List of caves in Italy
Notes and references
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|Addaura||Palermo (PA)||Sicily||?||70 metres (230 ft)|
|Arene Candide||Finale Ligure (SV)||Liguria||?||90 amsl|
|Antro del Corchia||Stazzema (LU)||Tuscany||?||600 amsl|
|Bigonda||Grigno (TN)||Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol||?||400 amsl|
|Blue Grotto||Anacapri (NA)||Campania||?||0 amsl|
|Borgio Verezzi||Borgio Verezzi (SV)||Liguria||?||200 amsl|
|Bue Marino||Dorgali  (NU)||Sardinia||?||0 amsl|
|Castelcivita||Castelcivita (SA)||Campania||3 km||94 amsl|
|Castellana||Castellana Grotte (BA)||Apulia||3 km||290 amsl|
|Cavallone||Lama dei Peligni (CH)
Taranta Peligna (CH)
|Abruzzo||1 km||1,300 amsl|
|Ear of Dionysius||Syracuse (SR)||Sicily||0,06 km
|Frasassi||Genga (AN)||Marche||5 km||300 amsl|
|Gelo||Randazzo (CT)||Sicily||?||2,043 amsl|
|Giant||Sgonico (TS)||Friuli-Venezia Giulia||0,28 km
|Giusti||Monsummano Terme (PT)||Tuscany||0,20 km
|Ispinigoli||Dorgali (NU)||Sardinia||?||1,300 amsl|
|Is Zuddas||Santadi (CI)||Sardinia||?||0 amsl|
|Lauro||Alcara li Fusi (ME)||Sicily||?||1,068 amsl|
|Maona||Montecatini Terme (PT)||Tuscany||0,20 km
|Neptune||Alghero (SS)||Sardinia||?||5 amsl|
|Nereo||Alghero (SS)||Sardinia||?||0 amsl|
|Paglicci||Rignano Garganico (FG)||Apulia||?||590 amsl|
|Pastena||Pastena (FR)||Lazio||?||310 amsl|
|Patone||Arco (TN)||Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol||?||300 amsl|
|Pertosa||Pertosa (SA)||Campania||3 km||263 amsl|
|San Giovanni||Domusnovas (CI)||Sardinia||2 km||150 amsl|
|Smeraldo||Conca dei Marini (SA)||Campania||?||0 amsl|
|Su Mannau||Fluminimaggiore (CI)||Sardinia||?||256 amsl|
|Su Marmuri||Ulassai (OG)||Sardinia||?||775 amsl|
|Toirano||Toirano (SV)||Liguria||2 km||50 amsl|
|Trullo||Putignano (BA)||Apulia||?||375 amsl|
|Villanova||Lusevera  (UD)
|Friuli-V.G.||4 km||500 amsl|
|Wind||Vergemoli (LU)||Tuscany||4,5 km||650 amsl|
|Zelbio||Zelbio (CO)||Lombardy||?||900 amsl|
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2. Cave – A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend underground. The cave can also refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, grottos. A cavern is a specific type of cave, naturally formed with the ability to grow speleothems. Speleology is the science of all aspects of caves and the cave environment. Exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking. The development of caves is known as speleogenesis. Caves can be variable sizes. These may involve a combination of erosion from water, tectonic forces, microorganisms, pressure, atmospheric influences. It is estimated that the maximum depth of a cave cannot be more than 3,000 metres due to the pressure of overlying rocks. Most caves are formed by dissolution. Rock is dissolved in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, faults, joints, comparable features. Over geological epochs cracks expand to become caves and cave systems. The largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under naturally occurring organic acids.Cave – Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, USA
3. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with Vatican City. With million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state. Rome ultimately emerged as the dominant power, becoming the leading cultural, political, religious centre of Western civilisation. The legacy of the Roman Empire can be observed in the global distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity and the Latin script. Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo, Machiavelli. However, the southern areas of the country remained largely excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Italy has eighth largest economy in the world. It enjoys the highest life expectancy in the EU. The corpus of the solutions proposed by historians and linguists is very wide. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. But by his time the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. Excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible non-Indo-European origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni, known for their rock carvings. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily.Italy – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
4. Italian language – Italian is a Romance language. It is the second-closest to Latin in terms of vocabulary after Sardinian. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Istria. Italian is spoken by small minorities in places such as Crimea, France, Belgium, Montenegro and Tunisia. Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and regional languages. Including Italian speakers on other continents, the total number of speakers is around 85 million. Italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical opera. Its influence is also widespread in the luxury goods market. Italian has been reported as the fifth most frequently taught foreign language in the world. Its development was also influenced by the Germanic languages of the post-Roman invaders. Unlike most Romance languages, Italian retains Latin's contrast between short and long consonants. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive. However, some surrounding regions has a longer history. Italian was also one of the many recognised languages in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Italy has always had a distinctive dialect for each city, because the cities, until recently, were thought of as city-states.Italian language – Dante Alighieri (above) and Petrarch (below) were influential in establishing their Tuscan dialect as the most prominent literary language in all of Italy in the Late Middle Ages
5. Alps – The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4,000 m, known as the "four-thousanders". The size of the range affects the climate in Europe; in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era. A mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established. The Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800 Napoleon crossed one of the mountain passes with an army of 40,000. In World War II, Adolf Hitler kept a base of operation throughout the war. The Alpine region has a cultural identity. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, French, Italian, German Alps. At present the region has 120 million annual visitors. The English Alps derives from the Latin Alpes. An ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts.Alps – Mont Blanc, the highest mountain in the Alps, view from the Savoy side
6. Apennine Mountains – The Apennines or Apennine Mountains are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending c. 1,200 km along the length of peninsular Italy. In the northwest they join with the Ligurian Alps at Altare. In the southwest they end at Reggio di Calabria, the coastal city at the tip of the peninsula. The system forms an arc enclosing the east side of the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Seas. The name originally applied to the north Apennines. However, historical linguists have never found a derivation with which they are universally comfortable. Wilhelm Deecke said: "...its etymology is doubtful but some derive it from the Ligurian-Celtish Pen or Ben, which means mountain peak." The mountains lend their name to the Apennine peninsula, which forms the major part of Italy. They are mostly verdant, although one side of Corno Grande is partially covered by the only glacier in the Apennines. It has been receding since 1794. The southern mountains are semi-arid. The eastern slopes down to the Adriatic Sea are steep, while the western slopes form foothills on which most of peninsular Italy's cities are located. The mountains tend to be named from the province or provinces in which they are located; for example, the Ligurian Apennines are in Liguria. As the provincial borders have not always been stable, this practice has resulted in some confusion about exactly where the montane borders are. Always a geographical feature can be found that lends itself to being a border.Apennine Mountains – Abruzzo National Park
7. Karst topography – Karst topography is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves. It has also been documented for weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water with few to no rivers or lakes. The English word karst was borrowed from German Karst in the late 19th century. The German word came into use before the 19th century. Scholars disagree, however, on whether the German word was borrowed from Slovene. The Slovene common noun kras was first attested in the 18th century, the adjective form kraški in the 16th century. The Slovene words arose through metathesis from the reconstructed form *korsъ, borrowed from Dalmatian Romance carsus. Ultimately, the word is of Mediterranean origin, believed to derive from some Romanized Illyrian base. It has been suggested that the word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root karra- "rock". The name may also be connected to the oronym Karsádios oros cited by Ptolemy, perhaps also to Latin Carusardius. The development of karst occurs whenever acidic water starts to break down the surface of bedrock near its cracks, or bedding planes. As the bedrock continues to break down, its cracks tend to get bigger. As time goes on, these fractures will become wider, eventually, a drainage system of some sort may start to form underneath.Karst topography – Škocjan Caves, Slovenia
8. Show cave – Unlike wild caves, they typically possess such features as constructed trails, guided tours, regular opening hours. "Show cave" has inconsistent usage between nations, with many countries tending to call all caves which are open to the public show caves. However there are many caves which are visited by very many people. This kind of cave is often called a semi-wild cave. Access may involve anything between an easy dangerous climbing. Most cave accidents happen in this kind of cave, as visitors often underestimate the dangers. The oldest known cave in the world is Postojna Cave in Slovenia, with the first record of a cave tour in 1213. In 1649 the authorized cave guide started guiding Baumannshöhle in the Harz in Germany - but this cave also was intensively visited much earlier. The development of electric lighting enabled the illumination of show caves. Early experiments with electric light in caves were carried out at Chifley Cave, Jenolan Caves, Australia. In 1881 Czech Republic, became the first cave in the world with electric arc light. This light electric arc lamps with carbon electrodes, which burned down and had to be replaced after some time. The first cave in the world with light bulbs as we know them today was the Kraushöhle in Austria in 1883. But the cave is today visited with carbide lamps. In two more caves were equipped with electric light, Postojna Cave, Slovenia, Olgahöhle, Germany.Show cave – A guide and visitor in the Mammoth Cave, Kentucky
9. Castellana Caves – The Castellana Caves are a karst cave system located in the municipality of Castellana Grotte, in the province of Bari, Apulia. The entrance is represented by an enormous vertical tunnel 60 meters long. Others are named Black Cavern, Precipice Cavern. The Caves of Castellana open in south-eastern Murge, a limestone plateau dating back to the upper Cretaceous and rising 330 metres above sea level. The area of Castellana is characterized by a sedimentary rock composed largely of carbonate, known as Limestone of Altamura. The cave system is 3348 metres in length and the point of maximum depth reaches 122 metres. The temperature within the caves is about 18 °C. The caves are open all year round for the New Year's day. The tour timetable changes depending on the season. In addition, during the summer there are also guided night tours. The Grave is the first and the biggest cave of this wonderful speleological complex and it is the only one communicating with the outside. It measures 60 m in depth. Going beyond the Grave stalactites, stalagmites, curtains and precious crystals continues to embellish everywhere the caves. Castellana's speleological complex is unique among other cave systems thanks to its three peculiarities: the concretions. It moves differently according to the time of the season.Castellana Caves – View of the caves
10. Frasassi – The Frasassi Caves are a remarkable karst cave system in the municipality of Genga, Italy, in the province of Ancona, Marche. They are among the most famous show caves in Italy. The very history of discovery Frasassi caves in www.frasassigsm.it Rich in the cave system is particularly well endowed with stalactites and stalagmites. The cave has been used to conduct experiments in chronobiology. Among the cavers that have spent considerable amount of time inside the cave is the Italian sociologist Maurizio Montalbini, who died in 2009.Frasassi – View of the caves
11. Pertosa CavePertosa Cave – Entrance to the caves
12. Giant Cave – This record was broken in 2010 when La Verna cave in the south west of France was opened to tourists. The cave contains many of exceptional beauty. The enormous hall is 107 m high, 65 m large. The constant temperatures throughout the year have led to the placement of two geodetic pendula and other scientific instruments. The cave was first explored by Antonio Federico Lindner in 1840. In 1897, it was fully mapped by Andrea Perko, inaugurated in 1908. After World War I, ownership went to the Julian Alpine Society. Tourism really began in 1957, when electricity was installed, unveiling new perspectives and details. Two wide parking lots are available on the outside. Visits are scheduled throughout the day with expert guides. A guided walk through the cave takes about an hour. Media related to Grotta Gigante at Wikimedia Commons Official Grotta Gigante websiteGiant Cave – Inside the cave looking towards the tourist entrance
14. Toirano Caves – The Toirano Caves are a karst cave system in the municipality of Toirano, in the province of Savona, Liguria, Italy. The area is situated close to the town of few kilometers to the Ligurian Ponente Riviera. The exit "Borghetto Santo Spirito" of A10 motorway is 5 km far from the caves. One of the most important caves is shelter of the Cave bear. Borgio Verezzi Caves List of caves List of caves in Italy Grotte di Toirano official site Toirano Caves on showcaves.comToirano Caves – Interior view
15. Archaeology – Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of paleontology, the study of fossil remains. Archaeology is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time. The discipline involves surveying, excavation and analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research. Archaeology has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. The science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age.Archaeology – Roman ruins, Lausanne, Switzerland.
16. Paleontology – Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch. It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments. Paleontological observations have been documented back as the 5th century BC. The science became established in the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuvier's work on comparative anatomy, developed rapidly in the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek παλαιός, palaios, i.e. "ancient", ὄν, on, i.e. "being, λόγος, logos, i.e. "speech, thought, study". Paleontology differs from archaeology in that it excludes the study of modern humans. It now uses techniques drawn from a wide range including biochemistry, engineering. The simplest definition is "the study of ancient life". Paleontology is one of the historical sciences, along with archaeology, geology, astronomy, history itself. This means that it aims to describe phenomena of the past and reconstruct their causes. Sometimes the smoking gun is discovered by a fortunate accident during other research. In addition paleontology often uses techniques derived from other sciences, including biology, osteology, physics and mathematics. As knowledge has increased, paleontology has developed specialised subdivisions. Vertebrate paleontology concentrates on fossils of vertebrates, from the earliest fish to the immediate ancestors of modern mammals. Invertebrate paleontology deals with fossils of invertebrates such as molluscs, echinoderms.Paleontology
17. Addaura – The Addaura cave is a complex of three natural grottoes located on the northeast side of Mount Pellegrino in Palermo, Sicily, southern Italy. The importance of the complex is due to the presence of cave-wall engravings dated to the Mesolithic. The finds are now conserved in Palermo's Regional Archaeological Museum. The Addaura comes from Arabic: الدورة al-dawrah, ` the circuit'. The discovery of the graffiti of Addaura came about quite casually. The graffiti were carefully studied by the archaeologist Jole Bovio Marconi, whose studies were published in 1953. The site is in a state of decay from vandalism. In one of the grottoes is found a vast and rich complex of carvings, dated between the late Epigravettian and the Mesolithic, depicting men and animals. According to some scholars, it might show acrobats caught in the act of playing games that require a particular ability. According to others there is depicted the scene of a ritual that called for the sacrifice of two persons guided by a shaman. Perhaps it is a ritual that calls for something, attested in other cultures. In line with this explanation, the two masked figures around the two sacrificed characters would be shamans attending an ceremony. Other scholars, including the discoverer Jole Bovio Marconi herself, have read the two male figures as a homoerotic image. Bernabò Brea, Luigi. Sicily Before the Greeks.Addaura – The graffiti of Addaura
18. Palermo – Palermo is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo. The city is noted for its history, gastronomy, playing an important role throughout much of its existence; it is over 2,700 years old. Palermo is located in the northwest of the island of Sicily, right by the Gulf of Palermo in the Tyrrhenian Sea. The city was founded as Ziz. The Greeks named the city Panormus meaning'complete port'. From 831 to 1072 the city was under Arab rule during the Emirate of Sicily when the city first became a capital. The Arabs shifted the Greek name into Balarm, the root for Palermo's present-day name. Eventually Sicily would be united with the Kingdom of Naples to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies until the Italian unification of 1860. In the central area, the city has a population of around 676,000 people. The inhabitants are known as Palermitani or, poetically, panormiti. The languages spoken by its inhabitants are the Palermitano dialect. Palermo is Sicily's touristic capital. It is a city rich in history, culture, food. Palermo is the Sicilian commercial center: the main industrial sectors include tourism, services, commerce and agriculture. Palermo currently has a underground economy.Palermo – Clockwise from top: Quattro Canti in Maqueda Street, San Domenico Church, Pretoria Square and Santa Caterina Church, and view of downtown Palermo from Mount Pellegrino
19. Province of Palermo – The Province of Palermo was a province in the autonomous region of Sicily, a major island in Southern Italy. Its capital was the city of Palermo. On August 2015, it was replaced by the Metropolitan City of Palermo. Its name is derived from Latin word "Panormus". It has also been ruled by the Americans. Historical accounts recording the existence of the province date back to the 8th and 6th B.C.. It is popular for its beaches, namely Mondello. The land includes Pollina and Imera Valleys. Madonie Range is located in the province. The Province of Palermo is 4,992 square kilometres. Some major towns of the province are Petralia Soprana. For the purpose of administration the province was divided into four districts -- Palermo, Corleone, Termini and Cefalu. The rate is high. Tourism is also an important industry. A major tourist destinations include Arab-Norman Palatine Chapel, Church of St. John of the Hermits, Palazzo Abatellis, Gothic Palazzo Chiaramonte and National Gallery of Sicily.Province of Palermo – Map highlighting the location of the province of Palermo in Italy
20. Sicily – Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It constitutes an autonomous Region of Italy, along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as Regione Siciliana. Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe, currently 3,329 m high, one of the most active in the world. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate. The earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC. It became part of Italy in 1860 following the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led during a plebiscite. Sicily was given special status as an autonomous region after the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Sicily has a unique culture, especially to the arts, music, literature, cuisine, architecture. It is also Selinunte. Sicily has a roughly triangular shape, earning the Trinacria. The total area of the island is 25,711 km2, while the Autonomous Region of Sicily has an area of 27,708 km2. The terrain of inland Sicily is mostly hilly and is intensively cultivated wherever possible. Along the northern coast, the mountain ranges of Madonie, 2,000 m, Nebrodi, 1,800 m, Peloritani, 1,300 m, are an extension of the mainland Apennines. The cone of Mount Etna dominates the eastern coast.Sicily – Mount Etna rising over suburbs of Catania
21. Finale Ligure – Finale Ligure is a comune on the Gulf of Genoa in the Province of Savona in Liguria, Italy. Church is considered part of the Italian Riviera. The town has a commercial district. Many restaurants from the adjacent street have located large, open-air dining rooms along it. The town of Finale Ligure is nominally divided into three "boroughs". Finalborgo, the third borough and located further inland, consists of an walled medieval town built at the joncion of two streams: Aquila and Pora. Caves attesting the presence of human settlements in the area early as the Neolithic age have been found. The first document citing the town is from 967, when it was included in the Marca Aleramica created by Emperor Otto I. In 1496 Alfonso I Del Carretto obtained the investiture of the whole marquisate by Emperor Maximilian I, later confirmed by Charles V. The town passed under the Spanish rule in 1602. The Marquisate was acquired by the Republic of Genoa being confirmed in the possession by the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748. The town became part of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1861. At that time the Finale area was divided in small Comuni: Finalborgo, Finalmarina, Finalpia, Gorra, Perti, Calvisio, Varigotti. Between 1877, a time of administrative reforms, only the three Finales survived after swallowing their smaller neighbors amidst recriminations. Church was bent on creating wider Comuni, to eventually unify these townships in the Comune of Finale Ligure in 1927.Finale Ligure – A frescoed gate in Finale Ligure.
22. Province of Savona – The province of Savona is a province in the Liguria region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Savona, which has a population of 61,529 inhabitants. The province has a total population of 280,707. Savona was first settled by the Sabazi, who supported the Carthaginians in the Punic Wars. This support of the Carthaginian Empire led to Savona being conquered by the Roman Empire. During the Middle Ages, Savona fought against Genoa. Following this, ironworks were founded in the port revived. The province of Savona is one of four provinces in the region of Liguria which forms a coastal strip in the northwest of Italy. The region of Piedmont lies inland, with the Province of Cuneo to the north. The provincial capital is the city of Savona. Inland is the chain formed by the Maritime Alps and the Apennines. Official websiteProvince of Savona – Map highlighting the location of the province of Savona in Italy
23. Liguria – Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa. The region is popular with tourists for its towns and cuisine. Liguria is bordered by France to the east. It lies on the Ligurian Sea. The narrow strip of land is bordered by the sea, the Apennines mountains. Some mountains rise above 2,000 m; the watershed line runs at an average altitude of about 1,000 m. The highest point of the region is the summit of Monte Saccarello. The arched extension goes from Ventimiglia to La Spezia. Of this, 891.95 square kilometres are hills. Liguria's natural reserves cover 60,000 hectares of land. They are made up of one national reserve, six large parks, three nature reserves. The continental shelf is so steep it descends almost immediately to considerable marine depths along its 350-km coastline. Except for the Portovenere and Portofino promontories, it is generally not very jagged, is often high. The ring of hills lying immediately beyond the coast together with the sea account for a mild year-round. Rainfall can be abundant at times, as mountains close to the coast create an orographic effect.Liguria – A view of Cinque Terre.
24. Stazzema – During World War II, the village of Sant'Anna di Stazzema was the site of a massacre of civil population by German SS soldiers. A total of 560 people were killed, among 100 children, one of them only 20 days old. The city received the Gold Medal after the war. Stazzema borders the following municipalities: Vergemoli. Despite municipal name, the hall is not located in Stazzema, but in the nearby hamlet of Pontestazzemese. Media related to Stazzema at Wikimedia Commons Stazzema official website Sant'Anna di Stazzema unofficial websiteStazzema – Panorama of Stazzema
25. Province of Lucca – The Province of Lucca is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Lucca. It has a total population of about 400,000. There are 35 comuni in the province. To the north it abuts the region of Emilia-Romagna. Access to the Tyrrhenian Sea is through municipalities such as Torre del Lago, Forte dei Marmi. It is divided into four areas; Piana di Lucca, Versilia, Garfagnana. There are coastal dunes in the Migliarino-San Rossore-Massaciuccoli Natural Park. The principal resorts of the province are located at Viareggio, Lido di Camaiore, Forte dei Marmi. Garfagnana is known for olive trees. The lake was known as the Fossis Papirianis, a name used in the Tabula Peutingeriana. The composer Giacomo Puccini frequently hunted around the lake; today the Puccini Festival is held there annually in celebration. It was restored again in the 14th century, when columns of the upper arches were added. Paolo Guinigi was a ruler of the town a little later in the 15th century. 44.25 metres high, it was built with sandstone and brick from the Monti Pisani.Province of Lucca – Laghetti di Compione in Appennino Tosco-Emiliano National Park
26. Tuscany – Tuscany is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence. Tuscany is known on high culture. Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Brunello di Montalcino. Having cultural identity, it is sometimes considered "a nation within a nation". Additionally, the Chianti Versilia and Val d'Orcia are also internationally renowned and particularly popular spots among travellers. Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence was the world's 89th most visited city, with over million arrivals. The comune in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca' Raffaello within Emilia-Romagna. Tuscany has a western coastline on the Tyrrhenian Sea, containing the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany has an area of approximately 22,993 square kilometres. Crossed by major mountain chains, with few plains, the region has a relief, dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds of the region's total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres, mountains, 5,770 square kilometres. Plains occupy 8.4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres —mostly around the valley of the River Arno. Many of Tuscany's largest cities lie on the banks including the capital Florence, Empoli and Pisa.Tuscany – Hilly landscape in Val d'Orcia
27. GrignoGrigno – Grigno
28. Trentino – The Trentino or autonomous province of Trento is an autonomous province of Italy, in the country's far north. The province is divided into 178 comuni. Its capital is the city of Trento, historically known as Trent. The province covers an area of more than 6,000 km2, with a total population of about 500,000. Trentino is renowned for its mountains, such as the Dolomites, which are part of the Alps. The province is generally known as Trentino. The name derives from the capital city of the province, also known historically as Trent in English. Originally, the term was used by the local population only to refer to its immediate surroundings. Since the new 1972 autonomous status, the administrative name of the province is Autonomous Province of Trento. The historical name Südtirol was assigned to the province of Bolzano. The history of Trentino begins in the mid-Stone Age. In the early Middle Ages, this area was included within the March of Verona. In 1027, the Bishopric of Trent was established by Emperor Conrad II. It was roughly corresponding to the present-day Trentino, ruled by the Prince-Bishops of Trent. It was an articulation of Catholic doctrine in response to the Protestant Reformation, specified doctrine on salvation, the Biblical canon.Trentino – Buonconsiglio Castle in Trent was the seat of the prince-bishops from the 13th century to 1803.
29. Blue Grotto (Capri) – The Blue Grotto is a sea cave on the coast of the island of Capri, southern Italy. Sunlight, passing through an underwater cavity and shining through the seawater, creates a blue reflection that illuminates the cavern. The cave extends some 50 metres into the cliff at the surface, is about 150 metres deep, with a sandy bottom. The cave is 60 metres long and 25 metres wide. The cave mouth is two metres wide and roughly one metre high. For this reason, entrance into the grotto can only be achieved when tides are low and the sea is calm. Without calm seas and low tides, the grotto becomes inaccessible, as the 1-metre entrance is impossible to pass. To enter the grotto, visitors must lie flat on the bottom of a small four-person rowboat. The oarsman then uses a metal chain attached to the cave walls to guide the boat inside the grotto. Swimming in the grotto is forbidden, both for safety reasons and to preserve water clarity. The Blue Grotto is one of several sea caves, worldwide, flooded with a brilliant blue or emerald light. The quality and nature of the colour in each cave is determined by the particular lighting conditions in that particular cave. In the case of the Blue Grotto, the light comes from two sources. One is a small hole in the cave wall, precisely at the waterline, a meter and half in diameter. This hole is barely large enough to admit a tiny rowboat, is used as the entranceway.Blue Grotto (Capri) – Entrance to the Blue Grotto
30. Anacapri – Anacapri is a comune on the island of Capri, in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Italy. The Ancient Greek prefix ana- means "up" or "above", signifying that Anacapri is located at a higher elevation on the island than Capri. Administratively, it has a separate status from the city of Capri. The most significant site in the village is the Villa San Michele. French composer Claude Debussy was a regular visitor to Anacapri. He even named one of his preludes from the first book, No. 5 "Les collines d'Anacapri", to the community. There is a bus service, via numerous hairpin bends, to Anacapri. One of the tourist attractions in Anacapri is the chairlift to 589-m Monte Solaro for picturesque views of the south-facing coast. Punta Carena Lighthouse is located 3 km from the main town.Anacapri – View from Villa San Michele towards Marina Grande
31. Province of Naples – The Province of Naples was a province in the Campania region of southern Italy; since January 2015 has been replaced by the Metropolitan City of Naples. The province of Naples is the most densely populated in Italy. At the 2013 census were all located in the province, as were 10 of the top 15. It has a total population of about 3.05 million. Largest communities in the Napoli metropolitan area): The area is particularly fruitful for tourism, both national and international. Together they are also known as the Campanian Archipelago. The Sorrentine Peninsula has long being a popular destination for tourism, it is well known for its luxurious sea cliffs. It is rich with villas, castles, churches, in Vico Equense ancient farmhouses. The most popular sport in the province is football. This area was one of the first in Southern Italy to start playing sports, when English sailors brought them in during the early 1900s. Official websiteProvince of Naples – Satellite view of the provincial area.
32. Campania – Campania is a region in Southern Italy. Campania was part of Magna Græcia. During the Roman era, the area maintained a Greco-Roman culture. The city of Campania is Naples. Campania is rich in culture, especially in regard such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Paestum and Velia. Itself is derived from Latin, as the Romans knew the region as Campania felix, which translates into English as "fertile countryside". The natural sights of Campania make it highly important in the tourism industry, especially along the Amalfi Coast, Mount Vesuvius and the island of Capri. The Samnites, moved down from central Italy into Campania. The Second Samnite War ended with the Romans controlling southern additional regions further to the south. Campania was a full-fledged part of the Roman Republic by the end of the 4th BC, valued for its pastures and rich countryside. Customs made it a centre of Hellenistic civilization, creating the first traces of Greco-Roman culture. During the Pyrrhic War the battle took place at Maleventum in which the Romans, led by consul Curius Dentatus, were victorious. They renamed the Beneventum, which grew in stature until it was second only to Capua in southern Italy. During the Second Punic War in 216 BC, Capua, in a bid for equality with Rome, allied with Carthage. The rebellious Capuans were isolated from the rest of Campania, which remained allies of Rome.Campania – Temple of Hera, Paestum, built 550 BC
33. Borgio Verezzi Caves – The Borgio Verezzi Caves, also named Valdemino, are a karst cave system located in the municipality of Borgio Verezzi, in the province of Savona, Liguria. They are a show cave. Located in the outskirts of seat of the municipality, the cavese were discovered in 1933. The touristic route, opened in 1970, is 800m long and counts some little lakes, due to the presence of a little river named Rio Battorezza. The Valdemino are touristically defined as "the most colorful show caves of Italy", due to the presence of various minerals. Main colors are white, related shades. Some prehistoric bone remains, dated between 500,000 and 750,000 years ago, have been found in various hollows.Borgio Verezzi Caves – Interior view
34. Borgio Verezzi – As of 31 it had an area of 2.9 square kilometres. The municipality of Borgio Verezzi is composed by the frazioni Borgio and Verezzi. Borgio's old downtown stands atop a low hill, while the modern expansions cover the coastal plain and the foothills of the Caprazoppa plateau. Verezzi is divided at some 200 metres above sea level. The main borough during summer hosts a festival of national relevance. Borgio Verezzi borders the following municipalities: Tovo San Giacomo. Borgio Verezzi Caves Borgio Verezzi official website Borgio Verezzi CavesBorgio Verezzi – View of Borgio and Pietra Ligure
35. DorgaliDorgali – Dorgali seen from Monte Tului.
36. Province of Nuoro – The Province of Nuoro is a province in the autonomous island region of Sardinia, Italy. Its capital is the city of Nuoro. It has an area of 3,934 square kilometres, a total population of 161,444. The province is divided into 52 comuni, the largest of which are Dorgali. The other comuni are generally not so large, even if Oliena and Orosei can be considered well as populated towns. The province was established in 1927. In 2005, the territory of the Province of Nuoro has been substantially reduced as a consequence of the establishment in the island of four new provinces. The province hosts most beautiful natural landscapes in the world. The Province of Nuoro is one of Europe's populated areas. However, it is known for its high concentration of supercentenarians. From 5 March 2001 to 3 Antonio Todde, from Tiana, was the oldest man in the world. Official websiteProvince of Nuoro – Map highlighting the location of the province of Nuoro in Italy
37. Sardinia – Sardinia is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and an autonomous region of Italy. It is located in the Western Mediterranean, south of Corsica. Its capital and largest city is Cagliari. It is divided into a metropolitan city. The other minority languages spoken by the Sardinians enjoy "equal dignity" with Italian under regional law. The Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun * srd -, later romanised as sardus. It makes its first appearance on the Nora stone, where the Šrdn testifies to the name's existence when the Phoenician merchants first arrived. There has also been speculation that identifies the ancient Nuragic Sards with one of the Sea Peoples. Sardinia was called Ichnusa, Sandàlion, Sardinia and Sardó by the ancient Greeks. Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 24,100 square kilometres. It is situated between 38 ° 51' and 41 ° 18' latitude north and' 9 ° 50' east longitude. The nearest land masses are the island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Tunisia, Provence. The Strait of Bonifacio separates Sardinia from the French island of Corsica. Unlike Sicily and mainland Italy, is not earthquake-prone. Its rocks date from the Palaeozoic Era.Sardinia – Cala Goloritzé, Baunei
39. Castelcivita – Castelcivita is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy. In 2010 its population was 1,902. Neighboring municipalities are Albanella, Altavilla Silentina, Aquara, Controne, Ottati, Postiglione, Roccadaspide and Sicignano degli Alburni. The municipalities counts the hamlets of Cosentini, Pantano-Serracchio and Serra. Castelcivita is home to the Castelcivita Caves, located 1,5 km in the valley, by the river Calore. Cilento Cilentan dialect Municipal website Official site of the cavesCastelcivita – Panoramic view
40. Province of Salerno – The Province of Salerno is a province in the Campania region of Italy. The province has a total population of about 1.1 million. There are the one with the largest area being Eboli. See Comuni of the Province of Salerno. This area is rich in flora and fauna. The building has evolved over centuries; the earliest parts were constructed in the 14th century. A later 17th-century cloister has loggias supported by rusticated columns. These features add to the baroque character of the building. The house has been adapted for the Museo Archeologico della Lucania Occidentale, which has many ancient artifacts dating from Roman times. The Monti Picentini area is home to the regional park, home to several natural preserves. Official websiteProvince of Salerno – Palazzo Sant'Agostino, home to the provincial seat.
42. Province of Bari – The Province of Bari was a province in the Apulia region of Italy. Its capital was the city of Bari. It has a total population of 1,594,109. On January 2015 it was replaced by the Metropolitan City of Bari. The arable land in the former province of Bari is exploited with the cultivation of olive and grapes but also cherries, almonds. From that agricultural activity is derived olive oil, table grapes. Corato, Coratina and Giovinazzo are along notable producing areas. Also important is the production of cherries; the Apulian red is especially prevalent in the countryside of Turi and Putignano.Province of Bari – Bari Harbour
43. Apulia – Its southernmost portion, known as the Salento peninsula, forms a "stiletto" on the "boot" of Italy. Its population is about 4 million. It is bordered by the other Italian regions of Molise to the southwest. Across the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, it faces Montenegro, The Apulia region extends as far north as Monte Gargano. Its city is Bari. Puglia's coastline is longer than any other Italian region. In the north, the Gargano promontory extends out into the Adriatic, while in the south, the dry Salento peninsula forms the ` heel' of Italy's boot. It is home to the Alta Murgia and Gargano National Parks. See also: History of Apulia Apulia is one of the richest archaeological regions in Italy. It was first colonized by Mycenaean Greeks. A number of castles were built in the area including Castel del Monte, sometimes called the "Crown of Apulia". As a result of the French -- Spanish war of 1501 -- 1504, Naples again came from 1504 to 1714. In 1861 the region became part of the Kingdom of Italy, with the new city at Turin. In the words of one historian, Turin was "so away that Otranto is today closer to seventeen foreign capitals than it is to Turin". The region's contribution to Italy's gross value added was around 4.6% in 2000, while its population was 7% of the total.Apulia – Marina di Marittima, Salento
44. Grotta del Cavallone – It is open during the warmer months; an admission fee is charged. The cave is accessed via car. The cave is nearly the same height with numerous speleothems including stalagmites, flowstone, rimstone pools. It has electric lighting with iron bridges. Gabriele D'Annunzio employed the cave in the first act of his tragedy "La figlia di Iorio".Grotta del Cavallone – Stalactites in Cavallone Cave
45. Lama dei PeligniLama dei Peligni – Lama dei Peligni
46. Province of Chieti – The province of Chieti is a province in the Abruzzo region of Italy. Its provincial capital is the city Chieti, which has a population of 53,163 inhabitants. The provincial president is Mario Pupillo. Chieti's cathedral was reconstructed during the 13th century. The province contains the Museo Nazionale di Antichità, which contains items from the area prior to Roman rule. It was first settled by the Osci people near the Pescara River. In around 1000 BCE it was conquered by Marsi and Marrucini people. The city was also lived by the Greeks, who named it Teate. Chieti was made the capital of Abruzzo Citra by the House of Bourbon. The province of Chieti is one of four provinces in the region of Abruzzo on the eastern coast of Italy. It is bounded to the northeast by the Adriatic Sea. The Province of Pescara lies to the northwest. There has been a movement by farmers away from the area. The outflow has worked by the families who own them. Re-built by bishop Attone I in 1069.Province of Chieti – Map highlighting the location of the province of Chieti in Italy
47. Abruzzo – Abruzzo is a region of Italy in Southern Italy, with an area of 10,763 square km and a population of 1.3 million. Its western border lies 80 km east of Rome. The region is divided into the four provinces of L'Aquila, Teramo, Pescara, Chieti. Abruzzo borders the region of Marche to the north, the Adriatic Sea to the east. Abruzzo is considered culturally, linguistically, historically a region of Southern Italy, although geographically it may also be considered central. The Italian Statistical Authority deems it to be part of Southern Italy, partially because of Abruzzo's historic association with the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Abruzzo is also home to Calderone, Europe's southernmost glacier. Visiting Italian journalist Primo Levi said that "forte e gentile" best describes the beauty of the region and the character of its people. "Forte e gentile" has since become the motto of the region and its inhabitants. Abruzzo is divided into four administrative provinces: Humans have inhabited Abruzzo since Neolithic times. A skeleton from Lama dei Peligni in the province of Chieti has been radiometrically dated to 6,540 bp. Until 1963 it was part of the Abruzzi region with Molise. Abruzzo Citeriore is present day Chieti province. Abruzzo Ulteriore I comprised the Teramo and Pescara provinces; Abruzzo Ulteriore II is now the Province of L'Aquila. In this province is found the city of Corfinio, the chief city of the Paeligni, 7 m. N. of Sulmona in the valley of the Aternus.Abruzzo – The church of Santa Maria di Collemaggio in L'Aquila, as it was before the devastating earthquake of 6 April 2009.
48. Ear of Dionysius – The Ear of Dionysius is a limestone cave carved out of the Temenites hill in the city of Syracuse, on the island of Sicily in Italy. Its name comes to the human ear. The Ear of Dionysius was most likely formed out of an old quarry. It extends 65 metres back into the cliff. Horizontally, it bends in an approximate "S" shape, vertically it is tapered at the top like a teardrop. Because of its shape the Ear has extremely good acoustics, making even a sound resonate throughout the cave. This cave was dug as a water storage for Syracuse. A narrow tunnel was dug first. This tunnel was widened by sideways afterwards, giving the cave its unusual shape. The narrow tunnel is still visible on the top of this artificial cave. The cave became unusable for water storage afterwards. The name of the cave was coined by the painter Caravaggio. It refers to the tyrant Dionysius I of Syracuse. Another more gruesome legend claims that Dionysius carved the cave in its shape so that it would amplify the screams of prisoners being tortured in it. Unfortunately, the sound focusing effect can longer be heard because access to the focal point is no longer possible.Ear of Dionysius – Orecchio di Dionisio Ear of Dionysius
49. Syracuse, Sicily – Syracuse is a historic city in Sicily, the capital of the province of Syracuse. The city is notable for its rich Greek history, culture, amphitheatres, as the birthplace of the preeminent mathematician and engineer Archimedes. This 2,700-year-old city played a key role in ancient times, when it was one of the major powers of the Mediterranean world. Syracuse is located beside the Ionian Sea. The city became a very powerful city-state. Syracuse was exerted influence over the entirety of Magna Graecia, of which it was the most important city. Described as "the greatest Greek city and the most beautiful of them all", it equaled Athens in size during the fifth century BC. It later became part of the Roman Republic and Byzantine Empire. After this Palermo overtook it as the capital of the Kingdom of Sicily. Eventually the kingdom would be united with the Kingdom of Naples to form the Two Sicilies until the Italian unification of 1860. In the modern day, the city is listed by UNESCO along with the Necropolis of Pantalica. In the city itself has a population of around 125,000 people. The inhabitants are known as Siracusans. Syracuse is mentioned at 28:12 as Paul stayed there. The saint of the city is Saint Lucy; she was born in Syracuse and her feast day, Saint Lucy's Day, is celebrated on 13 December.Syracuse, Sicily – Ortygia island, where Syracuse was founded in ancient Greek times. Mount Etna is visible in the distance.
50. Province of Syracuse – The Province of Syracuse is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. Its capital is the city of a town, established by Greek colonists arriving from Corinth in the eighth B.C.. It has an area of 2,109 square kilometres and a total population of 404,847. Syracuse has 8% of the Sicilian population and 8.2% of Sicily's area. The Province of Syracuse lies in the southeastern Sicily, in southwestern Italy. It occupies an area of 2,109 square kilometres. The capital of Syracuse is an important hub of Sicily. The Park of Neapolis on the island of Ortygia is connected by three bridges to the mainland. The island contains the Maniace Castle, dated to the Swabian period and the Doric Temple of Athena, renovated by the Normans. There are 21 comuni in the province. The most populated as of 2005 were: Official Province website Pictures, history, tourism, gastronomy, books, local products, local surnames, transportation in the province of SyracuseProvince of Syracuse – Syracuse, Sicily, Italy
51. Frasassi Caves – The Frasassi Caves are a remarkable karst cave system in the municipality of Genga, Italy, in the province of Ancona, Marche. They are among the most famous show caves in Italy. The very history of discovery Frasassi caves in www.frasassigsm.it Rich in water, the cave system is particularly well endowed with stalactites and stalagmites. The cave has been used to conduct experiments in chronobiology. Among the cavers that have spent considerable amount of time inside the cave is the Italian sociologist Maurizio Montalbini, who died in 2009.Frasassi Caves – View of the caves
52. Genga, Italy – The Roman Bridge in the same hamlet, about 8 kilometres southeast of town. Museum of the church of San Clemente. It houses a 15th-century banner by Antonio da Fabriano. Spaelaeo-Palaeontologic Museum, including a famous fossil of an Ichthyosaur found in 1976. The Frasassi Caves, about 5 kilometres south-southeast, are among the most visited natural curiosities in central Italy. Media related to Genga at Wikimedia CommonsGenga, Italy – San Vittore Abbey.
53. Province of Ancona – The province of Ancona is a province in the Marche region of central Italy. The province borders the Adriatic Sea. The city of Ancona is also the capital of Marche. To the north, the province is the Apennine Mountains to the west. Due to its coastal location, it is strategically important. The president of the province is Liana Serrani. Its coastline of sandy beaches has not been greatly affected by tourism. Annually, feasts occur in the province during the harvesting period. It contains the Conero Regional Park, which contain dense forests where black truffles are found. These are sold in the neighbouring province of Pesaro e Urbino. Comunes of the Province of Ancona Official websiteProvince of Ancona – Map of the province of Ancona
54. Marche – Marche, or The Marches /ˈmɑːrtʃᵻz/, is one of the twenty regions of Italy. Except for the often very narrow coastal strip, the land is hilly. A railway from Bologna to Brindisi, built in the 19th century, runs along the coast of the entire territory. The mountainous nature of the region, even today, allows relatively little travel north and south, except by twisting roads over the passes. With the sole exception of Monte Vettore, 2,476 metres high, the mountains do not exceed 2,400 metres. The parallel mountain chains contain the best known being those of the Furlo, the Rossa and the Frasassi. Climate is temperate. Inland, in the mountainous areas, is often snowy winters; by the sea is more mediterranean. Precipitation varies from 1000-1500 mm. per year inland and 600-800 mm. per year on the Adriatic coast. Marche was known as the Picenum territory. In the fourth BC the northern area was occupied by the Senones, a tribe of Gauls. Ascoli was a seat of Italic resistance during the Social War. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was invaded by the Goths. After the Gothic War, it was part of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna. After the fall of the Exarchate it was conquered by Charlemagne in the late eighth century.Marche – View of Marche countryside
55. Randazzo – Randazzo is a town and comune of Sicily, Italy, in the province of Catania. It is situated at the northern foot of Mount Etna, 70 kilometres northwest by rail. It is one of the points from which the ascent may be made. In the 13th century the town had its own army, which fought against the rebels. In 1210 King Frederick II of his young wife Constance of Aragon sheltered at Randazzo to escape the terrible plague which raged in Palermo. Randazzo became one of the most densely populated towns after Palermo and Messina. During the Black Death of 1575–80 the population of Randazzo declined. Randazzo almost turned into a ghost town. During World War II, Randazzo was bombed by the Allies, damaging 76 percent of its buildings. Church of Santa Maria. It has a façade completely built of black lava stone, 15th-century side portals in the Catalan-Gothic style. The huge interior preserves statues by the Gagini school and six paintings by Giuseppe Velasquez. Church of San Martino. It has a 14th-century tower, by some acclaimed as the most beautiful in Italy. The largest in the town, originally established in the 14th century but rebuilt in 1585.Randazzo
56. Province of Catania – The Province of Catania is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. Its capital is the city of Catania. It has a total population of about 1.1 million. There are 58 comunes in the province, see Comunes of the Province of Catania. Europe's largest active volcano is located in the province. There are major roads that cross the territory of the province. There are also the A18 Messina-Catania and A19 Catania-Palermo motorways that pass through the province. Its population is 305,717 people. The new province would include all of the municipalities south of the Simeto River well as some of the municipalities of Ragusa and Caltanisetta. Italy portal Metropolitan City of Catania Official website City of Catania Official website Tourism PortalProvince of Catania – Mount Etna is located in the Province of Catania
57. Grotta Gigante – This record was broken in 2010 when La Verna cave in the south west of France was opened to tourists. The cave contains many of exceptional beauty. The enormous hall is 107 m high, 65 m large. The constant temperatures throughout the year have led to the placement of two geodetic pendula and other scientific instruments. The cave was first explored by Antonio Federico Lindner in 1840. In 1897, it was fully mapped by Andrea Perko, inaugurated in 1908. After World War I, ownership went to the Julian Alpine Society. Tourism really began in 1957, when electricity was installed, unveiling new perspectives and details. Two wide parking lots are available on the outside. Visits are scheduled throughout the day with expert guides. A guided walk through the cave takes about an hour. Media related to Grotta Gigante at Wikimedia Commons Official Grotta Gigante websiteGrotta Gigante – Inside the cave looking towards the tourist entrance
58. Sgonico – As of 31 it had a population of 2,130 and an area of 31.3 square kilometres. According to the 1971 census, 81.6% of the population are Slovenes. Sgonico borders these municipalities: Trieste. The name of the settlement was first attested as Swonich. The name is of Slovene origin, derived from the Slovene common zvonik, "belfry". The phonological zvonik to zgonik is characteristic of the local Slovene dialect; cf. also dialect zgon, "bell", from zvon. Small realities are mainly working in the crafts and freight forwarders area close to Stazione di Prosecco and Industrial Zone. Tbd Education tbd Music tbd Sports tbd Grotta Gigante Giardino Botanico Carsiana Gabrovizza / Gabrovec tbd tbd Kras Gorizia and Gradisca Julian March Slovene LandsSgonico – Parish church in Sgonico
59. Province of Trieste – The Province of Trieste is a province in the autonomous Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Trieste. It has a total population of 236,520. It has a coastal length of 48.1 kilometres. There are 6 communes in the province. With the advent of the Habsburgs the territory was divided between the lords of Muggia. During the reign of Maria Theresa of Austria and, subsequently, Joseph II, the maritime trades were increased with institution of the free port. In 1809, the area was ceded to France in that year. Muggia became part of Istria. World War I left the territory of the province almost untouched, although fierce battles were fought just on its north-westernmost edges. The whole area was occupied in the aftermath of Austria's defeat in World War I. It was officially annexed with the treaty of Rapallo of 1920, which also assigned all of the former Austrian Littoral to Italy. The Province of Trieste was first established in 1920. It comprised the current territory of the province, well as significant portions of the Kras plateau and the region of Inner Carniola in present-day Slovenia. After the end of World War II, the Free Territory of Trieste was established as a free state on 15 September 1947.Province of Trieste – Map highlighting the location of the province of Trieste in Italy
60. Friuli-Venezia Giulia – Friuli-Venezia Giulia is one of the 20 regions of Italy, one of five autonomous regions with special statute. The capital is Trieste. It has an area of about 1.2 million inhabitants. Friuli Venezia Giulia is Italy's most North-Eastern region. It is the fifth smallest region of the country. It borders Austria to Slovenia to the east. To the west its internal border is with the Veneto region. The region spans a wide variety of climates and landscapes to Alpine continental in the north. Morphologically the region can be subdivided into four main areas. Its landscapes are characterised by small rivers descending from the mountains. The area is also known for its tourist destinations, especially during the season. The hilly area, situated to the south of the mountains and along the central section of the border with Slovenia. The main product of agriculture in this area is wine, whose quality, especially the white, is known worldwide. The easternmost part of the hilly area is also known as Slavia Friulana, as it is mostly inhabited by ethnic Slovenes. The central plains are characterised by poor, permeable soil.Friuli-Venezia Giulia – A view of the Carnia highlands.
61. Monsummano Terme – Monsummano Terme is an comune located in the Province of Pistoia, Tuscany, central Italy. It is a popular resort. It was the birthplace of French actor Yves Montand and Italian poet Giuseppe Giusti. Given the proximity to the Padule, the area is a place for birdwatchers. The rivers are very short, of which the Candalla stream is the most prominent, flowing through the city center. Going back to the Roman archeological sites, on the slopes of Monte Albano. The castle was at the center of battles between Florence and Lucca, with its final conquest in 1331. The flat area was swampy, which became a human settlement with the construction of several houses. During the 19th century Monsummano Terme was home of writer and politician Ferdinando Martini and of the patriotic poet Giuseppe Giusti. His birthplace and a memorial at the center of the square have both become dedicated to him. The monument also symbolizes his distaste for the clergy, showing the poet facing way from the church. Other sights include: The medieval castle and fortifications. The elliptical shape have led to suppose a Lombard origin, but the castle is mentioned for the first time in the 11th century. It was recaptured after the battle of Montecatini. Florence recaptured it in 1331.Monsummano Terme – Piazza Giusti.
62. Province of Pistoia – The province of Pistoia is a province in the Tuscany region of central Italy. The province is landlocked. It has a total population of 291,788 inhabitants. There are 22 communes in the province. The population of the province has recently been increasing, moving from 268,437 in 2011 in 2015. The city of Pistoia is roughly 40 kilometres away from both Lucca and Florence. Official websiteProvince of Pistoia – Map highlighting the location of the province of Pistoia in Italy
63. Grotta di Ispinigoli – The Grotta di Ispinigoli is a karstic cave in the Supramonte massif, near Dorgali, Sardinia, Italy. Inside the cave were found traces of human bones and jewelry dating back the Age, the site was used by the Nuragic Peoples. At the bottom of this abyss cave the only known specimen of the extinct giant otter Megalenhydris was found. This animal is one of four species of extinct endemic otters on the island. Bue Marino Grotto Tiscali Cave List of caves List of caves in Italy Page about the grottoesGrotta di Ispinigoli – View of the cave
64. SantadiSantadi – Panorama of Santadi
65. Province of Carbonia-Iglesias – The province of Carbonia-Iglesias is a province in the autonomous region of Sardinia, Italy. It includes the historical area of Sulcis-Iglesiente. It is bordered by the provinces of Cagliari and Medio Campidano. The provincial president is Salvatore Cherchi. It has two provincial capitals, Carbonia and Iglesias, as of 2015 respectively. Colonies in the province were established by the Phoenicians and Carthaginians in the 8th centuries BC. It became functional in 2005. On 6 the regional referendums of Sardinia took place regarding the abolition of certain provinces and a variety of other matters. The suggestion of abolishing certain provinces in Sardinia was approved by the Regional Council of Sardinia on 24 May 2012. It has not been abolished as a regional law regarding it has not yet been created. Provincia di Carbonia-Iglesias Media related to Province of Carbonia-Iglesias at Wikimedia CommonsProvince of Carbonia-Iglesias – Map highlighting the location of the province of Carbonia-Iglesias in Italy
66. Alcara li Fusi – As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 2,339 and an area of 62.3 square kilometres. Alcara li Fusi borders the following municipalities: Cesarò, Longi, Militello Rosmarino, San Marco d'Alunzio. The village is 398 metres above level on the slopes of the Nebrodi Mountains. The central habitation is found on the bank below magnificent rocky outcrops of calcareous origin. Following this, a part of the inhabitants transferred within the valley. The same version of the story is given, moving a little the position of the mythical cities, even within the Nebrodi Mountain region. To this conclusion could bring for example the remains of human settlement present until a few years, even at Crasto. The settlement probably took the Arab name of Akaret from the Saracens. It should be better studied. It is therefore probabile that to give an urban structure to a settlement perhaps having had a spread out character, was the Norman period. However, it does not seem possible, at the moment, to determine the structure of the wals of the "Motta" if not for small tracts. In 1359 under the reign of Frederick IV of Aragon, its property were assigned to Vinciguerra d'Aragona. The community would have disappeared from Sicily not converted. There are attested in the eighteen hundreds different variants such as Alcara delle Fusa". On May 1860, at Alcara there was a peasant rivolt which anticipated a similar and more famous one at Bronte.Alcara li Fusi – Alcara li Fusi
67. Province of Messina – Messina was a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. Its capital was the city of Messina. It was replaced by the Metropolitan City of Messina. It had an area of 3,247 square kilometres, which amounts to 12.6 percent of a total population of more 650,000. There are 108 comuni in the province, see Comuni of the Province of Messina. The province included all part of the comune of Lipari. The territory is largely mountainous, at the mouths of the various rivers. Much of the population is concentrated in the coastal area, after the hill towns have been largely abandoned from the 19th century. Rivers of the province include the Pollina, which forms the border with the province of Palermo to the west. Sicily TravelNet "Messina. I. A province of Sicily". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.Province of Messina – Giardini Naxos, a popular resort in the Province of Messina
68. Montecatini Terme – Montecatini Terme is an Italian district of 21,095 inhabitants within the province of Pistoia in Tuscany, Italy. It is the most important center in Valdinievole. The presence of humans in the area of Montecatini Terme is very old. In the early part of the 14th century, the borders of Valdinievole faced a new power: Florence. The leader of that revolt was Uguccione della Faggiuola, who in 1312 became imperial master of Pisa and Lucca. This directly threatened Florence which meant that war was inevitable given that this outcome would forge the future of the whole region of Tuscany. On 29 August under the walls of Montecatini, the decisive battle was played out. The Guelfi army were taken by the Ghibellines and by Uguccione della Faggiuola with thousands of casualties and prisoners. Castruccio Castracani of Antelminelli took his place. The latter was able to extend his power in Tuscany more and more. Montecatini was in the center of the dispute, which began in 1554. On June of that year, Montecatini was occupied by Siena. Montecatini was actually not opposed to this occupation, because Cornelio Bentivoglio declared himself as a liberator. The once impregnable fortress fell into poor repair caused by the centuries of battles and general lack of maintenance. So when their troops went on the offensive, Montecatini fell under the Medici who plundered mercilessly, even taking away doors and windows.Montecatini Terme – The medieval burg of Montecatini.
69. Neptune's Grotto – Neptune's Grotto is a stalactite cave near the town of Alghero on the island of Sardinia, Italy. The cave has since developed into a popular tourist attraction. The grotto gets its name from the Roman god of Neptune. Two other grottoes lie the Grotta di Ricami, only accessible from the sea. Only a few hundred metres are accessible to the public. Inside are a 120-metre-long saltwater lake, at sea level. The cave was once a habitat for the Mediterranean seal, which has become extinct in the area. The grotto is during the peak tourist season in August, can contain around 200 people at a time. Neptune's Grotto was the set of the Fishmen filmed in the summer of 1978. For approximately two months the Grotto was transformed into a gigantic set. The science movie starred Barbara Bach, was under the direction of Sergio Martino. Nereo Cave List of caves List of caves in Italy Article about the Neptune Cave Media related to Neptune's Grotto at Wikimedia CommonsNeptune's Grotto – Inside the cave
70. Alghero – Alghero, is a town of about 44,000 inhabitants in the Italian insular province of Sassari in northwestern Sardinia, next to the Mediterranean Sea. Part of its population descends from Catalan conquerors from the end of the Middle Ages, when Sardinia was part of the Crown of Aragon. That is why the Catalan language is co-official in the city, taking the name of alguerès dialect. The name Alghero comes from the medieval Latin Aleguerium, meaning stagnation of algae. Alghero is the fifth center in the island, coming after Cagliari and Sassari. It hosts the headquarters of the Università degli Studi di Sassari's Architecture and department. In 2012 it was the 10th most visited city by tourists in Italy. For ecclesiastical history, see Roman Catholic Diocese of Alghero-Bosa The area of today's Alghero has been settled since pre-historic times. The Ozieri culture was present here in the 4th millennium BC, while the Nuraghe civilization settled around 1,500 BC. Due to its strategic position on the Mediterranean Sea, Alghero had been developed by 1102, built by the Genoese Doria family. The Dorias ruled Alghero under the rule of Pisa between 1283 -- 84. Alghero's population later grew because of the arrival of Catalan colonists. In the 16th century Alghero received papal recognition as a bishopric and the status of King's City and developed economically. It is uncertain whether this was some prior settlement, perhaps linked to the events of the Saracen invasions. For two centuries remained in the orbit of the Maritime Republics, as in 1283 when the Pisans were able to control it for a year.Alghero – 16th century Catalan city walls
71. Province of Sassari – The Province of Sassari is a province in the autonomous island region of Sardinia in Italy. Its capital is the city of Sassari. As of 2014, the province had a population of 334,413 people. In between 1600 and 1500 BC, the Nuraghi civilization was at its peak in this area. During the Roman domination, the Logudoro region was the seat of several legions. The numerous Romanesque basilicas date from this period. In the 20th century the construction of railways brought more prosperity, but at the same time destroyed the large forest heritage of the region. The modern University of Sassari dates to around the same time that the province was created. Since 1878 the province has been administered from the Palazzo della Provincia in Sassari. It has a total population of 334,413. There are 66 municipalities in the province, the largest of which are Sassari, Alghero, Porto Torres, Sorso, Ozieri, Sennori. Pattada, is particularly known for its handmade knives. In this territory is one of the largest plains in Sardinia, Nurra. The province contains some including Castelsardo, Porto Torres, Alghero, the Riviera del Corallo, Stintino and others. Stintino is located on the peninsula of the same name, running to the Asinara Island, part of the Asinara National Park.Province of Sassari – The Palace of the Province of Sassari, Sassari
72. Nereo Cave – Nereo Cave is a huge underwater sea-cave situated on the north-west of Sardinia in the Coral riviera of Alghero, Italy. The site is under the high limestone cliffs of the famous Neptune's Grotto. The cave is considered the biggest marine cave in the Mediterranean Sea. The walls are covered with yellow leptosamnia. With the other cape of the Porto Conte Bay, the cave is part of a Marine reserve set up in 2003. Its fauna are typically Mediterranean including groupers, lobsters, congers and moray eels, thriving crustacean life. Cave diving List of caves List of caves in Italy Related site to Nereo Cave Wikimapia location Video on YouTubeNereo Cave – The "Belvedere" watching terrace, south upside entrance
73. Province of Foggia – The Province of Foggia is a province in the Apulia region of southern Italy. Its capital is the city of Foggia. A term that recalls the word tavolo, table, is so called because it is lowland and it is important for agriculture. It is also called "the granary of Italy" because of its important production of wheat. Allegedly its name comes from the ombra because of its thickness that prevents the light to enter in contrast with the typical flora. The coast of Gargano is rich in touristic facilities. In the north are two major salt lakes Varano. It is also important for the production of olives, both mountain and sea typical food products. It has a total population of 496,420. There are currently 64 comuni in the province, see Comuni of the Province of Foggia. The three comuni, along with their 2005 census populations, are Margherita di Savoia, Trinitapoli. The resulting loss would leave the remaining territory of the 2005 census. Main centers in the province are: Foggia, native city of opera composer Umberto Giordano. San Severo, the old capital and city of comics artist Andrea Pazienza. San Giovanni Rotondo, home of Padre Pio and place of the church devoted to him.Province of Foggia – Mattinata
74. PastenaPastena – Pastena within the Province of Frosinone
75. Province of Frosinone – The Province of Frosinone is a province in the Lazio region of Italy, with 91 comuni. Its capital is the city of Frosinone. It has an area of 3,244 square kilometres and a total population of 496,420. The Province was established by Royal Decree on 6 December 1926 with territories belonging to Campania. In historical times, the area, previously occupied by the Pelasgic civilization, was settled by Indo-European colonists. In the 7th BC the area of what is now the province entered the orbit of Rome, which made it the so-called Latium adiectum. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the northern part of the province belonged to the Papal States. In the Middle Ages, the abbey of Monte Cassino was always a politically renowned element of the area. Pontecorvo remained a Papal enclave from 1463. The creation with capitals in Cassino, Formia and Sora and comprising the former territories of the Kingdom of Naples, has been proposed. Official WebsiteProvince of Frosinone – Linguistic map of Ciociaria and Southern Lazio: Central Italian in pink and Southern Italian (Neapolitan dialects) in magenta.
76. Lazio – Lazio is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy, situated in the central peninsular section of the country. Its capital is Rome, largest city of Italy. The region is mainly hilly, with small mountainous areas in the most eastern and southern districts. The coast of Lazio is mainly composed of sandy beaches, punctuated by the headlands of Circeo and Gaeta. The Pontine Islands, which are part of Lazio, lie opposite the southern coast. To the north, lies the Maremma Laziale, a coastal plain interrupted at Civitavecchia by the Tolfa Mountains. The southern districts are characterized by the flatlands of a once swampy and malarial area, reclaimed over the centuries. The highest peak is Mount Gorzano on the border with Abruzzo. See also: History of Italy The Italian word Lazio descends from the Latin Latium. Although the demography of ancient Rome was multi-ethnic, including other Italics besides the Latini, the latter were the dominant constituent. In Roman mythology, the tribe of the Latini took their name from king Latinus. Much of Lazio is in fact rolling. The northern border of Lazio was the Tiber river, which divided it from Etruria. The emperor Augustus officially united almost all of present-day Italy into Italia, dividing it into eleven regions. However, the long wars against the Longobards weakened the region.Lazio – Panorama of the Aniene Valley.
77. Arco, Trentino – Arco is a comune in Trentino in northeast Italy. The town is faced by sheer limestone cliffs jutting up like a wall protecting its ancient hilltop castle. Medieval castle convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, built in 1475 -- 1492. It houses a wooden statue of the Virgin Mary dating to the 15th century Collegiata dell'Assunta, begun in 1613. The last King of Two Sicilies, was provisionally buried here after his death at Arco in 1894. Church of Sant'Apollinare, with 14th-century frescoes Palazzo Marchettii. It has a portal attributed to Giulio Romano. Popular tourist activities include windsurfing on nearby Lake Garda, rock climbing on the walls near the city. An international competition, is held on the town's outdoor artificial wall. Mountain biking is popular and international bikers flock to the town. Agriculture is also important, with orchards filling the valley opposite the castle. Agro-chemical plants line the river Sarca towards the lake.Arco, Trentino – Arco
78. Pertosa CavesPertosa Caves – Entrance to the caves
79. Pertosa – Pertosa is a village and comune of the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-west Italy. In 2010 its population was 714. The village is situated in the eastern side of the province of Salerno, close to Alburni mountains. Its only hamlet is the little village in which are located the show caves. At the census in 2001 the town had a population of a drop from the 897 at the previous census in 1991. Pertosa is a receptive place principally for its karst show cave system, the Pertosa Caves. The caves are located in the valley by the river Tanagro. Cilento Vallo di Diano Pertosa municipal website Official site of the cavesPertosa – Panorama
80. Domusnovas – Domusnovas borders the following municipalities: Fluminimaggiore, Gonnosfanadiga, Iglesias, Musei, Villacidro, Villamassargia. The town is known for the Grottoes of San Giovanni, located some 2 kilometres from the town. The area of Domusnovas was inhabited since prehistoric times, as attested by the presence of several nuraghe. During the Roman domination of the island it was a village across the Cagliari-Sulcis road, used to trade the ore extracted in the nearby Metalla. In 1324 it was occupied by the Aragonese Official websiteDomusnovas – Domusnovas
81. Grotta dello Smeraldo – The Grotta dello Smeraldo is a cave, partly inundated by the sea and located in Conca dei Marini, Italy, on the Amalfi Coast. It is one of several caves worldwide, flooded with a brilliant emerald light. The nature of the color in each cave is determined by the unique lighting conditions in that particular cave. The grotto, located at the Amalfi Coast, is partly filled with water. The area of the water measures roughly 45 x 32 metres, with a cavern roof about 24 metres above water level. Formation of cave was caused by bradyseism - tectonic upheaval of cliffs, where cliffs fractured and cave was formed along the fissures. Sea water had entered it, partly flooding the stalagmites in it. Unlike the Blue Grotto located a few kilometres to the west on Capri, the Grotta dello Smeraldo has no natural outlet above the waterline. The only opening to the outside world is just below the level. Refracted sunlight entering the cavern through the opening gives its characteristic emerald glow during daylight hours. The absence of a natural opening above the waterline meant that the grotto’s existence remained unknown for many years. It was discovered by a fisherman named Luigi Buoncore in 1932. The grotto is accessible from the main road along the Amalfi Coast. There is a small lot beside an elevator which takes visitors down to cave level, where they board boats that take them through the grotto. Amalfi Coast Fiordo di Furore List of caves in Italy Grotta dello Smeraldo at showcaves.com Emerald Cave's page on Conca dei Marini websiteGrotta dello Smeraldo – Cape Conca and the area of the entrance to the grotto
82. Conca dei Marini – Conca dei Marini is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy. It is situated to the coast and between Amalfi and Furore. It was conquered by the Romans in 272 BC. In the Middle Ages, it was a base of the Republic of Amalfi. In 1543 it was sacked by Turkish pirates. The port was also the seat of a tonnara until 1956.Conca dei Marini – The marina at Conca dei Marini
83. FluminimaggioreFluminimaggiore – Antas Temple
84. UlassaiUlassai – Ulassai
85. Province of Ogliastra – The province of Ogliastra is a province in eastern Sardinia, Italy. Ogliastra is the most mountainous province in Sardinia. With only some 57,642 inhabitants, it is also the least populous province of Italy. The president of the province is Bruno Pilia. It corresponds roughly to the medieval Giudicato of Agugliastra. The province of Ogliastra contains 23 comuni, see the list of communes of the Province of Ogliastra. The province has two capitals, Lanusei. On 6 the regional referendums of Sardinia took place regarding the abolition of certain provinces and a variety of other matters. The suggestion of abolishing certain provinces in Sardinia was approved by the Regional Council of Sardinia on 24 May 2012. After June 2013, the province was allowed to remain. It borders the province of Nuoro in the north. Ogliastra was founded in 2001 when the number of Sardinian provinces was doubled. It also contains large massif Gennargentu. Ogliastra takes its name from the olive trees in the province, known as the olivastri. It is situated on the Tyrrhenian Sea.Province of Ogliastra – Map highlighting the location of the province of Ogliastra in Italy
86. Oliena – Oliena is a commune in the province of Nuoro, Sardinia, Italy. Belonging to the Giudicato of Torres, Oliena was one of the curatorie of Posada. During the war between Aragona and Arborea, the commune was occupied by Eleonora D'Arborea's troops. The village, developed at the foot of a castle remembered in toponomy, belonged to Arborea until the fall of the Giudicato. Probably, some of them landed in Sardinia, giving birth to the people of Ilienses. At the beginning of 1300, Oliena was under the Pisan Rule in the curatoria of Posada and Galtellì. At that time, the centre might have been substantial, judging compared to the neighbouring villages. It owned a medieval castle, situated in the locality "Su Carmene". In 1325, the village of its territory were assigned to Berengario Carroz together, with the village of Calogonis. In the 17th century, the Jesuits inhabited Oliena giving impulse to different activities, beginning the construction of the present parish church. In fact, the cultivated lands were few. Salvatore Satta, a sardinian writer, wrote in his book Il Giorno del Giudizio: "... Oliena, as the papers say, but its real and poetic name is Ulìana, with the accent on the "i". The inhabited centre lies about 380 metres above level at the foot of a mountain that rises vertically with the well-known peaks Corrasi. The territory presents a botanic richness.Oliena – Oliena (in the foreground)
87. ToiranoToirano – Toirano
88. Province of Udine – The province of Udine is a province in the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia of Italy, bordering Austria and Slovenia. Its capital is the city of Udine, which has a population of 99,473 inhabitants. The provincial president is Pietro Fontanini. Not much information is known about Udine by the episcopal see the Patriarchate of Aquileia in 983. In 1350, Austria caused a number of factional problems for residents. Control over Udine was granted to Tristano Savorgnan, the leader of a family in the city. His family had mostly been were allied with Venice. The unification of Italy in 1866 prevented any Austrian rule. The province of Udine is the largest and most populous of the four provinces in the autonomous region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia in northeastern Italy. To the north is the international border with Austria and Slovenia. To the west lies the Province of Pordenone, subdivided from Udine in 1968. To the southwest lies the Province of Venice and to the east, the Province of Trieste. The south of the province has a coastline on the Adriatic Sea. The province is located in the lowlands of the Po-Venetian Valley, the Alpine foothills of Friuli. The provincial capital is the city of Udine.Province of Udine – Map highlighting the location of the province of Udine in Italy
89. Nimis – Nimis is a town and comune of 2,817 located in the Italian province of Udine, about near to the border with Slovenia. It is situated at the foot of Mount Bernadia, a sweet white wine, Ramandolo. The town is bordered by the comuni of Attimis, Lusevera, Povoletto, Reana del Rojale, Tarcento. In the remaining part of the municipality, the Friulian language is still widely spoken. Nimis was founded by its name deriving from the Latin word "Nemus". After the fall of the Western Roman Empire it housed a castrum, mentioned by Paul the Deacon in his Historia Langobardorum. In World War II, the town was burned in the area. Ramandolo Protection Consortium Mountain Community Photogalley Italianmade.com Article on Ramandolo wineNimis – Sedilis and Ramandolo
90. VergemoliVergemoli – Valley of Fornovolasco
91. Province of ComoProvince of Como – Map highlighting the location of the province of Como in Italy
92. Lombardy – Lombardy is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres. Lombardy's capital, is the second-largest city and the largest metropolitan area in Italy. Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz, related to German Barte. During the late Middle Ages, the term was used to identify the whole of Northern Italy. With a surface of 23,861 km2, Lombardy is the 4th largest region of Italy. It is bordered by the Italian regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/S üdtirol and Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont. Three natural zones can be fairly easily distinguished in the Lombardy region: mountains, hills and plains -- the latter being divided in Alta and Bassa. Inconsistent with the three distinctions above made is the small subregion of Oltrepò Pavese, formed beyond the Po River. The mighty Po river marks the southern border of the region for a length of about 210 km. In its progress it receives the waters of the Ticino, which joins the Po near Pavia. The other streams which contribute to the great river are, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the Mincio. All of glacial origin, lie in the northern highlands. From west to east these are Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake Idro, the largest in Italy. The Oltrepò Pavese, lies south of the Po, in the Apennines range. In the plains, intensively cultivated for centuries, little of the original environment remains.Lombardy – Mount Adamello
93. Cala Gonone – Cala Gonone is an Italian seaside town and a civil parish of the municipality of Dorgali, Province of Nuoro, in the region of Sardinia. In 2007 it had 1,279 inhabitants. The area around Cala Gonone was inhabited in the Nuragic Era. The remains of a Nuragic settlement can be seen at Nuraghe Mannu on the outskirts of the village, just to Dorgali. The modern village was founded by a colony of fishermen at the beginning of the 20th century. The town however remained largely isolated from the rest of Sardinia until the tunnel through the hills from Dorgali was opened in 1860. Reachable by the sea, is the show cave of Bue Marino. Due to the quality of its waters, Cala Gonone is a popular tourist venue. The beaches of the village are: the Spiaggia Centrale, S'Abba Durche, Cala Luna, Cartoe, Osalla, Cala Fuili, Sos Dorroles, S'Abba Meica, Cala Fuili. Cala Gonone travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website The Beaches of Cala GononeCala Gonone – Cala Gonone from the pier
94. Grotto – A grotto is a natural or artificial cave used by humans in both modern times, historically or prehistorically. Naturally occurring grottoes are often small caves near water that are usually liable to flood at high tide. Sometimes, artificial grottoes are used as garden features. The grotto at the villa of Tiberius in the Bay of Naples are examples of popular natural seashore grottoes. See karst topography, cavern. The word "grotto" comes from Italian grotta, Latin crypta. It is also related to the word "grotesque." The rooms had sunk underground over time. The Romans who discovered this historical monument found it very strange, a sentiment enhanced by the fact that it was uncovered from an'underworld' source. This grotesque. Grottoes were very popular in Roman culture. Spring-fed grottoes were a feature of Apollo's oracles at Delphi, Corinth, Clarus. The Hellenistic city of Rhodes was designed with artificial grottoes incorporated into the city, made to look natural. According to tradition, Praeneste's sacred spring had a native nymph, honored in a watery nymphaeum. The Roman emperor, filled his grotto with sculptures to create a sense of mythology, perhaps channeling Polyphemus' cave in the Odyssey.Grotto – A Marian grotto in Bischofferode (Germany)
95. Flickr – The Verge reported in March 2013 that Flickr had a total of more than 3.5 million new images uploaded daily. This number continues to grow steadily according to reporting sources. For mobile users, Flickr has mobile apps for iOS, Android, PlayStation Vita, operating systems, an optimised mobile website. Flickr was launched by Ludicorp, a Vancouver-based company founded by Stewart Butterfield and Caterina Fake. The service emerged from tools originally created for a web-based massively multiplayer online game. Ultimately Game Neverending was shelved; Butterfield later launched a similar online game, Glitch, which closed down in November 2012. Early versions of Flickr focused on a room called FlickrLive with real-time photo exchange capabilities. The successive evolutions focused more on the filing backend for individual users and the chat room was buried in the site map. It was eventually dropped as Flickr's backend systems evolved away from Game Neverending's codebase. Key features of Flickr present are tags, marking photos as favorites, group photo pools and interestingness, for which a patent is pending. Yahoo acquired Ludicorp and Flickr in March 2005. The acquisition reportedly cost $22 to $ million. This move was criticized by some users. Flickr upgraded its services to "gamma" in May 2006; the changes attracted positive attention from Lifehacker. On 9 Flickr began allowing paid subscribers to upload videos, limited to 90 seconds in length and 150 MB in size.Flickr – Typical Flickr album sets
96. Cave painting – Cave paintings are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, to some 40,000 years ago in both Asia and Europe. The exact purpose of the cave paintings is not known. They are also often located in areas of caves that are not easily accessible. Some theories hold that cave paintings may have been a way of communicating with others, while other theories ascribe a ceremonial purpose to them. The paintings are remarkably similar with animals being common subjects that give the most impressive images. Humans mainly appear as images of hands, mostly hand stencils made by blowing pigment on a hand held to the wall. Previously it was believed that the earliest paintings were in Europe. Nearly 340 caves have now been discovered in France and Spain that contain art from prehistoric times. But subsequent technology has made it possible to date the paintings by sampling the torch marks on the walls. The choice of matter can also indicate chronology. For instance, the reindeer depicted in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas places the drawings in the last Age. Australian scientists have dated other non-figurative paintings on the walls to be approximately 40,000 years old. The method they used to confirm this was dating the age of the stalactites that formed over the top of the paintings. This date coincides with the earliest known evidence for Homo sapiens in Europe. Because of the art's age, some scientists have conjectured that the paintings may have been made by Neanderthals.Cave painting – Cave of Altamira, near Santander, Spain.
97. Cave survey – The natural cave to be mapped was the Baumannshöhle in Germany, of which a sketch from 1656 survives. Another early survey was made by John Aubrey of Long Hole in the Cheddar Gorge. It consists of an elevational section of the cave. Other surveys of caves were made in the following years, though most are sketches and are limited in accuracy. The first cave, likely to have been accurately surveyed with instruments is the Grotte de Miremont in France. This includes numerous cross-sections. Édouard-Alfred Martel was the first person to describe surveying technique. His surveys were made by having an assistant walk down the passage until they were out of sight. Martel would then measure the distance by pacing up to the assistant. This would equate to a modern day 2 survey. A paper plot was produced. Since the late 1990s digital instruments such as distometers have started to change the process, leading to the advent of fully paperless surveying around 2007. Video-based surveying also exists in form. A team begins at a fixed point and measures a series of consecutive line-of-sight measurements between stations. The stations are fixed locations chosen chiefly for their ease of access and clear sight along the cave passage.Cave survey – A cave survey
98. Caving – In contrast, speleology is the scientific study of the cave environment. Cave diving is a more hazardous, sub-speciality undertaken by a small minority of technically proficient cavers. Many caving skills overlap with those involved in canyoning, urban exploration. Caving is often undertaken for physical exercise, as well as original exploration, similar to mountaineering or diving. Biological science is also an important goal for some cavers, while others are engaged in cave photography. Much effort is put into trying to locate, enter and survey them. In well-explored regions, gaining access to new caves often requires cave digging or cave diving. Caving, in certain areas, has also been utilized as a form of eco and tourism. Tour companies have established leading and guiding tours into and through caves. Depending on the type of tour, the experience could be adventure-based or ecological-based. In many areas, there are tours led by a guiding service. Some however consider the assistance cavers give each other as a typical team activity. Too much emphasis on the labeling of caving as a sport can narrow the goals of caving as a whole. Caving often puts the needs and welfare of a cave before those of the active participants. An American caver of the 1940s, wrote about a group of men and boys who explored and studied caves throughout New England.Caving – Caving in a muddy section of Black Chasm Cave in California.
99. Caving equipment – Caving equipment is equipment used by cavers and speleologists to aid and protect them while exploring caves. The term may also be used to refer to equipment used to document caves, such as surveying equipment. Due to the greatly varying conditions of caves throughout the world there is a multitude of different equipment categories. Explorers of the early 1800s, when caving began to become more common, used candles for illumination. Exploration was usually limited to drier caves as there was little to protect cavers from the cold once they became wet. Later, cavers were reasonably reliable, though their light was not especially powerful. Lighting magnesium strips was a popular way of illuminating large chambers. E.A. Acetylene lamps, powered by carbide, was one of the main light sources used by cavers during the 20th century. Electric miners headlamps, powered by lead-acid batteries were later used, eventually is considerably lighter. Vertical caving was undertaken with rope ladders. These were especially when wet and sometimes requiring teams of donkeys to carry them. The French explorer Robert de Joly pioneered the use of ever lighter rope ladders until developing a light wire ladder with aluminium rungs. Previously, cavers made their own equipment. Caving equipment made today conforms to high safety standards, decreasing the amount of fatalities experienced by cavers.Caving equipment – A pair of Wellington boots
100. Karst – Karst topography is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, gypsum. It is characterized with sinkholes and caves. It has also been documented for weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given conditions. Subterranean drainage may limit water with few to no rivers or lakes. The English karst was borrowed from German Karst in the late 19th century. The German word came before the 19th century. Scholars disagree, however, on whether the German word was borrowed from Slovene. The adjective form kraški in the 16th century. The Slovene words arose through metathesis from the reconstructed form *korsъ, borrowed from Dalmatian Romance carsus. Ultimately, the word is of Mediterranean origin, believed to derive from some Romanized Illyrian base. It has been suggested that the word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European karra - "rock". The name may also be connected to the oronym Karsádios oros cited by Ptolemy, perhaps also to Latin Carusardius. The development of karst occurs whenever acidic water starts to break down the surface of bedrock near its cracks, or bedding planes. As the bedrock continues to break down, its cracks tend to get bigger. Eventually, a drainage system of some sort may start to form underneath.Karst – Škocjan Caves, Slovenia
101. Speleology – Speleology and caving are often connected, as the physical skills required for in situ study are the same. In Romania, the term speology is used: this is derived from a Greek word for cave,'speos', rather than the Latin,'spelaeum'. Speleology is a cross-disciplinary field that combines the knowledge of chemistry, biology, cartography to develop portraits of caves as complex, evolving systems. In 1895 Martel founded the Société de Spéléologie, the first organization devoted to cave science in the world. The creation of an accurate, detailed map is one of the most common technical activities undertaken within a cave. Caves provide a home for many unique biota. Cave ecologies are very diverse, not sharply distinct from surface habitats. Generally however, the deeper the cave becomes, the more rarefied the ecology. Parahypogean the threshold regions near cave mouths that extend to the last penetration of sunlight. Hypogean or "true" cave environments. These can be in regular contact with the surface via wind and underground rivers, or the migration of animals, or can be almost entirely isolated. Cave organisms fall into three basic classes: There are also so-called accidental trogloxenes which are surface organisms that enter caves for no survival reason. Some may even be troglophobes, which cannot survive in caves for any extended period. Examples include deer which fell through a sinkhole, frogs swept into a cave by a flash flood, etc. The two factors that limit cave ecologies are generally energy and nutrients.Speleology – Grotte des Faux-Monnayeurs, Mouthiers-Haute-Pierre (France)
102. Anchialine pool – An anchialine pool or pond is a landlocked body of water with a subterranean connection to the ocean. Water levels in anchialine pools often fluctuate with the ocean. The range in water fluctuations will be decreased and delayed compared to the range and time observed for the adjacent tide. The primary controls on the lag are the distance from the coast, the hydraulic conductivity of the geological materials. There is minimal soil development. Such conditions occur notably where the bedrock recently formed volcanic lava. Ecological studies of anchialine pools frequently identify sometimes endemic species living in them. In Hawaii, the pools are home to mostly the ʻōpaeʻula. The Sailor's Hat crater created by an explosives test in 1965 is an anchialine pool. Brackish water Cenote Anchialine Pool Information United States Geological Survey, National Park Service 2005 Anchialine Caves and Cave Fauna of the WorldAnchialine pool – Anchialine pool in Maui, Hawaii, with the ocean in the background
103. Cave-in – Brian Ralph is a U.S. alternative cartoonist. His illustrations have appeared in the New York Post. His graphic novel, Climbing Out, was awarded a Xeric Grant in 2001. Daybreak, was published by Drawn and Quarterly in September 2011. Ralph graduated in 1996 where he first began publishing his mini-comic Fireball. He is a member of the underground collective known as Fort Thunder. During the 2003-2004 school he taught at The Key School. Ralph currently teaches Sequential Art at Savannah College of Art and Design. Ralph lives with his wife, Christi, their children. Brian Ralph notice. Xeric Foundation. Xeric grants for 2001.Cave-in – Schools and colleges
104. Cenote – A cenote is a natural pit, or sinkhole, resulting from the collapse of limestone bedrock that exposes groundwater underneath. Especially associated with the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico, cenotes were sometimes used by the ancient Maya for sacrificial offerings. The term derives from a word used by the low-land Yucatec Maya — ts'onot — to refer to any location with accessible groundwater. Cenotes are common geological forms in low latitude regions, particularly with young post-Paleozoic limestones that have little soil development. Cenotes are surface connections to subterranean water bodies. Cenote water is often very clear, as the water therefore contains very little suspended particulate matter. The groundwater rate within a cenote may be very slow. Rock that falls into the water below is slowly removed by further dissolution, creating space for more collapse blocks. Cenotes may be fully collapsed creating an open pool, or partially collapsed with some portion of a rock overhanging above the water. The stereotypical cenotes often resemble circular ponds, measuring some tens of meters in diameter with sheer drops at the edges. Most cenotes, however, require some degree of crawling to access the water. In the northwest of the Yucatán Peninsula, the cenotes generally overlie vertically extensive voids penetrating 50 to 100 m below the modern water table. The Yucatán Peninsula contains a coastal aquifer system, typically density-stratified. The meteoric water floats on top of higher-density saline water intruding from the coastal margins. The whole aquifer is therefore an anchialine system.Cenote – The Sacred Cenote at Chichén Itzá, Mexico.
105. Foiba – A foiba is a type of deep natural sinkhole, doline, or sink, is a collapsed portion of bedrock above a void. Sinks may be a shallow depression of many hectares. They are common in a karstic plateau region shared by Italy, Slovenia, Croatia. The term "foiba" was used by Italian naturalist Alberto Fortis who wrote a number of books about karst of Dalmatia. It is an Italian corruption of the Latin fovea, meaning ``" "chasm". They are indeed chasms excavated by water erosion, can be up to 200 metres deep. Such formations number in the hundreds in Istria. In karst areas, a sinkhole, doline is a closed depression draining underground. It can be cylindrical, conical, dish-shaped. The diameter ranges from a few to many hundreds of metres. The name "doline" comes from the Slovenian word for this very common feature. The term "foiba" may also refer to a wide chasm of a river at the place where it goes underground. Karst Plateau Corsetto Norma Gardens of the Righteous Worldwide Committee - GariwoFoiba – Simple scheme of a foiba
106. Glacier cave – A glacier cave is a cave formed within the ice of a glacier. The latter term is properly used to describe bedrock caves that contain year-round ice. Most glacier caves are started by water running under the glacier. This water often originates through melting, entering the ice at a moulin and exiting at the glacier's snout at base level. Heat transfer from the water can cause sufficient melting to create an air-filled cavity, sometimes aided by solifluction. Air movement can then assist enlargement through melting in winter. Some glacier caves are formed by geothermal heat beneath the ice. An example of the dynamic nature of glacier caves is the former Paradise Ice Caves, located on Mt. Rainier in the United States. Glacier caves may be used by glaciologists to gain access to the interior of glaciers. The study of glacier caves themselves is sometimes called "glaciospeleology". Mount Rainier Two craters on top of a cone on the volcano's summit contain the world's largest volcanic system. Perito Moreno Glacier Titlis Ice cave W. R. Halliday, Glaciospeleology Cave Science Topics, Caving International no. 4, July 1979. J.Schroeder, Inside the Glaciers -- Svalbard, Norway no. 1, 1990. Media related to Glacier cave at Wikimedia Commons The Virtual Cave: Glacier CavesGlacier cave – A partly submerged glacier cave on Perito Moreno Glacier. The ice facade is approximately 60 m high
107. Ice cave – An ice cave is any type of natural cave that contains significant amounts of perennial ice. Among speleologists "cave" is the proper English language term. A cavity formed within ice, is properly called a cave. Ice caves occur as static ice caves, such as dynamic or cyclical ice caves, such as Eisriesenwelt. Bedrock caves are thermally insulated from the surface, commonly assume a near-constant temperature approximating the annual average temperature at the surface. In some cold environments, with surface water available in summer, ice caves are possible. However, many ice caves exist in temperate climates, due to mechanisms that result in cave temperatures being colder than average surface temperatures where they formed. Cold traps - Certain cave configurations allow seasonal convection to import cold air from the surface in winter, but not warm air in summer. A typical example is an underground chamber located below a single entrance. In winter, dense air settles into the cave, displacing any warmer air which rises and exits the cave. In summer, the cold air remains in place as the relatively warm surface air is lighter and can not enter. The cave will only exchange air when the air is cooler than the cave air. Some cold traps may shade it from the summer sun's rays, which may further contribute to the colder cave temperature. Permafrost - Even temperate environments can include pockets of bedrock that are below freezing year round, a condition called permafrost. Ice caves in permafrost need not be cold-traps, provided they do not draught significantly in summer.Ice cave – Ponded water ice inside an ice cave
108. Karst spring – A karst spring is a spring, part of a karst system. That includes the underground drainage of a much larger area, which means that karst springs often have a very large discharge. Karst springs are usually the end of a cave system at the place where a cave reaches the Earth's surface. Thus, it is often possible to explore them. It is a type of sinkhole. A Vauclusian spring is a spring that originates with the water surging upwards under relatively high pressure. It is named after the Fontaine de Vaucluse in southern France. Submarine karst springs, also known as vruljas, are most numerous in shallow waters of the Mediterranean Sea. The main feature of karst springs results from the fact that water is rapidly transported by underground caverns. This means that there is minimal filtering of the water and little separation of different sediments. Groundwater emerges at the spring within a few days. Storms, general seasonal changes in rainfall have a very noticeable and rapid effect on karst springs. Many karst springs are thus known as intermittent springs. Still others are dry most of only flow after heavy rain. It is however more of a culturally related superstition.Karst spring – Maramec Spring in The Ozarks, Missouri
109. Lava cave – There are many types of lava caves, with these being the most notable: Lava tubes are the most common and most extensive kind of lava cave. Lava tubes usually form in pahoehoe lava flows, though exceptions exist. As the lava is emitted from the vent area, it spreads in the path of least resistance. The outer layers of the lava harden, while the interior forms horizontal conduits that channel the advance of the flow. Dependent upon the slope, lava viscosity, different kinds of lava tubes can form. Multilateral tubes are those that form paralleling, often anastomosing tubes. Multilevel tubes are those that sit directly underneath another tube, sometimes above or below several tubes. Some lava flows hold a mixture of multilateral tubes. Tube-in-tubes are generally noted to form during the last lava draining through the main tube. Some lava tubes are referred to as ice caves because they contain ice within. Surface tubes are runners of the same highly fluid lava that flows in lava channels. Most are too small to enter. They are created by flowing lava that turns itself out. Sometimes referred to as "toes," they are thought to be instrumental in the growth of lava tubes. They usually form when vents, reservoirs of lava overflow.Lava cave – Classic lava tube passage in Lava Beds National Monument, California, USA
110. Ley tunnel – Mysterious tunnels or "secret passages" are a common element of the local folklore tradition in Europe. In Norwegian a tunnel-like passage is called a lønngang and in Swedish a lönngång. Such tunnels are said to physically link prominent places such as country houses, castles, churches, other, often medieval, buildings. Religious buildings, the landed gentry are particularly common elements in many tunnel stories. Underground structures have a fascination due to their being hidden from their contents, purpose, extent and destinations remaining unknown. On occasion, possible tunnels prove to be of Kents Cavern in England. The site at Cleeves Cove cave was previously known as the'Elfhouse' or'Elfhame', the locals at that time believing that elves had made it their abode. Other tunnels are products of an excessive desire such as at Welbeck Abbey and Brownlow Castle. Alfred Watkins, in The Old Straight Track, suggested that they might be connected with ley lines. In the city of Aalborg a tunnel is said to have run to another convent near Sundby. This tunnel had branches which ran to the castle of Aalborghus. A student once tried to explore the tunnels with a long cord, a light. The student was never seen again. At Furness Abbey a tunnel has been said to run to both Piel Castle and Dalton Castle. This was said to be how the monks travelled to and from each monument to keep watch upon the towns.Ley tunnel – The Lugton Water and Eglinton Castle in Scotland. A "vowt", passing under two rivers, is said to link the castle with Kilwinning Abbey.
111. Mining – Mining is extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposits. These deposits form a mineralized package, to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, even water. Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. Mining operations usually create a environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed. Hence, most of the world's nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact. Modern practices have significantly improved safety in mines. Levels of metals recycling are generally low. Unless end-of-life recycling rates are stepped up, some rare metals may become unavailable for use in a variety of consumer products. Due to the low recycling rates, some landfills now contain higher concentrations of metal than mines themselves. Later, metals found close to the Earth's surface. Flint mines have been found in chalk areas where seams of the stone were followed underground by galleries. The mines at Grimes Graves and Krzemionki are especially famous, are Neolithic in origin.Mining – Surface coal mining
112. Pit cave – Pit caves typically form by water. They found deep within horizontal caves. Among cavers, a pit is generally defined as a vertical drop of any depth that can not be negotiated safely without the use of ladders. Exploration into pit caves requires the use of equipment such as nylon kernmantle cable ladders. More specialized caving techniques such as the single technique are common practice and the preferred method of pit exploration for cavers worldwide. The SRT involves the use of 9 -- static rope and mechanical descenders/ascenders. Vertical caving is expertise in, proper vertical caving equipment and its use. For obvious reasons, vertical caving is more dangerous than "horizontal caving". Vertical caving requires the intimate understanding of ropes, knots, anchors, rappelling ascending systems. Veteran cavers typically are knowledgeable in rescue techniques including change-overs and pick-offs. Caving was pioneered by British geologist John Beaumont who gave an account of his descent into Lamb Leer Cavern to the Royal Society in 1681. He developed his own techniques using metallic ladders. In the 1930s, as caving became increasingly popular in France, several clubs in the Alps developed vertical exploration into a recognized outdoor sport. The lack of technical equipment during the war forced Chevalier and his team to innovate and develop their own. Use of explosives in caves and mechanical rope-ascenders can be traced historically to the exploration of the Dent de Crolles cave system.Pit cave – Pit cave Haviareň, Little Carpathians
113. Ponor – A ponor is a natural surface opening that may be found in landscapes where the geology and the geomorphology is characterized by some kind of karst. The term "ponor" has become the geological term for larger karst-induced surface water inlets. The word derives from the proto-Slavic nora. The word "ponor" itself comes from a South Slavic languages in which word ponor has the same meaning. Steady erosion may have formed or enlarged the portal in rock, in a conglomerate, or in looser materials. Ponors are found only in karst regions. The Adriatic watershed within Bosnia and Herzegovina sits on Dinaric karst, with numerous explored and probably many more unexplored ponors and underground flows. There are also several places in southeast Europe due to associated karst openings. There are geological ponors in the Carpathian Mountains, the Dinaric Alps, Greece, Turkey, parts of the southern United States. Karst spring Losing streamPonor – Collecting basin, stone rake, ponor (behind viewer), Peloponnese
114. Sea cave – A sea cave, also known as a littoral cave, is a type of cave formed primarily by the wave action of the sea. The primary process involved is erosion. Sea caves are found throughout the world, actively forming along as relict sea caves on former coastlines. These would still be classified as littoral caves. Some of the best-known sea caves are European. Fingal's Cave, on the Scottish island of Staffa, is a spacious cave some 70 m long, formed in basalt. The Blue Grotto of Capri, although smaller, is famous for the apparent quality of its water, imparted by light passing through underwater openings. The Romans built a stairway to the surface. The Greek islands are also noted for the beauty of their sea caves. Numerous sea caves have been surveyed in England, Scotland, particularly on the Normandy coast. Until 2013, the largest known sea caves were found along the west coast of the United States, the Shetland Islands. In 2013 the survey of the world's largest sea cave was announced. Located on the South Island, Matainaka Cave has proven to be the world's most extensive at 1.5 km in length. Also in 2013, Crossley reported a newly surveyed complex reaching just over a kilometer in survey at Bethells Beach on New Zealand's North Island. However, there are some notable exceptions as discussed below.Sea cave – Sea cave formation along a fault on Santa Cruz Island, California, USA
115. Sinkhole – Most are caused by karst processes—for example, the chemical dissolution of carbonate rocks or suffosion processes. Sinkholes vary in size from 1 to 600 m both in diameter and depth, vary to bedrock-edged chasms. Sinkholes may form gradually or suddenly, are found worldwide. Sinkholes may also form in dry places in specific locations. Sinkholes that capture drainage can hold it in large limestone caves. These caves may drain into tributaries of larger rivers. Sinkholes often form through the process of suffosion. For example, groundwater may dissolve the carbonate cement holding the sandstone particles together and then carry away the lax particles, gradually forming a void. Occasionally a sinkhole may exhibit a visible opening into a cave below. Sinkholes also occur in sandstone and quartzite terrains. As the rock dissolves, spaces and caverns develop underground. These sinkholes can be dramatic, because the surface land usually stays intact until there is not enough support. Then, a sudden collapse of the land surface can occur. More commonly, sinkholes occur in urban areas due to water main breaks or sewer collapses when old pipes give way. They can also occur from the extraction of subsurface fluids.Sinkhole – The Red Lake sinkhole in Croatia
116. Spring (hydrology) – A spring is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface. It is a component of the hydrosphere. A spring may be the result of karst topography where water has infiltrated the Earth's surface, becoming part of the groundwater. The groundwater then travels through a network of cracks and fissure—openings ranging from intergranular spaces to large caves. The water eventually emerges from below the surface, in the form of a karst spring. Spring water forced to the surface by elevated sources are artesian wells. This is possible even if the outlet is in the form of a 300-foot-deep cave. In this case the cave is used by the higher elevated area of groundwater to exit through the lower elevation opening. Still other springs are the result of pressure from an underground source in the earth, in the form of volcanic activity. The result can be water at elevated temperature such as a hot spring. The action of the groundwater continually dissolves permeable bedrock such as limestone and dolomite, creating vast cave systems. Seepage or filtration spring. The seep refers to springs with small flow rates in which the water has filtered through permeable earth. Fracture springs, discharge in the earth, in which springs have followed a natural course of weaknesses in the bedrock. Tubular springs, in which the water flows from underground caverns.Spring (hydrology) – On an average day nearly 303 million US gallons (1,150,000 m 3) of water flow from Big Spring in Missouri at a rate of 469 cubic feet per second (13.3 m 3 /s).
117. Subterranean river – Subterranean rivers may be entirely natural, flowing through cave systems. In karst topography, rivers may disappear through continuing underground. In some cases, they may emerge into daylight further downstream. Other troglobite organisms are adapted to life in subterranean rivers and lakes. Subterranean rivers can also be the result of diverting its flow into culverts, usually as part of urban development. Reversing this process is a visible form of river restoration. One successful example is the Cheonggye Stream in the centre of Seoul. Examples of subterranean rivers also occur in literature. There are natural examples of subterranean rivers. Among others: The Camuy River located in the region of Puerto Rico is one of the largest underground river systems in the world. The Eridanos under Athens, Greece. In many cities there are natural streams which have been entirely built over. Greek mythology included Lethe as rivers within the Underworld. Dante Alighieri, in his Inferno, included the Acheron, Styx as rivers within his subterranean Hell. The Alph, running "Through caverns measureless to man / Down to a sunless sea" is central to the poem Kubla Khan, by Samuel Taylor Coleridge.Subterranean river – A subterranean river in the Cross Cave system of Slovenia.
118. Suffosion – Suffosion sinkholes are normally associated with karst topography although they may form in other types of rock including chalk, basalt. Suffosion occurs when loose soil, other non-cohesive material lies on top of a limestone substratum containing fissures and joints. Rain and water gradually wash this material through these fissures and into caves beneath. Over time, this creates a depression on the landscape of varying depth. The following sites are examples of sinkholes formed by suffosion: Whitepit, south of Priddy, Somerset, UK;Suffosion – Formation of a suffosion sinkhole
119. Sump (cave) – Sump or siphon is a term used in caving to describe a passage in a cave, submerged under water. A sump may be active, with continuous through-flow. Static sumps may also be connected underwater to active passage. When short in length, a sump may be called a duck. Short sumps may be passed simply by holding one's breath while ducking through the submerged section. This can only be attempted if the sump is known to be short and not technically difficult. More technically difficult sumps can only be passed by cave diving. When practical, a sump can also be drained using buckets, siphons. Upstream sumps have been successfully emptied using hoses during exploration in 2005. The emptied sumps revealed virgin passage behind them. Phreatic zoneSump (cave) – Sumps often block access to "dry" passage beyond them. Diagram B shows a "perched" sump" which could be siphoned to lower the water level.
120. Underground lakeUnderground lake – Subterranean isle on one of the 22 lakes in the Cross Cave in Slovenia
121. Speleothem – A speleothem, commonly known as a cave formation, is a secondary mineral deposit formed in a cave. Speleothems typically form in dolostone solutional caves. The term "speleothem" as first introduced by Moore, is derived from the Greek words spēlaion théma "deposit". More than 250 cave mineral deposits exist. The vast majority of speleothems are calcareous, composed in the form of calcite or aragonite, or calcium sulphate in the form of gypsum. Calcareous speleothems form via carbonate dissolution reactions. Speleothems take various forms, depending on whether the water drips, seeps, condenses, ponds. Many speleothems are named to man-made or natural objects. Speleogens are formations within caves that are created by the removal of bedrock, rather than as secondary deposits. Although sometimes similar to speleothems in caves formed by dissolution, these are formed by the cooling of residual lava within the lava tube. Speleothems formed from sulfur and other minerals are also known. Most cave chemistry revolves around calcite; the primary mineral in limestone. It is a slightly soluble mineral whose solubility increases with the introduction of CO2. It is paradoxical in that its solubility decreases as the temperature increases, unlike the vast majority of dissolved solids. Most other solution caves that are not composed of dolostone are composed of gypsum, the solubility of, positively correlated with temperature.Speleothem – Image showing the six most common speleothems with labels. Enlarge to view labels.
122. SpeleogenSpeleogen – Speleogens in a West Virginia cave
123. Anthodite – Anthodites are speleothems composed of long needle-like crystals situated in clusters which radiate outward from a common base. The "needles" may be feathery. Most anthodites are made of the aragonite, although some are composed of gypsum. The individual crystals of anthodites develop in a form described as “acicular” and often branch out as they grow. They usually grow downward from a cave's ceiling. Aragonite crystals are contrasted with those made of calcite in that the latter tend to be dog-tooth-like. Anthodites often may have huntite or hydromagnesite deposited near the ends of the branches. Anthodite crystals are commonly between 1 and 20 millimeters in length. Examples of sites with abundant anthodite displays include Carlsbad Caverns, Craighead Caverns, the Grotte de Moulis in France. Among the “feathery” varieties of anthodite is "frostwork", a type of speleothem consisting of “bushes” of fine acicular aragonite crystals in radiating clusters. Their appearance is often compared to that of a cactus or plant. In its composite form, frostwork may possess spiny limbs like a miniature fir tree. The term was first used during the 1890s to describe speleothems which looked like ice "frostwork". Helictites are curved or angular lateral projections of calcium carbonate, which appear to defy gravity. Rather than radial clusters, helictites often occur in tangled masses.Anthodite – Anthodites are featured at the commercial Skyline Caverns in Virginia, USA
124. Boxwork – This article is about boxworks in caves; for the boxworks occurring in the oxidized zone of sulfide mineral deposits, see gossan. Boxwork is an uncommon type of speleogen, occasionally found in caves and erosive environments. The boxwork fins once filled cracks in the rock before the cave formed. Some of the most extensive boxwork deposits in the world are found in Wind Cave National Park in South Dakota, USA. Outstanding examples occur in Cody Caves, Cody Caves Provincial Park in British Columbia, Canada. Wind Cave National Park: Origin of Boxwork The Virtual Cave's page on boxworkBoxwork – Boxwork in Wind Cave, Hot Springs, South Dakota.
125. Calcite rafts – Calcite crystals form on the surface of quiescent bodies of water, even when the bulk water is not supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate. The crystals grow, appear to be floating rafts of a white, opaque material. The floating materials have been referred to as calcite rafts or “leopard spots.” Calcium carbonate is known to precipitate in water supersaturated with calcium and carbonate ions. Under quiescent conditions, calcite crystals can form on a surface when calcium carbonate supersaturation conditions do not exist in the bulk water. Calcite crystals attach to one another to form what appear to be rafts of a white material. Scanning electron micrographs of calcite rafts show interconnected calcite crystals formed around holes on the surface. The holes may be caused on the water surface. Micrographs of calcite rafts show lace-like structure. The tension of the water keeps the interconnected calcite crystals, which individually have a specific gravity of 2.7, floating on the water surface. Calcite rafts are most commonly formed in limestone cave systems. Limestone caves provide a favorable environment due to water containing significant concentrations of calcium and carbonate ions. Evidence of calcite rafts has been found all over the world. One example of calcite formation in a spring-fed river system has been reported. The floating material had not been observed when the reservoir was open to the atmosphere.Calcite rafts – BSE-SEM image at 46 times magnification showing topsides of the calcite rafts (flat surfaces) and bottom crystals growing underneath
126. Cave pearl – A cave pearl is a small, usually spherical, speleothem found in limestone caves. Cave pearls are formed by a concretion of calcium salts that form concentric layers around a nucleus. Exposure to moving water polishes the surface of cave pearls, making them glossy; if exposed to the air, cave pearls can appear rough. A cave pearl is composed primarily of calcite. Cave pearls are generally not considered to be a type of oolite. Other minerals found in small quantities in cave pearls include apatite, iron, aluminum, magnesium. Cave pearls form when water dripping into a cave precipitates calcite. A cave pearl forms when the water is moving vigorously to form a stalagmite. In this manner, concentric layers build up in much the same way that a biological pearl forms within a mollusc. There may be microbial action involved in the formation of cave pearls. A cave pearl forms around a nucleus of matter. The nucleus of a cave pearl can be larger. Some nuclei are made of foreign matter, whereas others are made of calcified limestone. Cave pearls can also have other shapes. The cave pearls tend to be round is not their rotation, but rather that their growth is steady and uniform.Cave pearl – A nest of cave pearls in Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico
127. Cave popcorn – Cave popcorn, or coralloids, are small nodes of calcite, aragonite or gypsum that form on surfaces in caves, especially limestone caves. They are a common type of speleothem. The individual nodules of cave popcorn may be decorated by other speleothems especially aragonite needles or frostwork. The nodules tend to grow in the sides of other speleothems. These clusters may terminate suddenly in either an downward direction forming a stratographic layer. When they terminate in a downward direction, they may appear as bottomed formations otherwise known as trays. Individual nodes of popcorn can assume a variety of shapes from round to flattened button like shapes. Various other colors are possible depending on the composition. Cave popcorn can form by precipitation. Water splashing onto them leaves deposits when CO2 loss causes its minerals to precipitate. When formed in this way the resultant nodules have the characteristics of small balls of flowstone. Cave popcorn can also form by evaporation in which case it is white like edible popcorn. The Virtual Cave's page on cave popcorn The Virtual Cave's page on coralloids Underground Adventures Kids page on popcorn National Park Service page on popcornCave popcorn – Cave popcorn with frostwork
128. Dogtooth spar – Dogtooth spar is a speleothem found in limestone caves that consists of very large calcite crystals resembling dogs' teeth. They form through precipitation of water-borne calcite. Dogtooth spar crystals can grow in any open space including veins, fractures, geodes. Anomalous samples decimeters long exist, notably in Sitting Bull Crystal Caverns. A layer of crystalline calcite can be found underneath the surface of crystal points. The sharply tooth-shaped crystals typically consist of acute scalenohedrons, twelve crystal faces that ideally form scalene triangles. However, individual crystal faces may have many more than three edges. The most common scalenohedron form has the Miller index. Spar is a general term for transparent to translucent, vitreous crystalline minerals. The Virtual Cave:SparDogtooth spar – Dogtooth spar deposited on the walls of a part of the Caverns of Sonora near Sonora, Texas. The former water level can be seen in the upper left hand corner.
129. Flowstone – Flowstones are composed of sheetlike deposits of calcite or other carbonate minerals, formed where water flows down the walls or along the floors of a cave. They are typically found in "solution caves", in limestone, where they are the most common speleothem. However, they may form in any type of cave where water enters that has picked up dissolved minerals. Flowstones are formed via the degassing of vadose percolation waters. Flowstone may also form as a result of hydroxide being leached from concrete, lime or mortar. These secondary deposits created outside the cave environment, which mimic the forms of speleothems, are associated with concrete degradation. Flowing films of water that move down positive-sloping walls build up layers of calcium carbonate, aragonite, other cave minerals. The flowstone forms when thin layers of these deposits build on each other, sometimes developing more rounded shapes as the deposit gets thicker. There are two common forms of flowstones, tufa and travertine. Tufa is porous in nature. Travertine is a deposit often formed in creeks or rivers; its nature is laminated, it includes such structures as stalagmites and stalactites. The deposits may grade into thin sheets called "draperies" or "curtains" where they descend from overhanging portions of the wall. Some have beige layers that look much like bacon. Though flowstones are among the largest of speleothems, they can still be damaged by a single touch. The oil from human fingers causes the flowing water to avoid the area, which then dries out.Flowstone – Flowstone in Mystery Cave, Minnesota
130. Frostwork – In geology, frostwork is a type of speleothem with acicular growths almost always composed of aragonite or calcite replaced by aragonite. It is a variety of anthodite. In some caves frostwork may grow on top of cave boxwork. In architecture frostwork refers to a style of rustication carved with a vertically-oriented pattern evoking hanging pond-weed or algae, or icicles. It is mainly found in architecture, where water is to flow over or near the surface. Decorative arts may use the term for other decorative patterns imitating frost or ice. The origin of frostwork is somewhat controversial. Frostwork has also been attributed to water seepage from cave passageways in which there are relatively high evaporation rates. Perhaps the most extensive displays known are found in New Mexico, USA. Wind Cave National Park: Speleothems The Virtual Cave's page on aragonite and frostworkFrostwork – Frostwork in Jewel Cave, South Dakota.
131. Helictite – A helictite is a speleothem found in limestone caves that changes its axis from the vertical at one or more stages during its growth. They have a curving or form that looks as if they were grown in zero gravity. They are most likely the result of capillary forces acting on tiny water droplets, a force often strong enough at this scale to defy gravity. Helictites are, perhaps, the most delicate of cave formations. They are usually made of needle-form aragonite. Forms of helictites have been described in several types: ribbon helictites, saws, rods, butterflies, "hands", "clumps of worms." They typically have radial symmetry. They can be easily broken by the slightest touch. Because of this, helictites are rarely seen within arm's reach in tourist caves. Timpanogos Cave National Monument in Utah has one of the largest collections of these formations in the world. The large numbers are also in Spain. The growth of helictites is still quite enigmatic. To this day there has been no satisfactory explanation for how they are formed. Currently, another theory based on wind formation is also viable. The most likely theory explains helictites as a result of capillary forces.Helictite – Rare "fishtail" helictites in the Caverns of Sonora near Sonora, Texas.
132. Moonmilk – Moonmilk is a white, creamy substance found inside limestone caves. It is a precipitate from limestone comprising aggregates of fine crystals of varying composition usually made of carbonates such as calcite, hydromagnesite, and/or monohydrocalcite. There are several hypotheses concerning the origin of moonmilk. One of these explains moonmilk to be the result of bacterial action rather than from chemical reactions. According to this particular hypothesis, moonmilk is thought to have been created by the bacterium Macromonas bipunctata. However, no microbiological studies have been carried out far. Moonmilk was originally explained as created by "moon rays". As the microbial colonies grow, they accumulate chemically-precipitated crystals in the organic matter-rich matrix formed that way. Perhaps these heterotrophic microbes, which produce CO2 as a product of respiration and possibly organic acids, help to dissolve the carbonate. Being soft, moonmilk was frequently the medium for a form of prehistoric art. The world's largest formation of brushite moonmilk is found in the Big Room of Kartchner Caverns State Park in southern Arizona. In the middle of 16th century moonmilk continued to be used as such until the 19th century. It is said to have cured acidosis and probably cardialgia by neutralizing an overdose of acid. It had no adverse health effects. George W. Moore and Nicholas Sullivan.Moonmilk – Moonmilk in the cave Bergmilchkammer
133. Rimstone – Rimstone, also called gours, is a type of speleothem in the form of a stone dam. Rimstone is made up of other minerals that build up in cave pools. The formation created, which looks like stairs, often extends above or below the original rimstone. Often, rimstone is covered with micro-gours on horizontal surfaces. Crystallization begins to occur at the interface. When dams form under running water, they tend to be higher when the passage is steeper. Shallow-gradient dams tend to be more sinuous in nature. Rimstone is one of the most common cave formations, after flowstone, stalagmites. The Virtual Cave's page on RimstoneRimstone – Rimstone - Endless Caverns, VA
134. Shelfstone – Shelfstone is a type of speleothem that grows inwards from the edge of a cave pool. It takes the form of ledges that tend to be flat on sloping underneath. They are almost always formed from calcite, when materials precipitated onto a cave pool attach to the side. The deposition continues to grow laterally, underneath. The shelfstone above the current level in a pool is an indicator of past levels of the pool. Shelfstone can be very thick when the level has stayed constant over a long period of time. If the level is constantly changing, the shelfstone will be thin and delicate. The Virtual Cave: ShelfstoneShelfstone – Shelfstone growing on the edge of a small cave pool
135. Snottite – The bacteria derive their energy from chemosynthesis of volcanic sulfur compounds including H2S and warm-water solution dripping down from above, producing sulfuric acid. Because of this, their waste products are highly acidic, with similar properties to battery acid. The term "snottite" was given to these cave features by Jim Pisarowicz in 1986. Hose L D, Pisarowcz J A. Cueva de Villa Luz, Tabasco, Mexico: reconnaissance study of an active sulfur spring cave and ecosystem. J Cave Karst Studies;61:13–21 Archaea Cave slime at NASA The Subsurface Life in Mineral Environments TeamSnottite – Snottites in Cueva de Villa Luz in Southern Mexico
136. Soda straw – A soda straw is a speleothem in the form of a hollow mineral cylindrical tube. They are also known as tubular stalactites. Soda straws grow in places where water leaches slowly through cracks such as on the roofs of caves. These tubes form when calcium carbonate or sulfate dissolved in the water comes out of solution and is deposited. In soda straws, as each drop hovers at the tip, it deposits a ring of mineral at its edge. A new drop takes its place. Eventually a tube is built up. Stalagmites or flowstone may form where the water drops hit the cave floor. Soda straws are some of the most fragile of speleothems. Like helictites, they can be easily broken by the slightest touch. Because of this, soda straws are rarely seen with unrestricted access. When left alone, soda straws have been known to grow up to 9 metres long. Kartchner Caverns in southern Arizona has well-preserved soda straws because of its recent discovery in highly regulated traffic. Showcaves.com definition and explanation The Virtual Cave soda straw photos A photo of some amazing soda straws in south eastern FranceSoda straw – Straws (stalactite precursors) in Gardner's Gut.
137. SpeleoseismiteSpeleoseismite – Collapsed cave ceiling
138. Stalactite – A stalactite is a type of formation that hangs from the ceiling of caves, hot springs, or manmade structures such as bridges and mines. Any material, soluble, can be deposited as a colloid, or is capable of being melted, may form a stalactite. Stalactites may be composed of lava, minerals, mud, peat, pitch, sand, sinter. A stalactite is not necessarily a speleothem, though speleothems are the most common form of stalactite because of the abundance of limestone caves. The corresponding formation on the floor of the cave is known as a stalagmite. The most common stalactites are speleothems, which occur in limestone caves. They form through other minerals, precipitated from mineralized water solutions. Limestone is the chief form of calcium rock, dissolved by water that contains carbon dioxide, forming a calcium bicarbonate solution in underground caverns. When the solution comes into contact with air particles of calcium carbonate are deposited. The reversed reaction is: Ca 2 → CaCO 3 + H 2O CO 2 An average growth rate is 0.13 mm a year. All limestone stalactites begin with a mineral-laden drop of water. When the drop falls, it deposits the thinnest ring of calcite. Each subsequent drop that falls deposits another calcite ring. Eventually, these rings form a very hollow tube commonly known as a "soda straw" stalactite. Soda straws are very fragile.Stalactite – Image showing the six most common speleothems with labels. Enlarge to view labels.
139. Stalagmite – Stalagmites may be composed of lava, minerals, mud, peat, pitch, sand, sinter. The corresponding formation hanging down from the ceiling of a cave is a stalactite. The most common stalagmites are speleothems, which usually form in limestone caves. This stalagmite formation occurs only under certain pH conditions within the underground cavern. They form through other minerals, precipitated from mineralized water solutions. Limestone is the chief form of calcium rock, dissolved by water that contains carbon dioxide, forming a calcium bicarbonate solution in underground caverns. If stalactites -- the ceiling formations -- grow enough to connect with stalagmites on the floor, they form a column. Oils and dirt from human contact can also change its color permanently. Another type of stalagmite is formed in lava tubes while lava is still active inside. The mechanism of formation is similar to that of limestone stalagmites. A key difference with lava stalagmites is that once the lava has ceased so too will the stalagmites cease to grow. This means if the stalagmite were to be broken it would never grow back. The generic term "lavacicle" has been evolved from the word "icicle". Year round in many caves is the ice stalagmite, commonly referred to as icicles, especially in above-ground contexts. If temperatures are below freezing temperature, the water will collect on the floor into stalagmites.Stalagmite – Image showing the six most common speleothems with labels. Enlarge to view labels.
140. List of longest caves – The following is a list of the world's 10 longest caves per length of documented passageways. Many passageways are still being discovered; this list is based on the latest verifiable data. Caves are found around the world. The largest form in areas of karst landforms whose rocks create caves. Preferable conditions for cave formation are a landscape of gentle hills which drains slowly. List of cavesList of longest caves – Mammoth Cave, the world's longest known cave system
144. List of caves of Maryland – The subject of this article and a reference book of the same name, Caves of Maryland was first released by the Maryland Geological Survey in 1950. Information about Maryland caves was first gathered by Martin Muma in the mid-1940s working under the MGS. In Maryland, a cave is defined as any subterranean cavity large enough for a human to enter. Cave locations are typically well-guarded secrets, as property owners are fearful of liability issues and damage to their lands. While most find cave vandalism unimaginable, there are some who, whether out of carelessness, ignorance, have hopelessly destroyed beautiful caves forever. For this reason, precise locations of caves are seldom published. Neither quadrangular data are posted on this page at present, only surrounding terrain and the condition/accessibility of said caves when known. Most of Maryland's caves occur in its three westernmost counties. Non-solutional caves are typically of smaller size and of little interest to spelunkers. Exceptions in the uplands area include the Wakefield and Cockeystown marbles, which are known to include but a few caves. Here older dolomites from the Cambrian/Ordovician make an appearance, offering up a few caves in the Frederick/Middletown Valley vicinity. On top of these, harder thrust sheets of metamorphic rocks from the Paleozoic give these mountains their well-defined crests and ridges. Home to Maryland's best-known non-solutional cave, is an example of quartzite that has endured while Catoctin Mountain has weathered around it. The highest concentration of Maryland caves lies within the Hagerstown Valley, where well-established waterways have cut into the carbonate rocks. The probability of cave development, however, is also strongly influenced by the presence of structural features such as anticlinal axes, synclinal troughs, faults.List of caves of Maryland – Dam #4 Cave
146. List of rock-cut temples in India – This is a partial list of Indian rock-cut temples by state or union territory. This is a monolithic structure in the sub-Himalayan region. The main shrine contains three stone images of Rama, Lakshmana and Sita. The complex is located on a hill and has a large rectangular water pond. The complex is believed to have been built by the Pandava during their exile; the exact date is not known. The ancient name of the Kangra was Bhimnagar, founded by Bhima, one of the Pandava brothers. The Rock-Cut Temples of India. John Murray, London. National Geographic Magazine. Faces of the Divine: India's Ancient Art – Interactive Map.List of rock-cut temples in India – Akkanna Madanna caves, Vijayawada
151. List of caves in Austria – The following article shows a list of caves in Austria. The list also includes tourist former salt caves. The main concentration of Austrian caves is by a mountain range of the Eastern Alps. Many of them are located in the Totes Gebirge. There are shown the main tourist caves and other notable underground voids. In the "length" section is shown, between parentheses, the cave's trail as a cave.List of caves in Austria – View of the " Katerloch Cave"
153. List of caves in Bulgaria – The list caves in Bulgaria, as of 2002, includes around 4,500 underground formations. The earliest written records about the caves in Bulgaria are found in the manuscripts of historian Petar Bogdan. The Bulgarian speleological society was established in 1929. The caves in the country are inhabited by 32 of the 37 species of bats found in Europe. The longest caves in Bulgaria are Orlova Chuka. The first cave is Bacho Kiro, inaugurated in 1937.List of caves in Bulgaria – Bacho Kiro cave
154. List of show caves in Germany – This list of show caves in Germany contains all show caves in Germany which are hosted by the German Speleological Federation. Show caves have regular opening times, usually with guided tours of about 30 to 45 minutes duration. They are all electrically lighted. Only the Schellenberg Ice Cave still use carbide lamps. Only the Kraus Cave in the Styria in Austria was equipped earlier, in 1883. There are currently 51 show caves in Germany. The earliest to have guided tours was Baumann's Cave in the Rübeland; visited by Goethe. Tours of this cave were being organised early as 1646. The latest to be opened as a cave was the Autumn Labyrinth in 2009. More than half the show caves are dripstone caves. The Wimsen Cave is the only cave in Germany accessible by boat, for a distance of 70 metres. The Goetz Cave is the only fissure cave in the largest publicly accessible cave in Europe. The Schellenberg Ice Cave is the only cave in Germany that can be visited. In the Barbarossa Cave, formed of anhydrite stone, loose layers of plaster hang from the ceilings and walls. Name of the show cave: states the name of the show cave.List of show caves in Germany – The Atta Cave – Germany’s most-visited show cave
155. List of caves in Gibraltar – This is an under construction list of all discovered caves in Gibraltar. This means that there is a real possibility that the caves which are now underwater were at one time being lived in by people. These caves are the subject of research projects. The caves within the Rock of Gibraltar have been used as shelter on the islands for hundreds of years. Historically Neanderthals lived in a number of the caves. There is thought to be over 200 caves in Gibraltar.List of caves in Gibraltar – One of the most remarkable of Gibraltar's many caves is St Michael's, large enough to house this comfortable auditorium.
157. List of caves of Poland – This article is about the caves of Poland. As of 2007, there are 771 caves known with the total length exceeding 124 km. They are within Tatra National Park. There are also some tectonic caves. Deepest caves of the Tatras are located in the Czerwone Wierchy and Kominiarski Wierch massifs. The massif of Giewont, is largely unexplored due to its strict nature conservation status.List of caves of Poland – Jaskinia Zbójecka
159. Caves in Cantabria – The Cantabria caves' unique location make them an ideal place to observe the settlements of primitive man thousands of years ago. The magnificent art in the caves includes figures of various animals of the time such as bison, horses, goats, deer, cattle, other paintings. The Altamira Cave is located near Santillana del Mar. The cave was included since 1985. Cullalvera Cave is located in the municipality of capital of the comarca of Valley of the Asón River. These forms in recent public opening of the cave make it one of the most visited of the region. Remains of both from the Paleolithic have been found here. Fuente del Salín Cave is located in the municipality of Val de San Vicente, contains an archaeological site discovered in 1985. The path is accessible only in times of drought because it lies along an underground river. Chufín Cave is located in the town of Riclones. Chufín indicates different levels of the oldest being around 20000 years old. The cave, despite its small size, has subtle red prints of paintings of deer, goats and cattle that are represented very schematically. It also found a large number of symbols. One group, called "sticks", accompanies the animal paintings inside the cave. The cave has been included in the World Heritage Site since 2008.Caves in Cantabria – Roof of the Cave of Altamira (replica) - National Archaeological Museum.
160. Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin – The sites contain rock art dating to the Upper Paleolithic or Mesolithic periods of the Stone Age. It is notable for the number of places included, the largest concentration of such art in Europe. According to UNESCO, the oldest art in the World Heritage Site is from the most recent examples from around 3500 BC. The art therefore spans a period of cultural change. It reflects the life of people using primarily economic systems, "who gradually incorporated Neolithic elements into their cultural baggage". Some cattle shown may be domesticated. Examples of both types of art can be found at some sites. The paintings seem to have been produced after an influx of population from North Africa had mixed with the populations remaining from earlier periods in Iberia. Levantine Art was first discovered in 1903. The Spanish prehistorian Juan Cabre was the first to study this art, defining it as a Palaeolithic art. Assignment to the Palaeolithic age was then challenged for various reasons including the fact that no glacial fauna was depicted. Others place the beginning of this art in the Epipaleolithic or Mesolithic, placing its heyday in the Neolithic period. The artists appear to have used feathers, in a relatively complex technique, compared to the art of the Upper Paleolithic, that produced relatively simple figures. Figures are often outlined, apparently after the main body was painted. Some figures are shallowly engraved rather than painted.Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin – The Dance of Cogul, tracing by Henri Breuil
161. Siega Verde – Siega Verde is an archaeological site in the municipality of Villar de la Yegua, province of Salamanca, in Castile and León, Spain. It was added in the World Heritage List in 2010. The engravings date to the Gravettian culture of the Upper Palaeolithic. There are also more recent, anthropomorphic representations, dating to the Magdalenian age. There is a total of 94 panels, spanning some 3 kilometers of rock. Siega Verde website Page at Celtiberia.netSiega Verde – Engravings of animals.
163. Cave dweller – A cave dweller, or troglodyte, is a human being who inhabits a cave or the area beneath the overhanging rocks of a cliff. Most were not. Other prehistoric peoples, are also called cave men. A cave in the French Riviera, was used by people approximately one million years ago. Although the remains of eaten animals have been found in the cave, there is no indication that people dwelt in it. Caves were the ideal place to shelter from the sun in the equatorial regions. The stable temperatures of caves provided a cool habitat in the winter. Approximately 100,000 years ago, some Neanderthal humans dwelt in caves in Europe and western Asia. Caves also were inhabited by some Cro-Magnons from about 35,000 years ago until approximately 8,000 BC. Both species used the caves' dark interiors for ceremonies. The Cro-Magnon people also made representational paintings on cave walls. About 100,000 years ago some Homo sapiens worked in Blombos Cave, in what became South Africa. They made the earliest workshop now known, but apparently did not dwell in the caves. Especially during war and other times of strife, relatively small groups of people have lived temporarily in caves, where they otherwise sought refuge. They also have used caves for clandestine and special purposes while living elsewhere.Cave dweller – Cave dwellings in Mellieħa, Malta
164. Yaodong – A yaodong or "house cave" is a particular form of earth shelter dwelling common in the Loess Plateau in China's north. They are generally excavated horizontally from a central "courtyard". Consequently, very little heating is required in winter, in summer, it is as cool as an air-conditioned room. The history of yaodongs goes back centuries, they continue to be used. In 2006, an estimated 40 million people in northern China lived in yaodongs. In the last decade, yaodongs have been brought to the attention of scientists and researchers. These traditional dwellings have been regarded as an example of sustainable design. The new vaulted adobe homes of this type are now common among farmers in the area. More elaborate yaodongs may have a façade built with stones with fine patterns carved on the surface. Yaodongs can also be constructed with stones or bricks as stand-alone structures. The inside walls are usually plastered with lime to make them white. But it is during the dynasties Ming and Qing that the pace of construction reached its peak. In the Qingyang region especially, the ratio of cave dwellers to non-cave dwellers is the highest found anywhere in China. Approximately 810,000 people died in collapsed yaodongs in the 1556 Shaanxi earthquake. The most famous yaodongs in China are perhaps those in Yan'an.Yaodong – Traditional cave houses in Shanxi
166. History of Italy – The history of Italy begins with the arrival of the first hominins 850,000 years ago at Monte Poggiolo. Italy shows evidence of habitation by modern humans beginning about 43,000 years ago. It is reached by the Neolithic early as 6000-5500 BC Cardium Pottery and Impressed ware. The collapse of the Western Empire by the end of the 5th century is taken to mark the end of Late Antiquity. A Lombard Kingdom of Italy was established, although parts of the peninsula remained until the 11th century. With the idea of the nation state in the 19th century, the peninsula was unified in the late 19th century. The new Kingdom of Italy, established in 1861, quickly modernized and built a large colonial empire, colonizing parts of Africa, countries along the Mediterranean. However, many regions of the young nation remained poor, originating the Italian diaspora. Part of the victorious allied powers of World War I, Italy defeated the Austrian Empire. Soon however, the liberal state collapsed to social unrest: the Fascists, led by Benito Mussolini, took over and set up an authoritarian dictatorship. As a result of a Constitutional Referendum, the monarchy was abolished. The new republic was proclaimed on 2 June 1946. In the 1960s, Italy saw a period of rapid modernization and sustained economic growth, the so-called Italian economic miracle. Italy plays a prominent role in regional and global military, diplomatic affairs. In prehistoric times, the Italian peninsula was rather different from its current shape.History of Italy – Matera, which dates from Palaeolithic 10th millennium BC, (region of Basilicata).
167. Prehistoric Italy – In prehistoric times, the Italian peninsula was rather different from how it is now. During glaciations, the islands of Elba and Sicily were connected to the mainland. The arrival of the first hominins was 850,000 years ago at Monte Poggiolo. The presence of Homo neanderthalensis has been demonstrated in archaeological findings dating to c. 50,000 years ago. There are the most important being that of the Grotta Guattari at San Felice Circeo, on the Tyrrhenian Sea south of Rome. Other are the Breuil grotto, also in San Felice. The first Cro Magnon inhabitants of Italy moved across the peninusula, establishing themselves far from each one, most on high areas. In 2011 it has been discovered the most ancient Sardinian complete human skeleton at Pistoccu, in Marina di Arbus; scientists date it to 8500 years ago. Since the Late-Neolithic, Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Liguria, Tuscany and Sardinia in particular were involved in the pan-Western European Megalithic phenomenon. Later, in the Age, megalithic structures were built also in Latium, Puglia and Sicily. They are sometimes described as Eneolithic cultures, due to their use of primitive copper tools. The earliest Statue menhirs, frequently depicting weapons, were erected during this period. This sculptural tradition of possible origin, lasted in some regions well into the Bronze Age and even into the Iron Age. The Beaker culture marks the transition between the early Bronze Age. Pottery was blackish.Prehistoric Italy – Figure of an Aurochs engraved at the Romito cave near Cosenza
168. Italic peoples – The Italic peoples were an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group identified by speaking Italic languages. The Italics were all the peoples who spoke an idiom belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages and had settled in the Italian peninsula. The Latino-Falisci, entered Italy into the plain of the Po River about 1200 BC. Later, they crossed the Apennine Mountains and eventually occupied the region of Latium, which included the area of Rome. Before 1000 BC, the Osco-Umbrians followed, which later divided into various groups and gradually moved to central and southern Italy. According to David W. Anthony between 3100-2800/2600 BCE, a real folk migration of Proto-Indo-European speakers from the Yamna culture took place into the Danube Valley. These migrations probably split-off Pre-Germanic from Proto-Indo-European. Hydronymy shows that Proto-Germanic homeland is in Central Germany which would be very close to the homeland of Italic and Celtic languages as well. The origin of a hypothetical ancestral "Italo-Celtic" people is to be found in today's eastern Hungary, "kurganized" around 3100 BC by the Yamna-culture. This is further confirmed by the fact that Germanic family shares more vocabulary than with the Celtic language family. Remains of the later prehistoric age have been found in Liguria and Lombardy. During the Copper Age, at the same time as metalworking appeared, Indo-European people migrated to Italy. Approximatively four waves of population from north to the Alps have been hypothesized on the basis of archaeological evidence. The Remedello culture is associated by some with the first identified wave of Proto-Indo-Europeans who entered Italy and took over the Po Valley. In the mid-2nd millennium BC, the Terramare culture developed in the Po Valley.Italic peoples – Indo-European Migrations. Source David Anthony (2007), The Horse, The Wheel and Language
169. List of ancient peoples of Italy – This is a list of ancient peoples living in Italy before the Roman conquest. Many of the names are either scholarly exonyms assigned by the ancient writers of works in ancient Greek and Latin. The following peoples are believed to have spoken languages that were not Indo-European, although most on scanty evidence. Some of them were some not. For some has been also proposed the definition of Peri-Indo-European.List of ancient peoples of Italy – Peoples of Cisalpine Gaul 391-192 BC.
170. Pre-Nuragic Sardinia – The Pre-Nuragic period refers to the prehistory of Sardinia from the Paleolithic till the middle Bronze age, when the Nuragic civilization flourished on the island. The discovery of lithic workshops indicate a human presence in Sardinia in the period between 450,000 and 10,000 years ago. Human remains have been found at the "Su Coloru cave" of Laerru, in northern Sardinia. The culture suggest that these people came in Sardinia from the Italian peninsula after a difficult navigation with rudimentary boats. The culture of Su Carroppu represents the earliest phase of the Neolithic in Sardinia. The presence of two human skeletons, along with ornaments made according to the researchers witnessed the customs of burial cave. The Grotta Verde culture is named after a cave located at Capo Caccia near Alghero, where in 1979, important findings had been made. It is dated back in the mid-fifth millennium BC. This culture was characterized by the production of refined pottery, decorated with a toothed tool. On a vase found in a stylized manner, human heads with small nose, eyes and mouth played. According to archaeologist Giovanni Lilliu, this would be the anthropomorphic representation of Sardinian prehistory. On a wall inside the cave were also found particular graffiti, another singular testimony of these people. In 1971 caver Renato Loria found in the territory of Mara, between Villanova Monteleone and Bosa, a ravine of about sixty square meters. The Bonuighinu culture prevailed from 4000 BC up to 3400 BC. One of the most important villages was that of "Puisteris" in Mogoro.Pre-Nuragic Sardinia – Mother Goddess from Cuccuru s'Arrius, Cabras
171. List of Nuragic tribes – This is a list of Nuragic tribes, listed in order of the province or the general area in which they lived. Some closely fit the concept of a tribe. Others are confederations or even unions of tribes. The linguistic affiliation of the Nuragic people and tribes remains to be further studied. Current knowledge indicates that they may have been related to Iberians the Aquitanians, these peoples were Pre-Indo-Europeans and spoke Pre-Indo-European languages: Aquitanian and Iberian. There is also the possibility that the Nuragic peoples may have been related to the Etruscans and other Tyrsenian languages. Because of this, their languages may also have been Pre-Indo-European. They dwelt at the extreme north-east of Sardinia, near the Tibulati and immediately north of the Coracenses. Aesaronenses, they dwelt north of the Æchilenenses or Cornenses. Beronicenses Carenses, they dwelt north of the Salcitani and the Lucuidonenses. Celsitani, they dwelt north of the Scapitani and the Siculensi. Cunusitani, they dwelt north of the Salcitani and the Lucuidonenses. They dwelt south of the Scapitani and the Siculensi and north of the Solcitani and the Noritani. Paleo-Sardinian History of Sardinia Nuragic civilization Sardinian people Torrean civilization Corsican people Ethnic group Tribe PITTAU, Massimo.. .List of Nuragic tribes – Nuragic tribes according to the Greek geographer Ptolemy
172. Etruscan civilization – Culture, identifiably Etruscan developed in Italy after about 800 BC, approximately over the range of the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture. The latter gave way in the 7th century to a culture, influenced by ancient Greece, Magna Graecia, Phoenicia. The decline was gradual, but by 500 BC the political destiny of Italy had passed out of Etruscan hands. The last Etruscan cities were formally absorbed by Rome around 100 BC. Politics were based on the small city, probably the family unit. Archaic Greece had a huge influence on their art and architecture, Greek mythology was evidently very familiar to them. The latest mitochondrial DNA study shows that Etruscans appear to fall very close to a Neolithic population from Central Europe and to other Tuscan populations. The ancient Romans referred to the Etruscans as the Tusci or Etrusci. Their Roman name is the origin of the terms Tuscany, which refers to their heartland, Etruria, which can refer to their wider region. The word may also be related to the Hittite Taruisa. The Etruscans called themselves Rasenna, syncopated to Rasna or Raśna. The origins of the Etruscans are mostly lost in prehistory, although Greek historians as early as the 5th century BC, repeatedly associated the Tyrrhenians with Pelasgians. Strabo as well as the Homeric Hymn to Dionysus make mention of the Tyrrhenians as pirates. All are divided into a number of states. The Raeti are believed to be people of Tuscan race driven out by the Gauls, their leader was named Raetus.Etruscan civilization – Etruscan pendant with swastika symbols, Bolsena, Italy, 700-650 BC. Louvre Museum
173. Nuragic civilization – The Nuragic civilization, born and developed in Sardinia, the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, lasted from the Bronze Age to the 2nd century AD. The civilization's name derives from the nuraghe, a tower-fortress type of construction built in numerous exemplars starting from about 1800 BC. Some 7,000 nuraghes dot the Sardinian landscape. No written records of this civilization have been discovered. The only written information that we have may be considered more mythological than historical. The most ancient settlements have been discovered both in central Sardinia and Anglona. Later several cultures developed on the island, such as the Ozieri culture. The economy was based with the mainland. With the diffusion of metallurgy, copper objects and weapons also appeared on the island. According to some scholars, the similarity between those found in Mesopotamia are due to cultural influxes coming from the Eastern Mediterranean. The beakers appeared through the Italian Peninsula. The Bonnanaro culture displayed several similarities with the contemporary Polada culture of northern Italy. These two cultures shared common features with axe-shaped handles. These influences may have spread to Sardinia via Corsica, where they absorbed architectural techniques that were already widespread on the island. The widespread diffusion of bronze brought numerous improvements to the tools used in agriculture, warfare.Nuragic civilization – Su Nuraxi of Barumini, included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites since 1997
174. Ancient Carthage – Carthage was the Phoenician city-state of Carthage and during the 7th to 3rd centuries BC, included its sphere of influence, the Carthaginian Empire. Carthage was founded in 814 BC. At the height of the city's prominence it served with trading stations extending throughout the region. The city also had to deal with the indigenous inhabitants of the area where Carthage was built. After the third and final Punic War, Roman forces destroyed, redesigned, then occupied Carthage. Nearly all of former Carthaginian dependencies subsequently fell into Roman hands. According to Roman sources, Phoenician colonists from modern-day Lebanon, led by Dido, founded Carthage circa 814 BC. Queen Elissa was an exiled princess of the ancient Phoenician city of Tyre. Pygmalion of Tyre, had murdered Elissa's husband, the high priest. Elissa escaped the tyranny of her own country, founding the "new city" of Carthage and subsequently its later dominions. The following can be deduced from various sources. According to Justin, Princess Elissa was the daughter of King Belus II of Tyre. When he died, the throne was jointly bequeathed to her brother, her. She also known as Sychaeus, the High Priest of Melqart, a man with both authority and wealth comparable to the king. This led to increased rivalry between the monarchy.Ancient Carthage – Carthage and its dependencies in 264 BC
175. Magna Graecia – Most notably the Roman poet Ovid referred in his poem Fasti. According to Strabo Great Greece started already at the time of the Tojan War and lasted for several centuries. Also during that period, Greek colonies were established in places widely separated as the eastern coast of the Black Sea, Massalia. They included settlements in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula. The Romans called the area of Sicily and the foot of Italy Magna Graecia since it was so densely inhabited by the Greeks. The ancient geographers differed on whether the term included Sicily or merely Apulia and Calabria: Strabo being the most prominent advocate of the wider definitions. With colonization, Greek culture was exported in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its traditions of the independent polis. An original Hellenic civilization soon developed, later interacting with the native Italic civilisations. Many of the Hellenic cities became very powerful, like Neapolis, Syracuse, Acragas Paestum and Sybaris. Other cities in Magna Graecia included others. Following the Pyrrhic War in the 3rd century BC, Magna Graecia was absorbed into the Roman Republic. A remarkable example of the influence is the Griko-speaking minority that still exists today in the Italian regions of Calabria and Apulia. Some scholars, such as Gerhard Rohlfs, argue that the origins of Griko may ultimately be traced to the colonies of Magna Graecia. One example is the Griko people, some of whom still maintain their Greek language and customs. For example, Greeks re-entered the region by the Ottoman Empire.Magna Graecia – Cities of Magna Graecia and other Greek settlements in Italy (in red)
176. Ancient Rome – Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. In its approximately 12 centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through assimilation, it came to dominate Southern and Western Europe, Asia Minor, parts of Northern and Eastern Europe. Rome was preponderant throughout the Mediterranean region and was one of the most powerful entities of the ancient world. Societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Roman society has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, society. The Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would have lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe. King Numitor was deposed by Amulius, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins.Ancient Rome – Senātus Populus que Rōmānus
177. Roman Kingdom – The Roman Kingdom was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories. The site of the founding of Empire had a ford where the Tiber could be crossed. Hills surrounding it presented easily defensible positions in the wide fertile plain surrounding them. All of these features contributed to the success of the city. With no contemporary records of the kingdom existing, all accounts of the kings must be carefully questioned. Of all these insignia, the most important was the purple toga. The imperium of the king was protected him from ever being brought to trial for his actions. Also, the laws that kept citizens safe from magistrates' misuse of imperium did not exist during the monarchical period. Another power of the king was the power to either nominate all officials to offices. The tribune left office upon the king's death. The tribune also possessed the power to convene the Curiate Assembly and lay legislation before it. Another officer appointed by the king was the praefectus urbi, who acted as the warden of the city. The king even received the right to be the only person to appoint patricians to the Senate. The people knew the king as a mediator between them and the gods and thus viewed the king with religious awe. This made the head of its chief executive.Roman Kingdom – Capitoline Wolf
178. Roman Republic – It was during this period that Rome's control expanded to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. By the following century, it included Spain, what is now southern France. Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st century BC, it included much of the eastern Mediterranean. The exact date of transition can be a matter of interpretation. Roman government was headed by two consuls, advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. Many of Rome's legislative structures can still be observed throughout Europe and much of the world in modern nation states and international organizations. The exact causes and motivations during the republic are subject to wide debate. While they can be seen as motivated by outright imperialism, historians typically take a much more nuanced view. They argue that Rome's expansion was driven by the new contingencies that these decisions created. It was also less able to defend itself against its non-Roman enemies, which made attack by these enemies more likely. It was, therefore, more likely to seek an alliance of protection with Rome. This growing coalition moved Rome closer to confrontation with major powers. The result was more alliance-seeking, on the part of both the Roman confederacy and city-states seeking membership within that confederacy. This shift mainly took place in parts such as the southern Italian towns that sided with Hannibal. In contrast, Roman expansion into Spain and Gaul occurred as a mix of military occupation.Roman Republic – Route of Pyrrhus of Epirus
179. Roman Empire – The imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empire's existence were "Roman Peace". Following Octavian's victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, but the Praetorian Guard proclaimed Claudius emperor instead. Under Claudius, the empire invaded its major expansion since Augustus. His short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors. The empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. Commodus' assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, renamed "Constantinople" in his honour. It remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the official state religion of the empire. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time.Roman Empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
180. Italy in the Middle Ages – Lombard rule ended with the invasion of Charlemagne in 773, who established the Kingdom of Italy and the Papal States. In the 11th century began a political development unique to Italy, the transformation of medieval communes into powerful city states modelled on ancient Roman Republicanism. Each city aligned itself with the other, yet was divided internally between the two warring parties, Guelfs and Ghibellines. Since the 13th century, these wars had increasingly been fought by mercenaries, giving rise to the Italian institution of the Swiss mercenary culture. The House of Habsburg would control Italy for the duration of the modern period, until Napoleon's invasion of Italy in 1796. Rome was sacked by Alaric in 410. Romulus Augustus, was deposed in 476 by an Eastern Germanic general, Odoacer. He subsequently ruled for seventeen years as rex gentium, theoretically under the suzerainty of the Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno, but practically in total independence. The administration gave religious freedoms to the Christians. Odoacer fought against other Germanic tribes that periodically invaded the peninsula. In 489, however, Emperor Zeno decided to oust a foederatum people living in the Danube, by sending them into Italy. On February 493 Theodoric the Great defeated Odoacer and became the king of the Ostrogoths. He in fact ruled over Italy largely through Roman personnel. The reign of Theodoric is generally considered a period of recovery for the country. Infrastructures were repaired, frontiers were expanded, the economy well cared for.Italy in the Middle Ages – The maritime republics of medieval Italy
181. Odoacer – Flavius Odoacer, also known as Flavius Odovacer, was a soldier who in 476 became the first King of Italy. His reign is commonly seen as marking the end of the Western Roman Empire. Odoacer introduced important changes into the administrative system of Italy. He was able to distribute land to his followers without much opposition. No such disturbances occurred during the later period of his reign. Although Odoacer was an Arian Christian, he rarely intervened in the affairs of the orthodox and trinitarian church of the Roman Empire. Upon Nepos' murder in 480 Odoacer invaded Dalmatia, to punish the murderers. Within two years also conquered the region and incorporated it into his domain. When master of soldiers of the Eastern Empire, asked for Odoacer's help in 484 in his struggle to depose Zeno, Odoacer invaded Zeno's westernmost provinces. The emperor responded first by inciting the Rugi of present-day Austria to attack Italy. During the winter of 487 -- 488 Odoacer defeated the Rugi in their own territory. Theoderic by August 490 had captured almost the entire peninsula, forcing Odoacer to take refuge in Ravenna. The city surrendered on 5 March 493; there killed him. Odoacer is the earliest ruler of Italy for whom an autograph of any of his legal acts has survived to the current day. For the fact that he was not considered Roman, Odoacer's ethnic origins are not completely known.Odoacer – Coin of Odoacer, Ravenna, 477, with Odoacer in profile, depicted with a "barbarian" moustache.
182. Ostrogothic Kingdom – The Ostrogothic Kingdom was established by the Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas from 493 to 553. Under its first king, the Ostrogothic kingdom reached its zenith, stretching from modern France in the west in the southeast. Most of the social institutions of the late Western Roman Empire were preserved during his rule. Theodoric called himself Gothorum Romanorumque rex, demonstrating his desire to be a leader for both peoples. Starting in 535, the Eastern Roman Empire invaded Italy under Justinian I. The Ostrogothic ruler at Witiges, was finally captured when the capital Ravenna fell. The Ostrogoths were eventually defeated. The last king of the Ostrogothic Kingdom was Teia. The Ostrogoths were the eastern branch of the Goths. During the 4th century, they came under the dominion of the Huns. After the collapse of the Hunnic empire in 454, large numbers of Ostrogoths were settled by Emperor Marcian in the Roman province of Pannonia as foederati. But in 460, during the reign of Leo I, because the payment of annual sums had ceased, they ravaged Illyricum. In this conflict, alliances shifted regularly, large parts of the Balkans were devastated by it. After Strabo's death in 481, Zeno came with Theoderic. Theoderic was named magister praesentalis consul for 484.Ostrogothic Kingdom – The Palace of Theoderic, as depicted on the walls of St. Apollinare Nuovo. The figures between the columns, representing Theoderic and his court, were removed after the East Roman conquest.
183. Kingdom of the Lombards – The king was traditionally elected as several attempts to establish a hereditary dynasty failed. The kingdom was subdivided into a varying number of duchies, ruled by semi-autonomous dukes, which were in turn subdivided into gastaldates at the municipal level. The capital of the center of its political life was Pavia in the modern northern Italian region of Lombardy. The Lombard invasion of Italy was opposed by the Byzantine Empire, which retained control of much of the peninsula until the mid-8th century. Because of this division, the southern duchies were considerably more autonomous than the smaller northern duchies. Over time, the Lombards gradually adopted Roman titles, traditions. By the time Paul the Deacon was writing in the 8th century, the Lombardic language, dress and hairstyles had all disappeared. Initially the Lombards were Arianist Christians, at odds with the Papacy both religiously and politically. However, by the end of the 7th century, their conversion to Catholicism was all but complete. The king of the Franks, adopted the title "King of the Lombards", although he never managed to gain control of Benevento, the southernmost Lombard duchy. The existence of seal rings "testifies of government". In the 6th century Byzantine Emperor Justinian attempted to reassert imperial authority in the territories of the Western Roman Empire. The Lombard arrival broke the political unity of the Italian Peninsula for the first time since the Roman conquest. The peninsula was now torn between territories ruled with boundaries which changed over time. The territories which remained under Byzantine control had its stronghold in the Exarchate of Ravenna.Kingdom of the Lombards – The Lombard possessions in Italy: The Lombard Kingdom (Neustria, Austria and Tuscia) and the Lombard Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento
184. Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire) – The Kingdom of Italy was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, Burgundy. It excluded the Republic of Venice. Its original capital was Pavia until the 11th century. In June 774, the Franks became masters of northern Italy. The southern areas remained in the Duchy of Benevento. In 800 had himself crowned "Emperor of the Romans" in Rome. Until 961, the rule of Italy was continually contested from both within and without the kingdom. He continued on to Rome, where he had himself crowned February 962. The resulting wars between Guelphs and Ghibellines, imperialist factions, respectively, were characteristic of Italian politics in the 12th -- 14th centuries. The Lombard League was the most famous example of this situation; though not a declared separatist movement, it openly challenged the emperor's claim to power. By the 15th century, the power of the city-states was largely broken. A series of wars in Lombardy from 1423 to 1454 further reduced the number of competing states in Italy. In 1494 the peninsula was invaded by France. The resulting Great Italian Wars lasted until 1559, when control of most of the Italian states passed to King Philip II of Spain. After the Imperial Reform of 1495–1512, the Italian kingdom corresponded to the unencircled territories south of the Alps.Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire) – The Iron Crown of Lombardy, now at Monza Cathedral
185. History of Islam in southern Italy – The history of Islam in southern Italy began with the first Muslim settlement in Sicily, at Mazara, captured in 827. The subsequent rule of Sicily and Malta started in the 10th century. The Emirate of Sicily lasted until 1061. Muslims were sometimes sought by Christian factions against other factions. In that year the Kalbids established the independence of their emirate from the Fatimid caliphate. By 1071 its citadel were captured. In 1091 Noto fell to the Normans, the conquest was complete. Malta fell later that year, though the Arab administration was kept in place, marking the final chapter of this period. Widespread conversion ensued, leading to the disappearance of Islam in Sicily by the 1280s. In 1245, Muslim Sicilians were deported to the settlement of Lucera, by order of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. The first attacks by Islamic ships on Sicily, then part of the Byzantine Empire, occurred in 652 under the Rashidun Caliphate of Uthman. The Byzantine exarch of Ravenna, failed. Soon after, the Arabs returned to Syria after collecting a sufficiently large amount of booty. A second Arab expedition to Sicily occurred in 669. A ravaging force consisting of 200 ships from Alexandria attacked the island.History of Islam in southern Italy – Arabic painting made for the Norman kings (c. 1150) in the Palazzo dei Normanni, originally the emir's palace at Palermo.
186. Norman conquest of southern Italy – The Norman conquest of southern Italy spanned most of the 11th and 12th centuries, involving many battles and independent conquerors. Many territories were conquered independently, only later were unified into a single state. Compared to the conquest of England it was unplanned and disorganised, but equally complete. The earliest reported date of the arrival of Norman knights in southern Italy is 999, although it may be assumed that they had visited before then. According to several sources, Norman pilgrims returning in Jerusalem via Apulia stayed with Prince Guaimar III in Salerno. Its environs were attacked from Africa demanding payment of an overdue annual tribute. While Guaimar began to collect the tribute the Normans ridiculed him and his Lombard subjects for cowardice, they assaulted their besiegers. A grateful Guaimar asked the Normans to stay. They promised to tell them about possibly lucrative military service in Salerno. The Salerno tradition was first recorded in his Ystoire de Normant between 1071 and 1086. Beginning with the Annales Ecclesiastici of Baronius in the 17th century, the Salernitan story became the accepted history. Although its factual accuracy was questioned periodically during the following centuries, it has been accepted by most scholars since. The "Gargano tradition", appears without reference to any previous Norman presence. Melus had been in Salerno just before his visit to Monte Gargano. Another story involves the exile of a group of brothers from the Drengot family.Norman conquest of southern Italy – The imprisonment of Pandulf of Capua, after Emperor Henry II's 1022 campaign
187. Guelphs and Ghibellines – The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, rivalry between these two parties formed a particularly important aspect of the internal politics of medieval Italy. The division between the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Italy, however, persisted until the 15th century. Guelph is an Italian form of the name of the House of Welf, the family of the dukes of Bavaria. The names were likely introduced to Italy during the reign of Frederick Barbarossa. When Frederick conducted military campaigns in Italy to expand imperial power there, his supporters became known as Ghibellines. The Lombard League and its allies were defending the liberties of the urban communes against the Emperor's encroachments and became known as Guelphs. The Ghibellines were thus the imperial party, while the Guelphs supported the Pope. Broadly speaking, Guelphs tended to come from wealthy mercantile families, whereas Ghibellines were predominantly those whose wealth was based on agricultural estates. The Lombard League defeated Frederick at the Battle of Legnano in 1176. Frederick recognized the full autonomy of the cities of the Lombard league under his nominal suzerainty. The division developed its own dynamic in the politics of medieval Italy, it persisted long after the direct confrontation between Emperor and Pope had ceased. Pisa maintained a staunch Ghibelline stance against her fiercest rivals, the Guelph Republic of Genoa and Florence. Adherence to one of the parties could therefore be motivated by local or regional political reasons. Within cities, party allegiances differed from guild to guild, rione to rione, a city could easily change party after internal upheaval.Guelphs and Ghibellines – Painting of the Guelph and Ghibelline families, by Ottavio Baussano (Asti).
188. Italian city-states – The Italian city-states were a political phenomenon of small independent states mostly in the central and northern Italian peninsula between the 9th and 15th centuries. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, urban settlements in Italy generally enjoyed a greater continuity than in the rest of western Europe. Many of these towns were survivors of earlier Etruscan, Umbrian and Roman towns which had existed within the Roman Empire. The republican institutions of Rome had also survived. Other city-states were associated like Genoa, in the Adriatic, Ragusa. Around 1100, Genoa and Venice emerged as independent Maritime republics. Pisa and Amalfi also emerged as maritime republics: banking helped support their powerful navies in the Mediterranean in those medieval centuries. Between the 12th and 13th centuries, Italy was vastly different from feudal Europe north of the Alps. The Peninsula was a melange of political and cultural elements, not a unified state. Marc Bloch and Fernand Braudel have argued that geography determined the history of the region; other scholars emphasize the absence of central political structures. The very mountainous nature of Italy's landscape was a barrier to effective inter-city communication. The Po plain, however, was an exception: it was the only large contiguous area, most city states that fell to invasion were located there. Those that survived the longest were in the more rugged regions, such as Florence or Venice, protected by its lagoon. While those Roman, republican sensibilities persisted, there were many changes afoot. Italy first felt the changes in Europe from the 11th to the 13th centuries.Italian city-states – Florence was one of the most important city-states in Italy
189. Maritime republics – The maritime republics of the Mediterranean Basin were thalassocratic city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia during the Middle Ages. The best known among the maritime republics are Venice, Genoa, Pisa, Ragusa, Amalfi. Less known are Gaeta, Ancona, Noli. The maritime republics were city-states. They were generally republics in that they were formally independent, though most of them originated from territories once formally belonging to the Byzantine Empire. During the time of their independence, all these cities had similar systems of government, in which the merchant class had considerable power. The Fourth Crusade, originally intended to liberate Jerusalem, actually entailed the Venetian conquest of Zara and Constantinople. The growing independence acquired by some coastal cities gave them a leading role in this development. These cities, exposed to pirate raids, organized their own defence, providing themselves substantial war fleets. The independent cities formed autonomous an expression of the class that constituted the backbone of their power. Using gold coins, the merchants of the maritime republics began to develop foreign exchange transactions and accounting. Technological advances in navigation provided essential support for the growth of mercantile wealth. Nautical charts of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries all belong to the schools of Genoa, Venice and Ancona. The Crusades offered opportunities for expansion. They increasingly relied on Italian transport, for which the Republics extracted concessions of colonies well as a cash price.Maritime republics – Map of the maritime republics in the 11th century and their coats of arms.
190. Italian Renaissance – Italy became the recognized European leader in all these areas to varying degrees retained this lead until about 1600. The European Renaissance centred in the city of Florence. It later spread to Venice, where the remains of Greek culture were brought together, providing humanist scholars with new texts. The Italian Renaissance peaked in the mid-16th century as foreign invasions plunged the region into the turmoil of the Italian Wars. However, the ideals of the Renaissance endured and spread into the rest of Europe, setting off the Northern Renaissance, the English Renaissance. The Italian Renaissance is best known for its cultural achievements. Accounts of Renaissance literature usually begin with his friend and contemporary Boccaccio. Famous vernacular poets of the 15th century include Luigi Pulci, Matteo Maria Boiardo, Ludovico Ariosto. 15th century writers such as the Platonist philosopher Marsilio Ficino made extensive translations from both Latin and Greek. The same is true for architecture, as practiced by Brunelleschi, Leon Battista Alberti, Bramante. Their works include Florence Cathedral, the Tempio Malatestiano in Rimini. Yet cultural contributions notwithstanding, some present-day historians also see the era as one of the beginning of economic regression for Italy. By the Late Middle Ages, southern Italy were generally poorer than the North. The Papacy was affronted when the Avignon Papacy was created as a consequence of pressure from King Philip the Fair of France. In the south, Sicily had for some time been by the Arabs and then the Normans.Italian Renaissance – Renaissance
191. Italian Wars – For several months, French forces moved through Italy virtually unopposed, since the condottieri armies of the Italian city-states were unable to resist them. Charles VIII made triumphant entries into Rome on December 31, 1494. The garrison sent the bodies back to the French lines. This was the famous "sack of Naples". The League was specifically formed to resist French aggression. The League was established on 31 March after negotiations by Venice, the Holy Roman Empire. This coalition, effectively, cut Charles' army off from returning to France. After establishing a pro-French government in Naples, Charles started to march north on his return to France. However, in the small town of Fornovo he met the League army. In contemporary tradition, though, the battle counted as a Holy League victory, because the French forces had to leave and lost their provisions. To the Italian coalition, however, it was at best a pyrrhic victory, in that its strategic outcome and long-term consequences were unfavorable. In fact, the Italian states could not field armies comparable to those of the feudal monarchies of Europe in numbers and equipment. Thus, Charles VIII lost all that he conquered in Italy. Ludovico Sforza retained his throne until 1499 when Louis XII of France, invaded Lombardy and seized Milan on September 17, 1499. Louis XII justified his claim to the Duchy of Milan by right of his paternal grandfather, Louis duc d'Orléans having married Valentina Visconti in 1387.Italian Wars – The Battle of Pavia by an unknown Flemish artist (oil on panel, 16th century).
192. Italian unification – The process was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. Italian nationalism was based among political activists, often operating from exile. Following conquest by the Frankish Empire, the title of King of Italy merged with the office of Holy Roman Emperor. This situation began to deteriorate with the rise of modern nation-states in the early modern period. Italy, including the Papal States, then became the site of proxy wars between the major powers, France. Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated that the "ancient valour in Italian hearts is not yet dead" in Italia Mia. 'Then what are you?' they asked. 'I am an Italian,' he explained." The institutions of republican governments promoted citizenship over the rule of the Bourbons and Habsburgs and other dynasties. The reaction against any outside control challenged Napoleon's choice of rulers. As Napoleon's reign began to fail, the rulers he had installed tried to keep their thrones further feeding nationalistic sentiments. After Napoleon fell the Congress of Vienna restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments. Exiles dreamed of unification. Three ideals of unification appeared.Italian unification – Five Days of Milan, 18–22 March 1848
193. Kingdom of Italy – The Kingdom of Italy was a state founded in 1861 when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy. Italy received the region of Veneto following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, ending more than thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary following strong disagreements with France about the respective colonial expansions. Victory in the war gave a permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. "Fascist Italy" is the era of National Fascist Party rule from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government. According to Payne, " Fascist regime passed through several relatively distinct phases". The first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, albeit with a "legally organized dictatorship". Then came the second phase, "the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper from 1925 to 1929". The third phase, with less activism, was 1929–34. The war itself defeats, while the rump Salò regime under German control was the final stage. Italy was allied until 1943. It switched sides after ousting Mussolini and shutting down the Fascist party in areas controlled by the Allied invaders. Shortly after the war, civil discontent led on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to form the Italian Republic, the present form of Italy today.Kingdom of Italy – Italian unification process.
194. Italian Empire – The Italian Empire comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic. The genesis of the colonial empire was the purchase, in 1869, by a commercial company of the coastal town of Assab on the Red Sea. This was taken over by the Italian government in 1882, becoming Italy's overseas territory. Over the next two decades the pace of European acquisitions in Africa increased, causing the so-called "Scramble for Africa". Outside of Africa, Italy possessed a small concession off the coast of Turkey. During the First World War, Italy occupied southern Albania to prevent it from falling to Austria-Hungary. In 1917, it established a protectorate over Albania, which remained until 1920. In 1939, Italy incorporated it into the Fascist state. During the Second World War, Italy was forced in the final peace to abandon all its colonies and protectorates. It was granted a United Nations trust to administer Italian Somaliland in 1950. When Somalia became independent in 1960, Italy's eight-decade experience with colonialism ended. Italy had long considered the Ottoman province of Tunisia, where a large community of Tunisian Italians lived, within its economic sphere of influence. Italian annexation of Massawa prevented any expansion of French Somaliland. At the same time, Italy occupied territory on the south side of the horn of Africa, forming what would become Italian Somaliland. However, in 1887, Italian Prime Minister Agostino Depretis ordered an invasion.Italian Empire – Francesco Crispi promoted the Italian colonialism in Africa in the late 1800s.
195. History of the Italian Republic – Although ousted after a few months of government, Berlusconi became one of economic figures for the next two decades. In November 2011, Berlusconi resigned. Mario Monti formed a new government, composed by "technicians" and supported by both the center-left and the center-right parties. After tensions in the Democratic Party, the PD's Secretary Matteo Renzi sworn as new Prime Minister. Mussolini was killed by resistance fighters in April 1945. Victor Emmanuel formally abdicated on 9 May 1946; his son became king as Umberto II of Italy. A Constitutional Referendum was held on 2 June 1946. The monarchy was abolished. The Kingdom of Italy was no more. The Italian royal family, was exiled. Victor Emmanuel left for Egypt where he died in 1947. Umberto, king for only a month, moved to Portugal. A Constituent Assembly was in place between January 1948; it wrote the new Constitution of Italy which took effect on January 1, 1948. The Peace Treaty of World War II was signed in Paris in February 1947. The PCI received some ministerial posts in a Christian Democrat -- led coalition cabinet.History of the Italian Republic – Alcide De Gasperi, Prime Minister from 1945 to 1953.
196. Years of Lead (Italy) – The left-wing Marxist movement in Italy, involved in many events of the period lasted from 1968 until the end of the 1970s. There was widespread social conflict and unprecedented acts of terrorism carried out by both right- and left-wing paramilitary groups. An attempt to endorse the Italian Social Movement by the Tambroni Cabinet led to rioting and was short-lived. They created a coalition. The assassination of the Christian Democrat leader Aldo Moro in 1978 ended the strategy of historic compromise between the Italian Communist Party. The assassination was carried out by the Red Brigades, then led by Mario Moretti. Between 1981, nearly 2,000 murders were attributed to political violence in the form of bombings, assassinations, street warfare between rival militant factions. Public protests shook Italy with the autonomist student movement being particularly active, leading to the occupation of the Fiat automobile factory in Milan. On 19 Antonio Annarumma, a Milanese policeman, was killed during a riot by far-left demonstrators. He was the civil servant to die in the wave of violence. Local police arrested 80 or so suspects including Giuseppe Pinelli, an anarchist initially blamed for the bombing, Pietro Valpreda. Meanwhile, five others were convicted and jailed for the bombing. They were later released after three years of preventive detention. In the 1990s, new investigations into the Piazza Fontana bombing, citing new witnesses testimony, implicated Freda and Ventura again. However, the pair can not be put again because of double jeopardy, as they were acquitted of the crime in 1987.Years of Lead (Italy) – Attack at the Bologna railway station; it was the deadliest episode of the Years of Lead.
197. History of coins in Italy – Italy has a long history of different coinage types, which spans thousands of years. Italy adopts the euro currency. Spite the fact that the Italian coinage systems were used in the Magna Graecia and Etruscan civilization, the Romans introduced a widespread currency. Unlike most modern coins, Roman coins had intrinsic value. While they contained precious metals, the value of a coin was higher than its precious content, so they were not bullion. The florin was struck with no significant change in its design or metal content standard. It had 54 grains of gold. In the fourteenth century, local coin issuing authorities made their own copies of the florin. The most important of these was the Hungarian forint because the Kingdom of Hungary was a major source of gold mined in Europe. They corresponded to 4.5 grams of silver. The Papal States scudo was the coinage system used until 1866. Between 1799, the revolutionary French forces established the Roman Republic, sued coins denominated in baiocco and scudo. In addition, the states of Ancona, Civitavecchia, Clitunno, Foligno, Gubbio, Pergola and Perugia changed their coinage system to that of the Roman Republic. In 1808, French francs circulated as the official coins. When the Pope's authority was restored in 1814, the scudo was restored as the currency.History of coins in Italy – A Papal States scudo with Pope Pius VII.
198. Economic history of Italy – A series of tables showing different Italian economic sectors, GDP growth. The Italian Renaissance was remarkable in economic development. Venice and Genoa were the economic pioneers. Reasons for their early development are for example the military safety of Venetian lagoons, the high population density and the institutional structure which inspired entrepreneurs. During the 18th centuries Italy experienced a decline in relative economic standing. Military conflicts, political fractionalization, the shift of world trade to north-western Europe are factors which slowed down Italian development. Plots grew smaller and smaller and thus more and more unproductive as land was subdivided among heirs. The Italian diaspora did not affect all regions of agricultural areas with a high proportion of small peasant land holdings.". ". Although owning land was the basic yardstick of wealth, farming in the south was socially despised. People did not invest in agricultural equipment but as low-risk state bonds. Italy had emerged from World War I in a weakened condition. The National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy at the end of a period of social unrest. In 1929, Italy was hit hard by the Great Depression. Trying to handle the crisis, the Fascist government nationalized the holdings of large banks which had accrued industrial securities.Economic history of Italy – A graph which shows the current account balance of Italy (% of GDP) from 1980 to 2012. Data source: IMF
199. History of Italian fashion – The History of Italian fashion refers to important events and occasions which marked Italian fashion and how it evolved to being how it is today. Italian fashion reached its peak during the Renaissance. The fashions of Queen Catherine de' Medici of France, were considered amongst the most fashionable in Europe. Italian designs were well known for their expensive accessories, such as velvets, brocades, ribbons and jewels. During the Italian Renaissance, men wore closely fitted waistcoats underneath pleated overcoats called giornea, which were often made from brocade. They wore different kinds of hats, ranging from caps to berets. They also had an overcoat called Cioppa. Its lining was than the main fabric, a feature of the Italian Renaissance. They also wore hose or tights to emphasize their lower bodies. As hair styles, anything from short to shoulder-length hair was common; it was often curled inwards. Women's dress consisted of fitted garments worn underneath a belted dress, also called giornea. Unlike the men's version, the women's covered their feet. Women's giorneas, originally evolved from the houppelande, had separate bodices. The lower part of the dress was often pleated. They were cut at the sides to display the rich undergarments.History of Italian fashion – A dress made by Valentino for Audrey Hepburn.
201. Genetic history of Italy – The genetic history of the Italians is greatly influenced by the geography and history. , being of heavy Early Neolithic Farmer ancestry. The only exception are certain Italian populations who cluster with Germanic and Slavic speaking Central Europeans. Molecular anthropology found no evidence of Northern geneflow into the Italian peninsula over the last 1500 years. On the other hand, the bulk of Italian ethnogenesis non European invasions. Geneticists agree that no migrations other than the Greek settlement in Southern Italy and Sicily had any biological impact on Italians. Modern man appeared during the Upper Paleolithic. Specimens of Aurignacian age were dated back about 34,000 years ago. During the Magdalenian period the first men from the Pyrenees populated Sardinia. In the Neolithic era the use of copper spreads and villages are built over piles near lakes. In Sardinia, part of Mainland Italy the Beaker culture spreads from Western Europe. In Sardinia the Nuragic civilization flourishes. From the 8th century BC Greek colonists found cities, initiating what was later called Magna Graecia. The Etruscan civilization developed on the coast of Tuscany and Latium. In the 5th century Celtic tribes from continental Europe settled in parts of Central Italy.Genetic history of Italy – Y-haplogroups in Europe.
202. List of historic states of Italy – The following is a list of the various Italian states during that period. Under its terms, France restored Piedmont and Savoy to the Republic of Genoa. More importantly, the treaty indirectly of northern Italy. The Pope was also their natural ally. The truly independent entities on Italian soil were the Duchy of Savoy and the Republic of Venice. In Italy, the Congress directly ruled or strongly influenced by the prevailing European powers, particularly Austria. The Austrian Empire vigorously repressed nationalist sentiment growing on the Italian peninsula, well as in the other parts of Habsburg domains.List of historic states of Italy – Dominions of the House of Habsburg in Europe, at the abdication of Charles V, map from the Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912.
203. Military history of Italy – The Italian peninsula has been a centre of military conflict throughout European history. The Etruscans were settled north of Rome in Etruria. The origins of the Etruscans are lost in prehistory. The Italics were war-like as the Etruscans. The Etruscans had a significant military tradition. In addition to marking the power of certain individuals in their culture, warfare was a considerable economic boon to their civilization. It is also likely individuals taken in battle would be ransomed back at high cost. After 650 BC, the Etruscans expanded into north Italy founding cities like Mutina and Felsina. The early Roman army was, like those of contemporary city-states influenced by Greek civilization, a citizen militia which practiced hoplite tactics. It was small and organized in five classes, with three providing two providing light infantry. Its stance during this period was essentially defensive. Thirty maniples arranged in three lines with supporting troops constituted a legion, totaling between 5,000 men. With the new organization came a new orientation toward the offensive and a much more aggressive posture toward adjoining city-states. Legions were often significantly understrength from following periods of active service due to accidents, battle casualties, disease and desertion. This pattern also held true for auxiliary forces.Military history of Italy – An Etruscan helmet
204. Music history of Italy – However, the underpinnings of much Italian music come from the Middle Ages. Italy was the site of several musical developments in the development of the Christian liturgies in the West. Around 230, well before Christianity was legalized, the Apostolic Tradition of Hippolytus attested the singing of Psalms in Rome. In imitation of Eastern models, St. Ambrose wrote hymns, some of whose texts still survive, introduced antiphonal psalmody to the West. Later, around 530, St. Benedict would arrange the weekly order of monastic psalmody in his Rule. Chant, which supplanted the indigenous Old Roman and Beneventan traditions, derived from a synthesis of Roman and Gallican chant in Carolingian France. This was part of a general trend wherein Rome began to follow northern plainchant traditions. Gregorian chant supplanted all the Western plainchant traditions, Italian and non-Italian, except for Ambrosian chant, which survives to this day. Crucial in the transmission of chant were the innovations of Guido d'Arezzo, whose Micrologus, written around 1020, described the musical staff, the Guidonian hand. This early form of do-re-mi created a technical revolution in the speed at which chants could be learned, recorded. Even as the northern chant traditions were displacing indigenous chant, displaced musicians from the north contributed to a new thriving musical culture in 12th-century Italy. The Albigensian Crusade, supposedly to attack Cathar heretics, crushed Occitan culture and language. Most troubadours fled, especially to Spain and Italy. Italy called trovatori, including Sordello of Mantua. Italian music was largely the province of these jongleurs, troubadors, mimes.Music history of Italy – The Guidonian Hand
205. Postage stamps and postal history of Italy – This is an introduction to the postal and philatelic history of Italy. As Italy was not unified until 1861, its postal history is tied to the various kingdoms and smaller realms that ruled in the peninsula. The Cavallini of Sardinia was an private mail service, notable for the introduction of prepaid stamped lettersheets in 1819. The reform went into effect 1 January 1851. After some casting around for expertise in the newfangled art of printing, the government settled on the house of Francesco Matraire in Turin. Matraire produced stamps with an embossed profile of Victor Emmanuel II. Other states in Italy also issued stamps during the 1850s: Modena, Naples, the Papal States, Parma, Romagna, Tuscany. Those printed after 17 March 1861 are normally considered the first stamps of Italy. Starting on 1 January 1863, uniform postal rates went into effect. His designs were not liked, he seemed unable to produce the stamps. They continued until the end of 1889. Italy joined July 1875. Humbert succeeded his father in 1878, which necessitated a new issue of stamps. First appearing on 15 August 1879, they were the first stamps of the kingdom to be entirely designed, printed by Italians. The new series incorporated colors mandated by the Universal Postal Union.Postage stamps and postal history of Italy – The first stamp of the Duchy of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, 1852, 5 centesimi
206. History of rail transport in Italy – The Italian railway system is one of the most important parts of the infrastructure of Italy, with a total length of 24,227 km. Railways were introduced in Italy when it was still a divided country. On request of the Milanese and Venetian industries, but also for construction of the Milan -- Venice line was begun. In the Kingdom of Sardinia, King Charles Albert ordered on July 1844 the construction of the Turin -- Genoa railway, inaugurated on December 6, 1853. This was followed by the opening of other sections which connected with France, Switzerland and Lombardy-Venetia. A factory was also founded in Genoa, in order to avoid the English monopoly in the field. This became the modern Ansaldo. At the creation of the unified Kingdom of Italy, railroads in the country were the following: for a total of 2,064 active railroads. Lines in the Papal States were still in construction, while Sicily had its short railroad only in 1863. The existing lines did not form an organized net: property of the line was private, the latter in turn for private or statal use. A organic structure began to be created in 1865 with the connections of the existing sections. In 1870 the last remnant of Papal States was also annexed to Italy: it comprised the railway connection to Frascati, Civitavecchia, Terni and Cassino. This, among the other benefit, granted the fulfillment of social exigences in transportation, that a profit-oriented policy could not afford. Only in 1878 and 1880, respectively, the largely deficitaire SFAI and SFR went under state administration. In 1884 the Italian Parliament issued a commission study in which it was declared preferable a private administration of railways.History of rail transport in Italy – An ETR 300 Italian fast EMU of the 1950s, used for Settebello service
207. Geography of Italy – Corsica, although belonging to the geographical region, has been a part of France since 1769. Italy is part of the Eastern Hemisphere. 7,200 km2 is water. It lies between latitudes 35° and 48° N, longitudes 6° and 19° E. Italy borders with Switzerland, France, Austria and Slovenia. Vatican city are enclaves. Including islands, Italy has a coastline of Sicily. It represents over 70 % of the total plain area in the country. The Alpine range is linked with the Apennines with the Colle di Cadibona pass in the Ligurian Alps. Worldwide-known mountains in Italy are Matterhorn, Monte Rosa, Bernina, Stelvio and Dolomites along the eastern side of the Alps. The highest peak in Italy is Mont Blanc, at 4,810 meters above level. Many elements of the Italian territory are of volcanic origin. Most of the small islands and archipelagos like Capraia, Ponza, Ischia, Eolie, Ustica and Pantelleria are volcanic islands. Other well known of these subalpine lakes are Lake Maggiore, whose most northerly section is part of Como, Orta, Lugano, Iseo, Idro. Notable lakes in the Italian peninsula are Trasimeno, Bolsena, Bracciano, Vico, Varano and Lesina in Gargano and Omodeo in Sardinia.Geography of Italy – Italy viewed from space
208. Italian Peninsula – The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula is the central and the smallest of the three large peninsulas of Southern Europe. It extends 1,000 km from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. The peninsula's shape gives the nickname lo Stivale. Three smaller peninsulas contribute to this characteristic shape, namely Calabria, Salento and Gargano. Geographically, the Italian peninsula consists of the south of a line extending from the Magra to the Rubicon rivers, north of the Tuscan -- Emilian Apennines. It excludes the southern slopes of the Alps. All of the peninsula lies except for the microstates of San Marino and Vatican City. The peninsula lies between the Tyrrhenian Sea on the west, the Adriatic Sea on the east. The backbone of the Italian peninsula consists of the Apennine Mountains, from which it takes one of its names. Most of its coast is lined with cliffs. The Italian Peninsula's location between the centre of the Mediterranean Sea made it the target of many conquests. The peninsula has mainly a Mediterranean climate, though in the mountainous parts the climate is much cooler. Its natural vegetation includes macchia along the mixed deciduous coniferous forests in the interior. Political divisions of the peninsula sorted by area: Apennine Mountains Roman Republic Roman Italy Insular Italy Media related to Italian Peninsula at Wikimedia CommonsItalian Peninsula – Satellite view of the peninsula in March 2003.
209. Northwest ItalyNorthwest Italy – Northwest Italy
210. Northeast ItalyNortheast Italy – Northeast Italy
211. Central ItalyCentral Italy – Central Italy
212. Southern Italy – It generally coincides with Sardinia. Southern Italy carries a unique legacy of culture. It features major tourist attractions, such as the Palace of Caserta, the Amalfi Coast, Pompeii and other archaeological sites. There are also many ancient Greek cities such as Sybaris, which were founded several centuries before the start of the Roman Republic. These same subdivisions are at the bottom of the Italian constituencies for the European Parliament. The Mezzogiorno first came into use in the 18th century and is an Italian rendition of meridies. It eventually came into vogue after the Italian unification. In a similar manner, Southern France is colloquially known as le Midi. Southern Italy forms the lower part of the Italian "boot", containing the ankle, the toe, the heel, along with the island of Sicily. It is an arm of the Ionian Sea. On the eastern coast is the Adriatic Sea, leading into the rest of the Mediterranean through the Strait of Otranto. Along the northern coast of the Salernitan Gulf and on the south of the Sorrentine Peninsula runs the Amalfi Coast. Off the tip of the peninsula is the isle of Capri. The largest city of Southern Italy is a name from the Greek that it has historically maintained for millennia. Bari, Taranto, Reggio Calabria, Salerno are the next largest cities in the area.Southern Italy – Satellite image of Southern Italy
213. South ItalySouth Italy – South Italy
214. Insular Italy – Insular Italy encompasses two of the country's 20 regions: Sardinia and Sicily. Insular Italy occupies one-sixth of the national territory in area. Territorially, both Sicily and Sardinia archipelagoes administratively dependent on the mother islands. Sicily is one of the largest of Europe, while Sardinia is only slightly less extensive. The lowlands are generally limited in the geographic region and generally appear as coastal belts. The only exceptions are the Plain of Catania in Sicily that extend 1200 km2 and 430 km2 respectively. The rest of the area is prevalently hilly, with hills occupying 70% of the territory. Sicily is home to Italy's highest non-Alpine peak and Europe's largest active volcano. Sardinia is home to the Gennargentu range. The population of Insular Italy totals combined over million residents. Sicily, on the other hand, has in fact a population density five times higher than Sardinia. However, the average results in Insular Italy having a low density. Their combined populations total just one-tenth of the national population making the least populated macro-region of the country. The following is a list of cities with a population of greater than 100,000 residents.Insular Italy – Insular Italy
215. Fauna of Italy – Italy has the highest level of faunal biodiversity in Europe, with over 57,000 species recorded, representing more than a third of all European fauna. This is due to various factors. The Italian peninsula is in the centre of the Mediterranean Sea, forming a corridor between central Europe and North Africa, has 8,000 km of coastline. Italy also receives species from Eurasia, the Middle East. Portions of Italy are included in the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot. There are also many cave systems significant for Biodiversity. The Checklist of the Species of the Italian Fauna includes 4777 endemic animal species. Unique Mammals include the Sardinian long-eared bat, the Apennine shrew, the Udine shrew the Calabria pine vole and the Sardinian deer. Endemic fish include the Bergatino loach, the Italian barbel, the brook chub, the Arno goby, the Garda carp, the Timavo sculpin. Endemic Lepidoptera are listed here it:Farfalle e falene endemiche dell'Italia. A notable species is the European moth found only in Southern Italy. There are 102 mammal species in Italy. Some of the species are Alpine Marmot, forest dormouse, Etruscan shrew, Schreiber's long-fingered bat. Italy has recorded 516 bird species. Italy is an important route for trans-Saharan bird migrants because it is a natural bridge connecting continental Europe to Africa across the Mediterranean.Fauna of Italy – Geological map of Italy
216. Flora of Italy – The flora of Italy was traditionally, estimated to comprise about 5,500 vascular plant species. However, as of 2005, 6,759 species are recorded in the Data bank of Italian vascular flora. Geobotanically, the Italian flora is shared between the Circumboreal Region and Mediterranean Region. According to the index compiled by the Italian Ministry for the Environment in 2001, 274 plant species are protected. Italy consists of a 1,000 km long peninsula extending out into the central Mediterranean, together with a number of islands to the South and West. Northern Italy is dominated by the extensive valley of the Po river, extensively agricultural and industrialised. Central Italy includes the regions of Tuscany, Umbria, Marche and Lazio. It is dominated by the Apennines, from which a major rivers flow. There are natural plains. A process of reclamation has replaced the coastal swamps and marshes with agricultural land. Southern Italy includes the regions of Abruzzo, Molise, Apulia, Basilicata and Campania. Industry are less developed. The main islands are Sicily, the Aeolian Islands. Each region has a distinct flora. An ecoregion is an geographically defined area with characteristic natural communities and species.Flora of Italy – Sicilian Fir, a critically endangered species endemic to Sicily
217. Volcanology of Italy – Italy is a volcanically active country, containing the only active volcanoes in mainland Europe. The country's volcanism is chiefly to the presence, a short distance to the south, of the boundary between the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate. The magma erupted by Italy's volcanoes is thought to result from the upward forcing of rocks melted below another. At least nine other volcanic centres have seen eruptions including some submarine volcanoes. In order of the most recent eruptions, they are: Pantelleria, off the coast of Tunisia, probably last erupted around 1000 BC. There was a few kilometres north-east of the island in 1891, probably related to the main volcano. Another of the Aeolian Islands, last erupted in 1888-1890. The summit is now a few metres below the surface. No eruption occurred. A huge caldera containing the western area of Naples, erupted in 1528, generating the small tuff cone named Monte Nuovo. An island 20 kilometres west of Naples, last erupted in 1302. Vulsini, a caldera complex at the northern end of the Roman magmatic province. Last erupted in 104 BC. Monte Albano, a quiescent volcanic complex near Rome. The most recent eruptions produced Lake Albano.Volcanology of Italy
218. Alpine foothillsAlpine foothills – Kolomansberg, Salzkammergut Mountains, Austria
222. List of national parks of Italy – The Italian national parks cover about five per cent of the country's land. The parks are managed based in Rome. Conservation in Italy List of regional parks of Italy Black, Charles Bertram. The Riviera, Or The Coast from Marseilles to Leghorn: Including the Interior towns of Carrara, Lucca, Pisa, Pistoia. London: Adam & Charles Black. Hydrographic Office, Admiralty. The Mediterranean Pilot. Volume I. London: Taylor, Garnett, Evans & Co. "Italia". ENIT - Italian Government Tourist Board.List of national parks of Italy – Gennargentu National Park, Sardinia
223. List of rivers of Italy – This is a list of rivers, which are at least partially located in Italy. They are organized according to what body of water they drain with the exceptions of Sicily and Sardinia, which are listed separately. At the bottom all of the rivers are listed alphabetically. Reno di Lei After entering Switzerland, the Reno di Lei drains into the Rhine. Drava The Drava drains on the Croatia -- Serbia border. Slizza After entering Austria, the Slizza drains into the Drava. Acqua Granda After entering Switzerland, the Spöl drains into the Inn, which meets the Danube in Germany. Beyond this point, rivers empty into the Ionian Sea rather than the Adriatic. The lists are ordered to the river closest to the mouth of the Po. Sicilian rivers are excluded because they are listed in their own section below. The rivers are ordered according to how far east their mouth is, the first river having the last having the westernmost mouth. Sicilian and Sardinian rivers are excluded from this list because those rivers are in their own sections below. The rivers are ordered according to how south their mouth is, the first river having the southernmost mouth and the last having the northernmost mouth. Sardinian rivers are excluded from this list because those rivers are in their own section below. The rivers are ordered according to how close their mouth is to San Pietro Point.List of rivers of Italy – Main Italian rivers location.
224. Politics of Italy – Politics of Italy is conducted through a constitutional republic with a multi-party system. The executive power is exercised collectively by the Council of Ministers, led by the Prime Minister, officially referred as President of the Council. The judiciary is independent of the legislative branches. It is headed by the High Council of the Judiciary. The president is the head of state, though his position is separate from all branches. The current President is Sergio Mattarella and the current Prime Minister of Italy is Paolo Gentiloni. Article 1 of the Italian Constitution states Italy is a democratic Republic founded on labour. Sovereignty is exercised by the people in the forms and within the limits of the Constitution. By stating that Italy is a democratic republic, the article solemnly declares the results of the constitutional referendum which took place on 2 June 1946. It is instead a Res Publica, belonging to everyone. The people who are called to temporarily administer the republic are not servants; and the governed are not subjects, but citizens. This power, however, is not to be in the forms and within the limits established by the rule of law. The president is also commander-in-chief in the time of war. These delegates are elected by their respective Regional Councils as to guarantee representation to minorities. The election needs a wide majority, progressively reduced after the third ballot.Politics of Italy – Sergio Mattarella, President of Italy since 3 February 2015.
225. Constitution of Italy – The Constitution of the Italian Republic was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against. The text, which has since been amended 15 times, was promulgated in the extraordinary edition of Gazzetta Ufficiale No. 298 on 27 December 1947. The Constituent Assembly was elected by universal suffrage June 1946 at the same time as a referendum on the abolition of the monarchy. The Constitution came into force on 1 January one century after the Statuto Albertino had been enacted. Although the latter remained in force in 1922, it had become devoid of substantive value. Wherever an Italian died to redeem freedom and dignity, ponder: because, where our Constitution was born. All social views of the Assembly contributed in shaping and influencing the final text of the Constitution. All the parties that shaped the Constitution were referred to as the arco costituzionale. It is important to note that the Constitution primarily contains general principles; it is not possible to apply them directly. With many written constitutions, only few articles are considered to be self-executing. The majority require enabling legislation, referred to as accomplishment of constitution. Some contend that, due to various political considerations, it is still not complete. While the Principles recognise the territorial integrity of the State, they also recognise and promote local autonomies and safeguard linguistic minorities. They also safeguard the environmental, historical and artistic heritage of the nation. The Church are recognised as independent and sovereign, each within its own sphere.Constitution of Italy – The provisional head of state, Enrico De Nicola, signing the Constitution by virtue of Provision XVIII.
226. Elections in Italy – The President of the Republic is elected for a seven-year term in joint session. Italy has historically had political parties, both national and regional, with different party systems. The most recent general election was held on 24 and 25 February 2013. On 24 Napolitano, gave the task to form a new government to the Deputy-Secretary of the Democratic Party, Enrico Letta. On April he sworn in as Prime Minister. The turnout in 2013 explains how the people of Italy really feel about the instability of their government. Passing your mouse over the colored sections will display the name of the grouping and the percentage in the corresponding election. Clicking on a region will direct you to the article on the election selected. The constitution of Italy provides for two kinds of binding referendums. A legislative referendum can be called in order to abrogate a law partially, if requested by 500,000 electors or five regional councils. This kind of referendum is valid only if at least a majority of electors goes to the station. It is forbidden to call a referendum regarding financial laws relating to pardons or the ratification of international treaties. A constitutional referendum is valid no matter how many electors go to the station. Any citizen entitled to vote to the Chamber of Deputies may participate in a referendum.Elections in Italy
227. Referendums in Italy – A referendum, in the Italian legal system is a request directed to the whole electorate to express their view on a determined question. It is the main instrument of direct democracy in Italy. A constitutional referendum, which can be requested in some cases when a new constitutional law is approved by Parliament. Similarly, a referendum can be requested to confirm the adoption of the Statute of ordinary regions. An advisory referendum is required to approve the modification of regions, municipalities. A popular referendum on regional regulations may be regulated by regional statutes. As a consequence of this, Italy's popular referendum was not held until 1974, 27 years after the constitution was first approved. A popular referendum can only be called only at the request of Regional Councils or 500,000 Italian voters. A popular referendum can only be asked to abolish an existing law; a referendum to adopt new legislation is not provided for by the Constitution. Some matters are not subject to popular referendum: tax laws, laws that authorize the ratification of international treaties. While these are the limits expressly stated by the Constitution, the Constitutional Court has identified further limitations. The Constitutional Court of Italy verifies of the question of the referendum. The court has the power to reject it outright. Many fully valid petitions with the necessary 500,000 signatures have never been accepted precisely for this reason. Unlike the Court of Cassation, which considers the conformity of the petition to ordinary law, the reference for the Constitutional Court's judgment is the Constitution.Referendums in Italy – Italian Republic
228. Foreign relations of Italy – Foreign relations of the Italian Republic are the Italian government's external relations with the outside world. Located in Europe, Italy has been considered a Western power since its unification in 1861. Its main allies are three entities of which Italy is a founding member. Italy has a particular role within the Christian world because Rome is the center of the Catholic Church. Italy is currently commanding multinational forces. The country is considered a key player in the mediterranean region. The Risorgimento was 1830 -- 1870 that saw the emergence of a national consciousness. Italians achieved independence from the Pope, securing national unification. Italy later formed the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria. Italy defeated the Ottoman Empire in 1911-1912. By 1914, Italy had acquired in Africa a colony on the Red Sea coast, administrative authority in formerly Turkish Libya. Outside of Africa, Italy possessed a small concession off the coast of Turkey. During the First World War, Italy occupied southern Albania to prevent if from falling to Austria-Hungary. In 1917, it established a protectorate over Albania, which remained until 1920. Italy became one of the main winners of the war.Foreign relations of Italy – Italian Republic
230. Judiciary of Italy – In Italy, judges are public officials and, since they exercise one of the sovereign powers of the State, only Italian citizens are eligible for judgeship. In order to become a judge, applicants must obtain a degree of higher education well as pass written and oral examinations. However, most experience is gained through the judicial organization, itself. The potential candidates then work they way up from the bottom through promotions. Italy's independent judiciary enjoys constitutional protection from the executive branch. Once appointed, judges can not be removed without specific disciplinary proceedings conducted in due process before the Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura. The Ministry of Justice handles the administration including paying salaries or constructing new courthouses. That of the Infrastructures fund and the Ministry of Justice and that of the Interiors administer the prison system. Lastly, the Ministry of Justice processes applications for presidential pardons and proposes legislation dealing with matters of civil or criminal justice. Note: There exist significant problems with applying non-Italian terminology and concepts related to the Italian justice system. For that reason, some of the words used in the rest of the article shall be defined. Avvocatura dello Stato: the public organ, composed of lawyers, which represents the State, whenever it is plaintiff or defendant in a lawsuit. Generally, cassation is based not on diverging interpretations of law between the courts. Cassation is not based on the facts of the case. Cassation is always open as a final recourse.Judiciary of Italy – Italian Court system
231. Law enforcement in Italy – Law enforcement in Italy is provided by multiple police forces, five of which are national, Italian agencies. Italy divides enforcement into Military and Civil guards, distinguishing each "corps" for duties and jurisdictions. All police are under the Ministero dell ` the highest police and public safety authority, which - through the Department of Public Safety - coordinates the enforcements. Locally, Polizia di Stato is under the Authority of the Prefetto, who collaborates with the Questore to organise the enforcements. The Polizia di Stato is the national police of Italy. Along with patrolling, investigative and enforcement duties, it patrols the Autostrada, oversees the security of railways, bridges and waterways. It is a civilian force, while the Carabinieri and the Guardia di Finanza are military. While mindset is somewhat military, its personnel is composed of civilians. There are Regional and Provincial divisions throughout Italian territory. A program Polizia di Quartiere has been implemented which deters crime. Pairs of poliziotti or carabinieri patrol areas of major cities on foot. The Guardia di Finanza, is a military corps under the authority of the Minister of Economy and Finance, with a role as force. The Guardia di Finanza has a strength of around 68,000 soldiers working as agents, officers. Its militaries are in service in the European Anti-Fraud Office. Its Latin motto since 1933 is Nec recedit.Law enforcement in Italy – Carabinieri.
232. Italian Armed Forces – The Italian Armed Forces encompass the Italian Army, the Italian Navy and the Italian Air Force. According to article 78, the Parliament has the authority to vest the necessary powers in the Government. The force of Italy, the Regio Esercito dates back to the unification of Italy in the 1850s and 1860s. During the Cold War the army prepared itself to defend from the east. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, it has seen extensive peacekeeping service in Lebanon, Afghanistan, Iraq. On July 2004 it became a professional all-volunteer force when conscription was finally ended. The navy of Italy was created in 1861, as the Regia Marina. The new navy's baptism of fire came against the Austrian Empire. During the First World War, it spent its major efforts in the Adriatic Sea, fighting the Austro-Hungarian Navy. In the Second World War, it engaged the Royal Navy for the control of the Mediterranean Sea. After the war, the new Marina Militare, being a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, has taken part in many peacekeeping operations. The Guardia Costiera is a component of the navy. The force of Italy was founded as an independent service arm on 28 March 1923, by King Vittorio Emanuele III as the Regia Aeronautica. During the 1930s, it was involved in Ethiopia in 1935, later in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939. Eventually, Italy entered World War II alongside Germany.Italian Armed Forces – Alpini of the 4th Alpini Parachutist Regiment in Afghanistan in 2007.
233. Italian Parliament – The Italian Parliament is the national parliament of the Italian Republic. It is a bicameral legislature with 945 elected members. The Constitution does not make distinctions between them. The two houses are independent from one another and never meet jointly under circumstances specified by the Constitution. As of February 2016 there are five life senators. The main prerogative of the Parliament is the exercise of legislative power, the power to enact laws. For a bill to become law, it must receive the support of both houses independently in the same text. If approved without amendments, the bill becomes law. If approved with amendments, it is goes back to the other house. The process continues until the bill is rejected by one house. The Council of Ministers, the national executive of Italy, needs to have the confidence of both houses. The election of the Senate is still regulated by Law no. 270, December 21, 2005, which however was judged to be partly unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court in December 2013. Parties can run in coalitions. Except for three, at least 55 % of the seats are assigned to the coalition or list which received the most votes.Italian Parliament – Palazzo Madama seat of the Senate.
234. Chamber of Deputies (Italy) – The Chamber of Deputies is a house of the bicameral Parliament of Italy. The two houses together do so separately. Deputies are meet at Palazzo Montecitorio. The election of members to the Chamber of Deputies is by all citizens of age on election day. Unlike the Senate, which requires members to be 40 years of age, members of the Chamber of Deputies may be elected at 25. The territory of Italy is divided into 100 constituencies electing between 9 deputies depending on their size. If two preference votes are expressed, they must be of a different sex: otherwise, the second preference is discarded. Only parties passing a 3% minimum threshold in the first round are assigned seats. If the party receiving the plurality of the votes passes a 40% threshold, it is attributed a minimum of 340 seats. No second round takes place. The Chamber is composed at the Montecitorio. The assembly also has the right to attend meetings of its ministers. If required, the Government is obligated to attend the session. Conversely, the Government has the right to be heard every time it requires. The term of office of the House can be extended in two cases: The "prorogatio", as provided by art.Chamber of Deputies (Italy)
235. Senate of the Republic (Italy) – The Senate of the Republic is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament. The two houses together do separately. They meet at Rome. The Senate consists of 315 elected members, as of 2016 five senators for life. The elected senators must be over 40 years of age and are elected by Italian citizens aged 25 or older. The Senate is elected on a regional basis. The 309 senators are assigned to each region proportionally according to their population. However, Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than seven senators representing it, for Molise. Until a Constitutional change on February 9, 1963, the Senate was elected for six-year terms. The Senate may be dissolved before the expiration of its normal term by the President of the Republic. In 2016, Italian Parliament passed a constitutional law that "effectively abolishes the Senate as an elected chamber and sharply restricts its ability to veto legislation". The law was rejected on December 4, 2016 by a referendum, leaving the Senate unchanged. The election of the Senate is still regulated by Law no. 270, December 21, 2005, which however was judged to be partly unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court in December 2013. Parties can run in coalitions.Senate of the Republic (Italy)
236. List of political parties in Italy – Political parties in Italy are numerous and there are hundreds of parties which are no longer active. Since World War II, no one party has ever gained enough support to govern alone. Parties thus form party coalitions and coalition governments. In November 2013 The People of Freedom was merged into the new Forza Italia, provoking the formation of the split-away New Centre-Right. The other party was the post-fascist Italian Social Movement. For 46 consecutive years, the Christian Democrats led the government except for five years. Between 1991, they led a coalition government with the Socialists, the Republicans, the Democratic Socialists and the Liberals. These were the years when several regional parties demanding autonomy organised themselves at the regional level. In 1991 they federated themselves into the Lega Nord, which became the country's fourth largest party in the 1992 general election. In 1992–94, the political system was shaken by a series of corruption scandals known collectively as Tangentopoli. These events led to the disappearance of the five parties of government. Consequently, the Communists, who had evolved to become Democratic Party of the Left in 1991, the post-fascists, who launched National Alliance in 1994, gained strength. Between 2008, Italian political parties were organised into two big coalitions, the centre-right Pole for Freedoms and The Olive Tree on the centre-left. The centre-left governed to 2001 and again between 2006 and 2008 while the House of Freedoms was in government between 2001 and 2006. In November 2013 The People of Freedom was dissolved and merged into the new Forza Italia, provoking the formation of the split-away New Centre-Right.List of political parties in Italy – Italian Republic
237. President of Italy – The president's term of office lasts for seven years. On 31 former Constitutional judge Sergio Mattarella, was elected at the fourth ballot with 665 votes out of 1,009. The framers of the Constitution of Italy intended for the President to be an elder statesman of some stature. Article 84 states that any citizen who enjoys political rights can be elected President. Those citizens who already hold any other office are prohibited from becoming President, unless they resign their previous office once they are elected. The 1948 Italian Constitution does not have term limits although until 2013 no Italian President of the Republic had run for a second term of office. He made it clear, however, that he would not serve his full term, retired in January 2015. Three representatives come from each region, save for the Aosta Valley, which appoints one, as to guarantee representation for all minorities. A two-thirds vote is required to elect on any of the first three rounds of balloting; after that, a simple majority suffices. The election is presided over by the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies, who calls for the public counting of the votes. The vote is held in home of the Chamber of Deputies, re-configured for the event. The President assumes office after having taken an oath before Parliament and delivering a presidential address. Former Presidents of the Republic are called Presidents Emeritus of the Republic and are appointed Senator for life. In the absence of the President of the Republic, including travel abroad, presidential functions are performed by the President of the Senate. In judicial matters: Presiding over the Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura; Naming one-third of the Constitutional Court; and Granting pardons and commutations.President of Italy – Incumbent Sergio Mattarella since 3 February 2015
238. Prime Minister of Italy – The office of Prime Minister is established through to 96 of the Constitution of Italy. Prior to the establishment of the Italian Republic, the position was called "President of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy". The position was restored with Marshal Pietro Badoglio becoming Prime Minister in 1943. Alcide De Gasperi became the first Prime Minister of the Italian Republic in 1946. The Prime Minister is the President of the Council of Ministers—which holds executive power. The position is similar to those in most parliamentary systems. The Italian order of precedence lists the office as being ceremonially the fourth most important Italian state office. As the "President of the Council of Ministers" the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition the Prime Minister generally commands the majority in the Parliament. Article 95 of the Italian constitution provides that the Prime Minister "coordinates the activity of the ministers". The office was first established in Italy's predecessor state, the Kingdom of Sardinia -- although it was not mentioned in its constitution, the Albertine Statute. From 1848 to 1861 ten Prime Ministers governed most of them being right-wing politicians. After the establishment of the kingdom, the procedure did not change. In fact the candidate for office presided over a very unstable political system. From 1861 to 1911 Historical Right and Left Prime Ministers alternatively governed the country.Prime Minister of Italy – Incumbent Matteo Renzi since 22 February 2014
239. Council of Ministers (Italy) – The Council of Ministers is the principal executive organ of the Government of Italy. It comprises the President of the Council, the undersecretary to the President of the Council. Junior ministers are not members of the Council of Ministers. The Italian government is led by Paolo Gentiloni. As of December 2016, the government has 16 Ministers, of whom three are without portfolio.Council of Ministers (Italy) – Italian Republic
240. Provinces of Italy – In Italy, a province is an administrative division of intermediate level between a municipality and a region. The reorganization of the Italian provinces became operative by January 2015. A province of the Italian Republic is composed of many municipalities. The three main functions devolved to provinces are: local planning and zoning; provision of local police and fire services; transportation regulation. The number of provinces in Italy has been steadily growing in recent years, as new ones are carved out of older ones. Usually, the province's name is the same as that of its city. Members of Council are elected together by mayors and city councilors of each municipality of the province. The Executive is chaired by the President who appoint members, called assessori. Since 2015 the President and members of the Council will not receive a salary. In each province there is also a representative of the central government who heads an agency called prefettura-ufficio territoriale del governo. His office is called questura. There is also a province's force depending from local government, called provincial police. Sardinia - following the outcome of the regional referendums of 2012 it was decreed that such institutions should be reformed or abolished by March 2013. In January 2014 the Sardinian Regional Administrative Court declared "unconstitutional" the abolition of the Sardinian provinces, which occurred in 2013. Sicily - provinces were replaced by Free Communal Consortia in 2013.Provinces of Italy – Italian Republic
241. Metropolitan cities of Italy – The metropolitan city is an administrative division of Italy, operative since 2015. In 2009, amendments added Reggio Calabria to the list. The metropolitan areas individuated by the autonomous regions were: Trieste in Friuli-Venezia Giulia; Cagliari in Sardinia; Catania, Messina and Palermo in Sicily. On April 2014 the Italian Parliament approved a law that establishes 10 metropolitan cities in Italy, excluding the autonomous regions. The metropolitan cities have been operative since 1 January 2015. The metropolitan city is composed by the municipalities that before had been members of the same province. Each metropolitan city is headed by a metropolitan mayor assisted by a non-legislative assembly, the metropolitan conference. The metropolitan conference is composed by the mayors of the municipalities closest to the capital. The main functions devolved to the new metropolitan cities are: local planning and zoning; provision of local police services; transport and city services regulation. Regions of Italy Provinces of Italy Municipalities of Italy Media related to Metropolitan cities of Italy at Wikimedia CommonsMetropolitan cities of Italy – Metropolitan cities of Italy.
244. Economy of Italy – The economy of Italy is the 3rd-largest national economy in the Euro Zone, the 8th-largest by nominal GDP in the world, the 12th-largest by GDP. The country is a founding member of the European Union, the Eurozone, the OECD, the G8. Italy is the eighth largest exporter in the world with $ billion exported in 2016. Ties are with the other countries of the European Union, with whom it conducts about 59 % of its total trade. The largest trading partners, in order of share, are Germany, France, United States, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Spain. Italy is the third net contributor to the budget of the European Union. Italy is the largest market for luxury goods in Europe. Despite these important achievements, the country's today suffers from structural and non-structural problems. After the unification, industrialization was largely artisanal, located in the political capitals; factory industry was instead attracted by the waterfalls of the subalpine Northwest. During the Great War, the Italian Royal Army increased with 5 million recruits in total entering service during the war. This came at a terrible cost: by the end of the war, Italy had a budget deficit of billions of lira. Italy emerged in a poor and weakened condition. The National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini came to power at the end of a period of social unrest. During the first years of the new regime, the Fascist pursued a economic policy: they initially reduced taxes, regulations and trade restrictions on the whole. However, once Mussolini acquired a firmer hold of power, free trade were progressively abandoned in favour of government intervention and protectionism.Economy of Italy – Milan is the financial centre of Italy
245. Economy of Milan – This means that, if Milan were a country, it would have almost the size of that of the economy of Austria. The city, on the other hand, has a GDP of $ billion, making it the world's 26th richest city by purchasing power. Also, the FieraMilano fair is considered the largest in Europe. Milan, also, has one of Italy's highest GDP, about $35,137, 161.6 % of the EU GDP per capita. Milan was, as the production of armours and wool, led the Lombard town to become rich. The city became a major international and cosmopolitan centre for expatriate employees. A study showed that by the late-1990s, more than 10% of the city's workers were foreigners. According to ISTAT statistics, it was estimated that 181,393 foreign-born immigrants lived in the city, representing 13.9 % of the total population. The bulk of the plastic, chemicals and industries show a downward trend. Publishing production decreased by -2.6 %, while the wood-processing production decreased by -1.2 %. Milan also has an important role in book publishing. It is the most important city in the nation for publishing. Banks throughout Italy went to early 1900s. The SBI, had many issues resolving its resources. It did not have support from foreign banks nor enough savings domestically.Economy of Milan – Borsa Italiana, the Stock Exchange in Milan
246. Economy of Naples – Naples is Italy's fourth most important city for economic strength, coming after Milan, Rome and Turin. It is the world's 91st richest city with a GDP of $43 billion. It would have the world's 68th biggest economy, near the size of that of Qatar. Unemployment in the region has gone down dramatically since 1999. Naples also hosted important electronics industries such as Olivetti department in Pozzuoli, now dismissed. Also Naples hosted several departments of big aircraft industries of Aeritalia. Aeritalia then joined with the name of Alenia. Its production relevance is important but nowadays shrinking. One of the first Italian companies producing canned vegetables, Cirio, was founded in Turin. The surrounding area also has a large number of smaller firms manufacturing canned vegetables, mostly tomato sauce. Family-sized pasta companies in Torre Annunziata collapsed due to the rise of industrial pasta makers in northern Italy. It is one of the most apprecciated typical products of Naples surroundings. Fior di latte cheese is made in the territory of Agerola, Lettere and Gragnano. The industry is also prevalent in the Naples area, mainly in Gragnano, Lettere, Ercolano and Pozzuoli. There are still some little industries producing ground coffee to be used with Neapolitan coffee machines.Economy of Naples – An airplane in Naples airport, in the August 2009.
247. Economy of Rome – Rome is a major EU and international financial, cultural and a business centre. Rome's trade is 0.001% of world economic trade. Rome continues to grow at a higher rate in comparison to any other city in the rest of the country. This means that were Rome a country, it would be the world's 52nd richest country by GDP, near to the size to that of Egypt. Rome was in 2008, also ranked 15th out for cultural experience. Ancient Rome commanded a vast area of land, with tremendous human resources. As such, Rome's economy remained focused on trade. The annexation in North Africa provided a continuous supply of grains. In turn, wine were Italy's main exports. Farm productivity was overall low, around 1 ton per hectare. Even though Rome still had the powerful pope, the city ceased to be a major centre for commerce, finance. The Roman economy, however, boomed in the 17th centuries, especially when the Medici popes Leo X and Clement VII were in power. Rome grew momentously as one of the driving forces behind the "Italian economic miracle" of post-war reconstruction and modernisation. The Vatican Museums are the 39th and 37th most visited places in the world, according to a recent study. In 2005 the city registered million of global visitors, up of 22.1 % from 2001.Economy of Rome – Night view of the Trajan's Market which was built by Apollodorus of Damascus
248. Economy of Turin – Turin is Italy's third largest economic center after Rome and Milan. In 2004, Turin produced a GDP of 2.2 % of the national figure. The Turin greater metropolitan area produced 3.8 % of the Italian GDP. Turin's taxable income was billion euros. The Province of Turin, is Italy's second largest market with a share of 5.2 % of the national total. Its industries include engineering; production of confectionery and chocolate; and banking and telecommunications. There has also been growth in construction, service industries. Founded in 1826, Caffarel is the oldest factory in the world. National banks with a presence in Turin include UniCredit Group. In 2006, there were 231,645 businesses registered in 112,255 in the city. These numbers represent just under 4 % of the Italian total. There were 21,987 foreign entrepreneurs, with the majority being non-EU. Difficulties which industry in Turin has faced include a long phase of industrial restructuring; a crisis in Fiat; and transfer of production to developing nations. Data from 2006 indicated that growth in Italian GDP at that time was due to resumption of exports of cars from the Fiat Group. Associated automotive industries also benefited.Economy of Turin – Fiat 500 (2007)
250. Automotive industry in Italy – The automotive industry in Italy is a quite large employer in the country, it had over 2,131 firms and employed almost 250,000 people in 2006. Italy's automotive industry is best known of small city cars, sports and supercars. The automotive industry makes a contribution of 8.5% to Italian GDP. Italy is one of the significant automobile producers in the World. The Italian automotive industry is almost totally dominated by Fiat Group; in 2001 over 90 % of vehicles were produced by it. As well as its own, mass market model range, Fiat owns the upmarket Alfa Romeo and Lancia brands and the exotic Ferrari and Maserati. - the Fiat 4 HP. The Welleyes / F.I.A.T 4 HP had a 679 cc engine and was capable of 35 km/h. Isotta Fraschini was founded at first assembling Renault model automobiles. Rapid, SPA, Zust. In the 1970s Italy restored own large auto industry, 3rd-4th in Europe and 5th-6th in the World. The 1980s were a time of great change for the car industry in Europe. Rear-wheel drive, particularly on family cars, gradually gave way to front-wheel drive. The bodystyle, first seen on the Renault 16 from France in 1965, became the most popular bodystyle on smaller cars by the mid 1980s. Fiat moved into the hatchback market at the small car end in 1971 followed by the Ritmo family car in 1978.Automotive industry in Italy – Fiat 4 HP (1899) is the first model of car produced by Fiat.
251. Banca d'Italia – Banca d'Italia, also known as Bankitalia, is the central bank of Italy and part of the European System of Central Banks. It is located in Palazzo Koch, via Nazionale, Rome. The bank's current governor is Ignazio Visco, who took the office on 1 November 2011. The main function has thus become banking and financial supervision. Bank of Italy gold reserves are 2,451.8 tonnes. The institution was established from the combination of three major banks in Italy. The central bank first issued bank-notes during 1926. The general meeting takes place yearly and with the purpose of appointing the auditors. The Board of Directors is chaired by the governor. Following reform in 2005, the governor lost exclusive responsibility regarding decisions of external relevance, transferred to the Directorate. The Director General is responsible for acts as governor when absent. The Board of Auditors assesses the bank's compliance with the law, regulations and the statute. The Directorate's term of office is renewable once. The appointment of the governor is the responsibility of head of the Board of Directors, with the approval of the President of the Republic. The Board of Directors is elected according to the bank statute.Banca d'Italia – Palazzo Koch, Headquarters of the Bank of Italy, Rome
252. Energy in Italy – Italy consumed about 185 Mtoe of primary energy in 2010. This came mostly from fossil fuels. Among the most used resources are petroleum, natural gas, coal and renewables. An important share of electricity comes from import, mainly from Switzerland and France. The share of primary energy dedicated to production is above 35 %, grew steadily since the 1970s. Electricity is produced mainly from natural gas, which accounts for the source of more than half of the total electric energy produced. Another important source is hydroelectric power, practically the only source of electricity until 1960. Solar power grew rapidly between 2010 and 2013 thanks to high incentives. Most of supplies are imported. In 2014 Italy consumed 291.083 TWh in electricity, consumption in household were 1057 kWh/person. Italy is a net importer of electricity: the country exported 3,031.1 GWh in 2014. Gross production in 2014 was 279.8 TWh. The main power sources are natural hydroelectricity. Italy has no nuclear power since it was banished by referendum. In Tuscany was built the geothermal power station.Energy in Italy – Gross production Italy 2014 by sources
253. Italian government debt – The Italian government debt is the public debt owed by the government of Italy to all public and private lenders. As of January 2014, the Italian debt stands at $2.1 trillion. Italy ran a deficit of 4.6 % of GDP in 2010. Italian debt was almost 120% of GDP. This led investors to view Italian debt bonds as a risky asset. On 14 September 2011, Italy's government passed austerity measures meant to save $124 billion. The interim government expected to put the new laws into practice was led by former European Union Competition Commissioner Mario Monti. Government debt reached 127.0% of GDP in 2012. Government debt reached 130.4% of GDP in 2013. Government debt reached 131.1% of GDP in 2014. Taxation in Italy Italian welfare state Europe: Eurozone crisisItalian government debt – The debt to GDP ratio of selected countries, 2010. Italy is displayed in purple.
254. Science and technology in Italy – Italy has a long tradition in science and technology, going back to the Renaissance and the Roman era. By the first AD, Rome had become the biggest and most advanced city in the world. The ancient Romans came up with new technologies to improve the city's sanitation systems, buildings. They built sewers that removed the city's waste. The wealthiest Romans lived with gardens. Most of the population, however, lived in apartment buildings made of stone, limestone. The Romans used materials such as volcanic soil from Pozzuoli, a village near Naples, to make their cement harder and stronger. This concrete allowed them to build large apartment buildings called insulae. Italy had a scientific "golden age" during the Renaissance. He conceived of ideas ahead of his time. In addition, he greatly advanced the fields of knowledge in anatomy, astronomy, civil engineering, hydrodynamics. The scientist Galileo Galilei is called the modern scientist. His work constitutes a significant break from that of medieval philosophers and scientists. Galileo's achievements include improvements to the telescope, initial formulation of the first and second laws of motion. Galileo was suppressed by the Catholic Church, but was a founder of modern science.Science and technology in Italy – Galileo Galilei, the Father of modern science, physics and astronomy
255. Borsa Italiana – The Borsa Italiana S.p.A. based in Milan, is Italy's main stock exchange. It was privatised in 1997 and is a subsidiary of the London Stock Exchange Group plc since 2007. In 2005, the companies listed on the Borsa were worth US$890 billion. It is also informally known after the square of Milan where its headquarters is located. It operated under public ownership until 1998. Borsa Italiana has managing responsibility for its fixed market. In addition, it performs promotional activities aimed at developing high value-added services for the financial community. 3) Nuovo Mercato is dedicated to innovation-driven companies. 4) Stocks, bonds, warrants, options not admitted to the official exchange are traded on Mercato Ristretto. 5) Premi Market is for premium contracts on stock exchange products. The after-hours market enables trading of financial instruments after the daytime session closes. Other indices include the MIDEX, the now defunct MIB 30 index. For a full list see Category:Companies listed on the Borsa Italiana: List of stock exchanges Notes Borsa Italiana MIB30 index methodologyBorsa Italiana – Italian Stock Exchange Borsa Italiana
256. Taxation in Italy – Taxation in Italy is levied by the central and regional governments and is collected by the Italian Agency of Revenue. Total revenue in 2012 was 44.4 % of the GDP. The total tax receipts in 2013 were $ billion. The most important revenue sources are income tax, corporate tax and the value added tax, which are all applied at the national level. Personal taxation in Italy is progressive. Employment income is subject to a progressive tax applying to all workers. The area exempt from Irpef increases further if there are dependent family members. The corporate tax in Italy is 27.50 % since the last tax reform. Some corporations are exempted from corporate tax, such as charitable foundations, sports clubs. Value added tax is a tax at a standard rate of 22 %. Reduced VAT rates apply on foodstuffs, medical and books. The Italian VAT is part of the European Union value added system. Social security contributions apply to everyone in the workforce. The employer contributes 34.08 % of gross pay. Self-employed individuals must enrol with the Gestione Separata, unless specific rules apply.Taxation in Italy – Taxation
257. Internet in Italy – The Internet country code top-level domain for Italy is.it and is sponsored by Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. The.eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. Currently access is available to businesses and home users in various forms, including dial-up, fiber, cable, DSL, wireless. The government has also started the Italia Digitale project, which aims to provide at least 50 % of Italians by 2020. The government aims to extend the fibre-optic network to rural areas. The FTTC and VDSL2 technologies can currently bring up to the final customer. TIM and Fastweb have plans to increase FTTC speeds with vectoring to up to 200/50 Mbit/s streams before the end of 2016. Over one-fourth of Italian internet users aged older made an online purchase during 2011. Only at the end of 2010, a bipartisan bill allowed for the repeal of article 7 of the Pisanu law. Currently internet filtering in Italy is applied on some P2P web-sites. A pervasive filtering is applied to those gambling websites who don't have a local license to operate in Italy. Telecommunications in Italy Censorship on OpenNet Initiative website. "Non è paese per Internet. In cinque anni dieci contro la Rete", article from the newspaper Il Fatto Quotidiano. Internet use in the EU27 in 2008, Eurostat news release.Internet in Italy – A sign posted on the door of an internet cafe in Florence regarding Italian Law No. 155 of 31 July 2005
258. Tourism in Italy – With 48.6 million tourists a year, Italy is the fifth most visited country in international tourism arrivals. People mainly visit Italy for its rich art, cuisine, history, fashion and culture, its beautiful coastline and beaches, priceless ancient monuments. Italy also contains more World Heritage Sites than any other country in the world. Tourism is one of Italy's most profitable industrial sectors, with an estimated revenue of $189.1 billion. Merchants came to Italy from several different parts of the world. That would have been the early equivalent of "tourism" or "religious tourism". The trade empires of Venice, Pisa and Genoa meant that several traders, merchants from all over the world would also regularly come to Italy. In the early 17th century, with the height of the Renaissance, several students came to Italy to study Italian architecture, such as Inigo Jones. Real "tourism" only affected in Italy with the beginning of the Grand Tour. This was in order to study the local culture. The Grand Tour was in essence published in 1670. Due to the Grand Tour, tourism became even more prevalent - making Italy one of the most desired destinations for millions of people. Inside what would be modern-day Italy, these tourists would begin by visiting Turin for a short while. If a person came via boat, then they would remain a few days in Genoa. Tourists occasionally, got to Trieste.Tourism in Italy – The Amalfi Coast seen from Ravello in Campania. This is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Italy.
259. Transport in Italy – Italy has well developed and private transportation options. Italian network is extensive, especially in the north, generally eclipsing the need for an alternative such as bus or air. Italy has 12.46 km2 per kilometer of rail track, giving Italy the world's 13th largest rail network. Italy's network is also widespread, with a total length of about 487,700 km. It comprises both an extensive motorway network, national and local roads. Because of its long seacoast, Italy also has a large number of harbors for the transportation of both passengers. Italy has been a seafaring peninsula dating back to the days of Etruscans the Greeks. Transport networks in Italy are fully integrated into the Trans-European Transport Networks. The Italian system has a length of 19,394 km, of which 18,071 km standard gauge and 11,322 km electrified. The active lines are 16,723 km. The network is recently growing with the construction of the high-speed rail network. Regional agencies, mostly owned by public entities such as regional governments, operate on the Italian network. The Italian railways are subsidised by the government, receiving $ billion in 2009. All high-speed and intercity trains require a 10-euro reservation fee. Regional passes, such as "Io viaggio ovunque Lombardia", offer one-day, monthly period of validity.Transport in Italy – A Frecciarossa high-speed train
260. Capital punishment in Italy – Before the unification of Italy in 1860, punishment was performed in almost all pre-unitarian states, except for Tuscany, where it was historically abolished in 1786. It is currently defunct as of 1 January 1948. So Tuscany was the first European state in the world to do away with torture and capital punishment. However executions in Italy had not been carried out since 1877, when King Umberto I granted a general pardon. Ironically, as a result of this pardon, Gaetano Bresci could not be sentenced to death after he assassinated Umberto I in 1900. The penalty was still present in military and colonial penal codes. The Rocco Code added more crimes to the list of reintroduced capital punishment for some common crimes. This was the last execution in Italy. This measure was implemented by the legislative decree 22/48 of January 1948. In 2007 a constitutional amendment was adopted. Article 27 of Italian Constitution was changed to fully ban the penalty. Prior to abolition, the penalty was sanctioned in article 21 of the Italian penal code. It stated that penalty is to be carried out by shooting inside a penitentiary or in any other place suggested by the Ministry of Justice. The execution is not public, unless the Ministry of Justice determines otherwise. A law to ratify the 13th Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights had been approved by the Senate on October 9, 2008.Capital punishment in Italy – Execution of capital punishment by guillotine in 1868, shortly after the birth of modern Italy. It was subsequently abolished in 1889 and only revived under Italian Fascism.
261. Corruption in Italy – Corruption in Italy is a major problem. In Transparency International's annual surveys, Italy has consistently been regarded as the most corrupt country in the Eurozone. Corruption costs Italy a reported €60 billion a year, which amount to four percent of its GDP. On the 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index, Italy took 61st place out of scoring on a par with Senegal, Montenegro, South Africa. Political corruption remains a major problem particularly in Southern Italy including parts of Campania and Sicily where corruption perception is at a high level. Political parties are ranked the most corrupt institution in Italy, closely followed by Parliament, according to Transparency International's Global Corruption Barometer 2013. Regarding corruption, foreign investments and economic growth are hindered by organized crime and corruption. Business executives from World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014 consider corruption one of the problems for doing business in Italy. Procurement process, mainly in water, railway projects, in Italy is affected by corruption. Italian culture has been described as being characterized by “an ambiguous attitude to graft.” “Many Italians,” maintained a 2010 report, have accepted corruption and poor governance as part of their lives. The Mafia plays a key role in both private corruption. Arising "out of business deals," as Forbes put it, the Mafia historically "acted for contracts, when the judiciary was viewed as weak. A 1992-94 scandal called Tangentopoli, uncovered by the so-called Mani pulite investigation, "rocked Italy to its core" and brought down the First Republic. But the probes “fizzled out” and afterwards the bribery just got worse.Corruption in Italy – Political corruption
262. Crime in Italy – Crime in Italy is combated by the spectrum of Italian law enforcement agencies. In 2012, Italy had a murder rate per 100,000 population, one of the lower rates in Western Europe. There were a total of 530 murders in Italy in 2012. Public figures such as former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi have been charged with association in organized criminal acts. The fight against the Mafia has cost many lives, such as judges Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino. Together, they exert influence over million Italians. Their involvement is on a European and global scale. Businesses, entrepreneurs, craftsmen in these southern regions are expected to pay a pizzo, or protection money, to crime syndicates controlling their area. Those not complying find their business premises and lives at risk. People not able to meet demands might find their business completely taken over by organized crime. In 2009, organized crime in Italy generated $ billion in revenue. Italy has a lower per capita rate of rape than most of the Western countries in the European Union. According to Police data, the rate of sexual assaults per 100,000 inhabitants is significantly higher in the Northern region than in the Southern ones. Notable cases of financial fraud include the Lockheed bribery scandal in the 1970s. The percentage rose in some of the southern provinces.Crime in Italy – Italian police in Perugia in central Italy.
263. Demographics of Italy – However the distribution of the population is widely uneven. After centuries of net emigration, from the 1980s Italy has experienced large-scale immigration for the first time in modern history. According to the Italian government, there were an estimated 5,000,073 foreign nationals resident in Italy. High birth rates persisted until the 1970s, after which they started to dramatically decline, leading to rapid population aging. At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, one in five Italians was over 65 years old. However, in recent years Italy experienced a significant growth in birth rates. The total rate has also climbed from an all-time low of 1.18 children per woman in 1995 to 1.41 in 2008. Since the 1984 Lateran Treaty agreement, Italy has no official religion. However, it recognizes the role the Catholic Church plays in Italian society. 87.8 % of the population identify as Catholic, 5.8 % as non-believers or atheists, 3.8 % adhere to other religions. About 68 % of Italian population is classified as a relatively low figure among developed countries. However, none of these local authorities has yet become fully operative. Between 1914, the peak years of Italian diaspora, approximately 750,000 Italians emigrated each year. Italian communities once thrived in the African colonies of Eritrea, Somalia and Libya. All of Libya's Italians were expelled from the African country in 1970.Demographics of Italy – Rome Milan
264. Education in Italy – Italy has both private education systems. In Italy Education System has existed since 1859, when the Legge Casati mandated educational responsibilities for the forthcoming Italian state. The Casati Act had the goal of increasing literacy. The universities were managed by the State. The important law concerning the Italian education system was the Legge Gentile. This act was issued in 1923, thus when his National Fascist Party were in power. In fact, Giovanni Gentile was appointed the task of creating an system deemed fit for the fascist system. The Liceo Classico was the only secondary school that gave access until 1968. He considered the Catholic religion to be the "fundament and crowning" of education. In 1962 all children until 14 years had to follow a single program, encompassing primary education and middle school. In accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Bologna Process, the Italian university system switched from the old system, to the new system. The ordinamento split the former Laurea into two tracks: the Laurea triennale, followed by the 2-year Laurea specialistica, the latter renamed Laurea Magistrale in 2007. Scuola primaria, also known as elementare, is commonly preceded by three years of non-compulsory nursery school. Scuola elementare lasts five years. The students are given a basic education in Italian, English, mathematics, natural sciences, history, geography, social studies, visual and musical arts.Education in Italy – An elementary school in Aosta Valley, with the name both in Italian and French
265. Secondary education in Italy – The Scuola secondaria di grado it is mandatory, lasts three years and is the first stage in which different specialized professors teach different subjects. It provides further education on the subjects studied with the addition of technology and a language other than English. It covers all the classical subjects. Before the Moratti reform it was called "scuola media di grado" or "scuola media inferiore". The scuola secondaria di grado -- formerly known as "scuola media superiore" -- lasts five years. It is designed to give the skills to progress to any university or higher educational institution. For historical reasons, there are three types of Scuola secondaria di grado, subsequently divided into further specializations. Liceo Istituto tecnico Istituto professionale Programmes are generally decided at national level. Moreover, students in state-owned schools perform better than students in private schools. A Italian student is age 19 when they enter university, while in other countries 18 is the more common age. The Italian system also features the scuola serale, aimed at adults and working students. The education received in a liceo is mostly theoretical, with a specialization in a specific field of studies. Types of liceo include: Liceo classico – dedicated to humanistic studies, features Latin, Ancient Greek, Italian, history and philosophy as its most important subjects. Liceo artistico –, oriented toward arts teaching – both in a theoretical and practical way. Its subjects are painting, sculpture, decoration, graphics, design, audiovisual, multimedia, architecture.Secondary education in Italy – A scuola secondaria di primo grado (aka scuola media), in Morbio
266. Higher education in Italy – Higher education in Italy is mainly provided by a large and international network of public and state affiliated universities. State-run universities of Italy are under the supervision of Italian's Ministry of Education. There is also state-run post-secondary educational centers providing a vocational instruction. Italian universities are among the oldest universities in the world. Most universities in Italy are state-supported. Universities in Italy fits the framework of the Bologna Process since the adoption, in 1999, of the so-called +2 system. The first degree is the Laurea triennale that can be achieved after three years of studies. Selected students can then complete their studies in the following step: two additional years of specialization which leads to the Laurea Magistrale. The "Laurea triennale" corresponds roughly to a Bachelor Degree while the "Laurea Magistrale" corresponds to a Master Degree. Only the Laurea Magistrale grants access to that last 2 to 5 years. However, there is just a five-year degree "Laurea Magistrale Quinquennale" for some programmes such as Law, Arts and Music. They only offer six-year courses. The title for MA/MFA/MD/MEd graduate students is Dottore. This title is not to be confused with the PhD and Post-MA graduates, whose title is Dottore di Ricerca. Universities in Italy can be divided into 4 groups: public universities: this category comprises most of Italian university, particularly the largest institutions.Higher education in Italy – University of Bologna, Italy and Europe's oldest university, founded in 1088
267. Italian diaspora – The Italian diaspora is the large-scale emigration of Italians from Italy. There are two Italian diasporas in Italian history. The first diaspora ended in the 1920s with the rise of the Italian Fascism. The second diaspora roughly concluded in the 1970s. Between the period of 1976, the largest voluntary emigration in documented history, with about 13 million Italians leaving the country. By 1978, it was estimated that about million Italians were residing outside of Italy. A large-scale migration of Italians away from Italy during the 19th and 20th centuries, occurred in three different waves. Secondary reasons for the diaspora include internal economic problems, as well as organized crime from economic difficulties in the South. Another characteristic was related after the improvements of the socio-economic conditions, following the unification process. Indeed, Italian families after 1861 started to have access to hospitals, improved hygienic conditions and normal food supply. Between 1985, 29,036,000 Italians immigrated to other countries; of whom 16 million arrived before the outbreak of WWI. About 10,275,000 returned to Italy while 18,761,000 permanently settled abroad. Plots grew smaller and smaller and so less and less productive as land was subdivided among heirs. Between World War I, 9,000,000 Italians left, most from the north and most going to North or South America. It has been termed "path-dependent emigration flow".Italian diaspora – Italian emigrants leaving Italy in the 1890s.
268. Feminism in Italy – Feminism in Italy originated during the Italian renaissance period, beginning in the late 13th century. Italian writers such as Christine de Pizan, Moderata Fonte, others developed the theoretical ideas behind gender equality. In contrast to feminist movements in France and United Kingdom, early women's advocates in Italy emphasized women's education and improvement in social conditions. In the post-war period, feminist movements surged, with public activism during the 1970s. Renaissance thinkers regularly challenged conventional wisdom from the Medieval period and earlier. Humanism became the new way of looking at politics, science, the arts, other fields. Humanism pushed aside the Christian concept of a hierarchical social order that placed regular citizens in a subservient position relative to members of the clergy. The Renaissance man was the ideal to emulate. However, she tempered her assertions by writing that men were created to women to follow. Renaissance Italy saw the development of higher education, including the establishment of several universities, to which women were not admitted. Education intended to create leaders was seen as wasted on women. Outside of a setting, where they had been confined during the Middle Ages, educated women were stepping out into the secular intellectual arena. By the late Renaissance, educated Italian women were writing "even theology". At a time when most women belonged to the class, most were illiterate. Educated women who could write about feminism's various aspects were in an isolated position.Feminism in Italy – The Virgin Reading (1505–10), by Vittore Carpaccio. Literacy spread among upper class women in Italy during the Renaissance.
269. Gambling in Italy – Gambling in Italy has existed for centuries and has taken on many forms. It is also due to them that the game came to European countries. It was in Venice, that in 1638 the first house "Ridotto" was opened. It was sanctioned by the government aiming to control gambling activity of the citizens. Although the admission to that house was free, only rich people could afford to play there, because the stakes were high. The games played were biribi resembling bassetta. Both games had a very high edge. In 1774 "Ridotto" was closed which resulted in the growth of popularity of the closed gambling clubs. These clubs were called'casinos', so the word'casino' itself is of Italian origin. There is an opinion that baccarat was invented in Italy by an Italian gambler Felix Falguerein. Bingo is also of an Italian origin. In the 1530s, the Italians played game called'Lo Giuoco del Lotto D’Italia' that resembled bingo. The Criminal law proclaims gambling illegal, be it organized in a public place, an open-to-public place or a private club. Sports-betting, some other activities fall into the category of legal and regulated gambling activities. Only the State has the right to allow gambling.Gambling in Italy – Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum
270. Health in Italy – As with any developed country, levels of nutrition and sanitation are high. Italy has a good and sufficient water supply, yet, especially due to droughts, water shortages can frequently occur. According to a decree issued by the state, the maximum presence of similar materials in Italy drinking water is 0.5 μg per litre. Generally healthy cuisine ensures that Italians are well-nourished and eat good food. The relatively recent addition of several drugs to meats has meant that controls have increased in 1988 to 56,831 in 1991. Despite this, the greatest risk from exposure to radiation is found indoors. Italy has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. However, Italy's high average varies greatly by regions. Central Italy has the highest average, with 81.0 for women. In 2003, the national life expectancy at birth for a woman was 78 ~ 84, for a man 71 ~ 77. By 2009, this average had rapidly increased to 83.33 for women. Italy also has a very low rate of infant mortality, the 185th lowest in the world. From 1970 to 1989, the rate went down dramatically, from 11 and 10.3 for men and women, to 8.3 and 6.7. Women have had a less definitive pattern. From a country where in 1966 a 68.5 average of the male population smoked, this had gone down to a ~ 37 % average in 1991.Health in Italy – An old social insurance card (dated 1921) belonging to the Istituto Nazionale della Previdenza Sociale, which makes sure that workers are not injured from work, and if they are, that they are insured.
271. Healthcare in Italy – After World War II Italy established its social system including a social health insurance administered by sickness funds. Around 7 % of the population remained uninsured. Moreover, sickness funds went practically bankrupt by the mid-1970s. Due to growing public dissatisfaction with the existing system, Italian policymakers fostered a structural reform. In 1978, the government established the SSN -- the Italian version of a National Health Service -- including universal coverage and funding. Healthcare is provided by a mixed public-private system. The public part is Sistema sanitario nazionale, organized under the Ministry of Health and is administered on a regional basis. Family doctors are entirely paid by the SSN, have a limit of 1500 patients. Patients can change their GP, subjected to availability. Prescription drugs can be acquired only if prescribed by a doctor. If prescribed by the doctor, they are generally subsidized, requiring only a copay that depends on the medicine type and on the patient income. Over-the-counter drugs are paid out-of-pocket. Over-the-counter drugs can only be sold in specialized shops. In a sample of 13 developed countries, Italy was sixth in its population fifth in 2013. The study noted considerable difficulties in cross-border comparison of use.Healthcare in Italy – An Italian National Health Service card.
272. Immigration to Italy – Immigration to Italy occurs from a variety of countries. As of 1 there were 5,014,437 foreign nationals resident in Italy. This represented an increase of 92,352 over the previous year. They also exclude illegal immigrants whose numbers are difficult to determine. In May 2008, The Boston Globe quoted an estimate of 670,000 for this group. The children born to foreign mothers were 102.000 in 2012, 99.000 in 2013 and 97.000 in 2014. Illegal immigrants from Africa make the dangerous boat journey across the Mediterranean Sea to Italy. About a million Romanians, around 10% of them being Roma, are officially registered as living in Italy. As of 2013, the foreign born origin was subdivided as follows: Europe, Africa, Asia, America, Oceania. Due to this booming economy, the European nations began looking to migrant workers. Another wave of the earliest groups to travel to Italy were the Filipino. Many women came to Italy to work in care-taker jobs in order to provide for their families back home. In 2004, the Italian governments reached a secret agreement that obliged Libya to accept those deported from Italian territories. This resulted in the mass return of many people from Lampedusa without the endorsement of European Parliament. By 2006, many immigrants were paying smugglers in Libya to help get them to Lampedusa by boat.Immigration to Italy – Senegalese workers at the Potato festival in Vimercate (Lombardy) in 2015
273. Nobility of Italy – They often were sometimes endowed with hereditary titles or nobiliary particles. From the Middle Ages until 1861, "Italy" was not a single country but was a number of other states, with many reigning dynasties. These were often related to each other and to other European royal families. Before Italian Unification there was a relatively large nobility in Italy. There were also families, part of Italian nobility for even centuries. These families freely intermarried with aristocratic nobility. Hereditary patriarchs were appointed Duke, Marquis and even Prince of various 16th- and 17th-century principalities. Popes also elevated their own family members – especially nephews – to the special position of Cardinal-Nephew. Many families, such as the Barberini and Pamphili, benefited greatly from having a papal relative. The architect of Italian unification was the Chief Minister of Victor Emmanuel. Rome itself became part of the Kingdom of Italy only in 1870. Those nobles who maintained allegiance to the pope became known as the Black Nobility. For example, General Enrico Cialdini was created Duca di Gaeta for his role during the unification. The practice continued until the 20th century, when nominations would be approved by the Crown. In the aftermath of the First World War, most Italians who were ennobled received their titles through the patronage of the Mussolini government.Nobility of Italy – Caserta Palace
274. Racism in Italy – Racism in Italy deals with the relations of Italians and outgroups in the history of Italy. Italy has been no exception. For decades after unification, hostility to outsiders was mainly a matter of regional antipathies. Italy's colonial adventures led to an upsurge in racial antipathies for the peoples colonized. The mass migrations from the south towards the industrialized north engendered a degree of anti-southern prejudice. In 2011, a report by Human Rights Watch pointed to growing indications of a rise in xenophobia within Italian society. In Medieval Italy, slavery was justified more often on religious rather than racial grounds. Scientific racism was popularized by criminologist Cesare Lombroso. Lombroso's theory of atavism compared white civilization and other races with "primitive" or "savage" societies. His theories connecting physiognomy to criminal behavior explicitly blamed higher homicide rates on the influence of African and Asian blood on its population. Lombroso equated the criminal tendencies of the white population to residual "blackness". The ideas of Lombroso about race would spread at the end of the 19th century. Sociologists also explored Lombroso's path of scientific racism. Niceforo held these views as 1952 claiming that "Negroid and Mongoloid types were more frequent in the lower classes". In 1907 anthropologist Ridolfo Livi attempted to show that facial features correlated with poorer populations.Racism in Italy – Front page of the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera on 11 November 1938: the fascist regime has approved the racial laws, enacting persecution of the Italian Jews. The title reads: The laws for the defense of race approved by the Council of Ministers.
275. Religion in Italy – Religion in Italy is characterised by the predominance of Christianity, especially the Catholic Church, an increasing diversity of religious practices, beliefs and denominations. Among religious minorities, Islam is the largest, followed by Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, Protestantism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Judaism. According to a 2006 survey by Eurispes, Catholics made up 87.8 % of the population, with 36.8 % describing themselves as observants. According to the same poll in 2010, those percentages fell to 76.5% and 24.4%, respectively. Other sources give different accounts of Italy's Islamic population, usually around 2%. Their religious practice was on the rise at 25.4 %. The country's Catholic patron saints are Francis of Siena. According to a 2006 survey by Eurispes, Catholics made up 87.8% of the population, with 36.8% describing themselves as observants. According to the same poll in 2010, those percentages fell to 76.5% and 24.4%, respectively. Other sources give different accounts of Italy's Islamic population, usually around 2%. In 2016 Eurispes found that 71.1% of Italians were Catholic, 5 points down from 2010, but their religious practice was on the rise at 25.4%. Additionally, there are significant differences in religious beliefs by gender, geography. The State of Vatican City, is an enclave within the city of Rome and, thus, the Italian territory. The Pope, is the Bishop of Rome, hence the special relationship between Italians and the Church -- and the latter's entanglement with Italian politics. The current Pope is Francis, born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, who, before his election in 2013, had been Archbishop of Buenos Aires since 1998.Religion in Italy – The St. Peter's Basilica, viewed from the Tiber, the Vatican Hill / City in the back and Castel Sant'Angelo to the right, Rome
276. Women in Italy – Italian Women are females who are from or live in Italy. For the Roman period, see Women in Ancient Rome. Italian women had very little opportunities to distinguished themselves during the Middle Ages, if not as a result of some extraordinary circumstances. Some widows inherited ruling positions such in the case of Matilde of Canossa. Educated women could find opportunities of leadership to Catherine of Siena. The Renaissance challenged conventional wisdom from the Medieval period. Powerful women rulers such as Isabella d'Este, Catherine de' Medici or Lucrezia Borgia, combined political skill with cultural interests and patronage. Among them were composers Francesca Caccini and Leonora Baroni, painter Artemisia Gentileschi. In 1678 Elena Cornaro Piscopia was the first woman in Italy to receive an academical degree, in philosophy, from the University of Padua. Primedonne continued to be famous all around Europe: Vittoria Tesi, Caterina Gabrielli, Lucrezia Aguiari and Faustina Bordoni. Notable women of the period include painter Rosalba Carriera, composer Maria Margherita Grimani. The Italian Risorgimento offered for the first time to Italian women the opportunity to be politically engaged. In 1799 in Naples, poet Eleonora Fonseca Pimentel was executed as one of the protagonists of the short-lived Parthenopean Republic. Women were granted right to vote in the new Italian state. In 1868 Alaide Gualberta Beccari began publishing the journal Women in Padua.Women in Italy – Sophia Loren, one of Italy's best known actresses
277. Culture of Italy – Italy is considered the birthplace of Western civilization and a cultural superpower. During its history, the nation gave birth to an enormous number of notable people. Etruscan and Samnite cultures incorporated them. The Greek settlements in particular developed into thriving classical civilizations. The Greek ruins in southern Italy are perhaps best preserved anywhere. For more than 2,000 years Italy experienced migrations, was divided into many independent states until 1861 when it became a nation-state. Despite the social isolation of these regions, Italy's contributions to the cultural and historical heritage of Europe and the world remain immense. The famous elements of Italian culture are its art, music, iconic food. For generations the language of opera was Italian, irrespective of the nationality of the composer. Before being exported to France, the famous Ballet genre also originated in Italy. The country boasts world-famous cities. Rome was seat of the Pope of the Catholic Church. Florence was the heart of a period of great achievements in the arts at the end of the Middle Ages. Important cities include Turin, which used to be the capital of Italy, is now one of the world's great centers of automobile engineering. Milan is the industrial, fashion capital of Italy.Culture of Italy – Florence Cathedral, Arnolfo di Cambio, campanile by Giotto dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi.
278. Duecento – 1202—Introduction of Liber Abaci by Fibonacci. 1202—Battle of Basian occurred on July 27, between Kingdom of Georgia and Seljuks. 1204—Fourth Crusade of 1202–1204 captures Zara for Venice and sacks Byzantine Constantinople, creating the Latin Empire. 1204—Fall of Normandy from Angevin hands to the French King, Philip Augustus, end of Norman domination of France. 1206—Genghis Khan is declared Great Khan of the Mongols. 1213—France defeats the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon at the Battle of Muret. 1214—France defeats English and Imperial German forces at the Battle of Bouvines. 1215—King John signs Magna Carta at Runnymede. 1217–1221—Fifth Crusade captures Egyptian Ayyubid port city of Damietta; ultimately the Crusaders withdraw. 1221—Venice signs a trade treaty with the Mongol Empire. 1222—Andrew II of Hungary signs the Golden Bull which affirms the privileges of Hungarian nobility. 1223-The Signoria, of the Republic of Venice consists of the Doge, the Minor Council and the three leaders of the Quarantia. 1223—The Mongol Empire defeats various Russian principalities at the Battle of the Kalka River. 1228-1229—Sixth Crusade under the excommunicated Frederick II Hohenstaufen, who returns Jerusalem to the Crusader States. 1228-1230- First clash between Gregory IX and Frederick II.Duecento – The gold florin of Firenze started to be the main currency of european trade during the Duecento
279. Trecento – The Trecento refers to the 14th century in Italian cultural history. Commonly the Trecento is considered to be the beginning of the Renaissance in history. Important sculptors included two pupils of Giovanni Pisano: Bonino da Campione. The Trecento was also famous as a time of heightened literary activity, with writers working in the vernacular instead of Latin. Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio were the leading writers of the age. "Trecento Italy". In McKinnon, James. Antiquity and the Middle Ages: From Ancient Greece to the 15th Century. Music and Society Series. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Pp. 241–268. ISBN 0130361615. Media related to 14th-century in Italy at Wikimedia CommonsTrecento – Giotto masterpiece in Padova 's "Cappella degli Scroveni"
280. Quattrocento – Quattrocento encompasses the artistic styles of the late Middle Ages and the early Renaissance. In 476 economic disorder and disruption of trade spread across Europe. In Italy, urban centers arose that were populated by trade classes, who were able to defend themselves. Increasing numbers of serfs became freedmen. The decline of feudalism paved the way for social, cultural, economic changes. Instead, Quattrocento sculptors incorporated the more classic forms developed by Roman and Greek sculptors. Since the Quattrocento overlaps with part of the Renaissance movement, it would be inaccurate to say that a particular artist was Quattrocento or Renaissance. Artists of the time probably would not have identified themselves as members of a movement. The Robert Lehman Collection I, Italian Paintings. New York, Princeton: The Metropolitan Museum of Art in association with Princeton University Press. ISBN 0870994794. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listQuattrocento – Sandro Botticelli 's Annunciation, painted from 1489-1490, is an example of Quattrocento art.
281. Seicento – The Seicento is Italian history and culture during the 17th century. The seicento saw the end of the beginning of the Counter-Reformation and the Baroque era. The seicento means "six hundred". It was also the period in which the Baroque era came into place. This period also saw advancements in Italian science, technology. This was due to persistent conflicts, revolts, the rise in popularity of French, English and Spanish culture. For additional information, see Baroque Italian art during the 17th century was predominantly Baroque in essence. His paintings were predominantly oil, used intense colours, usually having dramatic themes. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was a prominent mid to late-17th century Baroque sculptor, known for his statues, such as the "Ecstasy of Saint Theresa". Building styles for 17th-century architecture, most notably the Baroque, were very different all across the country. Turin was well known for its French-style Baroque architecture. This began during the late-17th century. Yet, the painted designs were more ornate and in touch with the popular Baroque designs. Milan was less influenced by French designs, more by the Spanish ones. Venice started to construct more ornate Baroque buildings ever in 1650s.Seicento – The 17th century Baroque architectural style used in St Peter's Basilica, Rome.
282. History of Italian culture (1700s) – The 1700s refers to a period in Italian history and culture which occurred during the 18th century: the Settecento. In the 18th century, the socio-cultural condition of Italy began to improve, under Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, his successors. All this led in the 18th century's second half: the Age of Reason and Reform. The 18th century saw the capital of Europe's architectural world transferred to Paris. The Italian Rococo, which flourished from the 1720s onward, was profoundly influenced by the ideas of Borromini. In the 18th century much sculpture continued on Baroque lines: the Trevi Fountain was only completed after 30 years. Antonio Vivaldi was the most important composer in Italy at the end of the Baroque period. He wrote more than 400 concertos for various instruments, especially for the violin. The scores including his first and last, are still intact. His best known work is a series of violin concertos known as The Four Seasons. Johann Sebastian Bach was deeply influenced by Vivaldi's arias. The introduction of the symphony originated from Italian operas, called Sinfonias. Carlo Goldoni was the most important Italian literate of the Settecento. He produced over 150 comedies. Count Vittorio Alfieri was an Italian poet, considered the "founder of Italian tragedy."History of Italian culture (1700s) – The Trevi fountain in Rome was done between 1732 and 1762
283. Architecture of Italy – However, this has created a highly eclectic range in architectural designs. Italy has an estimated total of 100,000 monuments of all varieties. Now Italy is in the forefront of sustainable design with Architects like Renzo Piano and Carlo Mollino. Italian architecture has also widely influenced the architecture of the world. Being inspired by Andrea Palladio. Along with pre-historic architecture, the first people in Italy to truly begin a sequence of designs were the Etruscans. In Northern and Central Italy, it was the Etruscans who led the way in that time. The Etruscans strongly influenced Roman architecture, as they too used to build temples, fora, aqueducts. Their city gates were also a significant influence on Roman architecture. The Greeks built bigger, more technologically advanced houses that people in the Iron and Bronze Age, also influenced Roman architecture too. Yet, by the 4th BC, the Hellenistic Age, less concentration was put on constructing temples, more rather the Greeks spent more time building theatres. The theatres had an auditorium and a stage. They used to be built only unlike the Romans who would artificially construct the audience's seats. The Greek temples were known for containing bulky marble pillars. There are several remains of Greek architecture in Italy, notably in Calabria, Apulia and Sicily.Architecture of Italy – The Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi, which has the largest brick dome in the world, and is considered a masterpiece of world architecture.
284. Italian art – Since prehistoric times, Greeks, Etruscans and Celts have inhabited the south, centre and north of the Italian peninsula respectively. Ancient Rome finally emerged as the dominant European power. Cultural tourism became a major prop to an otherwise faltering economy. This was the last such Italian-born style that spread to all Western art. Italian art has produced several great artists, including painters, architects and sculptors. Italy is home to 51 the largest number of any country in the world. The Etruscan paintings that have survived to modern times are mostly wall frescoes from graves, mainly from Tarquinia. These are the most important example of figurative art in Italy known to scholars. Fine brushes were made of animal hair. From the 4th century BC chiaroscuro began to be used to portray depth and volume. Sometimes scenes of everyday life are more often traditional mythological scenes. We frequently find portrayals of animals or men with some body-parts out of proportion. One of the best-known Etruscan frescoes is that of Tomb of the Lioness at Tarquinia. The Etruscan were responsible for constructing Rome's earliest monumental buildings. Roman houses were closely based on Etruscan models.Italian art – Rome under the emperor Constantine.
285. List of castles in Italy – This is a list of castles in Italy by location. Built in the 15th century. Calepio Castle, Castelli Calepio. Built by the Calepio family. Bianzano Castle, Bianzano. Built around 1220–1230. Camozzi Vertova Castle, Costa di Mezzate. Built in the 12th century. Cavernago Castle, Cavernago. Built by the Counts Martinengo-Colleoni. Malpaga Castle, Cavernago. Built by the warlord Bartolomeo Colleoni. Marne Castle, Filago. Built by the Avogadri family. Pagazzano Castle, Pagazzano.List of castles in Italy – Forte Spagnolo, L'Aquila
286. Cinema of Italy – The Cinema of Italy comprises the films made within Italy or by Italian directors. Early Italian films were typically adaptations of books or stage plays. One of Italian Futurism, took place in Italy in the late 1910s. After a period of decline in the 1920s, the Italian industry was revitalized in the 1930s with the arrival of sound film. A Italian genre during this period, the Telefoni Bianchi, consisted of comedies with glamorous backgrounds. Actresses such as Sophia Loren, Gina Lollobrigida achieved international stardom during this period. The Spaghetti Western achieved popularity in the mid-1960s, peaking with Sergio Leone's Dollars Trilogy, which featured enigmatic scores by composer Ennio Morricone. Giallos, produced by directors such as Mario Bava and Dario Argento in the 1970s, influenced the horror genre worldwide. During the 1990s, directors such as Ermanno Olmi, Bernardo Bertolucci, Giuseppe Tornatore, Gabriele Salvatores and Roberto Benigni brought critical acclaim back to Italian cinema. Lumière trainees produced short films documenting everyday life and comic strips in early 1900s. Pioneering Italian cinematographer Filoteo Alberini patented his "Kinetograph" during this period. Also popular during this period were films such as Caserini's Beatrice Cenci and Ugo Falena's Lucrezia Borgia. L'Inferno, produced by Milano Films in 1911, was the first Italian feature film ever made. Popular Italian actors included Emilio Ghione, Alberto Collo, Bartolomeo Pagano, Amleto Novelli, Lyda Borelli, Ida Carloni Talli, Lidia Quaranta and Maria Jacobini. Enrico Guazzone's 1913 film Quo Vadis was one of the earliest "blockbusters" in utilizing thousands of extras and a lavish set design.Cinema of Italy – Thaïs (1917)
287. Italian cuisine – Italian cuisine has developed through centuries of social and political changes, with roots stretching to antiquity. Italian cuisine is noted for its regional diversity, abundance of difference in taste, with influences abroad. Italian cuisine is characterized with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients. Italian cooks rely chiefly on the quality of the ingredients rather than on elaborate preparation. Dishes vary by region. Many dishes that were once regional, however, have proliferated with variations throughout the country. Denominazione di origine controllata laws. Coffee, specifically espresso, has become important in Italian cuisine. Italian cuisine has developed over the centuries. Through the centuries, neighbouring regions, conquerors, high-profile chefs, the discovery of the New World have influenced its development. Italian food started to form after the fall of the Roman Empire, when different cities began to form their own traditions. There was a variation in cooking techniques and preparation. The country was split. The first Italian food writer was a Greek Sicilian named Archestratus from Syracuse in the 4th century BCE. He wrote a poem that spoke of using "top quality and seasonal" ingredients.Italian cuisine – Italian cuisine
288. Italian wine – Italy is home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world, Italian wines are known worldwide for their broad variety. Italy, closely followed by France, is the world's largest producer by volume. Its contribution represents about 1/3 of global production. There are more than one million vineyards under cultivation. Although vines had been cultivated from the wild Vitis grape for millennia, it wasn't until the Greek colonization that wine-making flourished. Viticulture was well established when the extensive Greek colonization transpired around 800 BC. It was during the Roman defeat of the Carthaginians in the 2nd BC that Italian wine production began to further flourish. During this time, viticulture outside of Italy was prohibited under Roman law. As the laws on provincial viticulture were relaxed, vast vineyards began to flourish in the rest of Europe, especially Gaul and Hispania. This coincided like biturica. These vineyards became hugely successful, to the point that Italy ultimately became an centre for provincial wines. Depending on the vintage, modern Italy is the world's largest or second largest producer. In 2005, production was about 20% of the global total, second only to France, which produced 26%. In the same year, Italy's share in dollar value of table wine imports into the U.S. was 32 %, France's was 20 %. Along with Australia, Italy's share has rapidly increased in recent years.Italian wine – A classic Italian vineyard scene, with vines growing together with olive trees.
289. List of Italian orders of knighthood – There are five orders of knighthood awarded in recognition of service to the Italian Republic. Otherwise, that do not confer knighthoods. However, the former Royal House of Savoy also continues to award knighthoods in three orders of chivalry previously recognised by the Kingdom of Italy. The use of awards of the Holy See is subject to permission, while the use of those of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta is unregulated. These continue merely as dynastic orders of the former Royal house in exile. In contrast to the Republican orders, the feminine Dama is used for women. The Knight Bachelor, usually transmitted by male primogeniture, was older. These Cavaliere Ereditario were not, however, members of an order of chivalry. Nobility of Italy Italian honorifics Order Presidenza della Repubblica - Le Onorificenze Ordini dinastici della Real Casa di SavoiaList of Italian orders of knighthood – Letters patent of a Knight of Vittorio Veneto, shown with badge and miniature.
290. Italian design – Italian design refers to all forms of design in Italy, including interior design, urban design, fashion design and architectural design. The threshold of 1860 was farming and backward. At the beginning of the twentieth century formed the first Italian designers such as Vittorio Ducrot and Ernesto Basile. Italy has produced some of the greatest furniture designers in the world, such as Gio Ponti and Ettore Sottsass. Interior design in the 1900s was particularly well-known and grew to the heights of class and sophistication. However, Italian deco reached its pinnacle under Gio Ponti, who made his designs sophisticated, elegant, stylish and raffined, but also modern, exotic and creative. In 1926, a new style of furnishing emerged in Italy, known as "Razionalismo", or "Rationalism". The most famous of the Rationalists were the Gruppo 7, led by Luigi Figini, Gino Pollini and Giuseppe Terragni. There styles was known as being more plain and simple, almost Fascist in style after c. 1934. 1934. After World War II, however, was the period in which Italy had a true avant-garde in interior design. The bookcase became huge a cultural icon and event of the 1980s. In addition to design, Italy has also set trends for industrial design. Olivetti is notable for its office and electronic equipment designs, most notably the Valentine portable typewriter designed by Ettore Sottsass. Italy also has produced some of the greatest status symbols of the century.Italian design – A chair by designer Michele de Lucchi, made in 1983.
291. Italian fashion – Italy is one of the leading countries in fashion design, alongside others such as France, United States, United Kingdom, Germany and Japan. Cities such as Palermo, Venice, Milan, Naples, Florence and Vicenza started to produce luxury goods, hats, jewelry and rich fabrics. Italian fashion can be also connected of "Made in Italy" a sort of merchandise brand expressing excellence of creativity and craftsmanship. It was now is settled in Milan and represents all the highest cultural values of Italian Fashion. A Italian designers head some important and iconic fashion brands outside Italy. Italy also is home such as Vogue Italia, Vanity Fair, Elle, Glamour, Grazia, Amica, Flair, Gioia. Italian fashion reached its peak during the Renaissance. Until the 1970s, Italian fashion was mainly designed like the French "Haute Couture". Yet, in the 80s, Italian fashion started to concentrate on ready-to-wear clothes, such as coats, jackets, trousers, shirts, jeans, jumpers and miniskirts. Also, other cities such as Venice, Florence, Naples, Vicenza, Bologna, Genoa and Turin are important centres. The country's main shopping districts are the Via Montenapoleone fashion district and the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele, Via de' Tornabuoni. Nonetheless, there are other cities which play an important role in Italian fashion. In 2009, Milan was regarded as the world capital, even surpassing New York, Paris, Rome and London. In 2011, Milan was ranked # 4, behind London, Paris. International fashion labels also operate shops in Milan, including an Abercrombie & Fitch store which has become a main consumer attraction.Italian fashion – Clothes by Valentino
292. Italophilia – Italophilia is the admiration, appreciation or emulation of Italy, its people, its ideals, its civilization or its culture. Its opposite is Italophobia. The civilization of the whole world, acknowledged. Appreciation of the legacy of Italic ideals, culture has existed into the present day. Rome was the center of an empire that stretched across a large segment of the then-known world, later became the center of the Christian faith. It was possible for the people in the provinces to attain Roman citizenship, rise to the Senate, even to become Roman emperor. The Roman provinces, having received much of the benefit of Roman civilization, became Romanized to a large degree. The Christian religion was viewed in Rome as contrary to prevailing religious and political beliefs and, consequently, was suppressed. Many Christians in Rome and elsewhere were persecuted. After the conversion of the Emperor Constantine to Christianity in 312 AD, Christianity flourished and became an integral part of Roman life. Roman Catholicism, in a form easily recognizable today, took much of the Roman Empire. Works by poets, authors and historians, such as Ovid, Horace, Catullus, Cicero, Virgil, Livy and Tacitus had a far reaching impact on the Western world. The bishops, rather than the Roman prefects became the source of order and the seat of power. In many important ways, the Roman Catholic Church became the successor of the Roman Empire. The Church and its Pope were major stabilizing influences in Europe in the centuries that followed.Italophilia – Statue of Augustus, first Roman emperor and creator of "Italia" as an entity
293. Languages of Italy – Most widely spoken language is Italian, a descendant of Tuscan. This is generally not the case in regards to the languages of Italy, as they are, for the most part, not varieties of Standard Italian. In fact, Standard Italian is itself either a continuation of, or a dialect heavily based on, the Florentine Tuscan language. Most regional languages in Italy are thus better classified as separate languages descended independently from variations of the Standard Italian language. There are several minority languages that belong to Indo-European branches, such as Cimbrian, Arbëresh, the Slavomolisano dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Griko. Non-indigenous languages are spoken by a substantial percentage of the population due to immigration. The law also makes a distinction between those who are not. The Italian Constitution does not explicitly express that Italian is the official national language. Code for civil procedure – "In tutto il processo è prescritto l'uso della lingua italiana. Code for criminal procedure – "Gli atti del procedimento penale sono compiuti in lingua italiana." Article 1 of law 482/1999 – "La lingua ufficiale della Repubblica è l'italiano." Aosta Valley: French is co-official in the whole region; German is unofficial but recognised in the Lys Valley. Campania: Neapolitan is "promoted", but not recognised, by the region. Friuli-Venezia Giulia: Friulian and Slovene are "promoted", but not recognised, by the region;. Piedmont: Piedmontese is unofficial but recognised as the regional language; the region "promotes", without recognising, the Occitan, Franco-Provençal and Walser languages.Languages of Italy – Languages of Italy by groups [not in citation given]
294. Italian literature – Italian literature is written in the Italian language, particularly within Italy. An early example of Italian literature is the tradition of vernacular poetry performed in Occitan, which reached Italy by the end of the 12th century. In 1230, the Sicilian School is notable for being the first style in standard Italian. One of the greatest of Italian poets, is notable for his Divina Commedia. Petrarch wrote lyric poetry. Renaissance humanism developed during the beginning of the 15th centuries. Humanists sought to create a citizenry able to write with eloquence and clarity. Early humanists, such as Petrarch, were great collectors of antique manuscripts. Lorenzo de Medici shows the influence of Florence on the Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci wrote a treatise on painting. The development of the drama in the 15th century was very great. The fundamental characteristic of the era following Renaissance is that it perfected the Italian character of its language. Machiavelli and Guicciardini were the chief originators of the science of history. In the 18th century, philosophers throughout Europe in the period known as The Enlightenment. Apostolo Zeno and Metastasio are two of the notable figures of the age.Italian literature – A depiction of Boetius teaching his students (1385). Boetius, a 6th-century Christian philosopher, helped keep alive the classic tradition in post-Roman Italy.
295. Monuments of ItalyMonuments of Italy – Leaning Tower of Pisa and Colosseum, perhaps the two most famous monuments of Italy
296. Music of Italy – Music holds an important position in society and in politics. Vocal classical music is an iconic part of Italian identity, spanning experimental art music and international fusions to symphonic music and opera. Opera has become a major segment of popular music. Spans a diverse array of regional styles, instruments and dances. Many pieces of Italian music are considered high art. More than other elements of Italian culture, Italian music is unique from other nations' music. As a result, Italian music has kept elements of the many peoples that have influenced the country, including French, German, Spanish. The country's historical contributions to music are also an important part of national pride. Cultural, social issues are often also expressed through music in Italy. No single style has been considered a characteristic "national style". Most folk musics are unique to a small region or city. The musical output of Italy remains characterized by "creative independence a rich variety of types of expression". With the growing industrialization that accelerated during the 21st century, Italian society gradually moved from an agricultural base to an urban and industrial center. Immigration from North Africa, other European countries led to further diversification of Italian music. Traditional music came to exist only in small pockets, especially as part of dedicated campaigns to retain musical identities.Music of Italy – Some common geographical names used as points of reference in Italy.
297. Italian classical music – Plainsong is also called plainchant. More specific terms such as Ambrosian chant, Gallican chant are also found. The differences may be marginal—or even great, in some cases. These differences reflect the great ethnic, linguistic diversity that existed after the fall of the Roman Empire on the Italian peninsula. Monastic traditions arose within the Roman Catholic Church throughout Italy, but at different places and at different times. Yet, in spite of the differences, the similarities are great. Obviously, where Greek rites were practiced, the chants were sung in Latin as they were in the Roman Catholic liturgy. The Trecento, from about 1300 to 1420, was a period of vigorous activity in Italy including painting, architecture, literature, music. The music of the Trecento pioneered new forms of expression, especially in the use of vernacular language, Italian. Secular music before the year 1500 was largely the work of jongleurs, mimes. Thus, Dante showed with the Divine Comedy in 1300 that the common language could be a vehicle for fine literature. Logically, that extended to the lyrics of the songs that people sang. Words were written down with much more ease than melodies were notated. . We only know that today, sounds quite a bit different from Sicilian folk music.Italian classical music – Francesco Landini, the most famous composer of the Trecento, playing a portative organ (illustration from the Fifteenth-century Squarcialupi Codex)
298. Italian folk music – Italian folk music has a deep and complex history. The historic dominance of small city states has allowed quite diverse musical styles to coexist in close proximity. Italy's folk music is often divided into several spheres of geographic influence, a classification system proposed by Alan Lomax in 1956 and often repeated since. In central Italy these influences combine, while indigenous traditions like narrative and singing remain. In the 1950s, a number of important field recordings were conducted by Roberto Leydi among others. The early 1960s saw the rise of political popular music, including a vast number of releases by the I Dischi del Sole label. Important groups had their birth around the same time, including Cantacronache in 1958 and the Nuovo Canzoniere Italiano in 1962. The northern regions of Italy historically exhibited Celtic and Slavic influences in their cultures. Roots revivalists have revived traditional songs, though, from Piedmont, Lombardy and Veneto. The Genoese docks are the home of a polyphonic vocal style with five voices, one of which imitates a guitar. It includes modern groups like La Squadra -- Compagnia del Trallalero and Laura Parodi. The highly urban provinces of central Italy are also known for the medieval sung poetry ottava rima, especially in Tuscany, Lazio and Abruzzo. It is often sometimes competitive in nature. Tuscan poetry is closer in form and style to high-culture poetry than is typical elsewhere in Italy. The dance is also popular throughout the region.Italian folk music – Italian folk musicians performing in Edinburgh
299. Italian opera – Italian opera is both the art of opera in Italy and opera in the Italian language. Famous operas in Italian were written by foreign composers, including Handel, Gluck and Mozart. Dafne by Jacopo Peri was the earliest composition considered opera, as understood today. Peri's works, however, did not arise out of a creative vacuum in the area of sung drama. An underlying prerequisite for the creation of opera proper was the practice of monody. From this, it was only a small step to fully-fledged monody. Such spectacles were usually alternated in performance with the acts of plays. They led the scenography of the second half of the 16th century. Another popular entertainment at this time was the "madrigal comedy," later also called "madrigal opera" by musicologists familiar with the later genre. This consisted of a series of madrigals strung together to suggest a dramatic narrative, but not staged. There were also two staged musical "pastoral"s, Il Satiro and La Disperazione di Fileno, both produced in 1590 and written by Emilio de' Cavalieri. The music of Dafne is now lost. Euridice, with a libretto by Rinuccini, set to music by Peri and Giulio Caccini, recounted the story of Orpheus and Eurydice. The style of singing favored by Peri and Caccini was a heightened form of dramatic recitative supported by instrumental string music. Recitative thus preceded the development of arias, though it soon became the custom to include separate songs and instrumental interludes during periods when voices were silent.Italian opera – Interior of La Fenice opera house in Venice in 1837. Venice was, along with Florence and Rome, one of the cradles of Italian opera.
301. Il Canto degli Italiani – "Il Canto degli Italiani" is the national anthem of Italy. It is best known among Italians after the author of the lyrics, or "Fratelli d'Italia", from its opening line. The words were written in the autumn of 1847 by the then 20-year-old student and patriot Goffredo Mameli. They were set to music in Turin by another Genoese, Michele Novaro. The hymn enjoyed widespread popularity in the following decades. This choice was made official in law only on 23 November 2012. Of uncertain dating, the manuscript reveals inspiration at the same time. The handwriting appears frenetic, with numerous spelling errors, among which are "Ilia" for "Italia" and "Ballilla" for "Balilla". The second manuscript is the copy that Goffredo Mameli sent for setting to music. It has a significant modification: the incipit is "Fratelli d'Italia". This copy is in the Museo del Risorgimento in Turin. The hymn was also printed by the printing office Casamara. The Istituto Mazziniano has a copy of these, with hand annotations by Mameli himself. This sheet, subsequent to the two manuscripts, lacks the last strophe for fear of censorship. These leaflets were to be distributed in Genoa.Il Canto degli Italiani – Original text
302. Emblem of Italy – The emblem of Italy was formally adopted by the newly formed Italian Republic on 5 May 1948. Although often referred to as a coat of arms, it is technically an emblem as it was not designed to conform to heraldic rules. The emblem is used extensively by the Italian government. During this period, the green, red tricolore became the symbol which united all the efforts of the Italian people towards freedom and independence. As the arms mixed with the white of the flag, it was fimbriated azure, blue being the dynastic colour. The lions held lances flying the national flag. From the helmet fell a royal mantle, engulfed under the Stellone d'Italia, purported to protect the nation. After twenty years, on 1 January 1890, the arms' exterior were slightly modified more in keeping with those of Sardinia. The crown was taken from the helmet to the pavilion, now sewn with crosses and roses. On 11 the Savoy lions were replaced by Mussolini with fasces from the National Fascist Party shield. This is celebrated as Festa della Repubblica. Italian fascism derived its name from the fasces, which symbolises authority and/or "strength through unity". The fasces was thus considered an appropriate heraldic symbol. Additionally, Roman legions had carried the eagle, as signa militaria. This shield had previously been displayed from 1927 to 1929, when the latter was modified to incorporate elements of both.Emblem of Italy – Emblem of Italy
303. Flag of Italy – The flag of Italy is a tricolour featuring three equally sized vertical pales of green, white and red, with the green at the hoist side. Its current form was formally adopted on 1 January 1948. The first entity to use the Italian tricolour was the Cisalpine Republic in 1797, which supplanted Milan after Napoleon's victorious army crossed Italy in 1796. A more religious interpretation is that the green represents hope, the white represents faith, the red represents charity; the three theological virtues. The tricolour was reportedly used for the first time on November 13–14. On May 18. In 1799, the independent Republic of Lucca adopted as its flag a horizontal tricolour with green uppermost; this lasted until 1801. In 1805 Napoleon installed Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi, as Princess of Lucca and Piombino. This affair is commemorated in the opening of Leo Tolstoy's Peace. The flag of the Kingdom of Italy was that in rectangular form charged with the golden Napoleonic eagle. This remained in use in 1814. During this period, the tricolore became the symbol which united all the efforts of the Italian people towards independence. The Italian tricolour, defaced with the Savoyan coat of arms, was first adopted by the Kingdom of Sardinia -- Piedmont army on 1848. The civil state variants were adopted in 1851. It is worthy of note, however, that the arms bear the red-white-red flag of the opponent of Italian unification.Flag of Italy – Italian soldiers with the RSI flag in Rome, March 1944
305. Italia turrita – Italia Turrita is the national personification or allegory of Italy, characterised by a mural crown typical of Italian civic heraldry of Medieval communal origin. In broader terms, the crown symbolizes its mostly urban history. She often holds in her hands a bunch of corn ears; during the fascist era, she held a bundle of the lictors. Under the emperor Augustus, an allegorical representation of Italy known as Saturnia Tellus was sculpted on Ara Pacis' external wall in Rome. Another allegory of Italy appears on the coins coined during the reign of emperor Nerva in 97 AD. This mythographical setting-up of the Italian land became also popular during the Middle Ages. In 1490, duke of Milan, had an Italia turrita painted on a medallion of the castle in Piazza Ducale, Vigevano. The Caesaris Astrum appeared again on the cover of Historiarium de Regno Italiae, a book written by the historian Carlo Sigonio. Emblem of Italy National personification Mural crown Stella d'Italia Giovanni Lista, La Stella d'Italia, Edizioni Mudima, Milan, 2011. The front page of La Domenica del Corriere on 25 May 1958 depicted Italia Turrita voting in that day’s general electionItalia turrita – Statue of Italia Turrita in Reggio Calabria.
306. Italians – Italians are a nation and ethnic group native to Italy who share a common Italian culture, ancestry and speak the Italian language as a mother tongue. Italians have greatly contributed to science, arts, technology, cuisine, sports, jurisprudence and banking both abroad and worldwide. Italian people are generally known to clothing and family values. The term Italian has a history that goes back to pre-Roman Italy. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. This period of unification was followed by one of conquest beginning with the First Punic War against Carthage. In the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. The final victor, was accorded the title of Augustus by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. Emperor Diocletian's administrative division of the empire into two parts in 285 provided only temporary relief; it became permanent in 395. In 313, churches thereafter rose throughout the empire. However, he also moved his capital to Constantinople greatly reducing the importance of the former. Romulus Augustulus, was deposed in 476 by a Germanic foederati general in Italy, Odoacer. His defeat marked the end of the western part of the Roman Empire. Odoacer ruled well after gaining control of Italy in 476. Then he was defeated by Theodoric, the king of another Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths.Italians – Amerigo Vespucci, the notable geographer and traveller from whose name the word America is derived.
307. Italian philosophy – Roman philosophy was heavily influenced by that of Greece. Medieval philosophy was mainly Christian, included several important philosophers and theologians such as St Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas was the student of a brilliant Dominican experimentalist, much like the Franciscan, Roger Bacon of Oxford in the 13th century. Aquinas reintroduced Aristotelian philosophy to Christianity. He believed that there was no contradiction between faith and reason. He was a professor at the prestigious University of Paris. The Renaissance was also a great period of the arts and philosophy. As with all periods, there is a wide drift of reasons for categorization and boundaries. In particular, more than later periods, is thought to begin in Italy with the Italian Renaissance and roll through Europe. The humanist movement developed by European scholars of Latin literary and Greek literary texts. Initially, a humanist was simply a teacher of Latin literature. Humanism offered the necessary philological tools for the first critical analysis of texts. An early triumph of textual criticism by Lorenzo Valla revealed the Donation of Constantine to be an medieval forgery produced in the Curia. Italian Renaissance humanists believed that the liberal arts should be practiced by all levels of "richness". They also approved of self, individual dignity.Italian philosophy – St Thomas Aquinas.
308. Sculpture of Italy – Italy is considered the birthplace of Western civilization and a cultural superpower. During its history, the nation gave birth to an enormous number of notable people. Etruscan and Samnite cultures incorporated them. The Greek settlements in particular developed into thriving classical civilizations. The Greek ruins in southern Italy are perhaps best preserved anywhere. For more than 2,000 years Italy experienced migrations, was divided into many independent states until 1861 when it became a nation-state. Despite the social isolation of these regions, Italy's contributions to the cultural and historical heritage of Europe and the world remain immense. The famous elements of Italian culture are its art, music, iconic food. For generations the language of opera was Italian, irrespective of the nationality of the composer. Before being exported to France, the famous Ballet genre also originated in Italy. The country boasts world-famous cities. Rome was seat of the Pope of the Catholic Church. Florence was the heart of a period of great achievements in the arts at the end of the Middle Ages. Important cities include Turin, which used to be the capital of Italy, is now one of the world's great centers of automobile engineering. Milan is the industrial, fashion capital of Italy.Sculpture of Italy – Florence Cathedral, Arnolfo di Cambio, campanile by Giotto dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi.
309. Sport in Italy – Sport in Italy has a long tradition. In numerous sports, team, Italy has a good representation and many successes. Football is the most popular sport in Italy. Basketball, volleyball, cycling are the next most popular/played sports, with Italy having a rich tradition in all three. Italy also has strong traditions in swimming, water polo, rugby union, tennis, athletics, Formula One. This list, published by Italian National Olympic Committee, refers to a survey made in 2000. Football is the most popular sport in Italy. The national football team has won the FIFA World Cup four times, trailing only Brazil and tying Germany. Serie A clubs have seen success in the premier European club competition, winning it twelve times. Often, Italian children can be seen playing on the street with relatives. Italians have won the World Cycling Championship more than any other country, except Belgium. Italy is one of the main basketball nations in France. It has a rich tradition in the sport. The national basketball team's best results were gold at Eurobasket 1983 and EuroBasket 1999, as well as silver at the Olympics in 1980 and 2004. Until the 2000s, the Italian League was considered the strongest domestic outside of North America.Sport in Italy – The Italian national football team at the 1982 FIFA World Cup.
310. Television in Italy – Television in Italy was introduced in 1939, when the first experimental broadcasts began. The Italian branch of Discovery Communications, had a viewing share of 5.8 %. Apart from these three free to air companies, News Corporation's satellite pay platform Sky Italia is increasing in viewing and shares. According to BBC, the Italian industry is widely considered both inside and outside the country to be overtly politicized. Unlike the BBC, controlled by an independent trust, the public RAI is under direct control of the parliament. Starting from January 2005 Telecom Italia Media started offering pay TV services through a prepaid smartcard, including football games, movies and TV shows. During the 2006 Winter Olympics held in Turin, RAI experimentally broadcast a number of sport events using a 1080i signal and H264 coding. Beginning October 2008, in the first region of Italy planned to interrupt analog transmission, Sardinia, television networks broadcast multiplexes only in digital format. Italy has had digital satellite broadcasts with the launch of Stream TV and TELE +. In 2003 these merged into SKY Italia, today this pay platform is broadcasting from Hotbird satellites. HDTV regular services started in June 2006 with the broadcasting of the 2006 FIFA World Cup in High Definition. Additional sport channels are planned for the service. Shareholders include Mediaset, the State Owned Company RAI. Italy currently has the lowest percentage of transmissions from television of almost all of the world's developed countries. In the 1960s the public network RAI was a monopoly and the only network authorized to broadcast in Italy.Television in Italy – Contents
311. List of World Heritage Sites in Italy – Italy ratified the convention on June 1978, making its historical sites eligible for inclusion on the list. Sites in Italy were first held in Cairo and Luxor, Egypt in 1979. At that session, one site was added: the "Rock Drawings in Valcamonica". Four World Heritage Sites in Italy are of the natural type, all others are cultural sites. Therefore, Italy has the largest number of "cultural" heritage sites followed by Spain with 39 cultural sites. Nominations for the World Heritage list are only accepted if the site has previously been listed on the tentative list. As of 2016, Italy was recording such sites on its tentative list. These sites, along with the year they were first included in the tentative list are:List of World Heritage Sites in Italy – 18th-Century Royal Palace at Caserta with the Park, the Aqueduct of Vanvitelli, and the San Leucio Complex
312. List of caves in Italy – The following article shows a list of caves in Italy. Main concentration of Italian caves is close to the Apennine Mountains, principally due to karst. The main touristic caves are Castellana and Frasassi. Notable show caves are Pertosa, the Wind Cave, the Giant Cave, Castelcivita, Villanova, Toirano and Pastena. There are shown the main touristic caves and other notable underground voids. Grotto List of caves Index of the show caves of Italy Photos of Italian caves on FlickrList of caves in Italy – View of Castellana Caves