothermal springs, the worlds largest thermal water system, second largest synagogue. Budapest is home to the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, the European Police College, over 40 colleges and universities are located in Budapest, including the Eötvös Loránd University, Central European University and Budapest University of Technology and Economics. Budapest is the combination of the city names Buda and Pest, One of the first documented occurrences of the combined name Buda-Pest was in 1831 in the book Világ, written by Count István Széchenyi. The origins of the names Buda and Pest are obscure, according to chronicles from the Middle Ages, the name Buda comes from the name of its founder, Bleda, brother of the Hunnic ruler Attila. The theory that Buda was named after a person is also supported by modern scholars, an alternative explanation suggests that Buda derives from the Slavic word вода, voda, a translation of the Latin name Aquincum, which was the main Roman settlement in the region. There are also theories about the origin of the name Pest. One of the states that the word Pest comes from the Roman times. According to another theory, Pest originates from the Slavic word for cave, or oven, the first settlement on the territory of Budapest was built by Celts before 1 ADBudapest
2. Buda Castle – Buda Castle is the historical castle and palace complex of the Hungarian kings in Budapest, and was first completed in 1265. In the past, it has been called Royal Palace and Royal Castle and it is linked to Clark Ádám Square and the Széchenyi Chain Bridge by the Castle Hill Funicular. The castle is a part of the Budapest World Heritage Site, the first royal residence on the Castle Hill was built by King Béla IV of Hungary between 1247 and 1265. It is uncertain whether it was situated on the tip of the hill or on the northern elevation. The oldest part of the palace was built in the 14th century by Stephen, Duke of Slavonia. Only the foundations remain of the keep, which was known as Stephens Tower. The Gothic palace of King Louis I was arranged around a courtyard next to the keep. King Sigismund significantly enlarged the palace and strengthened its fortifications, Sigismund, as a Holy Roman Emperor, needed a magnificent royal residence to express his prominence among the rulers of Europe. He chose Buda Castle as his residence, and during his long reign it became probably the largest Gothic palace of the late Middle Ages. Buda was an important artistic centre of the International Gothic style, construction began in the 1410s and was largely finished in the 1420s, although some minor works continued until the death of the king in 1437. The palace was first mentioned in 1437, under the name fricz palotha, the most important part of Sigismunds palace was the northern wing, known as the Fresh Palace. On the top floor was a hall called the Roman Hall with a carved wooden ceiling. Great windows and balconies faced toward the city of Buda, the façade of the palace was decorated with statues, a and coat-of-arms. In front stood the bronze statue of Sigismund, later repaired by King Matthias Corvinus. The southern part of the residency was surrounded with narrow zwingers. Two parallel walls, the so-called cortina walls, run down from the palace to the River Danube across the steep hillside, the most imposing structure, the Broken Tower, on the western side of the cour dhonneur, remained unfinished. The basement of the tower was used as a dungeon, the top floors were probably the treasury of the royal jewels, the last phase of large-scale building activity took place under King Matthias Corvinus. During the first decades of his reign the king finished the work on the Gothic palace, the Royal Chapel, with the surviving Lower Church, was likely built at that timeBuda Castle – Buda Castle seen across the Danube
3. Simontornya Castle – The Simontornya Castle is a Renaissance castle in Simontornya, Hungary. The Tower was built in the 13th century by Simon among the swamps of the Sió river, the name Simontornya means Simons Tower. Nearly all owners of the castle made some alterations throughout the centuries, the Lackfis built a new gothic wing in the 14th century, altered the old Tower, and added an arcaded loggia to the back-front. After the extinction of the House of Garai in 1482, the castle belonged to Queen Beatrix. Mózes Buzlay, marshall of King Ulászló II improved the castle into a palace with the help of Italian masters. After Buzlays death the castle was taken over by the Turks in 1545 and this event marked the beginning of a new era with an emphasis on military requirements. During the nearly 150 years of minor alterations and refinements were constantly being made. Simontornya, the center of a sandjak was recaptured by Louis William, in just two years major alterations turned the castle into a fortress. During the revolution against the Habsburgs, led by Prince Francis II Rákóczi, the fortress was captured by the Austrian army in 1709 housing troops until 1717. The castle fortress was later donated to the House of Limburg-Stirum and it has been used as a barn by all new owners until 1960, when archeological excavations startedSimontornya Castle – The Simontornya Castle
4. Castle of Eger – The Castle of Eger is a castle in Eger, Hungary. Historically, it is known for repelling the Turkish attack in 1552 during the Siege of Eger, the first castle was built on the high hill named Várhegy at Felsőtárkány near Eger. During the Mongol invasion in 1241, this castle was ruined, on the hill, a new castle was built, and it developed rapidly. In 1470 a Gothic palace was built, in 1552, a Turkish army of 35, 000-40,000 soldiers attacked the castle which had 2, 100-2,300 defenders. The siege failed as the Turks suffered heavy casualties, a total of 1,700 of the defenders survived. After that Turks besieged the castle again in 1596, resulting in a Turkish victory, in 1701, the Austrians exploded half of the castle. Archaeological excavations only started in 1925 and the castle was used by the army as barracks until 1957, official website The castle in picturesCastle of Eger – An entrance of the Eger Castle
5. Csesznek – Csesznek is a village in Zirc District, Veszprém county, Hungary. The village is famous for its medieval castle, the medieval castle of Csesznek was built around 1263 by the Jakab Cseszneky who was the swordbearer of the King Béla IV. He and his descendants have been named after the castle Cseszneky, between 1326 and 1392 it was a royal castle, when King Sigismund offered it to the House of Garai in lieu of the Macsó Banate. In 1482 the male line of the Garai family died out, in 1527, Baron Bálint Török became its owner. During the 16th century the Csábi, Szelestey and Wathay families were in possession of Csesznek, in 1561, Lőrinc Wathay repulsed successfully the siege of the Ottomans. However, in 1594 the castle was occupied by Turkish troops, in 1635, Dániel Esterházy bought the castle and village and from that time on Csesznek was the property of the Esterházy family until 1945. Cseszneky family Jakab Cseszneky Lőrinc Wathay Bálint Török Sándor Simonyi-Semadam A website about the village, a website about the village and the castle, made by local civiliansCsesznek – Csesznek
6. Palaces and mansions in Hungary – There are more than 2000 castles and mansions today in Hungary, with about 700 of them under protection. Castle construction thrived during the politically tranquil 18th century, which one of the most important periods of construction in the history of the cultural development of the country. The style of these castles varies according to age and region, in spite of being modelled sometimes on foreign examples and built by foreign masters, they still bear the stamp of a style rooted in the Hungarian way of life. Throughout the Middle Ages, while the country struggled to survive wars followed by 150 years of Turkish occupation, most of the castles were destroyed. Besides the older Esterházy wealth, the riches of the Festetiches, Battyanyis, Pállfys, Károlyis, many aristocratic families used their wealth to develop their property through architecture. No longer desiring to live in the forts built on top of hills. The nobility loved arts and sciences and lived within fine social norms, there are a lot of similar features in these buildings, which are now considered as Hungarian characteristics. The picture of Hungarian castles would not be complete without mentioning the gardens arounds them, since the era of Louis XIV, gardens were even more important than the buildings themselves. Hungarian nobles planned their gardens after the parks of French castles, the baroque garden strove for order and union. The 19th century brought a new way of thinking, the English example can be felt in the social and political life of the country, and their influence is seen in the castles of the nobility as well. Above all, the taste of the 19th century changed the style of the gardens, botanical interest came into prominence, it was fashionable to collect special and rare plants. After the monopoly of the baroque, the reflected the idea of back to nature. After the second World War the castles and their beautiful gardens became mainly state or co-operative property, most of them functions today as museums, houses of culture, schools, sanatoriums or other public buildingsPalaces and mansions in Hungary – Eszterháza, Fertőd
7. Hungary – Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken language in Europe. Hungarys capital and largest metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended to the throne in 1000, converting the country to a Christian kingdom, by the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Hungarys current borders were established in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade-long communist dictatorship. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became again a democratic parliamentary republic, in the 21st century, Hungary is a middle power and has the worlds 57th largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the 58th largest by PPP, out of 188 countries measured by the IMF. As a substantial actor in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds 36th largest exporter and importer of goods, Hungary is a high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a security and universal health care system. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and part of the Schengen Area since 2007, Hungary is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe and Visegrád Group. Well known for its cultural history, Hungary has been contributed significantly to arts, music, literature, sports and science. Hungary is the 11th most popular country as a tourist destination in Europe and it is home to the largest thermal water cave system, the second largest thermal lake in the world, the largest lake in Central Europe, and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. The H in the name of Hungary is most likely due to historical associations with the Huns. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Medieval Greek Oungroi, according to an explanation the Greek name was borrowed from Proto-Slavic Ǫgǔri, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the name for the tribes who later joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. The Hungarians likely belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance and it is possible they became its ethnic majority. The Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of magyar and ország, the word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeriHungary – Italian fresco depicting a Hungarian warrior shooting backwards
8. History of Christianity in Hungary – The history of Christianity in Hungary began in the Roman province of Pannonia where the presence of Christian communities is first attested in the 3rd century. Accordingly, Christianity had existed in the territory of Hungary before the Hungarians settled there around 900 AD. The reception of Christianity was enforced by legislation in the reign of Gézas son, although some tenets of pagan belief were incorporated into the Christian vocabulary of the Hungarian language, nearly all the basic words of its religious terminology are of Slavic origin. The earliest religious texts written in vernacular survived from the end of the 12th century, the multiethnic Kingdom of Hungary emerged on the frontier of the Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and pagan worlds. Thus Hungarian monarchs frequently assisted the Papacy in its efforts to expand the borders of Catholicism by waging wars against their countrys pagan, schismatic, Protestant ideas, namely Lutheranism, started to spread in the German-speaking towns in the 1520s. Despite Lutheranisms initial success, the majority of the population adhered to the more radical theology of Calvinism by the second half of the century. The idea of freedom of religion was also first enacted in this period by the Decree of Torda of 1568, the equal status of the received denominations – the Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic, Reformed, Evangelical, Orthodox, and Unitarian Churches – was first declared in 1848. Although in 1947 all discrimination against other denominations was abolished, Church activities soon became subject to state supervision due to the introduction of the Communist regime, following the regimes fall, state interference in Church affairs ceased by the passage of a new law concerning religion in 1990. Transdanubia, the territory of modern Hungary west of the river Danube, similarly to other parts of the Roman Empire, most altars in the province were dedicated to Jupiter, who in this respect was followed by Silvanus. Aquincum became an important center of the cult of Mithras in the region, local Christian communities were first attested in 303 when Bishop Quirinus of Sescia was executed in Savaria under the Diocletianic Persecution. The new faith struck firm roots after its position had been consolidated throughout the Roman Empire in 313, the large Christian necropolises in Sopianae and Savaria are dated to this period. However, due to invasions, refugees from Pannonia started to arrive in other parts of the Roman Empire from the early 5th century. Among these displaced peoples were the inhabitants of Scarbantia who fled to Italy taking Saint Quirinuss relics with them, Martin of Tours, the patron saint of France, was also born in Pannonia. The towns of the province were ruined around 430 by the Huns, thereafter parts of the former province were controlled by the Ostrogoths, while the Gepids established themselves east of the river Tisza. A tablet of lead from this period discovered at Hács bore the Gothic text of parts of the Gospel of John, similarly to the Goths, the Gepidic nobility also adopted Arianism, an heretical strain of Christianity. The Reihengräber cemeteries found in the territory under Gepidic control, for instance at Szentes, are characterized by inhumation graves laid out in rows with an east–west orientation. Transdanubia was occupied in the early 6th century by the Lombards whose original cremation rite was replaced with a new habit of burying unburnt bodies in this period, in 567 the Avars subdued the Gepids, and in the next year forced the Lombards to flee to Italy. According to Paul the Deacon, the last remnants of the local Christian population also left Pannonia around that time, however a number of assemblages from the Early Avar period point to such a considerable Roman or early Bzyantine influence that they are grouped into the specific Keszthely cultureHistory of Christianity in Hungary – Ruins of the 9th-century church at Zalavár
9. Military history of Hungary – The military history of Hungary includes battles fought in the Carpathian Basin and the military history of the Hungarian people regardless of geography. The first well established reference to Hungarians derives from Georgius Monachus work in the 9th century and it mentions that around 837 the Bulgarian Empire desired an alliance with the Hungarians. Although the Hungarians supposedly participated earlier at the Battle of Pliska in 811, the Hungarians began the conquest of the Carpathian Basin in 895. They continued to raid adjacent countries for many years, the Hungarians were able to defeat three major Frankish imperial armies between 907 and 910, however a military defeat in 955 forced them to withdraw and consolidate their gains. The strength of the Hungarian people arriving into the Carpathian Basin is well demonstrated by the failure of European countries in stopping them, the Magyars advanced as far as the Iberian Peninsula, the Coast of Normandy and city of Constantinople. The Magyar arts of war involved agility, speed, and precision and their armies were well-organized and the men were well trained and disciplined. They also carried sabers and spontoons, but the bow remained their armament of choice. The Magyars placed an emphasis on ranged fighting – their charges were usually preceded by a volley of arrows, the majority of their troops were trained to fight on horseback. The battle of Lechfeld, also known as the Battle of Augsburg in 955, in which Otto the Great and his army of the Holy Roman Empire defeated the Magyars, the Hungarians demonstrated a use of siege weapons, including a battering ram at the Siege of Ausburg. After that, Croatia was attached to the Hungarian kingdom, after Saint Ladislaus death, his nephew, the King Coloman of Hungary ascended to the Hungarian throne. The feudal lords of Croatia elected a new king, and tried to get rid of the Hungarian occupation, and then the Hungarians took up arms against Croatia, after this, Coloman was crowned as king of Croatia in 1102. The Hungarian chivalric army was at its best during the reign of Louis I, nevertheless, there were still light cavalry units in the army, consisting of, among others, Szeklers and the settling Kuns. On the winter of 1458 the 15 years old Mathias Corvinus was elected as king by the Hungarian nobility, during his reign he dealt with the noble factions, and created a centralized royal authority, supported mainly by the first permanent Hungarian mercenary army, the Fekete Sereg. Mathias favored the obsolete catapults over the modern cannons already employed by his father, light cavalry, formed by hussars and Jász mounted archers, regained part of their former role in the Fekete Sereg. On 2 September 1686 united Hungarian, Austrian and West-European troops liberated Buda from the Turkish occupation, by the end of the 17th century Christian armies led by Habsburgs conquered all the Turkish-ruled territories. Thereafter the Kingdom of Hungary was part of the Habsburg Monarchy, a decisive part of the fighting force – about four fifth, most of the time – was formed by the main arm of the time, infantry. The other arm, cavalry, still consisted mainly of cavalry, or units equipped with mail armor. Another two types of cavalry were dragoons and light cavalry, Hungarian hussars became internationally recognized, being a prime example of light cavalryMilitary history of Hungary – After the Battle of Mohács, Kingdom of Hungary fell apart. The southern part, as a result of Ottoman conquest, was annexed by the Ottoman Empire. The eastern region broke off from Hungary, and became a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire. Habsburg Austria claimed a section, known then as Royal Hungary.
10. List of Hungarian monarchs – For a list of presidents until present day, see List of heads of state of Hungary. For the semi-independent monarchs of Transylvania in the 16th and 17th centuries and this is a List of Hungarian monarchs, which includes the grand princes and the kings and ruling queens of Hungary. The Principality of Hungary established 895 or 896, following the 9th century Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin, the Kingdom of Hungary existed from 1000 until 1918. The Árpád dynasty, the descendants of Grand Prince Árpád. The rulers of the first half of the 10th century are often disputed, as the Hungarian nation consisted of several tribes led by various leadersList of Hungarian monarchs – Levedi
11. Hungarian nobility – The Hungarian nobility consisted of a privileged group of laymen, most of whom owned inheritable landed property, in the Kingdom of Hungary between the 1260s and 1946. Late 12th-century documents used the term noblemen in reference to the dignitaries of the royal court, most of these aristocrats were native lords, some even tracing their families origins back to tribal chiefs who lived at the time of the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin around 895. Other aristocrats were regarded as newcomers, because their ancestors came after the establishment of the kingdom around 1000, the immigrant knights contributed to the introduction of heavy cavalry and the spread of chivalric culture. According to scholarly theories, groups of Slavic or Romanian notabilities of the polities from the preceding the Hungarian conquest also survived. Beside the aristocrats, less illustrious individuals held landed property and were obliged to provide service throughout the kingdom. For instance, a group of armed serfs – the castle warriors – held estates in the lands attached to royal castles. Through the integration of the different classes of free and non-free warriors and they referred to themselves as royal servants to emphasize their direct contact to the monarch. They forced Andrew II of Hungary to spell out their liberties in the Golden Bull of 1222, the royal servants identification as noblemen was enacted in 1267. The highest royal officials had by that time were mentioned as barons of the realm, in short time, the counties transformed into the most important institutions of the self-government of noblemen. A decree of 1351 declared the principle of one and the liberty of all noblemen. Moreover, significant economic, political and social differences existed between the wealthiest noblemen and noblemen who themselves cultivated their tiny plots, the rich landowners employed impoverished noblemen in their households as their familiares. Through their familiares, they could control both the counties and the Diet, or parliament, according to customary law, only sons and male members of the noble families could inherit noble estates. Noblemens daughters were only entitled to the quarter which was to be given in money or movable property. Only the monarch had the power to promote a daughter to a son, if a nobleman died, his estates were divided among his sons in equal parts, which contributed to the impoverishment of noble families. A group of families bearing hereditary titles emerged in the middle of the 15th century. First the monarchs granted the title of count to noblemen. The law book also summarized the privileges, including their personal freedom. The Latin became the language of the nobility and it represented that Hungary belonged to the western states in the modern historical consciousness and served as a symbol of independence against German expansionHungarian nobility – The front page of the Tripartitum, the law-book summarizing the privileges of the nobility in the kingdom
12. Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 was one of the many European Revolutions of 1848 and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas. The revolution in the Kingdom of Hungary grew into a war for independence from the Austrian Empire, Czar Nicholas I answered, and sent a 200,000 men strong army with 80,000 auxiliary forces. Finally, the joint army of Russian and Austrian forces defeated the Hungarian forces, after the restoration of Habsburg power, Hungary was placed under brutal martial law. The anniversary of the Revolutions outbreak,15 March, is one of Hungarys three national holidays, the Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, even after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804. The administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire, Hungarys central government structures remained well separated from the imperial government. The country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary - located in Pozsony and later in Pest -, ignác Martinovics worked as a secret agent for the new Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold II, until 1792. In another of his works, Catechism of People and Citizens, he argued that citizens tend to oppose any repression and he also became a Freemason, and was in favour of the adoption of a federal republic in Hungary. As a member of the Hungarian Jacobins, he was considered a forerunner of revolutionary thought by some. He was in charge of stirring up a revolt against the nobility among the Hungarian serfs, for these subversive acts, Francis II, the Holy Roman Emperor, dismissed Martinovics and his boss, Ferenc Gotthardi, the former chief of the secret police. He was executed, together with six other prominent Jacobins, in May 1795, the Diet of Hungary had not convened since 1811. The frequent diets held in the part of the reign occupied themselves with little else but war subsidies. In the latter years of Francis I. the dark shadow of Metternichs policy of stability fell across the kingdom, but beneath the surface a strong popular current was beginning to run in a contrary direction. Hungarian society, not unaffected by western Liberalism, but without any help from abroad, was preparing for the future emancipation. In 1825 Emperor Francis II convened the Diet in response to growing concerns amongst the Hungarian nobility about taxes and this – and the reaction to the reforms of Joseph II – started what is known as the Reform Period. But the Nobles still retained their privileges of paying no taxes, the influential Hungarian politician Count István Széchenyi recognized the need to bring the country the advances of the more developed West European countries, such as England. It was an attack upon the constitution which, to use the words of István Széchenyi. In 1823, when the powers were considering joint action to suppress the revolution in Spain. The county assemblies instantly protested against this act, and Francis I was obliged, at the diet of 1823Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – Artist Mihály Zichy 's painting of Sándor Petőfi reciting the National Poem to a crowd on March 15, 1848
13. Austria-Hungary – The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, and one region, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal, Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states. Austria-Hungary was a state and one of the worlds great powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908. The annexation of Bosnia also led to Islam being recognized as a state religion due to Bosnias Muslim population. Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I and it was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. The realms full, official name was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship, one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This also meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, however, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which was under the control of both Austria and Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungarys central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government, the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and later in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancellery in Vienna. The Hungarian government and Hungarian parliament were suspended after the Hungarian revolution of 1848, despite Austria and Hungary sharing a common currency, they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities. Since the beginnings of the union, the government of the Kingdom of Hungary could preserve its separated. After the revolution of 1848–1849, the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with the Austrian, from 1527 to 1851, the Kingdom of Hungary maintained its own customs controls, which separated her from the other parts of the Habsburg-ruled territoriesAustria-Hungary – Franz Joseph I. (1885)
14. Hungary in World War I – At the outbreak of World War I, Hungary was part of the dualist monarchy, Austria-Hungary. Although there are no significant battles connected to Hungarian regiments, the troops fought faithfully and intrepidly, which was one of the causes of high losses. In 1914, Austria-Hungary was one of the powers of Europe, with an area of 676,443 km². On June 28,1914, Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, before entering the war, only the prime minister Count István Tisza hesitated, unconvinced that it was the best time to engage in battle. As soon as Germany promised to neutralize the Kingdom of Romania and promised that no territories of the Kingdom of Serbia would be annexed to Austria-Hungary, after the ultimatum sent to Serbia by Franz Josef I, the war broke out and soon spread over much of Europe and beyond. The second line of the army was the mobilized Landsturm of the Austrians Népfelkelés of Hungarians, in 1914, the Austrian-Hungarian army was facing its greatest challenge so far in history. After mobilisation, the forces were grouped to six armies. Between 1914 and 1918,9 million served in the army, in comparison to the other armies of Europe, Hungarys experienced veteran armed forces, technical equipment, and military expenditures were underdeveloped. The artillery was not sufficient, but it was developed later in the war. The correct supply of ammunition was not solved even by the end of the war, the armed forces lacked an adequate air force, it had only 42 military and 40 sport airplanes before the war. Unifying the multi-ethnic units was also a problem for the militarys leaders. The military forces of Austria-Hungary remained largely unified over the course of the war, in spite of their multi-ethnic nature, for the most part, troops from other ethnic groups within the empire were less likely to be placed in strategically critical positions and therefore had lower casualties. Lieutenant-general Josef Roth attacked the Russian 3rd army, and on the right wing, on December 11, colonel Ottmár Muhr died in a heroic defense leading the Sopron 9th cavalry regiment. Lieutenant-general Artur Arz, together with lieutenant-general Imre Hadfy, leading the 39th Kassa division, during the Siege of Przemysl, which defense was commanded by general Hermann Kusmanek, the main defence line, consisting of Hungarian troops, guarded the fortress for five months from November 1915. The defenders were commanded by Árpád Tamásy, leading the 23rd Szeged division, after the depletion of ammunition and food reserves, Przemysl capitulated, leaving 120,000 prisoners of war. On the Isonzo front, Hungarian forces participated in all twelve battles, on the Doberdo plateau and near Karst, the most serious battles were fought by Hungarians, who composed one third of the total armed forces. In particular, the 20th Nagyvárad and 17th Budapest common regiments distinguished themselves, on June 15,1918, near the river Piave, the 6th army commanded by Archduke József Ágost took over most part of mount Montello and held it until the end of the war. Decisive fights were carried out by the 31st Budapest common regiment, in Hungarian areas, this meant a death rate of twenty-eight per thousand persons - a level of loss exceeded within Austria-Hungary only by German AustriansHungary in World War I – Austro-Hungarian mountain corps in Tyrol
15. First Hungarian Republic – The First Hungarian Republic or by its contemporary name Hungarian Peoples Republic was a short-lived peoples republic that existed, apart from a 133-day interruption, from late 1918 until mid-1919. It was established in the wake of the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I, the Hungarian Peoples Republic replaced the Kingdom of Hungary and was in turn replaced by another short-lived state. Hungarian Peoples Republic was adopted as the name of the country on 16 November 1918. Following the collapse of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, the Gyula Peidl government restored the pre-communist name of the state on 2 August 1919, the Hungarian Peoples Republic was created by the Aster Revolution, which started in Budapest on 31 October 1918. That day, King Charles IV appointed the leader, Mihály Károlyi. Almost his first act was to terminate the personal union between Austria and Hungary. On 13 November, Charles issued a proclamation withdrawing from Hungarian politics, a few days later the provisional government proclaimed Hungary a peoples republic, with Károlyi as both prime minister and interim president. This event ended 400 years of rule by the House of Habsburg, the Entente considered Hungary a partner in the defeated Dual Monarchy, and dashed the Hungarians hopes with the delivery of successive diplomatic notes. Each demanded the surrender of land to other ethnic groups. On 20 March 1919, the French head of the Entente mission in Budapest gave Károlyi a note delineating the final postwar boundaries, Károlyi and Prime Minister Dénes Berinkey were now in an impossible position. They knew accepting the French note would endanger the countrys territorial integrity, Károlyi turned power over to a coalition of Social Democrats and Communists, the latter promised that Soviet Russia would help Hungary to restore its original borders. After the fall of the Soviet Republic on 1 August 1919, a decree was issued on 2 August restoring the form of government and the official state name back to Peoples Republic. During its brief existence, the Peidl government began to abrogate the edicts passed by the communist regime, on 6 August István Friedrich, leader of the White House Comrades Association, seized power in a bloodless coup with the backing of the Royal Romanian Army. The next day, Joseph August declared himself regent of Hungary, the state was formally dissolved by the new government on 8 August 1919. Hungarian Soviet Republic History of Hungary Revolutions and interventions in Hungary Richard Overy, History of the 20th Century, The Times, Mapping History. London,2003 Peter Rokai, Zoltan Đere, Tibor Pal, Revolution in Hungary and the Dissolution of the Multinational StateFirst Hungarian Republic – Proclamation of the people's republic on 16 November 1918.
16. Hungary between the World Wars – This article is about the history of Hungary from October 1918 to November 1940. On October 31,1918, the Hungarian Democratic Republic was created by revolution that started in Budapest after the dissolution, the official proclamation of the republic was on November 16,1918, and Mihály Károlyi was named as the republics Prime Minister. This event also marked the independence of Hungary which had ruled by the Habsburg Monarchy for several centuries. The Hungarian Democratic Republic did not last long, another revolution in 1919 marked the end of this state and the creation of a new communist state known as Hungarian Soviet Republic. The rise of the Hungarian Communist Party to power was rapid, by February 1919, the party numbered 30,000 to 40,000 members, including many unemployed ex-soldiers, young intellectuals, and Jews. In the same month, Béla Kun was imprisoned for incitement to riot, Kun emerged from jail triumphant when the Social Democrats handed power to a government of Peoples Commissars, who proclaimed the Hungarian Soviet Republic on March 21,1919. The communists wrote a constitution guaranteeing freedom of speech and assembly, free education, language and cultural rights to minorities. It also provided for suffrage for people over eighteen years of age except clergy, former exploiters, single-list elections took place in April, but members of the parliament were selected indirectly by popularly elected committees.5 hectares. Kun hoped that the Russian government would intervene on Hungarys behalf, in an effort to secure its rule in the interim, the communist government resorted to arbitrary violence. Revolutionary tribunals ordered about 590 executions, including some for crimes against the revolution, the government also used red terror to expropriate grain from peasants. This violence and the moves against the clergy also shocked many Hungarians. In late May, Kun attempted to fulfill his promise to restore Hungarys borders, the Hungarian Red Army marched northward and reoccupied part of Slovakia. Despite initial military success, however, Kun withdrew his troops about three weeks later when the French threatened to intervene and this concession shook his popular support. Kun then unsuccessfully turned the Hungarian Red Army on the Romanians, who broke through Hungarian lines on July 30, occupied Budapest, Kun fled first to Vienna and then to the Russian SFSR, where he was executed during Stalins purge of foreign communists in the late 1930s. A militantly anti-communist authoritarian government composed of officers entered Budapest on the heels of the Romanians. Estimates placed the number of executions at approximately 5,000, in addition, about 75,000 people were jailed. In particular, the Hungarian right wing and the Romanian forces targeted Jews for retribution, ultimately, the white terror forced nearly 100,000 people to leave the country, most of them socialists, intellectuals, and middle-class Jews. In March 1920, Admiral Miklós Horthy was named Regent and Sándor Simonyi-Semadam was named Prime Minister of the restored Kingdom of Hungary, Charles I of Austria was the last Emperor of Austria and the last King of HungaryHungary between the World Wars – Communist József Pogány speaks to revolutionary soldiers during the 1919 revolution
17. Hungary in World War II – During World War II, the Kingdom of Hungary was a member of the Axis powers. In the 1930s, the Kingdom of Hungary relied on increased trade with Fascist Italy, Hungary benefited territorially from its relationship with the Axis. Settlements were negotiated regarding territorial disputes with the Czechoslovak Republic, the Slovak Republic, in 1940, under pressure from Germany, Hungary joined the Axis. In 1941, Hungarian forces participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia, while waging war against the Soviet Union, Hungary engaged in armistice negotiations with the United States and the United Kingdom. Hitler discovered this betrayal and, in March 1944, German forces occupied Hungary, when Soviet forces began threatening Hungary, an armistice was signed between Hungary and the USSR by Regent Miklós Horthy. Soon after, Horthys son was kidnapped by German commandos and Horthy was forced to revoke the armistice, the Regent was then deposed from power, while Hungarian fascist leader Ferenc Szálasi established a new government, with German backing. In 1945, Hungarian and German forces in Hungary were defeated by invading Soviet armies, approximately 300,000 Hungarian soldiers and more than 600,000 civilians died during World War II, including among them at least 450,000 Jews and 28,000 Roma. Many cities were damaged, most notably the capital of Budapest, from the start of the German occupation of Hungary in 1944, Jews and Roma were deported to the Auschwitz concentration camp. By the end of the war, the toll was between 450,000 and 606,000 Hungarian Jews and an estimated 28,000 Hungarian Roma. Hungarys borders were returned to their status after its surrender. Unlike the ethnic Germans or Italians, however, ethnic Hungarians were not subject to expulsions from the countries in which they were residing after the war. In Hungary, the joint effect of the Great Depression and the Treaty of Trianon resulted in shifting the mood of the country towards the right. In 1932, the regent Miklós Horthy appointed a new Prime Minister, Gömbös was identified with the Hungarian National Defence Association. He led Hungarian international policy towards closer cooperation with Germany and started an effort to assimilate minorities in Hungary, Gömbös advocated a number of social reforms, one-party government, revision of the Treaty of Trianon, and Hungarys withdrawal from the League of Nations. The result of the 1935 elections gave Gömbös more solid support in parliament and he succeeded in gaining control of the ministries of finance, industry, and defense and in replacing several key military officers with his supporters. In October 1936, he died due to kidney problems without realizing his goals, Hungary used its relationship with Germany to attempt to revise the Treaty of Trianon. In 1938, Hungary openly repudiated the treatys restrictions on its armed forces, in 1935, a Hungarian fascist party, the Arrow Cross Party, led by Ferenc Szálasi was founded. Gömbös successor, Kálmán Darányi, attempted to appease both Nazis and Hungarian antisemites by passing the First Jewish Law, which set quotas limiting Jews to 20% of positions in several professionsHungary in World War II – Hungarian leader Miklós Horthy and German leader Adolf Hitler in 1938
18. Second Hungarian Republic – The Second Hungarian Republic was a parliamentary republic briefly established after the dissolution of the Kingdom of Hungary on 1 February 1946 and dissolved on 20 August 1949. It was succeeded by the Peoples Republic of Hungary, from September 1944 until April 1945, as World War II in Europe drew to a close, the Red Army occupied Hungary. The Siege of Budapest lasted almost two months and much of the city was destroyed and this meant that Hungarys borders were moved back to those that existed on 1 January 1938 and it lost the territories it had regained between 1938 and 1941. The Soviet Union also annexed Sub-Carpathia, some of which had part of Hungary before 1938. Between 1946 and 1948, half of Hungarys ethnic German minority were deported to Germany, the Soviets set up an alternative government in Debrecen on 21 December 1944 before capturing Budapest on 18 January 1945. Zoltán Tildy became the prime minister. In elections held in November 1945, the Independent Smallholders Party won 57% of the vote, the Hungarian Communist Party, now under the leadership of Mátyás Rákosi and Ernő Gerő, two survivors from the Hungarian Soviet Republic of 1919, received support from only 17% of the population. The Soviet commander in Hungary, Marshal Kliment Voroshilov, refused to allow the Smallholders Party to form a government, instead Voroshilov established a coalition government with the communists holding some of the key posts. Under Parliament, the leader of the Smallholders, Zoltán Tildy, was named president, Mátyás Rákosi became deputy prime minister. During 1945 and 1946, the currency, the pengő, was all. The only way to restore sanity to the economy was a new currency, lászló Rajk became minister of the interior and in this post established the security police. In February 1947 the police began arresting leaders of the Smallholders Party and it also pressured both parties to expel those members who werent willing to do the Communists bidding as fascists. Several prominent figures in both parties escaped abroad, later, Rákosi boasted that he had dealt with his partners in the government, one by one, cutting them off like slices of salami. By 1947, the Communists had all but emasculated the other parties in the coalition, the Communists were the dominant partners in the coalition Peoples Independence Front government. Nagy was replaced as minister by the more pliable Lajos Dinnyés. In October 1947, the Communists dropped all pretense of democracy, Rákosi gave the leaders of the non-Communist parties an ultimatum, cooperate with a new, Communist-dominated coalition government or go into exile. The Social Democratic Party effectively ceased to exist as an independent organization, other opposition leaders such as Anna Kéthly, Ferenc Nagy and István Szabó were imprisoned or sent into exile. The Republic of Hungary effectively ended in June 1948, when the Social Democrats were forced to merge with the Communists to form the Hungarian Working Peoples PartySecond Hungarian Republic – Tribute to Ferenc Nagy
19. Administrative divisions of Hungary – Administratively, Hungary is divided into 19 counties. In addition, the capital, Budapest, is independent of any county government, the counties and the capital are the 20 NUTS third-level units of Hungary. Since 1996, the counties and City of Budapest have been grouped into 7 regions for statistical and these seven regions constitute NUTS second-level units of Hungary. There are also 23 towns with county rights, sometimes known as counties in English. The local authorities of these towns have extended powers, but these belong to the territory of the respective county instead of being independent territorial units. The counties are subdivided into 174 districts as of January 1,2015. 23 districts of the city of Budapest are both administrative and self-government units. NUTS, HU Postal codes in Hungary - including a map of two digit zones Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of Hungary Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of HungaryAdministrative divisions of Hungary – The 198 districts of Hungary (2013)
20. Politics of Hungary – Politics of Hungary takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic. The Prime Minister is the head of government of a pluriform multi-party system, while the President is the head of state, Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the parliament, the party system since the last elections is dominated by the conservative Fidesz. Hungary is an independent, democratic and constitutional state, which has been a member of the European Union since 2004, since 1989 Hungary has been a parliamentary republic. Legislative power is exercised by the unicameral National Assembly that consists of 199 members, members of the National Assembly are elected for four years. If the President dies, resigns or is unable to carry out his duties. Each cabinet nominee appears before one or more parliamentary committees in consultative open hearings, survive a vote by the Parliament, in Communist Hungary, the executive branch of the Peoples Republic of Hungary was represented by the Council of Ministers. The unicameral, 199-member National Assembly is the highest organ of state authority and its members are elected for a four-year term. The election threshold is 5%, but it applies to the multi-seat constituencies. A fifteen-member Constitutional Court has power to challenge legislation on grounds of unconstitutionality and this body was last filled on July 2010. Members are elected for a term of twelve years, the President of the Supreme Court of Hungary and the Hungarian civil and penal legal system he leads is fully independent of the Executive Branch. They have held the authority to legally binding decisions since late 2003. Note, with restructruring and reorganization, this information may change even within a governmental period, Ministers without portfolio, Zsolt Semjén, Tamás FellegiPolitics of Hungary – Parliament of Hungary.
21. Government of Hungary – The Government of Hungary exercises executive power in Hungary. It is led by the Prime Minister, and comprises ministers and it is the principal organ of public administration. The Prime Minister elected by the National Assembly and serves as the head of government, the Prime Minister is the leader of the party with the most seats in parliament. The Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the right to dismiss them. Cabinet nominees must appear before consultative open hearings before one or more parliamentary committees, survive a vote in the National Assembly, the cabinet is responsible to the parliament. Since the fall of communism, Hungary has a multi-party system, the last Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 6 April 2014. This parliamentary election was the 7th since the 1990 first multi-party election, the result was a victory for Fidesz–KDNP alliance, preserving its two-thirds majority with Viktor Orbán remaining Prime Minister. It was the first election according to the new Constitution of Hungary which went into force on 1 January 2012, the new electoral law also entered into force that day. The voters elected 199 MPs instead of previous 386 lawmakers, list of cabinets since 1989, Following the Hungarian parliamentary election,2014, the current prime minister, Viktor Orbán is serving with his government since 6 June 2014. The Minister of Interior of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet, the current foreign minister is Sándor Pintér. Between 2006 and 2010 the ministry was split into the Ministry of Local Government, in 2010 the prior organization was restored. Ministry of Local Government Ministry of Justice and Law Enforcement The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet, the current foreign minister is Péter Szijjártó. The Minister of National Economy of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet, the current minister of national economy is Mihály VargaGovernment of Hungary – Hungary
22. Foreign relations of Hungary – Hungary wields considerable influence in Central and Eastern Europe and is a middle power in international affairs. The foreign policy of Hungary is based on four basic commitments, to Atlantic co-operation, to European integration, to international development, the Hungarian economy is fairly open and relies strongly on international trade. Hungary has been a member of the United Nations since December 1955 and member of European Union, the NATO, the OECD, the Visegrád Group, the WTO, the World Bank, the AIIB and the IMF. Hungary took on the presidency of the Council of the European Union for half a year in 2011, Hungarys capital city, Budapest is home to more than 100 embassies and representative bodies as an international political actor. Since 1989, Hungarys top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic, Hungary joined the Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and has actively supported the IFOR and SFOR missions in Bosnia. Hungary since 1989 has also improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing treaties with Romania, Slovakia. These renounce all outstanding claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Romania, Slovakia and Serbia periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up, Hungary since 1989 has signed all of the OSCE documents, and served as the OSCEs Chairman-in-Office in 1997. Hungarys record of implementing CSCE Helsinki Final Act provisions, including those on reunification of divided families, remains among the best in Central and Eastern Europe. Except for the short-lived neutrality declared by the anti-Soviet leader Imre Nagy in November 1956 and it was one of the founding members of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact and Comecon, and it was the first central European country to withdraw from those organizations, now defunct. After 1989, Hungary oriented more towards the West, joined NATO in 1999, as with any country, Hungarian security attitudes are shaped largely by history and geography. Hungarys foreign policy priorities, largely consistent since 1990, represent a response to these factors. Since 1990, Hungarys top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic, Hungary joined the Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and has actively supported the IFOR and SFOR missions in Bosnia. The Horn government achieved Hungarys most important foreign policy successes of the post-communist era by securing invitations to join both NATO and the European Union in 1997, Hungary became a member of NATO in 1999, and a member of the EU in 2004. Hungary also has improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing treaties with Romania, Slovakia. These renounce all outstanding claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Slovakia and Romania periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up. Hungary was a signatory to the Helsinki Final Act in 1975, has signed all of the CSCE/OSCE follow-on documents since 1989, Hungarys record of implementing CSCE Helsinki Final Act provisions, including those on reunification of divided families, remains among the best in eastern EuropeForeign relations of Hungary – Memorial to Hungarian freedom fighters of 1848-1849 at Protestant Cemetery in Şişli, Istanbul.
23. Law enforcement in Hungary – Law enforcement in Hungary is split among the Police and Border Guards, and the Customs and Excise Authority. Since 2006, the Police has been subject to the Ministry of Justice, due to Hungarys accession to the Schengen Treaty, the Police and Border Guards were merged into a single national corps, with the Border Guards becoming Police Officers. This merger took place in January 2008, the Customs and Excise Authority remained to be subject to the Ministry of Finance. The national police headquarters is located in Budapest, 13th District and it is nicknamed as Police Palace. In February,2007, the headquarters was the target of small fire, with multiple bullet holes being found in the building. The Hungarian Police is the main and largest governmental law enforcement agency in Hungary and it reports to the Ministry of the Interior and headed by the National Commissioner of the Police. It carries out general policing, patrolling, traffic policing, bordeg control and it is divided into twenty regional units one for the capital city Budapest and nineteen for the nineteen counties of Hungary. It mainly deals with counter-terrorist activities, the majority of the officers serving in the body are trained as SWAT officers to fight against armed criminals. They interfere when necessary in any case if asked for by the National Police or other authorities, since the service was established, the corruption within the public sphere in Hungary including law enforcement agencies decreased to some exttent. Up to now it has not been proven that the National Protective Service would have abused its powers granted by law in any way. The National Protection Service has established its own code of conduct, the National Security Service is one of the civilian secret services of Hungary under the direct control of the Minister of the Interior. The service rather fights against organised crime than dealing with counter-espionage nowadays, the Constitution Protection Agency is the main internal civilian secret service of Hungary under the control of the Minister of the Interior. In Hungary there are also municipal / local police forces with very limited jurisdictions, the most widespread form of local police organisations is the Közterület-felügyelet which can be found in the capital and larger towns in the country. If they recognise some serious crime, they are to call the National Police, many local government also employs so-called Mezőőrség in order to defend rural areas and infields. Államvédelmi Osztály Államvédelmi Hatóság Csendőrség Crime in Hungary Law Enforcement and Public Safety Service Police of Hungary Hungary Corruption Profile from the Business Anti-Corruption PortalLaw enforcement in Hungary – Headquarters of the Rendőrség in Budapest
24. Hungarian nationality law – Hungarian nationality law is based on the principles of jus sanguinis. Hungarian citizenship is acquired mainly on the basis of a Hungarian parent, children born in Hungary to foreign parents do not generally acquire Hungarian citizenship. Every Hungarian citizen is also a citizen of the European Union, the existing Hungarian nationality law dates from 1993. Prior to this date, rules for acquisition and loss of Hungarian citizenship may have been different, till August 2015, more than 750,000 applications were filed and 700,000 people were already granted citizenship thanks to the new nationality law. These people are mostly from Transylvania with 300,000 people, Vojvodina with 130,000, dual citizenship is permitted under Hungarian law. A person acquires Hungarian citizenship at birth if at least one parent is a Hungarian citizen, the place of birth is irrelevant. Children born in Hungary to foreign parents do not acquire Hungarian citizenship at birth unless they would otherwise be stateless, minor children adopted by Hungarian citizens may normally be granted Hungarian citizenship. The residence requirement is reduced to 3 years for, spouses of Hungarian citizens who have married for three years. Declaration is a form of naturalisation. The following people may be eligible to acquire Hungarian citizenship by declaration, stateless persons aged less than 19, born in Hungary and residing in Hungary for the 5 years prior to the declaration. Persons becoming naturalised Hungarian citizens are expected to take an Oath of Allegiance as follows, I will be a faithful citizen of the Republic of Hungary. I will respect and obey the Constitution and laws of this country, I defend my country to the utmost of my strength, I serve it to the best of my abilities. Those who prefer may take an equivalent solemn promise instead of an oath and it is not possible for a person to lose Hungarian citizenship involuntarily. The exception concerns fraudulent applications for naturalisation, Hungarian citizens who hold another nationality and live outside Hungary may renounce their Hungarian citizenship. Visa requirements for Hungarian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Hungary. In 2014, Hungarian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 162 countries and territories, Hungarian citizens are also citizens of the European Union and thus enjoy rights of free movement and have the right to vote in elections for the European Parliament. Citizenship Act Office of Immigration and Nationality Act of Hungarian nationality,1993 Controversial Hungarian Citizenship Law PassedHungarian nationality law – Visa requirements for Hungarian citizens
25. Prime Minister of Hungary – The Prime Minister of Hungary is the head of government of Hungary, and the most powerful person in Hungarian politics. He or she leads the majority party or coalition in the National Assembly of Hungary, the current Prime Minister is Viktor Orbán, who has served since 29 May 2010. The title of Hungarys head of government in Hungarian is miniszterelnök, if there is no party with a majority, the President asks the leader of the largest party to attempt to form a government coalition. Therefore, the election of members of a party to parliament is the equivalent to a vote for that partys leader for Prime Minister. There is no limit to the number of mandates as Prime Minister, he/she is appointed by the President of the Republic, after the legislative elections and after an audience with every leader of a party represented at the Assembly. It is usual for the leader of the party receives a plurality of votes in the elections to be named Prime Minister. The Prime Minister has a role in the executive branch in accordance with the Hungarian Constitution. Further, the Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the right to dismiss them as is the case with the Chancellor of Germany. Cabinet nominees appear before one or more parliamentary committees in consultative open hearings and they must then survive a vote by Parliament and be formally approved by the President. The palatine was the highest dignitary in the Kingdom of Hungary after the king from the rise up to 1848/1918. Initially, he was in fact the representative of the king, in the early centuries of the kingdom, he was appointed by the king, later elected by the Diet of the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Habsburgs solidified their hold of Hungary, the dignity became a position once again. Finally, it became hereditary in a branch of the Habsburg dynasty after King Francis appointed his brother Joseph. During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 the revolutionaries wanted the creation of a Hungarian cabinet which would be independent from the Austrian Empire, one of the 12 points said,2. Ferdinand V appointed Count Lajos Batthyány for the position of Prime Minister of Hungary on 17 March 1848, the government was called ministry, differently from the current acceptation. Batthyány resigned on October 2,1848 he was succeeded by Lajos Kossuth as President of the Committee of National Defence and this executive body has not been allocated the portfolios. In April 1849, when the Hungarians had won many successes, after sounding the army, in May Bertalan Szemere was appointed Prime Minister. The position was vacant after the defeat of the freedom fight, List of rulers of Hungary List of heads of state of Hungary List of palatines of Hungary List of Prime Ministers of Hungary by tenurePrime Minister of Hungary – Incumbent Viktor Orbán since 29 May 2010
26. List of Prime Ministers of Hungary – The following is a list of Prime Ministers of Hungary from when the first Prime Minister, Lajos Batthyány, took office in 1848 until the present day. The prime minister is head of the Government of Hungary, there are currently five living former Prime Ministers of Hungary. EKGP continued to support the government, while FKGP went into opposition,2 SZDSZ left the Gyurcsány II Cabinet on 20 April 2008. 3 The Bajnai Cabinet was supported externally by SZDSZ, izsák, Alajos – Pölöskei, Ferenc – Romsics, Ignác – Urbán, Aladár, Magyar miniszterelnökök 1848–2002, Kossuth Kiadó, Budapest,2003. Markó, László, A magyar állam főméltóságai Szent Istvántól napjainkig – Életrajzi Lexikon, Helikon Kiadó KftList of Prime Ministers of Hungary
27. Hungarian National Bank – The Hungarian National Bank is the central bank of Hungary and as such part of the European System of Central Banks. The Hungarian National Bank was established in 1924 and succeeded the Royal Hungarian State Bank, the Hungarian National Bank lays special emphasis on its international relations and on participation in the professional forums of international economic institutions and financial organisations. The Governor of the Hungarian National Bank is appointed by the President of Hungary at the proposal of the Prime Minister for a six-year term, the most important decision-making body of the Hungarian National Bank is the Monetary Council. Its building is located in Liberty Square, in the Inner City of Budapest, the MNB maintains a medium-term inflation target of around 3%. This is somewhat higher than the accepted level of inflation for price stability in Europe. Hungarys Central Bank Act states, The primary objective of the MNB shall be to achieve, without prejudice to its primary objective, the MNB shall support the economic policy of the Government using the monetary policy instruments at its disposal. Demonetised or damaged currency can be exchanged in the head office as well as its two regional offices. In the Austria-Hungary era the Austro-Hungarian Bank was the bank of the Monarchy, but after World War I, it was dissolved. The first independent Hungarian central bank, the National Bank of Hungary, commenced operations on 24 June 1924, Hungarys Central Bank Act founded the Hungarian National Bank. The October 1991 Act on the National Bank of Hungary reinstated central bank independence, the Act LVIII of 2001 on the Magyar Nemzeti Bank established the Hungarian government and the MNB as the policy makers determining the exchange-rate regime. Since 26 February 2008, the forint has floated freely against the euro, on 20 May 2016, Fitch Ratings upgraded Hungarys corresponding debt status to BBB-, assigning a stable outlook to the rating. Economy of Hungary Hungarian forint Official site of Magyar Nemzeti BankHungarian National Bank – Hungarian National Bank's building in Liberty Square, in the Inner City of Budapest
28. Science and technology in Hungary – Science and technology in Hungary has a long history. The Berg-Schola, the worlds first institute of technology, was founded in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary and its legal successor is the University of Miskolc in Hungary. BME University is considered the worlds oldest institute of technology which has university rank and it was the first institute in Europe to train engineers at university level. The legal predecessor of the university was founded in 1782 by Emperor Joseph II, important names in the 18th century are Maximilian Hell, János Sajnovics, Matthias Bel, Samuel Mikoviny and Wolfgang von Kempelen. Ányos Jedlik physicist and engineer invented the first electric motor, the dynamo, the self-excitation, the generator. Important name in 19th century physics is Joseph Petzval, one of the founders of modern optics, roland von Eötvös discovered the weak equivalence principle. Rado von Kövesligethy discovered laws of black body radiation before Planck, Hungary is famous for its excellent mathematics education which has trained numerous outstanding scientists. Famous Hungarian mathematicians include father Farkas Bolyai and son János Bolyai, János Bolyai is together with John von Neumann considered as the greatest Hungarian mathematician ever. The most prestigious Hungarian scientific award is named in honor of János Bolyai, many Hungarian scientists, including Zoltán Bay, Victor Szebehely, Mária Telkes, Imre Izsak, Erdős, von Neumann, Leó Szilárd, Eugene Wigner and Edward Teller emigrated to the US. Thirteen Hungarian or Hungarian-born scientists received the Nobel Prize, von Lenárd, Bárány, Zsigmondy, von Szent-Györgyi, de Hevesy, von Békésy, Wigner, Gábor, Polányi, Oláh, Harsányi, all emigrated, mostly because of persecution of communist and/or fascist regimes. Names in psychology are János Selye founder of Stress-theory and Csikszentmihalyi founder of Flow- theory, according to Science Watch, In Hadron research Hungary has most citations per paper in the world. In 2011 neuroscientists György Buzsáki, Tamás Freund and Péter Somogyi were awarded one million Euro with The Brain Prize for. After the fall of the communist dictatorship, a new prize, Bolyai János alkotói díj, has been established, politically unbiased. The English word coach came from the Hungarian kocsi, Wolfgang von Kempelen invented a manually operated speaking machine in 1769. János Irinyi invented the noiseless match, in 1827 Ányos Jedlik invented the electric motor. He created the first device to contain the three components of practical direct current motors, the stator, rotor and commutator. He built the first generator which used, instead of permanent magnets and it was also the discovery of the principle of dynamo self-excitation David Schwarz invented and designed the first flyable rigid airship. Later, he sold his patent for German Graf Zeppelin, who built the so-called Zeppelin airship, donát Bánki and János Csonka invented the CarburetorScience and technology in Hungary – The Hungarian "ZBD" team invented the first high efficiency, closed core shunt connection transformer and practical parallel-connected distribution circuits.
29. Budapest Stock Exchange – The Budapest Stock Exchange is one of the most important market by market capitalization and liquidity in Central and Eastern Europe. Located at 7 Liberty Square, Budapest, Hungary, in the downtown, previously it was located in the Budapest Stock Exchange landmark building, until a large trading floor was necessary. The BSE is owned and operated by listed issuers on the exchange, furthermore Hungarian private banks and companies, the Budapest Stock Exchange accounts for all the turnover in the Hungarian market and a large share of the Central and Eastern European market. In 2007, the Budapest Stock Exchange agreed to move to abolish floor trading, today, trading takes place exclusively via the Xetra system, with redundant floor brokers taking on the role of market-makers. The Xetra system consists of Budapest Stock Exchange and 14 international exchanges, among others Frankfurt Stock Exchange, Vienna Stock Exchange, the BSE is a member of the World Federation of Exchanges and the Federation of European Securities Exchanges. The trading indices in Budapest are BUX, BUMIX, Central European Blue Chip Index, Xetra trading runs from 09,00 to 17,00 with closing auction from 17, 00-17,05, and post-trading trading times until 17,20. BSE was introduced a pre market trading from 08,15 to 08,30, the Budapest Stock Exchange aims to ensure a transparent and liquid market for its listed securities issued either in Hungary or abroad. Through the concentration of supply and demand, it is the most important institution of price discovery, the stock exchange actively participates in promoting the continuous improvement of the financial culture of domestic companies and investors. The Budapest Stock Exchange conducts four main services, Listing services, in addition, the BSE provides access to the dynamically growing assets of domestic institutional investors and to domestic investor savings. The exchange also provides investors with the simplest access to the investor community. Trading services, The BSE acts as the platform to trade financial instruments. Currently, over 40 domestic and foreign companies take part in the exchange trading. Dissemination of market information, The Exchange supplies real-time and accurate trading data of its listed securities and provides services on issuers. Through the exchange’s extensive data vendor network, both institutional and individual investors can access data in a timely and efficient manner. Product development, The BSE provides an opportunity for financial innovations. Index futures and options are calculated directly by the exchange, investors seeking hedging opportunities or gearing can select from a wide array of individual stocks and currency, interest rate, and commodity derivatives. The Exchange’s main goal is to become the centre and primary trading venue of Hungarian securities. This is achieved by an operation, a commitment to continuously improve its servicesBudapest Stock Exchange – The Budapest Stock Exchange's landmark building before abolition of floor trading.
30. Tourism in Hungary – There is a long history of tourism in Hungary, and Hungary was the worlds thirteenth most visited tourist destination country in 2002. Tourism increased by nearly 7 percent between 2004 and 2005, european visitors comprise more than 98 per cent of Hungarys tourists. Austria, Germany, and Slovakia make the largest numbers of visitors to the country, most tourists arrive by car and stay for a short period of time. Hungarys tourist season is from April through October, july and August are the best tourist months. Budapest is the countrys most popular tourist destination, Budapest became one of Central Europes most popular tourist attractions in the 1990s. Attractions in the city include Buda Castle which houses several museums including the Hungarian National Gallery, the Matthias Church, the Parliament Building, the city has many museums, three opera houses, and thermal baths. Buda Castle, the Danube River embankments and the whole of Andrássy Avenue have been recognized as an UNESCO World Heritage Site, Hungary has an estimated 1,300 thermal springs, a third of which are used at spas across the country. Hungarys thermal waters and spa culture are promoted to tourists, only France, Japan, Bulgaria, Iceland, and Italy have similar thermal water capacity. Hungarys thermal baths have been used for 2,000 years for cleansing, relaxation and easing aches, the Romans were the first to use Hungarys thermal waters in the first century, when they built baths on the banks of the Danube River. Budapest lies on a fault that separates the Buda hills from plains. More than 30,000 cubic metres of warm to scalding mineral water gushes from 118 thermal springs, Budapest has been a popular spa destination since Roman times. Some of the baths in the city date from Turkish times while others are modern and they have steam rooms that utilize the healing properties of the springs. Most of the baths offer medical treatments, massages, and pedicures, the most famous of Budapests spas were built at the turn of the 19th century. There are two hundred known caves under Budapest, some of which can be visited by tourists and are a popular tourist attraction, in the Buda hills there are caves that are unique for having been formed by thermal waters rising up from below, rather than by rainwater. The Pálvölgy Stalactite Cave is a large and spectacular labyrinth, discovered in the 1900s, it is the largest of the cave systems in the Buda hills. The Szemlohegy Cave has no stalactites and has fewer convoluted and claustrophobic passages than the Pálvölgy Cave, the walls in this cave are encrusted with precipitates formed by warm water dissolving mineral salts. The air in the cave is very clean and its lowest level is used as a respiratory sanatorium, the Matyas Cave in the outskirts of the city has a crawling-room-only section called the sandwich of death. Lake Balaton in western Hungary is the largest freshwater lake in Central Europe and it is the second most important tourist destination in HungaryTourism in Hungary – View of Budapest
31. Transport in Hungary – Transport in Hungary relies on several main modes, including transport by road, rail, air and water. As of October 2016, there are 1,481 kilometres of controlled-access highways, bus transport between municipalities was provided by Volán Companies, twenty-four bus companies founded in 1970 and named after the regions they served. In early 2015 the 24 companies were organized into seven regional companies, note, Hungary and Austria jointly manage the cross-border standard-gauge railway between Győr–Sopron–Ebenfurt, a distance of about 101 km in Hungary and 65 km in Austria. In Budapest, the three railway stations are the Eastern, Western and Southern, with other outlying stations like Kelenföld. Of the three, the Southern is the most modern but the Eastern and the Western are more decorative, other important railway stations countrywide include Szolnok, Tiszai Railway Station in Miskolc and the stations of Pécs, Győr, Debrecen, Szeged and Székesfehérvár. The only city with a railway system is Budapest with its Metro. In Budapest there is also a rail service in and around the city. The five international airports are Budapest-Liszt Ferenc, Debrecen Airport, Hévíz–Balaton International Airport, Győr-Pér, malév Hungarian Airlines ceased operations in 2012. 1,373 km permanently navigable The most important port is Budapest, other important ones include Dunaújváros and Baja. In the rest of the cities and towns local transport is provided by Volán companies that also provide intercity bus lines, the Budapest Metro is the rapid transit system in the Hungarian capital Budapest. It is the oldest electrified railway system on the European continent. The second line was opened in 1970, third line was opened in 1976, the busiest traditional city tram line in the world is still route 4/6 in Budapest, where 50-meter long trains run at 120 to 180 second intervals at peak time and are usually packed with people. A part of route is the same as where electric trams made their world first run in 1887. Budapest has recently ordered 40 Siemens Combino Supra low floor trams, trams began carrying the passengers on the 1 July 2006 but during the first weeks there were many technical difficulties. There were some towns, where narrow gauge railways were used as lines or interurban lines. These lines were closed in the 1970s, trolleybuses can be found in three cities, Budapest, Debrecen and SzegedTransport in Hungary – Keleti Railway Station, Budapest
32. Demographics of Hungary – The population composition at the foundation of Hungary depends on the size of the arriving Hungarian population and the size of the Slavic population at the time. One source mentions 200000 Slavs and 400000 Hungarians, while other sources often dont give estimates for both, making more difficult. The size of the Hungarian population around 895 is often estimated between 120000 and 600000, with a number of estimates in the 400-600000 range. In the historical demographics the largest earlier shock was the Mongol Invasion of Hungary, major territorial changes made Hungary ethnically homogeneous after World War I. Nowadays, more than nine-tenths of the population is ethnically Hungarian, note, The data refer to the territory of the Kingdom of Hungary, not of present-day Hungary. The following demographic statistics are from the CIA Factbook as of September 2009, in 1949, the IMR was 91.0. The rate decreased to 47.6 in 1960,35.9 in 1970,23.2 in 1980,14.8 in 1990,9.2 in 2000 and reached an all-time low in 2009,5.1 per 1000 live born children. According to the census of 1910, the largest ethnic group in the Kingdom of Hungary were Hungarians, the number of Hungarians in the different areas based on census data of 1910. The present day location of each area is given in parenthesis. In Upper Hungary,885,000 - 30% In Transylvania,1,658,045 -31. 6% In,425,672 -28. 1% In Transcarpathia,183,000 - 30% In Croatia,121,000 -3. However, according to the Czechoslovak census in 1921, there were 2,025,003 Slovaks,650,597 Hungarians,145,844 Germans,88,970 Ruthenians and 90,456 others including Jews. In Carpathian Ruthenia,330,010 Ruthenians and 275,932 others In Transylvania,2,831,222 Romanians and 2,431,273 others (mostly Hungarians -1,662,948 and Germans -563,087. Hungarian was spoken by 96% of the population and was the mother language of 89%. The percentage and the number of all non-Hungarian nationalities decreased in the next decades. After World War II, about 200,000 Germans were deported to Germany according to the decree of the Potsdam Conference, under the forced exchange of population between Czechoslovakia and Hungary, approximately 73,000 Slovaks left Hungary. After these population movements Hungary became an ethnically almost homogeneous country except the rapidly growing number of Romani people in the half of the 20th century. Hungary expanded its borders into Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia at the outset of the war and these annexations were affirmed under the Munich Agreement, two Vienna Awards, and aggression against Yugoslavia and Carpathian Ruthenia. The population of Northern Transylvania, according to the Hungarian census from 1941 counted 53. 5% Hungarians and 39. 1% RomaniansDemographics of Hungary – Hungarians
33. Health in Hungary – In 2016 Hunbisco produced a critical report on the implementation of the sugar tax which was introduced in Hungary in 2011. It reported that the consumption of products subject to the tax had decreased. They argued that now have a smaller budget to explore healthier alternatives to sugar. Innovation and new marketing initiatives have reduced since 2011, the effect of the health tax, in addition to 27% VAT, increases the price of products by as much as 40%, and has led to redundancies. They say that the consumption of products not subject to the tax but with similar nutritional contents. The advocate abolition of the tax in favour of educational measures, despite recent improvements, life expectancy in Hungary is still among the lowest in the European Union. Romani people have a life expectancy up to ten years lower than ethnic Hungarians,62,979 deaths in Hungary were caused by cardiovascular disease in 2013. Number of cardiovascular disease deaths peaked in 1985 with 79,355, the second most important cause of death was cancer with 33,274, stagnating since the 1990s. Number of accident deaths dropped from 8,760 in 1990 to 3,654 in 2013, according to Péter Polt, Chief Prosecutor of Hungary, there were only 133 homicides in 2012, which is the lowest number registered in the last 50 years in Hungary. Homicide rate was 1.3 per 100,000 people, despite recent improvements, alcoholism is still a major problem in Hungary, inherited from the Socialist era. According to KSH estimations number of alcohol addicts were 1,052,000 in 1995, Hungarians drank 9.5 litres of pure alcohol per capita in 2012, annual alcohol consumption is constantly between 9 and 11.5 litres of pure alcohol since the 1970s. Smoking also causes significant losses to Hungarian society, 28% of the adult population smoked in 2012, dropped to 19% in 2013 due to strict regulation. Nationwide smoking bans expanded to every public place, the sale of tobacco is limited to state-controlled tobacco shops called Nemzeti dohánybolt. The number of stores where people can buy tobacco reduced from 40, in 2013 WHO awarded Prime Minister Viktor Orbán in accomplishments in the area of tobacco control. According to the last Országos Lakossági Egészségfelmérés held in 2003 the most healthy region is Western Transdanubia, central Hungary is between east and west by healthHealth in Hungary – Állami Szívkórház ("State Heart Hospital") in Balatonfüred, resort town by Lake Balaton
34. Healthcare in Hungary – Hungary has a tax-funded universal healthcare system, organized by the state-owned National Health Insurance Fund. Health in Hungary can be described with a rapidly increasing life expectancy, according to the OECD Hungary spent 7. 8% of its GDP on health care in 2012. Total health expenditure was 1,688.7 US$ per capita in 2011,1,098.3 US$ governmental-fund and 590.4 US$ private-fund, the first hospitals go back to the 13th-century mining towns of Hungary. The first mining health insurance was founded by János Thurzó in 1496, the first modern insurer was established in 1907, named Országos Munkásbetegsegélyező és Balesetbiztosító Pénztár. The first steps to overall health insurance took place in the Horthy era with the creation of Országos Társadalombiztosítási Intézet in 1928, social services were complete to 1938, at that time the Hungarian social health insurance system was the most progressive and charitable in East-Central Europe. After the World War II the Communist government fully nationalized social insurance, since then the Hungarian healthcare system has been state-owned, overall and available for all of the people. The free-market shift initiated after the end of communist rule 28 years ago put a strain on the centralised, wholly tax-funded public health system. These resulted in the creation of the National Healthcare Fund, in 1993, the OEP, predominantly based on a social insurance system, is the public organization currently controlling the management of health care in Hungary. 83% of the financing for health care comes from taxes and other public revenues, participation in the insurance scheme is mandatory for everyone in the workforce, including the self-employed. Most private hospitals also operate under the OEP framework, because of past hiring policies, Hungarian hospitals often have redundancies of doctors, and a lack of nurses, resulting in an unproductive misuse of human resources. So-called gratitude payments, another communist legacy, require in practice a cash payment to have access to better treatments, according to the survey conducted by the Euro health consumer index in 2015 Hungary was among the European countries in which unofficial payments to doctors were reported most commonly. Medical treatment deemed medically necessary is provided free of charge for European citizens in the country, as a high-income nation, Hungary has a relatively developed health infrastructure. Ambulances of the Országos Mentőszolgálat reach all over the country at the very latest 15 minutes, in 2013 OMSZ built 20 new ambulance stations and renewed 60 others with the purchase of 200 new ambulances. Air ambulance service was completed in 2009 with the opening of Szentes air ambulance station. Air ambulance bases cover the whole country, helicopters can reach 85% of the countrys territory at the very latest 15 minutes. All national and county hospitals have heliports, including the specialized and most professional university clinics and emergency centres in Budapest, Pécs, Szeged, Hungary is one of the main destinations of medical tourism in Europe. The country leads in dental tourism, its share is 42% in Europe, the first medical tourists were Germans and Austrians in the 1980s, looking for cheap and top-quality dentistry services. Since the fall of Communism medical tourism is a business,60, 000-70,000 people visit Hungary for dental treatments every yearHealthcare in Hungary – Állami Szívkórház ("State Heart Hospital") in Balatonfüred, resort town by Lake Balaton
35. Hungarian diaspora – Hungarian diaspora is a term that encompasses the total ethnic Hungarian population located outside of current-day Hungary. There are two groups of the diaspora. In the first one are those, who are autochthonous to their homeland, the victorious forces redrew the borders of Hungary so that it runs through Hungarian majority areas. As a consequence,3.3 million Hungarians found themselves outside the new borders and these Hungarians are usually not counted into the term Hungarian diaspora, regardless, they are listed in this article. The other main group are the emigrants, who left Hungary at various times, Hungarian immigration patterns to Western Europe increased in the 1990s and especially since 2004, after Hungarys admission in the European Union. Thousands of Hungarians from Hungary sought available work through guest-worker contracts in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Finland, Sweden, Spain, the referendum was invalid because of not enough participants. Between 2011 and 2012,200,000 applicants took advantage of the new, accelerated naturalization process, as of February 2013, the Hungarian government has granted almost 400,000 citizenships to Hungarians ‘beyond the borders’. In June 2013, Deputy Prime Minister Zsolt Semjén announced that he expects the number to reach half a million by the end of the year. A month later however, the Fidesz government announced that it intended to grant the right to vote to its new citizens, in May 2010, Slovakia announced it would strip Slovak citizenship from anyone applying for the Hungarian one. Treaty of Trianon List of Hungarians Demographics of HungaryHungarian diaspora – American stand-up comedian and Seinfeld star Jerry Seinfeld is of Hungarian descent.
36. Hungarian irredentism – Hungarian irredentism is a broad umbrella term consisting of irredentist and pan-nationalist political ideas. The idea is associated with Hungarian revisionism and its goal is to restore the pre-World War I borders of the Kingdom of Hungary, or at least to regain control over Hungarian populated areas in Hungarys neighbouring countries. However, only the 54% of the inhabitants of the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary were Hungarians before the World War I, following the treatys instatement, Hungarian leaders became inclined towards revoking some of its terms. This political aim gained greater attention and was a national concern up through the second World War. Following the close of World War II, the borders of Hungary as defined by the Treaty of Trianon were restored and these villages are today administratively a part of Bratislava. The independent Kingdom of Hungary was established in 1000 AD, after the Ottoman conquest in the Kingdom of Hungary, the ethnic structure of the kingdom started to become more multi-ethnic because of immigration to the sparsely populated areas. A considerable number of the figures who are considered important in Hungarian culture were born in what are - since 1918 - parts of Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine. Names of Hungarian dishes, common surnames, proverbs, sayings, after 1867, the non-Hungarian ethnic groups were subject to assimilation and Magyarization. Among the most notable policies was the promotion of the Hungarian language as the official language, however, this was often at the expense of Slavic languages. The peace treaties signed after the First World War redefined the borders of Europe. The dissolution of Austria-Hungary, after its defeat in the First World War, Transylvania and most of the Banat became part of Romania, while Croatia-Slavonia and the other southern areas became part of the new state of Yugoslavia. Post-Trianon Hungary had about half of the population of the former Kingdom, almost 3 million ethnic Hungarians remained outside the borders of post-Trianon Hungary. A considerable number of non-Hungarian nationalities remained within the new borders of Hungary, after the Treaty of Trianon, a political concept known as Hungarian revisionism became popular in Hungary. Hungarys government allied itself with Nazi Germany during World War II in exchange for assurances that Greater Hungarys borders would be restored and this goal was partially achieved when Hungary reannexed territories from Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia at the outset of the war. These annexations were affirmed under the Munich Agreement, two Vienna Awards, and aggression against Yugoslavia, the latter achieved one week after the German army had already invaded Yugoslavia, the percentage of Hungarian speakers was 84% in southern Czechoslovakia and 15% in the Sub-Carpathian Rus. The population of Northern Transylvania, according to the Hungarian census from 1941 counted 53. 5% Hungarians and 39. 1% Romanians. The Yugoslav territory occupied by Hungary had approximately one million inhabitants, including 543,000 Yugoslavs,301,000 Hungarians,197,000 Germans,40,000 Slovaks,15,000 Rusyns, population of entire Bačka numbered 789,705 inhabitants in 1941. This means that from the beginning of the occupation, the number of Hungarian speakers in Bačka increased by 48,550, about 56,000 people were also expelled from BačkaHungarian irredentism – Kingdom of Hungary (shown in brown) around 1190 AD.
37. Public holidays in Hungary – A number of public holidays and special events take place each year in Hungary. The official state holiday shall be the 20th day of August, source, Remembrance Days are working days in Hungary. St Stephens Day is celebrated with sporting events, parades and fireworks nationwide, on the same day there is a Floral Festival in Debrecen and a Bridge Fair in nearby Hortobágy. Formula 1 car races are held in early August at the Hungaroring near Mogyoród,18 km northeast of Budapest, designed to fit the needs of Budapests cultural heritage and its requirements as a modern Central European centre, this metropolitan festival was instituted in 1981. By presenting and disseminating cultural assets it boosts the citys image and this festival of festivals, traditionally covering a range of artistic fields, presents a series of homogeneous artistic activities to which international professional symposia are linked. The Budapest Spring Festival takes place in the last two weeks of March, the performances take place in the capitals most important concert halls and theatres, and often near historic monuments. The list of events always includes renowned foreign guests as well as distinguished artists, Haydn at Eszterháza, During its first quarter century, the palace was the primary home of the celebrated composer Joseph Haydn, who wrote the majority of his symphonies for the Princes orchestra. Starting in 1768, the theater was a venue for opera. The palace was geographically isolated, a factor led to loneliness. The programmes focus mainly on the works composed during the Eszterháza period of Haydns creative life, in addition, however, the concert programmes regularly include works by the unknown Haydn. The venue for most of the concerts is the enchantingly beautiful ceremonial hall of the palace, some of the more intimate, solistic performances are given in the sala terrena, the central hall of the original, smaller, Renaissance hunting palace. Some concerts of music take place in one or other of the churches in the nearby villages. This festival is annually, from the second week in June to the second week in July. The Győr Summer International Cultural Festival, which displays Győrs cultural heritage, has a history of three decades. The list of events, which covers a range of genres, is based on a series of separate activitiesPublic holidays in Hungary – András Schiffer, co-leader of the Politics Can Be Different party, speaking at Pilvax Café, the place where the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 was sparked, on the anniversary 15 March 2015.
38. Religion in Hungary – Religion in Hungary has been dominated by forms of Christianity for centuries. At the 2011 census 38. 9% of Hungarians were Catholics,13. 8% were Protestants, other religions practiced in Hungary include Sunni Islam and Judaism. According to new polls about Religiosity in the European Union in 2012 by Eurobarometer found that Christianity is the largest religion in Hungary, accounting for 71% of Hungarians. Catholics are the largest Christian group in Hungary, accounting for 58% of Hungarys citizens, while Protestants make up 7%, non-believers/agnostics account for 21% and atheists for 1%. The majority of Hungarians became Christian in the 11th century, Hungarys first king, Saint Stephen I, took up Western Christianity, although his mother Sarolt was baptized into Eastern Christianity. In the second half of the 16th century, however, Jesuits led a campaign of Counter-Reformation among the Hungarians. By the 17th century, Hungary had once again become predominantly Catholic, some of the eastern parts of the country, however, especially around Debrecen, still have significant Protestant communities. The Reformed Church in Hungary is the second-largest church in Hungary with 1,622,000 adherents, the church has 1,249 congregations,27 presbyteries, and 1,550 ministers. The Reformed Church supports 129 educational institutions and has 4 theological seminaries, located in Debrecen, Sárospatak, Pápa, lutheranism is the third main historical religion in Hungary. Later it was re-introduced through inward migration by Saxons and Slovaks, today, the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Hungary counts around 215,000 members, which makes up roughly 2. 2% of the population. Proportion of Protestants in Hungary has been stable over the last century, orthodox Christianity in Hungary has been the religion mainly of certain national minorities in the country, notably Romanians, Rusyns, Ukrainians, and Serbs. Hungary has been the home of a sizable Armenian Catholic community as well and they worship according to the Armenian Rite, but they have united with the Catholic Church under the primacy of the Pope. In June 1990, the Hungary Budapest Mission was created, followed by the first stake in June 2006, the mission, its districts, and the Budapest Hungary Stake together contain twenty-two wards and branches serving approximately 5000 members. Historically, Hungary was home to a significant Jewish community, especially when many Jews, persecuted in Russia, found refuge in the Kingdom of Hungary during the 19th century. The census of January 1941 found that 6. 2% of the population, of this number,725,000 were considered religiously Jewish as well. Most Jewish people who remain in Hungary live in the centre of Budapest, the largest synagogue in Europe, the Dohány Street Synagogue, is located in Budapest. Islam in Hungary has a history that dates back to at least the 10th century. The influence of Muslims was especially pronounced in the 16th century during the time of Ottoman Hungary, according to the 2011 Hungarian census, there were 5,579 Muslims in Hungary, or 0. 056% of the total populationReligion in Hungary – King Ladislaus I of Hungary was an important figure in the country's Christianity during the Middle Ages.
39. Hungarian art – Hungarian art stems from the period of the conquest of the Carpathian basin by the people of Árpád in the 9th century. Prince Árpád also organized earlier people settled in the area, before the arrival of Árpád several other peoples from the steppe had founded states in the Carpathian basin. After the death of Attila in 453 the Lombards and Gepids and this late Avar kingdom was defeated by the Franks, and the Avars of Transdanubia were baptised. The first Hungarians came to the basin during the late 9th century, the People of Árpád in the 9th century used beautiful ornamental motifs to decorate both their dress and the trappings of their horses, the main motif being the palmette. This style remained important in Hungary from the 9th to the 11th centuries, descendants of Prince Árpád organized the medieval Hungarian Kingdom. The coronation mantle of King Stephen is a fine example from this period. This king stated that 10 villages should build a church, and though several of his foundations were later famous in new guises, in spite of widespread destruction during the Turkish occupation, Romanesque churches and other ecclesiastical buildings can be found throughout the Carpathian basin. Fine examples survive at Székesfehérvár, Gyulafehérvár, Esztergom, Pannonhalma, while recently opened lapidariums at Pécs, Veszprém, ruins of former royal houses at Tarnaszentmária, Feldebrő, and Szekszárd, also show stylistic resemblances to contemporary architecture from the Caucasus. Large-scale reconstructions were undertaken after the Mongolian wars of 1241-42, the Gothic style reached Hungary in the late 14th century, and continued throughout the reigns of the Anjou, Luxembourg, and Jagello kings. The now destroyed monastery of the Pauline Order at Budaszentlőrinci was also built in this style, the most renowned architect of this time was János Mester, a Franciscan brother. His the largest churches are in Szeged-Alsóváros, in Farkas Street, Kolozsvár, perhaps the most famous Hungarian Gothic church of all is the Cathedral of St Elizabeth in Kassa. The rich heritage of paintings in Hungary originated with the houses of Luxemburg and Anjou. Even today, after so many wars and so much destruction, King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary had close ties with Italy, and Italian influence is clearly evident in architectural complexes built during his reign, such as his palaces in Buda and in Visegrad. A recent exhibition at the mining Museum in Rudabánya displayed the quality of Hungarian goldwork at this period in the golden forints made by Hungarian masters for the Russian Tsar Ivan III. This time was also aperiod of renewal for churches in a sense, with inner spaces displaying fresh and delicate ornamentation. Cassette ceilings are also characteristic of this period, the wars against the Ottoman Empire also led to great developments in the construction of Hungarian fortresses. Earlier fortresses had been built before the era of heavy artillery, the best-known surviving fortresses from this period are those of Eger, Nagyvárad, Nagykanizsa and Érsekújvár. After the expulsion of the Turks in 1686, the new ruling house of the Habsburgs brought with it the new Baroque styleHungarian art – The most characteristic decorative motif is the palmette style as on this sabretache plate.
40. Cinema of Hungary – Hungary has had a notable cinema industry from the beginning of the 20th century, with Hungarians who affected the world of motion picture both inside and outside the borders. Examples of successful Hungarian films include Merry-go-round, Mephisto, Werckmeister Harmonies, the story of the Hungarian Cinema begins in 1896, when the first screening of the films of the Lumiére brothers was held at 10 May in the cafe of the Royal Hotel of Budapest. In June of the year, Arnold and Zsigmond Sziklai opened the first Hungarian movie theatre at the 41. Andrássy street, named the Okonograph, where they screened Lumiére films using French machinery, the inhabitants of the elite neighborhood despised this new form of entertainment, and the theatre soon closed. But film screenings in cafés, the centers of Budapests public life, were becoming more and more widespread, the first film shooting took place also in 1896, recording the festivities of the Millennium Celebration. Employees of the Lumiéres recorded the march at the Buda Castle, the first Hungarian cameraman was Zsigmond Sziklai. The first consciously made Hungarian film was A tánc directed by Béla Zsitkovszky, Gyula Pekár asked for a moving picture from Béla Zsitovszky, the projectionist of the Uránia. Zsitovszky, originally an optician, shot the picture on the terrace of the theatre with renowned actors. The 24 cinematographic short-films were premiered on 30 April 1901, the infrastructure of the Hungarian cinema scene was built up during the first decade of the 20th century. By 1910,270 permanent theatres operated in the country, including large capacity film palaces like the Royal Apollo, Film distribution was organized by the end of the decade. The first company to lend film-shooting apparatus was the Projectograph, founded by Mór Ungerleider in 1908, the company also shot films, offering documentaries and newsreels, thereby making the first steps for the countrys film industry. The literary and artistic scene enthusiastically supported the new form of expression, writers of the Nyugat circle saw filmmaking as a sign of closing up to modern European Literature, and became avid movie theatre goers. Frigyes Karinthy even became a dramaturg to Alexander Korda, the first prominent director, the first company to have artistic goals was the Hunnia Studio, founded in 1911, formed as an offshoot of the Vígszínház theatre. A characteristic style of early Hungarian cinema was the cinema sketch, each short projection was followed or interrupted by live stage actors, often acting their own characters from the screen. The genre inspired many prominent writers of the time, including Ferenc Molnár, comedians also used this form often to perform various jokes and scenes utilizing its hybrid nature, one well-known performer being Gyula Gózon. Mór Undergleider also started a journal on the subject of cinema. However, the theoretical forebodings and possibilities outlined in Mozgófénykép Híradó were not realized later on by the countrys slowly unfolding film production, during 1919 March–August, under the short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic, the Hungarian cinema industry was the first one to be nationalized fully. The journal Vörös film was started to popularize the shift, a number of filmmakers welcomed the change, as the government provided protection against competing foreign moviesCinema of Hungary – a Cinema in Dunaújváros
41. Hungarian dance – Hungarian dance refers to the folk dances practised and performed by the Hungarians, both amongst the populations native to Hungary and its neighbours, and also amongst the Hungarian diaspora. According to György Martin, a prominent folklore expert, Hungarian dances can be divided into two categories, the first refers to dances performed in the middle ages while the second relates to the 18th and 19th century. Improvisation is often mentioned as being characteristic of Hungarian dance, the peasant dance is not one which is set absolutely according to rule, the dancer constructs his steps according to his mood and ingenuity. The most important stylistic feature of the dance within the Carpathians is the large amount of personal improvisation. Observers have never failed to notice the individual nature of the Hungarian dance during the two centuries. This dancing is individual to such an extent that it is difficult for scholars to establish the communal laws regulating individual creativity. Folk dance research has shown that this individuality is not merely poetic licence, daniel Berzsenyi wrote, Its secret laws are not ordered by craft. The laws are its own and enthusiasm sets the limit. Steps, turns, movement, postures, all are arbitrary, left to the taste, the dance does not consist of regular well-defined steps. But an individual dance inspired by an idea, the men free their partners when, and for so long as, they fell inclined. Thus their hands are free and they can take hold of their partner when they wish. The brisker movements of the dance retained that peculiarity which is the feature of all Hungarian dances, Hungarians have been noted for their exceptionally well developed sense of rhythm. Billroth performed tests with troops stationed in Vienna and found that the Hungarian troops outperformed others in keeping time with music, jumps about, stamps out the rhythm, slides, swings his legs energetically, etc. The Csárdás is undoubtedly the most popular and important dance in the Hungarian repertoire, in the 1869 book The Magyars, Their Country and Institutions Arthur Patterson wrote the following. They whirl swiftly round, two or three times, and then, breaking away, recommence the pantomime as before, one seldom sees two couples performing exactly the same figure at the same time. While two separated partners are doing their step with their backs turned on one another, another couple between them are spinning round in the ecstasies of reunion. Also featured are varied ways of holding a partner, complex changes of posture, slight crouching, figures danced during the Swift Csárdás include the lippentos-martogatos, turning in pairs, and playful alluring and releasing of the partner. Half crouching, half turning figures were still being danced by the generation in the 1970s. In a rare form of the Broom Dance the broom is put through a crouching, tripping movement, half crouching, half turning figures were still being danced by the older generation in the 1970sHungarian dance – Folkdance display in Szegvár during the Ace-festival
42. Budapest Fashion Week – Budapest Fashion Week is a fashion week trade show held annually in April and October in Budapest, Hungary, usually after the five major fashion weeks. It is still aspiring to the level of big five fashion weeks, the event is usually held in the Palazzo Dorottya. The long-term goal of the event is to build a position for the Hungarian designers on the local and also on the markets and to revive Hungarian fashion. The organizer of this event is BigBag PR Agency, which is a strategic communications firm specializes in fashion. Based on industry experiences – with a background in fashion journalism – the agency develop programs that launch, grow, or re-establish brand’s presence, the agency’s aim is to reinvigorate the professional Hungarian fashion life, that is why the organizers created TONI&GUY Fashion Week Budapest. The video stream can be seen on Budapest Fashion Weeks website an on UStream channels, general sponsor of the event is TONI&GUY global hairdressing and training business company and further major sponsors are the Mercedes-Benz, Samsung, MAC Cosmetics, Sony, UPC among others. New York Fashion Week Berlin Fashion Week Milan Fashion Week Paris Fashion Week London Fashion Week Budapest Fashion Week official website Budapest Fashion Week official channel on YouTubeBudapest Fashion Week – Budapest Fashion Week in Palazzo Dorottya, 2013
43. Hungarian language – Hungarian is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is spoken by communities of Hungarian people in neighbouring countries. Like Finnish and Estonian, it belongs to the Uralic language family, its closest relatives being Mansi and it is one of several European languages not part of the Indo-European languages, and the most widely-spoken European language that does not belong to the Indo-European family. The Hungarian name for the language is magyar or magyar nyelv, the word Magyar is used as an English and Hungarian word to refer to Hungarian people as an ethnic group. Hungarian is a member of the Uralic language family, the name of Hungary could be a result of regular sound changes of Ungrian/Ugrian, and the fact that the Eastern Slavs referred to Hungarians as Ǫgry/Ǫgrove seemed to confirm that. Current literature favors the hypothesis that it comes from the name of the Turkic tribe Onogur, there are numerous regular sound correspondences between Hungarian and the other Ugric languages. For example, Hungarian /aː/ corresponds to Khanty /o/ in certain positions, for example, Hungarian ház house vs. Khanty xot house, and Hungarian száz hundred vs. Khanty sot hundred. The distance between the Ugric and Finnic languages is greater, but the correspondences are also regular, during the later half of the 19th century, a competing hypothesis proposed a Turkic affinity of Hungarian. Following an academic debate known as Az ugor-török háború, the Finno-Ugric hypothesis was concluded the sounder of the two, foremost based on work by the German linguist Josef Budenz. The traditional view argues that the Hungarian language separated from its Ugric relatives in the first half of the 1st millennium b. c. e. in western Siberia, east of the southern Urals. The Hungarians gradually changed their lifestyle from settled hunters to nomadic pastoralists, in Hungarian, Iranian loans date back to the time immediately following the breakup of Ugric and probably span well over a millennium. Among these include tehén ‘cow’, tíz ‘ten’, tej ‘milk’, increasing archaeological evidence from present-day southern Bashkortostan found in the previous decades confirms the existence of Hungarian settlements between the Volga River and Ural Mountains. The Onogurs later had a influence on the language, especially between the 5th-9th centuries. This layer of Turkic loans is large and varied, and includes words borrowed from Oghur Turkic, e. g. borjú ‘calf’, dél ‘noon, many words related to agriculture, to state administration or even to family relations have such backgrounds. Hungarian syntax and grammar were not influenced in a dramatic way during these 300 years. After the arrival of the Hungarians into the Carpathian Basin the language came into contact with different speech communities, Turkic loans from this period come mainly from the Pechenegs and Cumanians who settled in Hungary during the 12th-13th centuries, e. g. koboz ‘cobza’, komondor ‘mop dog’. Hungarian borrowed many words from especially the neighbouring Slavic languages, in exchange, these languages also borrowed words from Hungarian, e. g. Serbo-Croatian ašov from Hung ásó ‘spade’. Approximately 1. 6% of the Romanian lexicon is of Hungarian origin, on the basis of the growing genetic evidence, the accepted origin theory is contested by geneticists tooHungarian language – Hungarian keyboard
44. Hungarian literature – No written evidence remains of the earliest Hungarian literature, but through folktales and folk songs, elements have survived that can be traced back to pagan times. In earliest times the Hungarian language was written in a runic-like script, the country switched to the Latin alphabet after being Christianized under the reign of Stephen I. There are no existing documents from the century era. The Old Hungarian period is reckoned from 896 CE, when Hungarians conquered the Carpathian Basin, settled down, creation of the first extant written records followed soon after. The oldest written record in Hungarian is a fragment in the Establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany which contains several Hungarian terms, among them the words feheruuaru rea meneh hodu utu rea. This text is probably to be read as Fehérü váru reá meneü hodu utu reá with todays spelling, the rest of the document was written in Latin. The oldest complete, continuous text in Hungarian is, a funeral oration written in about 1192–1195. The oldest poem is Ómagyar Mária-siralom, a translation from Latin of a poem by Godefroy de Breteuil. It is also the oldest surviving Uralic poem, during the Middle Ages and well into the Renaissance, the language of writing was mostly Latin. Important documents include the Admonitions of St. Stephen, which includes the kings admonitions to his son Prince Imre, among the first chronicles about Hungarian history were Gesta Hungarorum, by an unknown author, and Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum by Simon Kézai. These chronicles mix history with legends, so historically they are not always authentic, another chronicle is the Képes Krónika, which was written for Louis the Great. Further, Rogeriuss 13th century work was published with János Thuróczys chronicle in the late 15th century, in Split Thomas of Spalato wrote on local history, with much information on Hungary in the 13th century. At that time Dalmatia and the city of Split were part of the Kingdom of Hungary, the 15th century saw the first translations from the Bible. A great part of the vocabulary created for the purpose is still in use, Renaissance literature flourished under the reign of King Matthias. Janus Pannonius, although he wrote in Latin, counts as one of the most important persons in Hungarian literature, the first printing house was also founded during Matthiass reign, by András Hess, in Buda. The first book printed in Hungary was the Chronica Hungarorum, in 1526 most of Hungary fell under Ottoman occupation, from which date the beginning of the Middle Hungarian period is set, in connection with various cultural changes. The most important poets of the period were Bálint Balassi, Sebestyén Tinódi Lantos and his poems can be divided into three thematic categories, love poems, war poems and religious poems. Translation of Roman authors produced also some works, János Baranyai Decsi translated Sallustiuss Catalina, a decade later appeared the translation of Curtius Rufuss life of Alexander in DebrecenHungarian literature – The oldest surviving poem of Hungarian language, Old Hungarian Laments of Mary
45. Music of Hungary – Hungary has made many contributions to the fields of folk, popular and classical music. Hungarian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity and it is also strong in the Szabolcs-Szatmár area and in the southwest part of Transdanubia, near the border with Croatia. The Busójárás carnival in Mohács is a major Hungarian folk music event, Hungarian classical music has long been an experiment, made from Hungarian antedecents and on Hungarian soil, to create a conscious musical culture musical world of the folk song. For example, Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály, two of Hungarys most famous composers, are known for using folk themes in their music. Bartók collected folk songs from across Eastern Europe, including Romania and Slovakia, during the era of Communist rule in Hungary a Song Committee scoured and censored popular music for traces of subversion and ideological impurity. The three giants of Hungarian rock, Illés, Metró and Omega, remain popular, especially Omega. Older veteran underground bands such as Beatrice from the 1980s also remain popular, unlike most Western European peoples, the Hungarian people, Magyars, emerged from the intermingling of Finno-Ugric and Eastern Turkish peoples during the fifth to eighth centuries CE. This makes the origins of their music unique in Europe. Bence Szabolcsi, however, claims that the Finno-Ugric and Turkish-Mongolian elements are present but cannot be attached to certain, definite national or linguistic groups. These, he claims, are evidence that Asian memories slumber in the depths of Hungarian folk music, the subsequent influence on neighboring countries music is seen in the music of Slovakia and, with intervals of the third or second, in the music of the Czech Republic. Modern Hungarian folk music evolved in the 19th century, and is contrasted with previous styles through the use of arched melodic lines as opposed to the more archaic descending lines, the earliest documentation of Hungarian music dates from the introduction of Gregorian chant in the 11th century. Though Hungarys early religious history is relatively well documented, secular music remains mostly unknown, though it was apparently a common feature of community festivals. Thereafter the organ came to play a major role, the 16th century saw the rise of Transylvania as a center for Hungarian music. It also saw the first publication of music in Hungary, in Kraków, at this time Hungarian instrumental music was well known in Europe, the lutenist and composer Bálint Bakfark, for example, was famed as a virtuoso player. His compositions pioneered a new style of writing for the lute based on vocal polyphony, the lutenist brothers Melchior and Konrad Neusiedler were also noted, as was Stephan Monetarius, the author of an important early work in music theory, the Epithoma utriusque musices. During the 17th century, Hungary was divided into three parts, a controlled by the Turks, an area controlled by the Habsburgs. Historic songs declined in popularity and were replaced by lyrical poetry, many courts or households maintained large ensembles of musicians who played the trumpet, whistle, cimbalom, violin or bagpipes. Some of these musicians were German, Polish, French or ItalianMusic of Hungary – Franz Liszt, prominent Hungarian composer
46. Hungarian names – Hungarian names include both surnames, given names and middle names, or second given names. In the Hungarian language, whether written or spoken, these names are given in the Eastern name order. The Hungarian language is one of the few languages in Europe to use the Eastern name order, among regional languages like the Alemannic German dialect. Modern Hungarian orthography is slightly simpler than that of the 18th and 19th centuries, for example, the letter c is often written as cz. Letters such as Q, W, X, or Y, some family names refer to a place of origin, and may be written ending in Y instead of I. So someone from Szolnok may spell his family name Szolnoky instead of Szolnoki, unless acknowledged officially, such spelling variants cannot be used as legal names. Except in special cases, changing name to any historical or old-style written name is forbidden. The Hungarian language normally puts family names first, except for names, in Hungarian speech. Some Hungarian surnames relate to professions, for example Szabó tailor, Kovács smith, other surnames relate to non-Magyar ethnic origin. For example, common Hungarian surnames include Németh German, Horvát Croat, Tóth an outdated term for Slovak, Oláh an outdated term for Wallachian, and Lengyel Polish. During the Austro-Hungarian empire, in the kingdom of Hungary people of non-Hungarian ethnicity — people of Jewish, German, some people with German names translated them directly into Hungarian. Some of them just magyarized their original German surnames into Hungarian forms, like Zsengeller, Scheiberné, but many Hungarians of German descent retained their original surnames like Horn, Deutsch, Staller, Keller, Rockenbauer, Hoffmann, etc. A few given names are used as family names. The origin of Hungarian names is related to the religious. Many saints names and royal names have English equivalents, anna Dorottya, After Saint Dorothea of Caesarea, who also became popular along with Catherine. Erzsébet, Popular after the princess Saint Elizabeth of Hungary, katalin, After Saint Catherine of Alexandria, whose cult gained great importance in the 15th century. Margit, After Saint Margaret of Hungary, mária, The cult of Holy Mary was extremely important in medieval Hungary. Piroska, A female name of origin, popular after Saint Piroska of HungaryHungarian names – Hungarian keyboard
47. Hungary at the Olympics – Hungary first participated at the Olympic Games at the inaugural 1896 Games, and has sent athletes to compete in most Summer Olympic Games and every Winter Olympic Games since then. The nation was not invited to the 1920 Games after World War I, Hungarian athletes have won a total of 491 medals at the Summer Games and 6 medals at the Winter Games, with fencing as the top medal-producing sport. Hungary has won more Olympic medals than any nation that has never hosted the Games. The National Olympic Committee for Hungary is the Hungarian Olympic Committee, the Hungarian athlete who won the most medals in the history of the Olympic Games, are the fencer Aladár Gerevich and the gymnast Ágnes Keleti. Notes, in Khaki the athletes still in activity, category, Olympic competitors for Hungary Hungary at the Paralympics List of Hungarian Olympic champions Hungary. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04Hungary at the Olympics
48. National symbols of Hungary – The national symbols of Hungary are flags, icons or cultural expressions that are emblematic, representative or otherwise characteristic of Hungary or Hungarian culture. The highly valued special Hungarian products and symbols are called Hungaricum, the flag of Hungary is a horizontal tricolor of red, white and green. The coat of arms of the dynasty is also popular. Almost a fifth of the country is forested, however only 10 percent is natural forest, Hungary is home to some 2,200 flowering plant species and, because of its topography and transitional climate, many of them are not normally found at this latitude. Much of the flora in the Villány and Mecsek Hills in Southern Transdanubia, on the southern Szársomlyó Hill of the Villány Mountains, the formerly unknown Colchicum hungaricum was found and botanically described in 1867 by the Hungarian botanist Viktor Janka. This is the earliest Hungarian flower to bloom, the salty Hortobágy region on the Eastern Plain has many plants normally found on the seashore, and the Nyírség area is famous for meadow flowers. The Gemenc forest on the Danube River near Szekszárd, the Little Balaton in the center of Transdanubia, most of the trees in the nations forests are deciduous beech, oak, and birch, and a small percentage are fir. Since the 14th century, over 250 new plants have colonized Hungary, many such plants are perennial herbs that have slowly extirpated some native flora. Historically, Hungary was the second largest supplier of paprika to the United States, Hungarian paprika has a distinctive flavor and is in great demand in Europe where it is used as a spice rather than as a coloring agent. The traditional Hungarian dishes abound in piquant flavors and aromas, dishes are flavorful, spicy and often rather heavy. Flavors of Hungarian dishes are based on traditions in spicing. The exquisite ingredients are produced by agricultural and husbandry. Paprika, onion and garlic are to be found everywhere, in the Middle Ages the fish soup was the most popular and the most lovely fishmeal in Hungary. A cookery book from 1860 contains 400 fish recipes, the most well-known specialities of Hungarian cuisine such as goulash soup, the different varieties of stew and paprikás are red with paprika. Hungary List of Hungarian dishes Ópusztaszer National Heritage ParkNational symbols of Hungary – Holy Crown of Hungary
49. Outline of Hungary – Hungary is a member of OECD, NATO, EU and a Schengen state. The official language is Hungarian, which part of the Uralic family. It is one of the four languages of the European Union that is not of Indo-European origin. The Kingdom of Hungary existed with interruptions for more than 900 years. The present form of government is a parliamentary republic, hungarys current goal is to become a developed country by International Monetary Fund standards, having become already developed by most traditional measures, including GDP and HDI. The countrys first ever term of EU presidency is due in 2011, Hungary was one of the 15 most popular tourist destinations in the world in the past decade, with a capital regarded as one of the most beautiful in the worldOutline of Hungary – An enlargeable topographic map of Hungary
50. List of castles in France – This is a list of castles in France, arranged by Region and Department. Notes The French word château has a wider meaning than the English castle, it includes architectural entities that are properly called palaces, mansions or vineyards in English. This list focuses primarily on architectural entities that may be properly termed castle or fortress, occasionally, where there is not a specific article on a castle, links are given to another article that includes details, typically an article on a town. Italics indicate links to articles in the French Wikipedia, if no article appears in either English or French Wikipedias, a link is given to an external website. The number in parentheses after the name of each department indicates the department number used for administrative purposesList of castles in France – Château du Fleckenstein
51. List of castles in the Republic of Ireland – This List of Castles in Ireland, be they in the Northern Ireland and thus United Kingdom or in the Republic of Ireland, is organized by county within their respective country. OPW info Belvelly Castle Ballyva Manor, built in the 1850s by Timothy Hurley, 19th century, on site of earlier castle. NIAH survey Conn Castle, intact Dalkey,2 remaining of original 7 castles Donabate, intact Drimnagh Castle, conference centre Dublin Castle, Dublin City. Ruins Dunsoghly Castle, Restored Castle Howth Castle, Howth. NIAH survey Grange, irishtown Castle, ruin Kilgobbin Castle, ruin, History Killiney Castle, Scalpwilliam or Mount Mapas. NIAH survey Killininny Castle, Firhouse Kilsallaghan Castle Knocklyne Castle, Knocklyon. NIAH survey Lambay Castle, Lambay Island NIAH survey Lanestown, intact Luttrellstown Castle, Restored Castle Merrion Castle Malahide Castle, Ruin Murphystown, ruins, the proposed Luas line B1 runs approximately 28m west of the ruins of Murphystown Castle and through its area of archaeological potential. Brief history & photos, Ruin Rathfarnham Castle, Rathfarnham Demesne, Restored Castle Rathmines Castle, Rathmines West. NIAH survey Robswall, intact Roebuck Castle, Roebuck, hall of residence UCD campus NIAH survey Sarsfield Castle, intact Seatown Shangannagh Castle, ruins, not to be confused with the late 18th-century house of the same name Shankill Castle, Shankill. NIAH survey, brief history, Ruin Simmonscourt Castle, Smotscourt. NIAH survey Stillorgan Castle, 18th-century house on site of earlier castle, now incorporated into the modern St John of God hospital complex. NIAH survey Swords Castle, Castle Ruins, undergoing restoration Templeogue House NIAH survey Thorncastle Tullys Castle, Clondalkin, ruins, Picture Tymon Castle, demolished in the 1970s Williamstown Castle, Williamstown. B. Yeats former holiday home, restored as a Museum, aghalard Castle, Castle Ruins Ahena Castle, Castle Ruins. Lisheen Castle, Restored Castle Loughmoe Castle, Castle Ruins Moorstown Castle, Castle Ruins, nenagh Castle, Intact Castle Ormonde Castle, Manor House. Barntown Castle, Tower House and Castle Ruins Clougheast Castle, Restored Castle Dungulph Castle, Intact Castle Enniscorthy Castle, Restored Castle Ferns Castle, Tower House Ruins, built in the late 16th century. Castle Howard Wicklow, Intact Castle with the addition of a 19th-century Mansion, remains of a large late-17th century U-plan house and early 17th century tower. Intact Castle in use as a hotel, built in 1536 by Master Tresover currently in ruins. C.1550, now in use as a folly, built by the Earl of Ormond in 1433 currently in ruins. Castle ruins, built in 1169 on an old Viking site, largely intact late 14th/15th-century castle marking the boundary of the Pale. In 834 AD the Vikings fortified a rocky promontory at the mouth of the Vartry River in Wicklow Town. Following the Norman invasion a castle was built, now known as the Black CastleList of castles in the Republic of Ireland – Castle Donovan
52. List of castles in Italy – This is a list of castles in Italy by location. Built in 1430 by the Calepio family, camozzi Vertova Castle, Costa di Mezzate. Built in the 15th century by the Counts Martinengo-Colleoni, built in the 15th century by the warlord Bartolomeo Colleoni. Built in the 14th century by the Avogadri family, built around 1450–70 by the Sforza family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Province of Brescia Brescia Castle, Brescia, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family and the Republic of Venice. Commonly known as Rocca Magna, built in the 9th–12th centuries, built in the 13th century by the Scaliger family. Province of Como Castello Baradello, Como, built in the 12th century by Frederick Barbarossa. Province of Cremona Soncino Castle, Soncino, built in the 10th century and renovated in the 15th century by the Sforza family. Province of Lecco Castello Andriani, Dervio, Lombardy Province of Lodi Province of Mantua Castles Asola Castle, built in the 14th century by the Gonzaga family. Castiglione delle Stiviere Castle, Castiglione delle Stiviere, towers Castel Goffredo Civic Tower Castle, Castel Goffredo. Province of Milan Castles Abbiategrasso Castle, Abbiategrasso, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 13th–14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 13th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Borromeo family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family but it dates back to the 10th century, built in the 13th century by the Della Torre family. Known as Castello Mediceo, it was built in the 13th century by the Visconti family, built in the 15th century by the Borromeo familyList of castles in Italy – Forte Spagnolo, L'Aquila
53. List of castles in Norway – This is a consolidated list of castles and palaces in Norway. The Norwegian word slott means castle, palass means palace, to see list of fortresses in Norway, see List of Norwegian fortresses. In Norway there tend to be many more manor houses compared to castles and this is due to Norways past as a poor nationList of castles in Norway – Akershus Castle by night
54. List of castles in Romania – Castles are declared historic monuments by the Romanian Culture Ministry. This is a list of castles in Romania, castele, palate şi conace din RomâniaList of castles in Romania – Bánffy Castle
55. List of castles in Spain – Castles in Spain were built mainly for defensive purposes. When the Reconquista advanced, those border castles lost their initial purpose, however, due to sporadic threats of war, they kept their military purposes, for enemy invasions were common. In some locations, such as the Basque country, fiefdoms did not exist as such, after the Conquest of Granada in 1492, the Catholic monarchs ordered all the castles in their realms to be handed over to the Crown. Most of castles in Spain were successively abandoned and dismantled, Spanish kings fearing noble and peasant revolts, nowadays in Spain there are around 2500 castles corresponding only to this kind of fortification. This is a list of castles in Spain, castle of Aguilar del Río Alhama, there are only a few ruinsList of castles in Spain – Castle of Loarre