1. Esztergom – Esztergom, is a city in northern Hungary,46 kilometres northwest of the capital Budapest. It lies in Komárom-Esztergom county, on the bank of the river Danube. Esztergom was the capital of Hungary from the 10th till the mid-13th century when King Béla IV of Hungary moved the seat to Buda. Esztergom is the seat of the prímás of the Roman Catholic Church in Hungary, the city has the Keresztény Múzeum, the largest ecclesiastical collection in Hungary. Its cathedral, Esztergom Basilica is the largest church in Hungary, the Roman town was called Solva. The medieval Latin name Strigonium is usually derived from Slavic, proto-Slavic stregti – to watch, to guard, present participle stregom, strägom – a guard post Similar place names are Strzegom or Střehom. The Hungarians added a vowel in front of the group of consonants. The initial o in later Slavic forms could evolve independently from a prepositional form vъ Strägome > vo Strägome > v Osträgome like Slovak Bdokovce > Obdokovce, Psolovce > Obsolovce, another theory is based on the form Estrigun from the 12th century. Proto-Bulgaric estrogin käpe, estrigim küpe - a leather armor, other etymologies are Serbo-Croatian strgun - a tanner or a combination of Ister and Gam referring to the nearby river Hron. The first early medieval mention is ſtrigonensis comes, other names of the town are Croatian Ostrogon, Polish Ostrzyhom, Serbian Ostrogon and Estergon, Slovak Ostrihom and Czech Ostřihom. The German name is Gran, like the German name of river Garam, Esztergom is one of the oldest towns in Hungary. Esztergom, as it existed in the Middle Ages, now rests under todays town, the results of the most recent archeological excavations reveal that the Várhegy and its vicinity have been inhabited since the end of the Ice Age 20,000 years ago. The first people known by name were the Celts from Western Europe, a flourishing Celtic settlement existed on the Varhegy until the region was conquered by Rome. Thereafter it became an important frontier town of Pannonia, known by the name of Salvio Mansio, Salvio, by the seventh century the town was called Stregom and later Gran, but soon reverted to the former, which evolved into Esztergom by the thirteenth century. The German and Avar archaeological finds found in the reveal that these people settled there following the period of the migrations that were caused by the fall of the Roman Empire. At about 500 AD, Slavic peoples immigrated into the Pannonian Basin, in the 9th century, the place was part of Great Moravia, afterwards of the Principality of Nitra. In Old Slavonic language, it was called Strěgom, as it was strategic point of control for the Danube valley, the Magyars entered the Pannonian Basin in 896 AD and conquered it systematically, succeeding fully in 901. In 960, the prince of the Hungarians, GézaEsztergom – Esztergom
2. Economy of Hungary – The Hungarian economy is the 57th-largest economy in the world with $265.037 billion annual output, and ranks 49th in the world in terms of GDP per capita measured by purchasing power parity. Hungary is a market economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade. The country had more than $100 billion of exports in 2015, with a trade surplus of $9.003 billion, of which 79% went to the EU. Hungarys productive capacity is more than 80% privately owned, with 39. 1% overall taxation, on the expenditure side, household consumption is the main component of GDP and accounts for 50% of its total, followed by gross fixed capital formation with 22% and government expenditure with 20%. As of 2015, the key trading partners of Hungary were Germany, Austria, Romania, Slovakia, France, Italy, Poland, major industries include food processing, pharmaceuticals, motor vehicles, information technology, chemicals, metallurgy, machinery, electrical goods, and tourism. Hungary is the largest electronics producer in Central and Eastern Europe, electronics manufacturing and research are among the main drivers of innovation and economic growth in the country. In the past 20 years Hungary has also grown into a center for mobile technology, information security. The unemployment rate was 4. 3% in January 2017, down from 11% during the crisis of 2007–08. Hungary is part of the European single market which represents more than 508 million consumers, several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union members and by EU legislation. Large Hungarian companies are included in the BUX, the Hungarian stock market index listed on Budapest Stock Exchange, well-known companies include the Fortune Global 500 firms MOL Group, the OTP Bank, Gedeon Richter Plc. Magyar Telekom, CIG Pannonia, FHB Bank, Zwack Unicum, besides these, Hungary has large number of specialised small and medium enterprises, for example many automotive industry suppliers and technology start ups, among others. Budapest is the financial and business capital of Hungary. 4%, on the national level, Budapest is the primary city of Hungary for business, accounting for 39% of the national income. The city had a gross metropolitan product of more than $100 billion in 2015, Budapest is also among the Top100 GDP performing cities in the world, as measured by PricewaterhouseCoopers. In a global city competitiveness ranking by EIU, Budapest is ranked above Tel Aviv, Lisbon, Moscow and Johannesburg, the Hungarian National Bank—founded in 1924, after the dissolution of Austro-Hungarian Empire—is currently focusing on price stability with an inflation target of 3%. In the age of feudalism the key factor was land. The new economic and social orders created private ownership of land, there are three forms of existence, the royal, ecclesiastical and secular private estate. The royal estate of the dynasty had evolved from the tribal lands. The origin of the private holdings dates back to the conquest tribal common estatesEconomy of Hungary
3. Hungarian prehistory – This historiographical tradition disappeared from mainstream history after the realization of similarities between the Hungarian language and the Uralic languages in the late 18th century. Thereafter, linguistics became the source of the study of the Hungarians ethnogenesis. In addition, chronicles written between the 9th and 15th centuries, the results of research and folklore analogies provide information on the Magyars early history. They spread over vast territories, which caused the development of a separate Proto-Finno-Ugric language by the end of the millennium, linguistic studies and archaeological research evidence that those who spoke this language lived in pit-houses and used decorated clay vessels. The expansion of marshlands after around 2600 BC caused new migrations and they lived in settled communities, cultivated millet, wheat, and other crops, and bred animals – especially horses, cattle, and pigs. Loan words connected to animal husbandry from Proto-Iranian show that they had contacts with their neighbors. The southernmost Ugric groups adopted a way of life by around 1000 BC. The development of the Hungarian language started around 800 BC with the withdrawal of the grasslands, the history of the ancient Magyars during the next thousand years is uncertain, they lived in the steppes but the location of their Urheimat is subject to scholarly debates. According to one theory, they initially lived east of the Urals, other scholars say Magna Hungaria was the Magyars original homeland, from where they moved either to the region of the Don River or towards the Kuban River before the 830s AD. Hundreds of loan words adopted from Chuvash-type Turkic languages prove the Magyars were closely connected to Turkic peoples, Byzantine and Muslim authors regarded them as a Turkic people in the 9th and 10th centuries. An alliance between the Magyars and the Bulgarians in the late 830s was the first historical event that was recorded with certainty in connection with the Magyars, the Magyars were organized into tribes, each headed by their own voivodes, or military leaders. From their new homeland, which was known as Etelköz, the Magyars controlled the lands between the Lower Danube and the Don River in the 870s, the confederation of their seven tribes was led by two supreme chiefs, the kende and the gyula. The Kabars – a group of subjects of the Khazars – joined the Magyars in Etelköz. The Magyars regularly invaded the neighboring Slavic tribes, forcing them to pay a tribute, taking advantage of the wars between Bulgaria, East Francia, and Moravia, they invaded Central Europe at least four times between 861 and 894. A new Pecheneg invasion compelled the Magyars to leave Etelköz, cross the Carpathian Mountains, since the 1830s, archaeology has played an important role in the study of the Magyar prehistory. However, only twelve cemeteries in the steppes have yielded finds that show similarities to assemblages unearthed in the Carpathian Basin, the dating of those cemeteries is also controversial. These objects were dated to the late 9th century. The same archaeological sites also yielded vessels similar to the pottery of the neighboring Slavic territories, according to a scholarly theory, the oldest layers of Hungarian vocabulary show features of the territory in which the language emergedHungarian prehistory – The first page of the sole manuscript preserving the text of the Gesta Hungarorum, the earliest extant Hungarian chronicle
4. Principality of Hungary – The Hungarians, a semi-nomadic people forming a tribal alliance led by Árpád, arrived from Etelköz which was their earlier principality east of the Carpathians. During the period, the power of the Hungarian Grand Prince seemed to be decreasing irrespective of the success of the Hungarian military raids across Europe, the tribal territories, ruled by Hungarian warlords, became semi-independent polities. These territories got united again only under the rule of St Stephen, the semi-nomadic Hungarian population adopted settled life. The chiefdom society changed to a state society, from the second half of the 10th century, Christianity started to spread. The principality was succeeded by the Christian Kingdom of Hungary with the coronation of St Stephen I at Esztergom on Christmas Day 1000, the Hungarian historiography calls the entire period from 896 to 1000 the age of principality. The ethnonym of the Hungarian tribal alliance is uncertain, the tribal name Megyer became Magyar referring to the Hungarian people as a whole. Written sources called Magyars Hungarians prior to the conquest of the Carpathian Basin when they lived on the steppes of Eastern Europe. In contemporary Byzantine sources, written in Greek, the country was known as Western Tourkia in contrast to eastern or Khazar Tourkia, the Jewish Hasdai ibn Shaprut around 960 called the polity the land of the Hungrin in a letter to Joseph of the Khazars. On the eve of the arrival of the Hungarians, around 895, East Francia, the Hungarians had much knowledge about this region because they were frequently hired as mercenaries by the surrounding polities and had led their own campaigns in this area for decades. This area had been populated, since Charlemagne’s destruction of the Avar state in 803. The newly unified Hungarians led by Árpád settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895, the East Frankish vassal Balaton Principality in Transdanubia was subjugated during a Hungarian campaign in the direction of Italy around 899-900. Great Moravia was annihilated between 902 and 907 and a part of it, the former Principality of Nitra, became a part of the Hungarian state. The south-eastern parts of the Carpathian Basin were under the rule of the First Bulgarian Empire, the control prior to the Hungarian settlement of territory of Solitudo Avarorum, where remnants of the Avars lived, has not yet been entirely clarified. The principality as a state, with a new-found military might. Three major Frankish imperial armies were defeated decisively by the Hungarians between 907 and 910, the Hungarians succeeded in extending the de iure Bavarian-Hungarian border to the River Enns, and the principality was not attacked from this direction for 100 years after the Battle of Pressburg. The intermittent Hungarian campaigns lasted until 970, however two military defeats in 955 and 970 marked a shift in the evolution of the Hungarian principality, the change from a ranked chiefdom society to a state society was one of the most important developments during this time. Initially, the Magyars retained a semi-nomadic lifestyle, practising transhumance, later, his new summer quarters were in Csallóköz according to this theory, however the exact location of the early center of the state is disputed. According to Gyula Kristó the center was located between the Danube and Tisza rivers, however the archaeological findings imply the location in the region of the Upper TiszaPrincipality of Hungary – A detail of the Arrival of the Hungarians, Árpád Feszty 's and his assistants' vast (1800 m 2) cyclorama, painted to celebrate the 1000th anniversary of the Magyar conquest of Hungary, now displayed at the Ópusztaszer National Heritage Park in Hungary
5. Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 was one of the many European Revolutions of 1848 and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas. The revolution in the Kingdom of Hungary grew into a war for independence from the Austrian Empire, Czar Nicholas I answered, and sent a 200,000 men strong army with 80,000 auxiliary forces. Finally, the joint army of Russian and Austrian forces defeated the Hungarian forces, after the restoration of Habsburg power, Hungary was placed under brutal martial law. The anniversary of the Revolutions outbreak,15 March, is one of Hungarys three national holidays, the Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, even after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804. The administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire, Hungarys central government structures remained well separated from the imperial government. The country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary - located in Pozsony and later in Pest -, ignác Martinovics worked as a secret agent for the new Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold II, until 1792. In another of his works, Catechism of People and Citizens, he argued that citizens tend to oppose any repression and he also became a Freemason, and was in favour of the adoption of a federal republic in Hungary. As a member of the Hungarian Jacobins, he was considered a forerunner of revolutionary thought by some. He was in charge of stirring up a revolt against the nobility among the Hungarian serfs, for these subversive acts, Francis II, the Holy Roman Emperor, dismissed Martinovics and his boss, Ferenc Gotthardi, the former chief of the secret police. He was executed, together with six other prominent Jacobins, in May 1795, the Diet of Hungary had not convened since 1811. The frequent diets held in the part of the reign occupied themselves with little else but war subsidies. In the latter years of Francis I. the dark shadow of Metternichs policy of stability fell across the kingdom, but beneath the surface a strong popular current was beginning to run in a contrary direction. Hungarian society, not unaffected by western Liberalism, but without any help from abroad, was preparing for the future emancipation. In 1825 Emperor Francis II convened the Diet in response to growing concerns amongst the Hungarian nobility about taxes and this – and the reaction to the reforms of Joseph II – started what is known as the Reform Period. But the Nobles still retained their privileges of paying no taxes, the influential Hungarian politician Count István Széchenyi recognized the need to bring the country the advances of the more developed West European countries, such as England. It was an attack upon the constitution which, to use the words of István Széchenyi. In 1823, when the powers were considering joint action to suppress the revolution in Spain. The county assemblies instantly protested against this act, and Francis I was obliged, at the diet of 1823Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – Artist Mihály Zichy 's painting of Sándor Petőfi reciting the National Poem to a crowd on March 15, 1848
6. Hungary in World War I – At the outbreak of World War I, Hungary was part of the dualist monarchy, Austria-Hungary. Although there are no significant battles connected to Hungarian regiments, the troops fought faithfully and intrepidly, which was one of the causes of high losses. In 1914, Austria-Hungary was one of the powers of Europe, with an area of 676,443 km². On June 28,1914, Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, before entering the war, only the prime minister Count István Tisza hesitated, unconvinced that it was the best time to engage in battle. As soon as Germany promised to neutralize the Kingdom of Romania and promised that no territories of the Kingdom of Serbia would be annexed to Austria-Hungary, after the ultimatum sent to Serbia by Franz Josef I, the war broke out and soon spread over much of Europe and beyond. The second line of the army was the mobilized Landsturm of the Austrians Népfelkelés of Hungarians, in 1914, the Austrian-Hungarian army was facing its greatest challenge so far in history. After mobilisation, the forces were grouped to six armies. Between 1914 and 1918,9 million served in the army, in comparison to the other armies of Europe, Hungarys experienced veteran armed forces, technical equipment, and military expenditures were underdeveloped. The artillery was not sufficient, but it was developed later in the war. The correct supply of ammunition was not solved even by the end of the war, the armed forces lacked an adequate air force, it had only 42 military and 40 sport airplanes before the war. Unifying the multi-ethnic units was also a problem for the militarys leaders. The military forces of Austria-Hungary remained largely unified over the course of the war, in spite of their multi-ethnic nature, for the most part, troops from other ethnic groups within the empire were less likely to be placed in strategically critical positions and therefore had lower casualties. Lieutenant-general Josef Roth attacked the Russian 3rd army, and on the right wing, on December 11, colonel Ottmár Muhr died in a heroic defense leading the Sopron 9th cavalry regiment. Lieutenant-general Artur Arz, together with lieutenant-general Imre Hadfy, leading the 39th Kassa division, during the Siege of Przemysl, which defense was commanded by general Hermann Kusmanek, the main defence line, consisting of Hungarian troops, guarded the fortress for five months from November 1915. The defenders were commanded by Árpád Tamásy, leading the 23rd Szeged division, after the depletion of ammunition and food reserves, Przemysl capitulated, leaving 120,000 prisoners of war. On the Isonzo front, Hungarian forces participated in all twelve battles, on the Doberdo plateau and near Karst, the most serious battles were fought by Hungarians, who composed one third of the total armed forces. In particular, the 20th Nagyvárad and 17th Budapest common regiments distinguished themselves, on June 15,1918, near the river Piave, the 6th army commanded by Archduke József Ágost took over most part of mount Montello and held it until the end of the war. Decisive fights were carried out by the 31st Budapest common regiment, in Hungarian areas, this meant a death rate of twenty-eight per thousand persons - a level of loss exceeded within Austria-Hungary only by German AustriansHungary in World War I – Austro-Hungarian mountain corps in Tyrol
7. First Hungarian Republic – The First Hungarian Republic or by its contemporary name Hungarian Peoples Republic was a short-lived peoples republic that existed, apart from a 133-day interruption, from late 1918 until mid-1919. It was established in the wake of the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I, the Hungarian Peoples Republic replaced the Kingdom of Hungary and was in turn replaced by another short-lived state. Hungarian Peoples Republic was adopted as the name of the country on 16 November 1918. Following the collapse of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, the Gyula Peidl government restored the pre-communist name of the state on 2 August 1919, the Hungarian Peoples Republic was created by the Aster Revolution, which started in Budapest on 31 October 1918. That day, King Charles IV appointed the leader, Mihály Károlyi. Almost his first act was to terminate the personal union between Austria and Hungary. On 13 November, Charles issued a proclamation withdrawing from Hungarian politics, a few days later the provisional government proclaimed Hungary a peoples republic, with Károlyi as both prime minister and interim president. This event ended 400 years of rule by the House of Habsburg, the Entente considered Hungary a partner in the defeated Dual Monarchy, and dashed the Hungarians hopes with the delivery of successive diplomatic notes. Each demanded the surrender of land to other ethnic groups. On 20 March 1919, the French head of the Entente mission in Budapest gave Károlyi a note delineating the final postwar boundaries, Károlyi and Prime Minister Dénes Berinkey were now in an impossible position. They knew accepting the French note would endanger the countrys territorial integrity, Károlyi turned power over to a coalition of Social Democrats and Communists, the latter promised that Soviet Russia would help Hungary to restore its original borders. After the fall of the Soviet Republic on 1 August 1919, a decree was issued on 2 August restoring the form of government and the official state name back to Peoples Republic. During its brief existence, the Peidl government began to abrogate the edicts passed by the communist regime, on 6 August István Friedrich, leader of the White House Comrades Association, seized power in a bloodless coup with the backing of the Royal Romanian Army. The next day, Joseph August declared himself regent of Hungary, the state was formally dissolved by the new government on 8 August 1919. Hungarian Soviet Republic History of Hungary Revolutions and interventions in Hungary Richard Overy, History of the 20th Century, The Times, Mapping History. London,2003 Peter Rokai, Zoltan Đere, Tibor Pal, Revolution in Hungary and the Dissolution of the Multinational StateFirst Hungarian Republic – Proclamation of the people's republic on 16 November 1918.
8. Treaty of Trianon – The treaty regulated the status of an independent Hungarian state and defined its borders. It left Hungary as a state covering 93,073 square kilometres. Its population was 7.6 million, only 36% of the kingdoms population of 20.9 million. The areas that were allocated to neighbouring countries in total possessed a majority of non-Hungarian population, five of the pre-war kingdoms ten largest cities were drawn into other countries. The treaty limited Hungarys army to 35,000 officers and men, the principal beneficiaries of territorial division of pre-war Kingdom of Hungary were the Kingdom of Romania, the Czechoslovak Republic, and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. One of the elements of the treaty was the doctrine of self-determination of peoples. In addition, Hungary had to pay war reparations to its neighbours, the treaty was dictated by the Allies rather than negotiated and the Hungarians had no option but to accept its terms. The Hungarian delegation signed the treaty under protest on 4 June 1920 at the Grand Trianon Palace in Versailles, the treaty was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on 24 August 1921. The modern boundaries of Hungary are the same as those defined by the Treaty of Trianon except for three villages that were transferred to Czechoslovakia in 1947, the Hungarian government terminated its union with Austria on 31 October 1918, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian state. The de facto borders of independent Hungary were defined by the ceasefire lines in November–December 1918. On 1 December 1918, the National Assembly of Romanians in Transylvania declared union with the Kingdom of Romania, Slovakia, which became part of Czechoslovakia. That was signed on 6 December 1918, territories of Banat, Bačka and Baranja came under military control of the Kingdom of Serbia and political control of local South Slavs. The Great Peoples Assembly of Serbs, Bunjevci and other Slavs from Banat, Bačka, the ceasefire line had a character of temporary international border until the treaty. The city of Fiume was occupied by the Italian Army and its affiliation was a matter of international dispute between the Kingdom of Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Croatian-populated territories in modern Međimurje remained under Hungarian control after the agreement of Belgrade from 13 November 1918. After the Romanian Army advanced beyond this line, the Entente powers asked Hungary to acknowledge the new Romanian territory gains by a new line set along the Tisza river. Unable to reject these terms and unwilling to accept them, the leaders of the Hungarian Democratic Republic resigned, in spite of the country being under Allied blockade, the Hungarian Soviet Republic was formed and the Hungarian Red Army was rapidly set up. In the end, this invitation was not issuedTreaty of Trianon – Signing the Treaty on 4 June 1920 at the Grand Trianon Palace in Versailles, arrival of the two signatories, Ágost Benárd and Alfréd Drasche-Lázár
9. Hungary between the World Wars – This article is about the history of Hungary from October 1918 to November 1940. On October 31,1918, the Hungarian Democratic Republic was created by revolution that started in Budapest after the dissolution, the official proclamation of the republic was on November 16,1918, and Mihály Károlyi was named as the republics Prime Minister. This event also marked the independence of Hungary which had ruled by the Habsburg Monarchy for several centuries. The Hungarian Democratic Republic did not last long, another revolution in 1919 marked the end of this state and the creation of a new communist state known as Hungarian Soviet Republic. The rise of the Hungarian Communist Party to power was rapid, by February 1919, the party numbered 30,000 to 40,000 members, including many unemployed ex-soldiers, young intellectuals, and Jews. In the same month, Béla Kun was imprisoned for incitement to riot, Kun emerged from jail triumphant when the Social Democrats handed power to a government of Peoples Commissars, who proclaimed the Hungarian Soviet Republic on March 21,1919. The communists wrote a constitution guaranteeing freedom of speech and assembly, free education, language and cultural rights to minorities. It also provided for suffrage for people over eighteen years of age except clergy, former exploiters, single-list elections took place in April, but members of the parliament were selected indirectly by popularly elected committees.5 hectares. Kun hoped that the Russian government would intervene on Hungarys behalf, in an effort to secure its rule in the interim, the communist government resorted to arbitrary violence. Revolutionary tribunals ordered about 590 executions, including some for crimes against the revolution, the government also used red terror to expropriate grain from peasants. This violence and the moves against the clergy also shocked many Hungarians. In late May, Kun attempted to fulfill his promise to restore Hungarys borders, the Hungarian Red Army marched northward and reoccupied part of Slovakia. Despite initial military success, however, Kun withdrew his troops about three weeks later when the French threatened to intervene and this concession shook his popular support. Kun then unsuccessfully turned the Hungarian Red Army on the Romanians, who broke through Hungarian lines on July 30, occupied Budapest, Kun fled first to Vienna and then to the Russian SFSR, where he was executed during Stalins purge of foreign communists in the late 1930s. A militantly anti-communist authoritarian government composed of officers entered Budapest on the heels of the Romanians. Estimates placed the number of executions at approximately 5,000, in addition, about 75,000 people were jailed. In particular, the Hungarian right wing and the Romanian forces targeted Jews for retribution, ultimately, the white terror forced nearly 100,000 people to leave the country, most of them socialists, intellectuals, and middle-class Jews. In March 1920, Admiral Miklós Horthy was named Regent and Sándor Simonyi-Semadam was named Prime Minister of the restored Kingdom of Hungary, Charles I of Austria was the last Emperor of Austria and the last King of HungaryHungary between the World Wars – Communist József Pogány speaks to revolutionary soldiers during the 1919 revolution
10. Hungary in World War II – During World War II, the Kingdom of Hungary was a member of the Axis powers. In the 1930s, the Kingdom of Hungary relied on increased trade with Fascist Italy, Hungary benefited territorially from its relationship with the Axis. Settlements were negotiated regarding territorial disputes with the Czechoslovak Republic, the Slovak Republic, in 1940, under pressure from Germany, Hungary joined the Axis. In 1941, Hungarian forces participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia, while waging war against the Soviet Union, Hungary engaged in armistice negotiations with the United States and the United Kingdom. Hitler discovered this betrayal and, in March 1944, German forces occupied Hungary, when Soviet forces began threatening Hungary, an armistice was signed between Hungary and the USSR by Regent Miklós Horthy. Soon after, Horthys son was kidnapped by German commandos and Horthy was forced to revoke the armistice, the Regent was then deposed from power, while Hungarian fascist leader Ferenc Szálasi established a new government, with German backing. In 1945, Hungarian and German forces in Hungary were defeated by invading Soviet armies, approximately 300,000 Hungarian soldiers and more than 600,000 civilians died during World War II, including among them at least 450,000 Jews and 28,000 Roma. Many cities were damaged, most notably the capital of Budapest, from the start of the German occupation of Hungary in 1944, Jews and Roma were deported to the Auschwitz concentration camp. By the end of the war, the toll was between 450,000 and 606,000 Hungarian Jews and an estimated 28,000 Hungarian Roma. Hungarys borders were returned to their status after its surrender. Unlike the ethnic Germans or Italians, however, ethnic Hungarians were not subject to expulsions from the countries in which they were residing after the war. In Hungary, the joint effect of the Great Depression and the Treaty of Trianon resulted in shifting the mood of the country towards the right. In 1932, the regent Miklós Horthy appointed a new Prime Minister, Gömbös was identified with the Hungarian National Defence Association. He led Hungarian international policy towards closer cooperation with Germany and started an effort to assimilate minorities in Hungary, Gömbös advocated a number of social reforms, one-party government, revision of the Treaty of Trianon, and Hungarys withdrawal from the League of Nations. The result of the 1935 elections gave Gömbös more solid support in parliament and he succeeded in gaining control of the ministries of finance, industry, and defense and in replacing several key military officers with his supporters. In October 1936, he died due to kidney problems without realizing his goals, Hungary used its relationship with Germany to attempt to revise the Treaty of Trianon. In 1938, Hungary openly repudiated the treatys restrictions on its armed forces, in 1935, a Hungarian fascist party, the Arrow Cross Party, led by Ferenc Szálasi was founded. Gömbös successor, Kálmán Darányi, attempted to appease both Nazis and Hungarian antisemites by passing the First Jewish Law, which set quotas limiting Jews to 20% of positions in several professionsHungary in World War II – Hungarian leader Miklós Horthy and German leader Adolf Hitler in 1938
11. Second Hungarian Republic – The Second Hungarian Republic was a parliamentary republic briefly established after the dissolution of the Kingdom of Hungary on 1 February 1946 and dissolved on 20 August 1949. It was succeeded by the Peoples Republic of Hungary, from September 1944 until April 1945, as World War II in Europe drew to a close, the Red Army occupied Hungary. The Siege of Budapest lasted almost two months and much of the city was destroyed and this meant that Hungarys borders were moved back to those that existed on 1 January 1938 and it lost the territories it had regained between 1938 and 1941. The Soviet Union also annexed Sub-Carpathia, some of which had part of Hungary before 1938. Between 1946 and 1948, half of Hungarys ethnic German minority were deported to Germany, the Soviets set up an alternative government in Debrecen on 21 December 1944 before capturing Budapest on 18 January 1945. Zoltán Tildy became the prime minister. In elections held in November 1945, the Independent Smallholders Party won 57% of the vote, the Hungarian Communist Party, now under the leadership of Mátyás Rákosi and Ernő Gerő, two survivors from the Hungarian Soviet Republic of 1919, received support from only 17% of the population. The Soviet commander in Hungary, Marshal Kliment Voroshilov, refused to allow the Smallholders Party to form a government, instead Voroshilov established a coalition government with the communists holding some of the key posts. Under Parliament, the leader of the Smallholders, Zoltán Tildy, was named president, Mátyás Rákosi became deputy prime minister. During 1945 and 1946, the currency, the pengő, was all. The only way to restore sanity to the economy was a new currency, lászló Rajk became minister of the interior and in this post established the security police. In February 1947 the police began arresting leaders of the Smallholders Party and it also pressured both parties to expel those members who werent willing to do the Communists bidding as fascists. Several prominent figures in both parties escaped abroad, later, Rákosi boasted that he had dealt with his partners in the government, one by one, cutting them off like slices of salami. By 1947, the Communists had all but emasculated the other parties in the coalition, the Communists were the dominant partners in the coalition Peoples Independence Front government. Nagy was replaced as minister by the more pliable Lajos Dinnyés. In October 1947, the Communists dropped all pretense of democracy, Rákosi gave the leaders of the non-Communist parties an ultimatum, cooperate with a new, Communist-dominated coalition government or go into exile. The Social Democratic Party effectively ceased to exist as an independent organization, other opposition leaders such as Anna Kéthly, Ferenc Nagy and István Szabó were imprisoned or sent into exile. The Republic of Hungary effectively ended in June 1948, when the Social Democrats were forced to merge with the Communists to form the Hungarian Working Peoples PartySecond Hungarian Republic – Tribute to Ferenc Nagy
12. Hungarian Revolution of 1956 – Though leaderless when it first began, it was the first major threat to Soviet control since the USSRs forces drove out Nazi Germany from its territory at the end of World War II. The revolt began as a student demonstration, which attracted thousands as they marched through central Budapest to the Parliament building, calling out on the using a van with loudspeakers. A student delegation, entering the building to try to broadcast the students demands, was detained. When the delegations release was demanded by the demonstrators outside, they were fired upon by the State Security Police from within the building, one student died and was wrapped in a flag and held above the crowd. This was the start of the revolution, as the news spread, disorder and violence erupted throughout the capital. The revolt spread quickly across Hungary and the government collapsed, thousands organised into militias, battling the ÁVH and Soviet troops. Pro-Soviet communists and ÁVH members were executed or imprisoned and former political prisoners were released and armed. Radical impromptu workers councils wrested municipal control from the ruling Hungarian Working Peoples Party, a new government formally disbanded the ÁVH, declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact, and pledged to re-establish free elections. By the end of October, fighting had almost stopped and a sense of normality began to return, after announcing a willingness to negotiate a withdrawal of Soviet forces, the Politburo changed its mind and moved to crush the revolution. On 4 November, a large Soviet force invaded Budapest and other regions of the country, the Hungarian resistance continued until 10 November. Over 2,500 Hungarians and 700 Soviet troops were killed in the conflict, mass arrests and denunciations continued for months thereafter. By January 1957, the new Soviet-installed government had suppressed all public opposition, public discussion about this revolution was suppressed in Hungary for more than 30 years. Since the thaw of the 1980s, it has been a subject of intense study, at the inauguration of the Third Hungarian Republic in 1989,23 October was declared a national holiday. During World War II Hungary was a member of the Axis powers, allied with the forces of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, Romania, in 1941, the Hungarian military participated in the occupation of Yugoslavia and the invasion of the Soviet Union. The Red Army was able to back the Hungarian and other Axis invaders. Fearing invasion, the Hungarian government began negotiations with the Allies. These ended when Nazi Germany invaded and occupied the country and set up its own pro-Axis regime, both Hungarian and German forces stationed in Hungary were subsequently defeated when the Soviet Union invaded the country in 1945. Towards the end of World War II, the Soviet Army occupied Hungary, immediately after World War II, Hungary was a multiparty democracy, and elections in 1945 produced a coalition government under Prime Minister Zoltán TildyHungarian Revolution of 1956 – A destroyed Soviet T34-85 in Budapest, 1956. The turret is lying behind the hull.
13. Geography of Hungary – With a land area of 93,028 square km, Hungary is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It measures about 250 km from north to south and 524 km from east to west. It has 2,106 km of boundaries, shared with Austria to the west, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia to the south and southwest, Romania to the southeast, Ukraine to the northeast, and Slovakia to the north. The country secured some boundary revisions from 1938 to 1941, In 1938 the First Vienna Award gave back territory from Czechoslovakia, in 1940 the Second Vienna Award gave back Northern Transylvania and finally Hungary occupied the Bácska and Muraköz regions during the Invasion of Yugoslavia. However, Hungary lost these territories again with its defeat in World War II, after World War II, the Trianon boundaries were restored with a small revision that benefited Czechoslovakia. Most of the country has an elevation of fewer than 200 m, although Hungary has several moderately high ranges of mountains, those reaching heights of 300 m or more cover less than 2% of the country. The highest point in the country is Kékes in the Mátra Mountains northeast of Budapest, the lowest spot is 77.6 m above sea level, located in the south of Hungary, near Szeged. The major rivers in the country are the Danube and Tisza, the Danube also flows through parts of Germany, Austria, Croatia, Slovakia, Serbia, and Romania. It is navigable within Hungary for 418 kilometers. The Tisza River is navigable for 444 km in the country, less important rivers include the Drava along the Croatian border, the Rába, the Szamos, the Sió, and the Ipoly along the Slovakian border. Lake Balaton, the largest, is 78 km long and from 3 to 14 km wide, Hungarians often refer to it as the Hungarian Sea. It is Central Europes largest freshwater lake and an important recreation area and its shallow waters offer good summer swimming, and in winter its frozen surface provides excellent opportunities for winter sports. Smaller bodies of water are Lake Velence in Fejér County and Lake Fertő, the countrys best natural resource is fertile land, although soil quality varies greatly. About 70% of the total territory is suitable for agriculture, of this portion. Hungary lacks extensive domestic sources of energy and raw materials needed for industrial development, main articles, Little Hungarian Plain, Transdanubia, Great Alföld. The Transdanubia region lies in the part of the country, bounded by the Danube River, the Drava River. It lies south and west of the course of the Danube and it contains Lake Fertő and Lake Balaton. The region consists mostly of rolling hills, Transdanubia is primarily an agricultural area, with flourishing crops, livestock, and viticulture. Mineral deposits and oil are found in Zala county close to the border of Croatia, the Great Alföld contains the basin of the Tisza River and its branchesGeography of Hungary – Topographic map of Hungary
14. Climate of Hungary – The climate of Hungary is characterised by its position. Hungary is in the west part of Central Europe, roughly equidistant from the Equator and it is also at least 500 kilometres from any main branches of the Mediterranean Sea. Its climate, like its whole geography, is as the result of changes during the Holocene Era. Hungarys climate is the result of the interaction of three major systems, the continental climate, the Oceanic climate, and the Mediterranean climate. The influence of all three systems are felt across the country at different times, which means that the weather is very changeable, the two most important factors influencing the climate of Hungary are its distance from the Atlantic and the prevailing westerly winds. The continental character of the Hungarian climate is far from being as extreme as in Eastern Europe, the depressions of the temperate zone follow in the path of the westerly winds and bring heavy rains to the country. The countrys situation within the region of the Carpathian Basin is also important. Hungarys climate is influenced by two more or less permanent action centres of the zone, the Icelandic Low and the Azores High. Depressions originating from the Iceland zone travel across the country bringing cool weather, when the Azores high gains the ascendancy, the weather is bright and dry, in winter and summer alike. From north to south, Hungary differs by only about 3 degrees of latitude, the seasonal variance in the angle of incidence of the Suns rays is, therefore, about 3°. The annual total insolation of the surface of the varies between 80 and 110 kcal/cm2. The seasonal distribution of sunshine varies between 70 kcal/cm2 in summer and 20 kcal/cm2 in winter and it varies a little by longitude, from 60 to 70 kcal/cm2 in the west to 100 to 110 kcal/cm2 in the south-east. The average hours of sunshine vary between 1,700 and 2,100 a year, the maxima at both are in July. The annual average of completely overcast days varies between 70 and 190, the actual hours of sunshine – that is, any sunshine on a day – reaches almost the half of that possible – 46%. Even in Hungary, the temperature is warmer than, for example, neighbouring Austria and this aberration or anomaly can be as much as 2.5 °C. Towards the east, this gradually diminishes, the average temperature in Hungary is 8 to 11 °C. The difference between the north and the south is only 3 °C, because of the small distance between south and north. For instance, the temperature in Southern England, Massif Central in France and Switzerland is the sameClimate of Hungary – Topographic map of Hungary
15. Government of Hungary – The Government of Hungary exercises executive power in Hungary. It is led by the Prime Minister, and comprises ministers and it is the principal organ of public administration. The Prime Minister elected by the National Assembly and serves as the head of government, the Prime Minister is the leader of the party with the most seats in parliament. The Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the right to dismiss them. Cabinet nominees must appear before consultative open hearings before one or more parliamentary committees, survive a vote in the National Assembly, the cabinet is responsible to the parliament. Since the fall of communism, Hungary has a multi-party system, the last Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 6 April 2014. This parliamentary election was the 7th since the 1990 first multi-party election, the result was a victory for Fidesz–KDNP alliance, preserving its two-thirds majority with Viktor Orbán remaining Prime Minister. It was the first election according to the new Constitution of Hungary which went into force on 1 January 2012, the new electoral law also entered into force that day. The voters elected 199 MPs instead of previous 386 lawmakers, list of cabinets since 1989, Following the Hungarian parliamentary election,2014, the current prime minister, Viktor Orbán is serving with his government since 6 June 2014. The Minister of Interior of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet, the current foreign minister is Sándor Pintér. Between 2006 and 2010 the ministry was split into the Ministry of Local Government, in 2010 the prior organization was restored. Ministry of Local Government Ministry of Justice and Law Enforcement The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet, the current foreign minister is Péter Szijjártó. The Minister of National Economy of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet, the current minister of national economy is Mihály VargaGovernment of Hungary – Hungary
16. Constitution of Hungary – The Fundamental Law of Hungary, the countrys constitution, was adopted on 18 April 2011, promulgated a week later and entered into force on 1 January 2012. It is Hungarys first constitution adopted within a framework and following free elections. The document succeeded the 1949 Constitution, originally adopted at the creation of the Hungarian Peoples Republic on 20 August 1949, both domestically and abroad, the 2011 constitution has been the subject of controversy. The government that enacted the charter has dismissed such assertions, saying it was enshrined lawfully, the constitution is divided into sections and articles as outlined below. Described as socially and fiscally conservative, the initiates a number of changes. In an effort to push the public debt below 50% of gross domestic product, the President is allowed to dissolve Parliament if a budget is not approved, and only companies with transparent activities and ownership structures are allowed to bid for government contracts. The powers of the head of the Hungarian National Bank are also limited, the life of a fetus is protected from the moment of conception, and although the move is seen as opening the possibility for a future ban or restrictions on abortion, existing laws were unaffected. Same-sex couples may register their partnerships, but marriage is defined as being between one man and one woman. A ban on discrimination does not mention age or sexual orientation, the constitution lowers judges mandatory retirement age from 70 to the general retirement age, which was 62 at the time of adoption and is set to rise to 65 by 2022. The provision also covers prosecutors, while the Prosecutor General and the head of the Curia are exempt, for centuries, the Hungarian constitution was unwritten, based upon customary law. There was no civil code either, lawyers worked with the Corpus Iuris Hungarici, following the advent of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, the Revolutionary Governing Council adopted a Provisional Constitution on 2 April 1919, providing for a Soviet-style political system. On 23 June, the National Assembly of Allied Councils adopted Hungarys first charter-like constitution, however, that regime was crushed two months later and Hungary returned to its historical, unwritten pre-1918 constitution. Despite the lack of a constitution, several constitutional laws were passed during the interwar period of the Kingdom of Hungary. Statute I of 1920 confirmed the monarchical form of government and vested legislative power in a diet, Statute XLVII dethroned the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. A second chamber was established by Statute XXII of 1926, successive constitutional acts increased the power of the regent, who was empowered to nominate forty senators at first, and during World War II, eighty-seven. Its basic features remained in place until 1989, although a number of important amendments were made, while the constitution guaranteed certain fundamental rights, their scope was limited by provisions stating they had to be exercised in harmony with the interests of the socialist society. In 1989, as the Communist regime crumbled, the legislature approved a constitutional revision that brought in a civil democratic form of government. After the opposition won free elections in 1990, references to democratic socialism, further modifications followed over the ensuing two decades, as successive plans for a new constitution did not reach fulfillmentConstitution of Hungary – 2011 postage stamp commemorating the constitution adopted that year
17. Hungarian nationality law – Hungarian nationality law is based on the principles of jus sanguinis. Hungarian citizenship is acquired mainly on the basis of a Hungarian parent, children born in Hungary to foreign parents do not generally acquire Hungarian citizenship. Every Hungarian citizen is also a citizen of the European Union, the existing Hungarian nationality law dates from 1993. Prior to this date, rules for acquisition and loss of Hungarian citizenship may have been different, till August 2015, more than 750,000 applications were filed and 700,000 people were already granted citizenship thanks to the new nationality law. These people are mostly from Transylvania with 300,000 people, Vojvodina with 130,000, dual citizenship is permitted under Hungarian law. A person acquires Hungarian citizenship at birth if at least one parent is a Hungarian citizen, the place of birth is irrelevant. Children born in Hungary to foreign parents do not acquire Hungarian citizenship at birth unless they would otherwise be stateless, minor children adopted by Hungarian citizens may normally be granted Hungarian citizenship. The residence requirement is reduced to 3 years for, spouses of Hungarian citizens who have married for three years. Declaration is a form of naturalisation. The following people may be eligible to acquire Hungarian citizenship by declaration, stateless persons aged less than 19, born in Hungary and residing in Hungary for the 5 years prior to the declaration. Persons becoming naturalised Hungarian citizens are expected to take an Oath of Allegiance as follows, I will be a faithful citizen of the Republic of Hungary. I will respect and obey the Constitution and laws of this country, I defend my country to the utmost of my strength, I serve it to the best of my abilities. Those who prefer may take an equivalent solemn promise instead of an oath and it is not possible for a person to lose Hungarian citizenship involuntarily. The exception concerns fraudulent applications for naturalisation, Hungarian citizens who hold another nationality and live outside Hungary may renounce their Hungarian citizenship. Visa requirements for Hungarian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Hungary. In 2014, Hungarian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 162 countries and territories, Hungarian citizens are also citizens of the European Union and thus enjoy rights of free movement and have the right to vote in elections for the European Parliament. Citizenship Act Office of Immigration and Nationality Act of Hungarian nationality,1993 Controversial Hungarian Citizenship Law PassedHungarian nationality law – Visa requirements for Hungarian citizens
18. National Assembly (Hungary) – The National Assembly is the parliament of Hungary. The unicameral body consists of 199 members elected to 4-year terms, election of members is based on a complex system involving both area and list election, parties must win at least 5% of the popular vote in order to enter the list of members of the assembly. The Assembly includes 25 standing committees to debate and report on introduced bills, the Constitutional Court of Hungary has the right to challenge legislation on the grounds of constitutionality. The assembly has met in the Hungarian Parliament Building in Budapest since 1902, the name of the legislative body was originally Parlamentum during the Middle Ages, the Diet expression gained mostly in the Early Modern period. It convened at regular intervals with interruptions during the period of 1527 to 1918, as a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise, it was reconstituted in 1867. Natio Hungarica was a geographic, institutional and juridico-political category, the democratic character of the Hungarian parliament was reestablished with the fall of the Iron Curtain and the end of communist dictatorship in 1989. Todays parliament is still called Országgyűlés just like in royal times, at the sixth parliamentary elections, four parties or party alliances passed the minimum threshold, the Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Union in alliance with the Christian Democratic Peoples Party. Fidesz-KDNP candidates won seats to achieve a two-thirds majority required to modify major laws. The Hungarian Socialist Party won 59 seats, while its former coalition party Alliance of Free Democrats failed to win any seats, there were two newcomers to the Országgyűlés, Jobbik and Politics Can Be Different. 1 independent got into the Parliament, winning a constituency in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County, the other prestigious party, the Hungarian Democratic Forum also lost all its seats. The President of Fidesz and Prime Minister is Viktor Orbán, pál Schmitt served as Speaker of the National Assembly until August 2010 when he became President of Hungary. He was replaced by László Kövér, after the 2010 local elections, held on the 3rd of October, Katalin Szili founded the Social Union and became its first chairperson. As a result, she quit the Hungarian Socialist Party and their parliamentarian group, continuing the parliamentarian work as formally independent MP. The heads of the factions were, MSZP, Ildikó Lendvai, Attila Mesterházy Fidesz, Tibor Navracsics KDNP, Zsolt Semjén SZDSZ, Gábor Kuncze, Mátyás Eörsi, János Kóka. MDF, the faction of MDF broke up in 2009. The head of the allied faction Fidesz-KDNP was Viktor Orbán, the head of the minority government was Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány then Gordon Bajnai. The speaker of the Assembly was Katalin Szili then Béla Katona of the MSZPNational Assembly (Hungary)
19. Prime Minister of Hungary – The Prime Minister of Hungary is the head of government of Hungary, and the most powerful person in Hungarian politics. He or she leads the majority party or coalition in the National Assembly of Hungary, the current Prime Minister is Viktor Orbán, who has served since 29 May 2010. The title of Hungarys head of government in Hungarian is miniszterelnök, if there is no party with a majority, the President asks the leader of the largest party to attempt to form a government coalition. Therefore, the election of members of a party to parliament is the equivalent to a vote for that partys leader for Prime Minister. There is no limit to the number of mandates as Prime Minister, he/she is appointed by the President of the Republic, after the legislative elections and after an audience with every leader of a party represented at the Assembly. It is usual for the leader of the party receives a plurality of votes in the elections to be named Prime Minister. The Prime Minister has a role in the executive branch in accordance with the Hungarian Constitution. Further, the Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the right to dismiss them as is the case with the Chancellor of Germany. Cabinet nominees appear before one or more parliamentary committees in consultative open hearings and they must then survive a vote by Parliament and be formally approved by the President. The palatine was the highest dignitary in the Kingdom of Hungary after the king from the rise up to 1848/1918. Initially, he was in fact the representative of the king, in the early centuries of the kingdom, he was appointed by the king, later elected by the Diet of the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Habsburgs solidified their hold of Hungary, the dignity became a position once again. Finally, it became hereditary in a branch of the Habsburg dynasty after King Francis appointed his brother Joseph. During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 the revolutionaries wanted the creation of a Hungarian cabinet which would be independent from the Austrian Empire, one of the 12 points said,2. Ferdinand V appointed Count Lajos Batthyány for the position of Prime Minister of Hungary on 17 March 1848, the government was called ministry, differently from the current acceptation. Batthyány resigned on October 2,1848 he was succeeded by Lajos Kossuth as President of the Committee of National Defence and this executive body has not been allocated the portfolios. In April 1849, when the Hungarians had won many successes, after sounding the army, in May Bertalan Szemere was appointed Prime Minister. The position was vacant after the defeat of the freedom fight, List of rulers of Hungary List of heads of state of Hungary List of palatines of Hungary List of Prime Ministers of Hungary by tenurePrime Minister of Hungary – Incumbent Viktor Orbán since 29 May 2010
20. List of Prime Ministers of Hungary – The following is a list of Prime Ministers of Hungary from when the first Prime Minister, Lajos Batthyány, took office in 1848 until the present day. The prime minister is head of the Government of Hungary, there are currently five living former Prime Ministers of Hungary. EKGP continued to support the government, while FKGP went into opposition,2 SZDSZ left the Gyurcsány II Cabinet on 20 April 2008. 3 The Bajnai Cabinet was supported externally by SZDSZ, izsák, Alajos – Pölöskei, Ferenc – Romsics, Ignác – Urbán, Aladár, Magyar miniszterelnökök 1848–2002, Kossuth Kiadó, Budapest,2003. Markó, László, A magyar állam főméltóságai Szent Istvántól napjainkig – Életrajzi Lexikon, Helikon Kiadó KftList of Prime Ministers of Hungary
21. Hungarian National Bank – The Hungarian National Bank is the central bank of Hungary and as such part of the European System of Central Banks. The Hungarian National Bank was established in 1924 and succeeded the Royal Hungarian State Bank, the Hungarian National Bank lays special emphasis on its international relations and on participation in the professional forums of international economic institutions and financial organisations. The Governor of the Hungarian National Bank is appointed by the President of Hungary at the proposal of the Prime Minister for a six-year term, the most important decision-making body of the Hungarian National Bank is the Monetary Council. Its building is located in Liberty Square, in the Inner City of Budapest, the MNB maintains a medium-term inflation target of around 3%. This is somewhat higher than the accepted level of inflation for price stability in Europe. Hungarys Central Bank Act states, The primary objective of the MNB shall be to achieve, without prejudice to its primary objective, the MNB shall support the economic policy of the Government using the monetary policy instruments at its disposal. Demonetised or damaged currency can be exchanged in the head office as well as its two regional offices. In the Austria-Hungary era the Austro-Hungarian Bank was the bank of the Monarchy, but after World War I, it was dissolved. The first independent Hungarian central bank, the National Bank of Hungary, commenced operations on 24 June 1924, Hungarys Central Bank Act founded the Hungarian National Bank. The October 1991 Act on the National Bank of Hungary reinstated central bank independence, the Act LVIII of 2001 on the Magyar Nemzeti Bank established the Hungarian government and the MNB as the policy makers determining the exchange-rate regime. Since 26 February 2008, the forint has floated freely against the euro, on 20 May 2016, Fitch Ratings upgraded Hungarys corresponding debt status to BBB-, assigning a stable outlook to the rating. Economy of Hungary Hungarian forint Official site of Magyar Nemzeti BankHungarian National Bank – Hungarian National Bank's building in Liberty Square, in the Inner City of Budapest
22. Hungarian forint – The forint is the currency of Hungary. It is divided into 100 fillér, although fillér coins are no longer in circulation, the introduction of the forint on 1 August 1946 was a crucial step of the post-World War II stabilization of the Hungarian economy, and the currency remained relatively stable until the 1980s. Transition to market economy in the early 1990s deteriorated the value of the forint, since 2001, inflation is single digit and the forint was declared fully convertible. As a member of the European Union, the long term aim of the Hungarian government may be to replace the forint with the euro, the forints name comes from the city of Florence, where golden coins were minted from 1252 called fiorino doro. In Hungary, florentinus, also a currency, was used from 1325 under Charles Robert. Between 1868 and 1892 the forint was the used in Hungarian for the currency of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It was subdivided into 100 krajczár, the forint was reintroduced on 1 August 1946, after the pengő was rendered almost worthless by massive hyperinflation in 1945–46—the highest ever recorded. The process was managed by the Hungarian Communist Party, which held the relevant cabinet seats, the forints success was exploited for political gains, contributing to the Communists takeover of complete power in 1948–49. The forint replaced the pengő at the rate of 1 forint = 4×1029 pengő—dropping 29 zeroes from the old currency, in fact, this was an imaginary exchange rate. With the highest value note being 100 million B. pengő, of more significance was the exchange rate to the adópengő of 1 forint =200 million adópengő. Historically the forint was subdivided into 100 fillér, although coins have been rendered useless by inflation and have not been in circulation since 1999. The Hungarian abbreviation for forint is Ft, which is written after the number with a space between, the name fillér, the subdivision of all Hungarian currencies since 1925, comes from the German word Heller. The abbreviation for the fillér is f, written also after the number with a space in between, after the democratic change of 1989–90, the forint saw yearly inflation figures of app. 35% for three years, but significant market economy reforms helped stabilize it. Since year 2000 the relatively high value of forint handicaps the strongly export-oriented Hungarian industry against foreign competitors with lower valued currencies, in 1946, coins were introduced in denominations of 2,10,20 fillérs and 1,2,5 forints. The silver 5 forint was reissued only in the next year,5 and 50 fillérs coins were issued in 1948. In 1967, a 5 forint coin was reintroduced, followed by a 10 forint in 1971 and 20 forint in 1982. In 1992, a new series of coins was introduced in denominations of 1,2,5,10,20,50,100 and 200 forint, production of the 2 and 5 fillér coins ceased in 1992, with all fillér coins withdrawn from circulation by 1999. From 1996, a bicolor 100 forint coin was minted to replace the 1992 version, since the latter was considered too big and ugly, silver 200 forint coins were withdrawn in 1998, the 1 and 2 forint coins remained in circulation until 29 February 2008Hungarian forint – Coins and banknotes of the Hungarian forint.
23. Science and technology in Hungary – Science and technology in Hungary has a long history. The Berg-Schola, the worlds first institute of technology, was founded in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary and its legal successor is the University of Miskolc in Hungary. BME University is considered the worlds oldest institute of technology which has university rank and it was the first institute in Europe to train engineers at university level. The legal predecessor of the university was founded in 1782 by Emperor Joseph II, important names in the 18th century are Maximilian Hell, János Sajnovics, Matthias Bel, Samuel Mikoviny and Wolfgang von Kempelen. Ányos Jedlik physicist and engineer invented the first electric motor, the dynamo, the self-excitation, the generator. Important name in 19th century physics is Joseph Petzval, one of the founders of modern optics, roland von Eötvös discovered the weak equivalence principle. Rado von Kövesligethy discovered laws of black body radiation before Planck, Hungary is famous for its excellent mathematics education which has trained numerous outstanding scientists. Famous Hungarian mathematicians include father Farkas Bolyai and son János Bolyai, János Bolyai is together with John von Neumann considered as the greatest Hungarian mathematician ever. The most prestigious Hungarian scientific award is named in honor of János Bolyai, many Hungarian scientists, including Zoltán Bay, Victor Szebehely, Mária Telkes, Imre Izsak, Erdős, von Neumann, Leó Szilárd, Eugene Wigner and Edward Teller emigrated to the US. Thirteen Hungarian or Hungarian-born scientists received the Nobel Prize, von Lenárd, Bárány, Zsigmondy, von Szent-Györgyi, de Hevesy, von Békésy, Wigner, Gábor, Polányi, Oláh, Harsányi, all emigrated, mostly because of persecution of communist and/or fascist regimes. Names in psychology are János Selye founder of Stress-theory and Csikszentmihalyi founder of Flow- theory, according to Science Watch, In Hadron research Hungary has most citations per paper in the world. In 2011 neuroscientists György Buzsáki, Tamás Freund and Péter Somogyi were awarded one million Euro with The Brain Prize for. After the fall of the communist dictatorship, a new prize, Bolyai János alkotói díj, has been established, politically unbiased. The English word coach came from the Hungarian kocsi, Wolfgang von Kempelen invented a manually operated speaking machine in 1769. János Irinyi invented the noiseless match, in 1827 Ányos Jedlik invented the electric motor. He created the first device to contain the three components of practical direct current motors, the stator, rotor and commutator. He built the first generator which used, instead of permanent magnets and it was also the discovery of the principle of dynamo self-excitation David Schwarz invented and designed the first flyable rigid airship. Later, he sold his patent for German Graf Zeppelin, who built the so-called Zeppelin airship, donát Bánki and János Csonka invented the CarburetorScience and technology in Hungary – The Hungarian "ZBD" team invented the first high efficiency, closed core shunt connection transformer and practical parallel-connected distribution circuits.
24. Anti-Hungarian sentiment – Anti-Hungarian sentiment is dislike, distrust, racism, or xenophobia directed against the Hungarians. It can involve hatred, grievance, distrust, intimidation, fear, due to Hungarian background, especially about Atilla the Hun, it is confused with Anti-Turkism and Anti-Mongolianism. During the era of the Habsburg Austro-Hungarian monarchs, the court in Vienna was influenced by Hungarophobia, though the Hungarian side, the Habsburgs regarded Hungarians as politically unreliable, and so they were not allowed to settle in the southern territories until the 1740s. This organized resettlement was planned by the Habsburgs, the resettlement policy was characterized as anti-Hungarian, because, among other reasons, the Habsburgs feared an uprising of Protestant Hungarians. Thousands of Hungarians were massacred in Transylvania in 1848-49 in nine separate incidents during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, minorities in Czechoslovakia during the years 1918-1939 enjoyed personal freedoms and were properly recognized by the state. The Czechoslovak government deported more than 44,129 Hungarians from Slovakia to the Sudetenland for forced labor between 1945 and 1948, to this day, these Beneš decrees remain legally in effect in the Czech Republic. In Slovakia, Hungarian and pro-Hungarian political parties are a part of the political system. Anti-Hungarian sentiment had been cricicized particularly during the government of Vladimír Mečiar. After personal changes in the presidium, SNS abandoned similar rhetoric, anti-Hungarian rhetoric of some far-right organizations in Slovakia is based on historical stereotypes, conflicts in the common history interpreted from nationalistic positions and recent events. In such interpretations, the arrival of old Hungarian tribes is described as the occupation by tribes that contributed to the destruction of Great Moravia. According to these views, Hungary still tries to undermine the integrity of Slovakia. However, anti-Hungarian sentiment is not typical even for all far-right organizations, E. g. the leader of Slovak Brotherhood emphasized the collaboration with Hungarian far-right organisations against materialism and multiculturalism. Women, whether Slovak or not, were in the past required to affix the Slovak language feminine marker -ová at the end of their surname, one incident of ethnically motivated violence against Hungarians in Slovakia is the Hedvig Malina case. Hedvig Malina, a 23-year-old Hungarian student from Horné Mýto allegedly beaten, a football match in Dunajská Streda also caused tensions between Slovakia and Hungary when Hungarian fans were badly beaten by Slovak police. The majority population and the Hungarian minority describe their coexistence mostly as good, for example, in a public survey in 2015,85. 2% of respondents characterized their coexistence as good and only 7. 6% as bad. In Romania, the Ceaușescu regime was obsessed with the ancient history of Transylvania, due to the nationalistic state ideology, the historical personalities of Hungary went through Romanianization in these years, becoming more central figures in the Romanian history. Although Hungarophobia in Serbia is not really high, however, due to Serbias conflict with Hungary in the past, notably over Vojvodina, Bohunk – combination of Bohemian and Hungarian. An immigrant of East-Central European origin, hunky – derived from Bohunk Bozgor, Bozgoroaică, Bozgori – pseudo-Magyar term of possible Romanian/Slav originAnti-Hungarian sentiment – Ján Slota, the chairman of Slovak National Party SNS, according to whom the Hungarian minority of Slovakia "is a tumour in the body of the Slovak nation."
25. Crime in Hungary – Crime in Hungary is combated by the Hungarian police and other agencies. In 2016, Hungary had 224 homicides at a rate of 2.28 per 100,000, in 2010, there were an average of 4,000 crimes against every 100,000 members of the population, of which at least 50% were considered serious crimes. Corruption is an issue in Hungary. According to Transparency International Hungary, almost one-third of top managers claim they regularly bribe politicians, most people in Hungary think that the sector most affected by bribery is the political party system. Jozsef Hatala of the National Police stated in 2011 that the underworld is strongest in Budapest. The murder rate is spread throughout Hungary and it is lower in the northeast county of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén and the westernmost counties while it is highest in Pest County and BudapestCrime in Hungary – Hungarian police in Budapest.
26. Education in Hungary – Education in Hungary are predominantly public, run by the Ministry of Education. Preschool kindergarten education is compulsory and provided for all children between three and six old, after which school attendance is also compulsory until age of sixteen. Primary education usually lasts for eight years, the system is partly flexible and bridges exist, graduates from a vocational school can achieve a two years program to have access to vocational higher education for instance. The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study rated 13–14-year-old pupils in Hungary among the bests in the world for maths, most of the Hungarian universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment. The general requirement for university is the Matura, health insurance for students is free until the end of their studies. Hungarys higher education and training has been ranked 44 out of 148 countries in the Global competitiveness Report 2014, today there are 67 higher education institutions in Hungary, ranging from small colleges to top research universities. These universities and colleges are maintained either by the state, private organizations or a church, in accordance with the objectives of the Bologna process the degree structure of tertiary education is based on three cycles. Nearly all study fields lead first to a Bachelor’s degree, the first-cycle programmes last 6–8 semesters and lead to a bachelors degree. The second cycle, leading to a degree, lasts 2–4 semesters. Two-year-long vocational higher education programmes are available on an optional basis prior to first-cycle programmes. The 120 credit points gained in vocational higher education programmes are compatible for recognition in the first cycle, any Bachelor’s or masters degree can be followed by specialised higher education courses. These do not lead to another degree but offer the option of specialisation in a field of study. Courses can be studied full-time, part-time or through distance learning, a four-year doctoral programme is a post-graduate course to follow any Master’s or equivalent qualification. Hungary has a tradition of higher education reflecting the existence of established knowledge economy. Sigismund established Óbuda University in 1395, another, Universitas Istropolitana, was established 1465 in Pozsony by Mattias Corvinus. Nagyszombat University was founded in 1635 and moved to Buda in 1777, the worlds first institute of technology was founded in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary in 1735, its legal successor is the University of Miskolc. The decline of Hungarys population that started in 1981 has also continued in recent years, according to the 2001 census, the population of Hungary was 10,198,000, about half a million less than the figure of twenty years earlier. By 2005 the population dropped to 10,077,000, the age pyramid of the Hungarian population is among the most irregular ones in EuropeEducation in Hungary – A Hungarian pre-school class having outdoor activities, March 2007.
27. Hungarians – Hungarians, also known as Magyars, are a nation and ethnic group who speak Hungarian and are primarily associated with Hungary. There are around 13. 1–14.7 million Hungarians, of whom 8. 5–9.8 million live in todays Hungary, the Hungarians own ethnonym to denote themselves in the Early Middle Ages is uncertain. The Magyars/Hungarians probably belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance, and it is possible that they became its ethnic majority, in the Early Middle Ages the Hungarians had many names, including Ungherese, Ungar, and Hungarus. The H- prefix is an addition of Medieval Latin, another possible explanation comes from the Old Russian Yugra. It may refer to the Hungarians during a time when they dwelt east of the Ural Mountains along the borders of Europe. The Hungarian people refer to themselves by the demonym Magyar rather than Hungarian, Magyar is Finno-Ugric from the Old Hungarian mogyër. Magyar possibly derived from the name of the most prominent Hungarian tribe, the tribal name Megyer became Magyar in reference to the Hungarian people as a whole. Magyar may also derive from the Hunnic Muageris or Mugel, the Greek cognate of Tourkia was used by the scholar and Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus in his De Administrando Imperio of c. AD950, though in his use, Turks always referred to Magyars, the historical Latin phrase Natio Hungarica had a wider meaning because it once referred to all nobles of the Kingdom of Hungary, regardless of their ethnicity. During the 4th millennium BC, the Uralic-speaking peoples who were living in the central, some dispersed towards the west and northwest and came into contact with Iranian speakers who were spreading northwards. From at least 2000 BC onwards, the Ugrian speakers became distinguished from the rest of the Uralic community, judging by evidence from burial mounds and settlement sites, they interacted with the Indo-Iranian Andronovo culture. In the 4th and 5th centuries AD, the Hungarians moved from the west of the Ural Mountains to the area between the southern Ural Mountains and the Volga River known as Bashkiria and Perm Krai. In the early 8th century, some of the Hungarians moved to the Don River to an area between the Volga, Don and the Seversky Donets rivers, meanwhile, the descendants of those Hungarians who stayed in Bashkiria remained there as late as 1241. The Hungarians around the Don River were subordinates of the Khazar khaganate and their neighbours were the archaeological Saltov Culture, i. e. Bulgars and the Alans, from whom they learned gardening, elements of cattle breeding and of agriculture. Tradition holds that the Hungarians were organized in a confederacy of seven tribes, the names of the seven tribes were, Jenő, Kér, Keszi, Kürt-Gyarmat, Megyer, Nyék, and Tarján. Around 830, a rebellion broke out in the Khazar khaganate, as a result, three Kabar tribes of the Khazars joined the Hungarians and moved to what the Hungarians call the Etelköz, the territory between the Carpathians and the Dnieper River. The Hungarians faced their first attack by the Pechenegs around 854, the new neighbours of the Hungarians were the Varangians and the eastern Slavs. In 895/896, under the leadership of Árpád, some Hungarians crossed the Carpathians, the tribe called Magyar was the leading tribe of the Hungarian alliance that conquered the centre of the basinHungarians – The Hungarian bow
28. Hungarian irredentism – Hungarian irredentism is a broad umbrella term consisting of irredentist and pan-nationalist political ideas. The idea is associated with Hungarian revisionism and its goal is to restore the pre-World War I borders of the Kingdom of Hungary, or at least to regain control over Hungarian populated areas in Hungarys neighbouring countries. However, only the 54% of the inhabitants of the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary were Hungarians before the World War I, following the treatys instatement, Hungarian leaders became inclined towards revoking some of its terms. This political aim gained greater attention and was a national concern up through the second World War. Following the close of World War II, the borders of Hungary as defined by the Treaty of Trianon were restored and these villages are today administratively a part of Bratislava. The independent Kingdom of Hungary was established in 1000 AD, after the Ottoman conquest in the Kingdom of Hungary, the ethnic structure of the kingdom started to become more multi-ethnic because of immigration to the sparsely populated areas. A considerable number of the figures who are considered important in Hungarian culture were born in what are - since 1918 - parts of Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine. Names of Hungarian dishes, common surnames, proverbs, sayings, after 1867, the non-Hungarian ethnic groups were subject to assimilation and Magyarization. Among the most notable policies was the promotion of the Hungarian language as the official language, however, this was often at the expense of Slavic languages. The peace treaties signed after the First World War redefined the borders of Europe. The dissolution of Austria-Hungary, after its defeat in the First World War, Transylvania and most of the Banat became part of Romania, while Croatia-Slavonia and the other southern areas became part of the new state of Yugoslavia. Post-Trianon Hungary had about half of the population of the former Kingdom, almost 3 million ethnic Hungarians remained outside the borders of post-Trianon Hungary. A considerable number of non-Hungarian nationalities remained within the new borders of Hungary, after the Treaty of Trianon, a political concept known as Hungarian revisionism became popular in Hungary. Hungarys government allied itself with Nazi Germany during World War II in exchange for assurances that Greater Hungarys borders would be restored and this goal was partially achieved when Hungary reannexed territories from Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia at the outset of the war. These annexations were affirmed under the Munich Agreement, two Vienna Awards, and aggression against Yugoslavia, the latter achieved one week after the German army had already invaded Yugoslavia, the percentage of Hungarian speakers was 84% in southern Czechoslovakia and 15% in the Sub-Carpathian Rus. The population of Northern Transylvania, according to the Hungarian census from 1941 counted 53. 5% Hungarians and 39. 1% Romanians. The Yugoslav territory occupied by Hungary had approximately one million inhabitants, including 543,000 Yugoslavs,301,000 Hungarians,197,000 Germans,40,000 Slovaks,15,000 Rusyns, population of entire Bačka numbered 789,705 inhabitants in 1941. This means that from the beginning of the occupation, the number of Hungarian speakers in Bačka increased by 48,550, about 56,000 people were also expelled from BačkaHungarian irredentism – Kingdom of Hungary (shown in brown) around 1190 AD.
29. Languages of Hungary – The languages spoken in Hungary are as follows. Uralic languages – Hungarian, The only official language of the country and it is the first language of some 98. 9% of the total population. Indo-European languages – German, spoken by the German minority, especially in and around Mecsek Mountains, – Slovak, spoken by the Slovak minority, especially in the North Hungarian Mountains and around Békéscsaba. – Serbian, spoken by the Serbian minority, especially in and around Bácska, – Slovene, spoken by the Slovene minority, especially around the Slovenian border, Western Hungary. – Croatian, spoken by the Croatian minority, especially in Southern Hungary, – Romanian, spoken by the Romanian minority, especially in and around Gyula, Eastern Hungary. – Romani, spoken by members of the Roma minority throughout the country. Turkic languages – Cuman, once spoken in Cumania region in Hungary and it is a Kipchak language closely related to other Kipchak languages like Crimean Tatar. The last speaker died in 1777, – Kipchak, once spoken in Eastern Europe which includes Hungary. It is the lingua franca of the Golden Horde controlled areas and it is the ancestor of all Kipchak languages today, which also includes the extinct Cuman. Sign languages – Hungarian Sign Language, spoken by around 9,000 people and it belongs to French Sign Language family. Hungary Hungarian language Demographics of HungaryLanguages of Hungary – Trilingual (Hungarian, Romanian, German) table in Gyula (meaning "social health insurance")
30. Culture of Hungary – The culture of Hungary varies across Hungary, starting from the capital city of Budapest on the Danube, to the Great Plains bordering Ukraine. Hungary has a folk crafts tradition, for example, embroidery, decorated pottery. Hungarian music ranges from the rhapsodies of Franz Liszt and folk music to modern songs influenced by folk music, Hungary has a rich and colorful literature with many poets and writers although not many are known abroad due to the limited prevalence of the Hungarian language. Some noted authors include Sándor Márai and Imre Kertész, who have been gaining acclaim in recent decades, János Kodolányi was well known in Italy and Finland in the mid-20th century. Imre Kertész won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2002, Péter Esterházy is popular in Austria and Germany, and Magda Szabó has recently become well known in Europe as well. The music of Hungary consists mainly of traditional Hungarian folk music and music by prominent composers such as Ferenc Liszt, Franz Schmidt, Dohnányi, Bartók, Kodály, and Rózsa. Traditional Hungarian music tends to have a strong rhythm, as in the Hungarian language the first syllable of each word is invariably stressed. Hungary also has a number of internationally renowned composers of classical music, including György Ligeti, György Kurtág, Péter Eötvös and Zoltán Jeney. Hungary has made contributions to the fields of folk, popular. Hungarian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity and it is also strong in the Szabolcs-Szatmár area, and in the southwest part of Transdanubia, near the border with Croatia. The Busójárás carnival in Mohács is a major Hungarian folk music event, Hungarian classical music has long been an experiment, made from Hungarian antedecents and on Hungarian soil, to create a conscious musical culture musical world of the folk song. For example, Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály, two of Hungarys most famous composers, are known for using folk themes in their music. Bartók collected folk songs from across Central Europe, including Romania and Slovakia, during the era of Communist rule in Hungary, a Song Committee scoured and censored popular music for traces of subversion and ideological impurity. The three giants of Hungarian rock, Illés, Metró, and Omega, remain popular, especially Omega. Veteran underground bands from the 1980s such as Beatrice also remain popular, in earliest times, the Hungarian language was written in a runic-like script. The country switched to the Latin alphabet after being Christianized under the reign of Stephen I of Hungary, there are no existing documents from before the 11th century. The oldest complete text is the Funeral Sermon and Prayer, a translation of a Latin sermon, the oldest poem is the Old Hungarian Laments of Mary, also a translation from Latin, albeit a flawed one, from the 13th century. It is also the oldest surviving Uralic poem, among the first chronicles about Hungarian history were Gesta Hungarorum by the unknown author usually called Anonymus, and Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum by Simon Kézai, both written in LatinCulture of Hungary – Béla Bartók
31. Hungarian art – Hungarian art stems from the period of the conquest of the Carpathian basin by the people of Árpád in the 9th century. Prince Árpád also organized earlier people settled in the area, before the arrival of Árpád several other peoples from the steppe had founded states in the Carpathian basin. After the death of Attila in 453 the Lombards and Gepids and this late Avar kingdom was defeated by the Franks, and the Avars of Transdanubia were baptised. The first Hungarians came to the basin during the late 9th century, the People of Árpád in the 9th century used beautiful ornamental motifs to decorate both their dress and the trappings of their horses, the main motif being the palmette. This style remained important in Hungary from the 9th to the 11th centuries, descendants of Prince Árpád organized the medieval Hungarian Kingdom. The coronation mantle of King Stephen is a fine example from this period. This king stated that 10 villages should build a church, and though several of his foundations were later famous in new guises, in spite of widespread destruction during the Turkish occupation, Romanesque churches and other ecclesiastical buildings can be found throughout the Carpathian basin. Fine examples survive at Székesfehérvár, Gyulafehérvár, Esztergom, Pannonhalma, while recently opened lapidariums at Pécs, Veszprém, ruins of former royal houses at Tarnaszentmária, Feldebrő, and Szekszárd, also show stylistic resemblances to contemporary architecture from the Caucasus. Large-scale reconstructions were undertaken after the Mongolian wars of 1241-42, the Gothic style reached Hungary in the late 14th century, and continued throughout the reigns of the Anjou, Luxembourg, and Jagello kings. The now destroyed monastery of the Pauline Order at Budaszentlőrinci was also built in this style, the most renowned architect of this time was János Mester, a Franciscan brother. His the largest churches are in Szeged-Alsóváros, in Farkas Street, Kolozsvár, perhaps the most famous Hungarian Gothic church of all is the Cathedral of St Elizabeth in Kassa. The rich heritage of paintings in Hungary originated with the houses of Luxemburg and Anjou. Even today, after so many wars and so much destruction, King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary had close ties with Italy, and Italian influence is clearly evident in architectural complexes built during his reign, such as his palaces in Buda and in Visegrad. A recent exhibition at the mining Museum in Rudabánya displayed the quality of Hungarian goldwork at this period in the golden forints made by Hungarian masters for the Russian Tsar Ivan III. This time was also aperiod of renewal for churches in a sense, with inner spaces displaying fresh and delicate ornamentation. Cassette ceilings are also characteristic of this period, the wars against the Ottoman Empire also led to great developments in the construction of Hungarian fortresses. Earlier fortresses had been built before the era of heavy artillery, the best-known surviving fortresses from this period are those of Eger, Nagyvárad, Nagykanizsa and Érsekújvár. After the expulsion of the Turks in 1686, the new ruling house of the Habsburgs brought with it the new Baroque styleHungarian art – The most characteristic decorative motif is the palmette style as on this sabretache plate.
32. Budapest Fashion Week – Budapest Fashion Week is a fashion week trade show held annually in April and October in Budapest, Hungary, usually after the five major fashion weeks. It is still aspiring to the level of big five fashion weeks, the event is usually held in the Palazzo Dorottya. The long-term goal of the event is to build a position for the Hungarian designers on the local and also on the markets and to revive Hungarian fashion. The organizer of this event is BigBag PR Agency, which is a strategic communications firm specializes in fashion. Based on industry experiences – with a background in fashion journalism – the agency develop programs that launch, grow, or re-establish brand’s presence, the agency’s aim is to reinvigorate the professional Hungarian fashion life, that is why the organizers created TONI&GUY Fashion Week Budapest. The video stream can be seen on Budapest Fashion Weeks website an on UStream channels, general sponsor of the event is TONI&GUY global hairdressing and training business company and further major sponsors are the Mercedes-Benz, Samsung, MAC Cosmetics, Sony, UPC among others. New York Fashion Week Berlin Fashion Week Milan Fashion Week Paris Fashion Week London Fashion Week Budapest Fashion Week official website Budapest Fashion Week official channel on YouTubeBudapest Fashion Week – Budapest Fashion Week in Palazzo Dorottya, 2013
33. Hungarian language – Hungarian is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is spoken by communities of Hungarian people in neighbouring countries. Like Finnish and Estonian, it belongs to the Uralic language family, its closest relatives being Mansi and it is one of several European languages not part of the Indo-European languages, and the most widely-spoken European language that does not belong to the Indo-European family. The Hungarian name for the language is magyar or magyar nyelv, the word Magyar is used as an English and Hungarian word to refer to Hungarian people as an ethnic group. Hungarian is a member of the Uralic language family, the name of Hungary could be a result of regular sound changes of Ungrian/Ugrian, and the fact that the Eastern Slavs referred to Hungarians as Ǫgry/Ǫgrove seemed to confirm that. Current literature favors the hypothesis that it comes from the name of the Turkic tribe Onogur, there are numerous regular sound correspondences between Hungarian and the other Ugric languages. For example, Hungarian /aː/ corresponds to Khanty /o/ in certain positions, for example, Hungarian ház house vs. Khanty xot house, and Hungarian száz hundred vs. Khanty sot hundred. The distance between the Ugric and Finnic languages is greater, but the correspondences are also regular, during the later half of the 19th century, a competing hypothesis proposed a Turkic affinity of Hungarian. Following an academic debate known as Az ugor-török háború, the Finno-Ugric hypothesis was concluded the sounder of the two, foremost based on work by the German linguist Josef Budenz. The traditional view argues that the Hungarian language separated from its Ugric relatives in the first half of the 1st millennium b. c. e. in western Siberia, east of the southern Urals. The Hungarians gradually changed their lifestyle from settled hunters to nomadic pastoralists, in Hungarian, Iranian loans date back to the time immediately following the breakup of Ugric and probably span well over a millennium. Among these include tehén ‘cow’, tíz ‘ten’, tej ‘milk’, increasing archaeological evidence from present-day southern Bashkortostan found in the previous decades confirms the existence of Hungarian settlements between the Volga River and Ural Mountains. The Onogurs later had a influence on the language, especially between the 5th-9th centuries. This layer of Turkic loans is large and varied, and includes words borrowed from Oghur Turkic, e. g. borjú ‘calf’, dél ‘noon, many words related to agriculture, to state administration or even to family relations have such backgrounds. Hungarian syntax and grammar were not influenced in a dramatic way during these 300 years. After the arrival of the Hungarians into the Carpathian Basin the language came into contact with different speech communities, Turkic loans from this period come mainly from the Pechenegs and Cumanians who settled in Hungary during the 12th-13th centuries, e. g. koboz ‘cobza’, komondor ‘mop dog’. Hungarian borrowed many words from especially the neighbouring Slavic languages, in exchange, these languages also borrowed words from Hungarian, e. g. Serbo-Croatian ašov from Hung ásó ‘spade’. Approximately 1. 6% of the Romanian lexicon is of Hungarian origin, on the basis of the growing genetic evidence, the accepted origin theory is contested by geneticists tooHungarian language – Hungarian keyboard
34. Hungarian literature – No written evidence remains of the earliest Hungarian literature, but through folktales and folk songs, elements have survived that can be traced back to pagan times. In earliest times the Hungarian language was written in a runic-like script, the country switched to the Latin alphabet after being Christianized under the reign of Stephen I. There are no existing documents from the century era. The Old Hungarian period is reckoned from 896 CE, when Hungarians conquered the Carpathian Basin, settled down, creation of the first extant written records followed soon after. The oldest written record in Hungarian is a fragment in the Establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany which contains several Hungarian terms, among them the words feheruuaru rea meneh hodu utu rea. This text is probably to be read as Fehérü váru reá meneü hodu utu reá with todays spelling, the rest of the document was written in Latin. The oldest complete, continuous text in Hungarian is, a funeral oration written in about 1192–1195. The oldest poem is Ómagyar Mária-siralom, a translation from Latin of a poem by Godefroy de Breteuil. It is also the oldest surviving Uralic poem, during the Middle Ages and well into the Renaissance, the language of writing was mostly Latin. Important documents include the Admonitions of St. Stephen, which includes the kings admonitions to his son Prince Imre, among the first chronicles about Hungarian history were Gesta Hungarorum, by an unknown author, and Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum by Simon Kézai. These chronicles mix history with legends, so historically they are not always authentic, another chronicle is the Képes Krónika, which was written for Louis the Great. Further, Rogeriuss 13th century work was published with János Thuróczys chronicle in the late 15th century, in Split Thomas of Spalato wrote on local history, with much information on Hungary in the 13th century. At that time Dalmatia and the city of Split were part of the Kingdom of Hungary, the 15th century saw the first translations from the Bible. A great part of the vocabulary created for the purpose is still in use, Renaissance literature flourished under the reign of King Matthias. Janus Pannonius, although he wrote in Latin, counts as one of the most important persons in Hungarian literature, the first printing house was also founded during Matthiass reign, by András Hess, in Buda. The first book printed in Hungary was the Chronica Hungarorum, in 1526 most of Hungary fell under Ottoman occupation, from which date the beginning of the Middle Hungarian period is set, in connection with various cultural changes. The most important poets of the period were Bálint Balassi, Sebestyén Tinódi Lantos and his poems can be divided into three thematic categories, love poems, war poems and religious poems. Translation of Roman authors produced also some works, János Baranyai Decsi translated Sallustiuss Catalina, a decade later appeared the translation of Curtius Rufuss life of Alexander in DebrecenHungarian literature – The oldest surviving poem of Hungarian language, Old Hungarian Laments of Mary
35. Music of Hungary – Hungary has made many contributions to the fields of folk, popular and classical music. Hungarian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity and it is also strong in the Szabolcs-Szatmár area and in the southwest part of Transdanubia, near the border with Croatia. The Busójárás carnival in Mohács is a major Hungarian folk music event, Hungarian classical music has long been an experiment, made from Hungarian antedecents and on Hungarian soil, to create a conscious musical culture musical world of the folk song. For example, Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály, two of Hungarys most famous composers, are known for using folk themes in their music. Bartók collected folk songs from across Eastern Europe, including Romania and Slovakia, during the era of Communist rule in Hungary a Song Committee scoured and censored popular music for traces of subversion and ideological impurity. The three giants of Hungarian rock, Illés, Metró and Omega, remain popular, especially Omega. Older veteran underground bands such as Beatrice from the 1980s also remain popular, unlike most Western European peoples, the Hungarian people, Magyars, emerged from the intermingling of Finno-Ugric and Eastern Turkish peoples during the fifth to eighth centuries CE. This makes the origins of their music unique in Europe. Bence Szabolcsi, however, claims that the Finno-Ugric and Turkish-Mongolian elements are present but cannot be attached to certain, definite national or linguistic groups. These, he claims, are evidence that Asian memories slumber in the depths of Hungarian folk music, the subsequent influence on neighboring countries music is seen in the music of Slovakia and, with intervals of the third or second, in the music of the Czech Republic. Modern Hungarian folk music evolved in the 19th century, and is contrasted with previous styles through the use of arched melodic lines as opposed to the more archaic descending lines, the earliest documentation of Hungarian music dates from the introduction of Gregorian chant in the 11th century. Though Hungarys early religious history is relatively well documented, secular music remains mostly unknown, though it was apparently a common feature of community festivals. Thereafter the organ came to play a major role, the 16th century saw the rise of Transylvania as a center for Hungarian music. It also saw the first publication of music in Hungary, in Kraków, at this time Hungarian instrumental music was well known in Europe, the lutenist and composer Bálint Bakfark, for example, was famed as a virtuoso player. His compositions pioneered a new style of writing for the lute based on vocal polyphony, the lutenist brothers Melchior and Konrad Neusiedler were also noted, as was Stephan Monetarius, the author of an important early work in music theory, the Epithoma utriusque musices. During the 17th century, Hungary was divided into three parts, a controlled by the Turks, an area controlled by the Habsburgs. Historic songs declined in popularity and were replaced by lyrical poetry, many courts or households maintained large ensembles of musicians who played the trumpet, whistle, cimbalom, violin or bagpipes. Some of these musicians were German, Polish, French or ItalianMusic of Hungary – Franz Liszt, prominent Hungarian composer
36. Hungary at the Olympics – Hungary first participated at the Olympic Games at the inaugural 1896 Games, and has sent athletes to compete in most Summer Olympic Games and every Winter Olympic Games since then. The nation was not invited to the 1920 Games after World War I, Hungarian athletes have won a total of 491 medals at the Summer Games and 6 medals at the Winter Games, with fencing as the top medal-producing sport. Hungary has won more Olympic medals than any nation that has never hosted the Games. The National Olympic Committee for Hungary is the Hungarian Olympic Committee, the Hungarian athlete who won the most medals in the history of the Olympic Games, are the fencer Aladár Gerevich and the gymnast Ágnes Keleti. Notes, in Khaki the athletes still in activity, category, Olympic competitors for Hungary Hungary at the Paralympics List of Hungarian Olympic champions Hungary. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04Hungary at the Olympics
37. Television in Hungary – Television in Hungary was introduced in 1957. Transmission in color was introduced to Hungarian television for the first time in 1971, Hungary had only one television channel until 1973. It was only in the mid 1990s when private and commercial broadcasting was introduced to Hungary, analogue broadcasting in Hungary was phased out in two phases that were completed on July 31 and October 31,2013, respectively. M1 TV2 RTL Klub plus Local channels M1 M2 Duna Duna World Duna TV, 0-24, National main channel of Hungary, M1, 0-24, News channel, since March 15,2015. It was the main channel before, started in 1957. M2 / Petőfi TV, 6-20, Kids channel since December 22,2012, 20-6, m3, 0-24, Retro channel started in late 2013. M4 Sport, 0-24, Sport channel started in 2015, m5, 0-24, Started on August 18,2016 as sport channel, because of the Rio Olympics 2016 and Rio Paralympics 2016, as cultural channel since September 18,2016. Duna World, International channel of Hungary, since April 16,2006, M6, Planned as a music channel. M3D, Planned as a 3D channel, m4K, Planned as a 4K channel. RTL Klub, The most popular channel in Hungary. Cool, Film+, Film+2, RTL II, RTL+, Sorozat+, RTL Spike, premium series and films channels Muzsika TV, TV2, One of main commercial channel in Hungary. Chili TV, FEM3, Humor+, Izaura TV, KiWi TV, PRIME, Mozi+, Super TV2, Spíler TV, premium series, films and sport channels Zenebutik, Duna World M1 started broadcasting in 1957. M4 Sport started broadcasting in 2015, m5 - TV2 started broadcasting in October 1997. RTL Klub started broadcasting in October 1997, RTL II Super TV2 M6 Heti TV starts on 1Television in Hungary – Audience shares of Hungarian TV channels, 2012
38. List of castles in Belgium – This is an incomplete list of châteaus and castles in Belgium. Both the Dutch word kasteel and the French word château refer both to fortified defensive buildings and to stately aristocratic homes, as a result, it common to see both types of building translated into English as castle, although many of them are not castles proper. Most of the old Families still live in the castles, see Belgian nobilityList of castles in Belgium – Belvédère Castle Château du Belvédère / Kasteel Belvédère
39. List of castles in France – This is a list of castles in France, arranged by Region and Department. Notes The French word château has a wider meaning than the English castle, it includes architectural entities that are properly called palaces, mansions or vineyards in English. This list focuses primarily on architectural entities that may be properly termed castle or fortress, occasionally, where there is not a specific article on a castle, links are given to another article that includes details, typically an article on a town. Italics indicate links to articles in the French Wikipedia, if no article appears in either English or French Wikipedias, a link is given to an external website. The number in parentheses after the name of each department indicates the department number used for administrative purposesList of castles in France – Château du Fleckenstein
40. List of castles in Georgia (country) – There are two known castles and 13 known forts in Georgia, which were constructed between the years 800 and 1700 by various provincial kings. The castles and forts have long abandoned, but most are still standing. The earliest castle in Georgia was the Ananuri castle, which was built in the period from 1200–1249, the Ananuri castle consisted of two castles with a big curtain wall surrounding it. It was the seat of the dukes of the Duchy of Aragvi, the last castle to be built in Georgia was the Rabati Castle, which was built between 1250 and 1299. The original town was built from 700–800, with the castle being built in the 1260s, from the 1260s to the 1340s the castle and the surrounding town was the capital city of the province of Samtskhe-Saatabago, which was ruled by the House of Jaqeli. The 13 forts of Georgia lie in varying states of ruin, the oldest was built in the 9th century, while some were built as late as the 17th century. While many still stand, most have been damaged by various causes. History of the Five Reigns Noble, John, Kohn, Michael, Systermans, Georgia, A Sovereign Country of the Caucasus. ISBN 962-217-748-4 Wood, James, ed. Redoubt Kali, london and New York, Frederick WarneList of castles in Georgia (country) – View from the tower at Ananuri
41. List of castles in the Republic of Ireland – This List of Castles in Ireland, be they in the Northern Ireland and thus United Kingdom or in the Republic of Ireland, is organized by county within their respective country. OPW info Belvelly Castle Ballyva Manor, built in the 1850s by Timothy Hurley, 19th century, on site of earlier castle. NIAH survey Conn Castle, intact Dalkey,2 remaining of original 7 castles Donabate, intact Drimnagh Castle, conference centre Dublin Castle, Dublin City. Ruins Dunsoghly Castle, Restored Castle Howth Castle, Howth. NIAH survey Grange, irishtown Castle, ruin Kilgobbin Castle, ruin, History Killiney Castle, Scalpwilliam or Mount Mapas. NIAH survey Killininny Castle, Firhouse Kilsallaghan Castle Knocklyne Castle, Knocklyon. NIAH survey Lambay Castle, Lambay Island NIAH survey Lanestown, intact Luttrellstown Castle, Restored Castle Merrion Castle Malahide Castle, Ruin Murphystown, ruins, the proposed Luas line B1 runs approximately 28m west of the ruins of Murphystown Castle and through its area of archaeological potential. Brief history & photos, Ruin Rathfarnham Castle, Rathfarnham Demesne, Restored Castle Rathmines Castle, Rathmines West. NIAH survey Robswall, intact Roebuck Castle, Roebuck, hall of residence UCD campus NIAH survey Sarsfield Castle, intact Seatown Shangannagh Castle, ruins, not to be confused with the late 18th-century house of the same name Shankill Castle, Shankill. NIAH survey, brief history, Ruin Simmonscourt Castle, Smotscourt. NIAH survey Stillorgan Castle, 18th-century house on site of earlier castle, now incorporated into the modern St John of God hospital complex. NIAH survey Swords Castle, Castle Ruins, undergoing restoration Templeogue House NIAH survey Thorncastle Tullys Castle, Clondalkin, ruins, Picture Tymon Castle, demolished in the 1970s Williamstown Castle, Williamstown. B. Yeats former holiday home, restored as a Museum, aghalard Castle, Castle Ruins Ahena Castle, Castle Ruins. Lisheen Castle, Restored Castle Loughmoe Castle, Castle Ruins Moorstown Castle, Castle Ruins, nenagh Castle, Intact Castle Ormonde Castle, Manor House. Barntown Castle, Tower House and Castle Ruins Clougheast Castle, Restored Castle Dungulph Castle, Intact Castle Enniscorthy Castle, Restored Castle Ferns Castle, Tower House Ruins, built in the late 16th century. Castle Howard Wicklow, Intact Castle with the addition of a 19th-century Mansion, remains of a large late-17th century U-plan house and early 17th century tower. Intact Castle in use as a hotel, built in 1536 by Master Tresover currently in ruins. C.1550, now in use as a folly, built by the Earl of Ormond in 1433 currently in ruins. Castle ruins, built in 1169 on an old Viking site, largely intact late 14th/15th-century castle marking the boundary of the Pale. In 834 AD the Vikings fortified a rocky promontory at the mouth of the Vartry River in Wicklow Town. Following the Norman invasion a castle was built, now known as the Black CastleList of castles in the Republic of Ireland – Castle Donovan
42. List of castles in Italy – This is a list of castles in Italy by location. Built in 1430 by the Calepio family, camozzi Vertova Castle, Costa di Mezzate. Built in the 15th century by the Counts Martinengo-Colleoni, built in the 15th century by the warlord Bartolomeo Colleoni. Built in the 14th century by the Avogadri family, built around 1450–70 by the Sforza family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Province of Brescia Brescia Castle, Brescia, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family and the Republic of Venice. Commonly known as Rocca Magna, built in the 9th–12th centuries, built in the 13th century by the Scaliger family. Province of Como Castello Baradello, Como, built in the 12th century by Frederick Barbarossa. Province of Cremona Soncino Castle, Soncino, built in the 10th century and renovated in the 15th century by the Sforza family. Province of Lecco Castello Andriani, Dervio, Lombardy Province of Lodi Province of Mantua Castles Asola Castle, built in the 14th century by the Gonzaga family. Castiglione delle Stiviere Castle, Castiglione delle Stiviere, towers Castel Goffredo Civic Tower Castle, Castel Goffredo. Province of Milan Castles Abbiategrasso Castle, Abbiategrasso, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 13th–14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 13th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Borromeo family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family but it dates back to the 10th century, built in the 13th century by the Della Torre family. Known as Castello Mediceo, it was built in the 13th century by the Visconti family, built in the 15th century by the Borromeo familyList of castles in Italy – Forte Spagnolo, L'Aquila
43. List of castles in Spain – Castles in Spain were built mainly for defensive purposes. When the Reconquista advanced, those border castles lost their initial purpose, however, due to sporadic threats of war, they kept their military purposes, for enemy invasions were common. In some locations, such as the Basque country, fiefdoms did not exist as such, after the Conquest of Granada in 1492, the Catholic monarchs ordered all the castles in their realms to be handed over to the Crown. Most of castles in Spain were successively abandoned and dismantled, Spanish kings fearing noble and peasant revolts, nowadays in Spain there are around 2500 castles corresponding only to this kind of fortification. This is a list of castles in Spain, castle of Aguilar del Río Alhama, there are only a few ruinsList of castles in Spain – Castle of Loarre