List of castles in Turkey
Castles of Turkey KMZ File https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?authuser=0&mid=1UlwwCBIWHgaa9sKSlNtDarAVPv0
|Province||Name||Image or coordinates||Era of construction|
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
|Anavarza Castle||Roman Empire|
|Kizlar Kalesi||Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia|
|Tumlu||Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia|
|Amasya Province||Amasya Castle||Roman Empire|
|Ankara Province||Ankara Castle||Roman Empire|
|Antalya Province||Alara Castle||Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia|
|Alanya Castle||Seljuks of Rum|
|Gazipaşa||Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia|
|Simena Castle||Seljuks of Rum|
|Ardahan Province||Ardahan Castle||Ottoman Empire|
|Kazan Castle||Turkmens from Kazan|
|Çanakkale Province||Bozcaada Castle||Ottoman Empire|
|Kilitbahir Castle||Ottoman Empire|
|Gaziantep Province||Birecik Castle||Assyria|
|Gaziantep Castle||Roman Empire|
|Hatay Province||Bagras Castle||Byzantine Empire|
|Istanbul Province||Anadoluhisari||Ottoman Empire|
|Riva Castle||Byzantine Empire|
Republic of Genoa
|Izmir Province||Kadifekale||Hellenistic period|
|Çeşme Castle||Ottoman Empire|
|Kahramanmaraş Province||Kahramanmaraş Castle|
|Kars Province||Kars Castle||Ottoman Empire|
|Kastamonu Province||Kastamonu Castle||Bayzantine Empire|
|Kayseri Province||Kayseri Castle||Byzantine Empire|
|Konya Province||Gevele Castle||Unknown|
|Mersin Province||Çandır Castle||Byzantine Empire|
|Dağlı Castle||Roman Empire|
|Gözne Castle||Byzantine Empire|
|Hisarın Castle||Hellenistic Period (?)|
Cilician Kingdom of Armenia
|Mamure Castle||]||Seljuks of Rum|
|Mancınık Castle||Hellenistic period|
|Meydancık Castle||Pirandu (Luwians)|
|Mut Castle||Byzantine Empire
|Namrun Castle||Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia|
|Silifke Castle||Byzantine Empire|
|Sinap Castle||Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia|
|Softa Castle||Roman Rmpire|
|Tokmar Castle||Byzantine Empire|
|Yeniyurt Castle||Hellenistic period
|Muğla Province||Bodrum Castle||Knights Hospitaller|
|Marmaris Castle||Knights Hospitaller
|Ordu Province||Bolaman Castle|
|Osmaniye Province||Hemite Castle||Crusaders|
|Servantikar||Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia|
|Rize Province||Rize Castle||Byzantine Empire|
|Sinop Province||Boyabat Castle||Paphlagonia
|Şanlıurfa Province||Şanlıurfa Castle||Osroene|
|Tokat Province||Tokat Castle||Byzantine Empire|
|Trabzon Province||Trabzon Castle||Byzantine Empire|
|Tunceli Province||Pertek Castle||Seljuk Empire|
Castles of Turkey KMZ File https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?authuser=0&mid=1UlwwCBIWHgaa9sKSlNtDarAVPv0
1. Turkey – Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, parliamentary republic with a diverse cultural heritage. The Aegean Sea is to the south. The Sea of Marmara, the Dardanelles, which together form the Turkish Straits, divide Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia. Turkey's location between Europe and Asia has retained its strategic importance throughout history. Turkey has been inhabited by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians and Armenians. After Alexander the Great's conquest, the area was a process which continued under the Roman Empire and its transition into the Byzantine Empire. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia in 1243 when it disintegrated into small Turkish beyliks. The empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. Suspended by Sultan Abdülhamid II in 1878, parliament were restored with the Young Turk Revolution on 24 July 1908. Austria-Hungary formally annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina on 6 October 1908. During the war, the Ottoman government committed ethnic genocide against its Armenian, Assyrian and Pontic Greek citizens. Following the war, the conglomeration of peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new states. Turkey's official language is a Turkic language spoken natively by 84.5 % of the population. According to polls, between 78.1% and 81.3% of the country's citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks. Ethnic groups include legally recognised and unrecognised minorities.Turkey – Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 12,000 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England by almost ten millennia.
2. Turkish language – Outside of Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, other parts of Europe and Central Asia. As one of Atatürk's Reforms in the early years of the Republic of Turkey, the Ottoman Turkish alphabet was replaced with a Latin alphabet. The distinctive characteristics of Turkish are extensive agglutination. The basic order of Turkish is subject -- object -- verb. Turkish has grammatical gender. Turkish has a strong T -- V usage of honorifics. Turkish uses second-person pronouns that distinguish varying levels of social distance, age, courtesy or familiarity toward the addressee. Verb forms are used referring to a single person out of respect. Turkish is a member of the Oghuz group of a subgroup of the Turkic language family. There is a high degree including Azerbaijani, Turkmen, Qashqai, Gagauz, Balkan Gagauz Turkish. The Turkic family comprises some 30 living languages spoken across Eastern Europe, Siberia. Some linguists believe the Turkic languages to be a part of a larger Altaic family. About 40 % of all speakers of Turkic languages are Turkish speakers. The characteristic features of lack of grammatical gender, are universal within the Turkic family. The earliest known Turkic inscriptions are the three monumental Orkhon inscriptions found in modern Mongolia.Turkish language – Old Turkic inscription with the Orkhon script (c. 8th century). Kyzyl, Russia
3. Adana Province – Adana Province, is a province of Turkey located in south-central Anatolia. With a population of million, it is the sixth most populous province in Turkey. The administrative seat of the province is the city of Adana, home to 79% of the residents of the province. The province, geographically and well as economically, is part of the Çukurova region together with the Mersin, Osmaniye and Hatay provinces. Adana Province has a area of 14.030 km ². Southern portion of the province is plain, northern section is formed of mountains. Two levels of governments are involved in the administration of the Adana Province; the Provincial. Adana Province Special Administration is the provincial governing body. Each district is divided into municipalities and villages. Municipalities are further divided into neighborhoods. Central government in Ankara has majority of the power in the administration of the province through Adana Governorship. The governorship oversees the functioning of the ministries and other governmental agencies. Provincial directorates cover Adana Province only, whereas Regional directorates cover Çukurova and in some cases additional provinces. Adana Province Special Administration is a provincial governing body that has three organs; Provincial Parliament, Governor and the Encümen. Adana Provincial Parliament is the decision making organ of the Province Special Administration.Adana Province – Turgut Özal boulevard in Çukuorva
4. Crusaders – The First Crusade arose after a call by Pope Urban II. Urban urged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, who needed reinforcements for his conflict with westward migrating Turks in Anatolia. Others, historians argue, participated to satisfy feudal obligations, gain glory and find opportunities for economic and political gain. Regardless of the motivation, the response to Urban's preaching across Western Europe established the precedent for later crusades. Different perspectives of the actions carried out, at least nominally, during the crusades have polarised historians. Crusaders often pillaged as they travelled, while their leaders retained control of much captured territory rather than returning it to the Byzantines. The People's Crusade included the Rhineland massacres: the murder of thousands of Jews. Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade, rendering the reunification of Christendom impossible. These tales consequently galvanised medieval romance, literature. The crusades also reinforced the connection between Western Christendom, militarism. The crusade is derived from a Middle Latin cruxata, cruciata. Use of cruxata for "military expedition against enemies of the church" is in use by the 1280s. Spanish cruzada are recorded by the 16th century. The Crusades in the Holy Land are traditionally counted as nine distinct campaigns, numbered from the First Crusade of 1095–99 to the Ninth Crusade of 1271/2. Usage of the term "crusade" may differ depending on the author.Crusaders – Madrid Skylitzes illuminated manuscript depicting Byzantine Greeks punishing ninth-century Cretan Saracens
5. Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia – Their capital later became Sis. Cilicia saw itself as a bastion of Christendom in the East. It also served for Armenian nationalism and culture since Armenia proper was under foreign occupation at the time. With the crowning of Levon the Magnificent of the Rubenid dynasty, Cilician Armenia became a kingdom. In 1226, the crown was passed through Isabella's second husband, Hethum I. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the Mongols became Islamized, leaving the Armenian Kingdom without any regional allies. Military interactions with Europeans brought new Western influences to the Cilician Armenian society. Many aspects of European life were adopted by the nobility including chivalry, fashions in clothing, the use of French titles, names, language. Moreover, the organization of the Cilician society shifted from its traditional system to become closer to Western feudalism. The European Crusaders themselves borrowed know-how, such as elements of Armenian castle-building and architecture. Cilician Armenia thrived economically, with the port of Ayas serving as a center for East to West trade. In 83 BC, the Greek aristocracy of Seleucid Syria, weakened by a civil war, offered their allegiance to the ambitious Armenian king. Tigranes then conquered Phoenicia and Cilicia, effectively ending the Seleucid Empire. The southern border of his domain reached far as Ptolemais. Many of the inhabitants of conquered cities were sent to the new metropolis of Tigranakert.Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia – Baldwin of Boulogne receiving the homage of the Armenians in Edessa.
6. Anavarza Castle – Anvarza Castle is an ancient castle in Adana Province, Turkey The castle lies to the east of Dilekkaya village of Kozan district at 37°15′03″N 35°53′50″E. Visitors follow Turkish state highway and the highway to north for 26 kilometres and turn to east for 6 kilometres. The castle was built on the hill. The hill is accessible via a path from the south. The castle had been built to control the ancient city with the same name. The remains of the city lies between the castle. The bird's distance between the remains and the castle is about 1 kilometre. During the history the castle had switched partially ruined several times. Although the city was evacuated in 1274 following an earthquake the castle was used by Mamluks. The height of the rampart is about 8 metres. The length of the rampart from north to south is about 1,500 metres. There are 20 bastions. East to west dimension is much less than this length. The inner bailey is to the north of the castle. A 3-nave church, built by Thoros II of the Rubenids are in the center of the castle.Anavarza Castle – The castle from the west
7. Roman Empire – The imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empire's existence were "Roman Peace". Following Octavian's victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, but the Praetorian Guard proclaimed Claudius emperor instead. Under Claudius, the empire invaded its major expansion since Augustus. His short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors. The empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. Commodus' assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, renamed "Constantinople" in his honour. It remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the official state religion of the empire. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time.Roman Empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
8. Assyria – Assyria was a major Mesopotamian East Semitic-speaking kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East. Centered in Upper Mesopotamia, the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires at several times. In the 24th centuries BC, Assyrian kings were pastoral leaders. "Assyria" can also refer to heartland where Assyria, its empires and the Assyrian people were centered. The Eastern Aramaic-speaking Christian ethnic minority in northern Iraq, north east Syria, southeast Turkey and northwest Iran are the descendants of the ancient Assyrians. The earliest Neolithic sites in Assyria were the Jarmo culture c. 7100 BC and Tell Hassuna, c. 6000 BC. During the 3rd millennium BC, a very intimate cultural symbiosis developed throughout Mesopotamia, which included widespread bilingualism. This has prompted scholars to refer in the third millennium BC as a sprachbund. It is highly likely that the city was named with the same name. The city of Aššur, together with a number of other Assyrian cities, seem to have been established by 2600 BC. However it is likely that they were initially administrative centres. In the 26th century BC, Eannatum of Lagash, then the dominant Sumerian ruler in Mesopotamia, mentions "smiting Subartu". Similarly, in the early 25th century BC, Lugal-Anne-Mundu the king of the Sumerian state of Adab lists Subartu as paying tribute to him. Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria, little is known. In the Assyrian King List, the earliest king recorded was Tudiya.Assyria – Letter sent by the high-priest Lu'enna to the king of Lagash (maybe Urukagina), informing him of his son's death in combat, c. 2400 BC, found in Girsu.
10. Afyonkarahisar – Afyonkarahisar is a city in western Turkey, the capital of Afyon Province. Afyon is in mountainous countryside inland from 250 south-west of Ankara along the Akarçay River. Elevation 1,021 m. In addition, Afyonkarahisar is one of the top leading provinces in agriculture, globally renown for its marble and globally largest producer of pharmaceutical opium. Afyon Kara Hisar, since opium was widely grown there is a castle on a black rock. Also known simply as Afyon. Older spellings include Afyon Karahisar. The city was known as Afyon, until the name was changed to Afyonkarahisar by the Turkish Parliament in 2004. The top of the rock in Afyon has been fortified for a long time. It was known to the Hittites as Hapanuwa, was later occupied by Phrygians, Lydians and Achaemenid Persians until it was conquered by Alexander the Great. After the death of Alexander the city, was ruled by the Seleucids and the kings of Pergamon, then Rome and Byzantium. The Byzantine emperor Leo III after his victory over Arab besiegers in 740 renamed the city Nicopolis. Following the dispersal of the Seljuqs the town was occupied by the Sâhib Ata and then the Germiyanids. It was recaptured in 1428 or 1429. The area thrived during the Ottoman Empire, as the centre of opium production and Afyon became a wealthy city.Afyonkarahisar – A view from the Cumhuriyet Square and Utku Monument in Afyonkarahisar
11. Hittites – The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who established an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. The Assyrians eventually annexed much of the Hittite empire, while the remainder was sacked by Phrygian newcomers to the region. They referred as Hatti. The conventional name "Hittites" is due to their initial identification with the Biblical Hittites in 19th archaeology. Before the discoveries, the only source of information about Hittites had been the Old Testament. French scholar Félix Marie Charles Texier did not identify them as Hittite. Some names in the tablets were neither Hattic nor Assyrian, but clearly Indo-European. In 1887, excavations at Tell El-Amarna in Egypt uncovered the diplomatic correspondence of his son Akhenaton. Others, such as Max Müller, proposed connecting it with Biblical Kittim, rather than with the "Children of Heth". He also proved that the ruins at Boğazköy were the remains of the capital of an empire that, at one point, controlled northern Syria. Under the direction of the German Archaeological Institute, excavations at Hattusa have been under way since 1907, during the world wars. Kültepe was successfully excavated by Professor Tahsin Özgüç from 1948 until his death in 2005. The Hittites used Mesopotamian Cuneiform script. The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, Turkey houses the richest collection of Hittite and Anatolian artifacts. The Hittite kingdom was centred on the lands surrounding Hattusa and Neša, known as "the land Hatti".Hittites – Bronze religious standard from a pre-Hittite tomb at Alacahöyük, dating to the third millennium B.C., from the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara.
12. Amasya Province – Amasya Province is a province of Turkey, situated on the Yeşil River in the Black Sea Region to the north of the country. Area 5,520 km². Population 334,786. In Ottoman times Amasya was well known for its madrassas, especially as a centre for the Khalwati Sufi order. Amasya is an agricultural province known as the best apple growing province in the country, also producing tobacco, cherries and okra.Amasya Province – Location of Amasya Province in Turkey
13. Ankara Province – Ankara Province is the capital province of Turkey. The city of Ankara became a fortified stronghold of the Byzantines; it fell to later the Ottoman Empire. Ankara is mostly in the Central Anatolia region, partly in the Black Sea region. Ankara has the dry plain of Konya to its south. The province is irrigated by the Kızılırmak and Sakarya River systems, many natural lakes and pools. 50 % of the land is used for agriculture, another 10 % is meadow and grazing land. The second largest lake in Turkey, partly lies in the Şereflikoçhisar district of the province. The highest point of the province is the 2,015 meters tall Işık Mountain in the Kızılcahamam district. Ankara Vilayet Ankara Eyalet Ankara travel informationAnkara Province – Location of Ankara Province in Turkey
14. Ankara Castle – Ankara Castle is a fortification from ancient or medieval era in Ankara, Turkey. The exact date of its construction is unknown. The castle saw extensive repair during the Ottoman era. The outer citadel surrounds the old Ankara. There are 42 pentagonal towers along the walls, which range between 14–16 m in height. Tr_Tr23 Ankara Castle Municipality of AnkaraAnkara Castle – Ankara Castle
15. Antalya Province – Antalya Province is located on the Mediterranean coast of south-west Turkey, between the Taurus Mountains and the Mediterranean sea. Antalya Province is the centre of Turkey's industry, attracting 30 % of foreign tourists visiting Turkey. It was the world's third most visited city by number of international arrivals in displacing New York. Antalya is Turkey's biggest international resort. The province of Antalya corresponds to the west. It features a shoreline of 657 km with beaches, ancient cities scattered throughout, including the World Heritage Site Xanthos. The provincial capital is Antalya city with a population of 1,001,318. Antalya is the fastest-growing province in Turkey; compared with the national rate of 1.83 %. This growth is due to a fast rate of urbanization, particularly driven on the coast. Thus the province are named after Attalos II, king of Pergamon, who founded the city in the 2nd century BC. Antalya has been settled since pre-historic times. Other finds dating back to the Mesolithic, more recent periods show that the area has been populated by various civilizations throughout the ages. Like their descendants, the Lukkans or Lycians demonstrated a fiery independent spirit. The Kingdom of Arzawa on the west coast, could ever keep them at peace for long. Legends of Ancient Greece tell us that these communities grew into the area as a whole came to be called Pamphylia.Antalya Province – Aspendos Theatre
16. Alara Castle – The Alara Castle, is a historic fortification located at Alanya district of Antalya Province in southern Turkey. The castle in the 11th century became the western outpost of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. The castle incorporates a citadel inside the outer walls. The castle's inside is reached by some 180-step stairway, tunneled in the rock. Around the middle of the stairway, a deepening opens to a cistern. In a palace, accommodation facilities for the garrison, a mosque and a bath are among the ruins. It is located 35 southeast of Manavgat, 37 km northwest of Alanya and 7 km away from the Mediterranean Sea. Situated atop a massive rock at the east bank of Alara River, the castle was hard to win. The lord of the castle gave it up in 1231 as he realized that Seljuk Sultan of Rum Alaeddin Keykubad I had conquered Alanya. The regional government of Antalya considered in 2011 the restoration of its subsequent opening to the public as a place of interest. Mehling, Marianne. Knaurs Kulturführer in Farbe - Türkei. Droemer Knaur. P. 580. ISBN 978-3426262931.Alara Castle – Alara Castle atop a steep massive rock at the bank of Alara River in Alanya, Turkey
17. Alanya Castle – Alanya Castle is a medieval castle in the southern Turkish city of Alanya. The castle was built on the remnants of earlier Byzantine era and Roman era fortifications. The building is an open-air museum. Much of the area inside the wall, including the landward castle is open to the general public. The castle is located 250 metres high on a rocky peninsula jutting into the Mediterranean Sea, which protects it from three sides. The wall which surrounds the castle includes 140 towers. 400 different cisterns were built to serve the castle. In 2009, city officials were named to the 2009 Tentative List. Go Turkey guide to Alanya CastleAlanya Castle – Walls and landward fortress of Alanya Kale
18. Seljuks of Rum – The name Rûm reflects the Arabic name of Anatolia, الرُّومُ ar-Rūm, a loan from Greek Ρωμιοί "Romans". In the east, the sultanate absorbed other Turkish states and reached Lake Van. Trade from Iran and Central Asia across Anatolia was developed by a system of caravanserai. Especially strong trade ties with the Genoese formed during this period. The increased wealth allowed the sultanate to absorb other Turkish states, established in eastern Anatolia. The Seljuq sultans eventually succumbed in 1243. For the remainder of the 13th century, the Seljuqs acted as vassals of the Ilkhanate. Their power disintegrated during the second half of the 13th century. The last of the Seljuq vassals of the Ilkhanate, Mesud II, was murdered in 1308. The dissolution of the Seljuq state left behind a number of Anatolian beyliks, among them that of the Ottoman dynasty, which eventually became the Ottoman Empire. In 1075, he captured the Byzantine cities of Nicaea and Nicomedia. Two years later, he declared himself sultan of an independent Seljuq state and established his capital at İznik. Suleyman was killed in Antioch in 1086 by Tutush I, the Seljuq ruler of Syria, Suleyman's son Kilij Arslan I was imprisoned. When Malik Shah died in 1092, Kilij Arslan was released and immediately established himself in his father's territories. Kilij Arslan was driven back into south-central Anatolia, where he set up his state in Konya.Seljuks of Rum – Expansion of the Sultanate in c. 1100–1240.
19. Ardahan Province – Ardahan Province, is a province in the north-east of Turkey, at the very end of the country, where Turkey borders with Georgia. The provincial capital is the city of Ardahan. It is consequently an area of severe winters. This is open countryside which however spends many months of the year under snow. At this altitude temperatures on average can drop below freezing all year round, including summer months. The local economy depends on raising livestock. The Turkish military have a strong presence in another boost to the local economy. Districts, villages and a significant portion of the landscape, exhibits a true subarctic climate, being the second most widespread climate in the region. Ardahan is an impoverished area since the 1950s has seen a large number of its people migrate to other parts of Turkey or abroad. The population declined in 2000. The population is 105,454 as of 2010. Ethnic groups in the region include, Turks, Georgians, Turkmens, Kurds and Azeris. They were removed in the Treaty of Kars due to their Christian religion. The Scythians were replaced by Persians and then in 330 BC Alexander the Great came through with his armies. After the Russo-Turkish War, the region was incorporated into the Russian Empire, until 1918 was known as Kars Oblast.Ardahan Province – Location of Ardahan Province in Turkey
20. Oghuz Turks – The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Oghur sub-division of Turkic language family. In the 8th century, they formed a tribal confederation conventionally named the Oghuz Yabgu State in central Asia. The Oghuz is a Turkic word for "tribe". Byzantine sources call the Oghuz the Uzes. By the 10th century, Islamic sources were calling the Muslim, as opposed to shamanist or Christian, Oghuz the Turkmens. By the 12th century this term had passed into Byzantine usage and the Oghuzes were overwhelmingly Muslim. The Oghuz confederation migrated westward from the Jeti-su area after a conflict with the Karluk branch of Uigurs. The founders of the Ottoman Empire were descendants of the Oghuzes. According to Khazar sources, Oghuzes are descended from the seventh son of Togarmah related to Gog and Magog. In the 9th century, the Oghuzes from the Aral steppes drove Bechens from the Emba and Ural River region toward the west. In the 10th century, they inhabited the steppe of Emba to the north of Lake Balkhash of modern-day Kazakhstan. A clan of the Seljuks, in the 11th century entered Persia, where they founded the Great Seljuk Empire. Similarly in the 11th century, a Tengriist Oghuz clan—referred to as Uzes or Torks in the Russian chronicles—overthrew Pecheneg supremacy in the Russian steppe. The Oghuz seem to have been related to the Pechenegs, some of whom were clean-shaven and others of whom had small'goatee' beards. According to the book the Nomad Hordes, "Like the Kimaks they set up many wooden funerary statues surrounded by simple stone balbal monoliths."Oghuz Turks – Asia in 600 AD
21. Kazan – Kazan is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. With a population of 1,143,535, it is the eighth most populous city in Russia. Kazan lies in European Russia. The Kazan Kremlin is a World Heritage Site. In April 2009, the Russian Patent Office granted the right to brand itself as the "Third Capital" of Russia. In 2009 it was chosen as the "Sports capital of Russia" and it still is referred to as such. In 2015, Kazan was visited by million tourists, a 20 % increase in comparison with 2014. The origin of the Kazan is uncertain. The most accepted legends derive it from the Bulgar qazan, which means ` boiler' or ` cauldron'. It was two Finnic tribes, the Mari and the Udmurt. Another vexatious question is where the citadel was built originally. The oldest of these seems to be the Kremlin. If Kazan existed in the 12th centuries, it could have been a stop on a Volga trade route from Scandinavia to Baghdad. Kazan became a center of a duchy, a dependency of the Golden Horde. Two centuries later, in the 1430s, Kipchak descendants such as Ghiasetdin of Kazan, usurped power from its Bolghar dynasty.Kazan – Left to right, top to bottom: Spasskaya Tower, Söyembikä Tower, Qol Sharif Mosque; Palace of farmers, Epiphany Cathedral; View of Kazan
22. Urartu – Urartu, also known as Kingdom of Van, was an Iron Age kingdom centred on Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands. It corresponds to the biblical Kingdom of Ararat. The language appears in cuneiform inscriptions. It is argued on linguistic evidence that proto-Armenian came in contact with Urartian at an early date, before the formation of the Urartian kingdom. That a distinction should be made between the geographical and the political entity was already pointed out by König. The landscape corresponds to the mountainous plateau between Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the Iranian Plateau, the Caucasus Mountains, later known as the Armenian Highlands. The heirs of Urartu are the Armenians and their successive kingdoms. The name Urartu comes from Assyrian sources: Shalmaneser I recorded a campaign in which he subdued the entire territory of "Uruatri." The Shalmaneser text uses the name Urartu to refer to a geographical region, not a kingdom, names eight "lands" contained within Urartu. "Urartu" is cognate with the Biblical "Ararat", Akkadian "Urashtu" and Armenian "Ayrarat". The Urartian toponym Biainili was adopted in the Old Armenian as Van, Վան. Hence the names "Kingdom of Van" or "Vannic Kingdom". Scholars such as Carl Ferdinand Friedrich Lehmann-Haupt believed that the people of Urartu called themselves Khaldini after the god Ḫaldi. Scholars believe that Urartu is an Akkadian variation of Ararat of the Old Testament. Indeed, Mount Ararat is located in ancient Urartian territory, approximately 120 kilometres north of its former capital.Urartu – A Urartian cauldron, from the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara
23. Bozcaada Castle – Visitors to the castle use the line from Geyikli in the mainland to the island. The castle is within walking distance from the terminal. Before the 14th century, there was a castle in the island. But there is no document about the constructor of this former castle. Phoenicia, the Republic of Venice were among the possible constructors. However, the castle was demolished by the advice of the Pope. When Mehmet II of the Ottoman Empire conquered the island in 1455 he rebuilt the castle. During the Cretan War, a Venice fleet commanded by Giacomo Loredano captured the castle. But Ottomans under Köprülü Mehmet Pasha recaptured the castle in August 1657. Soon after the reconquest, the castle underwent a great renewall. A second renewal was carried on by the sultan Mahmut II. There are two sections; the citadel. There is a moat of 250 metres length and 10 metres width to the south of the castle. Within the citadel there are cisterns, an arsenal, an infirmary, a well, various rooms. Formally The gate of the castle was a gate over the moat.Bozcaada Castle – From the east
24. Ottoman Empire – After 1354, with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire by Mehmed the Conqueror. At the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. The empire continued to military throughout the seventeenth and much of the eighteenth century. The empire allied with Germany with the imperial ambition of recovering its lost territories, joining in World War I. The word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman. Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti. The Rūmī was also used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In the West, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were often used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being increasingly favored both in informal situations. This dichotomy was officially ended in 1920 -- 23, when the newly established Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character. Osman's early followers not all converts to Islam.Ottoman Empire – Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. Painting from 1523.
26. Gaziantep Province – Gaziantep Province is a province in south-central Turkey. Its capital is the city of Gaziantep, which had a population of 1.931.836 in 2015. In ancient times, first the Hittites and later the Assyrians controlled the region. It saw much fighting during the Crusades, Saladin won a key battle there in 1183. After the Ottoman Empire's disintegration, it was invaded during the Turkish War of Independence. It was returned to Turkish control after the Treaty of Lausanne was signed, formally ending hostilities between Turkey and the Allies of World War I. Kilis Province was part of Gaziantep Province until it separated in 1994.Turks are majority in the province. Two active geological faults meet near the border with adjoining Osmaniye Province: the Dead Sea Transform and the East Anatolian Fault. These represent the tectonic boundary between the northward-moving Arabian Plate to the east, the converging African and Eurasian Plates to the west. Gaziantep is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal latitude and longitude.Gaziantep Province – Gaziantep Province Gaziantep ili
27. Hatay Province – Hatay Province is a province in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast. The administrative capital is Antakya, the other major city in the province is the port city of İskenderun. It is bordered by Syria to the south and east and the Turkish provinces of Adana and Osmaniye to the north. The province is part of a cultural region that covers the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye, Hatay. There are border crossing points with Syria in the district of Yayladağı and at Cilvegözü in the district of Reyhanlı. Although the two countries have remained generally peaceful in their dispute over the territory, Syria has never formally renounced its claims to it. The region was the center of the Hellenistic Seleucid empire, home to the four Greek cities of the Syrian tetrapolis. From 64 BC onwards the city of Antioch became an important regional centre of the Roman Empire. The area was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate in 638 and later it came under the control of the Ummayad and Abbasid Arab dynasties. From the 11th century onwards, the region was controlled by the Aleppo-based Hamdanids after a brief rule of Ikhshidids. In 969 the city of Antioch was recaptured by the Byzantine Empire. It was conquered by Philaretos Brachamios, a Byzantine general in 1078. He founded a principality from Antioch to Edessa. It was captured by Suleiman I, Sultan of Rum, in 1084. It passed to Tutush I, Sultan of Aleppo, in 1086.Hatay Province – Ethnic groups in the Balkans and Asia Minor, early 20th Century, Historical Atlas, 1911
28. Byzantine Empire – During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, military force in Europe. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin. The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the north stabilised. In a matter of years the Empire lost Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle as a homeland. The Empire recovered again during such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire. The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in poetic contexts. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came in the Western world.Byzantine Empire – Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great (r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
29. Koz CastleKoz Castle – Koz Castle
30. Anadoluhisari – The second bridge spanning Bosporus, is located just north of the fortress. Anadoluhisarı was erected as a fort. It has a quadratic main tower within the walls of an irregular pentagon with five watchtowers at the corners. There is a masjid in the fortress. It is the oldest architectural structure built in Istanbul. The fortress was named "Güzelce Hisar" in historical documents. Sultan Mehmed II reinforced the fortress with a 2 m thick wall around it, which had three watchtowers. Some extension buildings like warehouse and houses were added well. Due to changes made in the past, it longer retains its original appearance. Following the conquest of Constantinople, it served as a military prison. The Turkish Ministry of Culture restored the site in 1991 - 1993. This small fort creates a picturesque appearance with the old wooden houses leaning to its walls and its surroundings. Anadoluhisarı is a museum, but not open to public. Ottoman architecture Rumelihisarı Bosporus Fall of Constantinople Pictures of the fortress Architectural Museum Principals of Ottoman fort architectureAnadoluhisari – Anadoluhisarı (Anatolian Castle) on the Bosporus
31. Rumelihisari – Rumelihisarı or Boğazkesen Castle is a fortress located in the Sarıyer district of Istanbul, Turkey, on a hill at the European side of the Bosphorus. It gives the name of the quarter around it. It was built before his army's conquest of Constantinople. In a previous Ottoman attempt to conquer the city, Sultan Murad II had encountered difficulties due to a blockade of the Bosphorus by the Byzantine fleet. The necessity of a fortress opposite of Anadoluhisarı was thus well known to the Ottomans. On the location of Rumelihisarı, there had been a Roman fortification in the past, used as a prison by the Byzantines and Genoese. Later on, a monastery was built there. He refused the plea for peace of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI, who understood the intention of the Sultan. The construction began on April 15, 1452. Each one of the three main towers was named after the Pashas who supervised their construction. The Sultan personally inspected the activities on the site. Muhammad and Mehmed share the Arabic spelling, so he may have also made the fortress to himself. The Rumelihisarı fortification has thirteen small watchtowers placed on the walls connecting the main towers. One watchtower is in the form of a prism, six watchtowers are shaped as prisms with six others are cylindrical. Today, this tower is called the Fatih Tower after Sultan Mehmed II.Rumelihisari – Rumelihisarı as seen from the Bosphorus strait.
32. Yoros Castle – Yoros Castle is a Byzantine ruined castle at the confluence of the Bosphorus and the Black Sea, to the north of Joshua's Hill, in Istanbul, Turkey. It is also commonly referred to as the Genoese Castle, due to Genoa’s possession of it in the mid-15th century. Yoros Castle sits on a hill surrounded by steep bluffs overlooking the Bosphorus. The entire area is referred to as Anadolu Kavağı.. . The Greeks called the Hieron. Zeus Ourios were discovered in the area, dating to centuries BCE. Yoros Castle was intermittently occupied throughout the course of the Byzantine Empire. Byzantines, Genoese, Ottomans fought for years. It was first retaken by the Byzantines shortly thereafter. Bayezid I took the castle again in 1391 while preparing for his siege of Constantinople. It was used during the construction of Anadoluhisarı, one of the more important castles for the siege. In 1399 the Byzantines attempted to take back Yoros Castle. The village of Anadolu Kavağı was burned to the ground. The Ottomans held the fortress from 1391–1414, losing it to the Genoese in 1414.Yoros Castle – The gates of Yoros Castle.
33. Phoenicia – The sea-based Phoenician civilization spread across the Mediterranean between 1500 BC and 300 BC. Their civilization was organized in city-states, similar to those of Ancient Greece, perhaps the most notable of, Carthage. It is uncertain to what extent the Phoenicians viewed themselves as a single ethnicity and nationality. In terms of language, lifestyle, religion there was little to set the Phoenicians apart as markedly different from other Semitic cultures of Canaan. The name Phoenicians, like Latin Poenī, comes from Greek Φοίνικες, influenced by phoînix "Tyrian purple, crimson; murex". The oldest attested form of the word is po-ni-ki, ultimately borrowed from Ancient Egyptian fnḫw "Asiatics, Semites". In the Amarna tablets of the 14th BC, people from the region called themselves Kenaani or Kinaani. The folk-etymological association of phoiniki with phoînix mirrors that in Akkadian which tied kinaḫni, kinaḫḫi "Canaan; Phoenicia" to kinaḫḫu "red-dyed wool". The land was natively known as knʿn, remembered in the 6th century BC by Hecataeus under the Greek form Chna, its people as the knʿny. In various Mediterranean ports during the classical period, Phoenician temples sacred to Melkart were recognized as sacred to Greek Hercules. The coming of Cadmus also draw upon Phoenician influence. There are many cities around the Mediterranean region that derive their names from the Phoenician Language. Below is a list with the respective meanings: Altiburus: SW of Carthage. Towards the end of the Age there was trade between the Canaanites, Egypt, Cyprus, Greece. In a shipwreck found off of the coast of Turkey, the Ulu Bulurun wreck, Canaanite pottery along with pottery from Cyprus and Greece was found.Phoenicia – Sarcophagus of Eshmunazor II, Phoenician King of Sidon found near Sidon, in southern Lebanon
34. Republic of Genoa – During its peak in the 16th century, it was a state of the Spanish Empire. Corsica was ceded in the Treaty of Versailles of 1768. Before 1100, Genoa emerged during this period. The Republic of Genoa had practically complete control of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Through Genoese participation on the Crusades, Genoese colonies were established in the Middle East, in Sicily and Northern Africa. The collapse of the Crusader States was offset with the Byzantine Empire. As Venice's relations with the Byzantine Empire were temporarily disrupted by its aftermath, Genoa was able to improve its position. Genoa took advantage of this opportunity to expand into Crimea. However, this prosperity did not last. The Black Death was imported into Europe in 1347 on the Black Sea. Following the economic and collapse, Genoa adopted the Venetian model of government, was presided over by a doge. In 1390 Genoa laid siege to Mahdia. Though it has not been well-studied, the fifteenth century seems to have been a tumultuous time for Genoa. After a period of French domination from 1394 -- 1409, Genoa came by the Visconti of Milan. Genoa lost Sardinia to Aragon, Corsica to the Turkish Ottoman Empire.Republic of Genoa – View of Genoa and its fleet by Christoforo de Grassi (1597 copy, after a drawing of 1481); Galata Museo del Mare, Genoa.
35. Kadifekale – Both the hill and the castle were named Pagos in pre-Turkish times and by the local Greeks in modern times. In 2007, the metropolitan municipality of İzmir started restoration works in Kadifekale. The first defensive walls built here was the work of Lysimachos, a "successor" of Alexander the Great, later a king in Thrace and Asia Minor. The legend, in the meantime, was frequently depicted on ancient coins. Strabo records that only a small part of Smyrna was located with the greater part centered around the harbor on the flatlands below. The theatre on the other hand, were on the slopes immediately below the summit. The present walls are medieval. Both works belong to a reconstruction following a calamitous earthquake in 178. Next to the castle are the ruins of the cisterns renovated during the Byzantine and Ottoman periods. They formed the centre of the drinking network of Smyrna. The remains of this network are still preserved in downtown İzmir. Images of Kadifekale A. Karayiğit. Report: "Kadifekale'nin sosyo-ekonomik profili ve sorunları 25p." . İzmir Chamber of Commerce.Kadifekale – Entry of the castle walls in Kadifekale
36. Hellenistic period – It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of Stoicism and Epicureanism. Greek Science was advanced by the works of the polymath Archimedes. The religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, the Greek adoption of Buddhism. This resulted in the export of Greek culture and language through Greek colonization spanning as far as modern-day Pakistan. Equally, however, these new kingdoms were influenced by the indigenous cultures, adopting local practices necessary, or convenient. The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek kingdoms in Asia and Africa. Those new cities were composed of Greek colonists who came from different parts of the Greek world, not, before, from a specific "mother city". The cultural centers expanded from mainland Greece to Pergamon, Rhodes, new Greek colonies such as Seleucia, Antioch, Alexandria and Ai-Khanoum. This mixture of Greek-speakers gave rise to a Attic-based dialect, known as Koine Greek, which became the lingua franca through the Hellenistic world. Historians are divided as to what event signals the end of the Hellenistic era. "Hellenistic" is distinguished from "Hellenic" in that the first encompasses the entire sphere of direct Greek influence, while the latter refers to Greece itself. The word originated from the German term hellenistisch, from Ἑλλάς; as if "Hellenist" + "ic". "Hellenistic" is a 19th-century concept; the idea of a Hellenistic period did not exist in Ancient Greece. The major issue with the Hellenistic lies in its convenience, as the spread of Greek culture was not the generalized phenomenon that the term implies.Hellenistic period – The Nike of Samothrace is considered one of the greatest masterpieces of Hellenistic art.
37. Kars Province – Kars Province is a province of Turkey, located in the northeastern part of the country. It shares part of its closed border with the Republic of Armenia. The provincial capital is the city of Kars. The provinces of Ardahan and Iğdır were until the 1990s part of Kars Province. In ancient times, Kars was part of the province of Ararat in the Kingdom of Armenia. The first known people were the followers of Vanand, for whom Kars was their main settlement and fortress. In 928, Kars became the capital of Armenia. In 968, the capital of Armenia was moved to Ani, but Kars remained the capital of the feudal principality of Vanand. On, in 1209, Georgian army commanded by brothers Ivane and Zakare Mkhargrzeli captured Kars after a long siege. George IV son of Tamar, was appointed the governor general of Kars. Many from the non-Russian Christian Orthodox communities had themselves fought in or collaborated with the Russian Imperial army to capture Kars province from the Muslim Ottomans. They saw this as a means of fulfilling their own ambitions to recapture Christian territory on the back of the Russian imperial enterprise. Political scientist Nicole Watts suggests that about 20% of the province's population is Kurdish. Kars province is divided into 8 districts, each named after the administrative center of the district: There are 383 villages in Kars. Kars has a wealth of wildlife, being documented by the Kars-Igdir Biodiversity Project run by the KuzeyDoga Society.Kars Province – The church of St. Gregory of the Abughamrents in Ani
38. Castle of Kars – The Castle of Kars is a former fortification located in Kars, Turkey. It is also known under the names "Central Castle", "Inner Castle" or "Citadel". It was built by Vizier Firuz Akay commissioned by Saltuk Sultan Malik Izzeddin Saltuk II. The outer walls surrounding the city were built in the 12th century. It is said in the Ottoman sources that the castle was rebuilt with the help of workers. The castle partially changed after 40 years of occupation. The walls of the Castle of Kars were made of basalt masonry. The castle consisted of two sections, the external castles. The external walls were made of five layers. In addition, there were deep trenches made in front of it. The main castle looks to the east. The planning of the walls of the external castle is not quite quadrangle. The length of the castle's perimeter makes 3,500 m, it was supported with 22 watchtowers, of which only seven remained intact until today. The length of the internal castle makes about 90 m in the north-south direction. The castle has four gates.Castle of Kars – Castle of Kars
39. Kastamonu Province – Kastamonu Province is one of the provinces of Turkey, in the Black Sea region to the north of the country. The province has a population of 322,759 people. The population was 361,222 people in 2010. The density is 24.62 inhabitants per km ². The center has a population of 64,606. Kastamonu province is divided into 20 districts: It is not definitively known when Kastamonu was first founded. However, some sources dating back to the Early Middle Ages refer to the province. There are also some archeological findings that date to about 100,000 years that suggest the region was inhabited at that time. There are theories that the word Kastamonu derives from the Latin name of the Byzantine castle built by the Comnenus dynasty. With the weakening of the Macedon kings, the Paphlagonia and Bithynia regions were engulfed by the newly formed Pontus kingdom. After the fall of the Pontus kingdom in first BC, the area was incorporated by the Roman Empire by joining Paphlagonia with Bithynia. The center of this new city-state was Pompeiopolis, of which the remains still stand near Tasköprü District in Kastamonu. The region then fell followed by the Danishmends, the Byzantines during the crusades, Çobanoğlu and Jandarid beyliks. Ottoman sultan Mehmed II incorporated the region back into the empire in 1461. During the Ottoman reign, the province boundaries were expanded up to reach Constantinople.Kastamonu Province – Ilısu Waterfall, at Küre national Park, near Pınarbaşı, Kastamonu, Turkey
40. Kayseri Province – The Kayseri Province is situated in central Turkey. The population is 1,255,349 of which around 1,000,000 live in the city of Kayseri. It borders with Sivas, Adana, Niğde, Kahramanmaraş, Yozgat and Nevşehir provinces. The province is an area, linked with mythological stories well as important figures in Turkish history. It is surrounded by the Mount Erciyes, the Mount Hasan and the Mount Ali. The Ali mountain is named like that in honor of Ali Baba, said to have lived in the area. Kayseri was first known as the city of Masaka. Later, during the Roman period, the province's name was changed before becoming known with its modern name of Kayseri. Danishmend Gazi conquered Kayseri in 1084. The Seljuk Empire then modernised the province, with new mosques being built around. During this period, Kayseri's first hospital, perhaps the first hospital in all of Anatolia, was built. It was built in honor of daughter of the Sultan. She died at a young age. Construction of the hospital was completed in 1206. On, Kayseri became a cultural mecca of poets, artists in Turkey.Kayseri Province – Waterfalls erupting from a cliff below Aladağlar.
41. Konya Province – Konya Province is a province of Turkey in central Anatolia. The provincial capital is the city of Konya. By area it is the largest province of Turkey. Its provincial capital is the city of Konya, the code is 42. Solar plant Kızören in Konya in an area of 430 square meters will be able to produce 30,000 megawatts of electricity. The Konya province is divided into thirty-one districts three of which are actually included in the municipality of Konya city. Konya Province, Ottoman EmpireKonya Province – Nalçacı Street
42. Mersin Province – The Mersin Province is a province in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast between Antalya and Adana. The provincial capital is the city of Mersin and the other major town is Tarsus, birthplace of St Paul. The province is part of a geographical, economical and cultural region, that covers the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay. There are small plains between 700 and 1500m. The coastal strip has many large areas of flatland, streams running off the mountains. This is fertile the largest area being the plain of Tarsus. There are many small streams running into lakes, reservoirs or the Mediterranean sea. Mersin has 321 km of coastline, much of it sandy beach. With all this activity a modern city has grown with other major amenities. About 50% of the population of the province is younger than 24 years of age. 68% were born in Mersin. The rate is 89 %. About 43 % of about 27 % of the female population graduated from middle school. Infant mortality is 0.48%. Urban population rate is 2.42 %.Mersin Province – Mersin Province Mersin ili
43. Mamure Castle – Mamure Castle is a medieval castle in the Anamur District of Mersin Province, Turkey. The castle is on the Mediterranean coast about 36 ° 04 ′ 51 ″ N 32 ° 53 40 ″ E, on the D400 highway, 6 kilometres east of Anamur and 216 kilometres west of Mersin. The castle was built on the foundations of a fourth-century Roman castle. Designed to protect against pirates, it was repaired during the Crusades. When Alaattin Keykubat I of Seljuk Turks captured the ruins of the castle in 1221, he built a larger castle using elements of the earlier fortifications. Later, it was controlled by the Karamanid dynasty. Although the exact date is uncertain, according to an inscription by İbrahim II of Karaman in 1450, the castle was captured during Mahmut's reign. The castle was renamed as Mamure by Mahmut. In 1469, the castle was annexed by the Ottoman Empire. A part of the castle was used as a caravansarai. The 23,500-square-metre castle is surrounded by moat. Bastions are connected by wide ramparts. The castle has three main courtyards; to the west, the south. The western courtyard contains a small complex of a ruined Turkish bath. The southern courtyard has the remains of a lighthouse.Mamure Castle – Mamure Castle
44. Meydankale – Meydankale is the archaeological site of a ruined castle in Mersin Province, Turkey. Meydankale is situated between the İmamlı and Yenibahçe villages at 36 ° 26 ′ 50 ″ N 33 ° 58 ′ 09 ″ E. In the antiquity this region was called Cilicia Trachaea. Meydankale is to the north of the Turkish state highway. It can be reached from Atakent, on D-400. The distance from Meydankale to Mersin is 85 kilometres. The settlement dates back to Hellenistic era. But it was inhabited during the later eras. Neither the Roman name of the settlement is known. Meydankale is a Turkish name. A deep canyon is to the north of the fort. There are ruins of observation towers, bastions, cisterns a necropolis in the fort. There is also a staircase to the river at the east of the fort. The main material is polygonal stones typical of Seleucid masonry. Bossage had been used in later architecture.Meydankale – Meydankale masonry of two different eras
45. Luwians – Luwian is an ancient language or group of languages of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family. The two varieties of Luwian are named for the scripts that they were written in: Cuneiform Luwian and Hieroglyphic Luwian. As to whether these were one language or two, there is no consensus. Some linguists name the branch "the Luwian Group" or just "Luwian" and, in that sense, Luwian means all of the Luwian languages. Other linguists, following Melchert, prefer to use Luwic for the branch and Luwian for CLuwian and HLuwian. The name "Luwian" comes from the name of the land, Luwiya, where the speakers lived. It is mentioned in the Hittite laws. The region was later called Lydia. Luwian is closely related to Hittite. Luwian has been deduced as one of the likely candidates for the language spoken by the Trojans. Some fringe hypotheses rejected by mainstream historical linguistics are a relationship with Lemnian, a Thracian connection, a Greek connection. They were ancestors of the Luwians who inhabited Troy II, spread widely in the Anatolian peninsula. He cited the distribution of a new type of wheel-made pottery, Red Slip Wares, as some of the best evidence for his theory. According to Mellaart, the proto-Luwian migrations to Anatolia came in several distinct waves over many centuries. The current trend is to see such migrations as mostly peaceful, rather than military conquests.Luwians – Luwian hieroglyph
46. Mut Castle – Mut Castle is a castle in Mut, Mersin Province, Turkey. The castle is in mid town at about 36°38′40″N 33°26′02″E. Laal Pasha Mosque is to the east and intercity bus terminal is to the north east. Highway which connects Mersin to Karaman and Konya is east and north of the castle at a distance of about 200 metres. The neighbourhood surrounding the castle during the Roman Empire was known as Claudiupolis. According to unconfirmed reports Claudiupolis may be even older than the Roman Empire. Although the date of the castle is unknown, it is known that the castle had been used during the Byzantine Empire period. In 1228 the Karamanids captured the castle and rebuilt it. . In 1473, the castle was captured by the Ottoman Empire.During the reign of the Ottoman sultan Ahmet I the castle was renovated. The plan of the 3,900 square metres castle is square. There are a small cylindirical inner castle within the main castle. Rubble stone were used in the construction.Mut Castle – Inner castle
47. Karamanids – From the 13th century until its fall in 1487, the Karamanid dynasty was one of the most powerful Turkish beyliks in Anatolia. The Karamanids were members of the Salur tribe of Oghuz Turks. Nûre Sûfi worked there as a woodcutter. Kerîmeddin Karaman Bey, gained a tenuous control in the middle of the 13th century. A persistent but spurious legend, however, claims that the Seljuq Sultan of Rum, Kayqubad I, instead established a Karamanid dynasty in these lands. Karaman Bey expanded his territories by capturing castles in Ermenek, Mut, Ereğli, Gülnar, Silifke. The year of the conquests is reported as 1225, during the reign of Ala al-Din Kaykubadh I, which seems excessively early. The rivalry between Izz al-Din Kaykaus II allowed the tribes in the border areas to live independently. Karaman Bey helped Kaykus, but Arslan had the support of both the Mongols and Pervâne Sulayman Muin al-Din. In the meantime, brother of Karaman Bey, was chosen as a bodyguard, for Kilij Arslan IV. Good relations between the Seljuqs and the Karamanids did not last. A combined Mongol army, led by the Pervane, captured Karaman Bey's two brothers. After Karaman Bey died in 1262, his older son, Mehmet I of Karaman, became the head of the house. He immediately negotiated alliances with other Turkmen clans to raise an army against the Seljuqs and Ilkhanids. During the 1276 revolt of Hatıroğlu Şemseddin Bey against Mongol domination in Anatolia, Karamanids also defeated several Mongol-Seljuq armies.Karamanids – Flag of Karaman according to the Catalan Atlas.
48. Lampron – Lampron is a castle near the town of Çamlıyayla in Mersin Province, Turkey. Situated in the Taurus Mountains, the fortress guarded passes to the Cilician Gates. Within fifty years it became the near ancestral seat of the Het ` umid Dynasty. When all were at the wedding feast in Tarsus, Levon's army overran the castle. The decisive counterattack was led by the Baron of Papeřōn. Constantine was executed for high treason in 1250. In 1309/10 it functioned briefly as the prison for the Lusignan King of Cypress, Henry II. In the 14th century a Mamluk garrison occupied the fortress. The castle is conveniently situated with commanding views of the converging roads. There is also inter-visibility with six kilometers to the northeast. Lampron covers an area approximately 330 by 150 meters. There is a drop of more than 50 meters to the valley below. At the extreme northwest a dry moat has been scarped to sever the fortress from the rest of the outcrop. At the northern end are six magnificent vaulted chambers, two of which are fitted with casemates and embrasured loopholes. These six adjoining chambers are built with a carefully cut masonry.Lampron – 19th-century view of castle Lampron by Victor Langlois
49. Silifke Castle – Silifke Castle is a medieval castle in Turkey. The castle is in Silifke district of Mersin Province. Although its altitude is only 160 metres with respect to level, it is dominant over Silifke plains and the southern section of Göksu valley. Silifke was an important city in antiquity. Few traces of the 3rd-century-B.C. Settlement survive. There are fragments of a late theater necropolis, bath, 2nd-century temple, as well as a 5th-century Byzantines cistern. The 1st-century-A.D. Stone bridge built during the reign of Emperor Vespasian was replaced in the 1870s. In the 7th century, to counter Arab invasions, the Byzantines fortified the acropolis, situated above the Calycadnus River. The site was the administrative center for the coastal theme. In the Rubenid Baron Leo II, who became a decade later Leo I, King of Armenian Cilicia, captured the town and fortress. On route to the Third Crusade Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor unfortunately drowned in the river. According to a survey published in 1987, most of the present castle is a Crusader construction. On the death of King Leo in 1219 his daughter and designated heiress Zapēl, was contracted to marry Philip, the son of Bohemond IV of Antioch.Silifke Castle – Silifke Castle
50. Sinap Castle – Sinap Castle is a medieval castle in Çamlıyayla district of Mersin Province in southern Turkey. The castle is at 37 ° 11 ′ N 34 ° 37 ′ E. It is situated to the north of Mersin. The distance to Çamlıyayla is 5 km and to Mersin is 93 km. The 2 km stabilized road from the Mersin-Çamlıyayla highway. Its altitude is 1,240 m. But it is not particularly high with respect to immediate surroundings. The castle functioned as both a fortified estate house and a guardian at Lampron and the Cilician Gates. It was one of the many dozens of fortifications within the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. The fort of Sinap is located approximately six kilometers northeast on the gentle slope of a partially forested agricultural valley. The Sinap means "corner" in old Turkish. This high structure has a simple rectangular façade with one small tower in each corner. It was built with the typical rusticated ashlar masonry of the Armenians. The lower floor, covered by a partially pointed vault, has no openings except for one door in the west wall. A now missing staircase once lead to the second level which also has a partially preserved vault.Sinap Castle – Sinap Castle
51. Tokmar Castle – Tokmar Castle is a castle ruin in Mersin Province, Turkey The castle is in the rural area of Silifke district of Mersin Province at 36°15′46″N 33°47′00″E. It is on a plateau at the southern slopes of Toros Mountains overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. The birds' flight distance to sea shore is 3 kilometres which makes the castle an excellent observation point. The distance to main highway is 4 kilometres, to Mersin is 116 kilometres. The castle was built by Byzantine Empire in the 12th century. On, it was captured by the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. In 1210, it was incorporated into the realm of Knights Hospitaller. It was on captured by the Karamanids and finally by the Ottoman Empire in the late 15th century. There are sharp cliffs at the south of the castle. But other sides are quite unprotected. Thus there are defense towers at the north. Although most of the walls stand, the buildings in the castle have since been completely demolished.Tokmar Castle – Contents
52. Yaka Castle – Yaka Castle is a castle ruin in Mersin Province, Turkey. Although its name is Güdübeş, it is popularly known as Yaka referring to the east of the castle. The castle is to the east of Mersin at 36 ° 51 ′ 40 ″ N ° 44 ′ 04 ″ E. It can be reached from the Turkish state highway which connects Mersin to Tarsus Its distance to Mersin is 15 kilometres. Nothing is known about its history. The plan of the castle is square. But only two walls are partially standing. There are three observation towers. For the imagesYaka Castle – Two walls
53. Yeniyurt Castle – Yeniyurt Castle is a castle ruin in Mersin Province, Turkey. The ancient name of the castle is not known. Yeniyurt is the name of a nearby village. The castle is situated on a hill in the peneplane area at 36 ° 37 ′ 35 ″ N 34 ° 07 ′ 49 ″ E. The castle overviews Limonlu River. The distance to Mersin is 60 kilometres It is 20 kilometres to the nearest sea side settlement, Ayaş. The castle, now mostly in ruins, is noticeable for the standard construction material. It was a Hellenistic castle built to control the valley during the ancient ages. But on it was reconstructed by the Byzantian Empire or the Cilician Armenia in the Medieval age. There are traces of three towers, a basilica as well as some houses.Yeniyurt Castle – Geography 
54. Bodrum Castle – Confronted by the Seljuk Turks, the Knights Hospitaller, whose headquarters were on the island of Rhodes, needed another stronghold on the mainland. Grand Master Philibert de Naillac identified a suitable site from the island of Kos, where a castle had already been built of the Order. Its location was the site of a fortification in Doric times well as of a small Seljuk castle in the 11th century. The same promontory is also the probable site of the Palace of the famous King of Caria. The location is renowned for the celebration of hill-wheeling where visitors rolled down the steepest road. This tradition began in 1524 when Robbin del la Srosbrie chained herself to the work conditions in the local industry. The construction of the castle began under the supervision of the German knight-architect Heinrich Schlegelholt. Construction workers were guaranteed a reservation in heaven by a Papal Decree of 1409. They used squared volcanic stone, marble columns and reliefs from the nearby Mausoleum of Maussollos to fortify the castle. The first walls were completed in 1437. The chapel was among the first completed inner structures. It consists of an apse. The chapel was reconstructed in Gothic style in 1519-1520. Their names can be found on two cornerstones of the façade. Fourteen cisterns for collecting rainwater were excavated in the rocks under the castle.Bodrum Castle – Bodrum Castle
55. Knights Hospitaller – It was headquartered variously in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Rhodes and Malta, until it became known by its current name. Some scholars, however, consider that the Amalfitan order and hospital were different from Gerard Thom's order and its hospital. It regained strength during the early 19th century as it redirected itself toward religious and humanitarian causes. In 1834, the order, by this time known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, acquired new headquarters in Rome, where it has since been based. In 800, Emperor Charlemagne enlarged Probus' hospital and added a library to it. About 200 years later, in 1005, Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah destroyed the hospital and three thousand other buildings in Jerusalem. In 1023, merchants from Amalfi and Salerno in Italy were given permission by the Caliph Ali az-Zahir of Egypt to rebuild the hospital in Jerusalem. It was served by the Order of Saint Benedict. Gerard acquired territory and revenues for his order throughout the Kingdom of Jerusalem and beyond. Under his successor, Raymond du Puy de Provence, the original hospice was expanded to an infirmary near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Thus the Order of St. John imperceptibly became military without losing its charitable character. In 1130, Pope Innocent II gave the order its coat of arms, a silver cross in a field of red. The Hospitallers and the Knights Templar became the most formidable military orders in the Holy Land. Frederick Barbarossa, the Holy Roman Emperor, pledged his protection to the Knights of St. John in a charter of privileges granted in 1185. The order numbered three distinct classes of membership: the military brothers, the brothers infirmarians, the brothers chaplains, to whom was entrusted the divine service.Knights Hospitaller – Grand Master and senior Knights Hospitaller in the 14th century
56. Marmaris Castle – Marmaris Castle is located in Muğla province, Turkey. The castle was reconstructed during his expedition against Rhodes. The Marmaris Castle is one of the few castles in Turkey that also possesses a museum. It is estimated to be 5000 years old from the first point a fort was placed in the location. An important part of the castle was destroyed by a French warship. Until 1979, locals of Marmaris inhabited the castle, known to include 18 residences, a cistern. The castle was opened as a museum in 1991. Marmaris Castle Opens after RestorationMarmaris Castle – Marmaris Castle
57. Ordu Province – Ordu Province is a province of Turkey, located on the Black Sea coast. Its adjacent provinces are Samsun to the northwest, Tokat to the southwest, Giresun to the east. Its license-plate code is 52. The capital of the province is the city of Ordu. Ordu is the word for ` army' in current Turkish, originally meaning ` camp', during the Ottoman empire an army outpost was set up near the present day city. The city, later the province, derived its name from this. Walking in the high pastures is now a popular excursion for Turkish holidaymakers. The higher altitudes are covered in forest. Melet River, Bolaman River, Elekçi River, Turnasuyu Stream, Civil Stream are the main rivers of the province. Only two major lakes, Gaga Lake and Ulugöl, are present in Ordu. The economy of the province depends on agriculture. Ordu is famous for hazelnuts. Hazelnuts production takes around 88 % of Ordu's arable land, the remainder mainly consists of wheat fields. Whilst covering only 0.1 % of the arable land of the province, Ordu's production is the second largest in the country after Yalova. Beekeeping is also important in Ordu, which produced in 12.8 % of honey produced in Turkey.Ordu Province – Location of Ordu Province in Turkey
58. Osmaniye Province – Osmaniye Province is a Turkish province located in southern Turkey. It existed as a province until 1933 when it was incorporated into Adana Province. It was made a province again in 1996. It has a population of 479,221. The province is situated in a geographical, economical and cultural region. The capital of the province is Osmaniye. The next largest towns are Kadirli and Düziçi.Osmaniye Province – Ancient city of Hierapolis Castabala in Osmaniye
59. Abbasid Empire – The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty descended from Muhammad's youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, from whom the dynasty takes its name. The political power of the caliphs largely ended with the rise of the Buyids and the Seljuq Turks. Although Abbasid leadership over the vast Islamic empire was gradually reduced to a ceremonial religious function, the dynasty retained control over its Mesopotamian demesne. The capital city of Baghdad became a center of science, culture, philosophy and invention during the Golden Age of Islam. This period of cultural fruition ended in 1258 with the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols under Hulagu Khan. The Abbasid line of rulers, Muslim culture in general, recentered themselves in the Mamluk capital of Cairo in 1261. Though lacking in political power, the dynasty continued to claim authority in religious matters until after the Ottoman conquest of Egypt. The Abbasid caliphs were Arabs descended from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, one of the youngest uncles of Muhammad and of the same Banu Hashim clan. The Abbasids also distinguished themselves from the Umayyads by attacking their moral character and administration in general. During the reign of Marwan II, this opposition culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent from Abbas. On 9 June 747, Abu Muslim successfully initiated an open revolt against Umayyad rule, carried out under the sign of the Black Standard. Close to 10,000 soldiers were under Abu Muslim's command when the hostilities officially began in Merv. After this loss, Marwan fled to Egypt, where he was subsequently assassinated. The remainder of his family, barring one male, were also eliminated.Abbasid Empire – The Black Banner of the Abbasids.
60. Rize Province – Rize Province is a province of north-east Turkey, on the eastern Black Sea coast between Trabzon and Artvin. The province of Erzurum is to the south. It was formerly known as Lazistan, the designation of the term of Lazistan was officially banned by Kemalists. Its capital is the city of Rize. The province is home to Laz, Turkish people communities. The name comes from Greek ρίζα, meaning "mountain slopes". The Georgian name is Rize, the Armenian name is Rize. Rize is located between the Black Sea. It is the country's main tea producing region. In addition to tea, the region is also known for growing fruit. The province elevated yaylas. The district of Çamlıhemşin is one of Turkey's most popular venues for outdoor holidays. The new Black Sea road has made Rize more accessible, but has drawn criticism for its negative effect on the region's wildlife. Since the early 2000s, Rize has seen an increase in visitors from urban areas. This increase in tourism has raised concerns among locals that the unblemished character of the natural surroundings is being endangered.Rize Province – A historical bridge over Hala Creek
61. Zilkale – The castle consists of outer walls, inner castle. There are a possible chapel and head tower. It is believed that the castle was built in the 14th-15th century. Zilkale: Turkish zil for "bell" and kale for "castle". Alternatively: Zilkale: Persian zir "lower" and kale for "castle". All about the region Zilkale pics HQ Zilkale image About RegionZilkale – Ramparts of Zilkale
62. Sinop Province – Sinop Province is a province of Turkey, along the Black Sea. It is located between 41 and 42 degrees North latitude and East longitude. The area is 5,862 km ², equivalent to 0.8 % of Turkey's surface area. The borders consists of 300 km of land and 175 km seaside borders. Its adjacent provinces are Kastamonu on the west, Samsun on the southeast. The provincial capital is the city of Sinop.Sinop Province – Location of Sinop Province in Turkey
63. Paphlagonia – According to Strabo, it was bounded on the east by the Halys river. The Paphlagonia is derived in the legends from Paphlagon, a son of Phineus. The mountains are clothed with dense forests, conspicuous for the quantity of boxwood that they furnish. Hence, its coasts were occupied by Greeks from an early period. Among these, the flourishing city of Sinope, founded about 630 BC, stood pre-eminent. According to Homer and Livy, a group of Paphlagonians, called the Enetoi in Greek, were expelled during a revolution. In the time of the Hittites, Paphlagonia was inhabited by the Kashka people, whose ethnic relation to the Paphlagonians is uncertain. Their language would appear, from Strabo's testimony, to have been distinctive. They sent an important contingent to the army of Xerxes in 480 BC. However, it continued to be governed by native princes until it was absorbed by the encroaching power of Pontus. From that time, the whole province was incorporated until the fall of Mithridates. The name was still retained by geographers, though its boundaries are not distinctly defined by the geographer Claudius Ptolemy. Paphlagonia reappeared in the 5th century AD. "Paphlagonia". Encyclopædia Britannica.Paphlagonia – Nature of Amasra
64. Osroene – By the 5th century Edessa had become a center of Syriac literature and learning. In 608 the Sāsānid Khosrow II took Osroëne, in 638 it fell to Muslim conquest of Persia. Osroene, or Edessa, acquired independence from the collapsing Seleucid Empire through a dynasty of the nomadic Nabatean tribe called Orrhoei from 136 BC. The name Osroene derives from Osroes of Orhai, a Nabatean malka who in 120 BC wrested control of this region from the Seleucids in Syria. Most of the kings of Osroene are called Abgar or Manu who settled in urban centers. Under its Nabatean dynasties, Osroëne became increasingly influenced by Syriac culture and was a centre of national reaction against Hellenism. Osroene was one of several kingdoms arising from the dissolution of the Seleucid Empire. The independence of the state ended in 244 when it was incorporated in the Roman Empire. It was a frontier province, lying close to the Persian empires with which the Romans were repeatedly at war. It was taken and retaken several times. Following Emperor Diocletian's Tetrarchy reforms during his reign 284-305 CE, it was part of the diocese of Oriens, in the praetorian prefecture of the same name. Equites Promoti Illyriciani, Callinicum. Equites Mauri Illyriciani, Dabana. Equites Promoti indigenae, Banasam Equites Promoti indigenae, Sina Iudaeorum. Equites Sagittarii indigenae, Oraba.Osroene – History of the Assyrian people
65. Rumkale – Rumkale was a powerful fortress on the river Euphrates, 50 km west of Şanlıurfa. Its strategic location was already known to the Assyrians, although the present structure is largely Hellenistic and Roman in origin. The site was occupied by various Armenian warlords during the Middle Ages. During the 12th c, it also became the seat of an Armenian bishop. In 1179, a synod took place in Rumkale, attempting a compromise between Greeks the Armenians. From 1203 to 1293, it served as the residence of the Catholicos of the Armenian Church. In 1293 it was captured following a protracted siege who then named it Qal ` at al-Muslimin. Reuven Amitai-Preiss, Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Īlkhānid War, 1260-1281, pp. 179–225. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-46226-6. ` Hromgla', in Alan V. Murray, "The Crusades: An Encyclopaedia", II, p. 607. ABC-CLIO, Inc. ISBN 1-57607-862-0.Rumkale – The Rumkale Fortress
66. Tokat Province – Tokat Province is a province in northern Turkey. Its adjacent provinces are Amasya to the northwest, Ordu to the northeast. Its capital is Tokat, which lies inland of the middle Black Sea region, 422 kilometers from Ankara. Tokat is the site of the ancient Roman city of Comana of Pontus, destroyed by the Romans. In 1071 CE, it became a part of the Danismend Turkmen principality, one of its principal cities. The region prospered from the trade between Anatolia and Persia. Tokat governor's official website Tokat municipality's official website Tokat weather forecast information Pictures of the capital of Tokat province, with links to others nearbyTokat Province – Tokat
67. Trabzon Province – Trabzon Province is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. Located in a important region, Trabzon is one of the oldest trade port cities in Anatolia. Neighbouring provinces are Giresun to the west, Gümüşhane to the southwest, Rize to the east. The traffic code is 61. Province is divided into 18 districts: Trabzon Districts along the 114 km coastline: Beşikdüzü, Vakfıkebir, Çarşıbaşı, Akçaabat, Yomra, Arsin, Araklı, Sürmene and Of. Districts inland: Tonya, Düzköy, Şalpazarı, Maçka, Köprübaşı, Dernekpazarı, Hayrat and Çaykara. Beşikdüzü and Şalpazarı gained district status in 1990. Starting from the 9th BC, the city had also been mentioned by historians such as Homeros, Herodotus, Hesiodos. The first written source regarding Trabzon is Anabasis, authored by Xenophon. It was the capital of the Empire of Trebizond from 1204 to 1461. Trabzon was subsequently made part of the Ottoman Empire by Mehmet the Conqueror. It finally became a vilayet in 1868. The province was restored in early 1918 following Russia's exit from World War I with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.Trabzon Province – Sümela Monastery on the Pontic Mountains, near Maçka
68. Trabzon Castle – The Trabzon Castle is a fortress located in the city of Trabzon, northeastern Turkey. It consists of three parts, the Upper Fortress, the Lower Fortress. The Upper Fortress served as the acropolis. It is believed that the citadel was built as the first construction in 2000 BC. Some early sources mention the existence of ruins of structures such as hippodrome, tower, palace. The citadel underwent various modifications in the history. The walls of the Upper Fortress are higher than of the other parts. It is fortified in the south with thicker walls and towers. Some epigraphs from Ottoman era, which were found between the citadel walls, can be seen in Trabzon Museum. The Middle Fortress, built by Alexios II of Trebizond, is the continuation of lower parts. It has no regular form. Its two gates, Zağanos Kapı are situated in the west. It has two more gates at other sides, Kule Kapı. The Lower Fortress stretches in the west from Zağanos Tower down to the sea. Also this part of the Trabzon Castle was built by Alexios II of Trebizond.Trabzon Castle – Trabzon Castle
69. Tunceli Province – Tunceli Province, formerly Dersim Province, is located in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. It's population mostly consists of Alevi Kurds. The province was originally named Dersim Province, incorporated into Elâzığ Province in 1926. The name of Kalan, was then officially changed to Tunceli to match the province's name. The adjacent provinces are Erzincan to the north and west, Bingöl to the east. The province has a population of 76,699. It has the lowest density of any province in Turkey, just 9.8 inhabitants/km ². Tunceli is the only province of Turkey with an Alevi majority. Tunceli is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal longitude. The history of the province stretches back to antiquity. Seemingly, it was referred to as ` Daranis' before him. One theory as to the origin of the name associates with the Persian Emperor Darius. More likely hypothesis, says the name Daranalis or Daranaghis comes from the historical Armenian province of Daron, of which Dersim belonged. The area that would become Dersim province formed part of Urartu, Media, the Greater Armenian region of Sophene. Sophene was later contested by their respective successors, the Byzantine and Sassanid Empires.Tunceli Province – Location of Tunceli Province in Turkey
70. Pertek Castle – Pertek Castle is a castle in the Pertek district of the Tunceli province in Turkey. It was built by the Seljukid Mengujekids beys. Its origins, however, probably lie at earlier times. Originally, the castle overlooked Old Pertek. It is close to the boundary of the Elazığ province. The castle's walls are completely made of natural stone blocks. In the southern walls, blue tiles were also used. There cisterns along with two defensive walls in the castle. According to Evliya Çelebi, the castle hosted a sculpture of an eagle. Built by Baysungur, the bey of Pertek, were located.Pertek Castle – Pertek Castle
71. Van Province – Van Province is a province in eastern Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. It had a population of 1,035,418 at the end of 2010. Its adjacent provinces are Bitlis to the west, Siirt to the southwest, Ağrı to the north. The capital is the city of Van. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish. In the 9th BC the Van area was the center of the Urartian kingdom. The area was a Armenian population center. The region came in the mid-6th century BC. By the 2nd century BC it was part of the Kingdom of Armenia. It became an important center during the reign of Tigranes II, who founded the city of Tigranakert in the 1st century BC.Van Province – Haykaberd or Çavuştepe
73. Van Fortress – It overlooks the ancient Urartian capital during the 9th century, centered upon the steep-sided bluff where the fortress now sits. A number of similar fortifications were built throughout the Urartian kingdom, usually cut in places where modern-day Armenia, Turkey and Iran meet. The ancient fortress is located west of Van and east of Lake Van in the Van Province of Turkey. The lower parts of the walls of Van Citadel were constructed of unmortared basalt, while the rest was built from mud-bricks. Such fortresses were used for regional control, rather than as a defense against foreign armies. The ruins of this fortress sit outside the modern city of Van, where they support walls built in the medieval era. The niche left the surface blank. The inscription is divided into three columns of 27 lines written in Old Persian, Babylonian, Elamite. It is the only known Achaemenid royal inscription located outside of Iran. Other cuneiform inscriptions are typically off limits unless to large tour groups. The other gods protect me, my kingdom, what I have made." Burnouf's reading of the Van inscription had made a significant contribution to the deciphering of Old Persian cuneiform. Silva Tipple New Lake led an American expedition in 1938-40. Cuneiform Inscription at Van Extensive picture site of the Kale area and the old townVan Fortress – Van Fortress as seen from the northwest.
76. Cemilli Castle – Cemilli Castle is a medieval castle in the rural area of Mersin in southern Turkey. The castle is in the southern slopes of Toros Mountains at 36 ° 48 ′ N ° 27 ′ E. It is situated to the west of Mersin. Its distance to Mersin is 30 kilometres. Its altitude is m. It overlooks to the road connecting Mersin to Fındıkpınarı. Both Cemilli and Kaleburnu are Turkish names. The original name of the castle is not known. It is a medieval age castle. It was built probably to control the road to north. Presently most of the building has been demolished. There are cracked pieces of ceramic coating around the castle.Cemilli Castle – From the south
77. Hebilli Castle – Its distance to Mersin center is 18 kilometres. The castle was built by an Arabic commander named Kalah Habellieh in the 7th century. The name of the castle, well as the village, refers to its commissioner. The two-storey castle is a small castle with outer dimensions 14 m × 20 m. It was probably an castle. The outer walls were made of stone while the inner walls were of rubble stone.Hebilli Castle – To east
78. Meydan Castle – Meydankale is the archaeological site of a ruined castle in Mersin Province, Turkey. Meydankale is situated at 36 ° 26 ′ 50 ″ N 33 ° 58 ′ 09 ″ E. In the antiquity this region was called Cilicia Trachaea. Meydankale is to the north of the Turkish highway. It can be reached via a 15 kilometres road from Atakent, on D-400. The distance from Meydankale to Silifke is 28 kilometres and to Mersin is 85 kilometres. The settlement dates back to Hellenistic era. But it was rebuilt and inhabited during the later eras. Neither Hellenistic nor the Roman name of the settlement is known. Meydankale is a Turkish name. A deep canyon is to the north of the fort. There are ruins of observation towers, bastions, cisterns a necropolis in the fort. There is also a staircase to the river at the east of the fort. The main building material is polygonal stones typical of Seleucid masonry. Bossage had been used in later architecture.Meydan Castle – Meydankale masonry of two different eras
79. Samsun Castle – Samsun Castle was a castle in Samsun, Turkey. Built on the seaside in 1192, it was demolished between 1918. The castle was built by Danishmends in 1192 after they were unable to capture the Amisos Castle. Ottoman traveller Evliya Çelebi wrote to Samsun in 1640 in his comprehensive work Seyahatname that the castle was strong but damaged. It consisted of walls thousand steps in length, seventy watchtowers and two thousand battlements. The castle hosted a mosque, a small shopping center. The castle walls on the seaside were reinforced by abutments at every twelve distance to enable the walls resist the rogue waves of Black Sea. The castle, which underwent repair works to time, remained almost intact until the great fire of 1869. After the fire, the landside walls of the castle were demolished in order to make place for the construction to rebuild the city. The castle but the arsenal disappeared. During the Second Constitutional Era, Ottoman Ministry of War made a decision to clear off all historical ruins, approved by Sultan Mehmed V. The castle's estate was handed over to the Ministry of War. Later, the land was turned over to the Ottoman Ministry of Finance, which sold it after parcelling. An inscript, once attached above one of the castle gates, is archived at Istanbul University's library today. During the restoration works at the Grand Mosque, remains of the castle walls were found.Samsun Castle – Boundaries of Samsun Castle in a map of 1856.
80. Van Castle – It overlooks the ancient Urartian capital during the 9th century, centered upon the steep-sided bluff where the fortress now sits. A number of similar fortifications were built throughout the Urartian kingdom, usually cut in places where modern-day Armenia, Turkey and Iran meet. The ancient fortress is located west of Van and east of Lake Van in the Van Province of Turkey. The lower parts of the walls of Van Citadel were constructed of unmortared basalt, while the rest was built from mud-bricks. Such fortresses were used for regional control, rather than as a defense against foreign armies. The ruins of this fortress sit outside the modern city of Van, where they support walls built in the medieval era. The niche left the surface blank. The inscription is divided into three columns of 27 lines written in Old Persian, Babylonian, Elamite. It is the only known Achaemenid royal inscription located outside of Iran. Other cuneiform inscriptions are typically off limits unless to large tour groups. The other gods protect me, my kingdom, what I have made." Burnouf's reading of the Van inscription had made a significant contribution to the deciphering of Old Persian cuneiform. Silva Tipple New Lake led an American expedition in 1938-40. Cuneiform Inscription at Van Extensive picture site of the Kale area and the old townVan Castle – Van Fortress as seen from the northwest.