List of caves in Italy
Notes and references
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|Addaura||Palermo (PA)||Sicily||?||70 metres (230 ft)|
|Arene Candide||Finale Ligure (SV)||Liguria||?||90 amsl|
|Antro del Corchia||Stazzema (LU)||Tuscany||?||600 amsl|
|Bigonda||Grigno (TN)||Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol||?||400 amsl|
|Blue Grotto||Anacapri (NA)||Campania||?||0 amsl|
|Borgio Verezzi||Borgio Verezzi (SV)||Liguria||?||200 amsl|
|Bue Marino||Dorgali  (NU)||Sardinia||?||0 amsl|
|Castelcivita||Castelcivita (SA)||Campania||3 km||94 amsl|
|Castellana||Castellana Grotte (BA)||Apulia||3 km||290 amsl|
|Cavallone||Lama dei Peligni (CH)
Taranta Peligna (CH)
|Abruzzo||1 km||1,300 amsl|
|Ear of Dionysius||Syracuse (SR)||Sicily||0,06 km
|Frasassi||Genga (AN)||Marche||5 km||300 amsl|
|Gelo||Randazzo (CT)||Sicily||?||2,043 amsl|
|Giant||Sgonico (TS)||Friuli-Venezia Giulia||0,28 km
|Giusti||Monsummano Terme (PT)||Tuscany||0,20 km
|Ispinigoli||Dorgali (NU)||Sardinia||?||1,300 amsl|
|Is Zuddas||Santadi (CI)||Sardinia||?||0 amsl|
|Lauro||Alcara li Fusi (ME)||Sicily||?||1,068 amsl|
|Maona||Montecatini Terme (PT)||Tuscany||0,20 km
|Neptune||Alghero (SS)||Sardinia||?||5 amsl|
|Nereo||Alghero (SS)||Sardinia||?||0 amsl|
|Paglicci||Rignano Garganico (FG)||Apulia||?||590 amsl|
|Pastena||Pastena (FR)||Lazio||?||310 amsl|
|Patone||Arco (TN)||Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol||?||300 amsl|
|Pertosa||Pertosa (SA)||Campania||3 km||263 amsl|
|San Giovanni||Domusnovas (CI)||Sardinia||2 km||150 amsl|
|Smeraldo||Conca dei Marini (SA)||Campania||?||0 amsl|
|Su Mannau||Fluminimaggiore (CI)||Sardinia||?||256 amsl|
|Su Marmuri||Ulassai (OG)||Sardinia||?||775 amsl|
|Toirano||Toirano (SV)||Liguria||2 km||50 amsl|
|Trullo||Putignano (BA)||Apulia||?||375 amsl|
|Villanova||Lusevera  (UD)
|Friuli-V.G.||4 km||500 amsl|
|Wind||Vergemoli (LU)||Tuscany||4,5 km||650 amsl|
|Zelbio||Zelbio (CO)||Lombardy||?||900 amsl|
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1. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France, Spain and Austria. Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, Italia, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern worldItaly – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
2. Italian language – By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian, is the closest to Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is a language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City. Italian is spoken by minorities in places such as France, Montenegro, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Crimea and Tunisia and by large expatriate communities in the Americas. Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and other regional languages, Italian is the fourth most studied language in the world. Italian is a major European language, being one of the languages of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe. It is the third most widely spoken first language in the European Union with 65 million native speakers, including Italian speakers in non-EU European countries and on other continents, the total number of speakers is around 85 million. Italian is the working language of the Holy See, serving as the lingua franca in the Roman Catholic hierarchy as well as the official language of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical terminology and its influence is also widespread in the arts and in the luxury goods market. Italian has been reported as the fourth or fifth most frequently taught foreign language in the world, Italian was adopted by the state after the Unification of Italy, having previously been a literary language based on Tuscan as spoken mostly by the upper class of Florentine society. Its development was influenced by other Italian languages and to some minor extent. Its vowels are the second-closest to Latin after Sardinian, unlike most other Romance languages, Italian retains Latins contrast between short and long consonants. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive, however, Italian as a language used in Italy and some surrounding regions has a longer history. What would come to be thought of as Italian was first formalized in the early 14th century through the works of Tuscan writer Dante Alighieri, written in his native Florentine. Dante is still credited with standardizing the Italian language, and thus the dialect of Florence became the basis for what would become the language of Italy. Italian was also one of the recognised languages in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Italy has always had a dialect for each city, because the cities. Those dialects now have considerable variety, as Tuscan-derived Italian came to be used throughout Italy, features of local speech were naturally adopted, producing various versions of Regional Italian. Even in the case of Northern Italian languages, however, scholars are not to overstate the effects of outsiders on the natural indigenous developments of the languagesItalian language – Dante Alighieri (above) and Petrarch (below) were influential in establishing their Tuscan dialect as the most prominent literary language in all of Italy in the Late Middle Ages
3. Karst topography – Karst topography is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves and it has also been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no rivers or lakes, the English word karst was borrowed from German Karst in the late 19th century. The German word came into use before the 19th century, according to the prevalent interpretation, the term is derived from the German name for the Karst region, a limestone plateau above the city of Trieste in the northern Adriatic. Scholars disagree, however, on whether the German word was borrowed from Slovene, the Slovene common noun kras was first attested in the 18th century, and the adjective form kraški in the 16th century. The Slovene words arose through metathesis from the reconstructed form *korsъ, ultimately, the word is of Mediterranean origin, believed to derive from some Romanized Illyrian base. It has been suggested that the word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root karra- rock, the name may also be connected to the oronym Karsádios oros cited by Ptolemy, and perhaps also to Latin Carusardius. The development of karst occurs whenever acidic water starts to break down the surface of bedrock near its cracks, as the bedrock continues to degrade, its cracks tend to get bigger. As time goes on, these fractures will become wider, if this underground drainage system does form, it will speed up the development of karst formations there because more water will be able to flow through the region, giving it more erosive power. The carbonic acid that causes karstic features is formed as rain passes through the atmosphere picking up carbon dioxide, once the rain reaches the ground, it may pass through soil that can provide much more CO2 to form a weak carbonic acid solution, which dissolves calcium carbonate. The oxidation of sulfides leading to the formation of acid can also be one of the corrosion factors in karst formation. As oxygen -rich surface waters seep into deep anoxic karst systems, they bring oxygen, sulfuric acid then reacts with calcium carbonate, causing increased erosion within the limestone formation. This chain of reactions is, This reaction chain forms gypsum, the karstification of a landscape may result in a variety of large- or small-scale features both on the surface and beneath. On exposed surfaces, small features may include solution flutes, runnels, limestone pavement, medium-sized surface features may include sinkholes or cenotes, vertical shafts, foibe, disappearing streams, and reappearing springs. Large-scale features may include limestone pavements, poljes, and karst valleys, mature karst landscapes, where more bedrock has been removed than remains, may result in karst towers, or haystack/eggbox landscapes. Beneath the surface, complex underground systems and extensive caves. Some of the most dramatic of these formations can be seen in Thailands Phangnga Bay, calcium carbonate dissolved into water may precipitate out where the water discharges some of its dissolved carbon dioxide. Rivers which emerge from springs may produce tufa terraces, consisting of layers of calcite deposited over extended periods of time, in caves, a variety of features collectively called speleothems are formed by deposition of calcium carbonate and other dissolved mineralsKarst topography – Škocjan Caves, Slovenia
4. Show cave – Unlike wild caves, they typically possess such features as constructed trails, guided tours, lighting, and regular opening hours. Show cave has inconsistent usage between nations, with many tending to call all caves which are open to the public show caves. However there are caves which are not developed but are visited by very many people. This kind of cave is called a semi-wild cave. Access may involve anything between an easy stroll and dangerous climbing, most cave accidents happen in this kind of cave, as visitors often underestimate the difficulties and dangers. The oldest known cave in the world is Postojna Cave in Slovenia. In 1649 the first authorized cave guide started guiding Baumannshöhle in the Harz in Germany -, the development of electric lighting enabled the illumination of show caves. Early experiments with light in caves were carried out by Lieutenant Edward Cracknel in 1880 at Chifley Cave, Jenolan Caves. In 1881 Sloupsko-Šošůvské Jeskyně, Czech Republic, became the first cave in the world with electric arc light and this light did not use light bulbs, but electric arc lamps with carbon electrodes, which burned down and had to be replaced after some time. The first cave in the world with electric light bulbs as we know today was the Kraushöhle in Austria in 1883. But the light was abandoned after only seven years and the cave is visited with carbide lamps. In 1884 two more caves were equipped with light, Postojna Cave, Slovenia, and OlgahöhleShow cave – A guide and visitor in the Mammoth Cave, Kentucky
5. Castellana Caves – The Castellana Caves are a karst cave system located in the municipality of Castellana Grotte, in the province of Bari, Apulia. The caves, discovered in 1938 by the speleologist Franco Anelli, are situated 1 kilometer south of Castellana and are served by the on the FSE line Bari-Putignano-Martina-Taranto, the entrance is represented by an enormous vertical tunnel 60 meters long. The main cave is named La Grave, and others are named Black Cavern, White Cave, the Caves of Castellana open in south-eastern Murge, a limestone plateau dating back to the upper Cretaceous and rising 330 metres above sea level. The area of Castellana is characterized by limestone, a rock composed largely of calcium carbonate. The cave system is 3348 metres in length and the point of maximum depth reaches 122 metres, the temperature within the caves is about 18 °C. The caves are all year round except for Christmas Day. The visit develops along two itineraries, the first is 1 km long and lasts about 50 minutes while the second is 3 km long, the tour timetable changes depending on the season. In addition, during the summer there are also guided night tours, the Grave is the first and the biggest cave of this wonderful speleological complex and it is the only one communicating with the outside. It measures 100 m in length,50 m in width and 60 m in depth, going beyond the Grave stalactites, stalagmites, curtains and precious crystals continues to embellish everywhere the caves. Castellana’s speleological complex is unique among other cave systems thanks to its three peculiarities, the Grave, the White Cave and the concretions. The Grave of Castellana is a huge natural pantheon thanks to its natural skylight surrounded by a circle of holm-oaks through which a ribbon of clear sky is visible. From the ceiling a big sunbeams filters down into the darkness and it moves according to the time of the day. Finally it reaches the irregular and dark bottom of the chasm, the southern walls, the big broken curtains and the green moss-grown columns stay always in the darkness. Beyond these columns there is the architectural structures that the nature build up in the darkness by the passing of time. The Grave is the first huge cave of the cave karst system and its history dates back to ninety-one hundred millions of years ago in the upper Cretaceous. At that time Apulia was submerged by an old sea where lived large colonies of molluscs, starting since 66 millions of years ago, the gradual raising of the land brought the region to its current aspect. However, the new emerged land was too rigid and for this reason it was cut in a multitude of fractures, the eluvial water of large rainfall infiltrated into the subsurface soil and rock and created massive groundwater aquifer. The physical and chemical effect of water running underground, dissolved gradually the limestone, over geological eras cracks expanded to till become galleries and then cavern which became bigger and biggerCastellana Caves – View of the caves
6. Frasassi – The Frasassi Caves are a remarkable karst cave system in the municipality of Genga, Italy, in the province of Ancona, Marche. They are among the most famous show caves in Italy, the caves, discovered by a group of Ancona speleologists in 1971, are situated 7 kilometres south of Genga, near the civil parish of San Vittore and the Genga-San Vittore railway station. Rich in water, the system is particularly well endowed with stalactites and stalagmites. The Frassisi cave system includes a number of named chambers, including the following, Grotta delle Nottole, or Cave of the Bats, Grotta Grande del Ventro, or Great Cave of the Wind, discovered in 1971, with approximately 13 kilometres of passageways. Sala delle Candeline, or Room of the Candles, named for its plentiful stalagmites that resemble candles, sala dellInfinito, or Room of the Infinite, a tall chamber with massive speleothem columns supporting the roof. The cave has been used to conduct experiments in chronobiology, among the cavers that have spent considerable amount of time inside the cave is the Italian sociologist Maurizio Montalbini, who died in 2009Frasassi – View of the caves
7. Giant Cave – Its central cavern is 107 m high,65 m wide and 130 m long, putting it in the 1995 Guinness Book of Records as the worlds largest tourist cave. This record was broken in 2010 when La Verna cave in the south west of France was opened to tourists, the cave contains many large stalactites and stalagmites, many of exceptional beauty. A feature of the stalagmites is their appearance, formed by water dropping from up to 80 m above. The enormous hall is 107 m high,130 m long and 65 m large and its available space and the constant temperatures throughout the year have led to the placement of two geodetic pendula and other scientific instruments. The cave was first explored by Antonio Federico Lindner in 1840, at the time, the karst behind Trieste was being searched for underground water from the Timavo River so as to be able to plan the citys aqueduct. In 1897, it was mapped by Andrea Perko, properly equipped for guided tours in 1905 by Club Touristi Triestini. After World War I, ownership went to the Julian Alpine Society, tourism only really began in 1957, when electricity was installed, unveiling new perspectives and details. Two wide parking lots are available on the outside, visits are scheduled at regular intervals throughout the day with expert guides. A guided walk through the cave takes about an hour, media related to Grotta Gigante at Wikimedia Commons Official Grotta Gigante websiteGiant Cave – Inside the cave looking towards the tourist entrance
8. Toirano Caves – The Toirano Caves are a karst cave system in the municipality of Toirano, in the province of Savona, Liguria, Italy. The area is situated close to the town of Toirano and few kilometers to the Ligurian Ponente Riviera, the exit Borghetto Santo Spirito of A10 motorway is 5 km far from the caves. One of the most important caves is Basura, discovered in 1950, borgio Verezzi Caves List of caves List of caves in Italy Grotte di Toirano official site Toirano Caves on showcaves. comToirano Caves – Interior view
9. Province of Palermo – The Province of Palermo was a province in the autonomous region of Sicily, a major island in Southern Italy. Its capital was the city of Palermo, on August 4,2015, it was replaced by the Metropolitan City of Palermo. Its name is derived from Latin word Panormus, from 1072 to 1194 Palermo was the capital of the Kingdom of Sicily before Naples became the new capital under the rule of the French Angevin dynasty. It has also ruled by the Romans, Byzantines, Normans, Arabs, Spanish Empire. Historical accounts recording the existence of the date back to the 8th and 6th century B. C. The province is surrounded by Tyrrhenian Sea in the north, Province of Trapani in the west and it is popular for its beaches, namely Mondello. The land is mountainous and includes Pollina and Imera Valleys, Madonie Range is located in the province. The Province of Palermo has 82 comuni,1,249,533 inhabitants, some major towns of the province are Palermo, Alia, Alimena, Sclafani Bagni and Petralia Soprana. In 1840, for the purpose of administration the province was divided into four districts – Palermo, Corleone, Termini, tourism is also an important industry. A few major tourist destinations include Arab-Norman Palatine Chapel, Church of St. John of the Hermits, Palazzo Abatellis, Gothic Palazzo Chiaramonte, the seat of the Sicilian parliament is located in the province. A cathedral containing the tombs of Frederick II and other rulers is also a known tourist attraction. The Madonie Regional Park is also located in the province and it has an airport called Falcone-Borsellino Airport, which serves about a million passengers every year, while the local port serves about half a million passengers every year. During the months from July to September the province is visited by a number of tourists. Metropolitan City of Palermo Media related to Province of Palermo at Wikimedia CommonsProvince of Palermo – Map highlighting the location of the province of Palermo in Italy
10. Sicily – Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is an autonomous Region of Italy, along with surrounding minor islands, Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe, the island has a typical Mediterranean climate. The earliest archaeological evidence of activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC. It became part of Italy in 1860 following the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led by Giuseppe Garibaldi during the Italian unification, Sicily was given special status as an autonomous region after the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially regard to the arts, music, literature, cuisine. It is also home to important archaeological and ancient sites, such as the Necropolis of Pantalica, the Valley of the Temples, Sicily has a roughly triangular shape, earning it the name Trinacria. To the east, it is separated from the Italian mainland by the Strait of Messina, about 3 km wide in the north, and about 16 km wide in the southern part. The northern and southern coasts are each about 280 km long measured as a line, while the eastern coast measures around 180 km. The total area of the island is 25,711 km2, the terrain of inland Sicily is mostly hilly and is intensively cultivated wherever possible. Along the northern coast, the ranges of Madonie,2,000 m, Nebrodi,1,800 m. The cone of Mount Etna dominates the eastern coast, in the southeast lie the lower Hyblaean Mountains,1,000 m. The mines of the Enna and Caltanissetta districts were part of a leading sulphur-producing area throughout the 19th century, Sicily and its surrounding small islands have some highly active volcanoes. Mount Etna is the largest active volcano in Europe and still casts black ash over the island with its ever-present eruptions and it currently stands 3,329 metres high, though this varies with summit eruptions, the mountain is 21 m lower now than it was in 1981. It is the highest mountain in Italy south of the Alps, Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 with a basal circumference of 140 km. This makes it by far the largest of the three volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. In Greek Mythology, the deadly monster Typhon was trapped under the mountain by Zeus, Mount Etna is widely regarded as a cultural symbol and icon of Sicily. The Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea, to the northeast of mainland Sicily form a volcanic complex, the three volcanoes of Vulcano, Vulcanello and Lipari are also currently active, although the latter is usually dormantSicily – Mount Etna rising over suburbs of Catania
11. Liguria – Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, its capital is Genoa. The region is popular with tourists for its beaches, towns, Liguria is bordered by France to the west, Piedmont to the north, and Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany to the east. It lies on the Ligurian Sea, the narrow strip of land is bordered by the sea, the Alps and the Apennines mountains. Some mountains rise above 2,000 m, the line runs at an average altitude of about 1,000 m. The highest point of the region is the summit of Monte Saccarello, the winding arched extension goes from Ventimiglia to La Spezia. Of this,3,524.08 km2 are mountainous and 891.95 km2 are hills, Ligurias natural reserves cover 12% of the entire region, or 600 km2 of land. They are made up of one national reserve, six large parks, the continental shelf is very narrow, and so steep it descends almost immediately to considerable marine depths along its 350-kilometre coastline. Except for the Portovenere and Portofino promontories, it is not very jagged. At the mouths of the biggest watercourses there are small beaches, the ring of hills lying immediately beyond the coast together with the sea account for a mild climate year-round. Average winter temperatures are 7 to 10 °C and summer temperatures are 23 to 24 °C, rainfall can be abundant at times, as mountains very close to the coast create an orographic effect. Genoa and La Spezia can see up to 2,000 mm of rain in a year, evidence of Neanderthals living in the area was discovered in the region of Loano, whereas in Ventimiglia, in the grotto of Balzi Rossi, numerous remains were found of Cro-Magnon. According to Classical sources, the Ligurians, once lived in a far broader territory than present-day Liguria, for example, the Greek colony of Massalia, modern Marseille was recorded to lie in Ligurian territory. During the first Punic War, the ancient Ligurians were divided, some of them siding with Carthage, under Augustus, Liguria was designated a region of Italy stretching from the coast to the banks of the Po River. The great Roman roads helped strengthen territorial unity and increase communication, important towns developed on the coast, of which evidence is left in the ruins of Albenga, Ventimiglia and Luni. Between the 4th and the 10th centuries Liguria was dominated by the Byzantines, the Lombards of King Rothari and it was also invaded by Saracen and Norman raiders. In the 10th century, once the danger of pirates decreased, in the 11th and 12th centuries the marches were split into fees, and then with the strengthening of the bishops’ power, the feudal structure began to partially weaken. The main Ligurian towns, especially on the coast, became city-states, inland, however, fiefs belonging to noble families survived for a very long time. Between the 11th century and the 15th century, the Republic of Genoa experienced a political and commercial successLiguria – A view of Cinque Terre.
12. Tuscany – Tuscany is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. Tuscany is known for its landscapes, traditions, history, artistic legacy, Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is considered a nation within a nation. Tuscany is traditionally a popular destination in Italy, and the main tourist destinations by number of tourist arrivals are Florence, Pisa, Montecatini Terme, Castiglione della Pescaia and Grosseto. The village of Castiglione della Pescaia is also the most visited destination in the region. Additionally, Siena, Lucca, the Chianti region, Versilia and Val dOrcia are also internationally renowned, Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence was the worlds 89th most visited city, roughly triangular in shape, Tuscany borders the regions of Liguria to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna to the north and east, Umbria to the east and Lazio to the southeast. The comune of Badia Tedalda, in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca Raffaello within Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany has a western coastline on the Tyrrhenian Sea, containing the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany has an area of approximately 22,993 square kilometres, surrounded and crossed by major mountain chains, and with few plains, the region has a relief that is dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds of the total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres, and mountains. Plains occupy 8. 4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres —mostly around the valley of the River Arno, many of Tuscanys largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital Florence, Empoli and Pisa. The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks, following this, the Villanovan culture saw Tuscany, and the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms. City-states developed in the late Villanovan before Orientalization occurred and the Etruscan civilization rose, the Etruscans created the first major civilization in this region, large enough to establish a transport infrastructure, to implement agriculture and mining and to produce vibrant art. The Etruscans lived in Etruria well into prehistory, throughout their existence, they lost territory to Magna Graecia, Carthage and Celts. Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece, one reason for its eventual demise was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans. Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa, Siena, and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, and ensured peace. These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, however, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather. The Roman civilization in the West collapsed in the 5th century AD, in the years following 572, the Longobards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their Duchy of TusciaTuscany – Hilly landscape in Val d'Orcia
13. Anacapri – Anacapri is a comune on the island of Capri, in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Italy. The Ancient Greek prefix ana- means up or above, signifying that Anacapri is located at an elevation on the island than Capri. Administratively, it has a separate status from the city of Capri, the most significant site in the village is the Villa San Michele. French composer Claude Debussy was a visitor to Anacapri. He even named one of his preludes from the first book, No.5 Les collines dAnacapri, there is a bus service, via numerous hairpin bends, from Marina Grande and Capri to Anacapri. One of the tourist attractions in Anacapri is the chairlift to 589-m Monte Solaro for picturesque views of the south-facing coast, punta Carena Lighthouse is located 3 km from the main townAnacapri – View from Villa San Michele towards Marina Grande
14. Province of Naples – The Province of Naples was a province in the Campania region of southern Italy, since January 2015 has been replaced by the Metropolitan City of Naples. The province of Naples is the most densely populated in Italy, at the 2013 census were all located in the province, as were 10 of the top 15. It has an area of 1,171.13 km², largest communities in the Napoli metropolitan area), The area is particularly fruitful for tourism, both national and international. Together they are known as the Campanian Archipelago. On Capri, there is the famous Blue Grotto, inside the grotto the sea seems to be lit from underwater, it is a magnificent blue colour, hence its name. The Sorrentine Peninsula has long being a destination for tourism, it is well known for the drink Limoncello. It is rich with villas, castles, guard towers, churches, the most popular sport in the province is football. This area was one of the first in Southern Italy to start playing sports, the most successful club from the province are by far SSC Napoli, who have won Serie A twice and the UEFA Cup while Diego Maradona was with the clubProvince of Naples – Satellite view of the provincial area.
15. Province of Nuoro – The Province of Nuoro is a province in the autonomous island region of Sardinia, Italy. Its capital is the city of Nuoro and it has an area of 3,934 square kilometres, and a total population of 161,444. The province is divided into 52 comuni, the largest of which are Nuoro, Siniscola, Macomer, the other comuni are generally not so large, even if Oliena and Orosei can be considered as well as populated towns. The province was established in 1927, in 2005, the territory of the Province of Nuoro has been substantially reduced as a consequence of the establishment in the island of four new provinces. The province hosts some of the wildest and most beautiful landscapes in the world. Part of these landscapes has been included in the National Park of the Gulf of Orosei, the Province of Nuoro is one of Europes less-densely populated areas. However, it is known for its concentration of centenarians and supercentenarians. From 5 March 2001 to 3 January 2002, Antonio Todde, from Tiana, was the oldest man in the worldProvince of Nuoro – Map highlighting the location of the province of Nuoro in Italy
16. Castelcivita – Castelcivita is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy. In 2010 its population was 1,902, the town is situated in the middle of Cilento, by the western side of the Alburni mountains, and its territory is part of the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park. Neighboring municipalities are Albanella, Altavilla Silentina, Aquara, Controne, Ottati, Postiglione, Roccadaspide, the municipalities counts the hamlets of Cosentini, Pantano-Serracchio and Serra. Castelcivita is home to the popular tourist attraction, the Castelcivita Caves, located 1,5 km in the valley, Cilento Cilentan dialect Municipal website Official site of the cavesCastelcivita – Panoramic view
17. Province of Syracuse – The Province of Syracuse is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. Its capital is the city of Syracuse, a town which was established by Greek colonists arriving from Corinth in the eighth century B. C and it has an area of 2,109 square kilometres and a total population of 404,847. Syracuse has 8% of the Sicilian population and 8. 2% of Sicilys area, the Province of Syracuse lies in the southeastern Sicily, in southwestern Italy. It is bordered to the north and north-west by the Province of Catania to the west by the Province of Ragusa and it occupies an area of 2,109 square kilometres. The towns are particularly dense with late Baroque architecture, dates to the rebuilding of the towns which took place after the 1693 earthquake which devastated Sicily. The capital of Syracuse is an important road and rail hub of Sicily, the Park of Neapolis on the island of Ortygia is connected by three bridges to the mainland. The island contains the Maniace Castle, dated to the Swabian period and the Doric Temple of Athena, the Hyblaean Mountains are the dominant mountain range in the province, sloping down to a coastline which contains stretches of white sandy beaches, cliffs, bays, and islets. Within the province lies Lago di Lentini, the largest lake in Sicily, and reputedly the largest artificial lake in Europe, there are 21 comuni in the province. The most populated as of 2005 were, Official Province website Pictures, history, tourism, gastronomy, books, local products, local surnames, transportation in the province of SyracuseProvince of Syracuse – Syracuse, Sicily, Italy
18. Marche – Marche, or The Marches /ˈmɑːrtʃᵻz/, is one of the twenty regions of Italy. The name of the region derives from the name of marca, originally referring to the medieval March of Ancona and nearby marches of Camerino. Marche is well known for its tradition, with the finest and most luxurious Italian footwear being manufactured in this region. Except for river valleys and the very narrow coastal strip. A railway from Bologna to Brindisi, built in the 19th century, inland, the mountainous nature of the region, even today, allows relatively little travel north and south, except by twisting roads over the passes. Most of the region is mountainous or hilly, the features being the Apennine chain along the internal boundary. With the sole exception of Monte Vettore,2,476 metres high, the hilly area covers two-thirds of the region and is interrupted by wide gullies with numerous – albeit short – rivers and by alluvial plains perpendicular to the principal chain. The parallel mountain chains contain deep river gorges, the best known being those of the Furlo, the Rossa and the Frasassi. The coastal area is 173 kilometres long and is relatively flat, inland, in the mountainous areas, is more continental with cold and often snowy winters, by the sea is more mediterranean. Precipitation varies from 1000-1500 mm. per year inland and 600-800 mm. per year on the Adriatic coast, Marche was known in ancient times as the Picenum territory. The Picens or Picentes were the Italic tribe who lived in Picenum during the Iron Age, in the fourth century BC the northern area was occupied by the Senones, a tribe of Gauls. In Marche was fought the Battle of Sentinum in 295 BC, after it, the Romans founded numerous colonies in the areas, connecting them to Rome by the Via Flaminia, Ascoli was a seat of Italic resistance during the Social War. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was invaded by the Goths, after the Gothic War, it was part of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna. After the fall of the Exarchate it was briefly in the possession of the Lombards, in the ninth to eleventh centuries the marches of Camerino, Fermo and Ancona were created, hence the modern name. Marche was nominally part of the Papal States, but most of the territory was under local lords, in the twelfth century, the commune of Ancona resisted both the imperial authority of Frederick Barbarossa and the Republic of Venice, and was a maritime republic on its own. An attempt to restore Papal suzerainty by Gil de Albornoz in the century was short-lived. During the Renaissance, the region was fought over by rival aristocratic families, such as the Malatesta of Rimini, Pesaro, Fano and the house of Montefeltro of Urbino. The last independent entity, the Duchy of Urbino, was dissolved in 1631, after Napoleons defeat, Marche returned to Papal rule until 4 November 1860, when it was annexed to the unified Kingdom of Italy by a plebisciteMarche – View of Marche countryside
19. Province of Catania – The Province of Catania is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. Its capital is the city of Catania and it has an area of 3,552 square kilometres and a total population of about 1.1 million. There are 58 comunes in the province, see Comunes of the Province of Catania, mount Etna, Europes largest active volcano is located in the province. There are many roads that cross the territory of the province. The S. S114 links many of the towns from Messina to Siracusa, the S. S121. There are also the A18 Messina-Catania and A19 Catania-Palermo motorways that pass through the province, the S. S114 and S. S192 start from the Catania by pass whilst the SS.514 runs through the southern part of the province and connects to Ragusa. The new province would include all of the south of the Simeto River as well as some of the municipalities of Ragusa. Italy portal Metropolitan City of Catania Official website City of Catania Official website Tourism PortalProvince of Catania – Mount Etna is located in the Province of Catania
20. Province of Trieste – The Province of Trieste is a province in the autonomous Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Trieste and it has an area of 212 square kilometres and a total population of 236,520. It has a length of 48.1 kilometres. There are 6 communes in the province, after the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire, the area of the province of Trieste was ruled by the Ostrogoths, Eastern Romans, Lombards and by the Franks. With the advent of the Habsburgs the territory was divided between the lords of Duino, Trieste, San Dorligo della Valle and Muggia, during the reign of Maria Theresa of Austria and, subsequently, Joseph II, the maritime trades were increased with institution of the free port. In 1809, the area was ceded to France after the defeat of Austria in that year, San Dorligo della Valle and Muggia became part of Istria. World War I left the territory of the province almost untouched, the whole area was occupied by Italy in November 1918, in the aftermath of Austrias defeat in World War I. It was officially annexed to Italy with the treaty of Rapallo of 1920, the Province of Trieste was first established in 1920. It comprised the current territory of the province, as well as significant portions of the Kras plateau, after the end of World War II, the Free Territory of Trieste was established as a free state on 15 September 1947. On 26 October 1954, Italy and Yugoslavia came to an understanding whereby the territory de facto was divided between the two states, Zone A of the free state became the new Province of Trieste and Zone B was to be administered by Yugoslavia. The Province of Trieste formally became a part of Italy on 11 October 1977, the Italian language is spoken within the whole province. In the city of Trieste, many people speak Triestine, a dialect of Venetian, the Tergestine, an archaic dialect of the Friulian language was spoken in Trieste and in Muggia, but became completely extinct by the mid 19th century. An estimated 8% of the population belongs to the Slovene ethnic community. Besides standard Slovene, which is taught in Slovene-language schools, three different Slovene dialects are spoken in the Province of Trieste. The Kras dialect is spoken in the municipalities of Duino-Aurisina and Sgonico, as well as in several settlements in the municipality of Trieste, Barcola, Prosecco, and Contovello. The Inner Carniolan dialect is spoken in the municipality of Monrupino and in settlements of the municipality of Trieste, namely Opicina, Trebiciano, Padriciano. The Istrian dialect is spoken in the municipalities of San Dorligo della Valle and in the areas of Muggia. The following is a list of the six communes of the Province of Trieste, ItalyProvince of Trieste – Map highlighting the location of the province of Trieste in Italy
21. Monsummano Terme – Monsummano Terme is an comune located in the Province of Pistoia, Tuscany, central Italy. It is located in the Valdinievole, and is a spa resort. It was the birthplace of French actor Yves Montand and Italian poet Giuseppe Giusti, given the proximity to the Padule, the area displays a wealth of flora and fauna and is a meeting place for birdwatchers. The rivers are short, of which the Candalla stream is the most prominent. Going back to the Roman archeological sites, on the slopes of Monte Albano, the settlement of the castle of Monsummano Alto is documented from 1260, but probably existed since the previous century, or, as some have suggested due to the topology from the Lombard era. The castle was at the center of battles between Florence and Lucca, with its final conquest in 1331, the flat area was swampy, which became a human settlement in the second half of the 16th century with the construction of several farms and houses. During the 19th century Monsummano Terme was home of writer and politician Ferdinando Martini and his birthplace and a memorial at the center of the square have both become dedicated to him. The monument also symbolizes his distaste for the clergy, showing the poet facing way from the church, other sights include, The medieval castle and fortifications. The elliptical shape have led to suppose a Lombard origin, and it was occupied by the Florentines in 1314, but was recaptured one year later by Castruccio Castracani after the battle of Montecatini. Of the castle today several gates and long stretches of the walls, partly covered by vegetation, as well as a single tower, Church of San Nicolao, included in the castle. It houses a 14th- to 15th-century wooden crucifix, sanctuary of Santa Maria della Fontenuova Church of San Michele e Lorenzo. It has a lunette painted by Giusto Utens and a Madonna with Child, Pistoia, Società pistoiese di storia patria. Larchivio del comune di Monsummano Terme, Monsummano Terme, Assessorato alla cultura of Monsummano TermeMonsummano Terme – Piazza Giusti.
22. Province of Pistoia – The province of Pistoia is a province in the Tuscany region of central Italy. Its capital is the city of Pistoia and the province is landlocked and it has an area of 964.12 square kilometres and a total population of 291,788 inhabitants. There are 22 communes in the province, the province was formed in 1927 under the rule of Mussolini, and had the lowest income per capita in Tuscany in 1966 due to high poverty levels. This is because the province was mainly agricultural before World War II ended, the population of the province has recently been increasing, moving from 268,437 in 2011 to some 292,000 in 2015. The city of Pistoia is roughly 40 kilometres away from both Lucca and Florence, the land around the cities of Pistoia and Pescia are popular locations for flower and plant cultivation for global exports, and town and commune Quarrata is known for its wood furnitureProvince of Pistoia – Map highlighting the location of the province of Pistoia in Italy
23. Grotta di Ispinigoli – The Grotta di Ispinigoli is a karstic cave in the Supramonte massif, near Dorgali, Sardinia, Italy. One of the largest grottoes in the island, houses a large stalactite-stalagmite compound, the grotto also include the so-called Abisso delle Vergini, a c.60 m-deep hole leading to a 12 km series of caves connecting Ispingoli to the other grotto of San Giovanni Su Anzu. Inside the cave were found traces of human bones and jewelry dating back the Bronze Age, at the bottom of this abyss cave the only known specimen of the extinct giant otter Megalenhydris was found. This animal is one of four species of extinct endemic otters on the island, bue Marino Grotto Tiscali Cave List of caves List of caves in Italy Page about the grottoesGrotta di Ispinigoli – View of the cave
24. Province of Carbonia-Iglesias – The province of Carbonia-Iglesias is a province in the autonomous region of Sardinia, Italy. It includes the area of Sulcis-Iglesiente. It is the smallest province of Sardinia and is bordered by the provinces of Cagliari and Medio Campidano. As of 2015, it has a population of 127,857 inhabitants over an area of 1,499.71 square kilometres, the provincial president is Salvatore Cherchi. It has two capitals, Carbonia and Iglesias, with populations of 29,007 and 27,332 as of 2015. Colonies in the province were established by the Phoenicians and Carthaginians in the 9th or 8th centuries BC and its mining industry developed during the nineteenth century due to its barium, copper, lead, silver and zinc deposits, but this industry fell into decline after World War II. It was formed in 2001 by a Sardinian regional law and became functional in 2005, on 6 May 2012 the regional referendums of Sardinia took place regarding the abolition of certain provinces and a variety of other matters. The suggestion of reforming or abolishing certain provinces in Sardinia was approved by the Regional Council of Sardinia on 24 May 2012 and it has not been abolished as a regional law regarding it has not yet been created. Provincia di Carbonia-Iglesias Media related to Province of Carbonia-Iglesias at Wikimedia CommonsProvince of Carbonia-Iglesias – Map highlighting the location of the province of Carbonia-Iglesias in Italy
25. Neptune's Grotto – Neptunes Grotto is a stalactite cave near the town of Alghero on the island of Sardinia, Italy. The cave was discovered by fishermen in the 18th century and has since developed into a popular tourist attraction. The grotto gets its name from the Roman god of the sea, the entrance to the grotto lies only around a metre above the sea level at the foot of the 110-metre-high Capo Caccia cliffs and the cave can therefore only be visited when the waters below are calm. A stairway cut into the cliff in 1954, the 654-step escala del cabirol, the grotto is also accessible via a short boat trip from the port of Alghero, these trips are arranged hourly during the summer, but less frequently during spring and autumn. Two other grottoes lie nearby, the Green grotto, which is not open to tourists, and the Grotta di Ricami, the combined length of the cave system is estimated to be around 4 kilometers, but only a few hundred metres are accessible to the public. Inside are passages of lit stalactite and stalagmite formations, and a 120-metre-long saltwater lake, the cave was once a habitat for the Mediterranean monk seal, which has become extinct in the area. Tourists visiting Neptunes Grotto are given guided tours and led single-file through a lit pathway, with tour guides providing information about the cave in Italian, the grotto is widely visited, and during the peak tourist season in August, can contain around 200 people at a time. Neptunes Grotto was the set of the movie Island of the Fishmen, for approximately two months the Grotto was transformed into a gigantic set. The science fiction movie starred Barbara Bach, and was under the direction of Sergio Martino, nereo Cave List of caves List of caves in Italy Article about the Neptune Cave Media related to Neptunes Grotto at Wikimedia CommonsNeptune's Grotto – Inside the cave
26. Alghero – Alghero, is a town of about 44,000 inhabitants in the Italian insular province of Sassari in northwestern Sardinia, next to the Mediterranean Sea. Part of its population descends from Catalan conquerors from the end of the Middle Ages and that is why the Catalan language is co-official in the city, unique in Italy, taking the name of alguerès dialect. The name Alghero comes from the medieval Latin Aleguerium, meaning stagnation of algae, Alghero is the fifth university center in the island, coming after Cagliari and Sassari. It hosts the headquarters of the Università degli Studi di Sassari’s Architecture, in 2012 it was the 10th most visited city by tourists in Italy. For ecclesiastical history, see Roman Catholic Diocese of Alghero-Bosa The area of todays Alghero has been settled since pre-historic times, the Ozieri culture was present here in the 4th millennium BC, while the Nuraghe civilization settled in the area around 1,500 BC. Due to its position on the Mediterranean Sea, Alghero had been developed into a fortified port town by 1102. The Dorias ruled Alghero for centuries, apart from a period under the rule of Pisa between 1283–84. Algheros population later grew because of the arrival of Catalan colonists, in the early 16th century Alghero received papal recognition as a bishopric and the status of Kings City and developed economically. It is uncertain whether this was some settlement, perhaps linked to the events of the Saracen invasions. For two centuries remained in the orbit of the Maritime Republics, as in 1283 when the Pisans were able to control it for a year. These were granted enticing privileges, and in fact replaced the original population, poorly spoken by young people, trying for some time to protect this dialect, through education programs and official use within the local authority. The city, one of the principal of Sardinia and the fifth most populated region, is one of the gateways to the Island and it a strong tourist popular destination in the island, in 2012 it was the 10th Italian cities most visited by foreign tourists. The Aragonese were followed by the Spanish Habsburgs, who ruled until 1702, in 1720 Alghero, along with the rest of Sardinia, was handed over to the Piedmont-based House of Savoy. In 1821 a famine led to a revolt by the population, at the end of the same century Alghero was de-militarised. During the Fascist era, part of the marshes were reclaimed. During World War II Alghero was bombed, and its historical centre suffered heavy damage, the presence of malaria in the countryside was finally overcome in the 1950s. Since then, Alghero has become a popular tourist resort, Alghero is located in the northwestern coast of Sardinia, along the bay named after the city. In the north of the area there is the Nurra plain, to the NW the karstic systems of Capo Caccia, Punta GiglioAlghero – 16th century Catalan city walls
27. Province of Sassari – The Province of Sassari is a province in the autonomous island region of Sardinia in Italy. Its capital is the city of Sassari, as of 2014, the province had a population of 334,413 people. In ancient times, between 1600 and 1500 BC, the Nuraghi civilization was at its peak in this area, during the Roman domination, the Logudoro region was one of the main grain suppliers of the Western Roman Empire, and was the seat of several legions. The numerous countryside Romanesque basilicas date from this period, after the conquest by the House of Aragon, Logoduro declined, but later, under the House of Savoy rule as part of the Kingdom of Sardinia, it grew in significance. In the 20th century the construction of roads and railways brought more prosperity, the modern University of Sassari dates to around the same time that the province was created. Since 1878 the province has been administered from the Palazzo della Provincia in Sassari, facing the Sardinian Sea to the north and west, the Province of Sassari is bordered to the south by the provinces of Nuoro and Oristano and east by the Province of Olbia-Tempio. It has an area of 4,282 square kilometres, there are 66 municipalities in the province, the largest of which are Sassari, Alghero, Porto Torres, Sorso, Ozieri, Ittiri and Sennori. Another town of note, Pattada, is known for its handmade knives. In this territory is one of the largest plains in Sardinia, the province contains some of the most famous resorts of Sardinia including Castelsardo, Porto Torres, Alghero, the Riviera del Corallo, Stintino and others. Stintino is located on the peninsula of the name, running from the Nurra plain to the Asinara Island. Among the notable beaches of the Province of Sassari is Balai in Porto Torres, Pelosa Beach in Stintino, and others such as Alghero il Lido, Maria Pia, Bombarde, and Mugoni. The inner part of the province in the traditional Logoduro region is characterized by a hilly and mountainous landscape, the town of Ozieri is its most important center for culture and history away from the coast, noted for its production of tools and pottery from ancient times. Media related to Province of Sassari at Wikimedia Commons Official websiteProvince of Sassari – The Palace of the Province of Sassari, Sassari
28. Province of Frosinone – The Province of Frosinone is a province in the Lazio region of Italy, with 91 comuni. Its capital is the city of Frosinone and it has an area of 3,244 square kilometres and a total population of 496,420. The Province was established by Royal Decree on 6 December 1926 with territories belonging to Lazio, in historical times, the area, previously occupied by the so-called Pelasgic civilization, was settled by Indo-European colonists. This arrival is echoed in numerous legends, like those of Aeneas and Saturn, in the 7th century BC the area of what is now the province entered the orbit of Rome, which made it the so-called Latium adiectum. However, Rome needed some 300 years to obtain a victory against the Volsci and the Hernici, who became Romanized after the Social. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the part of the province belonged to the Papal States. In the Middle Ages, the abbey of Monte Cassino was always a major landowner, pontecorvo remained a Papal enclave from 1463. The creation of a new province, with capitals in Cassino, Formia and Sora and comprising the former territories of the Kingdom of Naples, has been proposedProvince of Frosinone – Linguistic map of Ciociaria and Southern Lazio: Central Italian in pink and Southern Italian (Neapolitan dialects) in magenta.
29. Pertosa – Pertosa is a village and comune of the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-west Italy. In 2010 its population was 714, the village is situated in the eastern side of the province of Salerno, close to the municipalities of Auletta, Polla and Caggiano and to Alburni mountains. Its only hamlet is the village of Muraglione, in which are located the show caves. At the census in 2001 the town had a population of 727, Pertosa is a receptive tourist place principally for its karst show cave system, the Pertosa Caves. The caves are located in the valley below the town, by the river Tanagro, cilento Vallo di Diano Pertosa municipal website Official site of the cavesPertosa – Panorama
30. Domusnovas – Domusnovas borders the following municipalities, Fluminimaggiore, Gonnosfanadiga, Iglesias, Musei, Villacidro, Villamassargia. The town is known for the Grottoes of San Giovanni, located some 2 kilometres from the town, the area of Domusnovas was inhabited since prehistoric times, as attested by the presence of Neolithic walls and several nuraghe. During the Roman domination of the island it was a village across the Cagliari-Sulcis road, in the Middle Ages it was part of the giudicato of Cagliari, and, when in 1257 the latter was conquered by Pisan troops, it became a fief of count Ugolino della Gherardesca. In 1324 it was occupied by the Aragonese Official websiteDomusnovas – Domusnovas
31. Conca dei Marini – Conca dei Marini is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy. It is situated on a close to the coast and between Amalfi and Furore. It was perhaps founded by the Tyrrhenians with the name of Cossa, in the Middle Ages, it was a trading base of the Republic of Amalfi. In 1543 it was sacked by Turkish pirates, the port maintained a certain degree of trades until the 19th century, and was also the seat of a tonnara until 1956Conca dei Marini – The marina at Conca dei Marini
32. Oliena – Oliena is a commune in the province of Nuoro, Sardinia, Italy. Belonging to the Giudicato of Torres, Oliena was one of the curatorie of Posada, during the war between Aragona and Arborea, the commune was occupied by Eleonora DArboreas troops. The village, developed in times, at the foot of a castle remembered in toponomy. Oliena was passed to the Carrozs, and later annexed to the Marchesato of Quirra, as a state of the Carrozs and then of the Osorios. Lamarmora thinks the name Oliena dates back to the time of the first Oriental people, probably, some of them landed in Sardinia, giving birth to the people of Ilienses. At the beginning of 1300, Oliena was under the Pisan Rule in the Giudicato of Gallura, in the curatoria of Posada, at that time, the centre might have been substantial, judging from its income compared to the neighbouring villages. It owned a castle, situated in the locality Su Carmene. When the Jesuits, in the 17th century, according to tradition, removed the stones which it was built of, in order to build a convent and then. In 1325, the village of Oliena and its territory were assigned to Berengario Carroz together, in the 17th century, the Jesuits inhabited Oliena giving impulse to different activities, beginning the construction of the College and the present parish church. Some scholars link the name to the trees in this zone. In fact, the inhabitants were given to stock-raising. Salvatore Satta, a writer, wrote in his book Il Giorno del Giudizio. Oliena, as the papers say, but its real and poetic name is Ulìana, the inhabited centre lies about 380 metres above sea level at the foot of a mountain that rises vertically with the well-known peaks Corrasi. The territory presents a great botanic richness, the most important species living in it are, The church of Santa Maria was built during the Pisan period. This church with the ex-temple of SantIgnazio, represents the main cult place, outside the church, S. Maria Romanesque - Gothic style is presented. It is a building standing in a square, and once surrounded by a cemetery. A bell tower, culminating in a cusp, rises on the right side, looking at its planimetry, it is possible to see the Gothic-Catalan pattern which spread after the Aragonese conquest. The parish church of Saint Ignatius stands in the college square, one can enter through double flight of a steps against the facadeOliena – Oliena (in the foreground)
33. Province of Udine – The province of Udine is a province in the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia of Italy, bordering Austria and Slovenia. Its capital is the city of Udine, which has a population of 99,473 inhabitants. It has a population of 536,180 inhabitants over a surface area of 4,907.24 square kilometres. The provincial president is Pietro Fontanini, not much information is known about Udine prior to its ownership by the episcopal see the Patriarchate of Aquileia in 983. The Patriarchate of Aquileia did not reside in Udine until after the 13th century, in 1350, Austria intervened in the region and caused a number of factional problems for residents. It was annexed by Venice in 1420 and control over Udine was granted to Tristano Savorgnan and his family had mostly been executed for opposing the Austrians and were allied with Venice. Under the rule of Venice and the family of Savorgnan, Udine fell into decline due to neglect, the unification of Italy in 1866 prevented any further Austrian rule. In World War I, Udine was the base for the forces of Italy until Austria occupied the city in October 1917. The province of Udine is the largest and most populous of the four provinces in the region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia in northeastern Italy. To the north is the border with Austria and Slovenia. To the west lies the Province of Pordenone, which was subdivided from Udine in 1968, to the southwest lies the Province of Venice and to the east, the Province of Trieste. The south of the province has a coastline on the Adriatic Sea, the province is located in the lowlands of the Po-Venetian Valley, south of the Venetian Prealps and the Alpine foothills of Friuli. The provincial capital is the city of Udine, the northerly part of the province is mountainous with pine forests, upland pastures and mountain lakes. The hilly area in the centre is characterised by vineyards which produces the wines of the region, the southwesterly part of the province is flat, low-lying land farmed and irrigated intensively, and the coast has beaches, sand dunes and lagoons. To the southeast, the land is higher where the limestone Karst Plateau reaches the Adriatic, a number of rivers cross the province, rising in the Alps and flowing south to the Adriatic. Foremost of these is the Tagliamento which forms the boundary of the province. The soil is porous and much of the water from the mountains flows underground to resurface as a zone of springs on the plainProvince of Udine – Map highlighting the location of the province of Udine in Italy
34. Lombardy – Lombardy is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres. Milan, Lombardys capital, is the second-largest city and the largest metropolitan area in Italy, the word Lombardy comes from Lombard, which in turn is derived from Late Latin Longobardus, Langobardus, derived from the Proto-Germanic elements *langaz + *bardaz, equivalent to long beard. Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz, Lombardy referred during the early Middle Ages to the entire territory of Italy ruled by the Lombards, a Germanic tribe who conquered much of the Italian peninsula beginning in the 6th century. During the late Middle Ages, the term shifted meaning and was used to identify the whole of Northern Italy, with a surface of 23,861 km2, Lombardy is the 4th largest region of Italy. It is bordered by Switzerland and by the Italian regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, three distinct natural zones can be fairly easily distinguished in the Lombardy region, mountains, hills and plains – the latter being divided in Alta and Bassa. Inconsistent with the three distinctions above made is the subregion of Oltrepò Pavese, formed by the Apennine foothills beyond the Po River. The mighty Po river marks the border of the region for a length of about 210 km. In its progress it receives the waters of the Ticino River, the other streams which contribute to the great river are, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the Oglio and the Mincio. The numerous lakes of Lombardy, all of glacial origin, lie in the northern highlands, from west to east these are Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake Idro, then Lake Garda, the largest in Italy. A minor mountainous area, the Oltrepò Pavese, lies south of the Po, in the plains, intensively cultivated for centuries, little of the original environment remains. The most commons trees are elm, alder, sycamore, poplar, willow, in the area of the foothills lakes, however, grow olive trees, cypresses and larches, as well as varieties of subtropical flora such as magnolias, azaleas, acacias. Numerous species of flora in the Prealpine area include some kinds of saxifrage, the Lombard garlic, groundsels bellflowers. The highlands are characterized by the vegetation of the whole range of the Italian Alps. At a lower levels oak woods or broadleafed trees grow, on the slopes beech trees grow at the lowest limits. Shrubs such as rhododendron, dwarf pine and juniper are native to the summital zone, Lombardy has a wide array of climates, due to local variances in elevation, proximity to inland water basins, and large metropolitan areas. In addition, there is a seasonal temperature variation. A peculiarity of the climate is the thick fog that covers the plains between October and February. In the Alpine foothills, characterised by an Oceanic climate, numerous lakes exercise a mitigating influence, in the hills and mountains, the climate is humid continentalLombardy – Mount Adamello
35. Cala Gonone – Cala Gonone is an Italian seaside town and a civil parish of the municipality of Dorgali, Province of Nuoro, in the region of Sardinia. In 2007 it had 1,279 inhabitants, the area around Cala Gonone was inhabited in the Nuragic Era. The remains of a Nuragic settlement can be seen at Nuraghe Mannu on the outskirts of the village, the modern village was founded by a colony of fishermen from the island of Ponza at the beginning of the 20th century. The town however remained isolated from the rest of Sardinia until the tunnel through the hills from Dorgali was opened in 1860. The town is situated in the Bay of Orosei on the east of the island, close to the village, and reachable by the sea, is the show cave of Bue Marino. Almost everyone that goes to the small caves writes their name in charcoal, from a fire, on the wall. Due to its environment and to the quality of its waters. The beaches of the village are, the Spiaggia Centrale, SAbba Durche, Cala Luna, Cartoe, Osalla, Cala Fuili, Sos Dorroles, SAbba Meica, Ziu Martine, Cala Gonone travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website The Beaches of Cala GononeCala Gonone – Cala Gonone from the pier
36. Flickr – Flickr is an image hosting and video hosting website and web services suite that was created by Ludicorp in 2004 and acquired by Yahoo on March 20,2005. The Verge reported in March 2013 that Flickr had a total of 87 million registered members, in August 2011 the site reported that it was hosting more than 6 billion images and this number continues to grow steadily according to reporting sources. Photos and videos can be accessed from Flickr without the need to register an account, registering an account also allows users to create a profile page containing photos and videos that the user has uploaded and also grants the ability to add another Flickr user as a contact. For mobile users, Flickr has official mobile apps for iOS, Android, and PlayStation Vita, operating systems, Flickr was launched in February 2004 by Ludicorp, a Vancouver-based company founded by Stewart Butterfield and Caterina Fake. The service emerged from tools originally created for Ludicorps Game Neverending, Flickr proved a more feasible project, and ultimately Game Neverending was shelved, Butterfield later launched a similar online game, Glitch, which closed down in November 2012. Early versions of Flickr focused on a room called FlickrLive with real-time photo exchange capabilities. The successive evolutions focused more on the uploading and filing backend for individual users and it was eventually dropped as Flickrs backend systems evolved away from Game Neverendings codebase. Key features of Flickr not initially present are tags, marking photos as favorites, group photo pools and interestingness, Yahoo acquired Ludicorp and Flickr in March 2005. The acquisition reportedly cost $22 to $25 million, during the week of 26 June –2 July 2005, all content was migrated from servers in Canada to servers in the United States, and all resulting data become subject to United States federal law. In May 2007, Yahoo announced that Yahoo Photos would close down on 20 September 2007, after which all photos would be deleted and this move was criticized by some users. Flickr upgraded its services from beta to gamma in May 2006, in December 2006, upload limits on free accounts were increased to 100 MB a month and were removed from Flickr Pro accounts, which originally had a 2 GB per month limit. On 9 April 2008, Flickr began allowing paid subscribers to upload videos, on 2 March 2009, Flickr added the facility to upload and view HD videos, and began allowing free users to upload normal-resolution video. At the same time, the set limit for free accounts was lifted, in 2009, Flickr announced a partnership with Getty Images in which selected users could submit photographs for stock photography usage and receive payment. In 2010, this was changed so that users could label images as suitable for stock use themselves, the Justified View is paginated between 72 and 360 photos per page but unpaginated in search result presentation. Tech Radar described the new style Flickr as representing a sea change in its purpose, many users criticized the changes, and the sites help forum received thousands of negative comments. In March 2014, Flickrs New Photo Experience, a user interface redesign, on May 7,2015, Yahoo overhauled the site, adding a revamped Camera Roll, a new way to upload photos and upgraded the sites apps. The new Uploadr application was available for Macs, Windows. In June 2008, Flickr co-founder Stewart Butterfield announced his resignation, which followed his wife and co-founder Caterina Fake, Butterfield wrote a humorous resignation letter to Brad GarlinghouseFlickr – Typical Flickr album sets
37. Cave painting – Cave paintings are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, to some 40,000 years ago in Eurasia. The exact purpose of the Paleolithic cave paintings is not known, evidence suggests that they were not merely decorations of living areas since the caves in which they have been found do not have signs of ongoing habitation. They are also located in areas of caves that are not easily accessible. Some theories hold that cave paintings may have been a way of communicating with others, the paintings are remarkably similar around the world, with animals being common subjects that give the most impressive images. Humans mainly appear as images of hands, mostly hand stencils made by blowing pigment on a hand held to the wall. The earliest known cave paintings/drawings of animals are at least 35,000 years old and are found in Pettakere cave on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia, previously it was believed that the earliest paintings were in Europe. The earliest non-figurative rock art dates back to approximately 40,000 years ago, nearly 340 caves have now been discovered in France and Spain that contain art from prehistoric times. But subsequent technology has made it possible to date the paintings by sampling the pigment itself, the choice of subject matter can also indicate chronology. For instance, the reindeer depicted in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas places the drawings in the last Ice Age. The oldest date given to a cave painting is now a pig that has a minimum age of 35,400 years old at Pettakere cave in Sulawesi. Indonesian and Australian scientists have dated other non-figurative paintings on the walls to be approximately 40,000 years old, the method they used to confirm this was dating the age of the stalactites that formed over the top of the paintings. The art is similar in style and method to that of the Indonesian caves as there were also hand stencils and this date coincides with the earliest known evidence for Homo sapiens in Europe. Because of the cave arts age, some scientists have conjectured that the paintings may have made by Neanderthals. The earliest known European figurative cave paintings are those of Chauvet Cave in France and these paintings date to earlier than 30,000 BCE according to radiocarbon dating. Some researchers believe the drawings are too advanced for this era, the radiocarbon dates from these samples show that there were two periods of creation in Chauvet,35,000 years ago and 30,000 years ago. In 2009, cavers discovered drawings in Coliboaia Cave in Romania, an initial dating puts the age of an image in the same range as Chauvet, about 32,000 years old. Some caves probably continued to be painted over a period of thousands of years. This was created roughly between 10,000 and 5,500 years ago, and painted in rock shelters under cliffs or shallow caves, though individual figures are less naturalistic, they are grouped in coherent grouped compositions to a much greater degreeCave painting – Cave of Altamira, near Santander, Spain.
38. Cave survey – A cave survey is a map of all or part of a cave system, which may be produced to meet differing standards of accuracy depending on the cave conditions and equipment available underground. Cave surveying and cartography, i. e. the creation of an accurate, the first known plan of a cave dates from 1546, and was of a man-made cavern in tufa called the Stufe di Nerone in Pozzuoli near Naples in Italy. The first natural cave to be mapped was the Baumannshöhle in Germany, another early survey dates from before 1680, and was made by John Aubrey of Long Hole in the Cheddar Gorge. It consists of a section of the cave. Numerous other surveys of caves were made in the following years, the first cave that is likely to have been accurately surveyed with instruments is the Grotte de Miremont in France. This was surveyed by an engineer in 1765 and includes numerous cross-sections. Édouard-Alfred Martel was the first person to describe surveying techniques and his surveys were made by having an assistant walk down the passage until they were almost out of sight. Martel would then take a bearing to the assistants light. This would equate to a modern day BCRA Grade 2 survey, the first cave to have its centreline calculated by a computer is the Fergus River Cave in Ireland, which was plotted by members of the UBSS in 1964. The software was programmed onto a large university mainframe computer and a plot was produced. Since the late 1990s digital instruments such as distometers have started to change the process, the main variation on the normal methodology detailed below have been devices such as LIDAR and SONAR surveyors that produce a point cloud rather than a series of linked stations. Video-based surveying also exists in prototype form, a survey team begins at a fixed point and measures a series of consecutive line-of-sight measurements between stations. The stations are temporary fixed locations chosen chiefly for their ease of access, in some cases, survey stations may be permanently marked to create a fixed reference point to which to return at a later date. Later, the cartographer analyses the data, converting them into two-dimensional measurements by way of geometrical calculations. From them he/she creates a line-plot, a geometrical representation of the path through the cave. Cave surveys drawn on paper are presented in two-dimensional plan and/or profile views. Although primarily designed to be functional, some cavers consider cave surveys as an art form, hydrolevelling is an alternative to measuring depth with clinometer and tape that has a long history of use in Russia. The technique is used in building construction for finding two points with the same height, as in levelling a floorCave survey – A cave survey
39. Caving – Caving — also traditionally known as spelunking in the United States and Canada and potholing in the United Kingdom and Ireland — is the recreational pastime of exploring wild cave systems. In contrast, speleology is the study of caves and the cave environment. Cave diving is a distinct, and more hazardous, sub-speciality undertaken by a minority of technically proficient cavers. Sometimes categorized as a sport, it is not commonly considered as such by long-time enthusiasts. Many caving skills overlap with those involved in canyoning, mine, Caving is often undertaken for the enjoyment of the outdoor activity or for physical exercise, as well as original exploration, similar to mountaineering or diving. Physical or biological science is also an important goal for some cavers, virgin cave systems comprise some of the last unexplored regions on Earth and much effort is put into trying to locate, enter and survey them. In well-explored regions, the most accessible caves have already been explored, Caving, in certain areas, has also been utilized as a form of eco and adventure tourism. Tour companies have established a leading and guiding tours into. Depending on the type of cave and the type of tour, in many areas, there are tours led through lava tubes by a guiding service. Some however consider the assistance cavers give each other as a team sport activity. Too much emphasis on the labeling of caving as a sport can narrow the goals of caving as a whole, Caving often puts the needs and welfare of a cave before those of the active participants. Clay Perry, an American caver of the 1940s, wrote about a group of men and this group referred to themselves as spelunkers, a term derived from the Latin spēlunca cave, cavern, den, itself from the Greek σπῆλυγξ spēlynks cave. This is regarded as the first use of the word in the Americas, throughout the 1950s, spelunking was the general term used for exploring caves in US English. It was used freely, without any positive or negative connotations, in the 1960s, the terms spelunking and spelunker began to be considered déclassé among experienced enthusiasts. This sentiment is exemplified by bumper stickers and T-shirts displayed by some cavers, Cavers rescue spelunkers, nevertheless, outside the caving community, spelunking and spelunkers predominately remain neutral terms referring to the practice and practitioners, without any respect to skill level. Potholing refers to the act of exploring potholes, a word originating in the north of England for predominantly vertical caves, the base term caving comes from the Latin cavea or caverna, meaning simply, a cave. He developed his own based on ropes and metallic ladders. Martel visited Kentucky and notably Mammoth Cave National Park in October 1912, robert de Joly, Guy de Lavaur and Norbert Casteret were prominent figures of that time, surveying mostly caves in Southwest FranceCaving – Caving in a muddy section of Black Chasm Cave in California.
40. Karst – Karst topography is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves and it has also been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no rivers or lakes, the English word karst was borrowed from German Karst in the late 19th century. The German word came into use before the 19th century, according to the prevalent interpretation, the term is derived from the German name for the Karst region, a limestone plateau above the city of Trieste in the northern Adriatic. Scholars disagree, however, on whether the German word was borrowed from Slovene, the Slovene common noun kras was first attested in the 18th century, and the adjective form kraški in the 16th century. The Slovene words arose through metathesis from the reconstructed form *korsъ, ultimately, the word is of Mediterranean origin, believed to derive from some Romanized Illyrian base. It has been suggested that the word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root karra- rock, the name may also be connected to the oronym Karsádios oros cited by Ptolemy, and perhaps also to Latin Carusardius. The development of karst occurs whenever acidic water starts to break down the surface of bedrock near its cracks, as the bedrock continues to degrade, its cracks tend to get bigger. As time goes on, these fractures will become wider, if this underground drainage system does form, it will speed up the development of karst formations there because more water will be able to flow through the region, giving it more erosive power. The carbonic acid that causes karstic features is formed as rain passes through the atmosphere picking up carbon dioxide, once the rain reaches the ground, it may pass through soil that can provide much more CO2 to form a weak carbonic acid solution, which dissolves calcium carbonate. The oxidation of sulfides leading to the formation of acid can also be one of the corrosion factors in karst formation. As oxygen -rich surface waters seep into deep anoxic karst systems, they bring oxygen, sulfuric acid then reacts with calcium carbonate, causing increased erosion within the limestone formation. This chain of reactions is, This reaction chain forms gypsum, the karstification of a landscape may result in a variety of large- or small-scale features both on the surface and beneath. On exposed surfaces, small features may include solution flutes, runnels, limestone pavement, medium-sized surface features may include sinkholes or cenotes, vertical shafts, foibe, disappearing streams, and reappearing springs. Large-scale features may include limestone pavements, poljes, and karst valleys, mature karst landscapes, where more bedrock has been removed than remains, may result in karst towers, or haystack/eggbox landscapes. Beneath the surface, complex underground systems and extensive caves. Some of the most dramatic of these formations can be seen in Thailands Phangnga Bay, calcium carbonate dissolved into water may precipitate out where the water discharges some of its dissolved carbon dioxide. Rivers which emerge from springs may produce tufa terraces, consisting of layers of calcite deposited over extended periods of time, in caves, a variety of features collectively called speleothems are formed by deposition of calcium carbonate and other dissolved mineralsKarst – Škocjan Caves, Slovenia
41. Speleology – Speleology and caving are often connected, as the physical skills required for in situ study are the same. In Romania, the term speology is used, this is derived from a Greek word for cave, speos, rather than the Latin, spelaeum. Speleology is a field that combines the knowledge of chemistry, biology, geology, physics, meteorology and cartography to develop portraits of caves as complex. In 1895 Martel founded the Société de Spéléologie, the first organization devoted to science in the world. The creation of an accurate, detailed map is one of the most common technical activities undertaken within a cave, caves provide a home for many unique biota. Cave ecologies are diverse, and not sharply distinct from surface habitats. Generally however, the deeper the cave becomes, the more rarefied the ecology, cave environments fall into three general categories, Endogean the parts of caves that are in communication with surface soils through cracks and rock seams, groundwater seepage, and root protrusion. Parahypogean the threshold regions near cave mouths that extend to the last penetration of sunlight and these can be in regular contact with the surface via wind and underground rivers, or the migration of animals, or can be almost entirely isolated. Deep hypogean environments can host autonomous ecologies whose primary source of energy is not sunlight, cave organisms fall into three basic classes, There are also so-called accidental trogloxenes which are surface organisms that enter caves for no survival reason. Some may even be troglophobes, which survive in caves for any extended period. Examples include deer which fell through a sinkhole, frogs swept into a cave by a flash flood, the two factors that limit cave ecologies are generally energy and nutrients. To some degree moisture is available in actively forming Karst caves. Cut off from the sunlight and steady deposition of plant detritus, the majority of energy in cave environments comes from the surplus of the ecosystems outside. One major source of energy and nutrients in caves is dung from trogloxenes, because of their rarity and position in the ecosystem they are threatened by a large number of human activities. Dam construction, limestone quarrying, water pollution and logging are just some of the disasters that can devastate or destroy underground biological communities. Speleologists also work with archaeologists in studying underground ruins, tunnels, sewers and aqueducts, such as the various inlets and outlets of the Cloaca Maxima in RomeSpeleology – Grotte des Faux-Monnayeurs, Mouthiers-Haute-Pierre (France)
42. Anchialine pool – An anchialine pool or pond is a landlocked body of water with a subterranean connection to the ocean. Depending on the site, it is possible to access the deeper saline water directly in the anchialine pool or sometimes it may be accessible by cave diving. Water levels in anchialine pools often fluctuate with tidal changes due to the coastal location, the range in water levels fluctuations will be decreased and delayed compared to the range and time observed for the adjacent tide. The primary controls on the damping and lag are the distance from the coast, Anchialine pools are extremely common worldwide especially along neo-tropical coastlines where the geology and aquifer system are relatively young, and there is minimal soil development. Such conditions occur notably where the bedrock is limestone or recently formed volcanic lava, many anchialine pools are found on the coastlines of the island of Hawaii, and on the Yucatán Peninsula, where they are locally called cenotes as well as Christmas Island. Ecological studies of anchialine pools frequently identify regionally rare and sometimes endemic species living in them, in Hawaii, the pools are home to mostly the ʻōpaeʻula. The Sailors Hat crater created by an explosives test in 1965 is an anchialine pool, brackish water Cenote Anchialine Pool Information United States Geological Survey, National Park Service 2005 Anchialine Caves and Cave Fauna of the WorldAnchialine pool – Anchialine pool in Maui, Hawaii, with the ocean in the background
43. Cenote – A cenote is a natural pit, or sinkhole, resulting from the collapse of limestone bedrock that exposes groundwater underneath. Especially associated with the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico, cenotes were sometimes used by the ancient Maya for sacrificial offerings, the term derives from a word used by the low-land Yucatec Maya — tsonot — to refer to any location with accessible groundwater. Cenotes are common forms in low latitude regions, particularly on islands, coastlines. Cenotes are surface connections to water bodies. There are over 6000 different cenotes in the Yucatan Pensinsula in Mexico alone, the term cenote has also been used to describe similar karst features in other countries such as Cuba and Australia, in addition to the more generic term of sinkholes. Cenote water is very clear, as the water comes from rain water filtering slowly through the ground. The groundwater flow rate within a cenote may be very slow, in many cases, cenotes are areas where sections of cave roof have collapsed revealing an underlying cave system, and the water flow rates may be much faster, up to 10 kilometers per day. Cenotes around the world attract cave divers who have documented extensive flooded cave systems through them, Cenotes are formed by dissolution of rock and the resulting subsurface void, which may or may not be linked to an active cave system, and the subsequent structural collapse. Rock that falls into the water below is removed by further dissolution. The rate of collapse increases during periods when the table is below the ceiling of the void. Cenotes may be fully collapsed creating a water pool, or partially collapsed with some portion of a rock overhanging above the water. The stereotypical cenotes often resemble small circular ponds, measuring some tens of meters in diameter with sheer drops at the edges, most cenotes, however, require some degree of stooping or crawling to access the water. In the north and northwest of the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico, the Yucatán Peninsula contains a vast coastal aquifer system, which is typically density-stratified. The infiltrating meteoric water floats on top of higher-density saline water intruding from the coastal margins, the whole aquifer is therefore an anchialine system. Where a cenote, or the cave to which it is an opening, provides deep enough access into the aquifer. The density interface between the fresh and saline waters is a halocline, which means a change in salt concentration over a small change in depth. Mixing of the fresh and saline water results in a swirling effect caused by refraction between the different densities of fresh and saline waters. In 1936, a simple morphometry-based classification system for cenotes was presented, although cenotes are found widely throughout much of the Yucatán Peninsula, a higher-density circular alignment of cenotes overlies the measured rim of the Chicxulub CraterCenote – The Sacred Cenote at Chichén Itzá, Mexico.
44. Foiba – A foiba is a type of deep natural sinkhole, doline, or sink, and is a collapsed portion of bedrock above a void. Sinks may be a vertical opening into a cave, or a shallow depression of many hectares. They are common in the Kras region, a plateau region shared by Italy, Slovenia. The term foiba was used in the 1770s by Italian naturalist Alberto Fortis who wrote a number of books about karst of Dalmatia and it is an Italian derivative of the Latin fovea, meaning pit or chasm. They are indeed chasms excavated by water erosion, have the shape of an inverted funnel, such formations number in the hundreds in Istria. In karst areas, a sinkhole, sink, or doline is a closed depression draining underground and it can be cylindrical, conical, bowl-shaped or dish-shaped. The diameter ranges from a few to hundreds of metres. The name doline comes from dolina, the Slovenian word for this common feature. The term foiba may also refer to a wide chasm of a river at the place where it goes underground. Karst Plateau Corsetto Norma Gardens of the Righteous Worldwide Committee - GariwoFoiba – Simple scheme of a foiba
45. Ice cave – An ice cave is any type of natural cave that contains significant amounts of perennial ice. At least a portion of the cave must have a temperature below 0 °C all year round, among speleologists ice cave is the proper English language term. A cavity formed within ice, is called a glacier cave. Ice caves occur as static ice caves, such as Durmitor Ice Cave, bedrock caves are thermally insulated from the surface, so commonly assume a near-constant temperature approximating the annual average temperature at the surface. In some cold environments, average temperatures are below freezing. However, many ice caves exist in temperate climates, due to mechanisms that result in cave temperatures being colder than average surface temperatures where they formed. Cold traps - Certain cave configurations allow seasonal convection to import cold air from the surface in winter, a typical example is an underground chamber located below a single entrance. In winter, cold air settles into the cave, displacing any warmer air which rises. In summer, the cave air remains in place as the relatively warm surface air is lighter. The cave will only air when the surface air is cooler than the cave air. Some cold traps may ensnare surface snow and shade it from the summer sun’s rays, permafrost - Even temperate environments can include pockets of bedrock that are below freezing year round, a condition called permafrost. For example, winter wind and an absence of cover may allow freezing deep enough to be protected from summer thaw. Ice caves in permafrost need not be cold-traps, provided they do not draught significantly in summer, evaporative cooling - In winter, dry surface air entering a moisture-saturated cave may have an additional cooling effect due to the latent heat of evaporation. This may create a zone within the cave that is cooler than the rest of the cave, different freezing mechanisms result in visually and structurally distinct types of perennial cave ice. Ponded water - Surface water that collects and ponds in a cave before freezing will form an ice mass. Large ice masses are plastic and can slowly flow in response to gravity or pressure from further accumulations, sculpting from air flow and sublimation may reveal ancient accumulation bands within the ice. Accumulated snow - Compressed under the weight of ongoing accumulations, snow sliding or falling into an entrance may eventually form ice that is coarsely crystalline. Ice formations - Water that freezes before ponding may form icicles, ice-stalagmites, airborne moisture – Freezing vapor can form frost crystals, frost feathers and two-dimensional ice plates on the cave walls and ceilingIce cave – Ponded water ice inside an ice cave
46. Ley tunnel – Mysterious tunnels or secret passages are a common element of the local folklore tradition in Europe. In Norwegian a secret passage is called a lønngang and in Swedish a lönngång. Such tunnels are said to physically link prominent places such as houses, castles, churches, ancient monuments and other, often medieval. Legends about the existence of secret tunnels usually involve improbably long subterranean passages, sometimes running under major obstacles such as rivers, religious buildings, monks and the landed gentry are particularly common elements in many tunnel stories. Underground structures have a due to their being hidden from view and their contents, purpose, extent. On occasion, possible tunnels prove to be of natural origin, such as at Cleeves Cove cave in Scotland. The site at Cleeves Cove cave was known as the Elfhouse or Elfhame. Some castles really did have escape tunnels, such as the one located at Loudoun Castle in Ayrshire, Scotland. Other tunnels are products of a desire for personal privacy, such as at Welbeck Abbey. Smugglers at times avoided the excise man by making use of drains, sewers or water supply conduits, sigmund Freud, Carl Gustav Jung and others had various psychological interpretations of the symbolic meanings of tunnels and these may have a part to play in the origins of tunnel myths. Alfred Watkins, in The Old Straight Track, suggested that they might be connected with ley lines, in the city of Aalborg a tunnel is said to have run from the convent under the fjord to another convent near Sundby. This tunnel had branches which ran to an old bridge, two churches and to the castle of Aalborghus, a student once tried to explore the tunnels with a long cord, a sword and a light. The broken cord was retrieved, but the student was never seen again, at Furness Abbey a tunnel has been said to run underneath the Abbey to both Piel Castle and Dalton Castle. This was said to be how the monks travelled to and from each monument to receive foodstuffs and it has also been rumoured that the Holy Grail and King John’s missing jewels, are actually hidden somewhere inside. Richmond Castle in North Yorkshire stands in an impressive cliff-top position overlooking the River Swale, a potter named Thompson is said to have discovered a tunnel entrance at the bottom of this cliff. Following it deep into the hillside, he came to a cavern where slept King Arthur. On the table lay an ancient horn and a mighty sword, Thompson reached out and picked up the horn, but the sleepers began to awake and, fearing for his life, the potter fled. As he raced down the back to daylight and safety, he heard a voice behind him declare, Potter ThompsonLey tunnel – The Lugton Water and Eglinton Castle in Scotland. A "vowt", passing under two rivers, is said to link the castle with Kilwinning Abbey.
47. Mining – Mining is extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposits. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner, ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water. Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times, Mining operations usually create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed. Hence, most of the nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact. Work safety has long been a concern as well, and modern practices have significantly improved safety in mines, levels of metals recycling are generally low. Unless future end-of-life recycling rates are stepped up, some rare metals may become unavailable for use in a variety of consumer products, due to the low recycling rates, some landfills now contain higher concentrations of metal than mines themselves. Since the beginning of civilization, people have used stone, ceramics and, later and these were used to make early tools and weapons, for example, high quality flint found in northern France, southern England and Poland was used to create flint tools. Flint mines have been found in areas where seams of the stone were followed underground by shafts. The mines at Grimes Graves and Krzemionki are especially famous, other hard rocks mined or collected for axes included the greenstone of the Langdale axe industry based in the English Lake District. The oldest-known mine on archaeological record is the Lion Cave in Swaziland, at this site Paleolithic humans mined hematite to make the red pigment ochre. Mines of an age in Hungary are believed to be sites where Neanderthals may have mined flint for weapons. Ancient Egyptians mined malachite at Maadi, at first, Egyptians used the bright green malachite stones for ornamentations and pottery. Later, between 2613 and 2494 BC, large building projects required expeditions abroad to the area of Wadi Maghareh in order to secure minerals and other resources not available in Egypt itself. Quarries for turquoise and copper were found at Wadi Hammamat, Tura, Aswan and various other Nubian sites on the Sinai Peninsula. Mining in Egypt occurred in the earliest dynasties, the gold mines of Nubia were among the largest and most extensive of any in Ancient Egypt. These mines are described by the Greek author Diodorus Siculus, who mentions fire-setting as one used to break down the hard rock holding the gold. One of the complexes is shown in one of the earliest known maps, the miners crushed the ore and ground it to a fine powder before washing the powder for the gold dustMining – Surface coal mining
48. Subterranean river – A subterranean river is a river that runs wholly or partly beneath the ground surface – one where the riverbed does not represent the surface of the Earth. It should also not be confused with an aquifer which may flow like a river but is contained within a layer of rock or other unconsolidated materials. Subterranean rivers may be natural, flowing through cave systems. In karst topography, rivers may disappear through sinkholes, continuing underground, in some cases, they may emerge into daylight further downstream. Some fish and other organisms are adapted to life in subterranean rivers. Subterranean rivers can also be the result of covering over a river and/or diverting its flow into culverts, reversing this process is known as daylighting a stream and is a visible form of river restoration. One successful example is the Cheonggye Stream in the centre of Seoul, examples of subterranean rivers also occur in mythology and literature. There are many examples of subterranean rivers. Among others, The Camuy River located in the region of Puerto Rico is one of the largest underground river systems in the world. Greek mythology included the Styx, Phlegethon, Acheron, Cocytus, dante Alighieri, in his Inferno, included the Acheron, Phlegethon, and Styx as rivers within his subterranean Hell. The river Alph, running Through caverns measureless to man / Down to a sea is central to the poem Kubla Khan. The characters in Jules Vernes A Journey to the Centre of the Earth encounter a river, Hans was not mistaken. What you hear is the rushing of a torrent, there can be no doubt, a subterranean river is flowing around us. Several other novels also feature subterranean rivers, but in the end where a river has been, a river will always be. Hamza River Abîme Karst Losing stream Speleology Subterranean rivers of London Subterranean rivers in Hong Kong Subterranean waterfall Toronto ravine system Hamilton ravine system Underground lakeSubterranean river – A subterranean river in the Cross Cave system of Slovenia.
49. Suffosion – Suffosion sinkholes are normally associated with karst topography although they may form in other types of rock including chalk, gypsum and basalt. In the karst of the UKs Yorkshire Dales, numerous surface depressions known locally as shakeholes, are the result of glacial till washing into fissures in the underlying limestone. Suffosion occurs when loose soil, loess, or other non-cohesive material lies on top of a limestone substratum containing fissures, rain and surface water gradually wash this material through these fissures and into caves beneath. Over time, this creates a depression on the landscape of varying depth, the following sites are examples of sinkholes formed by suffosion, Whitepit, south of Priddy, Somerset, UKSuffosion – Formation of a suffosion sinkhole
50. Sump (cave) – Sump or siphon is a term used in caving to describe a passage in a cave that is submerged under water. A sump may be static, with no inward or outward flow, or active, static sumps may also be connected underwater to active stream passage. When short in length, a sump may be called a duck, short sumps may be passed simply by holding ones breath while ducking through the submerged section. This is known as diving and can only be attempted if the sump is known to be short. Longer and more technically difficult sumps can only be passed by cave diving, when practical, a sump can also be drained using buckets, pumps or siphons. Pumping the water away requires the flow of water into the sump to be less than the rate at which the pump empties it. Upstream sumps have been successfully emptied using hoses to siphon out of them. The water was sent deeper into the sinkhole and the emptied sumps revealed virgin passage behind them, during a rescue from beyond a downstream sump at Sarkhos Cave in 2002, water was pumped upstream into a dam constructed a few metres above the flooded passage. Some manuals also mention the use of explosives or other forms of force to empty sumps, but the ecological damage done to the fragile cave environment usually rules out the use of such methodsSump (cave) – Sumps often block access to "dry" passage beyond them. Diagram B shows a "perched" sump" which could be siphoned to lower the water level.
51. Speleothem – A speleothem, commonly known as a cave formation, is a secondary mineral deposit formed in a cave. Speleothems typically form in limestone or dolostone solutional caves, the term speleothem as first introduced by Moore, is derived from the Greek words spēlaion cave + théma deposit. The definition of speleothem in most publications, specifically excludes secondary mineral deposits in mines, tunnels, the cave environment has influenced the minerals deposition. More than 250 cave mineral deposits exist, the vast majority of speleothems are calcareous, composed of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite or aragonite, or calcium sulfate in the form of gypsum. Calcareous speleothems form via carbonate dissolution reactions, calthemites which occur on concrete structures, are created by completely different chemistry to speleothems. Speleothems take various forms, depending on whether the water drips, seeps, condenses, flows, many speleothems are named for their resemblance to man-made or natural objects. Speleogens are formations within caves that are created by the removal of bedrock, although sometimes similar in appearance to speleothems in caves formed by dissolution, these are formed by the cooling of residual lava within the lava tube. Speleothems formed from salt, sulfur and other minerals are also known, most cave chemistry revolves around calcium carbonate, the primary mineral in limestone and dolomite. It is a slightly soluble mineral whose solubility increases with the introduction of carbon dioxide and it is paradoxical in that its solubility decreases as the temperature increases, unlike the vast majority of dissolved solids. This decrease is due to interactions with the carbon dioxide, whose solubility is diminished by elevated temperatures, as the dioxide is released. Most other solution caves that are not composed of limestone or dolostone are composed of gypsum, samples can be taken from speleothems to be used like ice cores as a proxy record of past climate changes. A particular strength of speleothems in this regard is their ability to be accurately dated over much of the late Quaternary period using the uranium-thorium dating technique. These can provide clues to past precipitation, temperature, and vegetation changes over the last ~500,000 years, moreover, the radiation centers must be stable on geologic time, i. e. to have a very large lifetime, to make dating possible. Many other artifacts, such as, e. g. surface defects induced by the grinding of the sample can also preclude a correct dating, only a few percents of the samples tested are in fact suitable for dating. This makes the often disappointing for the experimentalists. ESR dating can be tricky and must be applied with discernment and it can never be used alone, One date only is No date, or in other words, multiple lines of evidence and multiple lines of reasoning are necessary in absolute dating. However, good samples might be if all the selection criteria are met. The occurrence of calthemites is often associated with degradation, but could also be linked to leaching of limeSpeleothem – Image showing the six most common speleothems with labels. Enlarge to view labels.
52. Cave pearl – A cave pearl is a small, usually spherical, speleothem found in limestone caves. Cave pearls are formed by a concretion of calcium salts that form concentric layers around a nucleus, exposure to moving water polishes the surface of cave pearls, making them glossy, if exposed to the air, cave pearls can degrade and appear rough. A cave pearl is composed primarily of calcite, Cave pearls are generally not considered to be a type of oolite. Other minerals found in quantities in cave pearls include quartz, apatite, iron, aluminum. Cave pearls form when water dripping into a cave loses carbon dioxide, a cave pearl forms when the water is moving too vigorously to form a stalagmite. A nucleus of matter becomes coated with calcite, and the current then provides a rotation to the nucleus in such a way that it is coated evenly. In this manner, concentric layers build up time, in much the same way that a biological pearl forms within a mollusc. There may be microbial action involved in the formation of cave pearls, the existence of an actual pool may not be necessary for cave pearls to form, as long as the deposit is kept wet and agitated by water dripping or trickling through. If the cave pearl sinks to the bottom of a pool, or is otherwise in contact with moving water. Although the motion of the water often keeps cave pearls from adhering, a cave pearl forms around a nucleus of matter. The nucleus of a pearl is typically very small, such as a grain of sand. Some nuclei are made of matter, whereas others are made of calcified clay or limestone. Cave pearls are usually spherical, but can also have other shapes, the reason cave pearls tend to be round is not their rotation, but rather that their growth is steady and uniform. Because a spherical shape allows the greatest amount of deposition for the smallest surface area, sometimes several cave pearls stick together to form a shape that resembles a bunch of grapes. In addition to the spherical shape, cave pearls can be cylindrical, elliptical, cubical, hexagonal, discoid. Most cave pearls are smaller than 1 cm wide, large cave pearls grow as big as 20 cm in diameter. The worlds largest cave, Son Doong Cave in Vietnam, has cave pearls the size of baseballs, Cave pearls are relatively common in caves, but are typically present in low abundance. The mechanism for the formation of this vast quantity of pearls has not been determined, the Rookery, in Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, has so many cave pearls that they were at one time handed out to visitors as souvenirsCave pearl – A nest of cave pearls in Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico
53. Dogtooth spar – Dogtooth spar is a speleothem found in limestone caves that consists of very large calcite crystals resembling dogs teeth. They form through mineral precipitation of water-borne calcite, dogtooth spar crystals are not limited to caves, but can grow in any open space including veins, fractures, and geodes. These sharp tooth-shaped crystals are generally of the magnitude of centimeters long, a layer of crystalline calcite can be found underneath the surface of crystal points. The sharply tooth-shaped crystals typically consist of acute scalenohedrons, twelve triangular crystal faces that ideally form scalene triangles, however, modification of these faces is common, and individual crystal faces may have many more than three edges. Calcite crystallizes in the system, and the most common scalenohedron form has the Miller index. Spar is a term for transparent to translucent, generally light-coloredDogtooth spar – Dogtooth spar deposited on the walls of a part of the Caverns of Sonora near Sonora, Texas. The former water level can be seen in the upper left hand corner.
54. Frostwork – In geology, frostwork is a type of speleothem with acicular growths almost always composed of aragonite or calcite replaced by aragonite. It is a variety of anthodite, in some caves frostwork may grow on top of cave popcorn or boxwork. In architecture frost-work or frostwork refers to a style of rustication carved with a vertically-oriented pattern evoking hanging pond-weed or algae and it is mainly found in garden architecture, where water is to flow over or near the surface. Other decorative arts may use the term for decorative patterns imitating frost or ice. The origin of frostwork is somewhat controversial, formation of cave frostwork has been attributed to moist, circulating air which, containing dissolved calcium carbonate, drifted against rock surfaces and coated them with the delicate crystals. Frostwork has also attributed to water seepage from cave passageways in which there are relatively high evaporation rates. Perhaps the most extensive displays known are found in Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, wind Cave National Park, Speleothems The Virtual Caves page on aragonite and frostworkFrostwork – Frostwork in Jewel Cave, South Dakota.
55. Helictite – A helictite is a speleothem found in limestone caves that changes its axis from the vertical at one or more stages during its growth. They have a curving or angular form that looks as if they were grown in zero gravity and they are most likely the result of capillary forces acting on tiny water droplets, a force often strong enough at this scale to defy gravity. They are formed by biologically-mediated processes, rather than abiotic processes as scientists previoulsy thought, Helictites are, perhaps, the most delicate of cave formations. They are usually made of calcite and aragonite. Forms of helictites have been described in several types, ribbon helictites, saws, rods, butterflies, hands, curly-fries and they can be easily crushed or broken by the slightest touch. Because of this, helictites are rarely seen within arms reach in tourist caves, timpanogos Cave National Monument in Utah has one of the largest collections of these formations in the world. The large numbers are also in the Jenolan Caves in Australia, a remarkable suite of helictites is also occurring in Asperge Cave in France. The growth of helictites is still quite enigmatic, to this day there has been no satisfactory explanation for how they are formed. Currently, formation by capillary forces is the most likely theory, the most likely theory explains helictites as a result of capillary forces. If the helictite has a thin central tube where the water flows like it does in straws. This theory was inspired by some hollow helictites, however, the majority of helictites are definitely not hollow. Despite this, droplets can be drawn to the tips of existing structures and this can lead to the wandering and curling structures seen in many helictites. Another theory names the wind in the cave as main reason for the strange look, drops hanging on a stalactite are blown to one side, so the dripstone grows in that direction. If the wind changes, the direction of growth changes too, however this theory is very problematic, because wind directions change very often. The wind in caves depends on air pressure changes outside, which in turn depend on the weather, wind caves are known to experience these windy conditions. The wind direction changes as often as the conditions outside change. A second problem with this theory is that caves with helictites have no natural entrance where wind could enter. A recent theory which is supported by observation is that a prokaryotic bacterial film provides nucleation site for mineralization process, a helictite starts its growth as a tiny stalactiteHelictite – Rare "fishtail" helictites in the Caverns of Sonora near Sonora, Texas.
56. Rimstone – Rimstone, also called gours, is a type of speleothem in the form of a stone dam. Rimstone is made up of calcite and other minerals that build up in cave pools, the formation created, which looks like stairs, often extends into flowstone above or below the original rimstone. Often, rimstone is covered with small, micro-gours on horizontal surfaces, crystallization begins to occur at the air/water/rock interface. The turbulence caused by flow over the edge of the dam may contribute to the outgassing or loss of carbon dioxide from water. When dams form under running water, they tend to be higher when the passage is steeper, shallow-gradient dams tend to be lower and more sinuous in nature. Rimstone is one of the most common cave formations, after flowstone, stalactites, the Virtual Caves page on RimstoneRimstone – Rimstone - Endless Caverns, VA
57. Snottite – The bacteria derive their energy from chemosynthesis of volcanic sulfur compounds including H2S and warm-water solution dripping down from above, producing sulfuric acid. Because of this, their products are highly acidic, with similar properties to battery acid. Snottites were brought to attention by researchers Diana Northup and Penny Boston studying them in a toxic sulfur cave called Cueva de Villa Luz, the term snottite was given to these cave features by Jim Pisarowicz in 1986. Hose L D, Pisarowcz J A. Cueva de Villa Luz, Tabasco, Mexico, reconnaissance study of a sulfur spring cave. J Cave Karst Studies,61, 13–21 Archaea Cave slime at NASA The Subsurface Life in Mineral Environments TeamSnottite – Snottites in Cueva de Villa Luz in Southern Mexico
58. Soda straw – A soda straw is a speleothem in the form of a hollow mineral cylindrical tube. They are also known as tubular stalactites, soda straws grow in places where water leaches slowly through cracks in rock, such as on the roofs of caves. Soda straws in caves rarely grow more than a few millimetres a year, a soda straw can turn into a stalactite if the hole at the bottom is blocked, or if the water begins flowing on the outside surface of the hollow tube. These tubes form when calcium carbonate or calcium sulfate dissolved in the water out of solution and is deposited. In soda straws, as each drop hovers at the tip and it then falls and a new drop takes its place. Each successive drop of water deposits a little more mineral before falling, stalagmites or flowstone may form where the water drops hit the cave floor. Soda straws are some of the most fragile of speleothems, like helictites, they can be easily crushed or broken by the slightest touch. Because of this, soda straws are rarely seen within arms reach in show caves or others with unrestricted access, when left alone, soda straws have been known to grow up to 9 metres long. Kartchner Caverns in southern Arizona has well-preserved soda straws because of its recent discovery in 1974, straws can also form beneath man-made structures and grow significantly faster than in the natural cave environment. These forms are classified as calthemites as opposed to the growing in natural environments. Their chemistry differs from those found in caves because they are derived from concrete, lime, calthemite soda straws have been recorded as growing up to 2mm per day in length, which is much faster than Speleothem soda straw growth rates. Showcaves. com definition and explanation The Virtual Cave soda straw photos A photo of some amazing soda straws in south eastern FranceSoda straw – Straws (stalactite precursors) in Gardner's Gut.
59. Stalactite – A stalactite is a type of formation that hangs from the ceiling of caves, hot springs, or manmade structures such as bridges and mines. Any material which is soluble, can be deposited as a colloid, or is in suspension, or is capable of being melted, Stalactites may be composed of amberat, lava, minerals, mud, peat, pitch, sand, and sinter. A stalactite is not necessarily a speleothem, though speleothems are the most common form of stalactite because of the abundance of limestone caves, the corresponding formation on the floor of the cave is known as a stalagmite. The most common stalactites are speleothems, which occur in limestone caves and they form through deposition of calcium carbonate and other minerals, which is precipitated from mineralized water solutions. Limestone is the form of calcium carbonate rock which is dissolved by water that contains carbon dioxide. When the solution comes into contact with air the chemical reaction that created it is reversed, the reversed reaction is, Ca 2 → CaCO3 + H 2O + CO2 An average growth rate is 0.13 mm a year. The quickest growing stalactites are formed by a constant supply of slow dripping water rich in calcium carbonate and carbon dioxide. The drip rate must be enough to allow the CO2 to degas from the solution into the cave atmosphere. Too fast a drip rate and the solution, still carrying most of the CaCO3, falls to the floor where degassing occurs. All limestone stalactites begin with a single drop of water. When the drop falls, it deposits the thinnest ring of calcite, each subsequent drop that forms and falls deposits another calcite ring. Eventually, these form a very narrow, hollow tube commonly known as a soda straw stalactite. Soda straws can grow long, but are very fragile. If they become plugged by debris, water flowing over the outside, depositing more calcite. The same water drops that fall from the tip of a stalactite deposit more calcite on the floor below, unlike stalactites, stalagmites never start out as hollow soda straws. Given enough time, these formations can meet and fuse to create pillars of calcium carbonate known as a column, another type of stalactite is formed in lava tubes while lava is still active inside. The mechanism of formation is similar to that of limestone stalactites, a key difference with lava stalactites is that once the lava has ceased flowing, so too will the stalactites cease to grow. This means that if the stalactite were to be broken it would never grow back, the generic term lavacicle has been applied to lava stalactites and stalagmites indiscriminately and evolved from the word icicleStalactite – Image showing the six most common speleothems with labels. Enlarge to view labels.
60. Stalagmite – A stalagmite is a type of rock formation that rises from the floor of a cave due to the accumulation of material deposited on the floor from ceiling drippings. Stalagmites may be composed of amberat, lava, minerals, mud, peat, pitch, sand, the corresponding formation hanging down from the ceiling of a cave is a stalactite. Mnemonics have been developed for which word refers to type of formation, one is that stalactite has a C for ceiling. The most common stalagmites are speleothems, which form in limestone caves. This stalagmite formation occurs only under certain pH conditions within the underground cavern and they form through deposition of calcium carbonate and other minerals, which is precipitated from mineralized water solutions. Limestone is the form of calcium carbonate rock, which is dissolved by water that contains carbon dioxide. If stalactites – the ceiling formations – grow long enough to connect with stalagmites on the floor, oils and dirt from human contact can also stain the formation and change its color permanently. Another type of stalagmite is formed in lava tubes while lava is still active inside, the mechanism of formation is similar to that of limestone stalagmites. A key difference with lava stalagmites is that once the lava has ceased flowing and this means if the stalagmite were to be broken it would never grow back. Stalagmites in lava tubes are rarer than their stalactite counterparts because during formation the dripping material falls onto still-moving lava floors that absorb or carry the material away, the generic term lavacicle has been applied to lava stalactites and stalagmites indiscriminately, and evolved from the word icicle. A common stalagmite found seasonally or year round in many caves is the ice stalagmite, commonly referred to as icicles, water seepage from the surface will penetrate into a cave and if temperatures are below freezing temperature, the water will collect on the floor into stalagmites. Deposition may also directly from the freezing of water vapor. Similar to lava stalagmites, ice stalagmites form very quickly within hours or days, unlike lava stalagmites however, they may grow back as long as water and temperatures are suitable. Ice stalagmites are more common than their stalactite counterparts because warmer air rises to the ceilings of caves, ice stalactites may also form corresponding stalagmites below them, and given time, may grow together to form an ice column. Stalactites and stalagmites can also form on concrete ceilings and floors, calcium carbonate deposition as a stalagmite occurs when the solution carries the calcium laden leachate solution to the ground under the concrete structure. Carbon dioxide is absorbed into the alkaline solution, which facilitates the chemical reactions to deposit calcium carbonate as a stalagmite. These stalagmites rarely grow taller than a few centimetres, secondary deposits, which create stalagmites, stalactites, flowstone etc, outside the natural cave environment, are referred to as “calthemites”. These concrete derived secondary deposits can’t be referred to as “speleothems” due to the definition of the word, the largest known stalagmite in the world exceeds 70 metres in height and is located in Sơn Đoòng Cave, VietnamStalagmite – Image showing the six most common speleothems with labels. Enlarge to view labels.
61. List of caves of Maryland – The subject of this article and a reference book of the same name, Caves of Maryland was first released by the Maryland Geological Survey in 1950. Information about Maryland caves was first gathered into a series of reports by Martin Muma in the mid-1940s, since its publication, this reference work has remained the principal source for information about Maryland caves, and has served as an outline for the work to follow. In the late 1960s the MGS sponsored another statewide survey, undertaken by Richard Franz and Dennis Slifer, in Maryland, a cave is defined as any subterranean cavity large enough for a human to enter. This definition has led the authors to include several caves, fissures. Cave locations are typically well-guarded secrets, as property owners are most-often fearful of liability issues, likewise, experienced spelunkers are also wary to guide novices to cave locations, fearing they might recklessly endanger the natural balance of these sanctuaries, making them inaccessible to all. While most find cave vandalism unimaginable, there are some who, whether out of carelessness, malice, for this reason, precise locations of caves are seldom published. Rather than using a system, the MGS Caves of Maryland provides approximate locations using a quadrangle system to be employed with the use of 7. 5-minute topographic maps. Neither coordinates nor quadrangular data are posted on this page at present, only surrounding terrain, while limited data and pictures about Marylands caves can be found on the MGS’s website, the best sources of information are local speleological grottos and knowledgeable enthusiasts. Most of Marylands caves occur in its three westernmost counties, non-solutional caves are carved out by weathering and are typically of smaller size and of little interest to spelunkers. Exceptions in the area include the Wakefield and Cockeystown marbles. In the lowlands portion of the Piedmont caves are found in the Frederick Formation and Grove Limestone, while several other limestone members exist, no caves have been located within these members. Blue Ridge & the Great Valley – the Blue Ridge rises up from the Piedmont just west of Frederick in the first of its two mountains, Braddock/Catoctin, here older limestone and dolomites from the Cambrian/Ordovician make an appearance, offering up a few caves in the Frederick/Middletown Valley vicinity. On top of these, older, harder thrust sheets of metamorphic rocks from the Paleozoic give these mountains their well-defined crests, Wolf Rock, home to Marylands best-known non-solutional cave, is an example of quartzite that has endured while Catoctin Mountain has weathered around it. Here the harder metamorphosed rocks of the Blue Ridge are replaced by carbonates, sandstones, the highest concentration of Maryland caves lies within the Hagerstown Valley, where well-established waterways have cut into the underlying carbonate rocks. The probability of development, however, is also very strongly influenced by the presence of structural features such as anticlinal axes, synclinal troughs. In contrast to the caves of neighboring West Virginia, caves in the Great Valley are generally quite shallow with little internal relief. In-cave relief rarely exceeds 50 feet in Washington County, High deformation and faulting allows surface waters to penetrate rock vertically and reach the shallow underlying water table quickly without much lateral travel. Ridge & Valley Region – is the name of the province extending west of the Great Valley to the western portion of Allegany CountyList of caves of Maryland – Dam #4 Cave
62. List of rock-cut temples in India – This is a partial list of Indian rock-cut temples by state or union territory. This is a monolithic structure in the sub-Himalayan region. The main shrine contains three images of Rama, Lakshmana and Sita. The temple complex is located on a hill and has a rectangular water pond. The temple complex is believed to have built by the Pandava during their exile. The ancient name of the city Kangra was Bhimnagar, founded by Bhima, faces of the Divine, Indias Ancient Art – Interactive MapList of rock-cut temples in India – Akkanna Madanna caves, Vijayawada
63. List of caves in Austria – The following article shows a list of caves in Austria. The list also includes ice caves and tourist former salt caves, the main concentration of Austrian caves is by the Northern Limestone Alps, a mountain range of the Eastern Alps. Many of them are located in the region of Salzkammergut. The caves are listed by order and there are shown the main tourist caves. In the length section is shown, between parentheses, the trail as a show caveList of caves in Austria – View of the " Katerloch Cave"
64. List of caves in Bulgaria – The list caves in Bulgaria, as of 2002, includes around 4,500 underground formations. The earliest written records about the caves in Bulgaria are found in the manuscripts of the 17th century Bulgarian National Revival figure, the first Bulgarian speleological society was established in 1929. The caves in the country are inhabited by more than 700 invertebrate species and 32 of the 37 species of bats found in Europe, the longest caves in Bulgaria are Duhlata and Orlova Chuka. The first show cave is Bacho Kiro, inaugurated in 1937, geography of Bulgaria List of protected areas of Bulgaria List of mountains in Bulgaria List of rock formations in Bulgaria List of islands of Bulgaria List of lakes of Bulgaria Caves in BulgariaList of caves in Bulgaria – Bacho Kiro cave
65. List of show caves in Germany – This list of show caves in Germany contains all show caves in Germany which are hosted by the German Speleological Federation. A show cave is defined here as a natural, underground cavity, show caves have regular opening times, usually with regular guided tours of about 30 to 45 minutes duration. They are almost all electrically lighted, only the Easter Cave and the Schellenberg Ice Cave still use carbide lamps. In 1884 the Olga Cave was the first German show cave to be equipped with electrical lighting, only the Kraus Cave in the Styria in Austria was equipped earlier, in 1883. There are currently 51 show caves in Germany, the earliest to have guided tours was Baumanns Cave in the Rübeland, visited by Goethe. Tours of this cave were being organised as early as 1646, the latest to be opened as a show cave was the Autumn Labyrinth in 2009. More than half the show caves are dripstone caves, the Wimsen Cave is the only show cave in Germany accessible by boat, for a distance of 70 metres. The Goetz Cave is the only cave in the list. The Laichingen Vertical Cave is the only cave that can be viewed in Germany, having a depth of 55 metres below the entrance. The Schellenberg Ice Cave is the ice cave in Germany that can be visited. In the Barbarossa Cave, which is formed of stone, loose layers of plaster hang like wallpaper from the ceilings. Name of the cave, states the name of the show cave. Location, gives the location of the show cave, state, gives the state in which the show cave is found. Location, gives the coordinates of the show caves, geological classification, states the geological type of cave. It may be a cave, rock cave, karst cave or other type. Length, gives the length of the show cave in metres including all branches. GR, gives the length of the guided route in metres. It does include any artificial access walkways that are not part of the length of the caveList of show caves in Germany – The Atta Cave – Germany’s most-visited show cave
66. List of caves in Gibraltar – This is an under construction list of all discovered caves in Gibraltar. This means that there is a possibility that the caves which are now underwater were at one time being lived in by people. These caves are the subject of research projects, the caves within the Rock of Gibraltar have been used as shelter during sieges and attacks on the islands for hundreds of years. The caves have also used to store water and ammunition on a routine basis. There is thought to be over 200 caves in GibraltarList of caves in Gibraltar – One of the most remarkable of Gibraltar's many caves is St Michael's, large enough to house this comfortable auditorium.
67. List of caves of Poland – This article is about the caves of Poland. As of 2007, there are 771 caves known in the Polish Tatra Mountains with the total length exceeding 124 km and they are within Tatra National Park. All the prominent ones are limestone karst caves of the Western Tatras, the largest and deepest caves of the Tatras are located in the Czerwone Wierchy and Kominiarski Wierch massifsList of caves of Poland – Jaskinia Zbójecka
68. Caves in Cantabria – The Cantabrian caves unique location make them an ideal place to observe the settlements of primitive man thousands of years ago. The magnificent art in the caves includes figures of animals of the time such as bison, horses, goats, deer, cattle, hands. The cave of Las Aguas is located in the town of Novales and this cave contains rock art, including two bison carved and painted in red, a doe, a horse, a clavate, a sign on the grill and several more configurations. These remains have been dated chronologically in the early or middle Magdalenian period, the Cave of Altamira is located near Santillana del Mar. The cave has been included in UNESCOs World Heritage Site since 1985, the Cave of la Clotilde is located in the town of Santa Isabel de Quijas in the region of Reocín. The cave of Cualventi is located in the town of Peralada, cullalvera Cave is located in the municipality of Ramales de la Victoria, capital of the comarca of Valley of the Asón River. These forms in conjunction with prehistoric remains make the cave one of the most visited of the region. Remains of a reservoir and rock art, both from the Paleolithic have been found here. The Cave of Chufín is located in the village of Riclones and it is located at the confluence point of several rivers and Nansa Lamasón in an environment with steep slopes amongst other caves with rock art. Chufín contains different levels of occupation, the oldest being around 20,000 years old, even though the cave is small and of profound simplicity it subtle red paintings of deer, goats and cattle which are represented very schematically and a large number of symbols. One group, called sticks, accompanies the animal paintings inside the cave, there are also a large number of pointillist drawings, including some around each hole in the rock which have been interpreted as a representation of a vulva. The cave has been included as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO since 2008, the Cave of La Estación is located near the cave of La Clotilde, in Santa Isabel de Quijas. It is notable for paintings in a room representing horses and other signs which are not identifiable. Fuente del Salín Cave is located in the municipality of Val de San Vicente, the path is accessible only in times of drought, because it lies along an underground river. The Cave of La Garma is located north of the village of Omoño and it was found to wall paintings and fossils in a Lower Gallery, one of the best preserved Magdaleinian period floors. It is part of the Cave of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain World Heritage Site, the Cave of Hornos de la Peña Cave was discovered in 1903 and is situated on a hill near the village of Tarriba, San Felices de Buelna. The paintings were dated to the initial or middle Magdalenian period, the cave of El Linar is located in La Busta, a town in the municipality of Alfoz de Lloredo. The path is an arroyo of more than 7 kilometers with three mouths which join the stream of Busta, Paleolithic materials have been detected and also remnants of Magdalenian era occupationsCaves in Cantabria – Roof of the Cave of Altamira (replica) - National Archaeological Museum.
69. Cave dweller – A cave dweller, or troglodyte, is a human being who inhabits a cave or the area beneath the overhanging rocks of a cliff. Some prehistoric humans were cave dwellers, but most were not, such early cave dwellers, and other prehistoric peoples, are also called cave men. The Grotte du Vallonnet, a cave in the French Riviera, was used by approximately one million years ago. Although stone tools and the remains of animals have been found in the cave. Since about 750,000 years ago, the Zhoukoudian cave system, in Beijing, China, has been inhabited by species of human being, including Peking Man. Starting about 170,000 years ago, some Homo sapiens lived in cave systems in what is now South Africa, such as Pinnacle Point. Caves were the place to shelter from the midday sun in the equatorial regions. The stable temperatures of caves provided a habitat in summers. Approximately 100,000 years ago, some Neanderthal humans dwelt in caves in Europe, Caves there also were inhabited by some Cro-Magnons from about 35,000 years ago until approximately 8,000 BC. Both species built shelters, including tents, at the mouths of caves, the Cro-Magnon people also made representational paintings on cave walls. Also about 100,000 years ago, some Homo sapiens worked in Blombos Cave and they made the earliest paint workshop now known, but apparently did not dwell in the caves. Especially during war and other times of strife, relatively small groups of people have lived temporarily in caves and they also have used caves for clandestine and other special purposes while living elsewhere. The DeSoto Caverns, in what became Alabama, in the United States, were a burial ground for local Amerindians, the Caves of St. Louis may have been a hiding-place along the Underground Railroad. From about 1000 to about 1300, some Pueblo people lived in villages that they built beneath cliffs in what is now the Southwestern United States, in the 1970s, several members of the Tasaday apparently inhabited caves near Cotabato, in the Philippines. Some families have built homes in caves, as in Missouri, Matera, Italy, Sicily. In the Australian mining towns of Coober Pedy and Lightning Ridge, many families have carved homes into the underground opal mines, in the Loire Valley, abandoned caves are being privately renovated as affordable housingCave dweller – Cave dwellings in Mellieħa, Malta
70. History of Italy – The history of Italy begins with the arrival of the first hominins 850,000 years ago at Monte Poggiolo. Italy shows evidence of habitation by modern humans beginning about 43,000 years ago. It is reached by the Neolithic as early as 6000–5500 BC Cardium Pottery, among the Italic peoples, the Latins, originally situated in the Latium region, and their Latin language would come to dominate the peninsula with the Roman conquest of Italy in the 3rd century BC. The decline and collapse of the Western Empire by the end of the 5th century is taken to mark the end of Late Antiquity, a Lombard Kingdom of Italy was established, although parts of the peninsula remained under Byzantine rule and influence until the 11th century. With the rise of nationalism and the idea of the state in the 19th century. The new Kingdom of Italy, established in 1861, quickly modernized and built a colonial empire, colonizing parts of Africa. However, many regions of the nation remained rural and poor. Part of the allied powers of World War I, Italy defeated its historical enemy. Soon afterwards, however, the state collapsed to social unrest. Italy joined the Axis powers in World War II, falling into a bloody Civil War in 1943, in 1946, as a result of a Constitutional Referendum, the monarchy was abolished. The new republic was proclaimed on 2 June 1946, in the 1950s and 1960s, Italy saw a period of rapid modernization and sustained economic growth, the so-called Italian economic miracle. Italy plays a prominent role in regional and global military, cultural, in prehistoric times, the Italian peninsula was rather different from its current shape. During the last Ice Age, the islands of Elba and Sicily were connected to the mainland. The Adriatic Sea was far smaller, since it started at what is now the Gargano peninsula, the arrival of the first hominins was 850,000 years ago at Monte Poggiolo. The presence of the Homo neanderthalensis has been demonstrated in archaeological findings dating to c.50,000 years ago, Homo sapiens sapiens appeared during the upper Palaeolithic. Remains of the prehistoric age have been found in Liguria, Lombardy. The most famous is perhaps that of Ötzi the Iceman, the mummy of a hunter found in the Similaun glacier in South Tyrol. During the Copper Age, Indoeuropean people migrated to Italy, approximatively four waves of population from north to the Alps have been identifiedHistory of Italy – Matera, which dates from Palaeolithic 10th millennium BC, (region of Basilicata).
71. Italic peoples – The Italic peoples were an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group identified by speaking Italic languages. The Italics were all the peoples who spoke an idiom belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages and had settled in the Italian peninsula. The first Italic tribes, the Latino-Falisci, entered Italy across the eastern Alpine passes into the plain of the Po River about 1200 BC, later, they crossed the Apennine Mountains and eventually occupied the region of Latium, which included the area of Rome. Before 1000 BC, the Osco-Umbrians followed, which divided into various groups and gradually moved to central. According to David W. Anthony, between 3100–2800/–2600 BCE, a real folk migration of Proto-Indo-European speakers from the Yamna culture took place into the Danube Valley and these migrations probably split off Pre-Italic, Pre-Celtic and Pre-Germanic from Proto-Indo-European. Hydronymy shows that Proto-Germanic homeland is in Central Germany, which would be close to the homeland of Italic and Celtic languages as well. The origin of a hypothetical ancestral Italo-Celtic people is to be found in todays eastern Hungary and this is further confirmed by the fact that Germanic language family shares more vocabulary with the Italic family than with the Celtic language family. Remains of the prehistoric age have been found in Liguria. The most famous is perhaps that of Ötzi the Iceman, the mummy of a hunter found in the Similaun glacier in South Tyrol. During the Copper Age, at the time as metalworking appeared. Approximatively four waves of population from north to the Alps have been hypothesized on the basis of archaeological evidence, the Remedello culture is associated by some with the first identified wave of Proto-Indo-Europeans who entered Italy and took over the Po Valley. In the mid-2nd millennium BC, the Terramare culture developed in the Po Valley, the Terramare culture takes its name from the black earth residue of settlement mounds, which have long served the fertilizing needs of local farmers. The Latino-Faliscan people have associated with this culture, especially by the archaeologist Luigi Pigorini. The Proto-Villanovans practiced cremation and buried the ashes of their dead in pottery urns of a distinctive double-cone shape, the most important settlements excavated are those of Frattesina in Veneto region, Bismantova in Emilia-Romagna and near the Monti della Tolfa, north of Rome. The Osco-Umbrians, the Veneti, and possibly the Latino-Faliscans too, have associated with this culture. In the early Iron Age, the relatively homogeneous Proto-Villanovan culture shows a process of fragmentation, in Tuscany and in part of Emilia-Romagna, Latium and Campania, the Proto-Villanovan culture was followed by the Villanovan culture. The earliest remains of Villanovan culture date back to approx, in the region south of the Tiber, the Latial culture of the Latins emerges, while in the north-east of the peninsula the Este culture of the Veneti appeared. This corresponds with the emergence of the Terni culture, which had similarities with the Celtic cultures of HallstattItalic peoples – Indo-European Migrations. Source David Anthony (2007), The Horse, The Wheel and Language
72. Pre-Nuragic Sardinia – The Pre-Nuragic period refers to the prehistory of Sardinia from the Paleolithic till the middle Bronze age, when the Nuragic civilization flourished on the island. The discovery of Paleolithic lithic workshops indicate a presence in Sardinia in the period between 450,000 and 10,000 years ago. During the last ice age sea levels were lower than 130 meters, at that time Sardinia and Corsica formed a large island. The oldest remains of Homo sapiens in Sardinia date back to the Upper Paleolithic, Mesolithic human remains have been found at the Su Coloru cave of Laerru, in northern Sardinia. The material culture suggest that people came in Sardinia from the Italian peninsula after a difficult navigation with rudimentary boats. The oldest complete skeleton was found in 2011 in the territory of Arbus, it dates back to about 9,000 years ago. The culture of Su Carroppu represents the earliest phase of the Neolithic in Sardinia. There were also found the remains of ancient meals, with the discovery of bones of animals such as deer, Prolagus sardus, wild boar, the presence of two human skeletons, along with ornaments made of shells, according to the researchers witnessed the customs of burial cave. The Grotta Verde culture is named after a cave located at Capo Caccia near Alghero and it is dated back to the second phase of the Early Neolithic in the mid-fifth millennium BC. This culture was present in the north-west part of Sardinia and was characterized by the production of refined pottery, on a vase found in the cave, the handles depicted, in a stylized manner, human heads with small nose, eyes and mouth played. According to archaeologist Giovanni Lilliu, this would be the first anthropomorphic representation of Sardinian prehistory, on a wall inside the cave were also found particular graffiti, another singular testimony of these people. In 1971 the priest and caver Renato Loria found in the territory of Mara, the cave was subsequently investigated by archaeologists VR Switsur and David H. Trump, they discovered a series of different cultures that embraced in a very long period of time. The oldest has been dated to the fifth millennium BC, findings show that this culture was developed by people dedicated to agriculture, husbandry. The researchers noted the almost complete disappearance of the forms of pottery decoration and the appearance of big greenstone rings, also commons in Corsica. The Bonuighinu culture prevailed from 4000 BC up to 3400 BC and it spread widely throughout most of the island and one of the most important villages was that of Puisteris in Mogoro. The artifacts related to the village and necropolis of Cuccuru SArrius show a well-organized society, the site Cuccuru SArrius is indicated by many scholars belonging to the culture of San Ciriaco. The San Ciriaco culture characterizes the end of the Middle Neolithic and it is regarded by archaeologists as a cultural link between the Bonuighinu and the Ozieri and is currently undergoing an exact definition. It takes its name from the Church of St Cyriacus of Terralba, during this phase were built the first Domus de Janas, a type of hypogean tomb that will spread throughout the island, with the exception of GalluraPre-Nuragic Sardinia – Mother Goddess from Cuccuru s'Arrius, Cabras
73. List of Nuragic tribes – This is a list of ancient Corsican and Sardinian tribes, listed in order of the province or the general area in which they lived. Some closely fit the concept of a tribe, others are confederations or even unions of tribes. With the Roman conquest, the province of Corsica and Sardinia was created, there is also the possibility that the Nuragic peoples may have been related to the Etruscans and other Tyrsenian peoples and languages. One of the Sea Peoples may have either a population hailing from Sardinia or a group of tribes that migrated to the island in the Late Bronze Age. Corsi Belatones Cervini Cilebenses Corsi Proper, they dwelt at the extreme north-east of Sardinia, near the Tibulati, aesaronenses, they dwelt south of the Salcitani and the Lucuidonenses and north of the Æchilenenses or Cornenses. Beronicenses Carenses, they dwelt south of the Coracenses and north of the Salcitani, celsitani, they dwelt south of the Rucensi and north of the Scapitani and the Siculensi. Coracenses, they dwelt south of the Tibulati and the Corsi and north of the Carenses and the Cunusitani Corpicenses, they dwelt south of the Rucensi and north of the Scapitani, Cunusitani, they dwelt south of the Coracenses and north of the Salcitani and the Lucuidonenses. Galillenses Maltamonenses Moddoli Neapolitani, they dwelt south of the Scapitani and the Siculensi and north of the Solcitani, laurent-Jacques Costa,2004, Corse préhistorique, Éditions Errance, Paris. Giovanni Ugas, Lalba dei nuraghi, Cagliari, Fabula Editore,2005, raimondo Zucca, La Corsica romana, Oristano, SAlvure,1996, ISBN9788873831266. La lingua dei Sardi Nuragici e degli Etruschi, Origine e parentela dei sardi e degli etruschi. La lingua sardiana o dei protosardi, lacusCurtius, Into the Roman World -51 complete works of authors from Classical Antiquity. Location of Sardinia island, Ptolemy, Book III, Chapter 3 Massimo Pittau, Massimo Pittau Massimo Pittau, lingua e civiltà di Sardegna Massimo Pittau, la lingua dei Sardi Nuragici e degli Etruschi Massimo Pittau, Origine e parentela dei Sardi e degli EtruschiList of Nuragic tribes – Nuragic tribes according to the Greek geographer Ptolemy
74. Etruscan civilization – The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio. Culture that is identifiably Etruscan developed in Italy after about 800 BC, the latter gave way in the 7th century BC to a culture that was influenced by ancient Greece, Magna Graecia, and Phoenicia. The decline was gradual, but by 500 BC the political destiny of Italy had passed out of Etruscan hands, the last Etruscan cities were formally absorbed by Rome around 100 BC. Politics were based on the city, and probably the family unit. In their heyday, the Etruscan elite grew very rich through trade with the Celtic world to the north and the Greeks to the south, archaic Greece had a huge influence on their art and architecture, and Greek mythology was evidently very familiar to them. The study also excluded recent Anatolian connection, the ancient Romans referred to the Etruscans as the Tuscī or Etruscī. Their Roman name is the origin of the terms Tuscany, which refers to their heartland, and Etruria, which can refer to their wider region. In Attic Greek, the Etruscans were known as Tyrrhenians, from which the Romans derived the names Tyrrhēnī, Tyrrhēnia, the word may also be related to the Hittite Taruisa. The Etruscans called themselves Rasenna, which was syncopated to Rasna or Raśna, the origins of the Etruscans are mostly lost in prehistory, although Greek historians as early as the 5th century BC, repeatedly associated the Tyrrhenians with Pelasgians. Strabo as well as the Homeric Hymn to Dionysus make mention of the Tyrrhenians as pirates, pliny the Elder put the Etruscans in the context of the Rhaetian people to the north and wrote in his Natural History, Adjoining these the Noricans are the Raeti and Vindelici. All are divided into a number of states, the Raeti are believed to be people of Tuscan race driven out by the Gauls, their leader was named Raetus. Historians have no literature and no original Etruscan texts of religion or philosophy, therefore, much of what is known about this civilization is derived from grave goods, another source of genetic data on Etruscan origins is from four ancient breeds of cattle. Analyzing the mitochondrial DNA of these and seven other breeds of Italian cattle, the other Italian breeds were linked to northern Europe. Etruscan expansion was focused both to the north beyond the Apennine Mountains and into Campania, some small towns in the sixth century BC disappeared during this time, ostensibly consumed by greater, more powerful neighbours. However, it is certain that the structure of the Etruscan culture was similar to, albeit more aristocratic than. The mining and commerce of metal, especially copper and iron, led to an enrichment of the Etruscans and to the expansion of their influence in the Italian peninsula and the western Mediterranean Sea. Here, their interests collided with those of the Greeks, especially in the sixth century BC and this led the Etruscans to ally themselves with Carthage, whose interests also collided with the Greeks. Around 540 BC, the Battle of Alalia led to a new distribution of power in the western Mediterranean, from the first half of the 5th century BC, the new political situation meant the beginning of the Etruscan decline after losing their southern provincesEtruscan civilization – Etruscan pendant with swastika symbols, Bolsena, Italy, 700-650 BC. Louvre Museum
75. Ancient Carthage – Carthage was the Phoenician city-state of Carthage and during the 7th to 3rd centuries BC, included its sphere of influence, the Carthaginian Empire. The empire extended over much of the coast of North Africa as well as encompassing substantial parts of coastal Iberia, Carthage was founded in 814 BC. At the height of the prominence it served as a major hub of trade. The city also had to deal with potentially hostile Berbers, the inhabitants of the area where Carthage was built. In 146 BC, after the third and final Punic War, Roman forces destroyed, redesigned, nearly all of the other Phoenician city-states and former Carthaginian dependencies subsequently fell into Roman hands. According to Roman sources, Phoenician colonists from modern-day Lebanon, led by Dido, Queen Elissa was an exiled princess of the ancient Phoenician city of Tyre. At its peak, the metropolis she founded, Carthage, came to be called the city, ruling 300 other cities around the western Mediterranean Sea. Elissas brother, Pygmalion of Tyre, had murdered Elissas husband, Elissa escaped the tyranny of her own country, founding the new city of Carthage and subsequently its later dominions. Details of her life are sketchy and confusing, but the following can be deduced from various sources, according to Justin, Princess Elissa was the daughter of King Belus II of Tyre. When he died, the throne was jointly bequeathed to her brother, Pygmalion and she married her uncle Acerbas, also known as Sychaeus, the High Priest of Melqart, a man with both authority and wealth comparable to the king. This led to increased rivalry between the elite and the monarchy. Pygmalion was a tyrant, lover of both gold and intrigue, who desired the authority and fortune enjoyed by Acerbas, Pygmalion assassinated Acerbas in the temple and kept the misdeed concealed from his sister for a long time, deceiving her with lies about her husbands death. At the same time, the people of Tyre called for a single sovereign, in the Roman epic of Virgil, the Aeneid, Queen Dido, the Greek name for Elissa, is first introduced as a highly esteemed character. In just seven years, since their exodus from Tyre, the Carthaginians have rebuilt a successful kingdom under her rule and her subjects adore her and present her with a festival of praise. Her character is perceived by Virgil as even more noble when she offers asylum to Aeneas and his men, who have recently escaped from Troy. A spirit in the form of the god, Mercury, sent by Jupiter, reminds Aeneas that his mission is not to stay in Carthage with his new-found love, Dido. Virgil ends his legend of Dido with the story that, when Aeneas tells Dido, her heart broken, as she lay dying, she predicted eternal strife between Aeneas people and her own, rise up from my bones, avenging spirit she says, an invocation of Hannibal. The settlements at Crete and Sicily were in conflict with the GreeksAncient Carthage – Carthage and its dependencies in 264 BC
76. Magna Graecia – The settlers who began arriving in the 8th century BC brought with them their Hellenic civilization, which was to leave a lasting imprint in Italy, such as in the culture of ancient Rome. Most notably the Roman poet Ovid referred to the south of Italy as Magna Graecia in his poem Fasti, according to Strabo, Magna Graecias colonization started already at the time of the Trojan War and lasted for several centuries. Also during that period, Greek colonies were established in places as widely separated as the eastern coast of the Black Sea, Eastern Libya and they included settlements in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula. The Romans called the area of Sicily and the foot of Italy Magna Graecia since it was so densely inhabited by the Greeks, the ancient geographers differed on whether the term included Sicily or merely Apulia and Calabria, Strabo being the most prominent advocate of the wider definitions. With colonization, Greek culture was exported to Italy, in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its religious rites, an original Hellenic civilization soon developed, later interacting with the native Italic civilisations. Many of the new Hellenic cities became very rich and powerful, like Neapolis, Syracuse, Acragas Paestum, other cities in Magna Graecia included Tarentum, Epizephyrian Locri, Rhegium, Croton, Thurii, Elea, Nola, Ancona, Syessa, Bari and others. Following the Pyrrhic War in the 3rd century BC, Magna Graecia was absorbed into the Roman Republic, a remarkable example of the influence is the Griko-speaking minority that still exists today in the Italian regions of Calabria and Apulia. Griko is the name of a language combining ancient Doric, Byzantine Greek, there is a rich oral tradition and Griko folklore, limited now but once numerous, to around 30,000 people, most of them having become absorbed into the surrounding Italian element. Some scholars, such as Gerhard Rohlfs, argue that the origins of Griko may ultimately be traced to the colonies of Magna Graecia, one example is the Griko people, some of whom still maintain their Greek language and customs. For example, Greeks re-entered the region in the 16th and 17th century in reaction to the conquest of the Peloponnese by the Ottoman Empire, especially after the end of the Siege of Coron, large numbers of Greeks took refuge in the areas of Calabria, Salento and Sicily. Greeks from Coroni, the so-called Coronians, were nobles, who brought with them substantial movable property and they were granted special privileges and tax exemptions. Other Greeks who moved to Italy came from the Mani Peninsula of the Peloponnese, the Maniots were known for their proud military traditions and for their bloody vendettas, many of which still continue today. Another group of Maniot Greeks moved to Corsica, Ancient Greek dialects Greeks in Italy Italiotes Graia Graïke Graecus Griko people Griko language Hellenic civilization Names of the Greeks Cerchiai L. Jannelli L. Longo F. The Greek Cities of Magna Graecia and Sicily, in Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. 21 June,2005,17,19 GMT18,19 UK, salentinian Peninsula, Greece and Greater Greece. Traditional Griko song performed by Ghetonia, traditional Griko song performed by amateur local group. Second Interdisciplinary Symposium on the Hellenic Heritage of Southern Italy, the Greeks in the West, genetic signatures of the Hellenic colonisation in southern Italy and SicilyMagna Graecia – Cities of Magna Graecia and other Greek settlements in Italy (in red)
77. Roman Kingdom – The Roman Kingdom was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories. The site of the founding of the Roman Kingdom and eventual Republic, the Palatine Hill and hills surrounding it presented easily defensible positions in the wide fertile plain surrounding them. All of these contributed to the success of the city. The Gauls destroyed much of Romes historical records when they sacked the city after the Battle of the Allia in 390 BC, with no contemporary records of the kingdom existing, all accounts of the kings must be carefully questioned. The insignia of the kings of Rome were twelve lictors wielding the fasces bearing axes, the right to sit upon a Curule chair, the purple Toga Picta, red shoes, of all these insignia, the most important was the purple toga. The imperium of the king was held for life and protected him from ever being brought to trial for his actions. As being the owner of imperium in Rome at the time. Also, the laws that kept citizens safe from magistrates misuse of imperium did not exist during the monarchical period, another power of the king was the power to either appoint or nominate all officials to offices. The king would appoint a tribunus celerum to serve as both the tribune of Ramnes tribe in Rome and as the commander of the personal bodyguard. The king was required to appoint the tribune upon entering office, the tribune was second in rank to the king and also possessed the power to convene the Curiate Assembly and lay legislation before it. Another officer appointed by the king was the praefectus urbi, who acted as the warden of the city. When the king was absent from the city, the prefect held all of the powers and abilities. The king even received the right to be the person to appoint patricians to the Senate. The people knew the king as a mediator between them and the gods and thus viewed the king with religious awe and this made the king the head of the national religion and its chief executive. Having the power to control the Roman calendar, he conducted all religious ceremonies and appointed lower religious offices and it is said that Romulus himself instituted the augurs and was believed to have been the best augur of all. Likewise, King Numa Pompilius instituted the pontiffs and through them developed the foundations of the dogma of Rome. They could only be called together by the king and could discuss the matters the king laid before them. While the Curiate Assembly did have the power to pass laws that had submitted by the kingRoman Kingdom – Capitoline Wolf
78. Roman Republic – It was during this period that Romes control expanded from the citys immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. During the first two centuries of its existence, the Roman Republic expanded through a combination of conquest and alliance, by the following century, it included North Africa, most of the Iberian Peninsula, and what is now southern France. Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st century BC, it included the rest of modern France, Greece, and much of the eastern Mediterranean. By this time, internal tensions led to a series of wars, culminating with the assassination of Julius Caesar. The exact date of transition can be a matter of interpretation, Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. Over time, the laws that gave exclusive rights to Romes highest offices were repealed or weakened. The leaders of the Republic developed a tradition and morality requiring public service and patronage in peace and war, making military. Many of Romes legal and legislative structures can still be observed throughout Europe and much of the world in modern nation states, the exact causes and motivations for Romes military conflicts and expansions during the republic are subject to wide debate. While they can be seen as motivated by outright aggression and imperialism and they argue that Romes expansion was driven by short-term defensive and inter-state factors, and the new contingencies that these decisions created. In its early history, as Rome successfully defended itself against foreign threats in central and then northern Italy, with some important exceptions, successful wars in early republican Rome generally led not to annexation or military occupation, but to the restoration of the way things were. But the defeated city would be weakened and thus able to resist Romanizing influences. It was also able to defend itself against its non-Roman enemies. It was, therefore, more likely to seek an alliance of protection with Rome and this growing coalition expanded the potential enemies that Rome might face, and moved Rome closer to confrontation with major powers. The result was more alliance-seeking, on the part of both the Roman confederacy and city-states seeking membership within that confederacy. While there were exceptions to this, it was not until after the Second Punic War that these alliances started to harden into something more like an empire and this shift mainly took place in parts of the west, such as the southern Italian towns that sided with Hannibal. In contrast, Roman expansion into Spain and Gaul occurred as a mix of alliance-seeking, in the 2nd century BC, Roman involvement in the Greek east remained a matter of alliance-seeking, but this time in the face of major powers that could rival Rome. This had some important similarities to the events in Italy centuries earlier, with some major exceptions of outright military rule, the Roman Republic remained an alliance of independent city-states and kingdoms until it transitioned into the Roman Empire. It was not until the time of the Roman Empire that the entire Roman world was organized into provinces under explicit Roman controlRoman Republic – Route of Pyrrhus of Epirus
79. Italy in the Middle Ages – Late Antiquity in Italy lingered on into the 7th century under the Ostrogothic Kingdom and the Byzantine Empire under the Justinian dynasty, the Byzantine Papacy until the mid 8th century. The Middle Ages proper begin as the Byzantine Empire was weakening under the pressure of the Muslim conquests, Lombard rule ended with the invasion of Charlemagne in 773, who established the Kingdom of Italy and the Papal States. In the 11th century began a development unique to Italy. On the other hand, the Italian city states were in a state of constant warfare, adding to, each city aligned itself with one faction or the other, yet was divided internally between the two warring parties, Guelfs and Ghibellines. Since the 13th century, these wars had increasingly been fought by mercenaries, giving rise to the Italian institution of condottieri and the Swiss mercenary culture. The precarious balance between these powers came to an end in 1494 as the duke of Milan Ludovico Sforza sought the aid of Charles VIII of France against Venice, triggering the Italian War of 1494–98. The House of Habsburg would control Italy for the duration of the modern period. Italy was invaded by the Visigoths in the 5th century, the last Western Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus, was deposed in 476 by an Eastern Germanic general, Odoacer. He subsequently ruled in Italy for seventeen years as rex gentium, theoretically under the suzerainty of the Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno, the administration remained essentially the same as that under the Western Roman Empire, and gave religious freedoms to the Christians. Odoacer fought against the Vandals, who had occupied Sicily, in 489, however, Emperor Zeno decided to oust the Ostrogoths, a foederatum people living in the Danube, by sending them into Italy. On February 25,493 Theodoric the Great defeated Odoacer and became the king of the Ostrogoths, Theodoric, who had lived long in Constantinople, is now generally considered a Romanized German, and he in fact ruled over Italy largely through Roman personnel. The reign of Theodoric is generally considered a period of recovery for the country, infrastructures were repaired, frontiers were expanded, and the economy well cared for. The Latin culture flourished for the last time with figures like Boethius, Theodorics minister, however, Theodorics successors were not equal to him. This conflict, known as Gothic Wars, destroyed much of the life that had survived the barbarian invasions. Town life did not disappear, but they became smaller and considerably more primitive than they had been in Roman times, subsistence agriculture employed the bulk of the Italian population. Wars, famines, and disease epidemics had an effect on the demographics of Italy. The agricultural estates of the Roman era did not disappear and they produced an agricultural surplus that was sold in towns, however slavery was replaced by other labour systems such as serfdom. The withdrawal of Byzantine armies allowed another Germanic people, the Lombards, cividale del Friuli was the first main centre to fall, while the Byzantine resistance concentrated in the coast areasItaly in the Middle Ages – The maritime republics of medieval Italy
80. Guelphs and Ghibellines – The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, rivalry between two parties formed a particularly important aspect of the internal politics of medieval Italy. The struggle for power between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire had arisen with the Investiture Controversy, which began in 1075, the division between the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Italy, however, persisted until the 15th century. Guelph is an Italian form of the name of the House of Welf, the names were likely introduced to Italy during the reign of Frederick Barbarossa. When Frederick conducted military campaigns in Italy to expand imperial power there, the Lombard League and its allies were defending the liberties of the urban communes against the Emperors encroachments and became known as Guelphs. The Ghibellines were thus the party, while the Guelphs supported the Pope. Broadly speaking, Guelphs tended to come from wealthy mercantile families, the Lombard League defeated Frederick at the Battle of Legnano in 1176. Frederick recognized the autonomy of the cities of the Lombard league under his nominal suzerainty. The division developed its own dynamic in the politics of medieval Italy, smaller cities tended to be Ghibelline if the larger city nearby was Guelph, as Guelph Republic of Florence and Ghibelline Republic of Siena faced off at the Battle of Montaperti,1260. Pisa maintained a staunch Ghibelline stance against her fiercest rivals, the Guelph Republic of Genoa, adherence to one of the parties could therefore be motivated by local or regional political reasons. Within cities, party allegiances differed from guild to guild, rione to rione, moreover, sometimes traditionally Ghibelline cities allied with the Papacy, while Guelph cities were even punished with interdict. Contemporaries did not use the terms Guelph and Ghibellines much until about 1250, at the beginning of the 13th century, Philip of Swabia, a Hohenstaufen, and his son-in-law Otto of Brunswick, a Welf, were rivals for the imperial throne. Philip was supported by the Ghibellines as a relative of Frederick I, Frederick II also introduced this division to the Crusader states in the Levant during the Sixth Crusade. After the death of Frederick II in 1250 the Ghibellines were supported by Conrad IV of Germany and later Manfred, King of Sicily, the Sienese Ghibellines inflicted a noteworthy defeat on Florentine Guelphs at the Battle of Montaperti. In that period the stronghold of Italian Ghibellines was the city of Forlì and that city remained with the Ghibelline factions, partly as a means of preserving its independence, rather than out of loyalty to the temporal power, as Forlì was nominally in the Papal States. Over the centuries, the papacy tried several times to control of Forlì. Essentially the two sides were now fighting either against German influence, or against the power of the Pope. In Florence and elsewhere the Guelphs usually included merchants and burghers and they also adopted peculiar customs such as wearing a feather on a particular side of their hats, or cutting fruit a particular way, according to their affiliationGuelphs and Ghibellines – Painting of the Guelph and Ghibelline families, by Ottavio Baussano (Asti).
81. Italian city-states – The Italian city-states were a political phenomenon of small independent states mostly in the central and northern Italian peninsula between the 9th and 15th centuries. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, urban settlements in Italy generally enjoyed a greater continuity than in the rest of western Europe, many of these towns were survivors of earlier Etruscan, Umbrian and Roman towns which had existed within the Roman Empire. The republican institutions of Rome had also survived, the very first Italian city-state can be considered the Republic of Venice, which de facto broke apart from Byzantine Empire since 742, becoming also de jure independent in the following centuries. The other first Italian city-states appeared in northern Italy as a result of a struggle to gain greater autonomy when not independent from the German Holy Roman Empire, other city-states were associated to these commune cities, like Genoa, Turin and, in the Adriatic, Ragusa. It is important to say that Venice was never subjected to the Holy Roman Empire, around 1100, Genoa and Venice emerged as independent Maritime republics. For Genoa – nominally – the Holy Roman Emperor was sovereign, pisa and Amalfi also emerged as maritime republics, trade, shipbuilding and banking helped support their powerful navies in the Mediterranean in those medieval centuries. Between the 12th and 13th centuries, Italy was vastly different from feudal Europe north of the Alps, the Peninsula was a melange of political and cultural elements, not a unified state. Marc Bloch and Fernand Braudel have argued that geography determined the history of the region, the very mountainous nature of Italys landscape was a barrier to effective inter-city communication. The Po plain, however, was an exception, it was the large contiguous area. Those that survived the longest were in the more rugged regions, such as Florence or Venice, while those Roman, urban, republican sensibilities persisted, there were many movements and changes afoot. Italy first felt the changes in Europe from the 11th to the 13th centuries and he argues that these states were mostly republics, unlike the great European monarchies of France and Spain, where absolute power was vested in rulers who could and did stifle commerce. Even northern cities and states were also notable for their merchant republics, geographically, and because of trade, Italian cities such as Venice became international trading and banking hubs and intellectual crossroads. It is estimated that the per capita income of northern Italy nearly tripled from the 11th century to the 15th century and this was a highly mobile, demographically expanding society, fueled by the rapidly expanding Renaissance commerce. In the 14th century, just as the Italian Renaissance was beginning, Italy was the capital of Western Europe. However, with the Bubonic Plague in 1348, the birth of the English woolen industry and general warfare, however, by the late 15th century Italy was again in control of trade along the Mediterranean Sea. It found a new niche in luxury items like ceramics, glassware, lace, however, Italy would never regain its strong hold on textiles. And though it was the birthplace of banking, by the 16th century German, by the 13th century, northern and central Italy had become the most literate society in the world. More than one third of the population could read in the vernacular, as could a smallItalian city-states – Florence was one of the most important city-states in Italy
82. Maritime republics – The maritime republics of the Mediterranean Basin were thalassocratic city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia during the Middle Ages. The best known among the republics are Venice, Genoa, Pisa, Ragusa. Less known are Gaeta, Ancona, Noli and they were generally republics in that they were formally independent, though most of them originated from territories once formally belonging to the Byzantine Empire. During the time of their independence, all cities had similar systems of government. The Fourth Crusade, originally intended to liberate Jerusalem, actually entailed the Venetian conquest of Zara, Venice stands out from the rest in that it maintained enormous tracts of land in Greece, Cyprus, Istria and Dalmatia until as late as the mid-17th century. The economic growth of Europe around the year 1000, together with the hazards of the trading routes. The growing independence acquired by some coastal cities gave them a role in this development. These cities, exposed to raids, organized their own defence. The independent cities formed autonomous republican governments, an expression of the merchant class that constituted the backbone of their power. The history of the maritime republics intertwines both with the launch of European expansion to the East and with the origins of capitalism as a mercantile. Using gold coins, the merchants of the Italian maritime republics began to develop new foreign exchange transactions, technological advances in navigation provided essential support for the growth of mercantile wealth. Nautical charts of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries all belong to the schools of Genoa, Venice, the Crusades offered opportunities for expansion. They increasingly relied on Italian sea transport, for which the republics extracted concessions of colonies as well as a cash price, pera in Constantinople, first Genoese and later Venetian, was the largest and best known Italian trading base. The history of the maritime republics is quite varied, reflecting their different lifespans. Other republics kept their independence until the Renaissance, Pisa came under the dominion of the Republic of Florence in 1406, and Ancona came under control of the Papal States in 1532. Amalfi and Gaeta, though, lost their independence soon, the first in 1131. Amalfi, perhaps the first of the republics to play a major role, had developed extensive trade with Byzantium. Amalfitan merchants wrested the Mediterranean trade monopoly from the Arabs and founded mercantile bases in Southern Italy, amalfitans were the first to create a colony in ConstantinopleMaritime republics – Map of the maritime republics in the 11th century and their coats of arms.
83. Italian unification – The process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. The memory of the Risorgimento is central to both Italian politics and Italian historiography, for short period is one of the most contested. Italian nationalism was based among intellectuals and political activists, often operating from exile, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Roman province of Italy remained united under the Ostrogothic Kingdom and later disputed between the Kingdom of the Lombards and the Byzantine Empire. Following conquest by the Frankish Empire, the title of King of Italy merged with the office of Holy Roman Emperor. However, the emperor was a foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state, as a result. This situation persisted through the Renaissance but began to deteriorate with the rise of modern nation-states in the modern period. Italy, including the Papal States, then became the site of proxy wars between the powers, notably the Holy Roman Empire, Spain and France. Harbingers of national unity appeared in the treaty of the Italic League, in 1454, leading Renaissance Italian writers Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated that the ancient valour in Italian hearts is not yet dead in Italia Mia, Niccolò Machiavelli later quoted four verses from Italia Mia in The Prince, which looked forward to a political leader who would unite Italy to free her from the barbarians. I am an Italian, he explained, the French Republic spread republican principles, and the institutions of republican governments promoted citizenship over the rule of the Bourbons and Habsburgs and other dynasties. The reaction against any outside control challenged Napoleons choice of rulers, as Napoleons reign began to fail, the rulers he had installed tried to keep their thrones further feeding nationalistic sentiments. After Napoleon fell, the Congress of Vienna restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments, vincenzo Gioberti, a Piedmontese priest, had suggested a confederation of Italian states under leadership of the Pope in his 1842 book, Of the Moral and Civil Primacy of the Italians. Pope Pius IX at first appeared interested but he turned reactionary, Giuseppe Mazzini and Carlo Cattaneo wanted the unification of Italy under a federal republic. That proved too extreme for most nationalists, the middle position was proposed by Cesare Balbo as a confederation of separate Italian states led by Piedmont. One of the most influential revolutionary groups was the Carbonari, a political discussion group formed in Southern Italy early in the 19th century. After 1815, Freemasonry in Italy was repressed and discredited due to its French connections, a void was left that the Carbonari filled with a movement that closely resembled Freemasonry but with a commitment to Italian nationalism and no association with Napoleon and his government. The response came from middle class professionals and business men and some intellectuals, the Carbonari disowned Napoleon but nevertheless were inspired by the principles of the French Revolution regarding liberty, equality and fraternity. They developed their own rituals, and were strongly anticlerical, the Carbonari movement spread across ItalyItalian unification – Five Days of Milan, 18–22 March 1848
84. Italian Empire – The Italian Empire comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic. The genesis of the Italian colonial empire was the purchase, in 1869 and this was taken over by the Italian government in 1882, becoming Italys first overseas territory. Over the next two decades the pace of European acquisitions in Africa increased, causing the so-called Scramble for Africa. By the start of the First World War in 1914, Italy had acquired in Africa alone a colony on the Red Sea coast, outside of Africa, Italy possessed a small concession in Tientsin in China and the Dodecanese Islands off the coast of Turkey. During the First World War, Italy occupied southern Albania to prevent it falling to Austria-Hungary. In 1917, it established a protectorate over Albania, which remained in place until 1920, the Fascist government that came to power with Benito Mussolini in 1922 sought to increase the size of the Italian empire and to satisfy the claims of Italian irredentists. In 1935–36, in its invasion of Ethiopia Italy was successful. In 1939, Italy invaded Albania and incorporated it into the Fascist state and it was forced in the final peace to relinquish sovereignty over all its colonies. It was granted a United Nations trust to administer former Italian Somaliland in 1950 under United Nations supervision, when Somalia became independent in 1960, Italys eight-decade experience with colonialism ended. The unification of Italy brought with it a belief that Italy deserved its own empire, alongside those of the other powers of Europe. Italy had long considered the Ottoman province of Tunisia, where a community of Tunisian Italians lived. It did not consider annexing it until 1879, when it became apparent that Britain, Italys search for colonies continued until February 1886, when, by secret agreement with Britain, it annexed the port of Massawa in Eritrea on the Red Sea from the crumbling Egyptian Empire. Italian annexation of Massawa denied the Ethiopian Empire of Yohannes IV an outlet to the sea, at the same time, Italy occupied territory on the south side of the horn of Africa, forming what would become Italian Somaliland. However, Italy coveted Ethiopia itself and, in 1887, Italian Prime Minister Agostino Depretis ordered an invasion and this invasion was halted after the loss of five hundred Italian troops at the Battle of Dogali. Depretiss successor, Prime Minister Francesco Crispi signed the Treaty of Wuchale in 1889 with Menelik II, the new emperor. This treaty ceded Ethiopian territory around Massawa to Italy to form the colony of Eritrea, Relations between Italy and Menelik deteriorated over the next few years until the First Italo-Ethiopian War broke out in 1895, when Crispi ordered Italian troops into the country. Outnumbered and poorly equipped, the result was a defeat for Italy at the hands of Ethiopian forces at the Battle of Adwa in 1896. On 7 September 1901, a concession in Tientsin was ceded to the Kingdom of Italy by Imperial China and it was administered by the Italian consul in TientsinItalian Empire – Francesco Crispi promoted the Italian colonialism in Africa in the late 1800s.
85. Italian Fascism – Italian Fascism, also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology, as developed in Italy. According to Sternhell “most syndicalist leaders were among the founders of the Fascist movement, ” who, in years, gained key posts in Mussolini’s regime. ”Other historians argued that Fascism billed itself “not only as an alternative. This economic system intended to resolve conflict through collaboration between the classes. It was opposed to Marxist socialism because of its opposition to nationalism. It believed the success of Italian nationalism required respect for tradition, the National Fascist Party founded in 1921, declared that the party was to serve as a revolutionary militia placed at the service of the nation. It follows a policy based on three principles, order, discipline, hierarchy, Mussolini often referred to Fascist Italy during World War II as the proletarian nations that rise up against the plutocrats. It identifies modern Italy as the heir to the Roman Empire and Italy during the Renaissance, Italian Fascism historically sought to forge a strong Italian Empire as a Third Rome, identifying ancient Rome as the First Rome, and Renaissance-era Italy as the Second Rome. Italian Fascism has directly promoted imperialism, such as within the Doctrine of Fascism, ghostwritten by Giovanni Gentile on behalf of Mussolini, The Fascist state is a will to power, the Roman tradition is here a powerful force. According to the Doctrine of Fascism, an empire is not only a territorial or military or mercantile concept, but a spiritual and moral one. One can think of an empire, that is, a nation, Fascism sought the incorporation of claimed unredeemed territories to Italy. Mussolini identified Dalmatia as having strong Italian cultural roots for centuries via the Roman Empire, the Fascist regime imposed mandatory Italianization upon the German and South Slav populations living within Italys borders. This resulted in significant violence against South Slavs deemed to be resisting Italianization, the Fascist regime endorsed Albanian irredentism, directed against the predominantly Albanian-populated Kosovo and Epirus - particularly in Chameria inhabited by a substantial number of Albanians. The Fascist regime claimed the Ionian Islands as Italian territory, on the basis that the islands had belonged to the Venetian Republic from the mid-14th until the 18th century. To the west of Italy, the Fascists claimed that the territories of Corsica, Nice, as a result, Piedmont-Sardinia was pressured to concede Nice and Savoy to France in exchange for France accepting the unification of Italy. The Fascist regime produced literature on Corsica that presented evidence of the Italianità of the island, the Fascist regime produced literature on Nice that justified that Nice was an Italian land based on historic, ethnic, and linguistic grounds. The Fascists quoted Medieval Italian scholar Petrarch who said The border of Italy is the Var, to the north of Italy, the Fascist regime in the 1930s had designs on the largely Italian-populated region of Ticino and the Romansch-populated region of Graubünden in Switzerland. In November 1938, Mussolini declared to the Grand Fascist Council, the Fascist regime accused the Swiss government of oppressing the Romansch people in Graubünden. Mussolini argued that Romansch was an Italian dialect and thus Graubünden should be incorporated into Italy, Ticino was also claimed because the region had belonged to the Duchy of Milan from the mid-fourteenth century until 1515Italian Fascism – The session of the Grand Council of 9 May 1936, where the Empire was proclaimed.
86. Italy in World War II – In 1943 Benito Mussolini was ousted and arrested by order of King Victor Emmanuel III, provoking a civil war. Balkan and Mediterranean hegemony was predicated by ancient Roman dominance in the same regions, there were designs for a protectorate over Albania and for the annexation of Dalmatia, as well as economic and military control of Yugoslavia and Greece. The regime also sought to establish protective patron–client relationships with Austria, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria, in 1935, Italy initiated the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, a nineteenth-century colonial campaign waged out of due time. The campaign gave rise to talk on raising a native Ethiopian army to help conquer Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. The war also marked a shift towards a more aggressive Italian foreign policy and also exposed vulnerabilities of the British and this in turn created the opportunity Mussolini needed to begin to realize his imperial goals. In 1936, the Spanish Civil War broke out, from the beginning, Italy played an important role in the conflict. Their military contribution was so vast, that it played a role in the victory of the rebel forces led by Francisco Franco. Mussolini referred to this treaty as the creation of a Berlin-Rome Axis, the aftermath of the treaty saw the increasing ties between Italy and Germany, and Mussolini falling under Adolf Hitlers influence from which he never escaped. In October 1938, in the aftermath of the Munich Agreement, the French refused the demands, believing the true Italian intention was the territorial acquisition of Nice, Corsica, Tunisia, and Djibouti. On 30 November 1938, Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano addressed the Chamber of Deputies on the aspirations of the Italian people and was met with shouts of Nice. Later that day, Mussolini addressed the Fascist Grand Council on the subject of what he called the immediate goals of Fascist dynamism. These were Albania, Tunisia, Corsica, a part of France, the Ticino, a canton of Switzerland, and all French territory east of the River Var, including Nice. Beginning in 1939 Mussolini often voiced his contention that Italy required uncontested access to the worlds oceans, on 4 February 1939, Mussolini addressed the Grand Council in a closed session. He delivered a speech on international affairs and the goals of his foreign policy. He began by claiming that the freedom of a country is proportional to the strength of its navy and this was followed by the familiar lament that Italy was a prisoner in the Mediterranean. He called Corsica, Tunisia, Malta, and Cyprus the bars of this prison, to break British control, her bases on Cyprus, Gibraltar, Malta, and in Egypt would have to be neutralized. Fascist foreign policy took for granted that the democracies—Britain and France—would someday need to be faced down, through armed conquest Italian North Africa and Italian East Africa—separated by the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan—would be linked, and the Mediterranean prison destroyed. Then, Italy would be able to either to the Indian Ocean through the Sudan and AbyssiniaItaly in World War II – German coal entering Italy through the Brenner Pass. The issue of Italian coal was prominent in diplomatic circles in the spring of 1940.
87. Italian Resistance – It was formed by pro-Allied Italians, following the Allied invasion of the country, the armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces, and German military occupation of northern Italy. The movement is known as the Italian resistance and the Italian partisans. The brutal conflict they took part in is referred to as the Italian Liberation War or as the Italian Civil War, the modern Italian Republic was declared to be founded on the struggle of the resistance. The periods best-known battle broke out in Rome the day the armistice was announced, outnumbered German Fallschirmjäger and Panzergrenadiere were initially repelled and endured heavy losses, but slowly gained the upper hand, aided by their experience and superior Panzer component. The Italian Centauro II Divisions absence from the battle contributed to the German defeat given its German-made tanks and it was composed primarily of ex-Blackshirts and was not trusted. By 10 September, the Germans had penetrated downtown Rome and the Granatieri made their last stand at Porta San Paolo, at 4 pm, General Giorgio Carlo Calvi di Bergolo signed the order of surrender, the Italian divisions were disbanded, and their members taken prisoner. Generals Raffaele Cadorna, Jr. and Giuseppe Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo joined the underground, one of the most important episodes of resistance by Italian armed forces after the armistice was the battle of Piombino, Tuscany. Battle broke out at 21,15 on 10 September, between the German landing forces and the Italian coastal batteries, tanks, and civilian population, sauro and Carbet were scuttled because of the damage they had suffered. The German attack was repelled, by the dawn of 11 September,120 Germans had been killed, Italian casualties had been 4 killed and a dozen wounded, four Italian submarine chasers were also sunk during the fightning. Later in the morning, however, De Vecchi ordered the prisoners to be released, many of the sailors, soldiers and citizens who had fought in the battle of Piombino retreated to the surrounding woods and formed the first partisan formations in the area. In the days following 8 September 1943 most servicemen, left without orders from higher echelons, were disarmed and shipped to POW camps in the Third Reich, however, some garrisons stationed in occupied Greece, Albania, Yugoslavia and Italy fought the Germans. Admirals Inigo Campioni and Luigi Mascherpa led an attempt to defend Rhodes, Kos, Leros, with reinforcements from SAS, SBS and British Army troops under the command of Generals Francis Gerrard, Russell Brittorous and Robert Tilney, the defenders held on for a month. However, the Wehrmacht took the islands air and sea landings by infantry. Both Campioni and Mascherpa were captured and executed at Verona for high treason, on 13 September 1943, the Acqui Division stationed in Cefalonia was ordered by Italian High Command to attack the Germans, despite ongoing negotiations. After a ten-day battle, the Germans executed thousands of officers and those killed in the massacre of the Acqui Division included division commander General Antonio Gandin. Other Italian forces remained trapped in Yugoslavia following the armistice and some decided to fight alongside the local resistance, when the unit finally returned to Italy at the end of the war, half its members had been killed or were listed as missing in action. Bastia, in Corsica, was the setting of a battle between Italian torpedo boats and an attacking German flotilla. Italian soldiers captured by the Germans numbered around 650, 000-700,000, most refused cooperation with the Third Reich despite hardship, chiefly to maintain their oath of fidelity to the KingItalian Resistance – Unidentified uniformed Italians shot by invading Germans in Rome, September 1943
88. Years of Lead (Italy) – The left-wing autonomist Marxist movement in Italy which was involved in many events of the period lasted from 1968 until the end of the 1970s. There was widespread social conflict and unprecedented acts of terrorism carried out by both right- and left-wing paramilitary groups, an attempt to endorse the neo-fascist Italian Social Movement by the Tambroni Cabinet led to rioting and was short-lived. The Christian Democrats were instrumental in the Italian Socialist Party gaining power in the 1960s, the assassination of the Christian Democrat leader Aldo Moro in 1978 ended the strategy of historic compromise between the DC and the Italian Communist Party. The assassination was carried out by the Red Brigades, then led by Mario Moretti, between 1969 and 1981, nearly 2,000 murders were attributed to political violence in the form of bombings, assassinations, and street warfare between rival militant factions. Public protests shook Italy during 1969, with the autonomist student movement being particularly active, on 19 November 1969, Antonio Annarumma, a Milanese policeman, was killed during a riot by far-left demonstrators. He was the first civil servant to die in the wave of violence, the Monument to Victor Emmanuel II, the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro in Rome and the Banca Commerciale Italiana and the Banca Nazionale dellAgricoltura in Milan were bombed in December. Local police arrested 80 or so suspects from left-wing groups, including Giuseppe Pinelli, an anarchist initially blamed for the bombing, and Pietro Valpreda. Their guilt was denied by left-wing members, especially by members of the student movement, then prominent in Milans universities, as they believed that the bombing was carried out by fascists. In 1975 Calabresi and other officials were acquitted by judge Gerardo DAmbrosio who decided that Pinellis fall had been caused by his being taken ill. Meanwhile, the anarchist Valpreda and five others were convicted and jailed for the bombing and they were later released after three years of preventive detention. Then, two neo-fascists, Franco Freda and Giovanni Ventura, were arrested accused of being the organizers of the massacre, in the 1990s, new investigations into the Piazza Fontana bombing, citing new witnesses testimony, implicated Freda and Ventura again. However, the pair cannot be put on again because of double jeopardy. The Red Brigades, the most prominent far-left terrorist organization, conducted an internal investigation that paralleled the official inquiry. They ordered that the inquiry remain secret, because of the light that it could shed on other terrorist organizations. The inquiry was discovered after a shootout between the Red Brigade and the Carabinieri at Robbiano di Mediglia in October 1974, the cover-up was exposed in 2000 by Giovanni Pellegrino, at the time President of the Commissione Stragi. The Red Brigades were founded in August 1970 by Renato Curcio and Margherita Cagol, who had met as students at the University of Trento and later married, and Alberto Franceschini. The first action of the RB was burning the car of Giuseppe Leoni on 17 September 1970, the Black Prince, Junio Valerio Borghese, took part in it. The coup, called off at the last moment, was discovered by the newspaper Paese Sera, on March 26, Alessandro Floris was assassinated in Genoa by a unit of the October 22 Group, a far-left terrorist organizationYears of Lead (Italy) – Attack at the Bologna railway station; it was the deadliest episode of the Years of Lead.
89. History of coins in Italy – Italy has a long history of different coinage types, which spans thousands of years. Italy has been influential at a point of view, the florin. Today, Italy adopts the euro currency, spite the fact that the first Italian coinage systems were used in the Magna Graecia and Etruscan civilization, the Romans introduced a widespread currency. Unlike most modern coins, Roman coins had intrinsic value, while they contained precious metals, the value of a coin was higher than its precious metal content, so they were not bullion. Estimates of their range from 1.6 to 2. The florin was struck from 1252 to 1523 with no significant change in its design or metal content standard and it had 54 grains of gold. The fiorino doro of the Republic of Florence was the first European gold coin struck in sufficient quantities to play a significant commercial role since the seventh century. In the fourteenth century, one hundred and fifty European states, the most important of these was the Hungarian forint because the Kingdom of Hungary was a major source of gold mined in Europe. The early modern Italian coins were similar in style to French francs, especially in decimals. They corresponded to a value of 0.29 of gold or 4.5 grams of silver, the Papal States scudo was the coinage system used in the Papal States until 1866. Between 1798 and 1799, the revolutionary French forces established the Roman Republic, in addition, the states of Ancona, Civitavecchia, Clitunno, Foligno, Gubbio, Pergola and Perugia changed their coinage system to that of the Roman Republic. In 1808, the Papal States were annexed by France, when the Popes authority was restored in 1814, the scudo was restored as the currency. However, the coinage of the states was not resumed. In 1849, another Roman Republic was established which issued coins centrally, in 1866, the scudo was replaced by the lira, equivalent to the Italian lira. The exchange rate used was 5.375 lire =1 scudo, the Parman lira was Parmas official currency before 1802, and later revived from 1815 to 1859. The Duchy of Parma had its own system until it was made a part of France in 1802. This lira was subdivided into 20 soldi, each of 12 denari, with the sesino worth 6 denari, the currency was replaced by the French franc. After the re-establishment of Parman independence, the Parman currency system was introduced in 1815, also called the lira, it was subdivided into 20 soldi or 100 centesimiHistory of coins in Italy – A Papal States scudo with Pope Pius VII.
90. Economic history of Italy – A series of tables showing different Italian economic sectors, GDP growth. The Italian Renaissance was remarkable in economic development, venice and Genoa were the economic pioneers. Reasons for their development are for example the relative military safety of Venetian lagoons, the high population density. During the 17th and 18th centuries Italy experienced a decline in relative economic standing, military conflicts, political fractionalization, limited fiscal capacity and the shift of world trade to north-western Europe are factors which slowed down Italian development. The breakdown of feudalism, however, and redistribution of land did not necessarily lead to small farmers in the winding up with land of their own or land they could work. Many remained landless, and plots grew smaller and smaller and thus more and more unproductive as land was subdivided among heirs, the Italian diaspora did not affect all regions of the nation equally, principally low income agricultural areas with a high proportion of small peasant land holdings. In the second phase of emigration most emigrants were from the south and most of them were from rural areas, driven off the land by inefficient land management policies. Robert Foerster, in Italian Emigration of our Times says, …well nigh expulsion, it has been exodus, in the sense of depopulation, although owning land was the basic yardstick of wealth, farming in the south was socially despised. People did not invest in agricultural equipment but in things as low-risk state bonds. Italy had emerged from World War I in a poor and weakened condition, the National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy in 1922, at the end of a period of social unrest. However, once Mussolini acquired a firmer hold of power, in 1929, Italy was hit hard by the Great Depression. Trying to handle the crisis, the Fascist government nationalized the holdings of large banks which had accrued significant industrial securities, a number of mixed entities were formed, whose purpose it was to bring together representatives of the government and of the major businesses. These representatives discussed economic policy and manipulated prices and wages so as to both the wishes of the government and the wishes of business. This economic model based on a partnership between government and business was extended to the political sphere, in what came to be known as corporatism. Throughout the 1930s, the Italian economy maintained the corporatist model that had established during the Great Depression. At the same time, however, Mussolini had growing ambitions of extending Italys foreign influence through both diplomacy and military intervention and these foreign interventions required increased military spending, and the Italian economy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of its armed forces. By 1939, Italy had the highest percentage of state-owned enterprises after the Soviet Union, finally, Italys involvement in World War II as a member of the Axis powers required the establishment of a war economy. The Allied invasion of Italy in 1943 caused the Italian political structure —, the Allies, on the one hand, and the Germans on the other, took over the administration of the areas of Italy under their controlEconomic history of Italy – A graph which shows the current account balance of Italy (% of GDP) from 1980 to 2012. Data source: IMF
91. History of Italian fashion – The history of Italian fashion is the important events and occasions which marked Italian fashion and how it evolved to being as it is today. Italian fashion reached its peak during the Renaissance, Art, music, education, finance and philosophy flourished in Italy, and along with these, Italian fashion designs became immensely popular, especially those worn by the Medicis in Florence. The fashions of Queen Catherine de Medici of France were considered amongst the most fashionable in Europe, Italian fashion in the 15th and 16th centuries was mainly influenced by the art of the time, especially by the masterpieces of Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Botticelli. Italian designs were known for their extravagance, and their expensive accessories, such as velvets, brocades, ribbons. Also, Italian fashion for ladies changed dramatically around 1460, where skirts were gathered or pleated, and would often be split at the front and the sides to show a sleeved underdress. During the Italian Renaissance, men wore closely fitted waistcoats underneath pleated overcoats called giornea and they wore different kinds of hats, ranging from caps to berets. They also had an overcoat called cioppa and its lining was of a different colour than the main fabric which was a feature of the Italian Renaissance. They also wore hose or tights to emphasize their lower bodies, as hair styles, anything from short to shoulder-length hair was common, it was often curled inwards. Womens dress consisted of fitted garments worn underneath a dress which was also called giornea. Unlike the mens version, the reached the ground and covered their feet. Womens giorneas, originally evolved from the houppelande, had separate skirts, the skirts were tight at the waist and the lower part of the dress was often pleated. They were cut at the front, and in years at the sides. Underneath the giornea women wore a dress called gamurra, which was a long dress which could have detachable sleeves. The underdress worn underneath this was a simple linen dress called camicia, men and women would wear outer clothes with detachable, and often slashed, sleeves of varied designs. Rich people would own many different pairs of sleeves to match with their overcoats, the Renaissance was a turning point for peoples attitude regarding clothes and their appearance. People had a desire to wear tighter fitted clothes to emphasize body shape, merchants expanded the market for items of clothing, creating accessories such as hats, hairnets, bags, or gloves. The spread of mirrors led to becoming more interested in their self-image. Lenza, Leather chord worn around the head, it served the function of keeping hair flat, trinzale, Sheer sort of hair-net worn at the back of the head, sometimes it was beadedHistory of Italian fashion – A dress made by Valentino for Audrey Hepburn.
92. Music history of Italy – The modern state of Italy did not come into being until 1861, though the roots of music on the Italian Peninsula can be traced back to the music of Ancient Rome. However, the underpinnings of much modern Italian music come from the Middle Ages, Italy was the site of several key musical developments in the development of the Christian liturgies in the West. Around 230, well before Christianity was legalized, the Apostolic Tradition of Hippolytus attested the singing of Psalms with refrains of Alleluia in Rome. In 386, in imitation of Eastern models, St. Ambrose wrote hymns, some of whose texts still survive, later, around 530, St. Benedict would arrange the weekly order of monastic psalmody in his Rule. Later, in the 6th century, Venantius Fortunatus created some of Christianitys most enduring hymns, including Vexilla regis prodeunt, which would later become the most popular hymn of the Crusades. Although Gregorian chant has its roots in Roman chant and is associated with Rome, it is not indigenous to Italy. Gregorian chant, which supplanted the indigenous Old Roman and Beneventan traditions, Gregorian chant later came to be strongly identified with Rome, especially as musical elements from the north were added to the Roman Rite, such as the Credo in 1014. This was part of a general trend wherein the manuscript tradition in Italy weakened, Gregorian chant supplanted all the other Western plainchant traditions, Italian and non-Italian, except for Ambrosian chant, which survives to this day. Crucial in the transmission of chant were the innovations of Guido dArezzo, whose Micrologus, written around 1020, described the musical staff, solmization, and this early form of do-re-mi created a technical revolution in the speed at which chants could be learned, memorized, and recorded. Even as the northern chant traditions were displacing indigenous Italian chant, the Albigensian Crusade, supposedly to attack Cathar heretics, brought southern France under northern French control and crushed Occitan culture and language. Most troubadours fled, especially to Spain and Italy, Italy developed its own counterparts to troubadours, called trovatori, including Sordello of Mantua. Italian secular music was largely the province of these jongleurs, troubadors, also around this time, Italian flagellants developed the Italian folk hymns known as spiritual laude. The early madrigal was simpler than the more well-known later madrigals, the caccia was often in three-part harmony, with the top two lines set to words in musical canon. The early ballata was often a poem in the form of a set to a monophonic melody. The Rossi Codex included music by Jacopo da Bologna, the first famous Trecento composer. The Ivrea Codex, dated around 1360, and the Squarcialupi Codex, dated around 1410, were sources of late Trecento music, including the music of Francesco Landini. Landinis name was attached to his characteristic Landini cadence, in which the note of the melody dips down two notes before returning, such as C-B-A-C. Trecento music influenced northern musicians such as Johannes Ciconia, whose synthesis of the French, during the 15th century, Italy entered a slow period in native composition, with the exception of a few bright lights such as the performer and anthologist Leonardo GiustinianMusic history of Italy – The Guidonian Hand
93. Postage stamps and postal history of Italy – This is an introduction to the postal and philatelic history of Italy. As Italy was not unified until 1861, its postal history is tied to the various kingdoms. The Cavallini of Sardinia was a private mail service, notable for the introduction of prepaid stamped lettersheets in 1819. The reform became law in November, and went into effect 1 January 1851, after some casting around for expertise in the newfangled art of stamp printing, the government settled on the house of Francesco Matraire in Turin. Matraire produced stamps with a profile of Victor Emmanuel II. Other states in Italy also issued stamps during the 1850s, Modena, Naples, the Papal States, Parma, Romagna, Sicily, matraires stamps were reprinted several times, and those printed after 17 March 1861 are normally considered the first stamps of Italy. Perforated stamps began in 1862 and, starting on 1 January 1863, in 1862 Count Ambjörn Sparre won the stamp contract, but his designs were not liked, and he seemed unable to produce the stamps. In danger of running out of stamps altogether, at the end of 1862 the Italian government once again turned to Matraire, who quickly produced a 15c value by lithography. Sparres contract was cancelled in March 1863, and a new contract let to the British printer De La Rue and they continued in use until the end of 1889. Italy joined the Universal Postal Union on 1 July 1875, humbert succeeded his father in 1878, which necessitated a new issue of stamps. First appearing on 15 August 1879, they were the first stamps of the kingdom to be designed, engraved. The new series incorporated rates and colors mandated by the Universal Postal Union, the worlds first official airmail stamps were issued in 1917 when Poste italiane overprinted their existing special delivery stamps. In 2007, the issue of an Italian stamp featuring the Croatian city of Rijeka caused a controversy, the stamp referred to the city in its usual Italian name of Fiume, claiming it was former Italian territory. This is seen as offensive in Croatia, revenue stamps of Italy References Sources Dehn, Roy A. Italian Stamps, a Handbook for Collectors, encyclopaedia of Postal Authorities Rossiter, Stuart & John Flower. ISBN 0-356-10862-7 Tony Claytons Stamps of Italy and Italian ColoniesPostage stamps and postal history of Italy – The first stamp of the Duchy of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, 1852, 5 centesimi
94. History of rail transport in Italy – The Italian railway system is one of the most important parts of the infrastructure of Italy, with a total length of 24,227 km. Railways were introduced in Italy when it was still a divided country, on request of the Milanese and Venetian industries, but also for the already clear military importance, construction of the Milan–Venice line was begun. In 1842 the Padua-Mestre stretch of 32 km was inaugurated, followed in 1846 by the Milan-Treviglio and Padua-Vicenza, in the Kingdom of Sardinia, King Charles Albert ordered on July 18,1844 the construction of the Turin–Genoa railway, which was inaugurated on December 6,1853. This was followed by the opening of sections which connected with France, Switzerland. A locomotive factory was founded in Genoa, in order to avoid the English monopoly in the field. In Tuscany, the Duke of Lucca signed the concession for the a Lucca–Pisa railway, while, in 1845, at the creation of the unified Kingdom of Italy, railroads in the country were the following, for a total of 2,064 km active railroads. Lines in the Papal States were still in construction, while Sicily had its first, the existing lines did not form an organized net, property of the line was statal or private, the latter in turn for private or statal use. A first organic structure began to be created in 1865 with the connections of the existing sections, in 1870 the last remnant of Papal States was also annexed to Italy, it comprised the railway connection from Rome to Frascati, Civitavecchia, Terni and Cassino. In 1872 there were in Italy about 7,000 km of railroads, entrusted to the companies in the following shares. In 1875 a proposal of the Italian government to form a company out of the existing concessionaires was refused by the Italian Parliament. This, among the other benefit, granted the fulfillment of social exigences in transportation, the Italian government was however slow to react, and only in 1878 and 1880, respectively, the largely deficitaire SFAI and SFR went under state administration. Despite this situation, in 1884 the Italian Parliament issued a study in which it was declared preferable a private administration of railways. The Convenzioni between Italy and the three main remaining private companies were signed on April 23,1884, for a period of 60 years. However, this not only failed to improve the situation of railways, hampering the economic development and tourism as well. Liabilities of the secondary lines greatly exceeded the profits from the few remaining ones, by the 1880s the Italian railways amounted to 10,510 km. The move was completed the year with the acquisition of the remaining SFM network, by then FS possessed 13,075 km of lines. A General Director was appointed, the Piedmontese engineer Riccardo Bianchi, a General Direction was created, with 13 Central Services and two General Inspectorates, based in Rome. For peripheral operations, eight Compartmental Directions were created, a capable and respected organizer, he had received a grievous heritage from the previous organizational chaosHistory of rail transport in Italy – An ETR 300 Italian fast EMU of the 1950s, used for Settebello service
95. Geography of Italy – Italy is located in southern Europe and comprises the long, boot-shaped Italian Peninsula, the southern side of Alps, the large plain of the Po Valley and some islands including Sicily and Sardinia. Corsica, although belonging to the Italian geographical region, has been a part of France since 1769, Italy is part of the Eastern Hemisphere. Its total area is 301,340 km2, of which 294,140 km2 is land and 7,200 km2 is water and it lies between latitudes 35° and 48° N, and longitudes 6° and 19° E. Italy borders with Switzerland, France, Austria and Slovenia, san Marino and Vatican city are enclaves. Including islands, Italy has a coastline of 7,600 km on the Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Ligurian Sea, Sea of Sardinia and Strait of Sicily. Almost 40% of the Italian territory is mountainous, with the Alps as the northern boundary, in between the two lies a large plain in the valley of the Po, the largest river in Italy, which flows 652 km eastward from the Cottian Alps to the Adriatic. The Po Valley is the largest plain in Italy, with 46,000 km2, the Alpine mountain range is linked with the Apennines with the Colle di Cadibona pass in the Ligurian Alps. Worldwide-known mountains in Italy are Matterhorn, Monte Rosa, Gran Paradiso in the West Alps, the highest peak in Italy is Mont Blanc, at 4,810 meters above sea level. Many elements of the Italian territory are of volcanic origin, most of the small islands and archipelagos in the south, like Capraia, Ponza, Ischia, Eolie, Ustica and Pantelleria are volcanic islands. There are also active volcanoes, Etna, in Sicily, the largest active volcano in Europe, Vulcano, Stromboli, and Vesuvius, near Naples, the only active volcano on mainland Europe. Territorial sea,12 nmi Continental shelf, 200-metre depth or to the depth of exploitation In the north of the country are a number of subalpine moraine-dammed lakes, the largest of which is Garda. Other well known of these lakes are Lake Maggiore, whose most northerly section is part of Switzerland, Como, Orta, Lugano, Iseo. Other notable lakes in the Italian peninsula are Trasimeno, Bolsena, Bracciano, Vico, Varano and Lesina in Gargano, the largest are Sicily 25,708 km2 and Sardinia 24,090 km2Geography of Italy – Italy viewed from space
96. Southern Italy – It generally coincides with the administrative regions of Abruzzo, Apulia, Basilicata, Campania, Calabria, Molise, Sicily, and Sardinia. Some also include the most southern and eastern parts of Lazio within the Mezzogiorno, Southern Italy carries a unique legacy of culture. It features many major tourist attractions, such as the Palace of Caserta, there are also many ancient Greek cities in Southern Italy, such as Sybaris, which were founded several centuries before the start of the Roman Republic. These same subdivisions are at the bottom of the Italian First level NUTS of the European Union, the term Mezzogiorno first came into use in the 18th century and is an Italian rendition of meridies. The term was popularised by Giuseppe Garibaldi and it eventually came into vogue after the Italian unification. In a similar manner, Southern France is colloquially known as le Midi, Southern Italy forms the lower part of the Italian boot, containing the ankle, the toe, the arch, and the heel, along with the island of Sicily. Separating the heel and the boot is the Gulf of Taranto, named after the city of Taranto and it is an arm of the Ionian Sea. The island of Sardinia, right below the French island of Corsica, on the eastern coast is the Adriatic Sea, leading into the rest of the Mediterranean through the Strait of Otranto. Along the northern coast of the Salernitan Gulf and on the south of the Sorrentine Peninsula runs the Amalfi Coast, off the tip of the peninsula is the isle of Capri. The climate is mainly Mediterranean, except at the highest elevations and the eastern stretches in Apulia, along the Ionian Sea in Calabria. The largest city of Southern Italy is Naples, a name from the Greek that it has maintained for millennia. Bari, Taranto, Reggio Calabria, Foggia, and Salerno are the next largest cities in the area. The region is very active and highly seismic, the 1980 Irpinia earthquake killed 2,914 people, injured more than 10,000. Also during this period, Greek colonies were established in places as widely separated as the eastern coast of the Black Sea, Eastern Libya and they included settlements in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula. The Romans called the area of Sicily and the foot of Italy, Magna Graecia, the ancient geographers differed on whether the term included Sicily or merely Apulia and Calabria—Strabo being the most prominent advocate of the wider definitions. With this colonisation, Greek culture was exported to Italy, in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its religious rites, an original Hellenic civilization soon developed, later interacting with the native Italic and Latin civilisations. Many of the new Hellenic cities became very rich and powerful, like Neapolis, Syracuse, Acragas, other cities in Magna Graecia included Tarentum, Epizephyrian Locri, Rhegium, Croton, Thurii, Elea, Nola, Syessa, Bari, and others. After Pyrrhus of Epirus failed in his attempt to stop the spread of Roman hegemony in 282 BCE, from then to the Norman conquest of the 11th century, the south of the peninsula was constantly plunged into wars between Greece, Lombardy, and the Islamic CaliphateSouthern Italy – Satellite image of Southern Italy
97. List of national parks of Italy – The Italian national parks cover about five per cent of the countrys land. The parks are managed by the Ministry of the Environment based in Rome, conservation in Italy List of regional parks of Italy Black, Charles Bertram. The Riviera, Or The Coast from Marseilles to Leghorn, Including the Interior towns of Carrara, Lucca, Pisa, london, Taylor, Garnett, Evans & Co. ENIT - Italian Government Tourist BoardList of national parks of Italy – Gennargentu National Park, Sardinia
98. Politics of Italy – Politics of Italy is conducted through a constitutional republic with a multi-party system. The executive power is exercised collectively by the Council of Ministers, legislative power is vested in the two houses of parliament primarily, and secondarily on the Council of Ministers, which can introduce bills and holds the majority in the parliament. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislative branches and it is headed by the High Council of the Judiciary. The president is the head of state, though his position is separate from all branches, the current President is Sergio Mattarella and the current Prime Minister of Italy is Paolo Gentiloni. Article 1 of the Italian Constitution states Italy is a democratic Republic founded on labour, sovereignty belongs to the people and is exercised by the people in the forms and within the limits of the Constitution. By stating that Italy is a republic, the article solemnly declares the results of the constitutional referendum which took place on 2 June 1946. The State is not a property of the ruling monarch. The people who are called to administer the republic are not owners, but servants, and the governed are not subjects. And the sovereignty, that is the power to make choices that involve the community, belongs to the people, in accordance with the concept of a democracy, from the Greek demos. This power, however, is not to be exercised arbitrarily, as the head of state, the President of the Republic represents the unity of the nation and has many of the duties previously given to the king of Italy. The President serves as a point of connection between the three branches, he is elected by the lawmakers, he appoints the executive, and is the president of the judiciary, the president is also commander-in-chief in the time of war. These delegates are elected by their respective Regional Councils so as to guarantee representation to minorities, the election needs a wide majority that is progressively reduced from two-thirds to one-half plus one of the votes after the third ballot. The only Presidents ever to be elected on the first ballot are Francesco Cossiga, mr. Ciampi was replaced by Giorgio Napolitano, who was elected on 10 May 2006. While it is not forbidden by law, no president had ever served two terms, until 20 April 2013, when president Giorgio Napolitano was re-elected. According to the Constitution, any citizen that is fifty on the day of the election, the President cannot hold office in any other branch of power, and the offices salary and privileges are established by law. The President also presides over the High Council of the Judiciary, usually, the President tries to stay out of the political debate, and to be an institutional guarantee for all those involved in the political process. The president can also reject openly anti-constitutional acts as the guardian of the Constitution of Italy, with article 48 of the Constitution, which guarantees the right to vote, the people exercise their power through their elected representatives in the Parliament. The Italian legislative branch has rights to declare war with a majority vote, the Parliament has a bicameral system, and consists of the Chamber of deputies and the Senate, elected every five yearsPolitics of Italy – Sergio Mattarella, President of Italy since 3 February 2015.
99. Constitution of Italy – The Constitution of the Italian Republic was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against. The text, which has since been amended 15 times, was promulgated in the edition of Gazzetta Ufficiale No.298 on 27 December 1947. The Constituent Assembly was elected by universal suffrage on 2 June 1946, the Constitution came into force on 1 January 1948, one century after the Statuto Albertino had been enacted. Although the latter remained in force after Benito Mussolinis March on Rome in 1922, wherever an Italian died to redeem freedom and dignity, go there young people and ponder, because that was where our Constitution was born. All the different political and social views of the Assembly contributed in shaping and influencing the final text of the Constitution and this has been repeatedly described as the constitutional compromise, and all the parties that shaped the Constitution were referred to as the arco costituzionale. These members came from all walks of life, including politicians, philosophers and partisans and it is important to note that the Constitution primarily contains general principles, it is not possible to apply them directly. As with many written constitutions, only few articles are considered to be self-executing, the majority require enabling legislation, referred to as accomplishment of constitution. This process has taken decades and some contend that, due to political considerations. While the Principles recognise a central government and the integrity of the State, they also recognise and promote local autonomies. They also promote scientific, technical and cultural development, and safeguard the environmental, historical, the State and the Church are recognised as independent and sovereign, each within its own sphere. In fact, the treaty was modified by a new agreement between church and state in 1984. The last of the Principles establishes the Italian tricolour as the Flag of Italy, green, white and red, articles 13–28 are the Italian equivalent of a bill of rights in common law jurisdictions. Every citizen is free to travel, both outside and inside the territory of the Republic, with restrictions granted only for eventual health, security, citizens have the right to freely assemble, both in private and public places, peacefully and unarmed. Notifications to the authorities is required only for meetings on public lands. The Constitution recognises the freedom of association, within the limits of criminal law, secret associations and organisations having military character are forbidden. Freedom of expression, press and religion are guaranteed in public places, for example, hate speech, calumny and obscenity in the public sphere are considered criminal offences by the Italian Criminal Code. Every citizen is protected from persecution and cannot be subjected to personal or financial burden outside of the law. The right to a trial is guaranteed, with everyone having the right to protect their rights regardless of their economic statusConstitution of Italy – The provisional head of state, Enrico De Nicola, signing the Constitution by virtue of Provision XVIII.
100. Elections in Italy – The President of the Republic is elected for a seven-year term by the two houses of Parliament in joint session. Italy has historically had many parties, both national and regional, with different party systems. The most recent Italian general election was held on 24 and 25 February 2013, on 24 April 2013, Napolitano, gave the task to form a new government to the Deputy-Secretary of the Democratic Party, Enrico Letta. On 28 April he sworn in as Prime Minister, the voter turnout in 2013 explains how the people of Italy really feel about the instability of their government. This graph shows the results of elections held in Italy from 1946 to today, with the percentages of consensus gathered by the various parties, passing your mouse over the different colored sections will display the name of the grouping and the percentage in the corresponding election. Clicking on a region will direct you to the article on the party or election selected, the constitution of Italy provides for two kinds of binding referendums. A legislative referendum can be called in order to abrogate a law totally or partially and this kind of referendum is valid only if at least a majority of electors goes to the polling station. It is forbidden to call a referendum regarding financial laws or laws relating to pardons or the ratification of international treaties, a constitutional referendum is valid no matter how many electors go to the polling station. Any citizen entitled to vote in an election to the Chamber of Deputies may participate in a referendumElections in Italy
101. Foreign relations of Italy – Foreign relations of the Italian Republic are the Italian governments external relations with the outside world. Located in Europe, Italy has been considered a major Western power since its unification in 1861 and its main allies are the NATO countries, the EU states and the G7 nations, three entities of which Italy is a founding member. Italy has a role within the Christian world because Rome is the seat of the Pope. Italy is currently commanding various multinational forces, the country plays also a significant role in former colonies and territories of the Italian Empire and is considered a key player in the Mediterranean region. The Risorgimento was the era 1830–1870 that saw the emergence of a national consciousness, italians achieved independence from Austria, the House of Bourbon and from the Pope, securing national unification. The papacy called France to resist unification, fearing that giving up control of the Papal States would weaken the Church, Italy captured Rome in 1870 and later formed the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria. Italy defeated the Ottoman Empire in 1911–1912, by 1914, Italy had acquired in Africa a colony on the Red Sea coast, a large protectorate in Somalia and administrative authority in formerly Turkish Libya. Outside of Africa, Italy possessed a small concession in Tientsin in China, Austria took the offensive against the terms of the alliance and Italy decided to take part in World War I as a principal allied power with France, the UK and Japan. During the First World War, Italy occupied southern Albania to prevent if from falling to Austria-Hungary, in 1917, it established a protectorate over Albania, which remained in place until 1920. Italy defeated the Austrian Empire in 1918 and became one of the winners of the war. The Fascist government that came to power with Benito Mussolini in 1922 sought to increase the size of the Italian empire, in 1935–36, in its second invasion of Ethiopia Italy was successful and merged its new conquest with its older east African colonies. In 1939, Italy invaded Albania and incorporated it into the Fascist state, during the Second World War, Italy formed the axis alliance with Japan and Germany and occupied several territories but was forced in the final peace to abandon all its colonies and protectorates. Following the civil war and the depression caused by World War II, Italy enjoyed an economic miracle, promoted European unity, joined NATO. Italy was granted a United Nations trust to administer Somaliland in 1950, when Somalia became independent in 1960, Italys eight-decade experience with colonialism ended. Italy leads the Uniting for Consensus and participates in prominent decision-making groups such as the EU big four, the Quint, the Historiography of Fascist Foreign Policy, Historical Journal 36#1 pp. 187–203 in JSTOR Bosworth, Richard. Italy, The Least of the Great Powers, Italian Foreign Policy Before the First World War Bosworth, Mussolini excerpt and text search Burgwyn, H. James. Italian Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period, 1918-1940 excerpt and text search Cassels, Italian Foreign Policy, 1918-1945, A Guide to Research and Research Materials Chabod, Federico. Italian Foreign Policy excerpt and text search Faherty, Douglas M. Italian Foreign Policy, Trends for the Twenty-First Century excerpt Gooch, JohnForeign relations of Italy – Italian Republic
102. Judiciary of Italy – In Italy, judges are public officials and, since they exercise one of the sovereign powers of the State, only Italian citizens are eligible for judgeship. In order to become a judge, applicants must obtain a degree of education as well as pass written. However, most training and experience is gained through the judicial organization, the potential candidates then work they way up from the bottom through promotions. Italys independent judiciary enjoys special protection from the executive branch. Once appointed, judges serve for life and cannot be removed without specific disciplinary proceedings conducted in due process before the Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura, the Ministry of Justice handles the administration of courts and judiciary, including paying salaries or constructing new courthouses. The Ministry of Justice and that of the Infrastructures fund and the Ministry of Justice, lastly, the Ministry of Justice receives and processes applications for presidential pardons and proposes legislation dealing with matters of civil or criminal justice. Note, There exist significant problems with applying non-Italian terminology and concepts related to law, for that reason, some of the words used in the rest of the article shall be defined. Appello, for almost all courts in Italy, it is possible to appeal the ruling, avvocatura dello Stato, the public organ, composed of lawyers, which represents the State, whenever it is plaintiff or defendant in a lawsuit. Cassazione, the Court of Cassazione acts as cassation jurisdictions, which means that it has jurisdiction on quashing the judgments of inferior courts if those courts misapplied law. Generally, cassation is based not on outright violations of law, cassation is not based on the facts of the case. Cassation is always open as a final recourse, codice, collection of enacted statutory law or regulations relating to a single topic. Modern Italian law codes date back to the 19th century, though all codes have since been abolished and substituted, contraddittorio Contravvenzione, lowest kind of crimes punishable by fines or at most short jail sentences. Delitto, more severe crimes, punishable by fines, prison sentences or life imprisonment, Giudice collegiale, it is important to note that, in this case, Giudice refers both to every single person composing the panel and to the panel itself. Inamovibilità, Judges cannot be removed from office, except through specific disciplinary proceedings and they may be moved or promoted only with their own will. These protections are meant to ensure that they are independent from the executive power, magistrato, general term encompassing Judges and prosecutors, the Magistratura, or judiciary, is a collective term for all judicial officers. Magistrati are government employees, but statutorily kept separate and independent from the branches of government. g. Refrain from making political statements. Magistratura amministrativa, courts of this order judge most cases against the government, Magistratura ordinaria, courts of this order judge civil and criminal casesJudiciary of Italy – Italian Court system
103. Chamber of Deputies (Italy) – The Chamber of Deputies is a house of the bicameral Parliament of Italy. The two houses form a perfect bicameral system, meaning they perform identical functions, but do so separately. Pursuant to article 56 of the Italian Constitution, the Chamber of Deputies has 630 seats, of which 618 are elected from Italian constituencies, Deputies are styled The Honourable and meet at Palazzo Montecitorio. Previously, the seat of the Chamber of Deputies of the Kingdom of Italy had been briefly at the Palazzo Carignano in Turin and the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. Under the Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini, from 1939 to 1943, the Chamber is composed of all members meeting in session at the Montecitorio. The assembly also has the right to meetings of the Government. If required, the Government is obligated to attend the session, conversely, the Government has the right to be heard every time it requires. The term of office of the House is five years,61.2 of the Constitution, states that representatives whose term has expired shall continue to exercise their functions until the first meeting of the new Chamber. An extension of the term, provided for by art,60.2, can be enacted only in case of war. Election of members to the Chamber of Deputies is by voluntary, universal, terms last for a total of five years, unless an early dissolution of the Chamber is called by the President of the Republic, at which point a snap election is held. Unlike the Senate, which members to be 40 years of age. The current system for elections to the Chamber of Deputies has been in operation since 2015, the territory of Italy is divided into 100 constituencies electing between 3 and 9 deputies depending on their size. For each constituency, the parties designate a list of candidates, head of list candidates can run in up to 10 constituencies, if two preference votes are expressed, they must be of a different sex, otherwise, the second preference is discarded. Only parties passing a 3% minimum threshold in the first round are assigned seats, if the party receiving the plurality of the votes passes a 40% threshold, it is attributed a minimum of 340 seats. The remaining 277 seats are allocated to the other parties using the largest remainder method. This provision was however rendered null and void by a Constitutional Courts judgment in January 2017, the President of the Chamber of Deputies performs the role of speaker of the house and is elected during the first session after the election. During this time the prerogatives of speaker are assumed by the vicepresident of Chamber of Deputies of the legislature who was elected first. If two were elected simultaneously, the oldest deputy serves as president of Chamber of Deputies, the President of Chamber of Deputies has also the role of President during the Parliament joint sessions, when the upper and lower houses have to vote togetherChamber of Deputies (Italy)
104. Senate of the Republic (Italy) – The Senate of the Republic is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament. The two houses form a perfect bicameral system, meaning they perform identical functions, but do so separately. Members of the Senate are styled Senator or The Honourable Senator and they meet at Palazzo Madama, the Senate consists of 315 elected members, and as of 2016 five senators for life. The elected senators must be over 40 years of age and are elected by Italian citizens aged 25 or older, the Senate is elected on a regional basis. The 309 senators are assigned to each region according to their population. However, Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than seven senators representing it, except for the Aosta Valley and Molise. The five current life senators are, The current term of the Senate is five years, until a Constitutional change on February 9,1963, the Senate was elected for six-year terms. The Senate may be dissolved before the expiration of its normal term by the President of the Republic, in 2016, Italian Parliament passed a constitutional law that effectively abolishes the Senate as an elected chamber and sharply restricts its ability to veto legislation. The law was rejected on December 4,2016 by a referendum, the election of the Senate is still regulated by Law no. 270, December 21,2005, which however was judged to be partly unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court in December 2013, in each Region, except for three, at least 55% of the seats are assigned to the coalition or list which received the most votes. The Aosta Valley elects one senator, so it uses a first past the post system, Molise elects two senators with a proportional system. Trentino-South Tyrol uses a mixed member system, it elects 6 senators in first past the post constituencies. That session, presided by the oldest senator, proceeds to elect the President of the Senate for the parliamentary period. On the first two attempts at voting, a majority of all senators is needed, if a third round is needed. If this third round fails to produce a winner, a ballot is held between the two senators with the highest votes in the previous ballot. In the case of a tie, the senator is deemed the winner. The current President of the Senate is Pietro Grasso, recent Presidents of the Italian Senate, Since 1871, the Senate has met in Palazzo Madama in Rome, an old patrician palace completed in 1505 for the Medici family. The palace takes its name from Madama Margherita of Austria, daughter of Charles V, after the extinction of the Medici, the palace was handed over to the House of LorraineSenate of the Republic (Italy)
105. Council of Ministers (Italy) – The Council of Ministers is the principal executive organ of the Government of Italy. It comprises the President of the Council, all the ministers, junior ministers are part of the government, but are not members of the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers origins date to the production of the Albertine Statute by the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1848, currently the Council of Ministers is governed by the Constitution and Law no.400 of 23 August 1988. All powers of the Council of Ministers rest in the hands of the President of Italy until the ministers assume their offices, the Presidents of the Regions with Special Statute have the right to participate in sessions of the Council of Ministers in matters relevant to them are discussed. Before assuming power, the Prime Minister and the Ministers must take an oath of office according to the laid out in Article 1.3 of Law no. The oath expresses the necessity of trust which is incumbent on all citizens, the Council of Ministers is the principal holder of executive power in the Italian system - that is, the power to put a decision of the Italian political process into effect. In relation to the Parliament, the relationship of trust is crucial, for the Council of Ministers and the Prime Minister to continue in office, they must retain the political support of both chambers of Parliament. The relationship of trust is the core of the Italian parliamentary system, the President of the Republic has the power to appoint the Prime Minister and the ministers. The regular judiciary is organised from a point of view by the Minister of Justice. As the main organ of the power, the Council of Ministers primary role is the actualisation of national political decisions. The Constitution provides it with the means of doing this, Legislative initiative. Frequent use of the power has seen substantial legislative power shift from Parliament to the Council. Regulatory power, The ministers have two distinct but co-existing roles, as administrators, the Council and the individual ministers can produce regulations, which are legal implements subordinate to legislation. Thus, regulations which contradict legislation are illegitimate and can be set aside by ordinary judges, the current Italian government is led by Paolo Gentiloni. As of December 2016, the government has 16 Ministers, of three are without portfolioCouncil of Ministers (Italy) – Italian Republic
106. Metropolitan cities of Italy – The metropolitan city is an administrative division of Italy, operative since 2015. In 2009, amendments added Reggio Calabria to the list, the metropolitan areas individuated by the autonomous regions were, Trieste in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Cagliari in Sardinia, Catania, Messina and Palermo in Sicily. On 3 April 2014 the Italian Parliament approved a law that establishes 10 metropolitan cities in Italy, the new metropolitan cities have been operative since 1 January 2015. The metropolitan city is composed by the municipalities that before had been members of the same province, each metropolitan city is headed by a metropolitan mayor assisted by a legislative body, the Metropolitan council, and by a non-legislative assembly, the metropolitan conference. Members of the Metropolitan council are elected and chosen by mayors and city councilors of each municipality in the metropolitan city, the metropolitan conference is composed by the mayors of the municipalities closest to the capital. The main functions devolved to the new cities are, local planning and zoning, provision of local police services, transport. Regions of Italy Provinces of Italy Municipalities of Italy Media related to Metropolitan cities of Italy at Wikimedia CommonsMetropolitan cities of Italy – Metropolitan cities of Italy.
107. Economy of Italy – The economy of Italy is the 3rd-largest national economy in the eurozone, the 8th-largest by nominal GDP in the world, and the 12th-largest by GDP. The country is a member of the European Union, the Eurozone, the OECD, the G7. Italy is the eighth largest exporter in the world with $514 billion exported in 2016 and its closest trade ties are with the other countries of the European Union, with whom it conducts about 59% of its total trade. The largest trading partners, in order of market share, are Germany, France, United States, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and Spain. According to the Human Development Index, the country enjoys a high standard of living. Italy owns the worlds third-largest gold reserve, and is the third net contributor to the budget of the European Union, Italy is the largest market for luxury goods in Europe and the countrys private wealth is one of the largest in the world. Despite these important achievements, the economy today suffers from structural and non-structural problems. After strong GDP growth in 1945–1990, the last two decades average annual growth rates lagged below the EU average, moreover, Italy was hit hard by the late-2000s recession. The stagnation in economic growth, and the efforts to revive it with massive government spending from the 1980s onwards. After the unification, industrialization was largely artisanal, and located in the former political capitals, the resulting Italian diaspora concerned nearly 26 million Italians, the most part immigrated in the period 1880–1914, and it is considered the biggest mass migration of contemporary times. During the Great War, the Italian Royal Army increased in size and this came at a terrible cost, by the end of the war, Italy had lost 700,000 soldiers and had a budget deficit of billions of lira. Italy emerged from World War I in a poor and weakened condition, the National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini came to power in 1922, at the end of a period of social unrest. However, once Mussolini acquired a firmer hold of power, laissez-faire and free trade were progressively abandoned in favour of government intervention, in 1929, Italy was hit hard by the Great Depression. A number of mixed entities were formed, whose purpose it was to bring representatives of the government. These representatives discussed economic policy and manipulated prices and wages so as to both the wishes of the government and the wishes of business. This economic model based on a partnership between government and business was extended to the political sphere, in what came to be known as corporatism. At the same time, the foreign policy of Mussolini led to an increasing military expenditure. After the invasion of Ethiopia, Italy intervened to support Francos nationalists in the Spanish Civil War, by 1939, Italy had the highest percentage of state-owned enterprises after the Soviet UnionEconomy of Italy – Milan is the financial centre of Italy
108. Economy of Milan – Milan is one of the EUs and the worlds major financial and business centres, with the Milan metropolitan area having a 2004 GDP of €241.2 billion, which means that it has Europes 4th highest GDP. This means that, if Milan were a country, it would have the worlds 28th largest economy, Milan is the 2nd richest European Union City, after Paris. The city has a GDP of $115 billion, making it the worlds 26th richest city by purchasing power. Also, the hinterland is Italys largest industrial area. Milan, also, has one of Italys highest GDP, about €35,137, which is 161. 6% of the EU average GDP per capita. Major fashion houses and labels, such as Versace, Gucci, Armani, Valentino, Prada, Dolce & Gabbana, Moschino and Missoni are headquartered in Milan, which greatly contribute to the citys economy. Milan was, in the late 12th century, a wealthy and industrious city, as the production of armours and wool, the city experienced a strong flow of immigrants, and became a major international and cosmopolitan centre for expatriate employees. A study showed that by the late-1990s, more than 10% of the workers were foreigners. In January 2008, according to ISTAT statistics, it was estimated that 181,393 foreign-born immigrants lived in the city, representing 13. 9% of the total population. Milan had an industrial and economic production after the war, however, it fell slightly in the late 1990s and early 2000s. The bulk of the plastic, chemicals and mechanics industries show a downward trend, publishing production decreased by -2. 6%, while the wood-processing industry production decreased by -1. 2%. In contrast, despite a decrease in production, Milan has had a rapid and strong growth in the tertiary and quaternary sectors, with logistics and transport. Milan also has an important role in production and publishing. It is the most important city in the nation for publishing, banks throughout Italy went through many changes in the late 1800s to early 1900s. One of the Milanese banks, the SBI, had many issues resolving its resources and it did not have support from foreign banks nor enough savings domestically. Other banks during this time in Italy, specifically during the 1907 international crisis, had high liquid assets, a group of industrialists and bankers from Milan transformed the banking institute Figli di Weil Schott e C. into the Società Bancaria Milanese. Most traditional industries have relocated to other locations other than cities or have closed down since the late 1970s in Italy. However, Milan, became Italys most successful postindustrial city, milans service sector has benefited from the efficiency of the citys banks and the stock market, the Borsa Italiana located in Piazza degli Affari in the centre of the city. The majority of the services revolve around the Fashion industry, there are specialties in the city in furniture design, graphic design, among other specialtiesEconomy of Milan – Borsa Italiana, the Stock Exchange in Milan
109. Economy of Rome – Rome is a major EU and international financial, cultural and a business centre. Romes trade is 0. 001% of world economic trade, Rome grows +4. 4% annually and continues to grow at a higher rate in comparison to any other city in the rest of the country. This means that were Rome a country, it would be the worlds 52nd richest country by GDP, near to the size to that of Egypt. Rome also had a 2003 GDP per capita of €29,153, which was second in Italy, and is more than 134. 1% of the EU average GDP per capita. Rome is currently a world city, along with other metropoleis such as Berlin and Montreal. Rome was in 2008, also ranked 15th out of all the cities of the world for global importance, ancient Rome commanded a vast area of land, with tremendous natural and human resources. As such, Romes economy remained focused on farming and trade, agricultural free trade changed the Italian landscape, and by the 1st century BC, vast grape and olive estates had supplanted the yeoman farmers, who were unable to match the imported grain price. The annexation of Egypt, Sicily and Tunisia in North Africa provided a supply of grains. In turn, olive oil and wine were Italys main exports, two-tier crop rotation was practiced, but farm productivity was overall low, around 1 ton per hectare. Some economists like Peter Temin consider the Roman Empire a market economy, similar in its degree of capitalistic practices to 17th century Netherlands and 18th century England. After the Decline of the Roman Empire, Rome fell into decay, with its ex-economic and political power passing on to other cities, such as Milan, Florence, Venice and Palermo. Even though Rome still had the pope, the city ceased to be a major centre for commerce, trade. The Roman economy, however, boomed in the 16th and 17th centuries, especially when the Medici popes Leo X and Clement VII were in power. The renaissance transformed Rome into a city of the arts, culture, politics, banking, commerce and trade, especially when the Florentine merchants involved in papal affairs, yielded huge profits. Rome grew momentously after the war, as one of the forces behind the Italian economic miracle of post-war reconstruction and modernisation. Among the most significant resources, plenty of museums - — aqueducts, fountains, churches, palaces, historical buildings, the monuments and ruins of the Roman Forum, and the Catacombs. Rome is the 3rd most visited city in the EU, after London and Paris, and receives an average of 7-10 million tourists a year, the Colosseum and the Vatican Museums are the 39th and 37th most visited places in the world, according to a recent study. In 2005 the city registered 19.5 million of global visitors, in 2006 Rome has been visited by 6.03 million of international tourists, reaching the 8th place in the ranking of the worlds 150 most visited citiesEconomy of Rome – Night view of the Trajan's Market which was built by Apollodorus of Damascus
110. Automotive industry in Italy – The automotive industry in Italy is a quite large employer in the country, it had over 2,131 firms and employed almost 250,000 people in 2006. Italys automotive industry is best known of its designs and small city cars, sports. The automotive industry makes a contribution of 8. 5% to Italian GDP, Italy is one of the significant automobile producers in Europe and the World. Today the Italian automotive industry is almost totally dominated by Fiat Group, as well as its own, predominantly mass market model range, Fiat owns the upmarket Alfa Romeo and Lancia brands and the exotic Ferrari and Maserati. Italian cars won in the European Car of the Year annual award one of the most times among other countries and in World Car of the Year award also. The Italian automotive industry started in the late 1880s, with the Stefanini-Martina regarded as the first manufacturer although Enrico Bernardi had built a petrol fueled tri-cycle in 1884. I. A. T. The Welleyes / F. I. A. T4 HP had a 679 cc engine and was capable of 35 km/h, isotta Fraschini was founded in 1900, at first assembling Renault model automobiles. T. A. R. During the first and the second World Wars and the crisis of the 1970s. In the 1960s and 1970s Italy restored own large auto industry that was 3rd or 4th in Europe, in 1980s Italy overtook the United Kingdom but has conceded to Soviet Union that, like Spain, Poland and Yugoslavia, found large-volume production of cars by Italian FIAT help. The 1970s and 1980s were a time of change for the car industry in Europe. Rear-wheel drive, particularly on family cars, gradually gave way to front-wheel drive, the hatchback bodystyle, first seen on the Renault 16 from France in 1965, became the most popular bodystyle on smaller cars by the mid-1980s. Fiat moved into the market at the small car end in 1971 with the 127 hatchback. By the end of the decade, the more upmarket Alfa Romeo, the Uno was one of the most popular cars in Europe throughout its production life, although the Tipo was not so popular outside Italy. In 1990s Italian auto industry became again 3rd in Europe and 5th in World with annual output near 2 million, but in 2011 it fell below 800,000 for the first time in half a century and is now 8th place in Europe and 21st place in the World. Fiats fortunes have been helped since 2007 by the huge success across Europe of its new Fiat 500 city car, although the 500 is manufactured in Poland and Mexico, rather than in Italy. Italian motor vehicle production Italian automobile manufacturers include, Defunct manufacturers, List of Italian companies List of automobile companies founded by the Ceirano brothersAutomotive industry in Italy – Fiat 4 HP (1899) is the first model of car produced by Fiat.
111. Taxation in Italy – Taxation in Italy is levied by the central and regional governments and is collected by the Italian Agency of Revenue. Total tax revenue in 2012 was 44. 4% of the GDP, the total tax receipts in 2013 were €782 billion. The most important revenue sources are income tax, social security, corporate tax and the value added tax, personal income taxation in Italy is progressive. Employment income is subject to an income tax applying to all workers. The area exempt from Irpef increases further if there are dependent family members, the corporate income tax in Italy is 24% since 1.1.2017. Some corporations are exempted from tax, such as charitable foundations, church institutions. Value added tax is a tax at a standard rate of 22%. Reduced VAT rates apply at 10% for pharmaceuticals, passenger transport, admission to cultural and entertainment events, hotels, restaurants and 4% on foodstuffs, medical, the Italian VAT is part of the European Union value added tax system. Social security contributions apply to everyone in the workforce, employers withhold 9. 19% of the employees wage and the employer contributes 34. 08% of gross pay. Self-employed individuals must enrol with the Gestione Separata, unless specific rules apply. The contributions to the INPS are calculated at a rate ranging from 18% to 27. 72% on annual income up to a maximum income of €96,149 in 2012. Italy has the largest number of tax evaders in Europe, counting, according to the estimated figures. On the other hand, the problem is the best way to ensure the right of defense from the tax claim of the State, eight per thousand How to, Register the VAT number in Italy How to calculate your net salary in ItalyTaxation in Italy – Taxation
112. Capital punishment in Italy – The use of capital punishment in Italy has been banned since 1889, with the exception of the period 1926-1947, encompassing the rule of Fascism in Italy and the early restoration of democracy. Before the unification of Italy in 1860, capital punishment was performed in almost all states, except for Tuscany. It is currently out of use as a result of the adoption of the current constitution, so Tuscany was the first modern European state in the world to do away with torture and capital punishment. Afterwards the death penalty was abolished in the Penal Code in 1889 with the almost unanimous approval of both Houses of Parliament under suggestion of Minister Zanardelli. However executions in Italy had not been carried out since 1877, ironically, as a result of this pardon, Gaetano Bresci could not be sentenced to death after he assassinated Umberto I in 1900. The death penalty was still present in military and colonial penal codes, the Rocco Code added more crimes to the list of those punishable with the death penalty, and reintroduced capital punishment for some common crimes. The last people executed for crimes were three Sicilian robbers, also convicted of murder, who battered and threw into a well ten people on a farm near Villarbasse in 1945. The president, Enrico de Nicola, declined to pardon them and this was the last execution in Italy. The Italian Constitution, approved on December 27,1947 and in force since January 1,1948, completely abolished the death penalty for all common military and this measure was implemented by the legislative decree 22/48 of January 22,1948. In 2007 a constitutional amendment was adopted, article 27 of Italian Constitution was changed to fully ban the death penalty. Prior to abolition, the penalty was sanctioned in article 21 of the Italian penal code. It stated that Death penalty is to be carried out by shooting inside a penitentiary or in any other place suggested by the Ministry of Justice, the execution is not public, unless the Ministry of Justice determines otherwise. A draft law to ratify the 13th Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights had been approved by the Senate on October 9,2008 and it was ratified on March 3,2009. Fewer than half of Italians approved of the 2006 execution of Saddam Hussein, Italy proposed the UN moratorium on the death penalty, which urges states to establish a moratorium on executions with a view toward abolition and urged states around the world to approve it. The former Italian Foreign Minister Massimo DAlema also stated that the step was to work on abolishing the death penalty. The 2008 European Values Study found that 62. 6% of respondents in Italy said that the penalty can never be justified. Cesare Beccaria Death penalty in Pre-unitarian ItalyCapital punishment in Italy – Execution of capital punishment by guillotine in 1868, shortly after the birth of modern Italy. It was subsequently abolished in 1889 and only revived under Italian Fascism.
113. Corruption in Italy – Corruption in Italy is a major problem. In Transparency Internationals annual surveys, Italy has consistently been regarded as the most corrupt country in the Eurozone, according to 2016 results of Corruption Perception Index of Transparency International, Italy ranks 60th place out of 176 countries. Corruption costs Italy a reported €60 billion a year, which amount to four percent of its GDP, on the 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index, Italy took 61st place out of 174 countries, scoring on a par with Senegal, Montenegro, and South Africa. Political corruption remains a major problem particularly in Southern Italy including Calabria, parts of Campania, political parties are ranked the most corrupt institution in Italy, closely followed by public officials and Parliament, according to Transparency Internationals Global Corruption Barometer 2013. Regarding business and corruption, foreign investments and economic growth are hindered by organized crime, Business executives from World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014 consider corruption one of the problems for doing business in Italy. Procurement process, mainly in water, roads and railway projects, Italian culture has been described as being characterized by “an ambiguous attitude to graft. “Many Italians, ” maintained a 2010 report, have accepted corruption, the Mafia plays a key role in both public and private corruption. Arising “out of business deals, ” as Forbes put it, the Mafia historically “acted as a guarantor for contracts, until relatively recent history, almost every deal in the country was enforced by a ‘man of honor. Similarly, the 2009 LAquila earthquake, in which over 300 people died, was described as a reminder to Italians of the risks they take by tolerating a corrupt political system. A 1992–94 corruption scandal called Tangentopoli, uncovered by the so-called Mani pulite investigation, “rocked Italy to its core”, but the probes “fizzled out” and afterwards the bribery just got worse. The political impact of Mani Pulite remains the worst scandal of all modern Italy, the public outrage over the corruption led to “the sudden extinction of five different political factions that had controlled Italys government since 1946. A new political establishment took their place, but corruption resumed, one target of the 1992 through 1994 corruption probes was Gianstefano Frigerio, then a Christian Democrat MP. During 1992–94, he was the defendant in four trials, one case fell afoul of the statute of limitations, but in the remaining three cases he was found guilty. He managed to have his six-year prison sentence reduced, then turned into a community service sentence and he was then re-elected to parliament in 2001, and arrested again in 2014 for participation in the massive corruption scheme surrounding the Expo in Milan. It is widely believed that two judges, Paolo Borsellino and Giovanni Falcone, were murdered in 1992 because of their efforts to punish corrupt ties between Mafia and politicians, in 2012, 65% of Italians told Transparency International that they thought corruption had intensified during the previous three years. In April 2016, Italian Supreme Court judge Piercamillo Davigo, who had prosecuted widespread political corruption in the 1990s, “The politicians haven’t stopped stealing, they’ve stopped being ashamed of it, ” he said. “Now they blatantly claim a right to do what they used to do secretly. ”Nicola Gratteri, a 2013 report in The Guardian identified “Organised crime and corruption” as one of six problems currently facing Italy. The Mafia, once confined largely to the south, now operated nationwide, and had spread beyond drug trafficking and prostitution to transport, public health, since 2000, Italy has experienced perceived corruption levels on par with Post-Soviet, Eastern European transition nationsCorruption in Italy – Political corruption
114. Demographics of Italy – However the distribution of the population is widely uneven. In addition, after centuries of net emigration, from the 1980s Italy has experienced large-scale immigration for the first time in modern history, according to the Italian government, there were an estimated 5,000,073 foreign nationals resident in Italy. High fertility and birth rates persisted until the 1970s, after which they started to dramatically decline, at the end of the first decade of the 21st century, one in five Italians was over 65 years old. However, as a result of the immigration of the last two decades, in recent years Italy experienced a significant growth in birth rates. The total fertility rate has climbed from an all-time low of 1.18 children per woman in 1995 to 1.41 in 2008. Since the 1984 Lateran Treaty agreement, Italy has no official religion, however, it recognizes the role the Catholic Church plays in Italian society. 87. 8% of the population identify as Catholic,5. 8% as non-believers or atheists,2. 6% as Muslims, about 68% of Italian population is classified as urban, a relatively low figure among developed countries. However, none of these new local authorities has yet fully operative. Between 1898 and 1914, the years of Italian diaspora. Italian communities once thrived in the former African colonies of Eritrea, Somalia, all of Libyas Italians were expelled from the North African country in 1970. In addition, after the annexation of Istria in 1945, up to 350,000 ethnic Italians left Titoist Yugoslavia. Today, large numbers of people with full or significant Italian ancestry are found in Brazil, Argentina, US, France, Venezuela, Uruguay, Canada, the official figures also exclude illegal immigrants, the so-called clandestini, whose numbers are very difficult to determine. In May 2008 The Boston Globe quoted an estimate of 670,000 for this group, the second most important area of immigration to Italy has always been the neighbouring North Africa, with soaring arrivals as a consequence of the Arab Spring. Furthermore, in recent years, growing migration fluxes from the Far East, the number of unregistered Romanians is difficult to estimate, but the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network suggested that in 2007 that there might have been half a million or more. Overall, at the end of the 2000s the foreign population of Italy was from, Europe, Africa, Asia. The distribution of immigrants is largely uneven in Italy,84. 9% of immigrants live in the northern and central parts of the country, while only 15. 1% live in the southern half of the peninsula. Ethnologue has estimated there are about 55 million speakers of the language in Italy. However, between 120 and 150 million people use Italian as a second or cultural language, worldwide and its development was also influenced by the Germanic languages of the post-Roman invadersDemographics of Italy – Rome Milan
115. Higher education in Italy – Higher education in Italy is mainly provided by a large and international network of public and state affiliated universities. State-run universities of Italy are under the supervision of Italians Ministry of Education, there is also a number of private universities and state-run post-secondary educational centers providing a vocational instruction. Italian universities are among the oldest universities in the world, in particular the University of Bologna, the University of Padua, founded in 1222, and the University of Naples, founded in 1224, are among the most ancient state universities in Europe. Most universities in Italy are state-supported, Universities in Italy fits the framework of the Bologna Process since the adoption, in 1999, of the so-called 3+2 system. The first level degree is the Laurea triennale that can be achieved three years of studies. Selected students can complete their studies in the following step. The Laurea triennale corresponds roughly to a Bachelor Degree while the Laurea Magistrale corresponds to a Master Degree, only the Laurea Magistrale grants access to third cycle programmes, that last 2 to 5 years. However, there is just a unique five-year degree Laurea Magistrale Quinquennale for some such as Law, Arts. Medical schools are part of universities and they only offer six-year courses. The title for MA/MFA/MD/MEd graduate students is Dottore and this title is not to be confused with the PhD and Post-MA graduates, whose title is Dottore di Ricerca. Universities in Italy can be divided into 4 groups, state-funded public universities, Universities funded by other public authority, this is the case of the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano. Private universities officially recognized by the Ministry of Education, Superior graduate schools, which focus only on postgraduate education. e. Research Doctorate or Doctor Philosophiae i. e. Ph. D. and are recognized by the Ministry of Education, Universities, some of them also organize courses Masters degree, individually, or jointly with the universities with whom they work. There are three Superior Graduate Schools with university status, three institutes with the status of Doctoral Colleges, which function at graduate and post-graduate level, nine further schools are direct offshoots of the universities. The first one is the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, taking the model of organization from the famous École Normale Supérieure and these institutions are commonly referred to as Schools of Excellence. Higher education in Italy is mainly covered by universities and superior graduate schools and this is considered a weak point of the Italian post-secondary education. However, Italian system provides a few schools and courses. There are two main vocational paths after having obtained a degree, those courses called Istruzione e Formazione Tecnica SuperioreHigher education in Italy – University of Bologna, Italy and Europe's oldest university, founded in 1088
116. Italian diaspora – The Italian diaspora is the large-scale emigration of Italians from Italy. There are two major Italian diasporas in Italian history, the first diaspora began in 1861 with the Unification of Italy and ended in the 1920s with the rise of the Italian Fascism. The second diaspora started after the end of World War II, between the period of 1880 and 1976, the largest voluntary emigration in documented history, with about 13 million Italians leaving the country. By 1978, it was estimated that about 25 million Italians were residing outside of Italy, the Italian Diaspora, a large-scale migration of Italians away from Italy during the 19th and 20th centuries, occurred in three different waves. Poverty was the reason for the diaspora, specifically the lack of land as property became subdivided over generations. Secondary reasons for the diaspora include internal political and economic problems, Italy was until the 1860s a partially rural society where land management practices, especially in the South and North-East, did not easily convince farmers to stay on the land and work the soil. Another characteristic was related to the overpopulation of southern Italy after the improvements of the socio-economic conditions, indeed, southern Italian families after 1861 started to have access to hospitals, improved hygienic conditions and normal food supply. This created a boom and forced the new generations to emigrate en masse at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. Between 1861 and 1985,29,036,000 Italians immigrated to other countries, about 10,275,000 returned to Italy while 18,761,000 permanently settled abroad. In 2011 in the world there were 4,115,235 Italian citizens living outside Italy and several tens of millions of descendants of Italians, who emigrated in the last two centuries. The breakdown of feudalism, however, and redistribution of land did not necessarily lead to small farmers in the winding up with land of their own or land they could work. Many remained landless, and plots grew smaller and smaller and so less and less productive as land was subdivided among heirs, between 1860 and World War I,9,000,000 Italians left, most from the south and most going to North or South America. It has been termed persistent and path-dependent emigration flow, friends and relatives who left first sent back money for tickets and helped relatives as they arrived. That tended to support an emigration flow since even improving conditions in the country took a while to trickle down to potential emigrants to convince them not to leave. Examples of such restrictions in the United States were the Emergency Quota Act of 1921, restrictive legislation to limit emigration from Italy was introduced by the fascist government of the 1920s and 30s. The Italian diaspora did not affect all regions of the nation equally, robert Foerster, in Italian Emigration of our Times says, … well nigh expulsion, it has been exodus, in the sense of depopulation, it has been characteristically permanent. The south lacked entrepreneurs, and absentee landlords were common, although owning land was the basic yardstick of wealth, farming there was socially despised. People invested not in agricultural equipment but in things as low-risk state bondsItalian diaspora – Italian emigrants leaving Italy in the 1890s.
117. Feminism in Italy – Feminism in Italy originated during the Italian renaissance period, beginning in the late 13th century. Italian writers such as Christine de Pizan, Moderata Fonte, Lucrezia Marinella, in contrast to feminist movements in France and United Kingdom, early womens rights advocates in Italy emphasized womens education and improvement in social conditions. Italian feminism suffered a setback under the fascist government of Benito Mussolini in the first half of the twentieth century, in the post-war period, feminist movements surged, with public activism over issues such as divorce and abortion during the 1970s. Renaissance thinkers regularly challenged conventional wisdom from the Medieval period and earlier, humanism became the new way of looking at politics, science, the arts, education, and other fields. Humanism pushed aside the Medieval Christian concept of a social order that placed regular citizens in a subservient position relative to members of the clergy. The Renaissance man was the ideal to emulate, however, she tempered her assertions by writing that men were created to rule, and women to follow. Renaissance Italy saw the development of education, including the establishment of several universities. Some fortunate women who could afford it were able to gain an education on their own, the rare Renaissance man who supported education for women saw it as a way of improving her virtue, and to make her more obedient to her husband. Education intended to create leaders was seen as wasted on women, outside of a convent setting, where they had been confined during the Middle Ages, educated women were stepping out into the secular intellectual arena. From the Renaissance and continuing into the Early Modern era, they hosted salons, where men and women of intellect mingled and discussed literature, politics, and other influential topics. By the late 16th and early 17th century, women writers presented themselves and were embraced by contemporary culture as learned wives, mothers, by the late Renaissance, educated Italian women were writing in every conceivable genre, from domestic correspondence to poetry, dialogues and even theology. At a time when most women belonged to the peasant class, educated women who could read and write about feminisms various aspects were in an isolated position. In order to gain supporters for feminist causes, an appeal to women at all levels of society was needed, beginning in the mid-19th century, enterprising women began to reach out to middle-class women through new print media, mass-market books and periodicals. Italys Casati Law of 1859 set the groundwork for a system to train women as teachers in public schools. Anna Maria Mozzoni triggered a widespread movement in Italy through the publication of Woman. Women who had participated in the unification struggles were dissatisfied with the contained in the Republic of Italys new Civil Code. Mozzonis book raised awareness of injustices in Italys family law that discriminated against women, Mozzoni campaigned against state regulation of prostitution. She also translated On the Subjugation of Women by John Stuart Mill into Italian, in 1881, to promote womens suffrage, she founded the League for the Promotion of the Interests of Women in MilanFeminism in Italy – The Virgin Reading (1505–10), by Vittore Carpaccio. Literacy spread among upper class women in Italy during the Renaissance.
118. Immigration to Italy – Immigration to Italy occurs from a variety of countries. As of 1 January 2015, there were 5,014,437 foreign nationals resident in Italy and this amounted to 8. 2% of the countrys population and represented an increase of 92,352 over the previous year. These figures include children born in Italy to foreign nationals, but exclude foreign nationals who have subsequently acquired Italian nationality and they also exclude illegal immigrants whose numbers are difficult to determine. In May 2008, The Boston Globe quoted an estimate of 670,000 for this group, the children born in Italy to foreign mothers were 102.000 in 2012,99.000 in 2013 and 97.000 in 2014. Many illegal immigrants from Africa make the boat journey across the Mediterranean Sea to Italy. Once in Italy, immigrants seeking asylum often are unable to due to the Dublin Regulation requirement that they stay in the first country where they are processed. About a million Romanians, around 10% of them being Roma, are registered as living in Italy. As of 2013, the foreign born population origin was subdivided as follows, Europe, Africa, Asia, America, and Oceania. Many immigration patterns to Italy have been noted, most for work purposes, due to this booming economy, the European nations began to seek manpower for their workforce, and began looking to migrant workers. In Italy, the first waves of migrant workers began in the 1970s when many migrant workers sought easy to find, another wave of the earliest groups to travel to Italy were the Filipino. Many women came to Italy to work in domestic and care-taker jobs in order to provide for their families back home. Since the early 2000s, the island of Lampedusa has become a prime transit point for immigrants and asylum seekers from Africa. In 2004, the Libyan and Italian governments reached an agreement that obliged Libya to accept those deported from Italian territories. This resulted in the return of many people from Lampedusa to Libya between 2004 and 2005 without the endorsement of European Parliament. By 2006, many immigrants were paying people smugglers in Libya to help get them to Lampedusa by boat, on arrival, most were then transferred by the Italian government to reception centres in mainland Italy. Many were then released because their deportation orders were not enforced, in 2009, the overcrowded conditions at the islands temporary immigrant reception centre came under criticism by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. The unit, which was built for a maximum capacity of 850 people, was reported to be housing nearly 2,000 boat people. A significant number of people were sleeping outdoors under plastic sheeting, a fire started as an inmate riot destroyed a large portion of the holding facility on 19 February 2009Immigration to Italy – Senegalese workers at the Potato festival in Vimercate (Lombardy) in 2015
119. Nobility of Italy – They often held lands as fiefs and were sometimes endowed with hereditary titles or nobiliary particles. From the Middle Ages until 1861, Italy was not a country but was a number of separate kingdoms and other states. These were often related through marriage to other and to other European royal families. Before Italian Unification there was a relatively large nobility in Italy, there were also families which had been part of Italian nobility for many decades or even centuries. These families freely intermarried with aristocratic nobility, like other noble families, those with both papal power and money were able to purchase comunes or other tracts of land and elevate family patriarchs and other relatives to noble titles. Hereditary patriarchs were appointed Duke, Marquis and even Prince of various 16th-, according to Ranke, Popes commonly elevated members of prominent families to the position of Cardinal, especially second and third sons who would not otherwise inherit hereditary titles. Popes also elevated their own family members – especially nephews – to the position of Cardinal-Nephew. The period was famous for papal nepotism and many families, such as the Barberini and Pamphili, modern Italy is dotted with the fruits of their success – various family palazzi remain standing today as a testament to their sometimes meteoric rise to power. The architect of Italian unification was Count Camillo Benso di Cavour, rome itself remained for a further decade under the Papacy, and became part of the Kingdom of Italy only in 1870. Those nobles who maintained allegiance to the pope became known as the Black Nobility, after the unification, the kings of Italy continued to create titles of nobility to eminent Italians, this time with a validity for all of the Italian territory. For example, General Enrico Cialdini was created Duca di Gaeta for his role during the unification, the practice continued until the 20th century, when nominations would be made by the Prime Minister of Italy and approved by the Crown. In the aftermath of the First World War, most Italians who were ennobled received their titles through the patronage of the Mussolini government, examples include General Armando Diaz, Admiral Paolo Thaon di Revel, Commodore Luigi Rizzo, Costanzo Ciano, Dino Grandi and Cesare Maria de Vecchi. Many of these were victory titles for services rendered to the nation in the Great War, the writer and aviator Gabriele dAnnunzio was created Principe di Montenevoso in 1924, and the physicist, inventor, and Nobel laureate Guglielmo Marconi was also ennobled in 1924 as Marchese Marconi. In 1937, Ettore Tolomei was ennobled as Conte della Vetta, after the successful Italian invasion of Abyssinia, the Mussolini government recommended further Italians to the king for titles of nobility. For example, Marshal Pietro Badoglio was created Marchese del Sabotino and later Duke of Addis Abeba, in 1946, the Kingdom of Italy was replaced by a republic. Under the Italian Constitution adopted in 1948, titles of nobility are not legally recognised, certain predicati recognised before 1922 may continue to be attached to surnames and used in legal documents. Often these were historic feudal territories of noble families, a high court ruling in 1967 definitively established that the heraldic-nobiliary legislation of the Kingdom of Italy is not current law. The southern kingdoms of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia, as well as the Papal states, granted the titles typical of such as Spain, France or England, Prince, Duke, Marquis, CountNobility of Italy – Caserta Palace
120. Religion in Italy – Religion in Italy is characterised by the predominance of Christianity and an increasing diversity of religious practices, beliefs and denominations. Most Christians in Italy adhere to the Catholic Church, among religious minorities, Islam is the largest, followed by Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, Protestantism, Jehovahs Witnesses, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Judaism. Regarding Italian citizens, according to a 2006 survey by Eurispes, Catholics made up 87. 8% of the population, according to the same poll in 2010, those percentages fell to 76. 5% and 24. 4%, respectively. Other sources give different accounts of Italys Islamic population, usually around 2%, in 2016 Eurispes found that 71. 1% of Italians were Catholic,5 points down from 2010, but their religious practice was on the rise at 25. 4%. The countrys Catholic patron saints are Francis of Assisi and Catherine of Siena, according to a 2006 survey by Eurispes, Catholics made up 87. 8% of the population, with 36. 8% describing themselves as observants. According to the poll in 2010, those percentages fell to 76. 5% and 24. 4%. Other sources give different accounts of Italys Islamic population, usually around 2%, in 2016 Eurispes found that 71. 1% of Italians were Catholic,5 points down from 2010, but their religious practice was on the rise at 25. 4%. Additionally, there are significant differences in religious beliefs by gender, age, the headquarters of the 1. 2-billion strong Catholic Church, the State of Vatican City, is an enclave within the city of Rome and, thus, the Italian territory. The Churchs world leader, the Pope, is the Bishop of Rome, the current Pope is Francis, born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, who, before his election in 2013, is from Argentina and was the Archbishop of Buenos Aires from 1998 to his installation. Francis is the third non-Italian Pope in a row, after John Paul II from Poland, the Italian territory is divided in 225 Catholic dioceses and, according to Church statistics, 96% of the countrys population was baptised as Catholic. Most of which have involved in social activities and have frequently supplied Italian politics with their members. The two churches include the majority of the population in Piana degli Albanesi, Sicily and Lungro, Calabria, in the Protestant context, it is also worth mentioning the Evangelical Christian Church of the Brethren and the Italian section of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Italy is home to around 45,000 Jews, who are one of the most ancient Jewish communities in the world. The Jewish presence dates to the pre-Christian Roman period and has continued, despite periods of persecution and expulsions from parts of the country from time to time. The twenty-one Jewish local communities are affiliated to the Union of Italian Jewish Communities, immigration has brought to Italy many religious minorities, especially Islam and Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy. By the numbers, in 2015 the country was home to around 1,850,000 Muslims, not surprisingly the Assemblies of God in Italy, the Federation of Pentecostal Churches and several smaller evangelical/Pentecostal denominations have the majority of their communities in the South. Additionally, several churches, especially African initiated churches, most of which evangelical and/or Pentecostal, are taking roots in the country. Among the fastest-growing new religious denominations in Italy a special place is held by the Jehovahs Witnesses, then, come four faiths professed mainly by immigrants, Buddhists, Hindus, Sikhs, and Latter-day SaintsReligion in Italy – The St. Peter's Basilica, viewed from the Tiber, the Vatican Hill / City in the back and Castel Sant'Angelo to the right, Rome
121. Duecento – As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 through 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages, 1202—Introduction of Liber Abaci by Fibonacci. 1202—Battle of Basian occurred on July 27, between Kingdom of Georgia and Seljuks, 1204—Fourth Crusade of 1202–1204 captures Zara for Venice and sacks Byzantine Constantinople, creating the Latin Empire. 1204—Fall of Normandy from Angevin hands to the French King, Philip Augustus, 1205—The Battle of Adrianople occurred on April 14,1205 between Bulgarians under Tsar Kaloyan of Bulgaria, and Crusaders under Baldwin I, the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. 1206—Genghis Khan is declared Great Khan of the Mongols, 1213—France defeats the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon at the Battle of Muret. 1214—France defeats English and Imperial German forces at the Battle of Bouvines, 1215—King John signs Magna Carta at Runnymede. 1217–1221—Fifth Crusade captures Egyptian Ayyubid port city of Damietta, ultimately the Crusaders withdraw, 1221—Venice signs a trade treaty with the Mongol Empire. 1222—Andrew II of Hungary signs the Golden Bull which affirms the privileges of Hungarian nobility, 1233—Battle of Ganter, Ken Arok defeated Kertajaya, the last king of Kediri, thus established Singhasari kingdom Ken Arok ended the reign of Isyana Dynasty and started his own Rajasa dynasty. 1223-The Signoria, of the Republic of Venice is formed and consists of the Doge, the Minor Council, 1223—The Mongol Empire defeats various Russian principalities at the Battle of the Kalka River. 1223-Volga Bulgaria defeats the army of The Mongol Empire at the Battle of Samara Bend 1227 - Estonians are finally subjugated to German crusader rule during the Livonian Crusade, 1228-1229—Sixth Crusade under the excommunicated Frederick II Hohenstaufen, who returns Jerusalem to the Crusader States. 1228-1230- First clash between Gregory IX and Frederick II, 1226-1250- Dispute between the so-called second Lombard League and Frederick II. 1232—The Mongols besiege Kaifeng, the capital of the Jin dynasty, 1239–1250—Third conflict between Holy Roman Empire–Papacy. 1238—Sukhothai was the first capital of Sukhothai Kingdom, 1241—Mongol Empire defeats Hungary at the Battle of Mohi and defeats Poland at the Battle of Legnica. 1242—Russians defeat the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Lake Peipus, 1244—Ayyubids and Khwarezmians defeat the Crusaders and their Arab allies at the Battle of La Forbie. 1249—End of the Portuguese Reconquista against the Moors, when King Afonso III of Portugal reconquers the Algarve, 1248–1254—Seventh Crusade captures Egyptian Ayyubid port city of Damietta, Crusaders ultimately withdraw. 1257—Baab Mashur Malamo established The Kingdom of Ternate in Maluku, 1258—Baghdad captured and destroyed by the Mongols, effective conclusion of the Caliphate 1259—Treaty of Paris. 1260—Toluid Civil War begins between Kublai Khan and Ariq Böke for the title of Great Khan, 1261—Byzantines under Michael VIII retake Constantinople from the Crusaders and Venice. 1262—Iceland was brought under Norwegian rule, with the Old Covenant 1265—Dominican friar and theologian, 1268—Fall of the Crusader State of Antioch to the MamelukesDuecento – The gold florin of Firenze started to be the main currency of european trade during the Duecento
122. Trecento – The Trecento refers to the 14th century in Italian cultural history. Commonly the Trecento is considered to be the beginning of the Renaissance in art history, important sculptors included two pupils of Giovanni Pisano, Arnolfo di Cambio and Tino di Camaino, and Bonino da Campione. The Trecento was also famous as a time of heightened literary activity, dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio were the leading writers of the age. Dante produced his famous La divina commedia, a summation of the medieval worldview, in music, the Trecento was a time of vigorous activity in Italy, as it was in France, with which there was a frequent interchange of musicians and influences. Antiquity and the Middle Ages, From Ancient Greece to the 15th Century, media related to 14th-century in Italy at Wikimedia CommonsTrecento – Giotto masterpiece in Padova 's "Cappella degli Scroveni"
123. History of Italian culture (1700s) – The 1700s refers to a period in Italian history and culture which occurred during the 18th century, the Settecento. In the 18th century, the political and socio-cultural condition of Italy began to improve, under Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, and his successors. These princes were influenced by philosophers, who in their turn felt the influence of a movement of ideas at large in many parts of Europe. All this led to a revival in the 18th centurys second half. The 18th century saw the capital of Europes architectural world transferred from Rome to Paris, the Italian Rococo, which flourished in Rome from the 1720s onward, was profoundly influenced by the ideas of Borromini. In the 18th century much sculpture continued on Baroque lines, the Trevi Fountain was only completed in 1762 after 30 years. Rococo style was suited to smaller works, and arguably found its ideal sculptural form in early European porcelain. Antonio Vivaldi was the most important composer in Italy at the end of the Baroque period and he wrote more than 400 concertos for various instruments, especially for the violin. The scores of 21 operas, including his first and last, are still intact and his best known work is a series of violin concertos known as The Four Seasons. Johann Sebastian Bach was deeply influenced by Vivaldis concertos and arias, the introduction of the symphony originated from Italian operas, called Sinfonias. Carlo Goldoni was the most important Italian literate of the Settecento, giambattista Vico and Lodovico Muratori were the most notable Italian historians of this century, while the leading figure of the literary revival in poetry was Giuseppe Parini. Count Vittorio Alfieri was an Italian dramatist and poet, considered the founder of Italian tragedy, Alfieri is often indicated as one of the precursors of the Romanticism in Europe. Italy was affected during the Settecento by the enlightenment, a movement which was a consequence of the Renaissance, followers of the group often met to discuss in private salons and coffeehouses, notably in the cities of Milan, Rome and Venice. Italian society also changed during the Enlightenment. Cesare Beccaria was also one of the greatest Italian Enlightenment writers, who was famous for his masterpiece Of Crimes and Punishments, in it, Beccaria put forth some of the first modern arguments against the death penalty. His treatise was also the first full work of penology, advocating reform of the law system. The book was the first full-scale work to tackle criminal reform, so Tuscany was the first civil state in the world to do away with torture and capital punishment. In 2000 Tuscanys regional authorities instituted a holiday on 30 November to commemorate the eventHistory of Italian culture (1700s) – The Trevi fountain in Rome was done between 1732 and 1762
124. Architecture of Italy – Italy has a very broad and diverse architectural style, which cannot be simply classified by period or region, due to Italys division into several city-states until 1861. However, this has created a diverse and eclectic range in architectural designs. Italy has an total of 100,000 monuments of all varieties. Now Italy is in the forefront of modernist and sustainable design with Architects like Renzo Piano, Italian architecture has also widely influenced the architecture of the world. Along with pre-historic architecture, the first people in Italy to truly begin a sequence of designs were the Greeks, in Northern and Central Italy, it was the Etruscans who led the way in architecture in that time. Etruscan buildings were made from brick and wood, thus few Etruscan architectural sites are now in evidence in Italy, with the exception of a few in Volterra, the Etruscans strongly influenced Roman architecture, as they too used to build temples, fora, public streets and aqueducts. The heavy pillars and porches created by the Etruscans, and their city gates were also a significant influence on Roman architecture. In Southern Italy, from the 8th century BC, the Greek colonists who created what was known as Magna Graecia used to build their buildings in their own style. The Greeks built bigger, better and more technologically advanced houses that people in the Iron and Bronze Age, yet, by the 4th century BC, the Hellenistic Age, less concentration was put on constructing temples, more rather the Greeks spent more time building theatres. The theatres were semi-circular and had an auditorium and a stage and they used to be built only on hills, unlike the Romans who would artificially construct the audiences seats. The Greek temples were known for containing bulky stone or marble pillars, today, there are several remains of Greek architecture in Italy, notably in Calabria, Apulia and Sicily. An example could be the remains of Agrigento, Sicily, which are currently UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Architecture of Ancient Rome adopted the external Greek architecture around the 2nd century BC for their own purposes, creating a new architectural style. The two styles that are considered one body of classical architecture. Social elements such as wealth and high densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to go discover new solutions of their own. Examples include the aqueducts of Rome, the Baths of Diocletian and the Baths of Caracalla, the basilicas and perhaps most famously of all and they were reproduced at smaller scale in most important towns and cities in the Empire. Some surviving structures are almost complete, such as the walls of Lugo in Hispania Tarraconensis. Italy was widely affected by the Early Christian age, with Rome being the new seat of the pope, after the Justinian reconquest of Italy, several buildings, palaces and churches were built in the Roman-Byzantine style. The Christian concept of a Basilica was invented in Rome and they were known for being long, rectangular buildings, which were built in an almost ancient Roman style, often rich in mosaics and decorationsArchitecture of Italy – The Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi, which has the largest brick dome in the world, and is considered a masterpiece of world architecture.
125. Italian wine – Italy is home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world, and Italian wines are known worldwide for their broad variety. Italy, closely followed by France, is the world’s largest wine producer by volume and its contribution is about 45–50 million hl per year, and represents about ⅓ of global production. Italian wine is exported around the world and is extremely popular in Italy. Grapes are grown in almost every region of the country and there are more than one million vineyards under cultivation, although vines had been cultivated from the wild Vitis vinifera grape for millennia, it wasnt until the Greek colonization that wine-making flourished. Viticulture was introduced into Sicily and southern Italy by the Mycenaean Greeks and it was during the Roman defeat of the Carthaginians in the 2nd century BC that Italian wine production began to further flourish. During this time, viticulture outside of Italy was prohibited under Roman law and it was customary to mix wine with a good proportion of water which may otherwise have been unpalatable, making wine drinking a fundamental part of early Italian life. As the laws on provincial viticulture were relaxed, vast vineyards began to flourish in the rest of Europe, especially Gaul and this coincided with the cultivation of new vines, like biturica. These vineyards became hugely successful, to the point that Italy ultimately became a centre for provincial wines. Depending on the vintage, modern Italy is the worlds largest or second largest wine producer, in 2005, production was about 20% of the global total, second only to France, which produced 26%. In the same year, Italys share in dollar value of table wine imports into the U. S. was 32%, Australias was 24%, along with Australia, Italys market share has rapidly increased in recent years. In 1963, the first official Italian system of classification of wines was launched, Vini Varietali, These are generic wines that are made either mostly from one kind of authorized international grapes or entirely from two or more of them. The grape and the vintage can be indicated on the label, Vini DOP, This category includes two sub-categories, i. e. Vini DOC and Vini DOCG. DOC wines must have been IGP wines for at least 5 years and they also must follow stricter production regulations than IGP wines. A DOC wine can be promoted to DOCG if it has been a DOC for at least 10 years, in addition to fulfilling the requisites for DOC wines, before commercialization DOCG wines must pass stricter analyses, including a tasting by a specifically appointed committee. DOCG wines have also demonstrated a superior commercial success, currently there exist 332 DOCs and 73 DOCGs for a total of 405 DOPs. A number of sub-categories also exist regulating the production of sparkling wines, within the DOP category, Classico is a wine produced in the historically oldest part of the protected territory. Superiore is a wine with at least 0.5 more alc%/vol than its correspondent regular DOP wine and produced using a smaller allowed quantity of grapes per hectare, Riserva is a wine that has been aged for a minimum period of time, depending on the typology. Sometimes, Classico or Superiore are themselves part of the name of the DOP, the Italian Ministry of Agriculture regularly publishes updates to the official classificationItalian wine – A classic Italian vineyard scene, with vines growing together with olive trees.
126. List of Italian orders of knighthood – There are five orders of knighthood awarded in recognition of service to the Italian Republic. Below these sit a number of decorations, associated and otherwise. However, the former Royal House of Savoy also continues to award knighthoods in three orders of chivalry previously recognised by the Kingdom of Italy. The degrees of knighthood, not all of which apply to all orders, are Knight, Officer, Commander, Grand Officer, Knight Grand Cross and Knight Grand Cross with cordon. The use of awards of the Holy See is subject to permission, today these continue merely as dynastic orders of the former Royal house in exile. While their bestowal is suppressed by law in Italy, the use of those decorations conferred prior to 1951 is permitted, exclusive of any right of precedence in official ceremonies. The Sardinian orders of the Most Holy Annunciation, of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, in contrast to the Republican orders, the feminine style Dama is used for women. The Knight Bachelor, usually transmitted by male primogeniture, was similar to a British baronetcy and these Cavaliere Ereditario were not, however, members of an order of chivalry. Nobility of Italy Italian honorifics Order Presidenza della Repubblica - Le Onorificenze Ordini dinastici della Real Casa di SavoiaList of Italian orders of knighthood – Letters patent of a Knight of Vittorio Veneto, shown with badge and miniature.
127. Italian design – Italian design refers to all forms of design in Italy, including interior design, urban design, fashion design and architectural design. Italy today still exerts a vast influence on design, industrial design and fashion design worldwide. The rest of Italy was characterized by fragmented political and geographical condition, after the Unification of Italy, despite the slow consolidation of the cotton industry and factories, you could not even talk about industrialization of the country prior to 1870-80. At the beginning of the century formed the first great Italian designers such as Vittorio Ducrot. Italy is a trendsetter, and has produced some of the greatest furniture designers in the world, such as Gio Ponti. Italian interior design in the 1900s was particularly well-known and grew to the heights of class, however, Italian art deco reached its pinnacle under Gio Ponti, who made his designs sophisticated, elegant, stylish and raffined, but also modern, exotic and creative. In 1926, a new style of furnishing emerged in Italy, known as Razionalismo, the most successful and famous of the Rationalists were the Gruppo 7, led by Luigi Figini, Gino Pollini and Giuseppe Terragni. There styles used tubular steel and was known as being plain and simple. After World War II, however, was the period in which Italy had a true avant-garde in interior design. Ever since the late 1970s and early 1980s, some equipment began to be logoed by notable Italian fashion houses, such as Prada, Versace, Armani, Gucci, the bookcase became huge a cultural icon and design event of the 1980s. Modern Italian design has changed the meaning of style and elegance, stunning examples are found in the ranges by Slide Designs, Belta Frajumar and Lumen Italia Center. Italian design is borne of smooth elegant lines with a purpose in mind. In addition to design, Italy has also set trends for industrial design with first protype of the light Luminator Bernocchi in 1928. The Moka pot, designed by Alfonso Bialetti, was a design upon its release in 1933. Olivetti is notable for its office and electronic equipment designs, most notably the Programma 101 computer, Italy also is very influential in car design, and has produced some of the greatest status symbols of the century. The automobile industry in the nation is a large employer in the country. Italy is the fifth largest automobile producer in Europe, over the ages, Italian cars have been recognized worldwide for their stylishness and practicality. Famous Italian cars include the Alfa Romeo converitbles of the 1950s, Italy is also home to world-renowned car design firms such as Pininfarina, Zagato, Italdesign, and BertoneItalian design – A chair by designer Michele de Lucchi, made in 1983.
128. Italophilia – Italophilia is the admiration, appreciation or emulation of Italy, its people, its ideals, its civilization or its culture. The extent to which Italian civilization has shaped Western civilization and, by extension, appreciation of the legacy of Italic ideals, civilization and culture has existed for many centuries, into the present day. Rome was the center of an empire that stretched across a large segment of the then-known world and it was possible for the people in the provinces to attain Roman citizenship, rise to the Senate, and even to become Roman emperor. The Roman provinces, having received much of the benefit of Roman civilization, the Christian religion was viewed in Rome as contrary to prevailing religious and political beliefs and, consequently, was suppressed. Many Christians in Rome and elsewhere were persecuted, after the conversion of the Emperor Constantine to Christianity in 312 AD, Christianity flourished and became an integral part of Roman life. Roman Catholicism, in an easily recognizable today, emerged and took root in Rome. The cultural patrimony of Roman literature, architecture and sculpture inspired many of the achievements of the Middle Ages and Renaissance in Italy and the rest of Europe. Works by poets, authors and historians, such as Ovid, Horace, Catullus, Cicero, Virgil, Livy, the bishops, rather than the Roman prefects became the source of order and the seat of power. In many important ways, the Roman Catholic Church became the successor of the Roman Empire, the Church and its Pope were major stabilizing influences in Europe in the centuries that followed. In the words of historian Will Durant, Rome died in giving birth to the Church, the civilization of Italy continued to be a cultural force that helped preserve Greco-Roman civilization and ideals during this period. Latin, the language of the Italic people, became the universal language of the Catholic Church and, generally, of culture. Western Monasticism, as first practiced by the followers of Saint Benedict, born in Nursia in 480 AD, the Benedictine monks were a very important factor in preserving Greco-Roman culture and learning for later centuries. Gregorian Chant, an outgrowth of Roman plain chant, strongly influenced both liturgical and secular music during the Middle Ages, an Italian monk, Guido of Arezzo, developed the form of musical notation that became the basis of Western music and, subsequently, of music worldwide. Saint Francis of Assisi was a friar who founded the mens Order of Friars Minor and he became one of the most venerated religious figures in Catholic Church history. Saint Thomas Aquinas, a Dominican priest born in Aquino in 1225, was a philosopher and he was one of the greatest minds of the Middle Ages, and he had a widespread influence on Western thought. He was considered then, as he is now, to be the greatest theologian and he is best known for his major work, the Summa Theologica. These works had a significant influence on Shakespeare, Chaucer and many writers of the Middle Ages. Students and scholars came from all over Europe to study at institutions of learning in ItalyItalophilia – Statue of Augustus, first Roman emperor and creator of "Italia" as an entity
129. Anti-Italianism – Anti-Italianism or Italophobia is a negative attitude regarding Italian people or people with Italian ancestry, often expressed through the use of prejudice or stereotypes. Anti-Italianism in the United States resulted among some Americans in reaction to the period of large-scale Italian immigration beginning in the last part of the 19th century. The later immigrants, who came in numbers during the period of mass immigration beginning in the last decade of the 19th century. They arrived with waves of other immigrants, many from agrarian backgrounds. Their frequent lack of education, and competition with earlier immigrants for lower-paying jobs. Ethnocentric chauvinism exhibited by the earlier Northern European settlers toward the Italian immigrants was also a major factor, in reaction to the large-scale immigration from southern and eastern Europe, Congress passed legislation restricting immigration from those regions, but not from Northern European countries. Anti-Italian prejudice was associated with the anti-Catholic tradition that existed in the United States, inherited from Protestant/Catholic European competition. When the United States was founded, it inherited the anti-Catholic, anti-Catholic sentiments in the U. S. reached a peak in the 19th century when the Protestant population became alarmed by the number of Catholics immigrating to the United States. This was due in part to the tensions that arise between native-born citizens and immigrants. The resulting anti-Catholic nativist movement, which achieved prominence in the 1840s, led to hostility that resulted in mob violence, some of the early 20th-century immigrants from Italy brought with them a political disposition toward socialism and anarchism. This was a reaction to the economic and political conditions they experienced in Italy and these efforts often resulted in strikes, which sometimes erupted into violence between the strikers and strike-breakers. The anarchy movement in the United States at that time was responsible for bombings in major cities, indeed, as late as 1963 James W. Vander Zander pointed out that the rate of criminal convictions among Italian immigrants was less than that among American-born whites. When the Fascists came to power in Italy, they made the destruction of the Mafia in Sicily a high priority, hundreds fled to the U. S. in the 1920s and 1930s to avoid prosecution. They smuggled liquor into the country, wholesaled and sold it through a network of outlets, while other ethnic groups were also deeply involved in these illegal bootlegging activities, and the associated violence between groups, Italian Americans were among the most notorious. Because of this, Italians became associated with the gangster in the minds of many. The experiences of Italian immigrants in North American countries were notably different from that in the South American countries to which they also immigrated in large numbers. Italians were key to developing such as Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay. Italian Americans initially encountered an established Protestant-majority Northern European culture, for a time, they were viewed mainly as construction and industrial workers, chefs, plumbers, or other blue collar workersAnti-Italianism – Rioters breaking into Parish Prison. Anti-Italian lynching in New Orleans, 1891
130. Music of Italy – The music of Italy ranges across a broad spectrum of opera and instrumental classical music and a body of popular music drawn from both native and imported sources. Music has traditionally one of the cultural markers of Italian national and ethnic identity and holds an important position in society. Instrumental and vocal music is an iconic part of Italian identity, spanning experimental art music and international fusions to symphonic music. Opera is integral to Italian musical culture, and has become a segment of popular music. Italian folk music is an important part of the musical heritage. Italian music has held up in high esteem in history. More than other elements of Italian culture, Italian music is generally eclectic, No parochial protectionist movement has ever attempted to keep Italian music pure and free from foreign influence, except briefly under the Fascist regime of the 1920s and 30s. As a result, Italian music has elements of the many peoples that have dominated or influenced the country, including French, German. The countrys historical contributions to music are also an important part of national pride, Italy has a strong sense of national identity through distinctive culture - a sense of an appreciation of beauty and emotionality, which is strongly evidenced in the music. Cultural, political and social issues are also expressed through music in Italy. Allegiance to music is integrally woven into the identity of Italians. Most folk musics are localized, and unique to a region or city. The musical output of Italy remains characterized by diversity and creative independence a rich variety of types of expression. With the growing industrialization that accelerated during the 20th and 21st century, Italian society gradually moved from a base to an urban. Immigration from North Africa, Asia, and other European countries led to diversification of Italian music. Traditional music came to exist only in pockets, especially as part of dedicated campaigns to retain local musical identities. Music and politics have been intertwined for centuries in Italy, composers who strayed ran certain risks. Among the best known of such cases was the Neapolitan composer Domenico Cimarosa, when the republic fell, he was tried for treason along with other revolutionariesMusic of Italy – Some common geographical names used as points of reference in Italy.
131. Italian classical music – More specific terms such as Gregorian chant, Ambrosian chant, Gallican chant are also found. Generally speaking, they all refer to a style of monophonic, unaccompanied, early Christian singing performed by monks, the differences may be marginal—or even great, in some cases. These differences reflect the ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversity that existed after the fall of the Roman Empire on the Italian peninsula. Different monastic traditions arose within the Roman Catholic Church throughout Italy, yet, in spite of the differences, the similarities are great. Obviously, where Greek rites were practiced, the chants were sung in the Greek language and not in Latin, the Trecento, from about 1300 to 1420, was a period of vigorous activity in Italy in the arts, including painting, architecture, literature, and music. The music of the Trecento pioneered new forms of expression, especially in secular song and in the use of vernacular language, secular music before the year 1500 was largely the work of jongleurs, troubadours and mimes. Thus, Dante showed with the Divine Comedy in 1300 that the language could be a vehicle for fine literature. Logically, that extended to the lyrics of the songs that people sang, two points are worth mentioning in this regard, we know much more about the words of songs than we know about the actual sound of the music. Words were written down much more ease than melodies were notated. We only know that southern French folk music, today, sounds quite a bit different from Sicilian folk music, most people do not think of music when they hear the term Renaissance. The years between 1500 and 1600 are the most revolutionary period in European musical history, it is the century in which harmony was developed and the century that gave birth to opera. Readers will have noted the move from the monophony of Gregorian chants to the complicated polyphonies of madrigals, the desire—perhaps need—for homophonic music arose from a number of factors. Thus, if you generate notes at 400,600,800, the important city in Italy in this development of music in the 16th century was Florence. Besides Florence, two other Italian cities are particularly worthy of mention in the period around 1600, there is somewhat of a friendly rivalry between advocates of the two cities as to which one is more important in the history of the development of music in Italy. The period from about 1600 to 1750 encompasses the musical Baroque, many important things happened in this period. This latter element is an extension of the concept of homophonic music, instrumental forms include such things as the sonata and fugue. Important names in music within this period in Italy are Alessandro Scarlatti, from the early 18th century to the end of that century encompasses what historians call classical music. The term classical is appropriate for this period of music in that it marks the standardization of forms such as the symphonyItalian classical music – Francesco Landini, the most famous composer of the Trecento, playing a portative organ (illustration from the Fifteenth-century Squarcialupi Codex)
132. Italian folk music – Italian folk music has a deep and complex history. National unification came late to the Italian peninsula, so its many hundreds of separate cultures remained un-homogenized until quite recently compared to many other European countries. Italys rough geography and the dominance of small city states has allowed quite diverse musical styles to coexist in close proximity. Today, Italys folk music is divided into several spheres of geographic influence. The Celtic and Slavic influences on the group and open-voice choral works of the north contrast with the Arabic, Greek, in central Italy these influences combine, while indigenous traditions like narrative and ballad singing remain. The music of the island of Sardinia is distinct from that of the rest of Italy, the modern understanding of Italian folk music has its roots in the growth of ethnomusicology in the 1940s and 1950s and in the resurgence of regionalism in Italy at the time. The Centro Nazionale di Studi di Musica Popolare, now part of the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia, was started in 1948 to study and archive the various musical styles throughout Italy. In the 1950s, a number of important field recordings were conducted by American Alan Lomax and Italians Diego Carpitella, Franco Coggiola, the early 1960s saw the rise of social and political popular music, including a vast number of releases by the I Dischi del Sole label. Several important groups had their birth around the time, including Cantacronache in 1958. The Italian folk revival was accelerating by 1966, when the Istituto Ernesto de Martino was founded by Gianni Bosio in Milan to document Italian oral culture and traditional music. With the emergence of the Nuova Compagnia di Canto Popolare in 1970, many of the best known Italian folk revival bands got their start in the following decade, including La Lionetta, Tre Martelli, La Ciapa Rusa, Re Niliu, Calicanto, and Baraban. The northern regions of Italy historically exhibited Celtic and Slavic influences in their cultures, roots revivalists have revived traditional songs, though, from Piedmont, Lombardy and Veneto. The Genoese docks are the home of trallalero, a vocal style with five voices. It arose in the 1920s and includes modern groups like La Squadra -- Compagnia del Trallalero, the highly urban provinces of northern and central Italy are also known for the medieval sung poetry ottava rima, especially in Tuscany, Lazio and Abruzzo. Ottava rima is performed by the poeti contadini who use the poems of Homer or Dante and it is often completely improvised, and sometimes competitive in nature. Tuscan folk poetry is closer in form and style to high-culture poetry than is typical elsewhere in Italy, the saltarello dance is also popular throughout the region. Canzoniere del Lazio is one of the biggest names from central Italy during the 1970s roots revival, with socially aware lyrics, this new wave of Italian roots revivalists often played entirely acoustic songs with influences from jazz and others. More modern musicians in the field include Lucilla Galeazzi, La PiazzaItalian folk music – Italian folk musicians performing in Edinburgh
133. Italian opera – Italian opera is both the art of opera in Italy and opera in the Italian language. Opera was born in Italy around the year 1600 and Italian opera has continued to play a dominant role in the history of the form until the present day, many famous operas in Italian were written by foreign composers, including Handel, Gluck and Mozart. Dafne by Jacopo Peri was the earliest composition considered opera, as understood today, peris works, however, did not arise out of a creative vacuum in the area of sung drama. An underlying prerequisite for the creation of opera proper was the practice of monody, from this, it was only a small step to fully-fledged monody. Such spectacles were staged to commemorate significant state events, weddings, military victories, and the like. They were lavishly staged, and led the scenography of the half of the 16th century. Another popular court entertainment at this time was the madrigal comedy and this consisted of a series of madrigals strung together to suggest a dramatic narrative, but not staged. There were also two staged musical pastorals, Il Satiro and La Disperazione di Fileno, both produced in 1590 and written by Emilio de Cavalieri. Other pastoral plays had long included some musical numbers, one of the earliest, the music of Dafne is now lost. The first opera for which music has survived was performed in 1600 at the wedding of Henry IV of France, the opera, Euridice, with a libretto by Rinuccini, set to music by Peri and Giulio Caccini, recounted the story of Orpheus and Eurydice. The style of singing favored by Peri and Caccini was a form of natural speech. Recitative thus preceded the development of arias, though it became the custom to include separate songs. Both Dafne and Euridice also included choruses commenting on the action at the end of each act in the manner of Greek tragedy. The theme of Orpheus, the demi-god of music, was popular and attracted Claudio Monteverdi who wrote his first opera, La Favola dOrfeo. Monteverdi insisted on a relationship between the words and music. When Orfeo was performed in Mantua, an orchestra of 38 instruments, Opera had revealed its first stage of maturity in the hands of Monteverdi. LOrfeo also has the distinction of being the earliest surviving opera that is regularly performed today. Within a few decades opera had spread throughout Italy, in Rome, it found an advocate in the prelate and librettist Giulio RospigliosiItalian opera – Interior of La Fenice opera house in Venice in 1837. Venice was, along with Florence and Rome, one of the cradles of Italian opera.
134. Emblem of Italy – The emblem of Italy was formally adopted by the newly formed Italian Republic on 5 May 1948. Although often referred to as a coat of arms, it is technically an emblem as it was not designed to conform to heraldic rules. The emblem is used extensively by the Italian government, between 1848 and 1861, a sequence of events led to the independence and unification of Italy, this period of Italian history is known as the Risorgimento, or resurgence. During this period, the green, white and red became the symbol which united all the efforts of the Italian people towards freedom. The Italian tricolour, defaced with the coat of arms of the House of Savoy, was first adopted as war flag by the Regno di Sardegna-Piemonte army in 1848. As the arms mixed with the white of the flag, it was fimbriated azure, the lions held lances flying the national flag. From the helmet fell a royal mantle, engulfed by a pavilion under the Stellone dItalia, after twenty years, on 1 January 1890, the arms exterior were slightly modified more in keeping with those of Sardinia. The fur mantling and lances disappeared and the crown was taken from the helmet to the pavilion, now sewn with crosses and roses. The Iron Crown of Lombardy was placed on the helmet, under the traditional Savoyan crest and these arms remained in official use for 56 years until the birth of the Italian Republic and continue today as the dynastic arms of the head of the House of Savoy. On 11 April 1929, the Savoy lions were replaced by Mussolini with fasces from the National Fascist Party shield and this is celebrated in Italy as Festa della Repubblica. Italian fascism derived its name from the fasces, which symbolises authority and/or strength through unity, the fasces has been used to show the imperium of the Roman Empire, and was thus considered an appropriate heraldic symbol. Additionally, Roman legions had carried the aquila, or eagle and this shield had previously been displayed alongside the Royal arms from 1927 to 1929, when the latter was modified to incorporate elements of both. On 25 April 1945, commemorated as Festa della Liberazione, the government of Benito Mussolini fell, the separate Italian Social Republic had existed for slightly more than one and a half years. The decision to provide the new Italian Republic with an emblem was taken by the government of Alcide De Gasperi in October 1946. The five winners were assigned further requirements for the design of the emblem, below a representation of the sea, and above, the gold star, with the legend Unità e Libertà or Unity and Liberty in the Italian language. This version, however, did not meet with approval, so a new competition was held. The new emblem was approved by the Constituent Assembly in February 1948, as it was not designed to conform to traditional heraldic rules, it does not have a formal blazon. The dominant element, however, is the five-pointed Stellone dItalia, iconographic of the Risorgimento, it is usually seen shining radiant over Italia Turrita, the personification of ItalyEmblem of Italy – Emblem of Italy
135. Italia turrita – Italia Turrita is the national personification or allegory of Italy, characterised by a mural crown typical of Italian civic heraldry of Medieval communal origin. In broader terms, the crown symbolizes its mostly urban history and she often holds in her hands a bunch of corn ears, during the fascist era, she held a bundle of the lictors. Italy’s first allegory, a female head, appears on the coins coined during the Social War between the Roman Republic and several other cities of Central Italy from 91 to 88 BC. Under the emperor Augustus, a representation of Italy known as Saturnia Tellus was sculpted in marble on Ara Pacis’ external wall in Rome. Another allegory of Italy appears on the coins coined during the reign of emperor Nerva in 97 AD and this mythographical setting-up of the Italian land became also popular during the Middle Ages. In 1490, Ludovico Sforza, duke of Milan, had an Italia turrita painted on a medallion of the castle in Piazza Ducale, the Caesaris Astrum appeared again in 1574 on the cover of Historiarium de Regno Italiae, a book written by the historian Carlo Sigonio. Over her head, a star is usually seen shining radiant. Emblem of Italy National personification Mural crown Stella dItalia Giovanni Lista, La Stella dItalia, Edizioni Mudima, the front page of La Domenica del Corriere on 25 May 1958 depicted Italia Turrita voting in that day’s general electionItalia turrita – Statue of Italia Turrita in Reggio Calabria.
136. Italian philosophy – Italy over the ages has had a vast influence on Western philosophy, beginning with the Greeks and Romans, and going onto Renaissance humanism, the Age of Enlightenment and modern philosophy. Roman philosophy was influenced by that of Greece. Italian Medieval philosophy was mainly Christian, and included several important philosophers, Aquinas was the student of Albert the Great, a brilliant Dominican experimentalist, much like the Franciscan, Roger Bacon of Oxford in the 13th century. Aquinas reintroduced Aristotelian philosophy to Christianity and he believed that there was no contradiction between faith and secular reason. He believed that Aristotle had achieved the pinnacle in the human striving for truth and he was a professor at the prestigious University of Paris. The Renaissance was an essentially Italian movement, and also a period of the arts. As with all periods, there is a drift of dates, reasons for categorization. In particular, the Renaissance, more than later periods, is thought to begin in Italy with the Italian Renaissance and roll through Europe. Renaissance Humanism was a European intellectual movement that was a component of the Renaissance, beginning in Florence in the latter half of the 14th century. The humanist movement developed from the rediscovery by European scholars of Latin literary, initially, a humanist was simply a scholar or teacher of Latin literature. Humanism offered the necessary intellectual and philological tools for the first critical analysis of texts, an early triumph of textual criticism by Lorenzo Valla revealed the Donation of Constantine to be an early medieval forgery produced in the Curia. Italian Renaissance humanists believed that the arts should be practiced by all levels of richness. They also approved of self, human worth and individual dignity and they hold the belief that everything in life has a determinate nature, but mans privilege is to be able to choose his own path. He finally took thought concerning the creation of man, the nature of all other beings is limited and constrained within the bounds of law. Thou shalt have the power to degenerate into the forms of life. Thou shalt have the power, out of thy souls judgement, to be born into the higher forms, Italy was also affected by a movement called Neoplatonism, which was a movement which had a general revival of interest in Classical antiquity. Interest in Platonism was especially strong in Florence under the Medici, in 1459 John Argyropoulos was lecturing on Greek language and literature at Florence, and Marsilio Ficino became his pupil. Following suggestions laid out by Gemistos Plethon, Ficino tried to synthesize Christianity and his most famous work was The PrinceItalian philosophy – St Thomas Aquinas.
137. Sculpture of Italy – Italy is considered the birthplace of Western civilization and a cultural superpower. During its history, the nation gave birth to a number of notable people. Etruscan and Samnite cultures flourished in Italy before the emergence of the Roman Republic, the Greek ruins in southern Italy are perhaps the most spectacular and best preserved anywhere. For more than 2,000 years Italy experienced migrations, invasions and was divided into independent states until 1861 when it became a nation-state. Despite the political and social isolation of regions, Italys contributions to the cultural and historical heritage of Europe. The famous elements of Italian culture are its art, music, style, Italy was the birthplace of opera, and for generations the language of opera was Italian, irrespective of the nationality of the composer. Popular tastes in drama in Italy have long favored comedy, the style known as the Commedia dellarte began in Italy in the mid-16th century and is still performed today. Before being exported to France, the famous Ballet dance genre also originated in Italy, the country boasts several world-famous cities. Rome was the ancient capital of the Roman Empire and seat of the Pope of the Catholic Church, Florence was the heart of the Renaissance, a period of great achievements in the arts at the end of the Middle Ages. Other important cities include Turin, which used to be the capital of Italy, Milan is the industrial, financial and fashion capital of Italy. Venice, with its canal system, attracts tourists from all over the world especially during the Venetian Carnival. Italy is home to the greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites to date, overall, the nation has an estimated 100,000 monuments of any sort. Architectural ruins from antiquity throughout Italy testify to the greatness of cultures past, during the period of the Italian Renaissance it had been customary for students of architecture to travel to Rome to study the ancient ruins and buildings as an essential part of their education. Old St. Peters Church was probably the first significant early Christian basilica, old St. Peters stood on the site of the present St. Peters Basilica in Rome. The first significant buildings in the medieval Romanesque style were built in Italy during the 800s. Several outstanding examples of the Byzantine architectural style of the Middle East were also built in Italy, the most famous Byzantine structure is the Basilica of St. Mark in Venice. The greatest flowering of Italian architecture took place during the Renaissance, Filippo Brunelleschi made great contributions to architectural design with his dome for the Cathedral of Florence. Leon Battista Alberti was another early Renaissance architect whose theories and designs had an influence on later architectsSculpture of Italy – Florence Cathedral, Arnolfo di Cambio, campanile by Giotto dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi.