List of castles in Turkey
Castles of Turkey KMZ File https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?authuser=0&mid=1UlwwCBIWHgaa9sKSlNtDarAVPv0
|Province||Name||Image or coordinates||Era of construction|
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
|Anavarza Castle||Roman Empire|
|Kizlar Kalesi||Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia|
|Tumlu||Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia|
|Amasya Province||Amasya Castle||Roman Empire|
|Ankara Province||Ankara Castle||Roman Empire|
|Antalya Province||Alara Castle||Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia|
|Alanya Castle||Seljuks of Rum|
|Gazipaşa||Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia|
|Simena Castle||Seljuks of Rum|
|Ardahan Province||Ardahan Castle||Ottoman Empire|
|Kazan Castle||Turkmens from Kazan|
|Çanakkale Province||Bozcaada Castle||Ottoman Empire|
|Kilitbahir Castle||Ottoman Empire|
|Gaziantep Province||Birecik Castle||Assyria|
|Gaziantep Castle||Roman Empire|
|Hatay Province||Bagras Castle||Byzantine Empire|
|Istanbul Province||Anadoluhisari||Ottoman Empire|
|Riva Castle||Byzantine Empire|
Republic of Genoa
|Izmir Province||Kadifekale||Hellenistic period|
|Çeşme Castle||Ottoman Empire|
|Kahramanmaraş Province||Kahramanmaraş Castle|
|Kars Province||Kars Castle||Ottoman Empire|
|Kastamonu Province||Kastamonu Castle||Bayzantine Empire|
|Kayseri Province||Kayseri Castle||Byzantine Empire|
|Konya Province||Gevele Castle||Unknown|
|Mersin Province||Çandır Castle||Byzantine Empire|
|Dağlı Castle||Roman Empire|
|Gözne Castle||Byzantine Empire|
|Hisarın Castle||Hellenistic Period (?)|
Cilician Kingdom of Armenia
|Mamure Castle||]||Seljuks of Rum|
|Mancınık Castle||Hellenistic period|
|Meydancık Castle||Pirandu (Luwians)|
|Mut Castle||Byzantine Empire
|Namrun Castle||Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia|
|Silifke Castle||Byzantine Empire|
|Sinap Castle||Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia|
|Softa Castle||Roman Rmpire|
|Tokmar Castle||Byzantine Empire|
|Yeniyurt Castle||Hellenistic period
|Muğla Province||Bodrum Castle||Knights Hospitaller|
|Marmaris Castle||Knights Hospitaller
|Ordu Province||Bolaman Castle|
|Osmaniye Province||Hemite Castle||Crusaders|
|Servantikar||Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia|
|Rize Province||Rize Castle||Byzantine Empire|
|Sinop Province||Boyabat Castle||Paphlagonia
|Şanlıurfa Province||Şanlıurfa Castle||Osroene|
|Tokat Province||Tokat Castle||Byzantine Empire|
|Trabzon Province||Trabzon Castle||Byzantine Empire|
|Tunceli Province||Pertek Castle||Seljuk Empire|
Castles of Turkey KMZ File https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?authuser=0&mid=1UlwwCBIWHgaa9sKSlNtDarAVPv0
1. Turkey – Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, parliamentary republic with a cultural heritage. The country is encircled by seas on three sides, the Aegean Sea is to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, Ankara is the capital while Istanbul is the countrys largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Approximately 70-80% of the countrys citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks, other ethnic groups include legally recognised and unrecognised minorities. Kurds are the largest ethnic minority group, making up approximately 20% of the population, the area of Turkey has been inhabited since the Paleolithic by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians and Armenians. After Alexander the Greats conquest, the area was Hellenized, a process continued under the Roman Empire. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, the empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. During the war, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, Assyrian, following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. Turkey is a member of the UN, an early member of NATO. Turkeys growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have led to its recognition as a regional power while her location has given it geopolitical, the name of Turkey is based on the ethnonym Türk. The first recorded use of the term Türk or Türük as an autonym is contained in the Old Turkic inscriptions of the Göktürks of Central Asia, the English name Turkey first appeared in the late 14th century and is derived from Medieval Latin Turchia. Similarly, the medieval Khazar Empire, a Turkic state on the shores of the Black. The medieval Arabs referred to the Mamluk Sultanate as al-Dawla al-Turkiyya, the Ottoman Empire was sometimes referred to as Turkey or the Turkish Empire among its European contemporaries. The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world, various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period. Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family, in fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated. The European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has also been inhabited since at least forty years ago. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date, the settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic Age and continued into the Iron AgeTurkey – Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 12,000 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England by almost ten millennia.
2. Turkish language – Outside of Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official EU language, in 1928, as one of Atatürks Reforms in the early years of the Republic of Turkey, the Ottoman Turkish alphabet was replaced with a Latin alphabet. The distinctive characteristics of Turkish are vowel harmony and extensive agglutination, the basic word order of Turkish is subject–object–verb. Turkish has no classes or grammatical gender. Turkish has a strong T–V distinction and usage of honorifics, Turkish uses second-person pronouns that distinguish varying levels of politeness, social distance, age, courtesy or familiarity toward the addressee. The plural second-person pronoun and verb forms are used referring to a person out of respect. Turkic languages belong to the Altaic language group, the Turkic family comprises some 30 living languages spoken across Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and Siberia. Turkish is a member of the Oghuz group of languages, a subgroup of the Turkic language family, there is a high degree of mutual intelligibility between Turkish and the other Oghuz Turkic languages, including Azerbaijani, Turkmen, Qashqai, Gagauz, and Balkan Gagauz Turkish. The earliest known Old Turkic inscriptions are the three monumental Orkhon inscriptions found in modern Mongolia, erected in honour of the prince Kul Tigin and his brother Emperor Bilge Khagan, these date back to the second Turk Kaghanate. The Seljuqs of the Oghuz Turks, in particular, brought their language, following the adoption of Islam c. Turkish literature during the Ottoman period, particularly Divan poetry, was influenced by Persian, including the adoption of poetic meters. One of the tasks of the newly established association was to initiate a reform to replace loanwords of Arabic. By banning the usage of imported words in the press, the association succeeded in removing several hundred words from the language. While most of the words introduced to the language by the TDK were newly derived from Turkic roots, owing to this sudden change in the language, older and younger people in Turkey started to differ in their vocabularies. While the generations born before the 1940s tend to use the terms of Arabic or Persian origin. The past few decades have seen the work of the TDK to coin new Turkish words to express new concepts and technologies as they enter the language. Many of these new words, particularly information technology terms, have received widespread acceptance, however, the TDK is occasionally criticized for coining words which sound contrived and artificial. Some earlier changes—such as bölem to replace fırka, political party—also failed to meet with popular approval, some words restored from Old Turkic have taken on specialized meanings, for example betik is now used to mean script in computer scienceTurkish language – Old Turkic inscription with the Orkhon script (c. 8th century). Kyzyl, Russia
3. Adana Province – Adana Province, is a province of Turkey located in south-central Anatolia. With a population of 2.18 million, it is the sixth most populous province in Turkey, the administrative seat of the province is the city of Adana, home to 79% of the residents of the province. The province, geographically and as well as economically, is part of the region together with the Mersin, Osmaniye. Adana Province has an area of 14.030 km². Southern portion of the province is plain, northern section is formed of mountains, the provinces adjacent to it are Mersin to the west, Hatay to the southeast, Osmaniye to the east, Kahramanmaraş to the northeast, Kayseri to the north, and Niğde to the northwest. Two levels of governments are involved in the administration of the Adana Province, Central, Adana Governorship is the provincial branch of the Central government and Adana Province Special Administration is the provincial governing body. Province is divided into 15 districts and each district is divided into municipalities and villages, municipalities are further divided into neighborhoods. Central government in Ankara has majority of the power in the administration of the province through Adana Governorship, the governorship oversees the functioning of provincial and regional directorates of the ministries and other governmental agencies. Provincial directorates cover Adana Province only, whereas Regional directorates cover Çukurova and in some cases additional provinces. The last TBMM elections were held on June 7th,2015 and in the Adana Province, conservative AKP took 5 seats, social democrat CHP4 seats, nationalist MHP3 seats and socialist HDP took 2 seats. Adana Province Special Administration is a semi-democratic provincial governing body that has three organs, Provincial Parliament, Governor and the Encümen. Provincial Parliament members are elected democratically, the governor is appointed by the Central Government and 4 out of 8 members of the Encümen are appointed by the governor. Province Special Administration is not a jurisdiction and has executive power in the administration of the province running with a budget of 55 million TL for 2010. Adana Provincial Parliament is the decision making organ of the Province Special Administration and it is formed of 61 members who represent the 15 districts. Members of the Parliament are nominated by the branches of the National Parties during the Local Elections and are elected by the dHondt method. Each district is a district and there is a 10% threshold for a party to gain seat at the district. There is no threshold at the provincial level, Parliament is administered by the president, two vice-presidents, and two secretary generals who are elected from the members. Current chair of the parliament is Abdullah Torun, current Composition of the Parliament The last election for the Provincial Parliament was held on March 29,2009Adana Province – Turgut Özal boulevard in Çukuorva
4. Crusaders – The First Crusade arose after a call to arms in a 1095 sermon by Pope Urban II. Urban urged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, the response to Urbans preaching by people of many different classes across Western Europe established the precedent for later Crusades. Volunteers became Crusaders by taking a vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the church. Some were hoping for apotheosis at Jerusalem, or forgiveness from God for all their sins, others participated to satisfy feudal obligations, gain glory and honour, or find opportunities for economic and political gain. Many modern Historians have polarised opinions of the Crusaders behaviour under Papal sanction, to some it was incongruous with the stated aims and implied moral authority of the papacy and the Crusades, to the extent that on occasions that the Pope excommunicated Crusaders. Crusaders often pillaged as they travelled, while their leaders retained control of captured territory rather than returning it to the Byzantines. During the Peoples Crusade thousands of Jews were murdered in what is now called the Rhineland massacres, Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade rendering the reunification of Christendom impossible. These tales consequently galvanised medieval romance, philosophy and literature, but the Crusades also reinforced the connection between Western Christendom, feudalism, and militarism. Crusade is not a term, instead the terms iter for journey or peregrinatio for pilgrimage were used. Not until the word crucesignatus for one who was signed with the cross was adopted at the close of the century was specific terminology developed. The Middle English equivalents were derived from old French, croiserie in the 13th–15th centuries, croisade appeared in English c1575, and continued to be the leading form till c1760. By convention historians adopt the term for the Christian holy wars from 1095, the Crusades in the Holy Land are traditionally counted as nine distinct campaigns, numbered from the First Crusade of 1095–99 to the Ninth Crusade of 1271/2. Usage of the term Crusade may differ depending on the author, pluralists use the term Crusade of any campaign explicitly sanctioned by the reigning Pope. This reflects the view of the Roman Catholic Church that every military campaign given Papal sanction is equally valid as a Crusade, regardless of its cause, justification, generalists see Crusades as any and all holy wars connected with the Latin Church and fought in defence of their faith. Popularists limit the Crusades to only those that were characterised by popular groundswells of religious fervour – that is, only the First Crusade, Medieval Muslim historiographers such as Ali ibn al-Athir refer to the Crusades as the Frankish Wars. The term used in modern Arabic, ḥamalāt ṣalībiyya حملات صليبية, campaigns of the cross, is a loan translation of the term Crusade as used in Western historiography. The Islamic prophet Muhammad founded Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, the resulting unified polity in the seventh and eighth centuries led to a rapid expansion of Arab power. This influence stretched from the northwest Indian subcontinent, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, southern Italy, tolerance, trade, and political relationships between the Arabs and the Christian states of Europe waxed and wanedCrusaders – Madrid Skylitzes illuminated manuscript depicting Byzantine Greeks punishing ninth-century Cretan Saracens
5. Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia – Located outside of the Armenian Highland and distinct from the Armenian Kingdom of antiquity, it was centered in the Cilicia region northwest of the Gulf of Alexandretta. Their capital was originally at Tarsus, and later became Sis, Cilicia was a strong ally of the European Crusaders, and saw itself as a bastion of Christendom in the East. It also served as a focus for Armenian nationalism and culture, in 1198, with the crowning of Levon the Magnificent of the Rubenid dynasty, Cilician Armenia became a kingdom. In 1226, the crown was passed to rival Hethumids through Isabellas second husband, in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the Crusader states disintegrated and the Mongols became Islamized, leaving the Armenian Kingdom without any regional allies. After relentless attacks by the Mamluks in Egypt in the fourteenth century, commercial and military interactions with Europeans brought new Western influences to the Cilician Armenian society. Many aspects of Western European life were adopted by the nobility including chivalry, fashions in clothing, and the use of French titles, names, moreover, the organization of the Cilician society shifted from its traditional system to become closer to Western feudalism. The European Crusaders themselves borrowed know-how, such as elements of Armenian castle-building, Cilician Armenia thrived economically, with the port of Ayas serving as a center for East to West trade. Armenian presence in Cilicia dates back to the first century BC, when under Tigranes the Great, in 83 BC, the Greek aristocracy of Seleucid Syria, weakened by a bloody civil war, offered their allegiance to the ambitious Armenian king. Tigranes then conquered Phoenicia and Cilicia, effectively ending the Seleucid Empire, the southern border of his domain reached as far as Ptolemais. Many of the inhabitants of conquered cities were sent to the new metropolis of Tigranakert, at its height, Tigranes Armenian Empire extended from the Pontic Alps to Mesopotamia, and from the Caspian to the Mediterranean. Tigranes invaded as far southeast as the Parthian capital of Ecbatana, in 27 BC, the Roman Empire conquered Cilicia and transformed it into one of its eastern provinces. After the 395 AD partition of the Roman Empire into halves, Cilicia became incorporated into the Eastern Roman Empire, in the sixth century AD, Armenian families relocated to Byzantine territories. Many served in the Byzantine army as soldiers or as generals, Cilicia fell to Arab invasions in the seventh century and was entirely incorporated into the Rashidun Caliphate. However, the Caliphate failed to gain a permanent foothold in Anatolia, Nicephorus thus expelled the Muslims living in Cilicia, and encouraged Christians from Syria and Armenia to settle in the region. Emperor Basil II tried to expand into Armenian Vaspurakan in the east, as a result of the Byzantine military campaigns, the Armenians spread into Cappadocia, and eastward from Cilicia into the mountainous areas of northern Syria and Mesopotamia. The formal annexation of Greater Armenia to the Byzantine Empire in 1045, the Armenians could not re-establish an independent state in their native highland after the fall of Bagratid Armenia as it remained under foreign occupation. The Armenians came to serve the Byzantines as military officers or governors, the Seljuks also played a significant role in the Armenian population movement into Cilicia. In 1064, the Seljuk Turks led by Alp Arslan made their advance towards Anatolia by capturing Ani in Byzantine-held Armenia, seven years later, they earned a decisive victory against Byzantium by defeating Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes army at Manzikert, north of Lake VanArmenian Kingdom of Cilicia – Baldwin of Boulogne receiving the homage of the Armenians in Edessa.
6. Anavarza Castle – Anvarza Castle is an ancient castle in Adana Province, Turkey. The castle lies to the east of Dilekkaya village of Kozan district at 37°15′03″N 35°53′50″E, visitors follow Turkish state highway and the highway to north for 26 kilometres and turn to east for 6 kilometres. Although the vicinity of the castle is Çukurova plains which is almost flat, the castle was built on the hill. The hill is accessible via a path from the south, the castle had been built to control the ancient city with the same name. The remains of the city lies between the village and the castle, the birds flight distance between the remains and the castle is about 1 kilometre. During the history the castle had switched hands and partially ruined several times, although the city was evacuated in 1274 following an earthquake the castle was used by Mamluks. The height of the rampart is about 8 metres, the length of the rampart from north to south is about 1,500 metres. East to west dimension is less than this length. The inner bailey is to the north of the castle, the military quarters and a 3-nave church which was built by Thoros II of the Rubenids are in the center of the castle. The castle can be visited free of chargeAnavarza Castle – The castle from the west
7. Roman Empire – Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was then unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperorRoman Empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
8. Assyria – Assyria was a major Mesopotamian East Semitic-speaking kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant. Centered on the Tigris in Upper Mesopotamia, the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires at several times. Assyria is named after its capital, the ancient city of Aššur. In the 25th and 24th centuries BC, Assyrian kings were pastoral leaders, Assyria can also refer to the geographic region or heartland where Assyria, its empires and the Assyrian people were centered. The indigenous modern Eastern Aramaic-speaking Assyrian Christian ethnic minority in northern Iraq, north east Syria, southeast Turkey, in prehistoric times, the region that was to become known as Assyria was home to a Neanderthal culture such as has been found at the Shanidar Cave. The earliest Neolithic sites in Assyria were the Jarmo culture c.7100 BC and Tell Hassuna, during the 3rd millennium BC, a very intimate cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians and the Akkadians throughout Mesopotamia, which included widespread bilingualism. The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian, and vice versa, is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a scale, to syntactic, morphological. This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the third millennium BC as a sprachbund and it is highly likely that the city was named in honour of its patron Assyrian god with the same name. The city of Aššur, together with a number of other Assyrian cities, however it is likely that they were initially Sumerian-dominated administrative centres. In the late 26th century BC, Eannatum of Lagash, then the dominant Sumerian ruler in Mesopotamia, similarly, in c. the early 25th century BC, Lugal-Anne-Mundu the king of the Sumerian state of Adab lists Subartu as paying tribute to him. Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria, little is known, in the Assyrian King List, the earliest king recorded was Tudiya. According to Georges Roux he would have lived in the mid 25th century BC, Tudiya was succeeded on the list by Adamu, the first known reference to the Semitic name Adam and then a further thirteen rulers. The earliest kings, such as Tudiya, who are recorded as kings who lived in tents, were independent semi-nomadic pastoralist rulers and these kings at some point became fully urbanised and founded the city state of Ashur in the mid 21st century BC. During the Akkadian Empire, the Assyrians, like all the Mesopotamian Semites, became subject to the dynasty of the city state of Akkad, the Akkadian Empire founded by Sargon the Great claimed to encompass the surrounding four quarters. Assyrian rulers were subject to Sargon and his successors, and the city of Ashur became an administrative center of the Empire. On those tablets, Assyrian traders in Burushanda implored the help of their ruler, Sargon the Great, the name Hatti itself even appears in later accounts of his grandson, Naram-Sin, campaigning in Anatolia. Assyrian and Akkadian traders spread the use of writing in the form of the Mesopotamian cuneiform script to Asia Minor, the Akkadian Empire was destroyed by economic decline and internal civil war, followed by attacks from barbarian Gutian people in 2154 BC. The rulers of Assyria during the period between c.2154 BC and 2112 BC once again fully independent, as the Gutians are only known to have administered southern MesopotamiaAssyria – Letter sent by the high-priest Lu'enna to the king of Lagash (maybe Urukagina), informing him of his son's death in combat, c. 2400 BC, found in Girsu.
9. Afyonkarahisar – Afyonkarahisar is a city in western Turkey, the capital of Afyon Province. Afyon is in mountainous countryside inland from the Aegean coast,250 km south-west of Ankara along the Akarçay River, in addition, Afyonkarahisar is one of the top leading provinces in agriculture, globally renown for its marble and globally largest producer of pharmaceutical opium. The name Afyon Kara Hisar, since opium was widely grown here and there is a castle on a black rock, older spellings include Karahisar-i Sahip, Afium-Kara-hissar and Afyon Karahisar. The city was known as Afyon, until the name was changed to Afyonkarahisar by the Turkish Parliament in 2004, the top of the rock in Afyon has been fortified for a long time. It was known to the Hittites as Hapanuwa, and was occupied by Phrygians, Lydians. After the death of Alexander the city, was ruled by the Seleucids, the Byzantine emperor Leo III after his victory over Arab besiegers in 740 renamed the city Nicopolis. The Seljuq Turks then arrived in 1071 and changed its name to Kara Hissar after the ancient fortress situated upon a volcanic rock 201 meters above the town, Following the dispersal of the Seljuqs the town was occupied by the Sâhib Ata and then the Germiyanids. The castle was fought over during the Crusades and was finally conquered by the Ottoman Sultan Beyazid I in 1392 but was lost after the invasion of Timur Lenk in 1402. It was recaptured in 1428 or 1429, the area thrived during the Ottoman Empire, as the centre of opium production and Afyon became a wealthy city. During the 1st World War British prisoners of war who had captured at Gallipoli were housed here in an empty Armenian church at the foot of the rock. During the Greco-Turkish War campaign Afyon and the hills were occupied by Greek forces. However, it was recovered on 27 August 1922, a key moment in the Turkish counter-attack in the Aegean region, after 1923 Afyon became a part of the Republic of Turkey. The region was a producer of raw opium until the late 1960s when under international pressure, from the USA in particular. Now poppies are grown under a licensing regime. They do not produce raw opium any more but derive Morphine, Afyon was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 50 lira banknote of 1927-1938. The economy of Afyonkarahisar is based on agriculture, industries and thermal tourism, especially its agriculture is strongly developed from the fact, a large part of its population living in the countrysides. Afyonkarahisar produces an important chunk of Turkish processed marbles, it ranks second on processed marble exports, Afyon holds an important share of Turkish marble reserves, with some 12, 2% of total Turkish reserves. Afyon has unique marble types and colors, which were historically very renown and are unique to Afyon, like Afyon white, historically known as Synnadic whiteAfyonkarahisar – A view from the Cumhuriyet Square and Utku Monument in Afyonkarahisar
10. Hittites – The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who established an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. Between the 15th and 13th centuries BC the Hittite Empire came into conflict with the Egyptian Empire, Middle Assyrian Empire, the Assyrians eventually emerged as the dominant power and annexed much of the Hittite empire, while the remainder was sacked by Phrygian newcomers to the region. They referred to their land as Hatti. The conventional name Hittites is due to their identification with the Biblical Hittites in 19th century archaeology. Before the discoveries, the source of information about Hittites had been the Old Testament. Francis William Newman expressed the view, common in the early 19th century. Uriah was a captain in King Davids army and counted among one of his mighty men in 1 Chronicles 11, french scholar Félix Marie Charles Texier discovered the first Hittite ruins in 1834, but did not identify them as Hittite. The first archaeological evidence for the Hittites appeared in tablets found at the Assyrian colony of Kültepe, some names in the tablets were neither Hattic nor Assyrian, but clearly Indo-European. The script on a monument at Boğazköy by a People of Hattusas discovered by William Wright in 1884 was found to match peculiar hieroglyphic scripts from Aleppo, in 1887, excavations at Tell El-Amarna in Egypt uncovered the diplomatic correspondence of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and his son Akhenaton. Shortly after this, Archibald Sayce proposed that Hatti or Khatti in Anatolia was identical with the kingdom of Kheta mentioned in these Egyptian texts, as well as with the biblical Hittites. Others, such as Max Müller, agreed that Khatti was probably Kheta, sayces identification came to be widely accepted over the course of the early 20th century, and the name Hittite has become attached to the civilization uncovered at Boğazköy. He also proved that the ruins at Boğazköy were the remains of the capital of an empire that, at one point, under the direction of the German Archaeological Institute, excavations at Hattusa have been under way since 1907, with interruptions during the world wars. Kültepe was successfully excavated by Professor Tahsin Özgüç from 1948 until his death in 2005, the Hittites used Mesopotamian Cuneiform script. The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, Turkey houses the richest collection of Hittite, the Hittite kingdom was centred on the lands surrounding Hattusa and Neša, known as the land Hatti. For example, the reward for the capture of a slave after he managed to flee beyond the Halys is higher than that for a slave caught before he could reach the river. To the west and south of the core territory lay the region known as Luwiya in the earliest Hittite texts and this terminology was replaced by the names Arzawa and Kizzuwatna with the rise of those kingdoms. Nevertheless, the Hittites continued to refer to the language originated in these areas as Luwian. Prior to the rise of Kizzuwatna, the heart of territory in Cilicia was first referred to by the Hittites as AdaniyaHittites – Bronze religious standard from a pre-Hittite tomb at Alacahöyük, dating to the third millennium B.C., from the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara.
11. Amasya Province – Amasya Province is a province of Turkey, situated on the Yeşil River in the Black Sea Region to the north of the country. Its provincial capital is Amasya, the antique Amaseia mentioned in documents from the era of Alexander the Great, in Ottoman times Amasya was well known for its madrassas, especially as a centre for the Khalwati Sufi order. Amasya is a province known as the best apple growing province in the country. Amasya province is divided into 7 districts, Amasya Göynücek Gümüşhacıköy Hamamözü Merzifon Suluova Taşova Pictures of the city of Amasya Amasya Weather Forecast Information Amasya VR PhotographyAmasya Province – Location of Amasya Province in Turkey
12. Ankara Province – Ankara Province is the capital province of Turkey. The city of Ankara became a stronghold of the Byzantines, it fell to the Seljuk Turks. Ankara is mostly in the Central Anatolia region, and partly in the Black Sea region, Ankara has mountain forests to its north, and the dry plain of Konya to its south. The province is irrigated by the Kızılırmak and Sakarya River systems, 50% of the land is used for agriculture, 28% is forest and another 10% is meadow and grazing land. Lake Tuz, the second largest lake in Turkey, partly lies in the district of the province. The highest point of the province is the 2,015 meters tall Işık Mountain in the Kızılcahamam district. The climate is hot and dry in summer, rainy in spring and autumn, cold, Ankara Vilayet Ankara Eyalet Ankara travel informationAnkara Province – Location of Ankara Province in Turkey
13. Ankara Castle – Ankara Castle is a fortification from ancient or medieval era in Ankara, Turkey. It is not known exactly when it was made, however, it is known that at the beginning of the 2nd century BC there was a castle during the settlement of Galatians in Ankara. The exact date of its construction is unknown, having been controlled by Romans and Byzantines earlier, it was captured by Seljuq Turks in 1073, by Crusaders in 1101, who gave it back again to the Byzantine and again by Seljuqs in 1227. The castle saw extensive repair by the order of İbrahim Paşa in 1832 during the Ottoman era, the outer citadel surrounds the old Ankara. There are 42 pentagonal towers along the walls, which range between 14–16 m in height, the inner castle covers around 43 km2. Its southern and western walls intersect in an angle, the eastern walls follow the ledges of the hill. History of Ankara Ankara Castle Municipality of AnkaraAnkara Castle – Ankara Castle
14. Antalya Province – Antalya Province is located on the Mediterranean coast of south-west Turkey, between the Taurus Mountains and the Mediterranean sea. Antalya Province is the centre of Turkeys tourism industry, attracting 30% of foreign tourists visiting Turkey and it was the worlds third most visited city by number of international arrivals in 2011, displacing New York. Antalya is Turkeys biggest international sea resort, the province of Antalya corresponds to the lands of ancient Pamphylia to the east and Lycia to the west. It features a shoreline of 657 km with beaches, ports, the provincial capital is Antalya city with a population of 1,001,318. Antalya is the province in Turkey, with a 4. 17% yearly population growth rate between years 1990–2000, compared with the national rate of 1. 83%. This growth is due to a fast rate of urbanization, particularly driven by tourism, the city and thus the province are named after Attalos II, king of Pergamon, who founded the city in the 2nd century BC. Antalya has been settled since pre-historic times, evidence of human habitation dating back to the early Paleolithic age years has been discovered in the Karain cave,30 km of the north of Antalya city. Other finds dating back to the Mesolithic, Neolithic and more recent periods show that the area has been populated by various civilizations throughout the ages, like their descendants, the Lukkans or Lycians were known for their seamanship and demonstrated a fiery independent spirit. Neither the Hittites, nor the Kingdom of Arzawa on the west coast, legends of Ancient Greece tell us that these communities grew into independent cities, the area as a whole came to be called Pamphylia. A federation of cities was set up. There are also tales of the migration of the Akha clan to the area after the Trojan war and eventually Greek settlements were built along the coast and inland. In the Hellenistic period, the parts of Antalya province were in Lycia, the east was in Pamphylia. Before the Ancient Roman conquest Lycia was a polity with the first democratic constitution in the world, Antalya was part of the Lydian kingdom from the 7th century BC until Lydia was defeated by the Persians during the battle of Sardis in 546 BC. After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, a battle erupted between his generals that lasted until 188 BC. The reign of the kingdom of Pergamon began with the defeat of the Seleucid army at Apamea, shortly after this the city of Antalya was founded. When Attalos III, the last king of Pergamom, died in 133 BC he left his kingdom to the Ancient Romans, at this time the area is dominated by pirates based in small cities along the coast. During the mid-Byzantine era the city of Antalya grew beyond the city walls, from the 7th century Muslim Arabs started to be dominant in the Levant region and Antalya later played a part in the Christian Crusades against Islam. The army of Louis VII sailed from Antalya for Syria in 1148, in the late 11th and early 12th Century much of the area of the modern province fell to the Turks especially the DanishmendsAntalya Province – Aspendos Theatre
15. Alara Castle – The Alara Castle, is a historic fortification located at Alanya district of Antalya Province in southern Turkey. The castle was built under the Byzantine Empire, and in the 11th century became the western outpost of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. It had the function to safeguard the caravans from holdup robberies that were stopping over at the last caravanserai Alarahan on the Silk Road to the sea, the castle incorporates a citadel inside the outer walls. The castles inside is reached by some 180-step stairway, which is tunneled in the rock, around the middle of the stairway, a deepening opens to a cistern. In the citadel, a palace, accommodation facilities for the garrison, a mosque and it is located 35 km southeast of Manavgat,37 km northwest of Alanya and 7 km away from the Mediterranean Sea. Situated atop a massive rock at the east bank of Alara River. The lord of the castle gave it however up in 1231 as he realized that Seljuk Sultan of Rum Alaeddin Keykubad I had conquered Alanya, the regional government of Antalya considered in 2011 the restoration of Alara Castle and its subsequent opening to the public as a place of interest. Knaurs Kulturführer in Farbe - TürkeiAlara Castle – Alara Castle atop a steep massive rock at the bank of Alara River in Alanya, Turkey
16. Alanya Castle – Alanya Castle is a medieval castle in the southern Turkish city of Alanya. The castle was built on the remnants of earlier Byzantine era, after the area was pacified under the Ottoman Empire, the castle ceased to be purely defensive, and numerous villas were built inside the walls during the 19th century. Today the building is an open-air museum, access to the seaward castle is ticketed, but much of the area inside the wall, including the landward castle is open to the general public. The castle is located 250 metres high on a peninsula jutting into the Mediterranean Sea. The wall which surrounds the castle is 6.5 kilometres long,400 different cisterns were built to serve the castle. In 2009, city officials filed to include Alanya Castle and Tersane as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, go Turkey guide to Alanya CastleAlanya Castle – Walls and landward fortress of Alanya Kale
17. Seljuks of Rum – The name Rûm reflects the Arabic name of Anatolia, الرُّومُ ar-Rūm, a loan from Greek Ρωμιοί Romans. The Sultanate of Rum seceded from the Great Seljuk Empire under Suleiman ibn Qutulmish in 1077, following the Battle of Manzikert, with capitals first at İznik and then at Konya. It reached the height of its power during the late 12th and early 13th century, in the east, the sultanate absorbed other Turkish states and reached Lake Van. Trade from Iran and Central Asia across Anatolia was developed by a system of caravanserai, especially strong trade ties with the Genoese formed during this period. The increased wealth allowed the sultanate to absorb other Turkish states that had established in eastern Anatolia. The Seljuq sultans bore the brunt of the Crusades, and eventually succumbed to the Mongol invasion in 1243, for the remainder of the 13th century, the Seljuqs acted as vassals of the Ilkhanate. Their power disintegrated during the half of the 13th century. The last of the Seljuq vassals of the Ilkhanate, Mesud II, was murdered in 1308, the dissolution of the Seljuq state left behind a number of Anatolian beyliks, among them that of the Ottoman dynasty, which eventually became the Ottoman Empire. In 1075, he captured the Byzantine cities of Nicaea and Nicomedia, two years later, he declared himself sultan of an independent Seljuq state and established his capital at İznik. Suleyman was killed in Antioch in 1086 by Tutush I, the Seljuk ruler of Syria, when Malik Shah died in 1092, Kilij Arslan was released and immediately established himself in his fathers territories. Kilij Arslan was defeated by soldiers of the First Crusade and driven back into south-central Anatolia, in 1107, he ventured east and captured Mosul but died the same year fighting Malik Shahs son, Mehmed Tapar. Meanwhile, another Rum Seljuq, Malik Shah, captured Konya, in 1116 Kilij Arslans son, Mesud I, took the city with the help of the Danishmends. Upon Mesuds death in 1156, the sultanate controlled nearly all of central Anatolia, Mesuds son, Kilij Arslan II, captured the remaining territories around Sivas and Malatya from the last of the Danishmends. At the Battle of Myriokephalon in 1176, Kilij Arslan II also defeated a Byzantine army led by Manuel I Komnenos, despite a temporary occupation of Konya in 1190 by the Holy Roman Empires forces of the Third Crusade, the sultanate was quick to recover and consolidate its power. During the last years of Kilij Arslan IIs reign, the experienced a civil war with Kaykhusraw I fighting to retain control. Suleiman II was routed by Kingdom of Georgia in Battle of Basian and he was succeeded by his son Kilij Arslan III, whose reign was unpopular. Kaykhusraw I seized Konya in 1205 reestablishing his reign, under his rule and those of his two successors, Kaykaus I and Kayqubad I, Seljuq power in Anatolia reached its apogee. Kaykhusraws most important achievement was the capture of the harbour of Attalia on the Mediterranean coast in 1207 and his son Kaykaus captured Sinop and made the Empire of Trebizond his vassal in 1214Seljuks of Rum – Expansion of the Sultanate in c. 1100–1240.
18. Ardahan Province – Ardahan Province, is a province in the north-east of Turkey, at the very end of the country, where Turkey borders with Georgia. The provincial capital is the city of Ardahan, Ardahan province is located in the far north east of Turkey, where the eastern extremity of the high plateau of Eastern Anatolia converges with the Lesser Caucasus mountain range. It is consequently an area of high altitude and severe winters. This is attractive open countryside which however spends many months of the year under snow, at this altitude temperatures on average reach −20 °C and can drop below freezing all year round, including summer months. The local economy depends on farming and raising livestock, the Turkish military have a strong presence in this border district, another boost to the local economy. Smaller locales, districts, villages and a significant portion of the landscape, exhibits a true subarctic climate, Ardahan is an impoverished area that since the 1950s has seen a large number of its people migrate to other parts of Turkey or abroad. The population declined from 170,000 people in 1990 to 119,000 in 2000, the population is 105,454 as of 2010. Ethnic groups in the include, Turks, Georgians, Turkmens, Kurds. They were removed in the Treaty of Kars due to their Christian religion, in 680 BC Scythians came across the Caucasus from the north and captured this area from the Urartu Kings that ruled from their capital on the shores of Lake Van to the south. The Scythians were replaced by Persians and then in 330 BC Alexander the Great came through with his armies, in 1878, after the Russo-Turkish War, the region was incorporated into the Russian Empire, and until 1918 was known as Kars Oblast. Part of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from 1918 to 1921, the construction of the Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline gave the local economy a brief boost from 2000 onwards. Ardahan province is divided into 6 districts, Ardahan Çıldır Damal Göle Hanak Posof Ardahan City 17,171 inh, There are a number of medieval castles in the district including Ardahan Castle itself. Lake Çıldır Phantom of Atatürk in city of Damal There is a unique natural incident, between mid of June and mid July during sunset, depending on angles of sun xrays and it was first seen by a shepherd who was with his herd over the hill. List of populated places in Ardahan ProvinceArdahan Province – Location of Ardahan Province in Turkey
19. Oghuz Turks – The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family. In the 8th century, they formed a tribal confederation conventionally named the Oghuz Yabgu State in central Asia, the name Oghuz is a Common Turkic word for tribe. Byzantine sources call the Oghuz the Uzes, by the 10th century, Islamic sources were calling the Muslim, as opposed to shamanist or Christian, Oghuz the Turkmens. By the 12th century this term had passed into Byzantine usage, the Oghuz confederation migrated westward from the Jeti-su area after a conflict with the Karluk branch of Uigurs. The founders of the Ottoman Empire were descendants of the Oghuzes, in the 9th century, the Oghuzes from the Aral steppes drove Bechens from the Emba and Ural River region toward the west. In the 10th century, they inhabited the steppe of the rivers Sari-su, Turgai, a clan of this nation, the Seljuks, embraced Islam and in the 11th century entered Persia, where they founded the Great Seljuk Empire. Similarly in the 11th century, a Tengriist Oghuz clan—referred to as Uzes or Torks in the Russian chronicles—overthrew Pecheneg supremacy in the Russian steppe, the Oghuz seem to have been related to the Pechenegs, some of whom were clean-shaven and others of whom had small goatee beards. According to the book Attila and the Nomad Hordes, Like the Kimaks they set up many carved wooden funerary statues surrounded by simple stone balbal monoliths. Oghuz warriors served in almost all Islamic armies of the Middle East from the 1000s onwards, in Byzantium from the 800s, and even in Spain and Morocco. In later centuries, they adapted and applied their own traditions and institutions to the ends of the Islamic world and emerged as empire-builders with a constructive sense of statecraft. The term Oghuz was gradually supplanted among the Turks themselves by Türkmen, Turcoman, from the mid 900s on, a process which was completed by the beginning of the 1200s. The Ottoman dynasty, who took over Anatolia after the fall of the Seljuks, toward the end of the 13th century. The original homeland of the Oghuz was the Altai Mountains of Central Asia, various scholarly theories link the Xiongnu to Turkic peoples and/or the Huns. The first usage of the word Oghuz appears to have been the title of Oğuz Kağan, given in 220 BCE to the Xiongnu king Modu Shanyu, who founded the Xiongnu Empire. According to a theory with few scholarly adherents, one transliteration of Yuezhi, as Hu-chieh. However, the Yuezhi are widely believed to have spoken an Indo-European language or languages, a number of subsequent tribal confederations bore the name Oghuz, often affixed to a numeral indicating the number of united tribes included. These include references to the Sekiz-Oghuz and the Dokuz-Oghuz, the tribes of the Sekiz-Oghuz and the Dokuz-Oghuz originally occupied different areas in the vicinity of the Altai Mountains. By the time of the Orkhon inscriptions Oghuz was being applied generically to all inhabitants of the Göktürk Khaganate, within the khaganate, the Oghuz community gradually expanded, incorporating other tribesOghuz Turks – Asia in 600 AD
20. Kazan – Kazan is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. With a population of 1,143,535, it is the eighth most populous city in Russia, Kazan lies at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka Rivers in European Russia. The Kazan Kremlin is a World Heritage Site, in April 2009, the Russian Patent Office granted Kazan the right to brand itself as the Third Capital of Russia. In 2009 it was chosen as the Sports capital of Russia, in 2015, Kazan was visited by 2.1 million tourists, which is a 20% increase in comparison with 2014. The Kazan Kremlin was visited by 1.5 million tourists in 2015 and hotel, the origin of the name Kazan is uncertain. The most accepted legends derive it from the Bulgar word qazan, one legend claims that the city was named after the river Kazanka, which was named after the son of a Bulgar governor dropped a copper cauldron into it. Other local legends, including research by the Tatar scholar Shigabetdin Marjani, if there was a Bulgar city on the site, estimates of the date of its foundation range from the early 11th century to the late 13th century. It was a border post between Volga Bulgaria and two Finnic tribes, the Mari and the Udmurt, another vexatious question is where the citadel was built originally. The oldest of these seems to be the Kremlin, if Kazan existed in the 11th and 12th centuries, it could have been a stop on a Volga trade route from Scandinavia to Baghdad. It was a center, and possibly a major city for Bulgar settlers in the Kazan region. Kazan became a center of a duchy which was a dependency of the Golden Horde, two centuries later, in the 1430s, Kipchak descendants of Genghis Khan, such as Ghiasetdin of Kazan, usurped power from its Bolghar dynasty. Some Tatars also went to Lithuania, brought by Vytautas the Great, in 1438, after the destruction of the Golden Horde, Kazan became the capital of the powerful Khanate of Kazan. The city bazaar, Taş Ayaq became the most important trade center in the region, craft-based manufacturing also thrived, as the city gained a reputation for its leather and gold goods, as well as for the opulence of its palaces and mosques. The citadel and Bolaq channel were reconstructed, giving the city a strong defensive capacity, the Russians managed to occupy the city briefly several times. Kazan Khanate was making constant plundering raids on Russia, slavery in Kazan Khanate was legal. The number of slaves was up to 10% of the population, most of the slaves were Russian people who were captured during raids. All captured men were forced to turn Mohammedan, otherwise they could be killed or sold into slavery to other Muslim countries, as a result of the Siege of Kazan in 1552, Russia under Ivan the Terrible conquered the city and massacred the majority of the population. Also as a result of the Siege of Kazan 8,000 slaves were set free, in spite of the fact that under the treaty of 1551 all Russian slaves must be released Kazan Khanate still kept a lot of Russian slavesKazan – Left to right, top to bottom: Spasskaya Tower, Söyembikä Tower, Qol Sharif Mosque; Palace of farmers, Epiphany Cathedral; View of Kazan
21. Urartu – Urartu, also known as Kingdom of Van, was an Iron Age kingdom centred on Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands. It corresponds to the biblical Kingdom of Ararat, the language appears in cuneiform inscriptions. It is argued on linguistic evidence that came in contact with Urartian at an early date. That a distinction should be made between the geographical and the entity was already pointed out by König. The landscape corresponds to the plateau between Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the Iranian Plateau, and the Caucasus Mountains, later known as the Armenian Highlands. The kingdom rose to power in the mid-ninth century BC, the heirs of Urartu are the Armenians and their successive kingdoms. The name Urartu comes from Assyrian sources, Shalmaneser I recorded a campaign in which he subdued the entire territory of Uruatri, the Shalmaneser text uses the name Urartu to refer to a geographical region, not a kingdom, and names eight lands contained within Urartu. Urartu is cognate with the Biblical Ararat, Akkadian Urashtu and Armenian Ayrarat, the Urartian toponym Biainili was adopted in the Old Armenian as Van, Վան. Hence the names Kingdom of Van or Vannic Kingdom, scholars such as Carl Ferdinand Friedrich Lehmann-Haupt believed that the people of Urartu called themselves Khaldini after the god Ḫaldi. Boris Piotrovsky wrote that the Urartians first appear in history in the 13th century BC as a league of tribes or countries which did not yet constitute a unitary state. In the Assyrian annals the term Uruatri as a name for this league was superseded during a period of years by the term land of Nairi. Scholars believe that Urartu is an Akkadian variation of Ararat of the Old Testament, indeed, Mount Ararat is located in ancient Urartian territory, approximately 120 kilometres north of its former capital. In addition to referring to the famous Biblical mountain, Ararat also appears as the name of a kingdom in Jeremiah 51,27, mentioned together with Minni, in the early sixth century BC, Urartu was replaced by the Armenian Orontid Dynasty. Shupria was part of the Urartu confederation, later, there is reference to a district in the area called Arme or Urme, which some scholars have linked to the name of Armenia. At its apogee, Urartu stretched from the borders of northern Mesopotamia to the southern Caucasus, including present-day Armenia, archaeological sites within its boundaries include Altintepe, Toprakkale, Patnos and Haykaberd. Urartu fortresses included Erebuni, Van Fortress, Argishtihinili, Anzaf, Haykaberd, schulz discovered and copied numerous cuneiform inscriptions, partly in Assyrian and partly in a hitherto unknown language. Schulz also re-discovered the Kelishin stele, bearing an Assyrian-Urartian bilingual inscription, a summary account of his initial discoveries was published in 1828. Schulz and four of his servants were murdered by Kurds in 1829 near Başkale and his notes were later recovered and published in Paris in 1840Urartu – A Urartian cauldron, from the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara
22. Bozcaada Castle – Bozcaada Castle is a castle in the Turkish island of Bozcaada. The castle is situated in the east of the island, just north of the Bozcaada town at 39°50′N 26°04′E in Çanakkale Province, visitors to the castle use the ferry line from Geyikli in the mainland to the island. The castle is within walking distance from the ferry terminal, before the 14th century, there was a castle in the island. But there is no document about the constructor of this former castle, phoenicia, Roman Empire and the Republic of Venice were among the possible constructors. However, the castle was demolished after the War of Chioggia between the Republic of Venice and the Republic of Genoa by the advice of the Pope, when Mehmet II of the Ottoman Empire conquered the island in 1455 he rebuilt the castle. In July 1656, during the Cretan War, a Venice fleet commanded by Giacomo Loredano captured the castle, but Ottomans under Köprülü Mehmet Pasha recaptured the castle in August 1657. Soon after the reconquest, the castle underwent a great renewall, a second renewal was carried on in 1815 by the sultan Mahmut II. There are two sections, bailey and the citadel, there is a moat of 250 metres length and 10 metres width to the south of the castle. Within the citadel there are cisterns, an arsenal, an infirmary, a well, formally The gate of the castle was a saracen gate over the moatBozcaada Castle – From the east
23. Ottoman Empire – After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror, at the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, while the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, society, however, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent. Starting before World War I, but growing increasingly common and violent during it, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks. The word Ottoman is an anglicisation of the name of Osman I. Osmans name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān, in Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti, the Turkish word for Ottoman originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empires military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term Turk was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, the term Rūmī was also used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In Western Europe, the two names Ottoman Empire and Turkey were often used interchangeably, with Turkey being increasingly favored both in formal and informal situations and this dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms Turkey, Turks, and Turkish when referring to the Ottomans, as the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman, osmans early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River and it is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the scarcity of the sources which survive from this period. One school of thought which was popular during the twentieth century argued that the Ottomans achieved success by rallying religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam, in the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans. Osmans son, Orhan, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326 and this conquest meant the loss of Byzantine control over northwestern Anatolia. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387, the Ottoman victory at Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into EuropeOttoman Empire – Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. Painting from 1523.
24. Gaziantep Province – Gaziantep Province is a province in south-central Turkey. Its capital is the city of Gaziantep, which had a population of 1.931.836 in 2015. Its neighbours are Adıyaman to the north, Şanlıurfa to the east, Syria and Kilis to the south, Hatay to the southwest, Osmaniye to the west and Kahramanmaraş to the northwest. An important trading center since ancient times, the province is one of Turkeys major manufacturing zones. In ancient times, first the Hittites and later the Assyrians controlled the region and it saw much fighting during the Crusades, and Saladin won a key battle there in 1183. After World War I and the Ottoman Empires disintegration, it was invaded by the forces of the French Third Republic during the Turkish War of Independence. It was returned to Turkish control after the Treaty of Lausanne was signed, originally known as Antep, the title gazi was added to the provinces and the provincial capitals name in 1921, due to its populations actions during the Turkish War of Independence. Kilis Province was part of Gaziantep Province until it separated in 1994. Turks are majority in the province, two major active geological faults meet in western Gaziantep near the border with adjoining Osmaniye Province, the Dead Sea Transform and the East Anatolian Fault. These represent the boundary between the northward-moving Arabian Plate to the east, and the converging African and Eurasian Plates to the west. Gaziantep is traversed by the line of equal latitude and longitudeGaziantep Province – Gaziantep Province Gaziantep ili
25. Hatay Province – Hatay Province is a province in southern Turkey, on the eastern Mediterranean coast. The administrative capital is Antakya, and the major city in the province is the port city of İskenderun. It is bordered by Syria to the south and east and the Turkish provinces of Adana, the province is part of Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region that covers the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye, and Hatay. There are border crossing points with Syria in the district of Yayladağı, although the two countries have remained generally peaceful in their dispute over the territory, Syria has never formally renounced its claims to it. The region was the center of the Hellenistic Seleucid empire, home to the four Greek cities of the Syrian tetrapolis, from 64 BC onwards the city of Antioch became an important regional centre of the Roman Empire. The area was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate in 638 and later it came under the control of the Ummayad, from the 11th century onwards, the region was controlled by the Aleppo-based Hamdanids after a brief rule of Ikhshidids. In 969 the city of Antioch was recaptured by the Byzantine Empire and it was conquered by Philaretos Brachamios, a Byzantine general in 1078. He founded a principality from Antioch to Edessa and it was captured by Suleiman I, who was Sultan of Rum, in 1084. It passed to Tutush I, Sultan of Aleppo, in 1086, Seljuk rule lasted 14 years until Hatays capture by the Crusaders in 1098, when it became the centre of the Principality of Antioch. Hatay was captured from the Crusaders by the Mameluks in 1268, by the time it was taken from the Mameluks by the Ottoman Sultan Selim I in 1516, Antakya was a medium-sized town on 2 km² of land between the Orontes River and Mount Habib Neccar. Under the Ottomans the area was known as the sanjak of Alexandretta, a map published circa 1911 highlighted that the ethnic make up was majority Arab with smaller communities of Armenians and Turks. Many consider that Alexandretta had been part of Syria. Maps as far back as 1764 confirm this, during the First World War in which the Ottoman Empire was defeated most of Syria was occupied by the British forces. But when the Armistice of Mudros was signed at the end of the war, nevertheless, after the armistice it was occupied by the British forces an operation which was never accepted by the Ottoman side. Later like the rest of Syria it was handed to France by the British Empire, the subsequent Treaty of Lausanne also put Alexandretta within Syria. A French-Turkish treaty of 20 October 1921 rendered the Sanjak of Alexandretta autonomous, out of 220,000 inhabitants in 1921,87,000 were Turks. Along with Turks the population of the Sanjak included, Arabs of various denominations, Greek Catholics, Syriac-Maronites, Jews, Syriacs, Kurds. In 1923 Hatay was attached to the State of Aleppo, and in 1925 it was attached to the French mandate of SyriaHatay Province – Ethnic groups in the Balkans and Asia Minor, early 20th Century, Historical Atlas, 1911
26. Byzantine Empire – It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empires Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empires official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empires military, the borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the Empires eastern frontier was expanded, in a matter of years the Empire lost its richest provinces, Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia, the Empire recovered again during the Komnenian restoration, such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence. Its remaining territories were annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire, the term comes from Byzantium, the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantines capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. The publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, and in 1680 of Du Canges Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of Byzantine among French authors, however, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world. The Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the Roman Empire, the Empire of the Romans, Romania, the Roman Republic, Graikia, and also as Rhōmais. The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and Graikoi, and even as late as the 19th century Greeks typically referred to modern Greek as Romaika and Graikika. The authority of the Byzantine emperor as the legitimate Roman emperor was challenged by the coronation of Charlemagne as Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III in the year 800. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known primarily as Rûm, the Roman army succeeded in conquering many territories covering the entire Mediterranean region and coastal regions in southwestern Europe and north Africa. These territories were home to different cultural groups, both urban populations and rural populations. The West also suffered heavily from the instability of the 3rd century ADByzantine Empire – Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great (r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
27. Anadoluhisari – It was built between 1393 and 1394 by the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I The Thunderbolt as part of his preparations for the Second Ottoman Siege of Constantinople, which took place in 1395. The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, the bridge spanning Bosporus, is located just north of the fortress. Anadoluhisarı was erected as a watch fort and it has a 25 m high, quadratic main tower within the walls of an irregular pentagon with five watchtowers at the corners. There is a masjid in the fortress and it is the oldest Turkish architectural structure built in Istanbul. The fortress was named Güzelce Hisar in historical documents, Sultan Mehmed II reinforced the fortress with a 2 m thick wall around it, which had three watchtowers. Some extension buildings like warehouse and houses were added as well, due to changes made in the past, it no longer retains its original appearance. Following the conquest of Constantinople, it served as a military prison, the Turkish Ministry of Culture restored the site in 1991 -1993. Today, this small fort creates an appearance with the old wooden houses leaning to its walls. Anadoluhisarı is a museum, but not open to public, Ottoman architecture Rumelihisarı Bosporus Fall of Constantinople Pictures of the fortress Architectural Museum Principals of Ottoman fort architectureAnadoluhisari – Anadoluhisarı (Anatolian Castle) on the Bosporus
28. Rumelihisari – Rumelihisarı or Boğazkesen Castle is a fortress located in the Sarıyer district of Istanbul, Turkey, on a hill at the European side of the Bosphorus. It gives the name of the quarter around it and it was built by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II between 1451 and 1452, before his armys conquest of Constantinople. In a previous Ottoman attempt to conquer the city, Sultan Murad II had encountered difficulties due to a blockade of the Bosphorus by the Byzantine fleet, the necessity of a fortress opposite of Anadoluhisarı was thus well known to the Ottomans. On the location of Rumelihisarı, there had been a Roman fortification in the past, later on, a monastery was built there. He refused the plea for peace of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI, the construction began on April 15,1452. Each one of the three towers was named after the Pashas who supervised their construction. The Sultan personally inspected the activities on the site, with the help of thousands of masons and workers, the fortress was completed in a record time of 4 months and 16 days on August 31,1452. The sultan wanted to cheer up the builders so he ordered them to build the castle in the shape of the name of Muhammad the Muslim prophet. Muhammad and Mehmed share the same Arabic spelling, and so he may have made the fortress as a homage to himself. The Rumelihisarı fortification has one tower, three main towers, and thirteen small watchtowers placed on the walls connecting the main towers. One watchtower is in the form of a prism, six watchtowers are shaped as prisms with multiple corners. The main tower in the north, the Saruca Pasha Tower, is in form with its 9 stories and height of 28 m, has a diameter of 23.30 m. Today, this tower is called the Fatih Tower after Sultan Mehmed II, Halil Pasha Tower, a dodecagon prism, which stands at the waterfront in the middle of the fortress, has also 9 stories. It is 22 m high with a 23.30 m diameter, the main tower in the south, the Zağanos Pasha Tower, has only 8 stories. The cylindrical tower is 21 m high, has a 26.70 m diameter with 5.70 m thick walls, the space within each tower was divided up with wooden floors, each equipped with a furnace. Conical wooden roofs covered with lead crowned the towers, the outer curtain walls of the fortress are from north to south 250 m long and from east to west varying between 50 and 125 m long. Its total area is 31,250 m2, the fortress had three main gates next to the main towers, one side gate and two secret gates for the arsenal and food cellars next to the southern tower. There were wooden houses for the soldiers and a small mosque, only the minaret shaft remains of the original mosque, while the small masjid added in the mid-16th century has not survivedRumelihisari – Rumelihisarı as seen from the Bosphorus strait.
29. Yoros Castle – Yoros Castle is a Byzantine ruined castle at the confluence of the Bosphorus and the Black Sea, to the north of Joshuas Hill, in Istanbul, Turkey. It is also referred to as the Genoese Castle, due to Genoa’s possession of it in the mid-15th century. Yoros Castle sits on a hill surrounded by steep bluffs overlooking the Bosphorus and it is just north of a small fishing village called Anadolu Kavağı, on Macar Bay, and the entire area is referred to as Anadolu Kavağı. This section is one of the narrowest stretches of the Bosphorus, and on the opposite shore sits an area called Rumeli Kavağı, the Greeks called the area Hieron. The remains of temples, including Dios, Altar of the Twelve Gods, Yoros Castle was intermittently occupied throughout the course of the Byzantine Empire. Under the Palaiologos dynasty during the decline of the empire, Yoros Castle was well fortified, Byzantines, Genoese, and Ottomans fought over this strategic fortification for years. It was first conquered by Ottoman forces in 1305, but retaken by the Byzantines shortly thereafter, bayezid I took the castle again in 1391 while preparing for his siege of Constantinople. It was used as his headquarters during the construction of Anadoluhisarı. In 1399 the Byzantines attempted to take back Yoros Castle, the attack failed, but the village of Anadolu Kavağı was burned to the ground. The Ottomans held the fortress from 1391–1414, losing it to the Genoese in 1414, the forty-year Genoese occupation lent the castle its moniker of Genoese Castle. Upon Sultan Mehmed II’s conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the presence of the Genoese at such a strategic location posed a threat to the new Ottoman capital, within a few years, Sultan Mehmed drove the Genoese out. He then fortified the walls, and constructed an office, quarantine. Bayezid II later added a mosque within the castle walls, Cossack raids had plagued the Ottoman Empire throughout its long history. In 1624 a fleet of 150 Cossack caiques sailed across the Black Sea to attack towns and they struck villages inside the Bosphorus, and Murad IV refortified Anadolu Kavağı to defend against the fleet. It would prove instrumental in securing the region from seaborne Cossack raids, under Osman III, Yoros Castle was once again refortified. Later, in 1783 Abdülhamid I added more watchtowers, after this period, it gradually fell into disrepair. By the time of the Turkish Republic, the castle was no longer used, the ruins of the citadel and surrounding walls still exist, though the mosque, most of the towers, and other structures are gone. Yoros Castle and the village of Anadolu Kavağı are a day trip from IstanbulYoros Castle – The gates of Yoros Castle.
30. Phoenicia – The enterprising, sea-based Phoenician civilization spread across the Mediterranean between 1500 BC and 300 BC. Their civilization was organized in city-states, similar to those of Ancient Greece, perhaps the most notable of which were Tyre, Sidon, Arvad, Berytus and Carthage. Each city-state was an independent unit, and it is uncertain to what extent the Phoenicians viewed themselves as a single nationality. In terms of archaeology, language, lifestyle, and religion there was little to set the Phoenicians apart as markedly different from other Semitic Canaanites. The Phoenicians were the first state-level society to make use of alphabets. By their maritime trade, the Phoenicians spread the use of the alphabet to Anatolia, North Africa, and Europe, where it was adopted by the Greeks, the name Phoenicians, like Latin Poenī, comes from Greek Φοίνικες. The word φοῖνιξ phoînix meant variably Phoenician person, Tyrian purple, the word may be derived from φοινός phoinós blood red, itself possibly related to φόνος phónos murder. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin of the ethnonym, the oldest attested form of the word in Greek may be the Mycenaean po-ni-ki-jo, po-ni-ki, possibly borrowed from Ancient Egyptian fnḫw Asiatics, Semites, although this derivation is disputed. The folk-etymological association of Φοινίκη with φοῖνιξ mirrors that in Akkadian which tied kinaḫni, the land was natively known as knʿn and its people as the knʿny. In the Amarna tablets of the 14th century BC, people from the region called themselves Kenaani or Kinaani, the ethnonym survived in North Africa until the 4th century AD. Herodotus account refers to the myths of Io and Europa, according to the Persians best informed in history, the Phoenicians began the quarrel. The Greek historian Strabo believed that the Phoenicians originated from Bahrain, Herodotus also believed that the homeland of the Phoenicians was Bahrain. The people of Tyre in South Lebanon in particular have long maintained Persian Gulf origins, however, there is little evidence of occupation at all in Bahrain during the time when such migration had supposedly taken place. Canaanite culture apparently developed in situ from the earlier Ghassulian chalcolithic culture, Byblos is attested as an archaeological site from the Early Bronze Age. The Late Bronze Age state of Ugarit is considered quintessentially Canaanite archaeologically, fernand Braudel remarked in The Perspective of the World that Phoenicia was an early example of a world-economy surrounded by empires. The high point of Phoenician culture and sea power is usually placed c, archaeological evidence consistent with this understanding has been difficult to identify. A unique concentration in Phoenicia of silver hoards dated between 1200 and 800 BC, however, contains hacksilver with lead isotope ratios matching ores in Sardinia and Spain. This metallic evidence agrees with the memory of a western Mediterranean Tarshish that supplied Solomon with silver via PhoeniciaPhoenicia – Sarcophagus of Eshmunazor II, Phoenician King of Sidon found near Sidon, in southern Lebanon
31. Republic of Genoa – It began when Genoa became a self-governing commune within the Regnum Italicum, and ended when it was conquered by the French First Republic under Napoleon and replaced with the Ligurian Republic. Corsica was ceded to France in the Treaty of Versailles of 1768, before 1100, Genoa emerged as an independent city-state, one of a number of Italian city-states during this period. Nominally, the Holy Roman Emperor was overlord and the Bishop of Genoa was president of the city, however, actual power was wielded by a number of consuls annually elected by popular assembly. The Adorno, Campofregoso, and other merchant families all fought for power in this Republic, as the power of the consuls allowed each family faction to gain wealth. The Republic of Genoa extended over modern Liguria and Piedmont, Sardinia, Corsica, through Genoese participation on the Crusades, Genoese colonies were established in the Middle East, in the Aegean, in Sicily and Northern Africa. The collapse of the Crusader States was offset by Genoa’s alliance with the Byzantine Empire, as Venices relations with the Byzantine Empire were temporarily disrupted by the Fourth Crusade and its aftermath, Genoa was able to improve its position. Genoa took advantage of opportunity to expand into the Black Sea and Crimea. Internal feuds between the families, the Grimaldi and Fieschi, the Doria, Spinola, and others caused much disruption. However, this prosperity did not last, the Black Death was imported into Europe in 1347 from the Genoese trading post at Caffa in Crimea, on the Black Sea. Following the economic and population collapse, Genoa adopted the Venetian model of government, the wars with Venice continued, and the War of Chioggia -- where Genoa almost managed to decisively subdue Venice—ended with Venices recovery of dominance in the Adriatic. In 1390 Genoa initiated a crusade against the Barbary pirates with help from the French, though it has not been well-studied, the fifteenth century seems to have been a tumultuous time for Genoa. After a period of French domination from 1394–1409, Genoa came under rule by the Visconti of Milan, Genoa lost Sardinia to Aragon, Corsica to internal revolt and its Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Asia Minor colonies to the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Under the ensuing economic recovery, many aristocratic Genoese families, such as the Balbi, Doria, Grimaldi, Pallavicini, according to Felipe Fernandez-Armesto and others, the practices Genoa developed in the Mediterranean were crucial in the exploration and exploitation of the New World. At the time of Genoa’s peak in the 16th century, the city attracted many artists, including Rubens, Caravaggio and Van Dyck. The architect Galeazzo Alessi designed many of the city’s splendid palazzi, as did in the decades that followed by fifty years Bartolomeo Bianco, a number of Genoese Baroque and Rococo artists settled elsewhere and a number of local artists became prominent. At the time of its founding in the early 11th century the Republic of Genoa consisted of the city of Genoa, as the commerce of the city increased, so did the territory of the Republic. By 1015 all of Liguria fell under the Republic of Genoa, after the First Crusade in 1098 Genoa gained settlements in Syria. In 1261 the city of Smyrna in Asia Minor became Genoese territory, in 1255 Genoa established the colony of Caffa in CrimeaRepublic of Genoa – View of Genoa and its fleet by Christoforo de Grassi (1597 copy, after a drawing of 1481); Galata Museo del Mare, Genoa.
32. Kadifekale – Kadifekale is the name of the hill located within the urban zone of İzmir, Turkey, as well as being the name of the ancient castle on top of the same hill. Both the hill and the castle were named Pagos in pre-Turkish times and by the local Greeks in modern times. The summit where the castle is found is located at a distance of about 2 km from the shoreline and commands a view of a large part of the city of İzmir. Administratively, the area covers six quarters constituted by slums in their large part, one named Kadifekale like the hill. In 2007, the municipality of İzmir started renovation and restoration works in Kadifekale. The first recorded defensive walls built here was the work of Lysimachos, upon this, the famous oracle in Klaros was consulted and the answer received was, Three and four times happy shall those men be hereafter, who shall dwell on Pagus beyond the sacred Meles. While Alexander could only act as inspirator and/or initiator for the move, the legend, in the meantime, was frequently depicted on ancient coins. Strabo records that only a part of Smyrna was located on the mound. The stadium and the theatre on the hand, were on the slopes immediately below the summit. During the 19th century, Kadifekale was part of the chain across several slopes which constituted İzmirs Turkish core, a number of sources put forth claims on having observed fragments of Hellenic masonry under the existing walls, but these fell short of having acquired general acceptance. The long hollow west of the marks the site of the Stadium, scene of the martyrdom of St. Polycarp. This is also the case for the ancient theatre of Smyrna, both works belong to a reconstruction following a calamitous earthquake in 178. Next to the castle are the ruins of the cisterns built during the Roman period and renovated during the Byzantine and they formed the centre of the drinking water network of Smyrna. The remains of this network are still preserved in the agora of Smyrna in downtown İzmir, report, Kadifekalenin sosyo-ekonomik profili ve sorunları 25pKadifekale – Entry of the castle walls in Kadifekale
33. Hellenistic period – It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decadence or degeneration, compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint, Greek science was advanced by the works of the mathematician Euclid and the polymath Archimedes. The religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele, the Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. This resulted in the export of Greek culture and language to new realms. Equally, however, these new kingdoms were influenced by the cultures, adopting local practices where beneficial, necessary. Hellenistic culture thus represents a fusion of the Ancient Greek world with that of the Near East, Middle East and this mixture gave rise to a common Attic-based Greek dialect, known as Koine Greek, which became the lingua franca through the Hellenistic world. Scholars and historians are divided as to what event signals the end of the Hellenistic era, Hellenistic is distinguished from Hellenic in that the first encompasses the entire sphere of direct ancient Greek influence, while the latter refers to Greece itself. The word originated from the German term hellenistisch, from Ancient Greek Ἑλληνιστής, from Ἑλλάς, Hellenistic is a modern word and a 19th-century concept, the idea of a Hellenistic period did not exist in Ancient Greece. Although words related in form or meaning, e. g, the major issue with the term Hellenistic lies in its convenience, as the spread of Greek culture was not the generalized phenomenon that the term implies. Some areas of the world were more affected by Greek influences than others. The Greek population and the population did not always mix, the Greeks moved and brought their own culture. While a few fragments exist, there is no surviving historical work which dates to the hundred years following Alexanders death. The works of the major Hellenistic historians Hieronymus of Cardia, Duris of Samos, the earliest and most credible surviving source for the Hellenistic period is Polybius of Megalopolis, a statesman of the Achaean League until 168 BC when he was forced to go to Rome as a hostage. His Histories eventually grew to a length of forty books, covering the years 220 to 167 BC, another important source, Plutarchs Parallel Lives though more preoccupied with issues of personal character and morality, outlines the history of important Hellenistic figures. Appian of Alexandria wrote a history of the Roman empire that includes information of some Hellenistic kingdoms, other sources include Justins epitome of Pompeius Trogus Historiae Philipicae and a summary of Arrians Events after Alexander, by Photios I of Constantinople. Lesser supplementary sources include Curtius Rufus, Pausanias, Pliny, in the field of philosophy, Diogenes Laertius Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers is the main source. Ancient Greece had traditionally been a collection of fiercely independent city-states. After the Peloponnesian War, Greece had fallen under a Spartan hegemony, in which Sparta was pre-eminent but not all-powerfulHellenistic period – The Nike of Samothrace is considered one of the greatest masterpieces of Hellenistic art.
34. Kars Province – Kars Province is a province of Turkey, located in the northeastern part of the country. It shares part of its border with the Republic of Armenia. The provincial capital is the city of Kars, the provinces of Ardahan and Iğdır were until the 1990s part of Kars Province. In ancient times, Kars was part of the province of Ararat in the Kingdom of Armenia, the first known people were the followers of Vanand, for whom Kars was their main settlement and fortress. In 928, Kars became the capital of Armenia, in 968, the capital of Armenia was moved to Ani, but Kars remained the capital of the feudal principality of Vanand. Later on, in 1209, Georgian army commanded by David Soslan and brothers Ivane, as a result of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877 to 1878, the province of Kars was incorporated into the Russian Empire as part of the militarily administered Kars Oblast and remained so until 1918. It was seen as a province of a Russian Empire which was seeking to expand yet further by the conquest of more territory belonging to the Ottoman Empire. Many from the non-Russian Christian Orthodox communities had fought in or collaborated with the Russian Imperial army to capture Kars province from the Muslim Ottomans. They saw this as a means of fulfilling their own ambitions to recapture Christian territory on the back of the Russian imperial enterprise, turkish and Caucasian peoples make up the majority of the provinces population. It is suggested that about 20% of the population is Kurdish, Kars province is divided into 8 districts, each named after the administrative center of the district, There are 383 villages in Kars. Kars has a wealth of wildlife that is being documented by the Kars-Igdir Biodiversity Project run by the KuzeyDoga Society, the project has recorded 323 of Turkeys 468 bird species in the region. At least 223 of these occur at Lake Kuyucuk, that is the most important wetland in the region. Sarikamis Forests in the south harbor Indian wolves, Syrian brown bear, Caucasian lynx and other animals, Aras River Bird Research and Education Center at Yukari Ciyrikli village has recorded 228 bird species at this single location alone. The economy of Kars Province is dominated by agriculture, livestock breeding, 85% of the active population in Kars Province are farmers or herders. 60% of the domestic income is received from those sectors. Industry, tourism and commerce is developing, the climate limits the cultivation of plants in the region. In Kağızman and Tuzluca, cotton, sugar beet, beans, vegetable gardening and orchards are not very developed. Wheat, barley, cotton and in small quantity tobacco are grown in the province, livestock breeding in the region is more important than agricultureKars Province – The church of St. Gregory of the Abughamrents in Ani
35. Castle of Kars – The Castle of Kars is a former fortification located in Kars, Turkey. It is also known under the name Iç Kale and it was built in 1153 by Vizier Firuz Akay commissioned by Saltuk Sultan Malik Izzeddin Saltuk II. The outer walls surrounding the city were built in the 12th century, the castle, which was destroyed by Timur in 1386, was rebuilt again in 1579 by Lala Mustafa Pasha, who came to Kars ordered by the Ottoman Sultan Murat III. It is said in the Ottoman sources that the castle was rebuilt with the help of one hundred soldiers and workers. In 1606, the castle was destroyed by the Iranian Shah Abbas I, the castle was hugely damaged after the occupation of the Russians after the Ottoman-Russian War of 1877-1878, and partially changed after 40 years of occupation. The walls of the Castle of Kars were made of basalt masonry, the castle consisted of two sections, the internal and the external castles. The external walls were made of five layers, in addition, there were deep trenches made in front of it. The main castle looks to the east, the planning of the walls of the external castle is not quite quadrangle. The length of the castles perimeter makes 3,500 m, it was supported with 22 watchtowers, the length of the internal castle makes 250 m in the east-west direction, and about 90 m in the north-south direction. The Su Kapısı or Çeribaşı Kapısı is situated in the west, Kagizman Kapısı orta Orta Kapı in the south, the main gate located in the north opens up to a chasm in front of the castle. The castles watchtower can be accessed by climbing the stairs or along the paved road. Just inside the entrance is a shrine containing the tomb of Jelal Baba who died during the Mongolilan invasion in 1239. Within the castle are military lodgings, a depot. Today, the castle is administered by the Ministry of Culture, in 2005, the castle hosted a music concert by Turkish pop singer Sezen Aksu attended by around 25,000 people. During the Islamic fasting month of Ramadan in 2011, a Mevlevi Sama ceremony was held for the first time at the castle, lonelyplanet. com Kars Castel 60+ pictures of the citadel Kars Castle TripCastle of Kars – Castle of Kars
36. Kastamonu Province – Kastamonu Province is one of the provinces of Turkey, in the Black Sea region to the north of the country. It is surrounded by Sinop to the east, Bartın, Karabük to the west, Çankırı to the south, Çorum to the southeast, the province has an area of 13,108 km², and a population of 322,759 people. The population was 361,222 people in 2010, the population density is 24.62 inhabitants per km². The province center has a population of 64,606, Kastamonu province is divided into 20 districts, It is not definitively known when Kastamonu was first founded. However, some dating back to the Early Middle Ages refer to the province. There are also some findings that date to about 100,000 years that suggest the region was inhabited at that time. There are theories that the word Kastamonu derives from Castra Comnenus, with the weakening of the Macedon kings, the Paphlagonia and Bithynia regions were engulfed by the newly formed Pontus kingdom. After the fall of the Pontus kingdom in first century BC, the capital center of this new city-state was Pompeiopolis, of which the remains still stand near Tasköprü District in Kastamonu. The region then fell under the hegemony of the Seljuq dynasty, followed by the Danishmends, Ottoman sultan Mehmed II incorporated the region back into the empire in 1461. During the Ottoman reign, the boundaries were expanded up to reach Constantinople. The sultans heirs were often sent to rule the province as governors to gain experience, when the Greeks noticed this activity, the İnebolu port was bombarded from the sea on 9 June 1921. The province is covered with forests, thanks to the mild Black Sea climate. Ilgaz National Park, where a micro-climate dominates due to the mountainous terrain, there is also a ski center with accommodation facilities located near the park. Ilgaz Mountain dominates the south of the province where hiking and whitewater rafting is possible at the Ilgaz Stream, the Ilgarini cave at Cide, the Alinca underground cave at Küre and the International Equestrian Tourism Center of Daday are other notable attractions. A 12th-century Byzantine castle, the 13th-century Atabey Mosque and the Ibni Neccar Mosque also located in the province, the Mahmut Bey Mosque, located in the village of Kasaba is known for its elegant wood carvings. Gideros Bay,13 km to Cide, is a resort with pensions. The ruins of the Roman city-state Pompeiopolis are found near Taşköprü, Kastamonu also has many mansions, which are traditionally built with an architectural style unique to this region. Many of these mansions have been restored following a 2000 declaration by the government to preserve the historical textureKastamonu Province – Ilısu Waterfall, at Küre national Park, near Pınarbaşı, Kastamonu, Turkey
37. Kayseri Province – The Kayseri Province is situated in central Turkey. The population is 1,255,349 of which around 1,000,000 live in the city of Kayseri and it covers an area of 16,917 km² and it borders with Sivas, Adana, Niğde, Kahramanmaraş, Yozgat and Nevşehir provinces. The province is an area that has linked with mythological stories as well as important figures in Turkish history. It is located in Anatolia, and surrounded by the Mount Erciyes, the Mount Hasan, the Ali mountain is named like that in honor of Ali Baba, who is said to have lived in the area. Kayseri was first known as the city of Masaka, later, during the Roman period, the provinces name was changed to Kaesarea, then Kayzer before becoming known with its modern name of Kayseri. Danishmend Gazi conquered Kayseri in 1084, the Seljuk Empire then modernised the province, with new buildings and mosques being built around. During this period, the Şifahane, Kayseris first hospital, and it was built in honor of Princess Gevher Nesibe Hatun, daughter of the Sultan. She died of a disease at a young age, construction of the hospital was completed in 1206. Later on, Kayseri became a mecca of poets, artists in Turkey. Seyyid Burhaneddin lived there, and so did others such as Kadı Burhaneddin and Seyrani, sinan the Great, an Ottoman architect, was also from Kayseri. According to Turkish mythology, a man named Hasan Baba would cross mountains during the month of August every year and bring Ali Baba snow, Kayseri is nowadays a province filled with modern buildings and museums. Some of Turkeys most famous statues and monuments are located there, the modern city of Kayseri is in the Melikgazi districtKayseri Province – Waterfalls erupting from a cliff below Aladağlar.
38. Konya Province – Konya Province is a province of Turkey in central Anatolia. The provincial capital is the city of Konya, by area it is the largest province of Turkey. Solar power plant Kızören in Konya in an area of 430 square meters will be able to produce 30,000 megawatts of electricity, the Konya province is divided into thirty-one districts three of which are actually included in the municipality of Konya city. Caves in Konya Province are, Balatini Cave, Beyşehir Büyü Düden Cave, Derebucak Körükini Cave, Beyşehir Tınaztepe Caves, Seydişehir Konya Province, Ottoman EmpireKonya Province – Nalçacı Street
39. Mersin Province – The Mersin Province is a province in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast between Antalya and Adana. The provincial capital is the city of Mersin and the major town is Tarsus. The province is part of Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region, in 2002, the provinces name was changed from İçel to Mersin but the province retained the license plate number of 33, İçel having been the 33rd in the alphabetical order of Turkish province names. There are many high meadows and small plains between 700 and 1500m, the coastal strip has many large areas of flatland, formed from soil brought down by rivers and streams running off the mountains. This is fertile land, the largest area being the plain of Tarsus, the largest rivers are the Göksu and the Berdan, but there are many small streams running into lakes, reservoirs or the Mediterranean sea. Mersin has 321 km of coastline, much of it sandy beach, with all this activity a modern city has grown with a university and other major amenities. About 50% of the population of the province is younger than 24 years of age, about 43% of the male population and about 27% of the female population graduated from middle school. Urban population growth rate is 2. 42%, in summer the hills are a popular retreat from the high humidity and extreme heat on the coast. West of Mersin includes bays, and little islands, yacht touring is a tourism income in these areas. In antiquity this coast was part of Cilicia, named for a Phoenician or Assyrian prince that had settled here, trade from Syria and Mesopotamia over the mountains to central Anatolia passed through here, through the Cilician Gates. The geographer Strabo, described the region as being divided into Rugged Cilicia, the capital of both sections of Cilicia was Tarsus and Mersin was its seaport. Mersin province is divided into thirteen districts four of which are included within the municipality of Mersin city. Silifke - ancient Seleucia Pieria, buildings include the church of Aya Tekla, the ancient Roman town of Soloi-Pompeiopolis, now within the city. About Mersin The ancient Roman town of Anemurium, adjacent to the town of Anamur. Another ancient city of Elaiussa Sebaste,55 km from the city of Mersin, castles including Mamure, Kızkalesi and NamrunMersin Province – Mersin Province Mersin ili
40. Mamure Castle – Mamure Castle is a medieval castle in the Anamur District of Mersin Province, Turkey. The castle is on the Mediterranean coast about 36°04′51″N 32°53′40″E, on the D400 highway,6 kilometres east of Anamur and 216 kilometres west of Mersin, the castle was built by the rulers of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia on the foundations of a fourth-century Roman castle. Designed to protect against pirates, it was repaired during the Byzantine era, when Alaattin Keykubat I of Seljuk Turks captured the ruins of the castle in 1221, he built a larger castle using elements of the earlier fortifications. Later, it was controlled by the Karamanid dynasty, although the exact date is uncertain, according to an inscription by İbrahim II of Karaman in 1450, the castle was captured during Mahmuts reign. The castle was renamed as Mamure after repairs by Mahmut, in 1469, the castle was annexed by the Ottoman Empire. It was subsequently repaired in the 15th, 16th and 18th centuries, the 23, 500-square-metre castle is surrounded by moat. Its 39 towers and bastions are connected by wide ramparts, the castle has three main courtyards, to the west, the east and the south. The western courtyard contains a complex of a single minaret mosque. The southern courtyard has the remains of a lighthouse, http, //www. anamur. gen. tr/eng/indx. htm extensive photo series about the castleMamure Castle – Mamure Castle
41. Meydankale – Meydankale is the archaeological site of a ruined castle in Mersin Province, Turkey. Meydankale is situated between the İmamlı and Yenibahçe villages in the area of Silifke district at 36°26′50″N 33°58′09″E. In the antiquity this region was called Cilicia Trachaea, Meydankale is to the north of Silifke and the Turkish state highway. It can be reached via a 15 kilometres road from Atakent which is on D-400, the distance from Meydankale to Silifke is 28 kilometres and to Mersin is 85 kilometres. The settlement dates back to Hellenistic era, but it was rebuilt and inhabited during the later eras. Neither Hellenistic nor the Roman name of the settlement is known, Meydankale is a fort situated on a hill which oversees the mid portion of the road from the Mediterranean Sea coast to the ancient city of Uzuncaburç. A deep canyon is to the north of the fort, there are ruins of observation towers, bastions, cisterns a necropolis in the fort. There is also a staircase to the river at the east of the fort, the main building material is polygonal stones typical of Seleucid masonry. Bossage had been used in later architectureMeydankale – Meydankale masonry of two different eras
42. Luwians – The Luwians were a group of people who lived in Asia Minor and Northern Syria in the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. They spoke the Luwian language, an Indo-European language of the Anatolian sub-family, which was written in cuneiform and a unique Hieroglyphic script, the origin of the Luwians can only be guessed at. Even then, little can be proved about the route that the ancestors of the Luwians took to end up in Anatolia and it is also unclear whether the separation of the Luwians from the Hittites and the Pala occurred in Anatolia or earlier. It is possible that the Demircihüyük culture is connected with the arrival of Indo-Europeans in Anatolia, accordiing to most scholars, the Hittites were then settled in upper Kızılırmak and had their economic and political centre at Kaniš-Neša. The Luwians might well have lived in southern and western Anatolia, the Assyrian traders who were present in Anatolia at this time refer to the local people as nuwaʿum without any differentiation. This terms seems to derive from the name of the Luwians, the Old Hittite laws from the 17th century BC contain cases relating to the then independent regions of Palā and Luwiya. Traders and displaced people seem to have moved from one country to the other on the basis of agreements between Ḫatti and Luwiya and it appears that the Luwians never formed a single Luwian state, but were divided into a number of kingdoms. During this period, the kingdoms of Šeḫa and Arzawa developed in the west, in the south was the state of Kizzuwatna, which was inhabited by a mixture of Hurrians and Luwians. The kingdom of Tarḫuntašša developed during the Hittite New Kingdom, in southern Anatolia, Kizzuwatna was the Hittite and Luwian name for ancient Cilicia. The area was conquered by the Hittites in the 16th century BC, around 1500, the area broke off and became the kingdom of Kizzuwatna, whose ruler used the title of Great King, like the Hittite ruler. The Hittite king Telipinu had to conclude a treaty with great king Išputaḫšu, under King Pilliya, Kizzuwatna became a vassal of the Mitanni. Around 1420, King Šunaššura of Mitanni renounced control of Kizzuwatna, soon after this, the area seems to have been incorporated into the Hittite empire and remained so until its collapse around 1190 BC. Šeḫa was in the area of ancient Lydia and it is first attested in the fourteenth century BC, when the Hittite king Tudḫaliya I campaigned against Wilusa. After the conquest of Arzawa by Muršili II, Šeḫa was a vassal of the Hittite realm and suffered raids from the Arzawan prince Piyamaradu, Arzawa is already attested in the time of the Hittite Old Kingdom, but lay outside the Hittite realm at that time. The first hostile interaction occurred under king Tudḫaliya I or Tudḫaliya II, after a long period of warfare, the Arzawan capital of Apaša was surrendered by King Uḫḫaziti to the Hittites under King Muršili II. Arzawa was split into two states, Mira and Ḫapalla. After the collapse of the Hittite realm around 1190 BC, several small principalities developed in northern Syria, the princes and traders of these kingdoms used Hieroglyphic Luwian in inscriptions, the latest of which date to the 8th century BC. The Karatepe Bilingual inscription of prince Azatiwada is particularly important, Luwian religion Luwian language H. Craig Melchert, The LuwiansLuwians – Luwian hieroglyph
43. Mut Castle – Mut Castle is a castle in Mut, Mersin Province, Turkey. The castle is in mid town at about 36°38′40″N 33°26′02″E, laal Pasha Mosque is to the east and intercity bus terminal is to the north east. Highway which connects Mersin to Karaman and Konya is at east, the neighbourhood surrounding the castle during the Roman Empire was known as Claudiupolis. According to unconfirmed reports Claudiupolis may be older than the Roman Empire. Although the building date of the castle is unknown, it is known that the castle had been used during the Byzantine Empire period, in 1228 the Karamanids captured the castle and rebuilt it. In 1473, the castle was captured by the Ottoman Empire. During the reign of the Ottoman sultan Ahmet I the castle was renovated, the plan of the 3,900 square metres castle is almost square. There are 9 bastions around the fortifications and a small cylindirical inner castle within the main castle, face stone and rubble stone were used in the constructionMut Castle – Inner castle
44. Karamanids – From the 13th century until its fall in 1487, the Karamanid dynasty was one of the most powerful Turkish beyliks in Anatolia. The Karamanids traced their ancestry from Hodja Sad al-Din and his son Nure Sufi Bey, the Karamanids were members of the Salur tribe of Oghuz Turks. Nûre Sûfi worked there as a woodcutter and his son, Kerîmeddin Karaman Bey, gained a tenuous control over the mountainous parts of Cilicia in the middle of the 13th century. A persistent but spurious legend, however, claims that the Seljuq Sultan of Rum, Kayqubad I, Karaman Bey expanded his territories by capturing castles in Ermenek, Mut, Ereğli, Gülnar, and Silifke. The year of the conquests is reported as 1225, during the reign of Ala al-Din Kaykubadh I, the rivalry between Kilij Arslan IV and Izz al-Din Kaykaus II allowed the tribes in the border areas to live virtually independently. Karaman Bey helped Kaykus, but Arslan had the support of both the Mongols and Pervâne Sulayman Muin al-Din. Rukn al-Din Kilidj Arslan IV got rid of almost all hostile begs and amirs except Karaman Bey, to whom he gave the town of Larende, in the meantime, Bunsuz, brother of Karaman Bey, was chosen as a Candar, or bodyguard, for Kilij Arslan IV. Their power rose as a result of the unification of Turkish clans that lived in the regions of Cilicia with the new Turkish population transferred there by Kayqubad. Good relations between the Seljuqs and the Karamanids did not last, a combined Seljuq and Mongol army, led by the Pervane, defeated the Karamanid army and captured Karaman Beys two brothers. After Karaman Bey died in 1262, his son, Mehmet I of Karaman. He immediately negotiated alliances with other Turkmen clans to raise an army against the Seljuqs, during the 1276 revolt of Hatıroğlu Şemseddin Bey against Mongol domination in Anatolia, Karamanids also defeated several Mongol-Seljuq armies. In the Battle of Göksu in 1277 in particular, the power of the Seljuq was dealt a severe blow. Taking advantage of the confusion, Mehmed Bey captured Konya on 12 May and placed on the throne a pretender called Jimri. In the end, however, Mehmed was defeated by Seljuq and Mongol forces, despite these blows, the Karamanids continued to increase their power and influence, largely aided by the Mamluks of Egypt, especially during the reign of Baybars. An expansion of Karamanoğlu power occurred after the fall of the Ilkhanids, a second expansion coincided with Karamanoğlu Alâeddin Ali Beys marriage to Nefise Sultan, the daughter of the Ottoman sultan Murat I, the first important contact between the two dynasties. As Ottoman power expanded into the Balkans, Aleaddin Ali Bey captured the city of Beyşehir, however, it did not take much time for the Ottomans to react and march on Konya, the Karamanoğlu capital city. A treaty between the two kingdoms was formed, and peace existed until the reign of Bayezid I, timur gave control of the Karamanid lands to Mehmet Bey, the oldest son of Aleaddin Ali Bey. After Bayezid I died in 1403, the Ottoman Empire went into a crisis as the Ottoman family fell prey to internecine strifeKaramanids – Flag of Karaman according to the Catalan Atlas.
45. Lampron – Lampron is a castle near the town of Çamlıyayla in Mersin Province, Turkey. While part of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia in the Middle Ages, situated in the Taurus Mountains, the fortress guarded passes to Tarsus and the Cilician Gates. The Armenians first settled this Byzantine site in the quarter of the 11th century when Ōšin was given the fief of Lampron. Within fifty years it became the near impregnable ancestral seat of the Het‘umid Dynasty, after several unsuccessful attempts it was finally captured in the early 13th century by the Rubenid King Levon I through the subterfuge of marrying his niece to one of the Het‘umid nobles. When all were in attendance at the wedding feast in Tarsus, in the early 1240s it was the epicenter of a serious revolt against the Armenian king, when Lampron’s Baron Constantine joined the Seljuk Sultan Kaykhusraw II and attacked King Het‛um I. The decisive counterattack was led by Constable Smbat, the Baron of Papeřōn, Constantine was captured and executed for high treason in 1250. In 1309/10 it functioned briefly as the prison for the Lusignan King of Cypress, in the late 14th century a Mamluk garrison occupied the fortress. The castle is situated at the intersection of three Highland valleys with commanding views of the converging roads. There is also inter-visibility with Sinap Castle, six kilometers to the northeast, Lampron covers an area approximately 330 by 150 meters. There is a drop of more than 50 meters to the valley below, at the extreme northwest a dry moat has been scarped to sever the fortress from the rest of the outcrop. The castle is divided into a small, slender lower ward at the south and west, on the southern and eastern flanks of the upper ward are the fragmented remains of numerous buildings, many of which have foundations cut directly into the rock. At the northern end are six magnificent vaulted chambers, two of which are fitted with casemates and embrasured loopholes and these six adjoining chambers are built with a carefully cut ashlar masonry. A small medieval-period bathhouse is located below the lower ward at the southwest, the castle, along with its neighbouring Sinap Castle has been featured in the 2013 film Fear Through Eternity. Unknown crusader castles by Kristian Molin, Hambledon Continuum,2001 Lampron, by F. C. R. Robinson and P. C. Hughes. Anatolian Studies, Vol.19, pp. 183–207, published by, British Institute at AnkaraStableLampron – 19th-century view of castle Lampron by Victor Langlois
46. Silifke Castle – Silifke Castle is a medieval castle in Turkey. The castle is in Silifke district of Mersin Province and it is situated to the west of Silifke city center, to the south of Göksu River and to the north of the Turkish state highway at 36°23′N 33°55′E. Although its altitude is only 160 metres with respect to sea level, it is dominant over Silifke plains, Silifke was an important city in antiquity. There are fragments of a late Roman theater, necropolis, bath, 2nd-century temple, stone bridge built during the reign of Emperor Vespasian was replaced in the 1870s. In the late 7th century, to counter Arab invasions, the Byzantines fortified the acropolis, the site had a weapons factory and was the administrative center for the coastal theme. In the late-1180s the Rubenid Baron Leo II, who became a decade later Leo I, King of Armenian Cilicia, captured the town, on route to the Third Crusade Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor camped here in 1190, but unfortunately drowned in the river. In exchange for money and cavalry support King Leo granted the castle in 1210 to the Knights Hospitaller who were to defend the border of his kingdom from the Seljuk Turks. According to a survey published in 1987, most of the present castle is a Crusader construction, on the death of King Leo in 1219 his daughter and designated heiress Zapēl, was contracted to marry Philip, the son of Bohemond IV of Antioch. After various disputes with the Armenian barons Philip died by poison in 1226, Zapēl and her mother took refuge in Silifke. When the Armenian army arrived, the Franks surrendered the castle, a fragmentary Armenian inscription in the castle may record its repair or enlargement in 1236. In 1248 the castle may have briefly had a Frankish commander, the castle has an oval-shaped plan. The length from west to east is about 250 meters and the width is about 75 meters and it is surrounded by a dry moat. According to the 17th-century Turkish traveler, Evliya Çelebi, there were 23 towers,60 houses, presently,10 towers survive, many of which have surviving vaulted ceilings. An equal number of finely crafted under-crofts are preserved, some with pointed vaults, most of the exterior facing stones consist of well-drafted ashlar blocksSilifke Castle – Silifke Castle
47. Sinap Castle – Sinap Castle is a medieval Armenian fortification in Çamlıyayla district of Mersin Province in southern Turkey. The castle is in the Toros Mountains at 37°11′N 34°37′E and it is situated to the northeast of Çamlıyayla and to the north of Mersin. The distance to Çamlıyayla is 5 km and to Mersin is 93 km, the 2 km stabilized road to the castle diverges from the Mersin-Çamlıyayla highway. But it is not particularly high with respect to immediate surroundings, the castle functioned as both a fortified estate house and a guardian along the strategic route between the Het‛umid castle at Lampron and the Cilician Gates. It was one of the dozens of fortifications within the medieval Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. The fort of Sinap is located six kilometers northeast of Lampron on the gentle slope of a partially forested agricultural valley. The name Sinap means corner in old Turkish and this three-story high structure has a simple rectangular plan with solid cylindrical towers an each corner. It was built between the 12th and 14th centuries with the typical rusticated ashlar masonry of the Armenians, the lower floor, which is covered by a partially collapsed pointed vault, has no openings except for one door in the west wall. A now missing staircase once lead to the level which also has a partially preserved vault. Its walls are opened by nine beautifully designed casemates with embrasured loopholes, the third level, which undoubtedly had fighting platforms, is destroyedSinap Castle – Sinap Castle
48. Tokmar Castle – Tokmar Castle is a castle ruin in Mersin Province, Turkey The castle is in the rural area of Silifke district of Mersin Province at 36°15′46″N 33°47′00″E. It is on a plateau at the slopes of Toros Mountains overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. The altitude is 380 metres and the flight distance to sea shore is 3 kilometres which makes the castle an excellent observation point. The distance to main highway is 4 kilometres, to Silifke is 33 kilometres, the castle was built by Byzantine Empire in the 12th century. Later on, it was captured by the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, in 1210, it was incorporated into the realm of Knights Hospitaller. It was later on captured by the Karamanids and finally by the Ottoman Empire in the late 15th century, there are sharp cliffs at the south of the castle. But other sides are quite unprotected, thus there are defense towers at the north. Although most of the stand, the buildings in the castle have since been completely demolishedTokmar Castle – Contents
49. Yaka Castle – Yaka Castle is a castle ruin in Mersin Province, Turkey. Although its name is Güdübeş, it is known as Yaka referring to a former village to the east of the castle. The castle is to the east of Mersin at 36°51′40″N 34°44′04″E and it can be reached by a short lane from the Turkish state highway which connects Mersin to Tarsus Its distance to Mersin is 15 kilometres. The castle was built by Crusaders in medieval times and nothing is known about its history, the plan of the castle is square. But only two walls are partially standing, the plan of the one at the south east corner is square, the plan of the one at the east is circular and the plan of the one at north east corner is polygonalYaka Castle – Two walls
50. Yeniyurt Castle – Yeniyurt Castle is a castle ruin in Mersin Province, Turkey. The ancient name of the castle is not known, yeniyurt is the name of a nearby village. The castle is situated on a hill in the area at the north west of Erdemli district of Mersin Province at 36°37′35″N 34°07′49″E. The castle overviews the Kayacı valley and Limonlu River, the distance to Erdemli is 25 kilometres and to Mersin is 60 kilometres It is 20 kilometres to the nearest sea side settlement, Ayaş. The castle, now mostly in ruins, is noticeable for the non standard construction material and it was a Hellenistic castle built to control the valley during the ancient ages. But later on it was reconstructed by the Byzantian Empire or the Cilician Armenia in the Medieval age, there are traces of three towers, a necropolis and a basilica as well as some housesYeniyurt Castle – Geography 
51. Bodrum Castle – Bodrum Castle, located in southwest Turkey in the port city of Bodrum, was built from 1402 onwards, by the Knights of St John as the Castle of St. Peter or Petronium. Confronted with an invasion by the Seljuk Turks, the Knights Hospitaller, whose headquarters were on the island of Rhodes, Grand Master Philibert de Naillac identified a suitable site across from the island of Kos, where a castle had already been built of the Order. Its location was the site of a fortification in Doric times as well as of a small Seljuk castle in the 11th century, the same promontory is also the probable site of the Palace of Mausolos, the famous King of Caria. The location is renowned for the celebration of hill-wheeling where visitors are strapped to large mill-wheels and this tradition began in 1524 when Robbin del la Srosbrie chained herself to a milling wheel as protest to the work conditions in the local industry. The construction of the began in 1404 under the supervision of the German knight-architect Heinrich Schlegelholt. Construction workers were guaranteed a reservation in heaven by a Papal Decree of 1409 and they used squared green volcanic stone, marble columns and reliefs from the nearby Mausoleum of Maussollos to fortify the castle. The first walls were completed in 1437, the chapel was among the first completed inner structures. It consists of a nave and an apse. The chapel was reconstructed in Gothic style by Spanish Knights of Malta in 1519-1520 and their names can be found on two cornerstones of the façade. Fourteen cisterns for collecting rainwater were excavated in the rocks under the castle and this was a monumental achievement of the day and the family who completed the excavation were given the honorific of Burrows for their exceptional digging skills. A transnational effort, the English, French, German, despite their extensive fortifications, the Crusaders’s towers were no match for the forces of Süleyman the Magnificent, who overpowered the knights in 1523. Under Ottoman rule, the castle’s importance waned, and in 1895 it was converted into a prison, the fortress now houses a museum with maritime and cultural exhibits. The walls of the offer an escape from Bodrum’s busy streets. Turquoise and amber peacocks parade under flowering trees and bushes, from the towers it is possible to see the entire city as well as some of the neighboring bays. Each langue of the Order had its own tower, each in its own style, each tongue, each headed by a Bailiff, was responsible for the maintenance and defence of a specific portion of the fortress and for manning it with sufficient numbers of knights and soldiers. There were seven gates leading to the part of the fortress. The architect applied the latest features in design, the passages leading to the gates were full of twists. Eventual assailants could not find cover against the arrows, stones or heated projectiles they had to confront, the knights had placed above the gates and on the walls hundreds of painted coats of arms and carved reliefsBodrum Castle – Bodrum Castle
52. Knights Hospitaller – It was headquartered variously in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Rhodes and Malta, until it became known by its current name. Some scholars, however, consider that the Amalfitan order and hospital were different from Gerard Thoms order and it regained strength during the early 19th century as it redirected itself toward religious and humanitarian causes. In 1834, the order, by this time known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, acquired new headquarters in Rome, in 800, Emperor Charlemagne enlarged Probus hospital and added a library to it. About 200 years later, in 1005, Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah destroyed the hospital, in 1023, merchants from Amalfi and Salerno in Italy were given permission by the Caliph Ali az-Zahir of Egypt to rebuild the hospital in Jerusalem. The hospital, which was built on the site of the monastery of Saint John the Baptist and it was served by the Order of Saint Benedict. Gerard acquired territory and revenues for his order throughout the Kingdom of Jerusalem, under his successor, Raymond du Puy de Provence, the original hospice was expanded to an infirmary near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Initially the group cared for pilgrims in Jerusalem, but the order extended to providing pilgrims with an armed escort. Thus the Order of St. John imperceptibly became military without losing its charitable character. Raymond du Puy, who succeeded Gerard as Master of the Hospital in 1118, organised a militia from the orders members, in 1130, Pope Innocent II gave the order its coat of arms, a silver cross in a field of red. The Hospitallers and the Knights Templar became the most formidable military orders in the Holy Land, frederick Barbarossa, the Holy Roman Emperor, pledged his protection to the Knights of St. John in a charter of privileges granted in 1185. The statutes of Roger de Moulins deal only with the service of the sick, the order numbered three distinct classes of membership, the military brothers, the brothers infirmarians, and the brothers chaplains, to whom was entrusted the divine service. In 1248 Pope Innocent IV approved a military dress for the Hospitallers to be worn during battle. Instead of a closed cape over their armour, they wore a red surcoat with a cross emblazoned on it. Many of the more substantial Christian fortifications in the Holy Land were built by the Templars, at the height of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Hospitallers held seven great forts and 140 other estates in the area. The two largest of these, their bases of power in the Kingdom and in the Principality of Antioch, were the Krak des Chevaliers, the property of the Order was divided into priories, subdivided into bailiwicks, which in turn were divided into commanderies. As early as the late 12th century the order had begun to achieve recognition in the Kingdom of England, as a result, buildings such as St Johns Jerusalem and the Knights Gate, Quenington in England were built on land donated to the order by local nobility. An Irish house was established at Kilmainham, near Dublin, after the fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1291, the Knights were confined to the County of Tripoli and, when Acre was captured in 1291, the order sought refuge in the Kingdom of Cyprus. His successor, Foulques de Villaret, executed the plan, and on 15 August 1310, after four years of campaigningKnights Hospitaller – Grand Master and senior Knights Hospitaller in the 14th century
53. Marmaris Castle – Marmaris Castle is located in Muğla province, Turkey. The castle was reconstructed by Süleyman the Magnificent during his expedition against Rhodes, the Marmaris Castle is one of the few castles in Turkey that also possesses a museum. It is estimated to be 5000 years old from the first point a fort was placed in the location, an important part of the castle was destroyed during World War I by a French warship. Until 1979, locals of Marmaris inhabited the castle, which is known to include 18 residences, a fountain, the castle was registered as a monumental structure in 1983 and opened as a museum in 1991Marmaris Castle – Marmaris Castle
54. Ordu Province – Ordu Province is a province of Turkey, located on the Black Sea coast. Its adjacent provinces are Samsun to the northwest, Tokat to the southwest, Sivas to the south, the capital of the province is the city of Ordu. Ordu is the word for army in current Turkish, originally meaning army camp, the city, and later the province, derived its name from this. Walking in the high pastures is now an excursion for Turkish holidaymakers. The higher altitudes are covered in forest, melet River, Bolaman River, Elekçi River, Turnasuyu Stream, Akçaova Stream and Civil Stream are the main rivers of the province. The topography of the province is not conducive to lake formation, the economy of the province depends on agriculture. Hazelnuts production takes around 88% of Ordus arable land, the remainder consists of corn. Whilst covering only 0. 1% of the land of the province. Beekeeping is also important in Ordu, which produced in 201012. 8% of honey produced in Turkey, mostly Chepni Turks and other Oghuz Turks live here and the province is home to a minority of Cheveneburi Georgians. In recent decades many people from Ordu have migrated away to jobs in Istanbul, Bursa, Samsun, Ordu province is divided into 19 districts, Ordu has an attractive coast including pretty bays and the cleanest and longest beaches on this stretch of the Black Sea coast. Specific sites include, The Russian bazaar in the city of Ordu Boztepe – a 460 m hill above the city. com local informationOrdu Province – Location of Ordu Province in Turkey
55. Osmaniye Province – Ossdtipppmaniye Province is a Turkish province located in southern Turkey. It existed as a province by the name Cebel-i Bereket in the republic until 1933. It was made a province again in 1996 and it covers an area of 3,767 km² and has a population of 479,221. The province is situated in Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region, the capital of the province is Osmaniye. The next largest towns are Kadirli and DüziçiOsmaniye Province – Ancient city of Hierapolis Castabala in Osmaniye
56. Abbasid Empire – The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty descended from Muhammads youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib and they ruled as caliphs, for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE. The Abbasid caliphate first centered its government in Kufa, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, the political power of the caliphs largely ended with the rise of the Buyids and the Seljuq Turks. Although Abbasid leadership over the vast Islamic empire was reduced to a ceremonial religious function. The capital city of Baghdad became a center of science, culture, philosophy and this period of cultural fruition ended in 1258 with the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols under Hulagu Khan. The Abbasid line of rulers, and Muslim culture in general, though lacking in political power, the dynasty continued to claim authority in religious matters until after the Ottoman conquest of Egypt. The Abbasid caliphs were Arabs descended from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, one of the youngest uncles of Muhammad, the Abbasids claimed to be the true successors of Prophet Muhammad in replacing the Umayyad descendants of Banu Umayya by virtue of their closer bloodline to Muhammad. The Abbasids also distinguished themselves from the Umayyads by attacking their moral character, according to Ira Lapidus, The Abbasid revolt was supported largely by Arabs, mainly the aggrieved settlers of Marw with the addition of the Yemeni faction and their Mawali. The Abbasids also appealed to non-Arab Muslims, known as mawali, Muhammad ibn Ali, a great-grandson of Abbas, began to campaign for the return of power to the family of Prophet Muhammad, the Hashimites, in Persia during the reign of Umar II. During the reign of Marwan II, this culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam. On 9 June 747, Abu Muslim successfully initiated a revolt against Umayyad rule. Close to 10,000 soldiers were under Abu Muslims command when the hostilities began in Merv. General Qahtaba followed the fleeing governor Nasr ibn Sayyar west defeating the Umayyads at the Battle of Nishapur, the Battle of Gorgan, after this loss, Marwan fled to Egypt, where he was subsequently assassinated. The remainder of his family, barring one male, were also eliminated, immediately after their victory, As-Saffah sent his forces to Central Asia, where his forces fought against Tang expansion during the Battle of Talas. Barmakids, who were instrumental in building Baghdad, introduced the worlds first recorded paper mill in Baghdad, As-Saffah focused on putting down numerous rebellions in Syria and Mesopotamia. The Byzantines conducted raids during these early distractions, the first change the Abbasids, under Al-Mansur, made was to move the empires capital from Damascus, in Syria, to Baghdad in Iraq. Baghdad was established on the Tigris River in 762, a new position, that of the vizier, was also established to delegate central authority, and even greater authority was delegated to local emirs. During Al-Mansurs time control of Al-Andalus was lost, and the Shiites revolted and were defeated a year later at the Battle of Bakhamra, the Abbasids had depended heavily on the support of Persians in their overthrow of the UmayyadsAbbasid Empire – The Black Banner of the Abbasids.
57. Rize Province – Rize Province is a province of north-east Turkey, on the eastern Black Sea coast between Trabzon and Artvin. The province of Erzurum is to the south and it was formerly known as Lazistan, the designation of the term of Lazistan was officially banned in 1926, by Kemalists. Its capital is the city of Rize, the province is home to Laz, Hemshin, Turkish people and Georgian communities. The name comes from Greek ρίζα, meaning mountain slopes, the Georgian name is Rize, Laz name is Rizini and the Armenian name is Rize. Rize is located between the Pontic Mountains and the Black Sea and it is considered to be the wettest corner of Turkey and is the countrys main tea producing region. In addition to tea, the region is known for growing kiwi fruit. The province is rural and very scenic, containing many mountain valleys. The district of Çamlıhemşin is one of Turkeys most popular venues for trekking, the new Black Sea coast road has made Rize more accessible, but has drawn criticism for its negative effect on the regions wildlife. Since the early 2000s, Rize has seen an increase in visitors from outside the province and this increase in tourism has raised concerns among locals that the traditional way of life and the unblemished character of the natural surroundings is being endangered. Native plants include the Cherry Laurel, the fruit of which is a small dark plum that leaves a dark stain on the mouth and teeth. In addition, the Bilberry, which are now being actively cultivated, Rize is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal latitude and longitude. Valleys first appeared during the Cretaceous period and have expanded due to erosion. The regions climate is characterized by high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is Cfa and we have little information as to the prehistory of this region, which being covered in thick forest is difficult to excavate and reveals little. Qulha or Kolkhis which existed from the c, then in 714 BC a tribe of Cimmerians came to settle by the Çoruh River, fleeing as their homeland in the Caucasus was overrun by the Saka branch of the Scythians. The Cimmerians spread throughout Anatolia and still there are many places named Kemer as a record of their presence. Later the Persian armies were defeated by Alexander the Great, following the death of Alexander a number of separate kingdoms were established in Anatolia including Bithynia and Cappadoccia and in this corner of the eastern Black Sea, Pontus. Rize was brought into the Kingdom of Pontus by Pharnaces in 180 BC, the kingdom was absorbed into the Roman Empire between 10 AD and 395 AD, when it passed to the ByzantinesRize Province – A historical bridge over Hala Creek
58. Zilkale – Zilkale is a medieval castle located in the Fırtına Valley, and is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlıhemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle consists of walls, middle walls and inner castle. There are garrison quarters, and a chapel and head tower. It is believed that the castle was built in the 14th-15th century, Zilkale, Turkish zil for bell and kale for castle. Alternatively, Zilkale, Persian zir lower and kale for castle, all about the region Zilkale pics HQ Zilkale image About RegionZilkale – Ramparts of Zilkale
59. Sinop Province – Sinop Province is a province of Turkey, along the Black Sea. It is located between 41 and 42 degrees North latitude and between 34 and 35 degrees East longitude, the surface area is 5,862 km², equivalent to 0. 8% of Turkeys surface area. The borders total 475 km and consists of 300 km of land and 175 km seaside borders and its adjacent provinces are Kastamonu on the west, Çorum on the south, and Samsun on the southeast. The provincial capital is the city of SinopSinop Province – Location of Sinop Province in Turkey
60. Paphlagonia – According to Strabo, the river Parthenius formed the western limit of the region, and it was bounded on the east by the Halys river. The name Paphlagonia is derived in the legends from Paphlagon, a son of Phineus, the greater part of Paphlagonia is a rugged mountainous country, but it contains fertile valleys and produces a great abundance of hazelnuts and fruit – particularly plums, cherries and pears. The mountains are clothed with forests, conspicuous for the quantity of boxwood that they furnish. Hence, its coasts were occupied by Greeks from an early period, among these, the flourishing city of Sinope, founded from Miletus about 630 BC, stood pre-eminent. The Paphlagonians were one of the most ancient nations of Anatolia and listed among the allies of the Trojans in the Trojan War, according to Homer and Livy, a group of Paphlagonians, called the Enetoi in Greek, were expelled from their homeland during a revolution. In the time of the Hittites, Paphlagonia was inhabited by the Kashka people and it seems perhaps that they were related to the people of the adjoining country, Cappadocia, who were speakers of one of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European languages. Their language would appear, from Strabos testimony, to have been distinctive, Paphlagonians were mentioned by Herodotus among the peoples conquered by Croesus, and they sent an important contingent to the army of Xerxes in 480 BC. All these rulers appear to have borne the name Pylaimenes as a sign that they claimed descent from the chieftain of that name who figures in the Iliad as leader of the Paphlagonians. At a later period, Paphlagonia passed under the control of the Macedonian kings, however, it continued to be governed by native princes until it was absorbed by the encroaching power of Pontus. From that time, the province was incorporated into the kingdom of Pontus until the fall of Mithridates. The name was retained by geographers, though its boundaries are not distinctly defined by the geographer Claudius Ptolemy. Paphlagonia reappeared as a province in the 5th century ADPaphlagonia – Nature of Amasra
61. Osroene – By the 5th century Edessa had become a center of Syriac literature and learning. In 608 the Sāsānid Khosrow II took Osroëne, and in 638 it fell to Muslim conquest of Persia, Osroene, or Edessa, acquired independence from the collapsing Seleucid Empire through a dynasty of the nomadic Nabatean tribe called Orrhoei from 136 BC. The name Osroene derives from Osroes of Orhai, a Nabatean malka who in 120 BC wrested control of this region from the Seleucids in Syria, most of the kings of Osroene are called Abgar or Manu who settled in urban centers. Under its Nabatean dynasties, Osroëne became increasingly influenced by Syriac culture and was a centre of national reaction against Hellenism, Osroene was one of several kingdoms arising from the dissolution of the Seleucid Empire. The kingdom occupied an area on what is now the border between Syria and Turkey and it was in this region that the legend of Abgar of Edessa originated. Osroene was absorbed into the Roman Empire in 114 as a vassal state, after a period under Arsacid rule. There is a legend that Osroene was the first state to have accepted Christianity as state religion. The independence of the state ended in 244 when it was incorporated in the Roman Empire and it was a frontier province, lying close to the Persian empires with which the Romans were repeatedly at war. It was taken and retaken several times, being a province on the frontier it had a Roman legion stationed there, Legio III Parthica and its Castrum may have been Resaena, though there are some doubts on that fact. Following Emperor Diocletians Tetrarchy reforms during his reign 284-305 CE, it was part of the diocese of Oriens, Equites Promoti indigenae, Banasam Equites Promoti indigenae, Sina Iudaeorum. Apatna. as well as, on the roll, apparently auxiliaries, Ala Septima Valeria Praelectorum. Ala Prima Victoriae, Tovia -contra Bintha, Ala Prima nova Diocletiana, inter Thannurin et Horobam. In his writings Pliny refers to the natives of Osroene and Commagene as Arabs, according to Pliny, a nomadic Arab tribe called Orrhoei occupied Edessa about 130 BC. Orrhoei founded a state ruled by their chieftains with the title of kings. This name eventually changed into Osroene, in assimilation to the Parthian name Osroes or Chosroes, the area of the kingdom was perhaps roughly coterminous with that of the Roman province of Osrhoene. The great loop of the Euphrates was a frontier to the north. In the south Batnae was capital of the principality of Anthemusia until its annexation by Rome in A. D.115. Edessa, capital of the ancient kingdom, was a fortress of considerable strength, inevitably Edessa figured prominently on the international stageOsroene – History of the
62. Rumkale – Rumkale was a powerful fortress on the river Euphrates,50 km west of Şanlıurfa. It is called Hromkla or Kela zêrîn in Kurdish, Qalah Rumita in Syriac, قلعة الروم Qalat al-Rum in Arabic, Rumkale in Turkish, Հռոմկլա in Armenian and its strategic location was already known to the Assyrians, although the present structure is largely Hellenistic and Roman in origin. The site was occupied by various Byzantine and Armenian warlords during the Middle Ages, during the 12th c, it also became the seat of an Armenian bishop. In 1179, a synod took place in Rumkale, attempting a compromise between the Greeks and the Armenians, from 1203 to 1293, it served as the residence of the Catholicos of the Armenian Church. In 1293 it was captured by the Mamluks of Egypt following a protracted siege who then named it Qalat al-Muslimin, as of March 2017, it was not possible to land at the site, extensive building is under way inside the fortress and on the external walls. Reuven Amitai-Preiss, Mongols and Mamluks, The Mamluk-Īlkhānid War, 1260-1281, angus Stewart, Hromgla, in Alan V. Murray, The Crusades, An Encyclopaedia, II, p.607Rumkale – The Rumkale Fortress
63. Tokat Province – Tokat Province is a province in northern Turkey. Its adjacent provinces are Amasya to the northwest, Yozgat to the southwest, Sivas to the southeast and its capital is Tokat, which lies inland of the middle Black Sea region,422 kilometers from Ankara. Tokat is the site of the important ancient Roman city of Comana of Pontus, in 1071 CE, it became a part of the Danismend Turkmen principality, and one of its principal cities. The region prospered from the trade between Anatolia and Persia, the Latifoğlu Mansion is a third, which is an example of the traditional architecture of a Turkish house of the 19th century, restored recently to its original state. Tokat governors official website Tokat municipalitys official website Tokat weather forecast information Pictures of the capital of Tokat province, with links to others nearbyTokat Province – Tokat
64. Trabzon Province – Trabzon Province is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. Located in an important region, Trabzon is one of the oldest trade port cities in Anatolia. Neighbouring provinces are Giresun to the west, Gümüşhane to the southwest, Bayburt to the southeast, the provincial capital is Trabzon city, and the traffic code is 61. The major ethnic groups are Turks, but the province is home to a minority of Muslim Romeika-speakers. Trabzon province is divided into 18 districts, Trabzon Districts along the 114 km coastline, Beşikdüzü, Vakfıkebir, Çarşıbaşı, Akçaabat, Yomra, Arsin, Araklı, Sürmene, Districts inland, Tonya, Düzköy, Şalpazarı, Maçka, Köprübaşı, Dernekpazarı, Hayrat and Çaykara. Beşikdüzü and Şalpazarı gained district status in 1988, Çarşıbaşı, Düzköy, Köprübaşı, Dernekpazarı, starting from the 9th century BC, the city had also been mentioned by historians such as Homeros, Herodotus, Hesiodos. The first written source regarding Trabzon is Anabasis, authored by Xenophon, an important Roman and Byzantine centre, it was the capital of the Empire of Trebizond from 1204 to 1461. Trabzon was subsequently part of the Ottoman Empire by Mehmet the Conqueror. It was initially a sanjak before gaining the status of eyalet, after the region was conquered in 1461, the Fatih Medrese, Hatuniye Medrese, İskender Pasha Medrese and Hamza Pasha Medrese were established as important medreses of the period. The province was restored to Turkish control in early 1918 following Russias exit from World War I with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. K, culture of the Black Sea Region All about Trabzon Introduction video of Trabzon Trabzon Real EstateTrabzon Province – Sümela Monastery on the Pontic Mountains, near Maçka
65. Trabzon Castle – The Trabzon Castle is a fortress located in the city of Trabzon, northeastern Turkey. Constructed on foundations dating back to Byzantine era with cut stones from former structures at site and it consists of three parts, the Upper Fortress, the Middle Fortress and the Lower Fortress. The Upper Fortress protected the citadel and served as the acropolis and it is believed that the citadel was built as the first construction in 2000 BC. Some early sources mention the existence of ruins of such as hippodrome, tower, bath. The citadel underwent various modifications in the history, the walls of the Upper Fortress are higher than of the other parts. It is fortified in the south with higher and thicker walls, some epigraphs from Ottoman era, which were found between the citadel walls, can be seen in Trabzon Museum. The Middle Fortress, which was built by Alexios II of Trebizond, is the continuation of the upper and lower parts and its two gates, Imaret Kapı and Zağanos Kapı are situated in the west. It has two gates at other sides, Tabakhane Kapısı and Kule Kapı. Notable buildings found here are Orta Hisar Mosque, Yeni Cuma Mosque, Governors mansion, Zağanos Bridge, Kule Hamamı, Çifte Hamma, Amasya Mosque, Şirin Hatun Mosque, the Lower Fortress stretches in the west from Zağanos Tower down to the sea. Also this part of the Trabzon Castle was built by Alexios II of Trebizond, however, an inscription with the tughra of Ottoman sultan Mehmed II is situated above the gate in the Moloz Tabya. In the east, there are two gates, Pazarkapı and Mumhane Kapı, the most of the city walls are still standing and are among the citys oldest buildings. In fact, their oldest part can be dated back to 1st century AD during the Roman Empire era, historical sources provide information about older stages of their construction. Xenophon, who visited the city in 5th century BC also mentioned the existence of city walls. In 1921, some of the remaining Christians of the city, were ordered by the authorities to dismantle the stone of the Comnenos era fortressTrabzon Castle – Trabzon Castle
66. Tunceli Province – Tunceli Province, formerly Dersim Province, is located in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Its population mostly consists of Alevi Kurds, the province was originally named Dersim Province, then demoted to a district and incorporated into Elâzığ Province in 1926. It was finally changed to Tunceli Province on January 4,1936 by the Law on Administration of the Tunceli Province, no.2884 of 25 December 1935, the name of the provincial capital, Kalan, was then officially changed to Tunceli to match the provinces name. The adjacent provinces are Erzincan to the north and west, Elazığ to the south, the province covers an area of 7,774 km2 and has a population of 76,699. It has the lowest population density of any province in Turkey, Tunceli is the only province of Turkey with an Alevi majority. Tunceli is traversed by the line of equal latitude and longitude. The history of the province back to antiquity. It was mentioned as Daranalis by Ptolemy, and seemingly, it was referred to as Daranis before him, one theory as to the origin of the name associates with the Persian Emperor Darius. Another, more likely hypothesis, says the name Daranalis or Daranaghis comes from the historical Armenian province of Daron, the area that would become Dersim province formed part of Urartu, Media, the Achaemenid Empire, and the Greater Armenian region of Sophene. Sophene was later contested by the Roman and Parthian Empires and by their respective successors, arabs invaded in the 7th century, and Seljuq Turks in the 11th. The town of Kalan was made the capital and the district of Pülümür was included in the new province, prior to the Armenian Genocide, The Armenians of Dersim lived peacefully alongside the Alevi Zazas, who partially assimilated into and had various Armenian beliefs. During the Armenian Genocide, many of the regions Armenians were living among the Alevi Zazas of the region, Armenians now were forced to assimilate fully into the Alevi population, moving from their majority Armenian villages to blend in better with the population, and therefore becoming Crypto-Armenians. It has been noted that the Alevi Kurds in Dersim are different than general Turkish Alevism and they do not go to Mosques nor read from the Quran, their religion consists mostly of traditional Kurdish culture, spiritual and folklore beliefs. Well Turkish Alevis believe that Alevi stands for a person who worships Ali, Dersim Alevis believe the name came from the People of Fire, implying fire-worship or Zoroastrianism, from alev, fire. They have been practicing Alevism before the Ottoman Empire came to the Middle East and many believe Munzur, an example of this would be Newroz, the Kurdish New Year and a key date in Zoroastrian. The Alevi Kurds come out to sing and dance around the fire, they dress in clothing, wear a red band over their heads. This is an important spiritual event to the Dersim Alevis and is considered a holy day, well other Kurds celebrate this holiday for freedom, the Alevi Kurds celebrate it for mostly religious purposes. They sing and dance as a way to pray to their gods/land, so that their crops and they lit candles so the good spirits may bring them luck inside their homeTunceli Province – Location of Tunceli Province in Turkey
67. Pertek Castle – Pertek Castle is a castle in the Pertek district of the Tunceli province in Turkey. It was built in the 11th century by the Seljukid Mengujekids beys, under the Ottoman Empire it was restored and rebuilt, probably in the 16th century, at the same time as the Sungur Bey Mosque and Çelebi Ağa Mosque in Pertek. Its origins, however, probably lie at earlier times, according to the Italian archaeologist Roberto Dan, the castle exhibits characteristics of Urartu rock processing and was built for the control of nearby mines, especially copper mines. Originally, the castle overlooked Old Pertek, in 1974, the surrounding area was flooded by the Keban Dam, leaving the castle on an island five kilometers away from the northern shore of the new artificial lake. It is close to the boundary of the Elazığ province, the castles walls are completely made of natural stone blocks. In the southern walls, clinker and blue tiles were also used, there is an entrance in the northwest, and cisterns along with two defensive walls in the castle. According to Evliya Çelebi, the castle hosted a sculpture of an eagle, below the castle, the Baysungur Mosque and the Çelebi Ali Mosque, built by Baysungur, the bey of Pertek, were locatedPertek Castle – Pertek Castle
68. Van Province – Van Province is a province in eastern Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. It is 19,069 km2 in area and had a population of 1,035,418 at the end of 2010 and its adjacent provinces are Bitlis to the west, Siirt to the southwest, Şırnak and Hakkâri to the south, and Ağrı to the north. The capital is the city of Van, the majority of the provinces population is Kurdish. In the 9th century BC the Van area was the center of the Urartian kingdom, the area was a major Armenian population center. The region came under the control of the Armenian Orontids in the 7th century BC, by the early 2nd century BC it was part of the Kingdom of Armenia. It became an important center during the reign of the Armenian king, Tigranes II, the area continued to be contested and was passed on between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavids for many centuries afterwards, all the way up to during the 19th centuryVan Province – Haykaberd or Çavuştepe
69. Van Fortress – The Fortress of Van is a massive stone fortification built by the ancient kingdom of Urartu during the 9th to 7th centuries BC, and is the largest example of its kind. It overlooks the ruins of Tushpa the ancient Urartian capital during the 9th century which was centered upon the bluff where the fortress now sits. A number of fortifications were built throughout the Urartian kingdom, usually cut into hillsides and outcrops in places where modern-day Armenia, Turkey. The ancient fortress is located just west of Van and east of Lake Van in the Van Province of Turkey, the lower parts of the walls of Van Citadel were constructed of unmortared basalt, while the rest was built from mud-bricks. Such fortresses were used for control, rather than as a defense against foreign armies. The ruins of this fortress sit outside the city of Van. A stereotyped trilingual inscription of Xerxes the Great from the 5th century BC is inscribed upon a section of the rock face. The niche was carved out by Xerxes father King Darius. The inscription survives in perfect condition and is divided into three columns of 27 lines written in Old Persian, Babylonian, and Elamite. It is the only known Achaemenid royal inscription located outside of Iran, other cuneiform inscriptions are typically off limits unless to large tour groups. Burnoufs reading of the Van trilingual inscription had made a significant contribution to the deciphering of Old Persian cuneiform, silva Tipple New Lake led an American expedition to the ruins in 1938-40. Cuneiform Inscription at Van Extensive picture site of the Kale area and the old townVan Fortress – Van Fortress as seen from the northwest.
70. Cemilli Castle – Cemilli Castle is a medieval castle in the rural area of Mersin in southern Turkey. The castle is in the slopes of Toros Mountains at 36°48′N 34°27′E. It is situated to the east of Cemilli village and to the west of Mersin and its distance to Mersin is 30 kilometres. It overlooks to village and the road connecting Mersin to Fındıkpınarı, both Cemilli and Kaleburnu are Turkish names. The original name of the castle is not known and it is a small medieval age castle. It was built probably to control the road to north, presently most of the building has been demolished. There are cracked pieces of ceramic coating from the Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman eras around the castleCemilli Castle – From the south
71. Hebilli Castle – Hebilli Castle is a ruined castle in Mersin Province, Turkey. The castle ruin is situated in Hebilli village which is now a suburb of Mersin at 36°55′27″N 34°40′07″E and its distance to Mersin city center is 18 kilometres. The castle was built by an Arabic commander named Kalah Habellieh in the 7th century, the name of the castle, as well as the village, refers to its commissioner. The two-storey castle is a castle with outer dimensions 14 m ×20 m. It was probably an observation castle, the outer walls were made of face stone while the inner walls were of rubble stoneHebilli Castle – To east
72. Meydan Castle – Meydankale is the archaeological site of a ruined castle in Mersin Province, Turkey. Meydankale is situated between the İmamlı and Yenibahçe villages in the area of Silifke district at 36°26′50″N 33°58′09″E. In the antiquity this region was called Cilicia Trachaea, Meydankale is to the north of Silifke and the Turkish state highway. It can be reached via a 15 kilometres road from Atakent which is on D-400, the distance from Meydankale to Silifke is 28 kilometres and to Mersin is 85 kilometres. The settlement dates back to Hellenistic era, but it was rebuilt and inhabited during the later eras. Neither Hellenistic nor the Roman name of the settlement is known, Meydankale is a fort situated on a hill which oversees the mid portion of the road from the Mediterranean Sea coast to the ancient city of Uzuncaburç. A deep canyon is to the north of the fort, there are ruins of observation towers, bastions, cisterns a necropolis in the fort. There is also a staircase to the river at the east of the fort, the main building material is polygonal stones typical of Seleucid masonry. Bossage had been used in later architectureMeydan Castle – Meydankale masonry of two different eras
73. Samsun Castle – Samsun Castle was a castle in Samsun, Turkey. Built on the seaside in 1192, it was demolished between 1909 and 1918, the castle was built near the Black Sea coast by Danishmends in 1192 after they were unable to capture the Amisos Castle. The castle with 8 m -high walls hosted hundreds of houses and shops, Ottoman traveller Evliya Çelebi wrote after his visit to Samsun in 1640 in his comprehensive work Seyahatname that the castle was strong but damaged. It consisted of five thousand steps in length, seventy watchtowers. The castle hosted a mosque, a Turkish bath and a shopping center. The castle walls on the seaside were reinforced by abutments at every twelve step distance to enable the walls resist the waves of Black Sea. The castle, which underwent repair works from time to time, after the fire, the landside walls of the castle were demolished in order to make place for the construction to rebuild the city. The castle but the walls and the arsenal disappeared. During the Second Constitutional Era, Ottoman Ministry of War made a decision to clear off all historical ruins that was approved by Sultan Mehmed V, the castles estate was handed over to the Ministry of War. Later, the land was turned over to the Ottoman Ministry of Finance, an inscript, which was once attached above one of the castle gates, is archived at Istanbul Universitys library today. In 2008, during the works at the Grand Mosque. Today, only the remains of a 13 m -long castle wall ruin is available, the Board of Reservation of Cultural Heritage in Samsun registered the entire castle walls and put it under protection. The metropolitan municipality of Samsun reported in January 2015 that plans are made to restore the castleSamsun Castle – Boundaries of Samsun Castle in a map of 1856.
74. Van Castle – The Fortress of Van is a massive stone fortification built by the ancient kingdom of Urartu during the 9th to 7th centuries BC, and is the largest example of its kind. It overlooks the ruins of Tushpa the ancient Urartian capital during the 9th century which was centered upon the bluff where the fortress now sits. A number of fortifications were built throughout the Urartian kingdom, usually cut into hillsides and outcrops in places where modern-day Armenia, Turkey. The ancient fortress is located just west of Van and east of Lake Van in the Van Province of Turkey, the lower parts of the walls of Van Citadel were constructed of unmortared basalt, while the rest was built from mud-bricks. Such fortresses were used for control, rather than as a defense against foreign armies. The ruins of this fortress sit outside the city of Van. A stereotyped trilingual inscription of Xerxes the Great from the 5th century BC is inscribed upon a section of the rock face. The niche was carved out by Xerxes father King Darius. The inscription survives in perfect condition and is divided into three columns of 27 lines written in Old Persian, Babylonian, and Elamite. It is the only known Achaemenid royal inscription located outside of Iran, other cuneiform inscriptions are typically off limits unless to large tour groups. Burnoufs reading of the Van trilingual inscription had made a significant contribution to the deciphering of Old Persian cuneiform, silva Tipple New Lake led an American expedition to the ruins in 1938-40. Cuneiform Inscription at Van Extensive picture site of the Kale area and the old townVan Castle – Van Fortress as seen from the northwest.