1. Castle – A castle is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by nobility. Usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble. Usage of the term has been applied to structures as diverse as hill forts and country houses. Although their military origins are often emphasised in castle studies, the structures also served as symbols of power. Many castles were originally built from timber, but had their defences replaced later by stone. Early castles often exploited natural defences, relying on a central keep. In the late early 13th centuries, a scientific approach to castle defence emerged. This led with an emphasis on flanking fire. Some grand castles had long winding approaches intended to dominate their landscape. As a result, true castles were replaced by artillery forts with no role in civil administration, country houses that were indefensible. The castle is derived from the Latin word castellum, a diminutive of the word castrum, meaning "fortified place". The castle was introduced into English shortly before the Norman Conquest to denote this type of building, then new to England. In its simplest terms, the definition of a castle accepted amongst academics is "a fortified residence". Castles served a range of purposes, the most important of which were military, domestic. As well as defensive structures, castles were also offensive tools which could be used as a base of operations in territory.Castle – The Alcázar of Segovia in Spain overlooking the city
2. Chapultepec Castle – Chapultepec Castle is located on top of Chapultepec Hill. The name Chapultepec stems from the Nahuatl chapoltepēc which means "at the grasshopper's hill". It is located at a height of 2,325 meters above sea level. In 1775 Viceroy Bernardo de Gálvez ordered the construction of a stately home for himself at the highest point of Chapultepec Hill. Lieutenant Colonel of the Spanish Army and engineer, drew up the blueprint and began the construction on August 16 of the same year. Mascaró was accused of building a fortress with the intent of rebelling against the Spanish Crown from there. The viceroy, died suddenly on November 8, 1786, fueling speculation that he was poisoned. No evidence has yet been found which supports this claim. Lacking a engineer, the Spanish Crown ordered that the building be auctioned at a price equivalent to one-fifth of the quantity thus far spent thereon. The building was finally bought by the municipal government of Mexico City. Chapultepec Castle was for many years later, until 1833. They are honored with a large mural on the ceiling above the main entrance to the castle. Botanist Wilhelm Knechtel was in charge of creating the aerial garden located on the roof of the building. Additionally, the Emperor brought from Europe countless pieces of furniture, objets other fine household items that are exhibited to this day. At this time, the castle was still located on the outskirts of Mexico City.Chapultepec Castle – View of Chapultepec Castle from the Northeast
3. Mexico City – Mexico City, officially City of Mexico, is the capital and most populous city of Mexico. As an "alpha" global city, Mexico City is one of the most important financial centers in the Americas. It is located at an altitude of 2,240 metres. The city consists of sixteen municipalities. The 2009 estimated population for the city proper was approximately million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometres. The city was responsible for generating the metropolitan area accounted for about 22 % of total national GDP. Mexico's capital is both one of two founded by Amerindians, the other being Quito. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, as of 1585 it was officially known as Ciudad de México. Mexico City served as the political, financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824. Ever since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them. No run-Tenochtitlan was founded in 1325. Between 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength, eventually dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico. When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of the Pacific Ocean. Cortés put Moctezuma under arrest, hoping to rule through him.Mexico City – From above Torre Latinoamericana, Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, Anillo Periférico, World Trade Center Mexico City, Angel of Independence, Chapultepec Castle, St. Regis Hotel Tower and Torre Mayor, Skyline of Paseo de la Reforma and Palacio de Bellas Artes.
4. Aguascalientes City – Aguascalientes is the capital of the state of Aguascalientes and is its most populous city, with a metropolitan population of 1,000,000. It is located in North-Central Mexico. It is part of the macroregion of Bajío, among the safest and most prosperous regions in Mexico. Aguascalientes has repeatedly been recognized as one of the cities with the best quality of life in Latin America. Nowadays, Aguascalientes is a vigorous service city, experiencing an ongoing social, economic, aesthetic revitalization process. Aguascalientes stands on the banks of 1880 meters above level, at 21 ° N 102 18 ′ W. It is the municipal seat for the Aguascalientes Municipality. The Aguascalientes metropolitan area includes the municipality of Jesus María and San Francisco de los Romo. It was a Chichimeca Indian territory. OECD has recognized Aguascalientes as having the best business climate standards in the world. It is a strong business and economic center in the Bajío region. Its strategic location and excellent infrastructure have made it a regional hub and a popular location for international headquarters. When the state separated from Zacatecas, Aguascalientes raced ahead in its development, while the state of Zacatecas remained behind in comparison. The historical center of Aguascalientes was born out of four distinct neighborhoods. The oldest of these is the Barrio del Encino, technically older than Aguascalientes proper.Aguascalientes City – Aguascalientes
5. Guanajuato City – Guanajuato is a city and municipality in central Mexico and the capital of the state of the same name. It is part of the macroregion of Bajío. It is in a narrow valley, which makes its streets narrow and winding. Most are alleys that cars cannot pass through, some are long sets of stairs up the mountainsides. Many of the city’s thoroughfares are partially or fully underground. The historic center has civil constructions built using green sandstone. The origin and growth of Guanajuato resulted from the discovery of minerals in the mountains surrounding it. The mines were so rich that the city was one of the most influential during the colonial period. One of the mines, La Valenciana, accounted for two-thirds of the world’s silver production at the height of its production. It is also home to the Festival Internacional Cervantino, which invites artists and performers from all over the world as well as Mexico. Guanajuato was the site of the first battle of the Mexican War of Independence between insurgent and royalist troops at the Alhóndiga de Granaditas. The city was named a World Heritage Site in 1988. The first known inhabitants of the area were the Otomi, who were then displaced by the Chichimeca. There was Purépecha presence as well. The oldest known name for the area is “Mo-o-ti,” which means “place of metals.”Guanajuato City – A view of downtown Guanajuato from the El Pípila monument
6. Cuernavaca – Cuernavaca is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico. It was is designated as the archaeological site of Gualupita I. The city is located south of Mexico City, from which it may be reached after a drive of approximately 1/2 hours using the D-95 Freeway. The city was nicknamed the "City of Eternal Spring" by Alexander von Humboldt in the nineteenth century. It has long been foreign visitors because of this warm, stable climate and abundant vegetation. Today many famous people as well as Mexico City residents maintain homes there. Cuernavaca is also host including large numbers of students who come to study the Spanish language. The name "Cuernavaca" means "surrounded by or close to trees". The name eventually was Hispanicized to Cuernavaca. Cuernavaca was nicknamed "city of eternal spring" by Alexander von Humboldt in the nineteenth century. Its temperature is kept fairly constant in the 70s. It is located on the southern slope of the Sierra de Chichinautzin mountains. In the morning, warm air flows up the mountains from the valley in the late afternoon, cooler air flows down from the higher elevations. This pleasant climate has attracted royalty and nobles since Aztec times. Most of the Aztec emperors called their summer residence.Cuernavaca
7. Veracruz (city) – Veracruz, officially known as Heroica Veracruz, is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz. The city is located along the coast in the central part of the state, 90 km southeast of the state capital Xalapa along Federal Highway 140. At the 2010 census, the city had 554,830 inhabitants, 428,323 in Veracruz Municipality and 126,507 in Boca del Río Municipality. Developed during Spanish colonization, Veracruz has been Mexico’s oldest, largest, historically most significant port. It was the second Spanish settlement on the mainland of the Americas but the first to receive a coat-of-arms. During the colonial period, this city had the largest mercantile class and was at times wealthier than the capital of Mexico City. Its wealth attracted the raids of 17th-century pirates, against which fortifications such as Fort San Juan de Ulúa were built. It has become the principal port for most of Mexico’s imports and exports, especially for the automotive industry. Veracruz has a blend of cultures, mostly indigenous, ethnic Spanish and Afro-Cuban. The influence of these three is best seen in the food and music of the area, which has strong Spanish, Caribbean and African influences. The name Veracruz, derives from the Latin Vera Crux. Having established the settlement of Villa Rica on Good Friday 1519, Cortés dedicated the place to the True Cross as an offering. The Spanish captain Juan de Grijalva, along with Bernal Díaz del Castillo, first arrived in 1518 at the island later known as San Juan de Ulúa. The Spanish gave it that name because they landed on the Christian feast of John the Baptist, in honor of the captain. De Ulúa is derived from the local name for the Aztecs, coluha or acolhua.Veracruz (city) – Fort San Juan de Ulúa, taken from the malecón (boardwalk)
8. Palace of Iturbide – The Palace of Iturbide is a large palatial residence located in the historic center of Mexico City at Madero Street #17. It was built by the Count of San Mateo Valparaíso as a gift for his daughter. The restored building houses the Fomento Cultural Banamex; it has been renamed the Palacio de Cultura Banamex. This residence was constructed by Miguel de Berrio y Saldívar, Marquis of Jaral de Berrio. Berrio y Saldívar's fortune was based in livestock. He also served as the mayor of Mexico City. It was built as a replica of the royal palace of Palermo. From this palace’s balcony, Iturbide accepted the offer to be Mexico’s first emperor after independence from Spain. During his reign, he lived here, using the house as the royal palace. After the Conquest, the site had been part of land granted to Gonzalo Juárez de Córdoba. Until the 17th century, the site was a convent for the Sisters of Saint Brigit, until they sold the land to Berrio y Saldívar. This Mexican Baroque building was finished by his brother-in-law Agustín Duran between 1779 and 1785. The building has a mezzanine, showing Italian influence in its Baroque design. Its façade of tezontle and stone is flanked by two fortified towers at the ends of the façade. It has a central loggia, now closed to the public.Palace of Iturbide – Facade of Palace of Iturbide