List of caves in Italy
Notes and references
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|Addaura||Palermo (PA)||Sicily||?||70 metres (230 ft)|
|Arene Candide||Finale Ligure (SV)||Liguria||?||90 amsl|
|Antro del Corchia||Stazzema (LU)||Tuscany||?||600 amsl|
|Bigonda||Grigno (TN)||Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol||?||400 amsl|
|Blue Grotto||Anacapri (NA)||Campania||?||0 amsl|
|Borgio Verezzi||Borgio Verezzi (SV)||Liguria||?||200 amsl|
|Bue Marino||Dorgali  (NU)||Sardinia||?||0 amsl|
|Castelcivita||Castelcivita (SA)||Campania||3 km||94 amsl|
|Castellana||Castellana Grotte (BA)||Apulia||3 km||290 amsl|
|Cavallone||Lama dei Peligni (CH)
Taranta Peligna (CH)
|Abruzzo||1 km||1,300 amsl|
|Ear of Dionysius||Syracuse (SR)||Sicily||0,06 km
|Frasassi||Genga (AN)||Marche||5 km||300 amsl|
|Gelo||Randazzo (CT)||Sicily||?||2,043 amsl|
|Giant||Sgonico (TS)||Friuli-Venezia Giulia||0,28 km
|Giusti||Monsummano Terme (PT)||Tuscany||0,20 km
|Ispinigoli||Dorgali (NU)||Sardinia||?||1,300 amsl|
|Is Zuddas||Santadi (CI)||Sardinia||?||0 amsl|
|Lauro||Alcara li Fusi (ME)||Sicily||?||1,068 amsl|
|Maona||Montecatini Terme (PT)||Tuscany||0,20 km
|Neptune||Alghero (SS)||Sardinia||?||5 amsl|
|Nereo||Alghero (SS)||Sardinia||?||0 amsl|
|Paglicci||Rignano Garganico (FG)||Apulia||?||590 amsl|
|Pastena||Pastena (FR)||Lazio||?||310 amsl|
|Patone||Arco (TN)||Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol||?||300 amsl|
|Pertosa||Pertosa (SA)||Campania||3 km||263 amsl|
|San Giovanni||Domusnovas (CI)||Sardinia||2 km||150 amsl|
|Smeraldo||Conca dei Marini (SA)||Campania||?||0 amsl|
|Su Mannau||Fluminimaggiore (CI)||Sardinia||?||256 amsl|
|Su Marmuri||Ulassai (OG)||Sardinia||?||775 amsl|
|Toirano||Toirano (SV)||Liguria||2 km||50 amsl|
|Trullo||Putignano (BA)||Apulia||?||375 amsl|
|Villanova||Lusevera  (UD)
|Friuli-V.G.||4 km||500 amsl|
|Wind||Vergemoli (LU)||Tuscany||4,5 km||650 amsl|
|Zelbio||Zelbio (CO)||Lombardy||?||900 amsl|
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1. Cave – A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground, the word cave can also refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos. A cavern is a type of cave, naturally formed in soluble rock with the ability to grow speleothems. Speleology is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves, visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking. The formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis, which can occur over the course of millions of years, caves are formed by various geologic processes and can be variable sizes. These may involve a combination of processes, erosion from water, tectonic forces, microorganisms, pressure. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, in order to determine the timescale when geologic events may have occurred to help form and it is estimated that the maximum depth of a cave cannot be more than 3,000 metres due to the pressure of overlying rocks. For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the limit of karst forming processes. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution, solutional caves or karst caves are the most frequently occurring caves and such caves form in rock that is soluble. Most occur in limestone, but they can form in other rocks including chalk, dolomite, marble, salt. Rock is dissolved by acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, faults, joints. Over geological epochs cracks expand to become caves and cave systems, the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3, the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage. Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation and these include flowstones, stalactites, stalagmites, helictites, soda straws and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems, the portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded. Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of type of solutional cave. They were formed by H2S gas rising from below, where reservoirs of oil give off sulfurous fumes and this gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4. The acid then dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, caves formed at the same time as the surrounding rock are called primary cavesCave – Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, USA
2. Apennine Mountains – The Apennines or Apennine Mountains are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending c. 1,200 km along the length of peninsular Italy. In the northwest they join with the Ligurian Alps at Altare, in the southwest they end at Reggio di Calabria, the coastal city at the tip of the peninsula. The system forms an arc enclosing the east side of the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Seas, the name originally applied to the north Apennines. However, historical linguists have never found a derivation with which they are universally comfortable, wilhelm Deecke said. its etymology is doubtful but some derive it from the Ligurian-Celtish Pen or Ben, which means mountain peak. The mountains lend their name to the Apennine peninsula, which forms the part of Italy. They are mostly verdant, although one side of the highest peak, Corno Grande is partially covered by Calderone glacier and it has been receding since 1794. The eastern slopes down to the Adriatic Sea are steep, while the western slopes form foothills on which most of peninsular Italys cities are located. The mountains tend to be named from the province or provinces in which they are located, for example, as the provincial borders have not always been stable, this practice has resulted in some confusion about exactly where the montane borders are. Often but not always a feature can be found that lends itself to being a border. The Apennines are divided into three sectors, northern, central, and southern, a number of long hiking trails wind through the Apennines. Of note is European walking route E1 coming from northern Europe and traversing the lengths of the northern, the Grand Italian Trail begins in Trieste and after winding through the Alpine arc traverses the entire Apennine system, Sicily and Sardinia. The northern Apennines consist of three sub-chains, the Ligurian, Tuscan-Emilian, and Umbrian Apennines, the Ligurian Apennines border the Ligurian Sea in the Gulf of Genoa, from about Savona below the upper Bormida River valley to about La Spezia below the upper Magra River valley. The range follows the Gulf of Genoa separating it from the upper Po Valley, the northwestern border follows the line of the Bormida River to Acqui Terme. There the river continues northeast to Alessandria in the Po Valley, the upper Bormida can be reached by a number of roads proceeding inland at a right angle to the coast southwest of Savona, the chief one being the Autostrada Torino-Savona. They ascend to the Bocchetta di Altare, sometimes called Colle di Cadibona,436 m, a bronze plaque fixed to a stone marks the top of the pass. In the vicinity are fragments of the old road and three ruins of former fortifications, at Carcare, the main roads connect with the upper Bormida valley before turning west. The Scrivia, the Trebbia and the Taro, tributaries of the Po River, the range contains dozens of peaks. Toward the southern end the Aveto Natural Regional Park includes Monte Penna, nearby is the highest point of Ligurian Apennines, Monte Maggiorasca at 1,780 mApennine Mountains – Abruzzo National Park
3. Karst topography – Karst topography is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves and it has also been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no rivers or lakes, the English word karst was borrowed from German Karst in the late 19th century. The German word came into use before the 19th century, according to the prevalent interpretation, the term is derived from the German name for the Karst region, a limestone plateau above the city of Trieste in the northern Adriatic. Scholars disagree, however, on whether the German word was borrowed from Slovene, the Slovene common noun kras was first attested in the 18th century, and the adjective form kraški in the 16th century. The Slovene words arose through metathesis from the reconstructed form *korsъ, ultimately, the word is of Mediterranean origin, believed to derive from some Romanized Illyrian base. It has been suggested that the word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root karra- rock, the name may also be connected to the oronym Karsádios oros cited by Ptolemy, and perhaps also to Latin Carusardius. The development of karst occurs whenever acidic water starts to break down the surface of bedrock near its cracks, as the bedrock continues to degrade, its cracks tend to get bigger. As time goes on, these fractures will become wider, if this underground drainage system does form, it will speed up the development of karst formations there because more water will be able to flow through the region, giving it more erosive power. The carbonic acid that causes karstic features is formed as rain passes through the atmosphere picking up carbon dioxide, once the rain reaches the ground, it may pass through soil that can provide much more CO2 to form a weak carbonic acid solution, which dissolves calcium carbonate. The oxidation of sulfides leading to the formation of acid can also be one of the corrosion factors in karst formation. As oxygen -rich surface waters seep into deep anoxic karst systems, they bring oxygen, sulfuric acid then reacts with calcium carbonate, causing increased erosion within the limestone formation. This chain of reactions is, This reaction chain forms gypsum, the karstification of a landscape may result in a variety of large- or small-scale features both on the surface and beneath. On exposed surfaces, small features may include solution flutes, runnels, limestone pavement, medium-sized surface features may include sinkholes or cenotes, vertical shafts, foibe, disappearing streams, and reappearing springs. Large-scale features may include limestone pavements, poljes, and karst valleys, mature karst landscapes, where more bedrock has been removed than remains, may result in karst towers, or haystack/eggbox landscapes. Beneath the surface, complex underground systems and extensive caves. Some of the most dramatic of these formations can be seen in Thailands Phangnga Bay, calcium carbonate dissolved into water may precipitate out where the water discharges some of its dissolved carbon dioxide. Rivers which emerge from springs may produce tufa terraces, consisting of layers of calcite deposited over extended periods of time, in caves, a variety of features collectively called speleothems are formed by deposition of calcium carbonate and other dissolved mineralsKarst topography – Škocjan Caves, Slovenia
4. Frasassi – The Frasassi Caves are a remarkable karst cave system in the municipality of Genga, Italy, in the province of Ancona, Marche. They are among the most famous show caves in Italy, the caves, discovered by a group of Ancona speleologists in 1971, are situated 7 kilometres south of Genga, near the civil parish of San Vittore and the Genga-San Vittore railway station. Rich in water, the system is particularly well endowed with stalactites and stalagmites. The Frassisi cave system includes a number of named chambers, including the following, Grotta delle Nottole, or Cave of the Bats, Grotta Grande del Ventro, or Great Cave of the Wind, discovered in 1971, with approximately 13 kilometres of passageways. Sala delle Candeline, or Room of the Candles, named for its plentiful stalagmites that resemble candles, sala dellInfinito, or Room of the Infinite, a tall chamber with massive speleothem columns supporting the roof. The cave has been used to conduct experiments in chronobiology, among the cavers that have spent considerable amount of time inside the cave is the Italian sociologist Maurizio Montalbini, who died in 2009Frasassi – View of the caves
5. Giant Cave – Its central cavern is 107 m high,65 m wide and 130 m long, putting it in the 1995 Guinness Book of Records as the worlds largest tourist cave. This record was broken in 2010 when La Verna cave in the south west of France was opened to tourists, the cave contains many large stalactites and stalagmites, many of exceptional beauty. A feature of the stalagmites is their appearance, formed by water dropping from up to 80 m above. The enormous hall is 107 m high,130 m long and 65 m large and its available space and the constant temperatures throughout the year have led to the placement of two geodetic pendula and other scientific instruments. The cave was first explored by Antonio Federico Lindner in 1840, at the time, the karst behind Trieste was being searched for underground water from the Timavo River so as to be able to plan the citys aqueduct. In 1897, it was mapped by Andrea Perko, properly equipped for guided tours in 1905 by Club Touristi Triestini. After World War I, ownership went to the Julian Alpine Society, tourism only really began in 1957, when electricity was installed, unveiling new perspectives and details. Two wide parking lots are available on the outside, visits are scheduled at regular intervals throughout the day with expert guides. A guided walk through the cave takes about an hour, media related to Grotta Gigante at Wikimedia Commons Official Grotta Gigante websiteGiant Cave – Inside the cave looking towards the tourist entrance
6. Paleontology – Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch. It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms evolution and interactions with each other, paleontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century BC. The science became established in the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuviers work on comparative anatomy, and developed rapidly in the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek παλαιός, palaios, i. e. old, ancient, ὄν, on, i. e. being, creature and λόγος, logos, i. e. speech, thought, study. Paleontology lies on the border between biology and geology, but differs from archaeology in that it excludes the study of modern humans. It now uses techniques drawn from a range of sciences, including biochemistry, mathematics. The final quarter of the 20th century saw the development of molecular phylogenetics, molecular phylogenetics has also been used to estimate the dates when species diverged, but there is controversy about the reliability of the molecular clock on which such estimates depend. The simplest definition is the study of ancient life, paleontology is one of the historical sciences, along with archaeology, geology, astronomy, cosmology, philology and history itself. This means that it aims to describe phenomena of the past, hence it has three main elements, description of the phenomena, developing a general theory about the causes of various types of change, and applying those theories to specific facts. Sometimes the smoking gun is discovered by an accident during other research. Paleontology lies on the boundary between biology and geology since paleontology focuses on the record of past life but its source of evidence is fossils. In addition paleontology often uses techniques derived from other sciences, including biology, osteology, ecology, chemistry, techniques developed in engineering have been used to analyse how ancient organisms might have worked, for example how fast Tyrannosaurus could move and how powerful its bite was. As knowledge has increased, paleontology has developed specialised subdivisions, vertebrate paleontology concentrates on fossils of vertebrates, from the earliest fish to the immediate ancestors of modern mammals. Invertebrate paleontology deals with fossils of such as molluscs, arthropods. Paleobotany focuses on the study of plants, but traditionally includes the study of fossil algae. Palynology, the study of pollen and spores produced by plants and protists. Micropaleontology deals with all microscopic fossil organisms, regardless of the group to which they belong, one example is the development of oxygenic photosynthesis by bacteria, which hugely increased the productivity and diversity of ecosystems. This also caused the oxygenation of the atmosphere, together, these were a prerequisite for the evolution of the most complex eukaryotic cells, from which all multicellular organisms are builtPaleontology
7. Province of Palermo – The Province of Palermo was a province in the autonomous region of Sicily, a major island in Southern Italy. Its capital was the city of Palermo, on August 4,2015, it was replaced by the Metropolitan City of Palermo. Its name is derived from Latin word Panormus, from 1072 to 1194 Palermo was the capital of the Kingdom of Sicily before Naples became the new capital under the rule of the French Angevin dynasty. It has also ruled by the Romans, Byzantines, Normans, Arabs, Spanish Empire. Historical accounts recording the existence of the date back to the 8th and 6th century B. C. The province is surrounded by Tyrrhenian Sea in the north, Province of Trapani in the west and it is popular for its beaches, namely Mondello. The land is mountainous and includes Pollina and Imera Valleys, Madonie Range is located in the province. The Province of Palermo has 82 comuni,1,249,533 inhabitants, some major towns of the province are Palermo, Alia, Alimena, Sclafani Bagni and Petralia Soprana. In 1840, for the purpose of administration the province was divided into four districts – Palermo, Corleone, Termini, tourism is also an important industry. A few major tourist destinations include Arab-Norman Palatine Chapel, Church of St. John of the Hermits, Palazzo Abatellis, Gothic Palazzo Chiaramonte, the seat of the Sicilian parliament is located in the province. A cathedral containing the tombs of Frederick II and other rulers is also a known tourist attraction. The Madonie Regional Park is also located in the province and it has an airport called Falcone-Borsellino Airport, which serves about a million passengers every year, while the local port serves about half a million passengers every year. During the months from July to September the province is visited by a number of tourists. Metropolitan City of Palermo Media related to Province of Palermo at Wikimedia CommonsProvince of Palermo – Map highlighting the location of the province of Palermo in Italy
8. Province of Savona – The province of Savona is a province in the Liguria region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Savona, which has a population of 61,529 inhabitants, the province has a total population of 280,707. Savona was first settled by the Ligurian tribe, the Sabazi and this support of the Carthaginian Empire led to Savona being conquered by the Roman Empire. During the Middle Ages, Savona allied with Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1440 it also fought against Genoa during its war against the Visconti of Milan, in response, Genoa sacked the city and destroyed the port and shipping. It allied itself with the French in the 16th century, but this also failed and resulted in Genoa invading the area again. It was occupied by Napoleons French forces at the start of the 19th century, following this, ironworks were founded in Savona and the port revived. The province of Savona is one of four provinces in the region of Liguria which forms a strip in the northwest of Italy. Savona has a coastline on the Gulf of Genoa, the Province of Imperia lies to the west. The region of Piedmont lies inland, with the Province of Cuneo to the northwest, the provincial capital is the city of Savona. Inland is the chain formed by the Maritime Alps and the ApenninesProvince of Savona – Map highlighting the location of the province of Savona in Italy
9. Stazzema – Stazzema is a comune in the Province of Lucca in the Italian region Tuscany, located about 80 kilometres northwest of Florence and about 25 km northwest of Lucca. During World War II, the village of SantAnna di Stazzema was the site of a massacre of civil population by German SS soldiers, a total of 560 people were killed, among them 100 children, one of them only 20 days old. The city received the Gold Medal for Military Valour after the war, Stazzema borders the following municipalities, Camaiore, Careggine, Massa, Molazzana, Pescaglia, Pietrasanta, Seravezza, Vagli Sotto, Vergemoli. Despite municipal name, the hall is not located in Stazzema. Media related to Stazzema at Wikimedia Commons Stazzema official website SantAnna di Stazzema unofficial websiteStazzema – Panorama of Stazzema
10. Tuscany – Tuscany is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. Tuscany is known for its landscapes, traditions, history, artistic legacy, Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is considered a nation within a nation. Tuscany is traditionally a popular destination in Italy, and the main tourist destinations by number of tourist arrivals are Florence, Pisa, Montecatini Terme, Castiglione della Pescaia and Grosseto. The village of Castiglione della Pescaia is also the most visited destination in the region. Additionally, Siena, Lucca, the Chianti region, Versilia and Val dOrcia are also internationally renowned, Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence was the worlds 89th most visited city, roughly triangular in shape, Tuscany borders the regions of Liguria to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna to the north and east, Umbria to the east and Lazio to the southeast. The comune of Badia Tedalda, in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca Raffaello within Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany has a western coastline on the Tyrrhenian Sea, containing the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany has an area of approximately 22,993 square kilometres, surrounded and crossed by major mountain chains, and with few plains, the region has a relief that is dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds of the total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres, and mountains. Plains occupy 8. 4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres —mostly around the valley of the River Arno, many of Tuscanys largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital Florence, Empoli and Pisa. The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks, following this, the Villanovan culture saw Tuscany, and the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms. City-states developed in the late Villanovan before Orientalization occurred and the Etruscan civilization rose, the Etruscans created the first major civilization in this region, large enough to establish a transport infrastructure, to implement agriculture and mining and to produce vibrant art. The Etruscans lived in Etruria well into prehistory, throughout their existence, they lost territory to Magna Graecia, Carthage and Celts. Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece, one reason for its eventual demise was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans. Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa, Siena, and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, and ensured peace. These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, however, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather. The Roman civilization in the West collapsed in the 5th century AD, in the years following 572, the Longobards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their Duchy of TusciaTuscany – Hilly landscape in Val d'Orcia
11. Anacapri – Anacapri is a comune on the island of Capri, in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Italy. The Ancient Greek prefix ana- means up or above, signifying that Anacapri is located at an elevation on the island than Capri. Administratively, it has a separate status from the city of Capri, the most significant site in the village is the Villa San Michele. French composer Claude Debussy was a visitor to Anacapri. He even named one of his preludes from the first book, No.5 Les collines dAnacapri, there is a bus service, via numerous hairpin bends, from Marina Grande and Capri to Anacapri. One of the tourist attractions in Anacapri is the chairlift to 589-m Monte Solaro for picturesque views of the south-facing coast, punta Carena Lighthouse is located 3 km from the main townAnacapri – View from Villa San Michele towards Marina Grande
12. Sardinia – Sardinia is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and an autonomous region of Italy. It is located in the Western Mediterranean, just south of the French island of Corsica, the regions official name is Regione Autonoma della Sardegna / Regione Autònoma de Sardigna, and its capital and largest city is Cagliari. It is divided into four provinces and a metropolitan city and its indigenous language and the other minority languages spoken by the Sardinians enjoy equal dignity with Italian under regional law. The name Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun *srd-, later romanised as sardus and it makes its first appearance on the Nora Stone, where the word Šrdn testifies to the names existence when the Phoenician merchants first arrived. According to Timaeus, one of Platos dialogues, Sardinia and its people as well might have named after Sardò. There has also been speculation that identifies the ancient Nuragic Sards with the Sherden, in Classical antiquity, Sardinia was called Ichnusa, Σανδάλιον Sandal, Sardinia and Sardó. Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 24,100 square kilometres and it is situated between 38°51 and 41°18 latitude north and 8°8 and 9°50 east longitude. To the west of Sardinia is the Sea of Sardinia, a unit of the Mediterranean Sea, to Sardinias east is the Tyrrhenian Sea, the nearest land masses are the island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Tunisia, the Balearic Islands, and Provence. The Tyrrhenian Sea portion of the Mediterranean Sea is directly to the east of Sardinia between the Sardinian east coast and the west coast of the Italian mainland peninsula, the Strait of Bonifacio is directly north of Sardinia and separates Sardinia from the French island of Corsica. The island has an ancient geoformation and, unlike Sicily and mainland Italy, is not earthquake-prone and its rocks date in fact from the Palaeozoic Era. Due to long erosion processes, the highlands, formed of granite, schist, trachyte, basalt, sandstone and dolomite limestone. The highest peak is Punta La Marmora, part of the Gennargentu Ranges in the centre of the island. The islands ranges and plateaux are separated by wide valleys and flatlands. Sardinia has few rivers, the largest being the Tirso,151 km long, which flows into the Sea of Sardinia, the Coghinas. There are 54 artificial lakes and dams that supply water and electricity, the main ones are Lake Omodeo and Lake Coghinas. The only natural lake is Lago di Baratz. A number of large, shallow, salt-water lagoons and pools are located along the 1,850 km of the coastline, the climate of the island is variable from area to area, due to several factors including the extension in latitude and the elevation. During the year there is a concentration of rainfall in the winter and autumn, some heavy showers in the springSardinia – Cala Goloritzé, Baunei
13. Castelcivita – Castelcivita is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy. In 2010 its population was 1,902, the town is situated in the middle of Cilento, by the western side of the Alburni mountains, and its territory is part of the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park. Neighboring municipalities are Albanella, Altavilla Silentina, Aquara, Controne, Ottati, Postiglione, Roccadaspide, the municipalities counts the hamlets of Cosentini, Pantano-Serracchio and Serra. Castelcivita is home to the popular tourist attraction, the Castelcivita Caves, located 1,5 km in the valley, Cilento Cilentan dialect Municipal website Official site of the cavesCastelcivita – Panoramic view
14. Province of Salerno – The Province of Salerno is a province in the Campania region of Italy. The largest towns in the province are, Salerno, the capital, the province has an area of 4,923 km2, and a total population of about 1.1 million. There are 158 comuni, the one with the largest area being Eboli, see Comuni of the Province of Salerno. One of the features of the rugged country-side is Gole del Calore di Felitto and this area is of great geological interest and is rich in flora and fauna. One of the historical buildings in the province is the chapter house belonging to the Certosa di Padula. The building has evolved over centuries, the earliest parts were constructed in the early 14th century, a mannerist cloister leads to the church, and a later 17th-century cloister has loggias supported by rusticated columns. These features add to the baroque character of the building. The chapter house has been adapted for the Museo Archeologico della Lucania Occidentale, the Monti Picentini area is home to the eponymous regional park, which is home to several natural preservesProvince of Salerno – Palazzo Sant'Agostino, home to the provincial seat.
15. Province of Bari – The Province of Bari was a province in the Apulia region of Italy. Its capital was the city of Bari and it has an area of 5,138 km2, and a total population of 1,594,109. On 1 January 2015 it was replaced by the Metropolitan City of Bari, the arable land in the former province of Bari is exploited with the cultivation of olive and grapes but also cherries, peaches, and almonds. From that agricultural activity is derived olive oil, wine and table grapes, bitonto is especially noted for its extra virgin olive oil, and Corato, Coratina and Giovinazzo are along notable producing areas. The centers of production are mainly concentrated in Gravina and Ruvo di Puglia, in the north of Bari. Also important is the production of cherries, the Apulian red is especially prevalent in the countryside of Turi and PutignanoProvince of Bari – Bari Harbour
16. Apulia – Apulia is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto in the south. Its southernmost portion, known as the Salento peninsula, forms a stiletto on the boot of Italy, the region comprises 19,345 square kilometers, and its population is about 4 million. It is bordered by the other Italian regions of Molise to the north, Campania to the west, across the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, it faces Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, and Montenegro, The Apulia region extends as far north as Monte Gargano. Puglias coastline is longer than any other mainland Italian region, in the north, the Gargano promontory extends out into the Adriatic, while in the south, the flat and dry Salento peninsula forms the heel of Italys boot. It is home to the Alta Murgia and Gargano National Parks, see also, History of Apulia Apulia is one of the richest archaeological regions in Italy. It was first colonized by Mycenaean Greeks, a number of castles were built in the area by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, including Castel del Monte, sometimes called the Crown of Apulia. After 1282, when the island of Sicily was lost, Apulia was part of the Kingdom of Naples, as a result of the French–Spanish war of 1501–1504, Naples again came under the rule of Aragon and the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714. When Barbary pirates of North Africa sacked Vieste in 1554, they took an estimated 7,000 slaves, in 1861 the region became part of the Kingdom of Italy, with the new capital city at Turin. In the words of one historian, Turin was so far away that Otranto is today closer to seventeen foreign capitals than it is to Turin, the regions contribution to Italys gross value added was around 4. 6% in 2000, while its population was 7% of the total. The per capita GDP is low compared to the national average, in comparison with the country as a whole, the economy of Apulia is characterised by a greater emphasis on agriculture and services and a smaller part played by industry. In the last 20 years the base of the regions economy has changed radically. The majority of firms are financed by local capital. In certain of these sectors – especially textiles, clothing, footwear, vehicles, the region has a good network of roads but the railway network is somewhat inadequate, particularly in the south. Apulias 800 kilometers of coastline is studded with ports, which make this region an important terminal for transport and tourism to Greece, between 2007 and 2013 the economy of Apulia expanded more than that of the rest of southern Italy. Such growth, over decades, is a severe challenge to the hydrogeological system. Emigration from the depressed areas to northern Italy and the rest of Europe was very intense in the years between 1956 and 1971. Subsequently, the trend declined as economic conditions improved, to the point where there was net immigration in the years between 1982 and 1985, since 1986 the stagnation in employment has led to a new inversion of the trend, caused by a decrease in immigration. Since 1 June 2015, former judge and mayor of Bari Michele Emiliano of the Democratic Party has served as President, Apulia is divided into five administrative provinces and one metropolitan city, Cuisine plays an important role throughout ApuliaApulia – Marina di Marittima, Salento
17. Grotta del Cavallone – The Grotta del Cavallone, also known as the Grotta della Figlia di Jorio, is a cave located near Lama dei Peligni, in the province of Chieti, Abruzzo, Italy. It is open during the months, an admission fee is charged. The cave lies within the mountains of the Majella National Park, the cave is 10–20 meters wide and nearly the same height throughout, with numerous speleothems including stalagmites, flowstone, and rimstone pools. It has electric lighting with rough paths, concrete steps, gabriele DAnnunzio employed the cave in the first act of his tragedy La figlia di Iorio. List of caves List of caves in Italy Showcaves description Grotta del Cavallone Grotta del Cavallone Media related to Grotta del Cavallone at Wikimedia Commons Grotta del Cavallone official websiteGrotta del Cavallone – Stalactites in Cavallone Cave
18. Abruzzo – Abruzzo is a region of Italy in Southern Italy, with an area of 10,763 square km and a population of 1.3 million. Its western border lies 80 km east of Rome, the region is divided into the four provinces of LAquila, Teramo, Pescara, and Chieti. Abruzzo borders the region of Marche to the north, Lazio to the west and south-west, Molise to the south-east, and the Adriatic Sea to the east. Geographically, Abruzzo is divided into an area to the west, which includes the Gran Sasso Ditalia. Abruzzo is considered culturally, linguistically, and historically a region of Southern Italy, the Italian Statistical Authority deems it to be part of Southern Italy, partially because of Abruzzos historic association with the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. These ensure the survival of 75% of Europes living species including species, such as the small wading dotterel, golden eagle, the Abruzzo chamois, Apennine wolf. Abruzzo is also home to Calderone, Europes southernmost glacier, visiting nineteenth-century Italian diplomat and journalist Primo Levi said that forte e gentile best describes the beauty of the region and the character of its people. Forte e gentile has since become the motto of the region, Abruzzo is divided into four administrative provinces, Humans have inhabited Abruzzo since Neolithic times. A skeleton from Lama dei Peligni in the province of Chieti has been dated to 6,540 bp. The name Abruzzo appears to derive from the Latin Aprutium, although in Roman times the region was known at times as Picenum, Sabina et Samnium, Flaminia et Picenum. Until 1963 it was part of the Abruzzi region with Molise, Abruzzo Citeriore is present day Chieti province. Abruzzo Ulteriore I comprised the Teramo and Pescara provinces, Abruzzo Ulteriore II is now the Province of LAquila, in this province is found the city of Corfinio, the chief city of the Paeligni,7 m. N. of Sulmona in the valley of the Aternus. The site of the town is occupied by the village of Pentima. It appears also as a fortress of importance in the Civil War and these people were honored by Caesar as citizens of Rome. It is said that the name Italia came from this region because of ancient coins that have found here that date from about the 1st century BC. These coins have the name Italia on them and are proof of this fact. This theory of the origin of the name Italia is debated by scholars, archaeologists and it is also said by the Italian Government that Calabria was once called Italia by the ancient Greeks in honour of its inhabitants who were known as the Itali. This occurred hundreds of years before the coins of Corfinio were apparently minted, the late archaeologist Massimo Pallottino also claimed that the name was derived from the Italic tribes that settled in modern CalabriaAbruzzo – The church of Santa Maria di Collemaggio in L'Aquila, as it was before the devastating earthquake of 6 April 2009.
19. Ear of Dionysius – The Ear of Dionysius is a limestone cave carved out of the Temenites hill in the city of Syracuse, on the island of Sicily in Italy. Its name comes from its similarity in shape to the human ear, the Ear of Dionysius was most likely formed out of an old limestone quarry. It is 23 metres high and extends 65 metres back into the cliff, horizontally, it bends in an approximate S shape, vertically it is tapered at the top like a teardrop. Because of its shape the Ear has extremely good acoustics, making even a small sound resonate throughout the cave and this cave was dug in Greek/Roman times as a water storage for Syracuse. A narrow tunnel was dug first and this tunnel was widened by digging down and sideways afterwards, giving the cave its unusual shape. The small narrow tunnel is visible on the top of this artificial cave. An earthquake struck this area causing damage, and the cave became unusable for storage afterwards. The name of the cave was coined in 1586 by the painter Caravaggio and it refers to the tyrant Dionysius I of Syracuse. According to legend, Dionysius used the cave as a prison for political dissidents, another more gruesome legend claims that Dionysius carved the cave in its shape so that it would amplify the screams of prisoners being tortured in it. Unfortunately, the focusing effect can no longer be heard because access to the focal point is no longer possible. Because of its reputation for acoustic flawlessness, the Ear of Dionysius has also come to refer to a type of ear trumpet that has a flexible tube, the term Ear of Dionysius can also refer to surveillance, specifically that for political gain. There is a possibility that this feature is actually of natural origin. It lies on the slope side of a substantial hill it could well be a slot canyon cut by rainwater run-off in prehistoric times. Comparing it to other slot canyons, especially those in the state of Utah, the narrowness of the top opening and widening of the lower part are also common to slot caverns elsewhere, as is its serpentine shape. The highly polished sides also suggest that the phenomenon was created by water, such a natural feature, especially given its acoustics, would have been valued in the ancient world for its supposed sacred properties and this could have led to its preservation. Had it been man-made, why would the quarriers bother to polish its walls to such a high degree, List of caves List of caves in Italy Media related to Ear of Dionysius at Wikimedia Commons Description of acoustics on Sound Tourism siteEar of Dionysius – Orecchio di Dionisio Ear of Dionysius
20. Syracuse, Sicily – Syracuse is a historic city in Sicily, the capital of the province of Syracuse. The city is notable for its rich Greek history, culture, amphitheatres, architecture and this 2, 700-year-old city played a key role in ancient times, when it was one of the major powers of the Mediterranean world. Syracuse is located in the southeast corner of the island of Sicily, the city was founded by Ancient Greek Corinthians and Teneans and became a very powerful city-state. Syracuse was allied with Sparta and Corinth and exerted influence over the entirety of Magna Graecia, described by Cicero as the greatest Greek city and the most beautiful of them all, it equaled Athens in size during the fifth century BC. It later became part of the Roman Republic and Byzantine Empire, after this Palermo overtook it in importance, as the capital of the Kingdom of Sicily. Eventually the kingdom would be united with the Kingdom of Naples to form the Two Sicilies until the Italian unification of 1860, in the modern day, the city is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site along with the Necropolis of Pantalica. In the central area, the city itself has a population of around 125,000 people, the inhabitants are known as Siracusans. Syracuse is mentioned in the Bible in the Acts of the Apostles book at 28,12 as Paul stayed there, the patron saint of the city is Saint Lucy, she was born in Syracuse and her feast day, Saint Lucys Day, is celebrated on 13 December. Syracuse was founded in 734 or 733 BC by Greek settlers from Corinth and Tenea, there are many attested variants of the name of the city including Συράκουσαι Syrakousai, Συράκοσαι Syrakosai and Συρακώ Syrako. The nucleus of the ancient city was the island of Ortygia. The settlers found the fertile and the native tribes to be reasonably well-disposed to their presence. The city grew and prospered, and for some time stood as the most powerful Greek city anywhere in the Mediterranean, colonies were founded at Akrai, Kasmenai, Akrillai, Helorus and Kamarina. The descendants of the first colonists, called Gamoroi, held power until they were expelled by the Killichiroi, the former, however, returned to power in 485 BC, thanks to the help of Gelo, ruler of Gela. Gelo himself became the despot of the city, and moved many inhabitants of Gela, Kamarina and Megera to Syracuse, building the new quarters of Tyche, the enlarged power of Syracuse made unavoidable the clash against the Carthaginians, who ruled western Sicily. In the Battle of Himera, Gelo, who had allied with Theron of Agrigento, a temple dedicated to Athena, was erected in the city to commemorate the event. Syracuse grew considerably during this time and its walls encircled 120 hectares in the fifth century, but as early as the 470s BC the inhabitants started building outside the walls. The complete population of its territory approximately numbered 250,000 in 415 BC, Gelo was succeeded by his brother Hiero, who fought against the Etruscans at Cumae in 474 BC. His rule was eulogized by poets like Simonides of Ceos, Bacchylides and Pindar, a democratic regime was introduced by ThrasybulosSyracuse, Sicily – Ortygia island, where Syracuse was founded in ancient Greek times. Mount Etna is visible in the distance.
21. Province of Ancona – The province of Ancona is a province in the Marche region of central Italy. Its capital is the city of Ancona, and the borders the Adriatic Sea. The city of Ancona is also the capital of Marche, to the north, the province is bordered by the Adriatic Sea, and the Apennine Mountains to the west. The population of the province is located in coastal areas and in the provincial capital Ancona, which has a population of 101,518. Due to its location, it is strategically important. The president of the province is Liana Serrani and its coastline of sandy beaches is popular to Italians but has not been greatly affected by tourism. A large area of the land is farmland often used for wine production, the province produces wines using the Montepulciano, Sangiovese. Annually, feasts occur in the province during the harvesting period and it contains mountainous regions and the Conero Regional Park, which contain dense forests where black truffles are found. These are sold in Acqualagna in the province of Pesaro e Urbino. Comunes of the Province of Ancona Official websiteProvince of Ancona – Map of the province of Ancona
22. Randazzo – Randazzo is a town and comune of Sicily, Italy, in the province of Catania. It is situated at the foot of Mount Etna,70 kilometres northwest of Catania by rail. It is the nearest town to the summit of Etna, and is one of the points from which the ascent may be made, in the 13th century the town had its own army, which fought in favor of the king against the rebels. In 1210 King Frederick II of Hohenstaufen and his young wife Constance of Aragon sheltered at Randazzo to escape the plague which raged in Palermo. Randazzo became one of the most densely populated towns in the island, after Palermo, the town was also divided into three main districts, the Greeks lived in St. Nicolas quarter, the Latins in St. Marys and the Lombards in St. Martins. During the Black Death of 1575–80 the population of Randazzo declined, the economy slumped, and Randazzo almost turned into a ghost town. During World War II, Randazzo was bombed by the Allies and it has a façade completely built of black lava stone, three polygonal apses in the form of towers and 15th-century side portals in the Catalan-Gothic style. The huge interior is divided into three naves by black monolithic columns, and preserves statues by the Gagini school and six paintings by Giuseppe Velasquez and it has a 14th-century bell tower, by some acclaimed as the most beautiful in Italy. Church of San Nicola, the largest in the town, originally established in the 14th century, after a recent restoration the castle is used today as an exhibition center and houses a collection of Pupi siciliani and the Paolo Vagliasindi archeological museum. People born or raised in Randazzo include, Domenico Spadafora, a Roman Catholic priest, aragonese Gate Palazzo Lanza Palazzo Scala, a former Royal residence from the 12th centuryRandazzo
23. Province of Catania – The Province of Catania is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. Its capital is the city of Catania and it has an area of 3,552 square kilometres and a total population of about 1.1 million. There are 58 comunes in the province, see Comunes of the Province of Catania, mount Etna, Europes largest active volcano is located in the province. There are many roads that cross the territory of the province. The S. S114 links many of the towns from Messina to Siracusa, the S. S121. There are also the A18 Messina-Catania and A19 Catania-Palermo motorways that pass through the province, the S. S114 and S. S192 start from the Catania by pass whilst the SS.514 runs through the southern part of the province and connects to Ragusa. The new province would include all of the south of the Simeto River as well as some of the municipalities of Ragusa. Italy portal Metropolitan City of Catania Official website City of Catania Official website Tourism PortalProvince of Catania – Mount Etna is located in the Province of Catania
24. Grotta di Ispinigoli – The Grotta di Ispinigoli is a karstic cave in the Supramonte massif, near Dorgali, Sardinia, Italy. One of the largest grottoes in the island, houses a large stalactite-stalagmite compound, the grotto also include the so-called Abisso delle Vergini, a c.60 m-deep hole leading to a 12 km series of caves connecting Ispingoli to the other grotto of San Giovanni Su Anzu. Inside the cave were found traces of human bones and jewelry dating back the Bronze Age, at the bottom of this abyss cave the only known specimen of the extinct giant otter Megalenhydris was found. This animal is one of four species of extinct endemic otters on the island, bue Marino Grotto Tiscali Cave List of caves List of caves in Italy Page about the grottoesGrotta di Ispinigoli – View of the cave
25. Alcara li Fusi – Alcara li Fusi is a comune in the Province of Messina in the Italian region Sicily, located about 120 kilometres east of Palermo and about 80 kilometres west of Messina. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 2,339, Alcara li Fusi borders the following municipalities, Cesarò, Longi, Militello Rosmarino, San Fratello, San Marco dAlunzio. The village is 398 metres above sea level on the slopes of the Nebrodi Mountains. They extend from the peaks of Mount Crasto, which lies to the northeast at about 1,300 metres above sea level, to the plateau of Miraglia and Mount Soro, which rises to 1,847 metres. The central habitation is found on the bank to the right of the river below magnificent rocky outcrops of calcareous origin, the left side of the Rosmarino is instead constituted by reliefs rich in vegetation which reach the ridge of the Nebrodi Mountains and the summit of Mount Soro. Following this, a part of the transferred to an area more within the valley. The same version of the story is given, moving a little the position of the mythical cities, to this conclusion could bring for example the remains of human settlement present until a few years, even at Crasto. The settlement probably took the Arab name of Akaret from the Saracens, the Norman period would have to be the most important for its settlement and it should be better studied. It is therefore probabile that to give a structure to a settlement perhaps having had a spread out character, was the Norman period. However, it not seem possible, at the moment. In 1359 under the reign of Frederick IV of Aragon, the fortification, in the 15th century is attested a Jewish community, probably older and particularly consistent in this area of the Nebrodi, confirming that Alcara was a commercial and economic center. The community would have disappeared by the 17th century with the expulsion of all Jews from Sicily not converted. In 1812, with the abolition of the constituencies which had up till then divided Sicily, there are attested in the eighteen hundreds different variants such as Alcare de fusa, Alcara dei fusi, Alcara de li fusi, and Alcara delle Fusa. Such denominations were due to the necessity of distinguishing this habitated center from another Alcara or LAlcara which for the same reason took the name of Lercara Friddi. On May 17,1860, at Alcara there was a peasant rivolt which anticipated a similar, the Garibaldi group, after they came upon the village, jailed a few of the rioters, who after a quick process were executed. Www. comune. alcaralifusi. me. it/ il sito del Santo patrono San Nicolò Politi Alcara li Fusi Online Le foto e tradizioni su Alcara www. nebrodifoto. comAlcara li Fusi – Alcara li Fusi
26. Province of Messina – Messina was a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. Its capital was the city of Messina and it was replaced by the Metropolitan City of Messina. It had an area of 3,247 square kilometres, which amounts to 12.6 percent of area of the island. There are 108 comuni in the province, see Comuni of the Province of Messina, the province included the Aeolian Islands, all part of the comune of Lipari. The territory is mountainous, with the exception of alluvial plain at the mouths of the various rivers. Much of the population is concentrated in the area, after the hill towns have been largely abandoned from the 19th century. The main mountain ridges are the Peloritani, up to 1,300 metres in elevation, and the Nebrodi, up to 1,900 metres, rivers of the province include the Alcantara and the Pollina, which forms the border with the province of Palermo to the westProvince of Messina – Giardini Naxos, a popular resort in the Province of Messina
27. Montecatini Terme – Montecatini Terme is an Italian municipality of 21,095 inhabitants within the province of Pistoia in Tuscany, Italy. It is the most important center in Valdinievole, the presence of humans in the area of Montecatini Terme is very old. In the early part of the 14th century, the borders of Valdinievole faced a new power, the leader of that revolt was Uguccione della Faggiuola, who in 1312 became imperial vicar and master of Pisa and Lucca. This directly threatened Florence which meant that war was given that this outcome would forge the future of the whole region of Tuscany. On 29 August under the walls of Montecatini, the battle was played out. The Guelfi army were taken by surprise by the Ghibellines and by Uguccione della Faggiuola with thousands of casualties, the following year Uguccione della Faggiuola was forced to flee and Castruccio Castracani of Antelminelli took his place. The latter became first lord of Lucca, and then Pisa and was able to extend his power in Tuscany more and more. In 1530 at the foot of Montecatini, baths were constructed and adapted to contain the already known Spa waters, Montecatini saw war again, and was in the center of the dispute, which began in 1554. The players were Cosimo I de Medici and Pietro Strozzi who were representatives of Florence with a Hispanic alliance with Siena as well as a French alliance, on 21 June of that year, Montecatini was occupied by Siena. Montecatini was actually not opposed to occupation, because Cornelio Bentivoglio declared himself as a liberator. Montecatini, the impregnable fortress fell into poor repair caused by the centuries of battles. So when the Medici and their troops went on the offensive, Montecatini fell under the Medici who plundered mercilessly, even taking away doors, the area had remained a health hazard due to the stagnant water. The following centuries passed quietly until the early 20th century, specifically 1905 and this name, however, had no luck, and was changed later to the present name of Montecatini Terme. During the same period around the start of the 20th century, the hotels had grown in number and quality, it was also noted the necessity to combine health, fun, relaxation and sport. It soon became home to restaurants, theaters, nightclubs. Celebrities began to frequent the city, the reputation of the town was recognized with the visit from the leader of government, Benito Mussolini,16 May 1930, with Lando Ferretti. During World War II, Don Julius Facibeni and lOpera della Divina Provvidenza Madonnina del Grappa di Firenze ran an orphanage in Montecatini at the Villa Forini Lippi. In it, as in the case of the others in Tuscany, many Jewish children found shelter, among them the brothers Cesare, Facibeni received the honor of the righteous among nations by Yad Vashem of JerusalemMontecatini Terme – The medieval burg of Montecatini.
28. Neptune's Grotto – Neptunes Grotto is a stalactite cave near the town of Alghero on the island of Sardinia, Italy. The cave was discovered by fishermen in the 18th century and has since developed into a popular tourist attraction. The grotto gets its name from the Roman god of the sea, the entrance to the grotto lies only around a metre above the sea level at the foot of the 110-metre-high Capo Caccia cliffs and the cave can therefore only be visited when the waters below are calm. A stairway cut into the cliff in 1954, the 654-step escala del cabirol, the grotto is also accessible via a short boat trip from the port of Alghero, these trips are arranged hourly during the summer, but less frequently during spring and autumn. Two other grottoes lie nearby, the Green grotto, which is not open to tourists, and the Grotta di Ricami, the combined length of the cave system is estimated to be around 4 kilometers, but only a few hundred metres are accessible to the public. Inside are passages of lit stalactite and stalagmite formations, and a 120-metre-long saltwater lake, the cave was once a habitat for the Mediterranean monk seal, which has become extinct in the area. Tourists visiting Neptunes Grotto are given guided tours and led single-file through a lit pathway, with tour guides providing information about the cave in Italian, the grotto is widely visited, and during the peak tourist season in August, can contain around 200 people at a time. Neptunes Grotto was the set of the movie Island of the Fishmen, for approximately two months the Grotto was transformed into a gigantic set. The science fiction movie starred Barbara Bach, and was under the direction of Sergio Martino, nereo Cave List of caves List of caves in Italy Article about the Neptune Cave Media related to Neptunes Grotto at Wikimedia CommonsNeptune's Grotto – Inside the cave
29. Alghero – Alghero, is a town of about 44,000 inhabitants in the Italian insular province of Sassari in northwestern Sardinia, next to the Mediterranean Sea. Part of its population descends from Catalan conquerors from the end of the Middle Ages and that is why the Catalan language is co-official in the city, unique in Italy, taking the name of alguerès dialect. The name Alghero comes from the medieval Latin Aleguerium, meaning stagnation of algae, Alghero is the fifth university center in the island, coming after Cagliari and Sassari. It hosts the headquarters of the Università degli Studi di Sassari’s Architecture, in 2012 it was the 10th most visited city by tourists in Italy. For ecclesiastical history, see Roman Catholic Diocese of Alghero-Bosa The area of todays Alghero has been settled since pre-historic times, the Ozieri culture was present here in the 4th millennium BC, while the Nuraghe civilization settled in the area around 1,500 BC. Due to its position on the Mediterranean Sea, Alghero had been developed into a fortified port town by 1102. The Dorias ruled Alghero for centuries, apart from a period under the rule of Pisa between 1283–84. Algheros population later grew because of the arrival of Catalan colonists, in the early 16th century Alghero received papal recognition as a bishopric and the status of Kings City and developed economically. It is uncertain whether this was some settlement, perhaps linked to the events of the Saracen invasions. For two centuries remained in the orbit of the Maritime Republics, as in 1283 when the Pisans were able to control it for a year. These were granted enticing privileges, and in fact replaced the original population, poorly spoken by young people, trying for some time to protect this dialect, through education programs and official use within the local authority. The city, one of the principal of Sardinia and the fifth most populated region, is one of the gateways to the Island and it a strong tourist popular destination in the island, in 2012 it was the 10th Italian cities most visited by foreign tourists. The Aragonese were followed by the Spanish Habsburgs, who ruled until 1702, in 1720 Alghero, along with the rest of Sardinia, was handed over to the Piedmont-based House of Savoy. In 1821 a famine led to a revolt by the population, at the end of the same century Alghero was de-militarised. During the Fascist era, part of the marshes were reclaimed. During World War II Alghero was bombed, and its historical centre suffered heavy damage, the presence of malaria in the countryside was finally overcome in the 1950s. Since then, Alghero has become a popular tourist resort, Alghero is located in the northwestern coast of Sardinia, along the bay named after the city. In the north of the area there is the Nurra plain, to the NW the karstic systems of Capo Caccia, Punta GiglioAlghero – 16th century Catalan city walls
30. Nereo Cave – Nereo Cave is a huge underwater sea-cave situated on the north-west of Sardinia in the Coral riviera of Alghero, Italy. The name was given by the discovers in honour of the mythological figure Nereus, the site is under the high limestone cliffs of Capo Caccia,100 metres north of the famous Neptunes Grotto. The cave is considered the biggest marine cave in the Mediterranean Sea, with the around 10 entrances, arches and tunnels, it is possible to make dives from 0 to 35 m, through long and large tunnels, air chambers and different ways. The walls are covered with red coral and yellow leptosamnia, with the other cape of Punta Giglio and the Porto Conte Bay, the cave is part of a Marine reserve set up in 2003. Its flora and fauna are typically Mediterranean including groupers, lobsters, congers and moray eels, Cave diving List of caves List of caves in Italy Related site to Nereo Cave Wikimapia location Video on YouTubeNereo Cave – The "Belvedere" watching terrace, south upside entrance
31. Province of Frosinone – The Province of Frosinone is a province in the Lazio region of Italy, with 91 comuni. Its capital is the city of Frosinone and it has an area of 3,244 square kilometres and a total population of 496,420. The Province was established by Royal Decree on 6 December 1926 with territories belonging to Lazio, in historical times, the area, previously occupied by the so-called Pelasgic civilization, was settled by Indo-European colonists. This arrival is echoed in numerous legends, like those of Aeneas and Saturn, in the 7th century BC the area of what is now the province entered the orbit of Rome, which made it the so-called Latium adiectum. However, Rome needed some 300 years to obtain a victory against the Volsci and the Hernici, who became Romanized after the Social. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the part of the province belonged to the Papal States. In the Middle Ages, the abbey of Monte Cassino was always a major landowner, pontecorvo remained a Papal enclave from 1463. The creation of a new province, with capitals in Cassino, Formia and Sora and comprising the former territories of the Kingdom of Naples, has been proposedProvince of Frosinone – Linguistic map of Ciociaria and Southern Lazio: Central Italian in pink and Southern Italian (Neapolitan dialects) in magenta.
32. Pertosa – Pertosa is a village and comune of the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-west Italy. In 2010 its population was 714, the village is situated in the eastern side of the province of Salerno, close to the municipalities of Auletta, Polla and Caggiano and to Alburni mountains. Its only hamlet is the village of Muraglione, in which are located the show caves. At the census in 2001 the town had a population of 727, Pertosa is a receptive tourist place principally for its karst show cave system, the Pertosa Caves. The caves are located in the valley below the town, by the river Tanagro, cilento Vallo di Diano Pertosa municipal website Official site of the cavesPertosa – Panorama
33. Domusnovas – Domusnovas borders the following municipalities, Fluminimaggiore, Gonnosfanadiga, Iglesias, Musei, Villacidro, Villamassargia. The town is known for the Grottoes of San Giovanni, located some 2 kilometres from the town, the area of Domusnovas was inhabited since prehistoric times, as attested by the presence of Neolithic walls and several nuraghe. During the Roman domination of the island it was a village across the Cagliari-Sulcis road, in the Middle Ages it was part of the giudicato of Cagliari, and, when in 1257 the latter was conquered by Pisan troops, it became a fief of count Ugolino della Gherardesca. In 1324 it was occupied by the Aragonese Official websiteDomusnovas – Domusnovas
34. Grotta dello Smeraldo – The Grotta dello Smeraldo is a cave, partly inundated by the sea and located in Conca dei Marini, Italy, on the Amalfi Coast. It is one of several caves worldwide, that is flooded with a brilliant blue or emerald light, the quality and nature of the color in each cave is determined by the unique lighting conditions in that particular cave. The grotto, which is located at the Amalfi Coast, is filled with sea water. The surface area of the water measures roughly 45 x 32 metres, formation of cave was caused by bradyseism - tectonic upheaval of cliffs, where cliffs fractured and cave was formed along the fissures. Now the cave has descended and sea water had entered it, unlike the Blue Grotto located a few kilometres to the west on Capri, the Grotta dello Smeraldo has no natural outlet above the waterline. The only opening to the world is just below the water level. Refracted sunlight entering the cavern through the opening gives the water its characteristic emerald glow during daylight hours, the absence of a natural opening above the waterline meant that the grotto’s existence remained unknown for many years. It was discovered by a fisherman named Luigi Buoncore in 1932, the grotto is accessible from Strada Statale 163, the main road along the Amalfi Coast. There is a parking lot beside an elevator which takes visitors down to cave level. Amalfi Coast Fiordo di Furore List of caves in Italy Grotta dello Smeraldo at showcaves. com Emerald Caves page on Conca dei Marini websiteGrotta dello Smeraldo – Cape Conca and the area of the entrance to the grotto
35. Conca dei Marini – Conca dei Marini is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy. It is situated on a close to the coast and between Amalfi and Furore. It was perhaps founded by the Tyrrhenians with the name of Cossa, in the Middle Ages, it was a trading base of the Republic of Amalfi. In 1543 it was sacked by Turkish pirates, the port maintained a certain degree of trades until the 19th century, and was also the seat of a tonnara until 1956Conca dei Marini – The marina at Conca dei Marini
36. Province of Ogliastra – The province of Ogliastra was a province in eastern Sardinia, Italy. Ogliastra was he most mountainous province in Sardinia, with only some 57,642 inhabitants, it was also the least populous province of Italy. The province had a density of 31.08 inhabitants per square kilometer. It corresponded roughly to the medieval Giudicato of Agugliastra, the province of Ogliastra contained 23 comuni, see the list of communes of the Province of Ogliastra. In 2016 it was suppressed and all of its municipalities but one joined the Province of Nuoro, the municipality of Seui joined the newest Province of South Sardinia. The province had two capitals, the towns and comuni Tortolì and Lanusei, on 6 May 2012 the regional referendums of Sardinia took place regarding the abolition of certain provinces and a variety of other matters. The suggestion of reforming or abolishing certain provinces in Sardinia was approved by the Regional Council of Sardinia on 24 May 2012. Due to this, the province of Ogliastra was ordered to form a new administrative body or be abolished on 1 March 2013, after the regional law number 15 of 28 June 2013, the province was allowed to remain. To the south it bordered the province of Cagliari and it borders the province of Nuoro in the north, Ogliastra was founded in 2001 when the number of Sardinian provinces was doubled. It contained the river Flumendosa and the lake of Basso Flumendosa, Ogliastra took its name from the olive trees in the province, known as the olivastri. It was situated on the Tyrrhenian Sea, the largest municipalities in the province were, Arbatax Ogliastra official websiteProvince of Ogliastra – Map highlighting the location of the province of Ogliastra in Italy
37. Oliena – Oliena is a commune in the province of Nuoro, Sardinia, Italy. Belonging to the Giudicato of Torres, Oliena was one of the curatorie of Posada, during the war between Aragona and Arborea, the commune was occupied by Eleonora DArboreas troops. The village, developed in times, at the foot of a castle remembered in toponomy. Oliena was passed to the Carrozs, and later annexed to the Marchesato of Quirra, as a state of the Carrozs and then of the Osorios. Lamarmora thinks the name Oliena dates back to the time of the first Oriental people, probably, some of them landed in Sardinia, giving birth to the people of Ilienses. At the beginning of 1300, Oliena was under the Pisan Rule in the Giudicato of Gallura, in the curatoria of Posada, at that time, the centre might have been substantial, judging from its income compared to the neighbouring villages. It owned a castle, situated in the locality Su Carmene. When the Jesuits, in the 17th century, according to tradition, removed the stones which it was built of, in order to build a convent and then. In 1325, the village of Oliena and its territory were assigned to Berengario Carroz together, in the 17th century, the Jesuits inhabited Oliena giving impulse to different activities, beginning the construction of the College and the present parish church. Some scholars link the name to the trees in this zone. In fact, the inhabitants were given to stock-raising. Salvatore Satta, a writer, wrote in his book Il Giorno del Giudizio. Oliena, as the papers say, but its real and poetic name is Ulìana, the inhabited centre lies about 380 metres above sea level at the foot of a mountain that rises vertically with the well-known peaks Corrasi. The territory presents a great botanic richness, the most important species living in it are, The church of Santa Maria was built during the Pisan period. This church with the ex-temple of SantIgnazio, represents the main cult place, outside the church, S. Maria Romanesque - Gothic style is presented. It is a building standing in a square, and once surrounded by a cemetery. A bell tower, culminating in a cusp, rises on the right side, looking at its planimetry, it is possible to see the Gothic-Catalan pattern which spread after the Aragonese conquest. The parish church of Saint Ignatius stands in the college square, one can enter through double flight of a steps against the facadeOliena – Oliena (in the foreground)
38. Province of Udine – The province of Udine is a province in the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia of Italy, bordering Austria and Slovenia. Its capital is the city of Udine, which has a population of 99,473 inhabitants. It has a population of 536,180 inhabitants over a surface area of 4,907.24 square kilometres. The provincial president is Pietro Fontanini, not much information is known about Udine prior to its ownership by the episcopal see the Patriarchate of Aquileia in 983. The Patriarchate of Aquileia did not reside in Udine until after the 13th century, in 1350, Austria intervened in the region and caused a number of factional problems for residents. It was annexed by Venice in 1420 and control over Udine was granted to Tristano Savorgnan and his family had mostly been executed for opposing the Austrians and were allied with Venice. Under the rule of Venice and the family of Savorgnan, Udine fell into decline due to neglect, the unification of Italy in 1866 prevented any further Austrian rule. In World War I, Udine was the base for the forces of Italy until Austria occupied the city in October 1917. The province of Udine is the largest and most populous of the four provinces in the region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia in northeastern Italy. To the north is the border with Austria and Slovenia. To the west lies the Province of Pordenone, which was subdivided from Udine in 1968, to the southwest lies the Province of Venice and to the east, the Province of Trieste. The south of the province has a coastline on the Adriatic Sea, the province is located in the lowlands of the Po-Venetian Valley, south of the Venetian Prealps and the Alpine foothills of Friuli. The provincial capital is the city of Udine, the northerly part of the province is mountainous with pine forests, upland pastures and mountain lakes. The hilly area in the centre is characterised by vineyards which produces the wines of the region, the southwesterly part of the province is flat, low-lying land farmed and irrigated intensively, and the coast has beaches, sand dunes and lagoons. To the southeast, the land is higher where the limestone Karst Plateau reaches the Adriatic, a number of rivers cross the province, rising in the Alps and flowing south to the Adriatic. Foremost of these is the Tagliamento which forms the boundary of the province. The soil is porous and much of the water from the mountains flows underground to resurface as a zone of springs on the plainProvince of Udine – Map highlighting the location of the province of Udine in Italy
39. Grotto – A grotto is a natural or artificial cave used by humans in both modern times and antiquity, and historically or prehistorically. Naturally occurring grottoes are often small caves near water that are usually flooded or liable to flood at high tide, sometimes, artificial grottoes are used as garden features. The Grotta Azzurra at Capri and the grotto at the villa of Tiberius in the Bay of Naples are examples of popular natural seashore grottoes, the word grotto comes from Italian grotta, Vulgar Latin grupta, and Latin crypta. It is also related by an accident to the word grotesque. The rooms had sunk underground over time, the Romans who discovered this historical monument found it very strange, a sentiment enhanced by the fact that it was uncovered from an underworld source. This led the Romans to give it the name grottesche, or grotesque, grottoes were very popular in Greek and Roman culture. Spring-fed grottoes were a feature of Apollos oracles at Delphi, Corinth, the Hellenistic city of Rhodes was designed with rock-cut artificial grottoes incorporated into the city, made to look natural. According to tradition, Praenestes sacred spring had a native nymph, Tiberius, the Roman emperor, filled his grotto with sculptures to create a sense of mythology, perhaps channeling Polyphemus cave in the Odyssey. The numinous quality of the grotto is still more ancient, in a grotto near Knossos in Crete, Eileithyia was venerated, even farther back in time, the immanence of the divine in a grotto is seen in the sacred caves of Lascaux. The popularity of artificial grottoes introduced Mannerist style to Italian and French gardens of the mid-16th century, two famous grottoes in the Boboli Gardens of Palazzo Pitti were begun by Vasari and completed by Ammanati and Buontalenti between 1583 and 1593. One of these grottoes originally housed the Prisoners of Michelangelo, before Boboli grotto, a garden was laid out by Niccolò Tribolo at the Medici Villa Castello, near Florence. At Pratolino, in spite of the dryness of the site, there was a Grotto of Cupid, with water tricks for the unsuspecting visitor. The Fonte di Fata Morgana at Grassina, not far from Florence, is a garden building. It is decorated with sculptures in the Giambolognan manner, the outside of garden grottoes are often designed to look like an enormous rock, a rustic porch or a rocky overhang. Damp grottoes were cool places to retreat from the Italian sun, in Kuskovo at the Sheremetev estate there is a Summer Grotto, built in 1775. Grottoes could also serve as baths, an example of this is at the Palazzo del Te, in the Casino della Grotta, courtiers once bathed in the small cascade that splashed over the pebbles and shells encrusted in the floor and walls. Grottoes have also served as chapels, or at Villa Farnese at Caprarola and they were often combined with cascading fountains in Renaissance gardens. The grotto designed by Bernard Palissy for Catherine de Medicis château in Paris, there are also grottoes in the gardens designed by André Le Nôtre for VersaillesGrotto – A Marian grotto in Bischofferode (Germany)
40. Flickr – Flickr is an image hosting and video hosting website and web services suite that was created by Ludicorp in 2004 and acquired by Yahoo on March 20,2005. The Verge reported in March 2013 that Flickr had a total of 87 million registered members, in August 2011 the site reported that it was hosting more than 6 billion images and this number continues to grow steadily according to reporting sources. Photos and videos can be accessed from Flickr without the need to register an account, registering an account also allows users to create a profile page containing photos and videos that the user has uploaded and also grants the ability to add another Flickr user as a contact. For mobile users, Flickr has official mobile apps for iOS, Android, and PlayStation Vita, operating systems, Flickr was launched in February 2004 by Ludicorp, a Vancouver-based company founded by Stewart Butterfield and Caterina Fake. The service emerged from tools originally created for Ludicorps Game Neverending, Flickr proved a more feasible project, and ultimately Game Neverending was shelved, Butterfield later launched a similar online game, Glitch, which closed down in November 2012. Early versions of Flickr focused on a room called FlickrLive with real-time photo exchange capabilities. The successive evolutions focused more on the uploading and filing backend for individual users and it was eventually dropped as Flickrs backend systems evolved away from Game Neverendings codebase. Key features of Flickr not initially present are tags, marking photos as favorites, group photo pools and interestingness, Yahoo acquired Ludicorp and Flickr in March 2005. The acquisition reportedly cost $22 to $25 million, during the week of 26 June –2 July 2005, all content was migrated from servers in Canada to servers in the United States, and all resulting data become subject to United States federal law. In May 2007, Yahoo announced that Yahoo Photos would close down on 20 September 2007, after which all photos would be deleted and this move was criticized by some users. Flickr upgraded its services from beta to gamma in May 2006, in December 2006, upload limits on free accounts were increased to 100 MB a month and were removed from Flickr Pro accounts, which originally had a 2 GB per month limit. On 9 April 2008, Flickr began allowing paid subscribers to upload videos, on 2 March 2009, Flickr added the facility to upload and view HD videos, and began allowing free users to upload normal-resolution video. At the same time, the set limit for free accounts was lifted, in 2009, Flickr announced a partnership with Getty Images in which selected users could submit photographs for stock photography usage and receive payment. In 2010, this was changed so that users could label images as suitable for stock use themselves, the Justified View is paginated between 72 and 360 photos per page but unpaginated in search result presentation. Tech Radar described the new style Flickr as representing a sea change in its purpose, many users criticized the changes, and the sites help forum received thousands of negative comments. In March 2014, Flickrs New Photo Experience, a user interface redesign, on May 7,2015, Yahoo overhauled the site, adding a revamped Camera Roll, a new way to upload photos and upgraded the sites apps. The new Uploadr application was available for Macs, Windows. In June 2008, Flickr co-founder Stewart Butterfield announced his resignation, which followed his wife and co-founder Caterina Fake, Butterfield wrote a humorous resignation letter to Brad GarlinghouseFlickr – Typical Flickr album sets
41. Cave painting – Cave paintings are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, to some 40,000 years ago in Eurasia. The exact purpose of the Paleolithic cave paintings is not known, evidence suggests that they were not merely decorations of living areas since the caves in which they have been found do not have signs of ongoing habitation. They are also located in areas of caves that are not easily accessible. Some theories hold that cave paintings may have been a way of communicating with others, the paintings are remarkably similar around the world, with animals being common subjects that give the most impressive images. Humans mainly appear as images of hands, mostly hand stencils made by blowing pigment on a hand held to the wall. The earliest known cave paintings/drawings of animals are at least 35,000 years old and are found in Pettakere cave on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia, previously it was believed that the earliest paintings were in Europe. The earliest non-figurative rock art dates back to approximately 40,000 years ago, nearly 340 caves have now been discovered in France and Spain that contain art from prehistoric times. But subsequent technology has made it possible to date the paintings by sampling the pigment itself, the choice of subject matter can also indicate chronology. For instance, the reindeer depicted in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas places the drawings in the last Ice Age. The oldest date given to a cave painting is now a pig that has a minimum age of 35,400 years old at Pettakere cave in Sulawesi. Indonesian and Australian scientists have dated other non-figurative paintings on the walls to be approximately 40,000 years old, the method they used to confirm this was dating the age of the stalactites that formed over the top of the paintings. The art is similar in style and method to that of the Indonesian caves as there were also hand stencils and this date coincides with the earliest known evidence for Homo sapiens in Europe. Because of the cave arts age, some scientists have conjectured that the paintings may have made by Neanderthals. The earliest known European figurative cave paintings are those of Chauvet Cave in France and these paintings date to earlier than 30,000 BCE according to radiocarbon dating. Some researchers believe the drawings are too advanced for this era, the radiocarbon dates from these samples show that there were two periods of creation in Chauvet,35,000 years ago and 30,000 years ago. In 2009, cavers discovered drawings in Coliboaia Cave in Romania, an initial dating puts the age of an image in the same range as Chauvet, about 32,000 years old. Some caves probably continued to be painted over a period of thousands of years. This was created roughly between 10,000 and 5,500 years ago, and painted in rock shelters under cliffs or shallow caves, though individual figures are less naturalistic, they are grouped in coherent grouped compositions to a much greater degreeCave painting – Cave of Altamira, near Santander, Spain.
42. Caving equipment – Caving equipment is equipment used by cavers and speleologists to aid and protect them while exploring caves. The term may also be used to refer to equipment used to document caves, such as photographic, due to the greatly varying conditions of caves throughout the world there is a multitude of different equipment types and categories. Cavers exploring a largely dry system may wear a fleece one-piece undersuit with a protective oversuit while cavers exploring a very wet cave may opt to use wetsuits. Explorers of the early 1800s, when caving began to more common, caved in tweed suits. Exploration was usually limited to drier caves as there was little to protect cavers from the cold once they became wet, later, cavers began to adopt miners lamps, which were designed for underground use and were reasonably reliable, though their light was not especially powerful. Lighting magnesium strips was a way of illuminating large chambers. Martel, a French caver, created a collapsible canvas canoe which he used to explore several caves containing long flooded sections, acetylene lamps, powered by carbide, was one of the main light sources used by cavers during the 20th century. Electric miners headlamps, powered by lead-acid batteries were used, eventually superseded by LED lighting. Vertical caving was undertaken with rope ladders and these were cumbersome and unwieldy, especially when wet and sometimes requiring teams of donkeys to carry them. The French explorer Robert de Joly pioneered the use of ever lighter rope ladders until developing the Elektron Ladder, a light wire ladder with aluminium rungs. Single rope technique began to be developed in the US in the 1950s, a system was developed in Europe in the late 1960s. The increasing popularity of caving during the 1960s and 1970s led to the creation of specialist caving equipment companies, such as Petzl, previously, cavers adapted equipment from other sources, such as using miners helmets and electric lamps, or made their own equipment. Caving equipment made today conforms to high safety standards, decreasing the amount of injuries and fatalities experienced by cavers, caves in temperate regions such as Europe and North America maintain an average yearly temperature of 11–13 °C. While this is not especially cold, exposure to water and fatigue can increase the risk of hypothermia, cavers usually wear a one-piece undersuit made of fleece or fibre pile, sometimes used in tandem with thermal underclothes. In warmer caves, such as those in France and Spain, when caving in wet caves neoprene wetsuits provide superior insulation to fleece underclothes. While cavers often use wetsuits designed for surfing or diving, specialist caving wetsuits are available with reinforced elbows, hybrid fleece/wetsuit undersuits are also used. Cavers commonly wear protective oversuits, similar to boiler suits but made of heavily abrasive resistant material such as cordura, in wet or windy caves PVC oversuits may be preferred, as they provide a greater degree of protection against getting wet and keep the caver warmer. Oversuits often come with reinforced areas, especially at points such as the elbows, seatCaving equipment – A pair of Wellington boots
43. Karst – Karst topography is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves and it has also been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no rivers or lakes, the English word karst was borrowed from German Karst in the late 19th century. The German word came into use before the 19th century, according to the prevalent interpretation, the term is derived from the German name for the Karst region, a limestone plateau above the city of Trieste in the northern Adriatic. Scholars disagree, however, on whether the German word was borrowed from Slovene, the Slovene common noun kras was first attested in the 18th century, and the adjective form kraški in the 16th century. The Slovene words arose through metathesis from the reconstructed form *korsъ, ultimately, the word is of Mediterranean origin, believed to derive from some Romanized Illyrian base. It has been suggested that the word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root karra- rock, the name may also be connected to the oronym Karsádios oros cited by Ptolemy, and perhaps also to Latin Carusardius. The development of karst occurs whenever acidic water starts to break down the surface of bedrock near its cracks, as the bedrock continues to degrade, its cracks tend to get bigger. As time goes on, these fractures will become wider, if this underground drainage system does form, it will speed up the development of karst formations there because more water will be able to flow through the region, giving it more erosive power. The carbonic acid that causes karstic features is formed as rain passes through the atmosphere picking up carbon dioxide, once the rain reaches the ground, it may pass through soil that can provide much more CO2 to form a weak carbonic acid solution, which dissolves calcium carbonate. The oxidation of sulfides leading to the formation of acid can also be one of the corrosion factors in karst formation. As oxygen -rich surface waters seep into deep anoxic karst systems, they bring oxygen, sulfuric acid then reacts with calcium carbonate, causing increased erosion within the limestone formation. This chain of reactions is, This reaction chain forms gypsum, the karstification of a landscape may result in a variety of large- or small-scale features both on the surface and beneath. On exposed surfaces, small features may include solution flutes, runnels, limestone pavement, medium-sized surface features may include sinkholes or cenotes, vertical shafts, foibe, disappearing streams, and reappearing springs. Large-scale features may include limestone pavements, poljes, and karst valleys, mature karst landscapes, where more bedrock has been removed than remains, may result in karst towers, or haystack/eggbox landscapes. Beneath the surface, complex underground systems and extensive caves. Some of the most dramatic of these formations can be seen in Thailands Phangnga Bay, calcium carbonate dissolved into water may precipitate out where the water discharges some of its dissolved carbon dioxide. Rivers which emerge from springs may produce tufa terraces, consisting of layers of calcite deposited over extended periods of time, in caves, a variety of features collectively called speleothems are formed by deposition of calcium carbonate and other dissolved mineralsKarst – Škocjan Caves, Slovenia
44. Speleology – Speleology and caving are often connected, as the physical skills required for in situ study are the same. In Romania, the term speology is used, this is derived from a Greek word for cave, speos, rather than the Latin, spelaeum. Speleology is a field that combines the knowledge of chemistry, biology, geology, physics, meteorology and cartography to develop portraits of caves as complex. In 1895 Martel founded the Société de Spéléologie, the first organization devoted to science in the world. The creation of an accurate, detailed map is one of the most common technical activities undertaken within a cave, caves provide a home for many unique biota. Cave ecologies are diverse, and not sharply distinct from surface habitats. Generally however, the deeper the cave becomes, the more rarefied the ecology, cave environments fall into three general categories, Endogean the parts of caves that are in communication with surface soils through cracks and rock seams, groundwater seepage, and root protrusion. Parahypogean the threshold regions near cave mouths that extend to the last penetration of sunlight and these can be in regular contact with the surface via wind and underground rivers, or the migration of animals, or can be almost entirely isolated. Deep hypogean environments can host autonomous ecologies whose primary source of energy is not sunlight, cave organisms fall into three basic classes, There are also so-called accidental trogloxenes which are surface organisms that enter caves for no survival reason. Some may even be troglophobes, which survive in caves for any extended period. Examples include deer which fell through a sinkhole, frogs swept into a cave by a flash flood, the two factors that limit cave ecologies are generally energy and nutrients. To some degree moisture is available in actively forming Karst caves. Cut off from the sunlight and steady deposition of plant detritus, the majority of energy in cave environments comes from the surplus of the ecosystems outside. One major source of energy and nutrients in caves is dung from trogloxenes, because of their rarity and position in the ecosystem they are threatened by a large number of human activities. Dam construction, limestone quarrying, water pollution and logging are just some of the disasters that can devastate or destroy underground biological communities. Speleologists also work with archaeologists in studying underground ruins, tunnels, sewers and aqueducts, such as the various inlets and outlets of the Cloaca Maxima in RomeSpeleology – Grotte des Faux-Monnayeurs, Mouthiers-Haute-Pierre (France)
45. Cave-in – Brian Ralph is a U. S. alternative cartoonist. His illustrations have appeared in Wired and the New York Post and his debut graphic novel, Cave-In, was nominated for three Harvey Awards, one Eisner Award, and listed as one of the Comics Journals five best comics of 1999. His second graphic novel, Climbing Out, was awarded a Xeric Grant in 2001 and his third graphic novel, Daybreak, was published by Drawn and Quarterly in September 2011. Ralph graduated from the Rhode Island School of Design in 1996 and he is a member of the underground art collective known as Fort Thunder. During the 2003-2004 school year, he taught at The Key School, Ralph currently teaches Sequential Art at Savannah College of Art and Design. Ralph lives in Savannah, Georgia, with his wife, Christi, and their childrenCave-in – Schools and colleges
46. Glacier cave – A glacier cave is a cave formed within the ice of a glacier. Glacier caves are called ice caves, but the latter term is properly used to describe bedrock caves that contain year-round ice. Most glacier caves are started by running through or under the glacier. This water often originates on the surface through melting, entering the ice at a moulin. Heat transfer from the water can cause sufficient melting to create an air-filled cavity, air movement can then assist enlargement through melting in summer and sublimation in winter. Some glacier caves are formed by heat from volcanic vents or hotsprings beneath the ice. An extreme example is the Kverkfjöll glacier cave in the Vatnajökull glacier in Iceland, some glacier caves are relatively unstable due to melting and glacial motion, and are subject to localized or complete collapse, as well as elimination by glacial retreat. An example of the nature of glacier caves is the former Paradise Ice Caves. The Paradise Ice Caves collapsed and vanished in the 1990s, Glacier caves may be used by glaciologists to gain access to the interior of glaciers. The study of glacier caves themselves is sometimes called glaciospeleology, mount Rainier Two craters on top of a cone on the volcanos summit contain the worlds largest volcanic ice-cave system. Perito Moreno Glacier Titlis Ice cave W. R. Halliday, Glaciospeleology Cave Science Topics, J. Schroeder, Inside the Glaciers – Svalbard, Norway The Canadian Caver vol.22 no.1,1990. Media related to Glacier cave at Wikimedia Commons The Virtual Cave, Glacier CavesGlacier cave – A partly submerged glacier cave on Perito Moreno Glacier. The ice facade is approximately 60 m high
47. Pit cave – Pit caves typically form in limestone as a result of long-term erosion by water. They can be open to the surface or found deep within horizontal caves, among cavers, a pit is generally defined as a vertical drop of any depth that cannot be negotiated safely without the use of ropes or ladders. Exploration into pit caves requires the use of equipment such as nylon kernmantle rope or cable ladders, more specialized caving techniques such as the single rope technique are common practice and the preferred method of pit exploration for cavers worldwide. The SRT involves the use of 9–11 mm nylon static rope, Vertical caving is a specialized sport that should be undertaken only after acquiring knowledge of, and expertise in, proper vertical caving equipment and its use. For obvious reasons, vertical caving is more dangerous than horizontal caving, Vertical caving requires the intimate understanding of ropes, knots, anchors, rappelling devices and ascending systems. Veteran cavers typically are knowledgeable in self rescue techniques including change-overs, Pit caving was pioneered by the British geologist John Beaumont who gave an account of his descent into Lamb Leer Cavern to the Royal Society in 1681. He developed his own techniques using ropes and metallic ladders, in the 1930s, as caving became increasingly popular in France, several clubs in the Alps developed vertical cave exploration into a recognized outdoor sport. The lack of technical equipment during the war forced Chevalier and his team to innovate. The scaling-pole, nylon ropes, use of explosives in caves, in the late 1950s, American caver Bill Cuddington, known as Vertical Bill, developed the single rope technique in the US. In 1958, two Swiss alpinists, Juesi and Marti teamed up, creating the first rope ascender known as the Jumar. The development of the rack and the evolution of mechanical ascension systems, notably helped extend the practice. The deepest individual pitch within a cave is 603 m in Vrtoglavica Cave in Slovenia, the second deepest pitch is Patkov Gušt at 553 m in the Velebit mountain, Croatia. Lamb Leer, Somerset, England, was entered by a 25 m pitch as early as the 17th century. Hranice Abyss, Moravia, Czech Republic, is the deepest underwater cave in the world, the lowest confirmed depth is 473 m, pozzo del Merro, Italy, is the worlds second deepest underwater pit cave, the deepest part reached is 392 m. El Capitan Pit, Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, USA, fantastic Pit, Ellisons Cave System, Georgia, USA, at 586 ft is the deepest freefall pit in the lower 48 United States. Stupendous Pit, Rumbling Falls Cave, Tennessee, USA, is a 202 ft pit that drops into a 26 acres chamber. Hellhole, West Virginia, USA, has a 154 ft entrance drop and was the site of development of the single rope technique in the 1950s and 60s. Natural Trap Cave, located in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming, is 85 ft deep, sótano de Las Golondrinas, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, at 1,094 ft, is the deepest known freefall drop in the western hemispherePit cave – Pit cave Haviareň, Little Carpathians
48. Sinkhole – A sinkhole, also known as a cenote, sink, sink-hole, shakehole, swallet, swallow hole, or doline, is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer. Most are caused by karst processes—for example, the dissolution of carbonate rocks or suffosion processes. Sinkholes vary in size from 1 to 600 m both in diameter and depth, and vary in form from soil-lined bowls to bedrock-edged chasms, sinkholes may form gradually or suddenly, and are found worldwide. Sinkholes may capture surface drainage from running or standing water, but may form in high. Sinkholes that capture drainage can hold it in limestone caves. These caves may drain into tributaries of larger rivers, the formation of sinkholes involves natural processes of erosion or gradual removal of slightly soluble bedrock by percolating water, the collapse of a cave roof, or a lowering of the water table. Sinkholes often form through the process of suffosion, for example, groundwater may dissolve the carbonate cement holding the sandstone particles together and then carry away the lax particles, gradually forming a void. Occasionally a sinkhole may exhibit a visible opening into a cave below, sinkholes also occur in sandstone and quartzite terrains. As the rock dissolves, spaces and caverns develop underground and these sinkholes can be dramatic, because the surface land usually stays intact until there is not enough support. Then, a collapse of the land surface can occur. Sinkholes also form from human activity, such as the collapse of abandoned mines and salt cavern storage in salt domes in places like Louisiana, Mississippi, more commonly, sinkholes occur in urban areas due to water main breaks or sewer collapses when old pipes give way. They can also occur from the overpumping and extraction of groundwater, sinkholes can also form when natural water-drainage patterns are changed and new water-diversion systems are developed. Sinkholes tend to occur in karst landscapes, karst landscapes can have up to thousands of sinkholes within a small area, giving the landscape a pock-marked appearance. These sinkholes drain all the water, so there are only subterranean rivers in these areas, examples of karst landscapes with a plethora of massive sinkholes include Khammouan Mountains and Mamo Plateau. The largest known sinkholes formed in sandstone are Sima Humboldt and Sima Martel in Venezuela, some sinkholes form in thick layers of homogenous limestone. On the contact of limestone and insoluble rock below it, powerful underground rivers may form, in such conditions, the largest known sinkholes of the world have formed, like the 662-metre deep Xiaozhai Tiankeng, giant sótanos in Querétaro and San Luis Potosí states in Mexico and others. The state of Florida in the United States is known for having frequent sinkhole collapses, the Murge area in southern Italy also has numerous sinkholes. Sinkholes can be formed in retention ponds from large amounts of rain, an analysis of a case of sinkhole formation under a retention pond due to a large amount of rain can be seen in a sinkhole collapse studySinkhole – The Red Lake sinkhole in Croatia
49. Subterranean river – A subterranean river is a river that runs wholly or partly beneath the ground surface – one where the riverbed does not represent the surface of the Earth. It should also not be confused with an aquifer which may flow like a river but is contained within a layer of rock or other unconsolidated materials. Subterranean rivers may be natural, flowing through cave systems. In karst topography, rivers may disappear through sinkholes, continuing underground, in some cases, they may emerge into daylight further downstream. Some fish and other organisms are adapted to life in subterranean rivers. Subterranean rivers can also be the result of covering over a river and/or diverting its flow into culverts, reversing this process is known as daylighting a stream and is a visible form of river restoration. One successful example is the Cheonggye Stream in the centre of Seoul, examples of subterranean rivers also occur in mythology and literature. There are many examples of subterranean rivers. Among others, The Camuy River located in the region of Puerto Rico is one of the largest underground river systems in the world. Greek mythology included the Styx, Phlegethon, Acheron, Cocytus, dante Alighieri, in his Inferno, included the Acheron, Phlegethon, and Styx as rivers within his subterranean Hell. The river Alph, running Through caverns measureless to man / Down to a sea is central to the poem Kubla Khan. The characters in Jules Vernes A Journey to the Centre of the Earth encounter a river, Hans was not mistaken. What you hear is the rushing of a torrent, there can be no doubt, a subterranean river is flowing around us. Several other novels also feature subterranean rivers, but in the end where a river has been, a river will always be. Hamza River Abîme Karst Losing stream Speleology Subterranean rivers of London Subterranean rivers in Hong Kong Subterranean waterfall Toronto ravine system Hamilton ravine system Underground lakeSubterranean river – A subterranean river in the Cross Cave system of Slovenia.
50. Sump (cave) – Sump or siphon is a term used in caving to describe a passage in a cave that is submerged under water. A sump may be static, with no inward or outward flow, or active, static sumps may also be connected underwater to active stream passage. When short in length, a sump may be called a duck, short sumps may be passed simply by holding ones breath while ducking through the submerged section. This is known as diving and can only be attempted if the sump is known to be short. Longer and more technically difficult sumps can only be passed by cave diving, when practical, a sump can also be drained using buckets, pumps or siphons. Pumping the water away requires the flow of water into the sump to be less than the rate at which the pump empties it. Upstream sumps have been successfully emptied using hoses to siphon out of them. The water was sent deeper into the sinkhole and the emptied sumps revealed virgin passage behind them, during a rescue from beyond a downstream sump at Sarkhos Cave in 2002, water was pumped upstream into a dam constructed a few metres above the flooded passage. Some manuals also mention the use of explosives or other forms of force to empty sumps, but the ecological damage done to the fragile cave environment usually rules out the use of such methodsSump (cave) – Sumps often block access to "dry" passage beyond them. Diagram B shows a "perched" sump" which could be siphoned to lower the water level.
51. Anthodite – Anthodites are speleothems composed of long needle-like crystals situated in clusters which radiate outward from a common base. The needles may be quill-like or feathery, most anthodites are made of the mineral aragonite, although some are composed of gypsum. The term anthodite is first cited in the literature in 1965 by Japanese researcher N. Kashima. The individual crystals of anthodites develop in a described as “acicular”. They usually grow downward from a caves ceiling, aragonite crystals are contrasted with those made of calcite in that the latter tend to be stubby or dog-tooth-like. Anthodites often have a core of aragonite and may have huntite or hydromagnesite deposited near the ends of the branches. Anthodite crystals vary in size from less than a millimeter to about a meter, anthodites may occur sporadically throughout some limestone caves, but may be spectacularly abundant in others, with clean white crystals growing all over the calcite or other rock surfaces. Examples of sites with abundant anthodite displays include Carlsbad Caverns, Craighead Caverns, Skyline Caverns in the United States, among the “quill-like” varieties of anthodite is sometimes included the sea urchin-like formation known as flos ferri, although others have considered them a slender variety of helictite. Among the “feathery” varieties of anthodite is frostwork, a type of speleothem consisting of “bushes” of fine acicular aragonite crystals in radiating clusters and their appearance is often compared to that of a cactus or thistle plant. In its composite stalagmite form, frostwork may possess spiny limbs like a fir tree. The term was first used by cave guides at Wind Cave in South Dakota, USA, helictites are curved or angular twig-like lateral projections of calcium carbonate, which appear to defy gravity. Rather than radial clusters, helictites often occur in tangled masses, the “twigs” have a tiny central canal. Cave flowers consist of gypsum or epsomite, in contrast to anthodites, the needles or “petals” of cave flowers grow from the attached end. Cave cotton is very thin, flexible filaments of gypsum or epsomite projecting from a cave wallAnthodite – Anthodites are featured at the commercial Skyline Caverns in Virginia, USA
52. Calcite rafts – Calcite crystals form on the surface of quiescent bodies of water, even when the bulk water is not supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate. The crystals grow, attach to one other and appear to be floating rafts of a white, the floating materials have been referred to as calcite rafts or leopard spots. Calcium carbonate is known to precipitate as crystals in water supersaturated with calcium. Under quiescent conditions, calcite crystals can form on a surface when calcium carbonate supersaturation conditions do not exist in the bulk water. Calcite crystals precipitate in highly localized environment and attach to one another to form what appear to be rafts of a white material. Scanning electron micrographs of calcite rafts show interconnected calcite crystals formed around holes on the raft surface, the holes may be caused by air bubbles or other foreign matter on the water surface. Micrographs of calcite rafts show lace-like structure, the surface tension of the water keeps the interconnected calcite crystals, which individually have a specific gravity of 2.7, floating on the water surface. Calcite rafts are most commonly formed in limestone cave systems, limestone caves provide a favorable environment due to little air movement and water containing significant concentrations of calcium and carbonate ions. Evidence of calcite rafts has been found in caves all over the world. One example of calcite raft formation in a river system has been reported. The floating material had not been observed when the reservoir was open to the atmosphere, the concern raised was that a potentially toxic metallic precipitate was forming on the water surface from condensate dripping from the metal cover. Water analyses found that the water in the reservoir was saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, x-ray diffraction analysis showed that the floating solid material was greater than 97 percent calcite. Scanning electron micrographs confirmed that the shape of the material was rhombohedral. Micro calcite rafts have been observed on straw stalactites solution drops suspended beneath concrete structures and these secondary deposits which form outside the cave environment, are known as calthemites. They are derived from concrete, lime or mortar, and mimic the shapes and this chemistry is very different to that which creates speleothems in caves. Internal water pulses from the straw and air movement around the solution drop. If there is almost no air movement around the drop, then after approximately 12 minutes or more, the micro rafts may join up and form a latticework. If the solution drop hangs too long on the straw, it may completely calcify over, lubbock Area Grotto Calcite /Raft Accessed 2012-06-23Calcite rafts – BSE-SEM image at 46 times magnification showing topsides of the calcite rafts (flat surfaces) and bottom crystals growing underneath
53. Shelfstone – Shelfstone is a type of speleothem that grows inwards from the edge of a cave pool. It takes the form of ledges that tend to be flat on top and they are almost always formed from calcite, when materials precipitated from dripping water onto a cave pool attach to the side. The deposition continues to grow laterally, underneath, the shelfstone above the current water level in a pool is an indicator of past levels of the pool. Shelfstone can be very thick when the level has stayed constant over a long period of time. If the water level is changing, the shelfstone will be thinShelfstone – Shelfstone growing on the edge of a small cave pool
54. Snottite – The bacteria derive their energy from chemosynthesis of volcanic sulfur compounds including H2S and warm-water solution dripping down from above, producing sulfuric acid. Because of this, their products are highly acidic, with similar properties to battery acid. Snottites were brought to attention by researchers Diana Northup and Penny Boston studying them in a toxic sulfur cave called Cueva de Villa Luz, the term snottite was given to these cave features by Jim Pisarowicz in 1986. Hose L D, Pisarowcz J A. Cueva de Villa Luz, Tabasco, Mexico, reconnaissance study of a sulfur spring cave. J Cave Karst Studies,61, 13–21 Archaea Cave slime at NASA The Subsurface Life in Mineral Environments TeamSnottite – Snottites in Cueva de Villa Luz in Southern Mexico
55. List of caves of Maryland – The subject of this article and a reference book of the same name, Caves of Maryland was first released by the Maryland Geological Survey in 1950. Information about Maryland caves was first gathered into a series of reports by Martin Muma in the mid-1940s, since its publication, this reference work has remained the principal source for information about Maryland caves, and has served as an outline for the work to follow. In the late 1960s the MGS sponsored another statewide survey, undertaken by Richard Franz and Dennis Slifer, in Maryland, a cave is defined as any subterranean cavity large enough for a human to enter. This definition has led the authors to include several caves, fissures. Cave locations are typically well-guarded secrets, as property owners are most-often fearful of liability issues, likewise, experienced spelunkers are also wary to guide novices to cave locations, fearing they might recklessly endanger the natural balance of these sanctuaries, making them inaccessible to all. While most find cave vandalism unimaginable, there are some who, whether out of carelessness, malice, for this reason, precise locations of caves are seldom published. Rather than using a system, the MGS Caves of Maryland provides approximate locations using a quadrangle system to be employed with the use of 7. 5-minute topographic maps. Neither coordinates nor quadrangular data are posted on this page at present, only surrounding terrain, while limited data and pictures about Marylands caves can be found on the MGS’s website, the best sources of information are local speleological grottos and knowledgeable enthusiasts. Most of Marylands caves occur in its three westernmost counties, non-solutional caves are carved out by weathering and are typically of smaller size and of little interest to spelunkers. Exceptions in the area include the Wakefield and Cockeystown marbles. In the lowlands portion of the Piedmont caves are found in the Frederick Formation and Grove Limestone, while several other limestone members exist, no caves have been located within these members. Blue Ridge & the Great Valley – the Blue Ridge rises up from the Piedmont just west of Frederick in the first of its two mountains, Braddock/Catoctin, here older limestone and dolomites from the Cambrian/Ordovician make an appearance, offering up a few caves in the Frederick/Middletown Valley vicinity. On top of these, older, harder thrust sheets of metamorphic rocks from the Paleozoic give these mountains their well-defined crests, Wolf Rock, home to Marylands best-known non-solutional cave, is an example of quartzite that has endured while Catoctin Mountain has weathered around it. Here the harder metamorphosed rocks of the Blue Ridge are replaced by carbonates, sandstones, the highest concentration of Maryland caves lies within the Hagerstown Valley, where well-established waterways have cut into the underlying carbonate rocks. The probability of development, however, is also very strongly influenced by the presence of structural features such as anticlinal axes, synclinal troughs. In contrast to the caves of neighboring West Virginia, caves in the Great Valley are generally quite shallow with little internal relief. In-cave relief rarely exceeds 50 feet in Washington County, High deformation and faulting allows surface waters to penetrate rock vertically and reach the shallow underlying water table quickly without much lateral travel. Ridge & Valley Region – is the name of the province extending west of the Great Valley to the western portion of Allegany CountyList of caves of Maryland – Dam #4 Cave
56. List of rock-cut temples in India – This is a partial list of Indian rock-cut temples by state or union territory. This is a monolithic structure in the sub-Himalayan region. The main shrine contains three images of Rama, Lakshmana and Sita. The temple complex is located on a hill and has a rectangular water pond. The temple complex is believed to have built by the Pandava during their exile. The ancient name of the city Kangra was Bhimnagar, founded by Bhima, faces of the Divine, Indias Ancient Art – Interactive MapList of rock-cut temples in India – Akkanna Madanna caves, Vijayawada
57. List of caves in Austria – The following article shows a list of caves in Austria. The list also includes ice caves and tourist former salt caves, the main concentration of Austrian caves is by the Northern Limestone Alps, a mountain range of the Eastern Alps. Many of them are located in the region of Salzkammergut. The caves are listed by order and there are shown the main tourist caves. In the length section is shown, between parentheses, the trail as a show caveList of caves in Austria – View of the " Katerloch Cave"
58. List of show caves in Germany – This list of show caves in Germany contains all show caves in Germany which are hosted by the German Speleological Federation. A show cave is defined here as a natural, underground cavity, show caves have regular opening times, usually with regular guided tours of about 30 to 45 minutes duration. They are almost all electrically lighted, only the Easter Cave and the Schellenberg Ice Cave still use carbide lamps. In 1884 the Olga Cave was the first German show cave to be equipped with electrical lighting, only the Kraus Cave in the Styria in Austria was equipped earlier, in 1883. There are currently 51 show caves in Germany, the earliest to have guided tours was Baumanns Cave in the Rübeland, visited by Goethe. Tours of this cave were being organised as early as 1646, the latest to be opened as a show cave was the Autumn Labyrinth in 2009. More than half the show caves are dripstone caves, the Wimsen Cave is the only show cave in Germany accessible by boat, for a distance of 70 metres. The Goetz Cave is the only cave in the list. The Laichingen Vertical Cave is the only cave that can be viewed in Germany, having a depth of 55 metres below the entrance. The Schellenberg Ice Cave is the ice cave in Germany that can be visited. In the Barbarossa Cave, which is formed of stone, loose layers of plaster hang like wallpaper from the ceilings. Name of the cave, states the name of the show cave. Location, gives the location of the show cave, state, gives the state in which the show cave is found. Location, gives the coordinates of the show caves, geological classification, states the geological type of cave. It may be a cave, rock cave, karst cave or other type. Length, gives the length of the show cave in metres including all branches. GR, gives the length of the guided route in metres. It does include any artificial access walkways that are not part of the length of the caveList of show caves in Germany – The Atta Cave – Germany’s most-visited show cave
59. Caves in Cantabria – The Cantabrian caves unique location make them an ideal place to observe the settlements of primitive man thousands of years ago. The magnificent art in the caves includes figures of animals of the time such as bison, horses, goats, deer, cattle, hands. The cave of Las Aguas is located in the town of Novales and this cave contains rock art, including two bison carved and painted in red, a doe, a horse, a clavate, a sign on the grill and several more configurations. These remains have been dated chronologically in the early or middle Magdalenian period, the Cave of Altamira is located near Santillana del Mar. The cave has been included in UNESCOs World Heritage Site since 1985, the Cave of la Clotilde is located in the town of Santa Isabel de Quijas in the region of Reocín. The cave of Cualventi is located in the town of Peralada, cullalvera Cave is located in the municipality of Ramales de la Victoria, capital of the comarca of Valley of the Asón River. These forms in conjunction with prehistoric remains make the cave one of the most visited of the region. Remains of a reservoir and rock art, both from the Paleolithic have been found here. The Cave of Chufín is located in the village of Riclones and it is located at the confluence point of several rivers and Nansa Lamasón in an environment with steep slopes amongst other caves with rock art. Chufín contains different levels of occupation, the oldest being around 20,000 years old, even though the cave is small and of profound simplicity it subtle red paintings of deer, goats and cattle which are represented very schematically and a large number of symbols. One group, called sticks, accompanies the animal paintings inside the cave, there are also a large number of pointillist drawings, including some around each hole in the rock which have been interpreted as a representation of a vulva. The cave has been included as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO since 2008, the Cave of La Estación is located near the cave of La Clotilde, in Santa Isabel de Quijas. It is notable for paintings in a room representing horses and other signs which are not identifiable. Fuente del Salín Cave is located in the municipality of Val de San Vicente, the path is accessible only in times of drought, because it lies along an underground river. The Cave of La Garma is located north of the village of Omoño and it was found to wall paintings and fossils in a Lower Gallery, one of the best preserved Magdaleinian period floors. It is part of the Cave of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain World Heritage Site, the Cave of Hornos de la Peña Cave was discovered in 1903 and is situated on a hill near the village of Tarriba, San Felices de Buelna. The paintings were dated to the initial or middle Magdalenian period, the cave of El Linar is located in La Busta, a town in the municipality of Alfoz de Lloredo. The path is an arroyo of more than 7 kilometers with three mouths which join the stream of Busta, Paleolithic materials have been detected and also remnants of Magdalenian era occupationsCaves in Cantabria – Roof of the Cave of Altamira (replica) - National Archaeological Museum.
60. Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin – The group of over 700 sites of prehistoric Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin, also known as Levantine art, were collectively declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1998. The sites are in the part of Spain and contain rock art dating to the Upper Paleolithic or Mesolithic periods of the Stone Age. It is notable for the number of places included, the largest concentration of art in Europe. Its name refers to the Mediterranean Basin, however, while some sites are located near the sea, many of them are inland in Aragon and Castile-La Mancha, it is also often referred to as Levantine Art. According to UNESCO, the oldest art in the World Heritage Site is from 8,000 BC, the art therefore spans a period of cultural change. It reflects the life of using primarily hunter-gatherer economic systems. Later scenes show men leading horses, and some cattle shown may be domesticated, the chronology of Levantine Art overlaps with that of Iberian schematic art, and examples of both types of art can be found at some sites. The paintings seem to have been produced after an influx of population from North Africa had mixed with the remaining from earlier periods in Iberia. Levantine Art was first discovered in Teruel in 1903, the Spanish prehistorian Juan Cabre was the first to study this art, defining it as a regional Palaeolithic art. Assessment as Palaeolithic was challenged for various reasons including the fact that no glacial fauna was depicted, antonio Beltrán Martínez and others place the beginning of this art in the Epipaleolithic or Mesolithic, placing its heyday in the Neolithic period. The artists appear to have used feathers, in a complex painting technique, compared to the art of the Upper Paleolithic. Figures are often outlined, apparently after the body was painted. Some figures are shallowly engraved rather than painted, the figures are relatively small, between about 8 and 1 inch high, and in one or two colours. The paint was generally thin, using mineral earths or charcoal. Some figures have more than one coat of paint, which has led to claims that they were repainted after long periods, the human figure, which is rare in Paleolithic art, acquires great importance in Levantine Art. The human figure is frequently the main theme, and when it appears in the scene as animals. The painting known as The Dancers of Cogul is an example of movement being depicted. The most common scenes by far are of hunting, and there are scenes of battle and dancing, in some scenes gathering honey is shown, most famously at Cuevas de la Araña en BicorpRock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin – The Dance of Cogul, tracing by Henri Breuil
61. History of Italy – The history of Italy begins with the arrival of the first hominins 850,000 years ago at Monte Poggiolo. Italy shows evidence of habitation by modern humans beginning about 43,000 years ago. It is reached by the Neolithic as early as 6000–5500 BC Cardium Pottery, among the Italic peoples, the Latins, originally situated in the Latium region, and their Latin language would come to dominate the peninsula with the Roman conquest of Italy in the 3rd century BC. The decline and collapse of the Western Empire by the end of the 5th century is taken to mark the end of Late Antiquity, a Lombard Kingdom of Italy was established, although parts of the peninsula remained under Byzantine rule and influence until the 11th century. With the rise of nationalism and the idea of the state in the 19th century. The new Kingdom of Italy, established in 1861, quickly modernized and built a colonial empire, colonizing parts of Africa. However, many regions of the nation remained rural and poor. Part of the allied powers of World War I, Italy defeated its historical enemy. Soon afterwards, however, the state collapsed to social unrest. Italy joined the Axis powers in World War II, falling into a bloody Civil War in 1943, in 1946, as a result of a Constitutional Referendum, the monarchy was abolished. The new republic was proclaimed on 2 June 1946, in the 1950s and 1960s, Italy saw a period of rapid modernization and sustained economic growth, the so-called Italian economic miracle. Italy plays a prominent role in regional and global military, cultural, in prehistoric times, the Italian peninsula was rather different from its current shape. During the last Ice Age, the islands of Elba and Sicily were connected to the mainland. The Adriatic Sea was far smaller, since it started at what is now the Gargano peninsula, the arrival of the first hominins was 850,000 years ago at Monte Poggiolo. The presence of the Homo neanderthalensis has been demonstrated in archaeological findings dating to c.50,000 years ago, Homo sapiens sapiens appeared during the upper Palaeolithic. Remains of the prehistoric age have been found in Liguria, Lombardy. The most famous is perhaps that of Ötzi the Iceman, the mummy of a hunter found in the Similaun glacier in South Tyrol. During the Copper Age, Indoeuropean people migrated to Italy, approximatively four waves of population from north to the Alps have been identifiedHistory of Italy – Matera, which dates from Palaeolithic 10th millennium BC, (region of Basilicata).
62. Prehistoric Italy – In prehistoric times, the Italian peninsula was rather different from how it is now. During glaciations, for example, the sea level was lower, the Adriatic Sea began at what is now the Gargano Peninsula, and what is now its surface up to Venice was a fertile plain with a humid climate. The presence of Homo neanderthalensis has been demonstrated in archaeological findings dating to c.50,000 years ago, there are some twenty such sites, the most important being that of the Grotta Guattari at San Felice Circeo, on the Tyrrhenian Sea south of Rome. Other are the grotta di Fumane and the Breuil grotto, also in San Felice, the first Cro Magnon inhabitants of Italy moved across the peninusula, establishing themselves in small settlements far from each one, most on high areas. In 2011 it has discovered the most ancient Sardinian complete human skeleton at Pistoccu, in Marina di Arbus. Cardium Pottery is a Neolithic decorative style that gets its name from the imprinting of the clay with the shell of the Cardium edulis, a marine mollusk. The alternative name Impressed Ware is given by archaeologists to define this culture, because impressions can be with sharp objects other than Cardium shell. Impressed Ware is found in the zone covering Italy to the Ligurian coast as distinct from the more western Cardial beginning in Provence, France and extending to western Portugal. This pottery style gives its name to the culture of the Mediterranean Neolithic. Since the Late-Neolithic, Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Liguria, Tuscany, later, in the Bronze Age, megalithic structures were built also in Latium, Puglia and Sicily. The Remedello, Rinaldone and Gaudo cultures are late Neolithic cultures of Italy, traces of which are found in the present-day regions of Lombardy, Tuscany, Latium. They are sometimes described as Eneolithic cultures, due to their use of copper tools. The earliest Statue menhirs, frequently depicting weapons, were erected by the populations of northern Italy and this sculptural tradition of possible steppe origin, lasted in some regions well into the Bronze Age and even into the Iron Age. The Beaker culture marks the transition between the Eneolitichic and the early Bronze Age and it was followed in the Middle Bronze Age by the facies of the pile dwellings and of the dammed settlements. Located in Sardinia, the Nuragic civilization, who lasted from the early Bronze Age to the second century A. D and it takes its name from the characteristic Nuraghe. The nuraghe towers are considered the best-preserved and largest megalithic remains in Europe. Their effective use is debated, while most scholars considered them as fortresses. A warrior and mariner people, the ancient Sardinians held flourishing trades with the other Mediterranean peoples, another important element of this civilitation are the Giants of Monte Prama, perhaps the oldest anthropomorphic statues of the western Mediterranean seaPrehistoric Italy – Figure of an Aurochs engraved at the Romito cave near Cosenza
63. Etruscan civilization – The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio. Culture that is identifiably Etruscan developed in Italy after about 800 BC, the latter gave way in the 7th century BC to a culture that was influenced by ancient Greece, Magna Graecia, and Phoenicia. The decline was gradual, but by 500 BC the political destiny of Italy had passed out of Etruscan hands, the last Etruscan cities were formally absorbed by Rome around 100 BC. Politics were based on the city, and probably the family unit. In their heyday, the Etruscan elite grew very rich through trade with the Celtic world to the north and the Greeks to the south, archaic Greece had a huge influence on their art and architecture, and Greek mythology was evidently very familiar to them. The study also excluded recent Anatolian connection, the ancient Romans referred to the Etruscans as the Tuscī or Etruscī. Their Roman name is the origin of the terms Tuscany, which refers to their heartland, and Etruria, which can refer to their wider region. In Attic Greek, the Etruscans were known as Tyrrhenians, from which the Romans derived the names Tyrrhēnī, Tyrrhēnia, the word may also be related to the Hittite Taruisa. The Etruscans called themselves Rasenna, which was syncopated to Rasna or Raśna, the origins of the Etruscans are mostly lost in prehistory, although Greek historians as early as the 5th century BC, repeatedly associated the Tyrrhenians with Pelasgians. Strabo as well as the Homeric Hymn to Dionysus make mention of the Tyrrhenians as pirates, pliny the Elder put the Etruscans in the context of the Rhaetian people to the north and wrote in his Natural History, Adjoining these the Noricans are the Raeti and Vindelici. All are divided into a number of states, the Raeti are believed to be people of Tuscan race driven out by the Gauls, their leader was named Raetus. Historians have no literature and no original Etruscan texts of religion or philosophy, therefore, much of what is known about this civilization is derived from grave goods, another source of genetic data on Etruscan origins is from four ancient breeds of cattle. Analyzing the mitochondrial DNA of these and seven other breeds of Italian cattle, the other Italian breeds were linked to northern Europe. Etruscan expansion was focused both to the north beyond the Apennine Mountains and into Campania, some small towns in the sixth century BC disappeared during this time, ostensibly consumed by greater, more powerful neighbours. However, it is certain that the structure of the Etruscan culture was similar to, albeit more aristocratic than. The mining and commerce of metal, especially copper and iron, led to an enrichment of the Etruscans and to the expansion of their influence in the Italian peninsula and the western Mediterranean Sea. Here, their interests collided with those of the Greeks, especially in the sixth century BC and this led the Etruscans to ally themselves with Carthage, whose interests also collided with the Greeks. Around 540 BC, the Battle of Alalia led to a new distribution of power in the western Mediterranean, from the first half of the 5th century BC, the new political situation meant the beginning of the Etruscan decline after losing their southern provincesEtruscan civilization – Etruscan pendant with swastika symbols, Bolsena, Italy, 700-650 BC. Louvre Museum
64. Nuragic civilization – The Nuragic civilization, born and developed in Sardinia, the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, lasted from the Bronze Age to the 2nd century AD. The civilizations name derives from its most characteristic monument, the nuraghe, today some 7,000 nuraghes dot the Sardinian landscape. No written records of civilization have been discovered. The only written information that we have comes from literature of the Greeks and Romans. In the Stone Age the island was inhabited by people who had arrived there in the Paleolithic and Neolithic ages from several parts of Europe, the most ancient settlements have been discovered both in central Sardinia and Anglona. Later several cultures developed on the island, such as the Ozieri culture, the economy was based on agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing and trading with the mainland. With the diffusion of metallurgy, silver and copper objects and weapons also appeared on the island, according to some scholars, the similarity between this structure and those found in Mesopotamia are due to cultural influxes coming from the Eastern Mediterranean. The altar of Monte dAccoddi fell out of use starting from c.2000 BC, when the Beaker culture, the beakers appeared in Sardinia from two different geographical areas, firstly from Spain and southern France and then from Central Europe, through the Italian Peninsula. The Bonnanaro culture was the last evolution of the Beaker culture in Sardinia and these two cultures shared common features in the material culture such as pottery with axe-shaped handles. These influences may have spread to Sardinia via Corsica, where they absorbed new architectural techniques that were widespread on the island. New peoples coming from the mainland arrived on the island at time, bringing with them new cults, new technologies and new ways of life. The widespread diffusion of bronze brought numerous improvements to the used in agriculture, hunting. From this period dates the construction of the so-called proto-nuraghe, a structure that marks the first phase of the Nuragic Age. There has long been controversy among scholars, in ancient times, Greek historians and geographers tried to solve the mystery of the nuraghe and their builders. They described the presence of fabulous edifices, called daidaleia, from the name of Daedalus, perhaps for protection reasons, new towers were added to the original ones, connected by walls provided with slits forming a complex nuraghe. It has been suggested some of the current Sardinian villages trace their origin directly from Nuragic ones. The usually cited tin sources and trade in ancient times are those in the Iberian Peninsula or from Cornwall, the late Bronze Age saw a vast migration of the so-called Sea Peoples, described in ancient Egyptian sources. They destroyed Mycenaean and Hittite sites and also attacked Egypt, according to Giovanni Ugas the Sherden, one of the most important tribes of the sea peoples, are to be identified with the Nuragic SardiniansNuragic civilization – Su Nuraxi of Barumini, included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites since 1997
65. Magna Graecia – The settlers who began arriving in the 8th century BC brought with them their Hellenic civilization, which was to leave a lasting imprint in Italy, such as in the culture of ancient Rome. Most notably the Roman poet Ovid referred to the south of Italy as Magna Graecia in his poem Fasti, according to Strabo, Magna Graecias colonization started already at the time of the Trojan War and lasted for several centuries. Also during that period, Greek colonies were established in places as widely separated as the eastern coast of the Black Sea, Eastern Libya and they included settlements in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula. The Romans called the area of Sicily and the foot of Italy Magna Graecia since it was so densely inhabited by the Greeks, the ancient geographers differed on whether the term included Sicily or merely Apulia and Calabria, Strabo being the most prominent advocate of the wider definitions. With colonization, Greek culture was exported to Italy, in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its religious rites, an original Hellenic civilization soon developed, later interacting with the native Italic civilisations. Many of the new Hellenic cities became very rich and powerful, like Neapolis, Syracuse, Acragas Paestum, other cities in Magna Graecia included Tarentum, Epizephyrian Locri, Rhegium, Croton, Thurii, Elea, Nola, Ancona, Syessa, Bari and others. Following the Pyrrhic War in the 3rd century BC, Magna Graecia was absorbed into the Roman Republic, a remarkable example of the influence is the Griko-speaking minority that still exists today in the Italian regions of Calabria and Apulia. Griko is the name of a language combining ancient Doric, Byzantine Greek, there is a rich oral tradition and Griko folklore, limited now but once numerous, to around 30,000 people, most of them having become absorbed into the surrounding Italian element. Some scholars, such as Gerhard Rohlfs, argue that the origins of Griko may ultimately be traced to the colonies of Magna Graecia, one example is the Griko people, some of whom still maintain their Greek language and customs. For example, Greeks re-entered the region in the 16th and 17th century in reaction to the conquest of the Peloponnese by the Ottoman Empire, especially after the end of the Siege of Coron, large numbers of Greeks took refuge in the areas of Calabria, Salento and Sicily. Greeks from Coroni, the so-called Coronians, were nobles, who brought with them substantial movable property and they were granted special privileges and tax exemptions. Other Greeks who moved to Italy came from the Mani Peninsula of the Peloponnese, the Maniots were known for their proud military traditions and for their bloody vendettas, many of which still continue today. Another group of Maniot Greeks moved to Corsica, Ancient Greek dialects Greeks in Italy Italiotes Graia Graïke Graecus Griko people Griko language Hellenic civilization Names of the Greeks Cerchiai L. Jannelli L. Longo F. The Greek Cities of Magna Graecia and Sicily, in Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. 21 June,2005,17,19 GMT18,19 UK, salentinian Peninsula, Greece and Greater Greece. Traditional Griko song performed by Ghetonia, traditional Griko song performed by amateur local group. Second Interdisciplinary Symposium on the Hellenic Heritage of Southern Italy, the Greeks in the West, genetic signatures of the Hellenic colonisation in southern Italy and SicilyMagna Graecia – Cities of Magna Graecia and other Greek settlements in Italy (in red)
66. Ancient Rome – In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and then Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, Amulius, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, Amulius, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent, exiled, and unwanted. This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the AeneidAncient Rome – Senātus Populus que Rōmānus
67. Roman Empire – Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was then unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperorRoman Empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
68. Kingdom of the Lombards – The king was traditionally elected by the highest-ranking aristocrats, the dukes, as several attempts to establish a hereditary dynasty failed. The kingdom was subdivided into a number of duchies, ruled by semi-autonomous dukes. The capital of the kingdom and the center of its life was Pavia in the modern northern Italian region of Lombardy. The Lombard invasion of Italy was opposed by the Byzantine Empire, because of this division, the southern duchies were considerably more autonomous than the smaller northern duchies. Over time, the Lombards gradually adopted Roman titles, names, by the time Paul the Deacon was writing in the late 8th century, the Lombardic language, dress and hairstyles had all disappeared. Initially the Lombards were Arianist Christians, at odds with the Papacy both religiously and politically, however, by the end of the 7th century, their conversion to Catholicism was all but complete. Nevertheless, their conflict with the Papacy continued and was responsible for their loss of power in the face of the Franks. Charlemagne, the king of the Franks, adopted the title King of the Lombards, although he never managed to control of Benevento. The only evidence for their use at the level comes from the Duchy of Benevento. The existence of seal rings testifies to the tenacity of Roman traditions of government, in the 6th century Byzantine Emperor Justinian attempted to reassert imperial authority in the territories of the Western Roman Empire. Problems were further exacerbated by widespread famine and a plague pandemic. In the spring of 568 the Lombards, led by King Alboin, moved from Pannonia, the Lombard arrival broke the political unity of the Italian Peninsula for the first time since the Roman conquest. The peninsula was now torn between territories ruled by the Lombards and the Byzantines, with boundaries that changed over time, the territories which remained under Byzantine control were called Romania in northeastern Italy and had its stronghold in the Exarchate of Ravenna. Arriving in Italy, King Alboin gave control of the Eastern Alps to one of his most trusted lieutenants, Gisulf, the duchy, established in the Roman town of Forum Iulii, constantly fought with the Slavic population across the Gorizia border. Justified by its military needs, the Duchy of Friuli thus had greater autonomy compared to other duchies of Langobardia Maior until the reign of Liutprand. Over time, other Lombard Duchies were created in cities of the kingdom. This was dictated primarily by military needs as Dukes were primarily military commanders, tasked to secure control of territory. However, the collection of duchies also contributed to political fragmentationKingdom of the Lombards – The Lombard possessions in Italy: The Lombard Kingdom (Neustria, Austria and Tuscia) and the Lombard Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento
69. Norman conquest of southern Italy – The Norman conquest of southern Italy spanned most of the 11th and 12th centuries, involving many battles and independent conquerors. Itinerant Norman knights arrived in the Mezzogiorno as mercenaries in the service of Lombard and Byzantine factions and these groups gathered in several places, establishing fiefdoms and states of their own, uniting and elevating their status to de facto independence within fifty years of their arrival. Unlike the Norman conquest of England, which took a few years after one battle, the conquest of southern Italy was the product of decades. Many territories were conquered independently, and only later were unified into a single state, compared to the conquest of England it was unplanned and disorganised, but equally complete. The earliest reported date of the arrival of Norman knights in southern Italy is 999, in that year, according to several sources, Norman pilgrims returning from the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem via Apulia stayed with Prince Guaimar III in Salerno. The city and its environs were attacked by Saracens from Africa demanding payment of an annual tribute. While Guaimar began to collect the tribute the Normans ridiculed him and his Lombard subjects for cowardice, the Saracens fled, booty was confiscated and a grateful Guaimar asked the Normans to stay. They refused, but promised to bring his rich gifts to their compatriots in Normandy, some sources have Guaimar sending emissaries to Normandy to bring back knights, and this account of the arrival of the Normans is sometimes known as the Salerno tradition. The Salerno tradition was first recorded by Amatus of Montecassino in his Ystoire de li Normant between 1071 and 1086. Much of this information was borrowed from Amatus by Peter the Deacon for his continuation of the Chronicon Monasterii Casinensis of Leo of Ostia, beginning with the Annales Ecclesiastici of Baronius in the 17th century, the Salernitan story became the accepted history. Although its factual accuracy was questioned periodically during the following centuries, another historical account of the arrival of the first Normans in Italy, the Gargano tradition, appears in primary chronicles without reference to any previous Norman presence. Some scholars have combined the Salerno and Gargano tales, and John Julius Norwich suggested that the meeting between Melus and the Normans had been arranged by Guaimar, Melus had been in Salerno just before his visit to Monte Gargano. Another story involves the exile of a group of brothers from the Drengot family, one of the brothers, Osmund or Gilbert, murdered William Repostel in the presence of Robert I, Duke of Normandy after Repostel allegedly boasted about dishonouring his murderers daughter. Threatened with death, the Drengot brother fled with his siblings to Rome, Amatus dates the story to after 1027, and does not mention the pope. According to him, Gilberts brothers were Osmund, Ranulf, Asclettin, repostels murder is dated by all the chronicles to the reign of Robert the Magnificent and after 1027, although some scholars believe Robert was a scribal error for Richard. The earlier date is necessary if the emigration of the first Normans was connected to the Drengots, in the Histories of Ralph Glaber, Rodulfus leaves Normandy after displeasing Count Richard. The sources disagree about which brother was the leader on the southern trip, orderic and William of Jumièges, in the latters Gesta Normannorum Ducum, name Osmund, Glaber names Rudolph, and Leo, Amatus and Adhemar of Chabannes name Gilbert. According to most southern-Italian sources, the leader of the Norman contingent at the Battle of Cannae in 1018 was Gilbert, if Rudolf is identified with the Rudolf of Amatus history as a Drengot brother, he may have been the leader at CannaeNorman conquest of southern Italy – The imprisonment of Pandulf of Capua, after Emperor Henry II's 1022 campaign
70. Guelphs and Ghibellines – The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, rivalry between two parties formed a particularly important aspect of the internal politics of medieval Italy. The struggle for power between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire had arisen with the Investiture Controversy, which began in 1075, the division between the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Italy, however, persisted until the 15th century. Guelph is an Italian form of the name of the House of Welf, the names were likely introduced to Italy during the reign of Frederick Barbarossa. When Frederick conducted military campaigns in Italy to expand imperial power there, the Lombard League and its allies were defending the liberties of the urban communes against the Emperors encroachments and became known as Guelphs. The Ghibellines were thus the party, while the Guelphs supported the Pope. Broadly speaking, Guelphs tended to come from wealthy mercantile families, the Lombard League defeated Frederick at the Battle of Legnano in 1176. Frederick recognized the autonomy of the cities of the Lombard league under his nominal suzerainty. The division developed its own dynamic in the politics of medieval Italy, smaller cities tended to be Ghibelline if the larger city nearby was Guelph, as Guelph Republic of Florence and Ghibelline Republic of Siena faced off at the Battle of Montaperti,1260. Pisa maintained a staunch Ghibelline stance against her fiercest rivals, the Guelph Republic of Genoa, adherence to one of the parties could therefore be motivated by local or regional political reasons. Within cities, party allegiances differed from guild to guild, rione to rione, moreover, sometimes traditionally Ghibelline cities allied with the Papacy, while Guelph cities were even punished with interdict. Contemporaries did not use the terms Guelph and Ghibellines much until about 1250, at the beginning of the 13th century, Philip of Swabia, a Hohenstaufen, and his son-in-law Otto of Brunswick, a Welf, were rivals for the imperial throne. Philip was supported by the Ghibellines as a relative of Frederick I, Frederick II also introduced this division to the Crusader states in the Levant during the Sixth Crusade. After the death of Frederick II in 1250 the Ghibellines were supported by Conrad IV of Germany and later Manfred, King of Sicily, the Sienese Ghibellines inflicted a noteworthy defeat on Florentine Guelphs at the Battle of Montaperti. In that period the stronghold of Italian Ghibellines was the city of Forlì and that city remained with the Ghibelline factions, partly as a means of preserving its independence, rather than out of loyalty to the temporal power, as Forlì was nominally in the Papal States. Over the centuries, the papacy tried several times to control of Forlì. Essentially the two sides were now fighting either against German influence, or against the power of the Pope. In Florence and elsewhere the Guelphs usually included merchants and burghers and they also adopted peculiar customs such as wearing a feather on a particular side of their hats, or cutting fruit a particular way, according to their affiliationGuelphs and Ghibellines – Painting of the Guelph and Ghibelline families, by Ottavio Baussano (Asti).
71. Italian Wars – Ludovico Sforza of Milan, seeking an ally against the Republic of Venice, encouraged Charles VIII of France to invade Italy, using the Angevin claim to the throne of Naples as a pretext. For several months, French forces moved through Italy virtually unopposed, Charles VIII made triumphant entries into Pisa on November 8,1494, Florence on November 17,1494, and Rome on December 31,1494. Upon reaching the city of Monte San Giovanni in the Kingdom of Naples, Charles VIII sent envoys to the town, the garrison killed and mutilated the envoys and sent the bodies back to the French lines. This enraged the French army so that reduced the castle in the town with blistering artillery fire on February 9,1495 and stormed the fort. This was the sack of Naples. News of the French Armys sack of Naples provoked a reaction among the city-states of Northern Italy, the League was specifically formed to resist French aggression. The League was established on 31 March after negotiations by Venice, Milan, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. Later on the League consisted of the Holy Roman Empire, the Duchy of Milan, Spain, the Papal States, the Republic of Florence, the Duchy of Mantua and this coalition, effectively, cut Charles army off from returning to France. After establishing a government in Naples, Charles started to march north on his return to France. However, in the town of Fornovo he met the League army. In contemporary tradition, though, the battle counted as a Holy League victory, because the French forces had to leave, to the Italian coalition, however, it was at best a pyrrhic victory, in that its strategic outcome and long-term consequences were unfavorable. Although the League managed to force Charles VIII off the battlefield, it suffered much higher casualties and could not prevent the opposing army crossing the Italian lands as it returned to France. As a result of Charles VIIIs expedition, the states of Italy were shown once. In fact, the individual Italian states could not field armies comparable to those of the feudal monarchies of Europe in numbers. Thus, Charles VIII lost all that he conquered in Italy, King Charles VIII died on April 7,1498 and was succeeded to the throne of France by his cousin, Louis II, Duke of Orléans, who became Louis XII of France. Ludovico Sforza retained his throne in Milan until 1499, when Charless successor, Louis XII of France, invaded Lombardy, Louis XII justified his claim to the Duchy of Milan by right of his paternal grandfather, Louis duc dOrléans having married Valentina Visconti in 1387. Valentina Visconti was the heir to the Duchy of Milan in the Visconti dynasty, the marriage contract between Valentina Visconti and Louis, duc dOrléans, guaranteed that in failure of male heirs, she would inherit the Visconti dominions. However, when the Visconti dynasty died out in 1447, the Milanese ignored the Orleans claim to the Duchy of Milan, however, bitter factionalism arose under the new republic which set the stage for Francisco Sforza to seize control of Milan in 1450Italian Wars – The Battle of Pavia by an unknown Flemish artist (oil on panel, 16th century).
72. Italian unification – The process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. The memory of the Risorgimento is central to both Italian politics and Italian historiography, for short period is one of the most contested. Italian nationalism was based among intellectuals and political activists, often operating from exile, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Roman province of Italy remained united under the Ostrogothic Kingdom and later disputed between the Kingdom of the Lombards and the Byzantine Empire. Following conquest by the Frankish Empire, the title of King of Italy merged with the office of Holy Roman Emperor. However, the emperor was a foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state, as a result. This situation persisted through the Renaissance but began to deteriorate with the rise of modern nation-states in the modern period. Italy, including the Papal States, then became the site of proxy wars between the powers, notably the Holy Roman Empire, Spain and France. Harbingers of national unity appeared in the treaty of the Italic League, in 1454, leading Renaissance Italian writers Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated that the ancient valour in Italian hearts is not yet dead in Italia Mia, Niccolò Machiavelli later quoted four verses from Italia Mia in The Prince, which looked forward to a political leader who would unite Italy to free her from the barbarians. I am an Italian, he explained, the French Republic spread republican principles, and the institutions of republican governments promoted citizenship over the rule of the Bourbons and Habsburgs and other dynasties. The reaction against any outside control challenged Napoleons choice of rulers, as Napoleons reign began to fail, the rulers he had installed tried to keep their thrones further feeding nationalistic sentiments. After Napoleon fell, the Congress of Vienna restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments, vincenzo Gioberti, a Piedmontese priest, had suggested a confederation of Italian states under leadership of the Pope in his 1842 book, Of the Moral and Civil Primacy of the Italians. Pope Pius IX at first appeared interested but he turned reactionary, Giuseppe Mazzini and Carlo Cattaneo wanted the unification of Italy under a federal republic. That proved too extreme for most nationalists, the middle position was proposed by Cesare Balbo as a confederation of separate Italian states led by Piedmont. One of the most influential revolutionary groups was the Carbonari, a political discussion group formed in Southern Italy early in the 19th century. After 1815, Freemasonry in Italy was repressed and discredited due to its French connections, a void was left that the Carbonari filled with a movement that closely resembled Freemasonry but with a commitment to Italian nationalism and no association with Napoleon and his government. The response came from middle class professionals and business men and some intellectuals, the Carbonari disowned Napoleon but nevertheless were inspired by the principles of the French Revolution regarding liberty, equality and fraternity. They developed their own rituals, and were strongly anticlerical, the Carbonari movement spread across ItalyItalian unification – Five Days of Milan, 18–22 March 1848
73. Kingdom of Italy – The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866, Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882, victory in the war gave Italy a permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. Fascist Italy is the era of National Fascist Party rule from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government, according to Payne, Fascist regime passed through several relatively distinct phases. The first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, then came the second phase, the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper from 1925 to 1929. The third phase, with activism, was 1929–34. The war itself was the phase with its disasters and defeats. Italy was allied with Nazi Germany in World War II until 1943 and it switched sides to the Allies after ousting Mussolini and shutting down the Fascist party in areas controlled by the Allied invaders. Shortly after the war, civil discontent led to the referendum of 1946 on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, the Kingdom of Italy claimed all of the territory which is modern-day Italy. The development of the Kingdoms territory progressed under Italian re-unification until 1870, the state for a long period of time did not include Trieste or Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, which are in Italy today, and only annexed them in 1919. After the Second World War, the borders of present-day Italy were founded, the Kingdom of Italy was theoretically a constitutional monarchy. Executive power belonged to the monarch, as executed through appointed ministers, two chambers of parliament restricted the monarchs power—an appointive Senate and an elective Chamber of Deputies. The kingdoms constitution was the Statuto Albertino, the governing document of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In theory, ministers were responsible to the king. However, in practice, it was impossible for an Italian government to stay in office without the support of Parliament, members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected by plurality voting system elections in uninominal districts. A candidate needed the support of 50% of those voting, and of 25% of all enrolled voters, if not all seats were filled on the first ballot, a runoff was held shortly afterwards for the remaining vacancies. After a brief multinominal experimentation in 1882, proportional representation into large, regional, Socialists became the major party, but they were unable to form a government in a parliament split into three different factions, with Christian Populists and classical liberalsKingdom of Italy – Italian unification process.
74. List of historic states of Italy – The following is a list of the various Italian states during that period. Under its terms, France restored Piedmont and Savoy to the Duke of Savoy, more importantly, the treaty confirmed Spanish direct control of Milan, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and the State of Presidi, and indirectly of northern Italy. The Pope was also their natural ally, the only truly independent entities on Italian soil were the Duchy of Savoy and the Republic of Venice. In Italy, the Congress restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments, either directly ruled or strongly influenced by the prevailing European powers, particularly Austria. The Congress also determined the end of two republics, Genoa was annexed by Sardinia, and Venice was incorporated with Milan into a new kingdom of the Austrian Empire. The Austrian Empire vigorously repressed nationalist sentiment growing on the Italian peninsula, as well as in the other parts of Habsburg domainsList of historic states of Italy – Dominions of the House of Habsburg in Europe, at the abdication of Charles V, map from the Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912.
75. Military history of Italy – The military history of Italy chronicles a vast time period, lasting from the overthrow of Tarquinius Superbus in 509 BC, through the Roman Empire, Italian unification, and into the modern day. The Etruscans were settled north of Rome in Etruria and they founded cities like Tarquinia, Veii and Volterra and deeply influenced Roman culture, as clearly shown by the Etruscan origin of some of the mythical Roman kings. The origins of the Etruscans are lost in prehistory, historians have no literature, no texts of religion or philosophy, therefore much of what is known about this civilization is derived from grave goods and tomb findings. The Italics were war-like as the Etruscans, the Italics and the Etruscans had a significant military tradition. In addition to marking the rank and power of individuals in their culture, warfare was a considerable economic boon to their civilization. It is also likely individuals taken in battle would be ransomed back to their families, the Greeks had founded many colonies in Southern Italy, such as Cumae, Naples and Taranto, as well as in the eastern two-thirds of Sicily, between 750 and 550 BC. After 650 BC, the Etruscans became dominant in central Italy, the early Roman army was, like those of other contemporary city-states influenced by Greek civilization, a citizen militia which practiced hoplite tactics. It was small and organized in five classes, with three providing hoplites and two providing light infantry, the early Roman army was tactically limited and its stance during this period was essentially defensive. Thirty maniples arranged in three lines with supporting troops constituted a legion, totaling between 4,000 and 5,000 men, with the new organization came a new orientation toward the offensive and a much more aggressive posture toward adjoining city-states. Legions were often significantly understrength from recruitment failures or following periods of service due to accidents, battle casualties, disease. This pattern also held true for auxiliary forces, harris suggests that down to 200 BC, the average rural farmer might participate in six or seven campaigns. Freedmen and slaves and urban citizens did not serve except in rare emergencies, after 200 BC, economic conditions in rural areas deteriorated as manpower needs increased, so that the property qualifications for service were gradually reduced. Terms of service became continuous and long—up to twenty years if emergencies required it although Brunt argues that six or seven years was more typical, cavalry and light infantry attached to a legion were often recruited in the areas where the legion served. Caesar formed a legion, the Fifth Alaudae, from non-citizens in Transalpine Gaul to serve in his campaigns in Gaul, by the time of Caesar Augustus, the ideal of the citizen-soldier had been abandoned and the legions had become fully professional. Legionaries were paid 900 sesterces a year and could expect a payment of 12,000 sesterces on retirement, at the end of the Civil War, Augustus reorganized Roman military forces, discharging soldiers and disbanding legions. He retained 28 legions, distributed through the provinces of the Empire, during the Principate, the tactical organization of the Army continued to evolve. The auxilia remained independent cohorts, and legionary troops often operated as groups of cohorts rather than as full legions and this increase in organizational flexibility over time helped ensure the long-term success of Roman military forces. The Emperor Gallienus began a reorganization that created the military structure of the late EmpireMilitary history of Italy – An Etruscan helmet
76. Music history of Italy – The modern state of Italy did not come into being until 1861, though the roots of music on the Italian Peninsula can be traced back to the music of Ancient Rome. However, the underpinnings of much modern Italian music come from the Middle Ages, Italy was the site of several key musical developments in the development of the Christian liturgies in the West. Around 230, well before Christianity was legalized, the Apostolic Tradition of Hippolytus attested the singing of Psalms with refrains of Alleluia in Rome. In 386, in imitation of Eastern models, St. Ambrose wrote hymns, some of whose texts still survive, later, around 530, St. Benedict would arrange the weekly order of monastic psalmody in his Rule. Later, in the 6th century, Venantius Fortunatus created some of Christianitys most enduring hymns, including Vexilla regis prodeunt, which would later become the most popular hymn of the Crusades. Although Gregorian chant has its roots in Roman chant and is associated with Rome, it is not indigenous to Italy. Gregorian chant, which supplanted the indigenous Old Roman and Beneventan traditions, Gregorian chant later came to be strongly identified with Rome, especially as musical elements from the north were added to the Roman Rite, such as the Credo in 1014. This was part of a general trend wherein the manuscript tradition in Italy weakened, Gregorian chant supplanted all the other Western plainchant traditions, Italian and non-Italian, except for Ambrosian chant, which survives to this day. Crucial in the transmission of chant were the innovations of Guido dArezzo, whose Micrologus, written around 1020, described the musical staff, solmization, and this early form of do-re-mi created a technical revolution in the speed at which chants could be learned, memorized, and recorded. Even as the northern chant traditions were displacing indigenous Italian chant, the Albigensian Crusade, supposedly to attack Cathar heretics, brought southern France under northern French control and crushed Occitan culture and language. Most troubadours fled, especially to Spain and Italy, Italy developed its own counterparts to troubadours, called trovatori, including Sordello of Mantua. Italian secular music was largely the province of these jongleurs, troubadors, also around this time, Italian flagellants developed the Italian folk hymns known as spiritual laude. The early madrigal was simpler than the more well-known later madrigals, the caccia was often in three-part harmony, with the top two lines set to words in musical canon. The early ballata was often a poem in the form of a set to a monophonic melody. The Rossi Codex included music by Jacopo da Bologna, the first famous Trecento composer. The Ivrea Codex, dated around 1360, and the Squarcialupi Codex, dated around 1410, were sources of late Trecento music, including the music of Francesco Landini. Landinis name was attached to his characteristic Landini cadence, in which the note of the melody dips down two notes before returning, such as C-B-A-C. Trecento music influenced northern musicians such as Johannes Ciconia, whose synthesis of the French, during the 15th century, Italy entered a slow period in native composition, with the exception of a few bright lights such as the performer and anthologist Leonardo GiustinianMusic history of Italy – The Guidonian Hand
77. Postage stamps and postal history of Italy – This is an introduction to the postal and philatelic history of Italy. As Italy was not unified until 1861, its postal history is tied to the various kingdoms. The Cavallini of Sardinia was a private mail service, notable for the introduction of prepaid stamped lettersheets in 1819. The reform became law in November, and went into effect 1 January 1851, after some casting around for expertise in the newfangled art of stamp printing, the government settled on the house of Francesco Matraire in Turin. Matraire produced stamps with a profile of Victor Emmanuel II. Other states in Italy also issued stamps during the 1850s, Modena, Naples, the Papal States, Parma, Romagna, Sicily, matraires stamps were reprinted several times, and those printed after 17 March 1861 are normally considered the first stamps of Italy. Perforated stamps began in 1862 and, starting on 1 January 1863, in 1862 Count Ambjörn Sparre won the stamp contract, but his designs were not liked, and he seemed unable to produce the stamps. In danger of running out of stamps altogether, at the end of 1862 the Italian government once again turned to Matraire, who quickly produced a 15c value by lithography. Sparres contract was cancelled in March 1863, and a new contract let to the British printer De La Rue and they continued in use until the end of 1889. Italy joined the Universal Postal Union on 1 July 1875, humbert succeeded his father in 1878, which necessitated a new issue of stamps. First appearing on 15 August 1879, they were the first stamps of the kingdom to be designed, engraved. The new series incorporated rates and colors mandated by the Universal Postal Union, the worlds first official airmail stamps were issued in 1917 when Poste italiane overprinted their existing special delivery stamps. In 2007, the issue of an Italian stamp featuring the Croatian city of Rijeka caused a controversy, the stamp referred to the city in its usual Italian name of Fiume, claiming it was former Italian territory. This is seen as offensive in Croatia, revenue stamps of Italy References Sources Dehn, Roy A. Italian Stamps, a Handbook for Collectors, encyclopaedia of Postal Authorities Rossiter, Stuart & John Flower. ISBN 0-356-10862-7 Tony Claytons Stamps of Italy and Italian ColoniesPostage stamps and postal history of Italy – The first stamp of the Duchy of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, 1852, 5 centesimi
78. History of rail transport in Italy – The Italian railway system is one of the most important parts of the infrastructure of Italy, with a total length of 24,227 km. Railways were introduced in Italy when it was still a divided country, on request of the Milanese and Venetian industries, but also for the already clear military importance, construction of the Milan–Venice line was begun. In 1842 the Padua-Mestre stretch of 32 km was inaugurated, followed in 1846 by the Milan-Treviglio and Padua-Vicenza, in the Kingdom of Sardinia, King Charles Albert ordered on July 18,1844 the construction of the Turin–Genoa railway, which was inaugurated on December 6,1853. This was followed by the opening of sections which connected with France, Switzerland. A locomotive factory was founded in Genoa, in order to avoid the English monopoly in the field. In Tuscany, the Duke of Lucca signed the concession for the a Lucca–Pisa railway, while, in 1845, at the creation of the unified Kingdom of Italy, railroads in the country were the following, for a total of 2,064 km active railroads. Lines in the Papal States were still in construction, while Sicily had its first, the existing lines did not form an organized net, property of the line was statal or private, the latter in turn for private or statal use. A first organic structure began to be created in 1865 with the connections of the existing sections, in 1870 the last remnant of Papal States was also annexed to Italy, it comprised the railway connection from Rome to Frascati, Civitavecchia, Terni and Cassino. In 1872 there were in Italy about 7,000 km of railroads, entrusted to the companies in the following shares. In 1875 a proposal of the Italian government to form a company out of the existing concessionaires was refused by the Italian Parliament. This, among the other benefit, granted the fulfillment of social exigences in transportation, the Italian government was however slow to react, and only in 1878 and 1880, respectively, the largely deficitaire SFAI and SFR went under state administration. Despite this situation, in 1884 the Italian Parliament issued a study in which it was declared preferable a private administration of railways. The Convenzioni between Italy and the three main remaining private companies were signed on April 23,1884, for a period of 60 years. However, this not only failed to improve the situation of railways, hampering the economic development and tourism as well. Liabilities of the secondary lines greatly exceeded the profits from the few remaining ones, by the 1880s the Italian railways amounted to 10,510 km. The move was completed the year with the acquisition of the remaining SFM network, by then FS possessed 13,075 km of lines. A General Director was appointed, the Piedmontese engineer Riccardo Bianchi, a General Direction was created, with 13 Central Services and two General Inspectorates, based in Rome. For peripheral operations, eight Compartmental Directions were created, a capable and respected organizer, he had received a grievous heritage from the previous organizational chaosHistory of rail transport in Italy – An ETR 300 Italian fast EMU of the 1950s, used for Settebello service
79. Geography of Italy – Italy is located in southern Europe and comprises the long, boot-shaped Italian Peninsula, the southern side of Alps, the large plain of the Po Valley and some islands including Sicily and Sardinia. Corsica, although belonging to the Italian geographical region, has been a part of France since 1769, Italy is part of the Eastern Hemisphere. Its total area is 301,340 km2, of which 294,140 km2 is land and 7,200 km2 is water and it lies between latitudes 35° and 48° N, and longitudes 6° and 19° E. Italy borders with Switzerland, France, Austria and Slovenia, san Marino and Vatican city are enclaves. Including islands, Italy has a coastline of 7,600 km on the Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Ligurian Sea, Sea of Sardinia and Strait of Sicily. Almost 40% of the Italian territory is mountainous, with the Alps as the northern boundary, in between the two lies a large plain in the valley of the Po, the largest river in Italy, which flows 652 km eastward from the Cottian Alps to the Adriatic. The Po Valley is the largest plain in Italy, with 46,000 km2, the Alpine mountain range is linked with the Apennines with the Colle di Cadibona pass in the Ligurian Alps. Worldwide-known mountains in Italy are Matterhorn, Monte Rosa, Gran Paradiso in the West Alps, the highest peak in Italy is Mont Blanc, at 4,810 meters above sea level. Many elements of the Italian territory are of volcanic origin, most of the small islands and archipelagos in the south, like Capraia, Ponza, Ischia, Eolie, Ustica and Pantelleria are volcanic islands. There are also active volcanoes, Etna, in Sicily, the largest active volcano in Europe, Vulcano, Stromboli, and Vesuvius, near Naples, the only active volcano on mainland Europe. Territorial sea,12 nmi Continental shelf, 200-metre depth or to the depth of exploitation In the north of the country are a number of subalpine moraine-dammed lakes, the largest of which is Garda. Other well known of these lakes are Lake Maggiore, whose most northerly section is part of Switzerland, Como, Orta, Lugano, Iseo. Other notable lakes in the Italian peninsula are Trasimeno, Bolsena, Bracciano, Vico, Varano and Lesina in Gargano, the largest are Sicily 25,708 km2 and Sardinia 24,090 km2Geography of Italy – Italy viewed from space
80. Fauna of Italy – Italy has the highest level of faunal biodiversity in Europe, with over 57,000 species recorded, representing more than a third of all European fauna. This is due to various factors, the Italian peninsula is in the centre of the Mediterranean Sea, forming a corridor between central Europe and North Africa, and has 8,000 km of coastline. Italy also receives species from the Balkans, Eurasia, the Middle East, portions of Italy are included in the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot. There are also many cave systems significant for Biodiversity, the Checklist of the Species of the Italian Fauna includes 4777 endemic animal species. Unique Mammals include the Corsican hare, the Sardinian long-eared bat, the Apennine shrew, the Udine shrew the Calabria pine vole and the Sardinian deer. Endemic fish include the Bergatino loach, the Italian barbel, the chub, the Arno goby, the Garda carp, the carpione del Fibreno. Endemic Lepidoptera are listed here it, Farfalle e falene endemiche dellItalia, a notable species is the European owl moth found only in Southern Italy. There are 102 mammal species in Italy, some of the species are Alpine Marmot, forest dormouse, Etruscan shrew, European snow vole, and Schreibers long-fingered bat. Italy has recorded 516 bird species, Italy is an important route for trans-Saharan bird migrants because it is a natural bridge connecting continental Europe to Africa across the Mediterranean. Most of these birds breed in central and northern Europe, the birds return to Africa in autumn by the same route. The Italian fauna includes 56213 species of invertebrates and this is 97. 8% of the total species richness. Of these 37303 species are insects. The species richness of the Italian fauna is one of the highest in a European country. For insects the species richness is the absolute highest, northern Italy has 33414 invertebrate species. This may be a faunistic gradient but less complete data are available for southern Italy, as a consequence many species, known as rare in the Mediterranean are found in large numbers in the straits. It is common to find deep species at the surface and vice versa, the upwelling water drags abyssal species to the surface and sometimes strands them on the shore. About 300 species native to the Red Sea have already identified in the Mediterranean Sea. The Italian fauna is rich in introduced species, many introductions date from the time of the Roman Empire, such as the carp. Two introduced parrot species, the parakeet and the rose-ringed parakeet, are found in city parksFauna of Italy – Geological map of Italy
81. Elections in Italy – The President of the Republic is elected for a seven-year term by the two houses of Parliament in joint session. Italy has historically had many parties, both national and regional, with different party systems. The most recent Italian general election was held on 24 and 25 February 2013, on 24 April 2013, Napolitano, gave the task to form a new government to the Deputy-Secretary of the Democratic Party, Enrico Letta. On 28 April he sworn in as Prime Minister, the voter turnout in 2013 explains how the people of Italy really feel about the instability of their government. This graph shows the results of elections held in Italy from 1946 to today, with the percentages of consensus gathered by the various parties, passing your mouse over the different colored sections will display the name of the grouping and the percentage in the corresponding election. Clicking on a region will direct you to the article on the party or election selected, the constitution of Italy provides for two kinds of binding referendums. A legislative referendum can be called in order to abrogate a law totally or partially and this kind of referendum is valid only if at least a majority of electors goes to the polling station. It is forbidden to call a referendum regarding financial laws or laws relating to pardons or the ratification of international treaties, a constitutional referendum is valid no matter how many electors go to the polling station. Any citizen entitled to vote in an election to the Chamber of Deputies may participate in a referendumElections in Italy
82. Referendums in Italy – A referendum, in the Italian legal system is a request directed to the whole electorate to express their view on a determined question. It is the instrument of direct democracy in Italy. A constitutional referendum, which can be requested in cases when a new constitutional law is approved by Parliament. Similarly, a referendum can be requested to confirm the adoption of the Statute of ordinary regions, an advisory referendum is required to approve the modification of regions, provinces, or municipalities. A popular referendum on regional laws and regulations may be regulated by regional statutes, as a consequence of this, Italys first popular referendum was not held until 1974,27 years after the constitution was first approved. A popular referendum can only be called only at the request of five Regional Councils or 500,000 Italian voters, a popular referendum can only be asked to abolish an existing law, a referendum to adopt new legislation is not provided for by the Constitution. Some matters are not subject to referendum, tax laws, budget laws, amnesties and pardons. While these are the limits expressly stated by the Constitution, the Constitutional Court has identified further limitations, the petition, which must include the question of the referendum, must be deposited at the Court of Cassation, which is called to examine the validity of the petition. The Constitutional Court of Italy verifies the regularity of signatures and of the question of the referendum, the court has the power to reject it outright. Many fully valid petitions with the necessary 500,000 signatures have never accepted as referendums precisely for this reason. If the Court of Cassation judges the petition to be valid, the question must then be evaluated by the Constitutional Court. Unlike the Court of Cassation, which considers the conformity of the petition to ordinary law, if the Constitutional Court deems the referendum admissible, the President of the Republic has to set a date for the vote between April 15 and June 15. The final hurdle is that the result of the referendum is only valid if at least a majority of all eligible voters go to the polling station. If this quorum is not met, the referendum is invalid, the political party in Italy that is most closely associated with, and has made most use of, referendums in the last 40 years is the Radical Party led by Marco Pannella. They hold the record for most referendums presented and they will often use unconventional methods such as prolonged hunger strikes and/or thirst strikes by their leaders to draw attention to their cause. Their largest political battles came in the 1970s and 80s when they campaigned for the right to divorce. Other groups have made use of referendums to raise the profile of their own small political parties or their leaders or to raise awareness of their respective political agendas. However, often political parties who are even in the coalition will have very diverse opinions with regard to referendumsReferendums in Italy – Italian Republic
83. Italian Armed Forces – The Italian Armed Forces encompass the Italian Army, the Italian Navy and the Italian Air Force. A fourth branch of the forces, known as the Carabinieri. These five forces have military status and are all organized along military lines, the President of the Italian Republic heads the armed forces as the President of the High Council of Defence established by article 87 of the Constitution of Italy. According to article 78, the Parliament has the authority to declare a state of war, the ground force of Italy, the Regio Esercito dates back to the unification of Italy in the 1850s and 1860s. During the Cold War the Army prepared itself to defend against a Warsaw Pact invasion from the east, since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, it has seen extensive peacekeeping service in Lebanon, Afghanistan, and Iraq. On 29 July 2004 it became a professional all-volunteer force when conscription was finally ended, the navy of Italy was created in 1861, following the proclamation of the formation of the Kingdom of Italy, as the Regia Marina. The new navys baptism of fire came during the Third Italian War of Independence against the Austrian Empire, during the First World War, it spent its major efforts in the Adriatic Sea, fighting the Austro-Hungarian Navy. In the Second World War, it engaged the Royal Navy in a struggle for the control of the Mediterranean Sea. After the war, the new Marina Militare, being a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, has part in many coalition peacekeeping operations. The Guardia Costiera is a component of the navy, the air force of Italy was founded as an independent service arm on 28 March 1923, by King Vittorio Emanuele III as the Regia Aeronautica. During the 1930s, it was involved in its first military operations in Ethiopia in 1935, eventually, Italy entered World War II alongside Germany. After the armistice of 8 September 1943, Italy was divided two sides, and the same fate befell the Regia Aeronautica. The Air Force was split into the Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force in the south aligned with the Allies, when Italy was made a republic by referendum, the air force was given its current name Aeronautica Militare. The Arma dei Carabinieri is the gendarmerie and military police of Italy, the corps was instituted in 1814 by King Victor Emmanuel I of Savoy with the aim of providing the Kingdom of Sardinia with a police corps, it is therefore older than Italy itself. The new force was divided into divisions on the scale of one division for each province of Italy, the Italian unification saw the number of divisions increased, and in 1861 the Carabinieri were appointed the First Force of the new national military organization. In recent years Carabinieri units have been dispatched on peacekeeping missions, including Kosovo, Afghanistan, Italy did take part in the 1982 Multinational Force in Lebanon along with US, French and British troops. As part of Operation Enduring Freedom, Italy contributed to the operation in Afghanistan. Italian forces have contributed to ISAF, the NATO force in Afghanistan, Italian forces also command a multinational engineer task force and have deployed a platoon of Carabinieri military policeItalian Armed Forces – Alpini of the 4th Alpini Parachutist Regiment in Afghanistan in 2007.
84. Italian Parliament – The Italian Parliament is the national parliament of the Italian Republic. The Parliament is the body of Italian citizens and is the successor to the Parliament of the Kingdom of Sardinia. It is a legislature with 950 elected members and a small number of unelected members. The two houses are independent from one another and never meet jointly except under circumstances specified by the Constitution, on the other hand, no distinction is made between deputies and senators. The Chamber of Deputies has 630 elected members, while the Senate has 315 elected members, the Senate of the Republic also includes a small number of unelected members. There are two categories of senators for life, former Presidents of the Republic are senators for life by law, unless they renounce this privilege. Furthermore, Presidents of the Republic can appoint up to five Italian citizens as senators for life for outstanding merits in the social, scientific, artistic or literary field. Similarly, the two houses have a different age of candidacy, deputies are required to be 25 or older, no explicit age limit is required to be appointed senator for life. The main prerogative of the Parliament is the exercise of legislative power, for a bill to become law, it must receive the support of both houses independently in the same text. A bill is first introduced in one of the houses, amended, and then approved or rejected, if approved, it is passed to the other house, if approved without amendments, the bill is then promulgated by the President of the Republic and becomes law. If approved with amendments, it is back to the other house. The process continues until the bill is approved in the text by both houses or is rejected by one house. The Council of Ministers, which is led by the Prime Minister and is the executive of Italy. If the President of the Republic is unable to find a new Prime Minister able to receive the support of both houses, he or she can dissolve one or both houses and new elections are held. The process by which the Italian Parliament makes law, the iter legis, is as follows, proposals can be made by the Government, individual Members of Parliament, private citizens, individual Regional Councils, and the National Council for Economics and Labour. Once a proposal is introduced in one of the two Chambers, it is assigned to a committee to carry out preliminary inspection of the proposal. At this point, two different procedures can be taken and this must be completed in no more than four months for the Chamber of Deputies and two months for the Senate. Once the bill has come before one of the chambers, a discussion takes place, followed by the review article by article, and finally a vote on the whole billItalian Parliament – Palazzo Madama seat of the Senate.
85. Senate of the Republic (Italy) – The Senate of the Republic is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament. The two houses form a perfect bicameral system, meaning they perform identical functions, but do so separately. Members of the Senate are styled Senator or The Honourable Senator and they meet at Palazzo Madama, the Senate consists of 315 elected members, and as of 2016 five senators for life. The elected senators must be over 40 years of age and are elected by Italian citizens aged 25 or older, the Senate is elected on a regional basis. The 309 senators are assigned to each region according to their population. However, Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than seven senators representing it, except for the Aosta Valley and Molise. The five current life senators are, The current term of the Senate is five years, until a Constitutional change on February 9,1963, the Senate was elected for six-year terms. The Senate may be dissolved before the expiration of its normal term by the President of the Republic, in 2016, Italian Parliament passed a constitutional law that effectively abolishes the Senate as an elected chamber and sharply restricts its ability to veto legislation. The law was rejected on December 4,2016 by a referendum, the election of the Senate is still regulated by Law no. 270, December 21,2005, which however was judged to be partly unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court in December 2013, in each Region, except for three, at least 55% of the seats are assigned to the coalition or list which received the most votes. The Aosta Valley elects one senator, so it uses a first past the post system, Molise elects two senators with a proportional system. Trentino-South Tyrol uses a mixed member system, it elects 6 senators in first past the post constituencies. That session, presided by the oldest senator, proceeds to elect the President of the Senate for the parliamentary period. On the first two attempts at voting, a majority of all senators is needed, if a third round is needed. If this third round fails to produce a winner, a ballot is held between the two senators with the highest votes in the previous ballot. In the case of a tie, the senator is deemed the winner. The current President of the Senate is Pietro Grasso, recent Presidents of the Italian Senate, Since 1871, the Senate has met in Palazzo Madama in Rome, an old patrician palace completed in 1505 for the Medici family. The palace takes its name from Madama Margherita of Austria, daughter of Charles V, after the extinction of the Medici, the palace was handed over to the House of LorraineSenate of the Republic (Italy)
86. List of political parties in Italy – Political parties in Italy are numerous and there are hundreds of parties which are no longer active. Since World War II, no party has gained enough support to govern alone. Parties thus form political alliances and coalition governments, in November 2013 The People of Freedom was dissolved and merged into the new Forza Italia, provoking the formation of the split-away New Centre-Right. In December 2016 Left Ecology Freedom was dissolved in order to part to the formation of Italian Left. Between 1945 and 1994, Italian politics was dominated by two parties, Christian Democracy, the main party of government, and the Italian Communist Party. The other opposition party was the post-fascist Italian Social Movement, for 46 consecutive years, the Christian Democrats led the government except for five years. Between 1983 and 1991, they led a government with the Socialists, the Republicans, the Democratic Socialists. These were the years when several regional parties demanding autonomy organised themselves at the regional level. In 1991 they federated themselves into the Northern League, which became the fourth largest party in the 1992 general election. In 1992–94, the system was shaken by a series of corruption scandals known collectively as Tangentopoli. These events led to the disappearance of the five parties of government, consequently, the Communists, who had evolved to become Democratic Party of the Left in 1991, and the post-fascists, who launched National Alliance in 1994, gained strength. Between 1996 and 2008, Italian political parties were organised into two big coalitions, the centre-right Pole for Freedoms and The Olive Tree on the centre-left. The centre-left governed from 1996 to 2001 and again between 2006 and 2008, while the House of Freedoms was in government between 2001 and 2006. In 2008 The Union ceased to exist as the newly founded Democratic Party decided to break the alliance with its left-wing partners, notably including the Communist Refoundation Party. On the centre-right, Forza Italia and National Alliance merged to form The People of Freedom, in November 2013 The People of Freedom was dissolved and merged into the new Forza Italia, provoking the formation of the split-away New Centre-Right. In December 2016 Left Ecology Freedom was dissolved in order to part to the formation of Italian LeftList of political parties in Italy – Italian Republic
87. Council of Ministers (Italy) – The Council of Ministers is the principal executive organ of the Government of Italy. It comprises the President of the Council, all the ministers, junior ministers are part of the government, but are not members of the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers origins date to the production of the Albertine Statute by the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1848, currently the Council of Ministers is governed by the Constitution and Law no.400 of 23 August 1988. All powers of the Council of Ministers rest in the hands of the President of Italy until the ministers assume their offices, the Presidents of the Regions with Special Statute have the right to participate in sessions of the Council of Ministers in matters relevant to them are discussed. Before assuming power, the Prime Minister and the Ministers must take an oath of office according to the laid out in Article 1.3 of Law no. The oath expresses the necessity of trust which is incumbent on all citizens, the Council of Ministers is the principal holder of executive power in the Italian system - that is, the power to put a decision of the Italian political process into effect. In relation to the Parliament, the relationship of trust is crucial, for the Council of Ministers and the Prime Minister to continue in office, they must retain the political support of both chambers of Parliament. The relationship of trust is the core of the Italian parliamentary system, the President of the Republic has the power to appoint the Prime Minister and the ministers. The regular judiciary is organised from a point of view by the Minister of Justice. As the main organ of the power, the Council of Ministers primary role is the actualisation of national political decisions. The Constitution provides it with the means of doing this, Legislative initiative. Frequent use of the power has seen substantial legislative power shift from Parliament to the Council. Regulatory power, The ministers have two distinct but co-existing roles, as administrators, the Council and the individual ministers can produce regulations, which are legal implements subordinate to legislation. Thus, regulations which contradict legislation are illegitimate and can be set aside by ordinary judges, the current Italian government is led by Paolo Gentiloni. As of December 2016, the government has 16 Ministers, of three are without portfolioCouncil of Ministers (Italy) – Italian Republic
88. Provinces of Italy – In Italy, a province is an administrative division of intermediate level between a municipality and a region. There are currently 107 provinces in Italy, a further 4 such cities were added later. The reorganization of the Italian provinces became operative by January 2015, a province of the Italian Republic is composed of many municipalities. Usually several provinces together form a region, the region of Aosta Valley is the sole exception – it is not subdivided into provinces, the three main functions devolved to provinces are, local planning and zoning, provision of local police and fire services, transportation regulation. The number of provinces in Italy has been growing in recent years. Usually, the name is the same as that of its capital city. According to the 2014 reform, each province is headed by a President assisted by a body, the Provincial Council, and an executive body. President and members of Council are elected together by mayors and city councilors of each municipality of the province, the Executive is chaired by the President who appoint others members, called assessori. Since 2015 the President and others members of the Council will not receive a salary, in each province there is also a Prefect, a representative of the central government who heads an agency called prefettura-ufficio territoriale del governo. The Questor is the head of States Police in the province, there is also a provinces police force depending from local government, called provincial police. Sardinia - following the outcome of the referendums of 2012 it was decreed that such institutions should be reformed or abolished by March 2013. In January 2014 the Sardinian Regional Administrative Court declared unconstitutional the abolition of the Sardinian provinces, sicily - provinces were replaced by Free Communal Consortia in 2013. In 1861, at the birth of the Kingdom of Italy, however, at that time the national territory was smaller than the current one, regions of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino Alto Adige and Lazio were not included in the kingdom. In 1866, following the Third Independence War, territories of Veneto, Friuli, there were therefore nine more provinces, Belluno, Mantua, Padua, Rovigo, Treviso, Venice, Verona, Vicenza and Udine, all previously part of the Austrian Empire. Eventually, in 1870, following the annexion of Rome and its province from the Papal States, after the First World War, new territories were annexed to Italy. The Province of Trento was created in 1920, Provinces of La Spezia, Trieste and Ionio in 1923. In 1924 the new provinces of Fiume, Pola, and Zara were created, in 1927, following a Royal charter, a general province rearrangement took place. 17 new provinces were created and the province of Caserta was suppressed, in the same year the institution of circondari, sub-provincial wards created before the unification, was abolishedProvinces of Italy – Italian Republic
89. Metropolitan cities of Italy – The metropolitan city is an administrative division of Italy, operative since 2015. In 2009, amendments added Reggio Calabria to the list, the metropolitan areas individuated by the autonomous regions were, Trieste in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Cagliari in Sardinia, Catania, Messina and Palermo in Sicily. On 3 April 2014 the Italian Parliament approved a law that establishes 10 metropolitan cities in Italy, the new metropolitan cities have been operative since 1 January 2015. The metropolitan city is composed by the municipalities that before had been members of the same province, each metropolitan city is headed by a metropolitan mayor assisted by a legislative body, the Metropolitan council, and by a non-legislative assembly, the metropolitan conference. Members of the Metropolitan council are elected and chosen by mayors and city councilors of each municipality in the metropolitan city, the metropolitan conference is composed by the mayors of the municipalities closest to the capital. The main functions devolved to the new cities are, local planning and zoning, provision of local police services, transport. Regions of Italy Provinces of Italy Municipalities of Italy Media related to Metropolitan cities of Italy at Wikimedia CommonsMetropolitan cities of Italy – Metropolitan cities of Italy.
90. Economy of Italy – The economy of Italy is the 3rd-largest national economy in the eurozone, the 8th-largest by nominal GDP in the world, and the 12th-largest by GDP. The country is a member of the European Union, the Eurozone, the OECD, the G7. Italy is the eighth largest exporter in the world with $514 billion exported in 2016 and its closest trade ties are with the other countries of the European Union, with whom it conducts about 59% of its total trade. The largest trading partners, in order of market share, are Germany, France, United States, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and Spain. According to the Human Development Index, the country enjoys a high standard of living. Italy owns the worlds third-largest gold reserve, and is the third net contributor to the budget of the European Union, Italy is the largest market for luxury goods in Europe and the countrys private wealth is one of the largest in the world. Despite these important achievements, the economy today suffers from structural and non-structural problems. After strong GDP growth in 1945–1990, the last two decades average annual growth rates lagged below the EU average, moreover, Italy was hit hard by the late-2000s recession. The stagnation in economic growth, and the efforts to revive it with massive government spending from the 1980s onwards. After the unification, industrialization was largely artisanal, and located in the former political capitals, the resulting Italian diaspora concerned nearly 26 million Italians, the most part immigrated in the period 1880–1914, and it is considered the biggest mass migration of contemporary times. During the Great War, the Italian Royal Army increased in size and this came at a terrible cost, by the end of the war, Italy had lost 700,000 soldiers and had a budget deficit of billions of lira. Italy emerged from World War I in a poor and weakened condition, the National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini came to power in 1922, at the end of a period of social unrest. However, once Mussolini acquired a firmer hold of power, laissez-faire and free trade were progressively abandoned in favour of government intervention, in 1929, Italy was hit hard by the Great Depression. A number of mixed entities were formed, whose purpose it was to bring representatives of the government. These representatives discussed economic policy and manipulated prices and wages so as to both the wishes of the government and the wishes of business. This economic model based on a partnership between government and business was extended to the political sphere, in what came to be known as corporatism. At the same time, the foreign policy of Mussolini led to an increasing military expenditure. After the invasion of Ethiopia, Italy intervened to support Francos nationalists in the Spanish Civil War, by 1939, Italy had the highest percentage of state-owned enterprises after the Soviet UnionEconomy of Italy – Milan is the financial centre of Italy
91. Economy of Milan – Milan is one of the EUs and the worlds major financial and business centres, with the Milan metropolitan area having a 2004 GDP of €241.2 billion, which means that it has Europes 4th highest GDP. This means that, if Milan were a country, it would have the worlds 28th largest economy, Milan is the 2nd richest European Union City, after Paris. The city has a GDP of $115 billion, making it the worlds 26th richest city by purchasing power. Also, the hinterland is Italys largest industrial area. Milan, also, has one of Italys highest GDP, about €35,137, which is 161. 6% of the EU average GDP per capita. Major fashion houses and labels, such as Versace, Gucci, Armani, Valentino, Prada, Dolce & Gabbana, Moschino and Missoni are headquartered in Milan, which greatly contribute to the citys economy. Milan was, in the late 12th century, a wealthy and industrious city, as the production of armours and wool, the city experienced a strong flow of immigrants, and became a major international and cosmopolitan centre for expatriate employees. A study showed that by the late-1990s, more than 10% of the workers were foreigners. In January 2008, according to ISTAT statistics, it was estimated that 181,393 foreign-born immigrants lived in the city, representing 13. 9% of the total population. Milan had an industrial and economic production after the war, however, it fell slightly in the late 1990s and early 2000s. The bulk of the plastic, chemicals and mechanics industries show a downward trend, publishing production decreased by -2. 6%, while the wood-processing industry production decreased by -1. 2%. In contrast, despite a decrease in production, Milan has had a rapid and strong growth in the tertiary and quaternary sectors, with logistics and transport. Milan also has an important role in production and publishing. It is the most important city in the nation for publishing, banks throughout Italy went through many changes in the late 1800s to early 1900s. One of the Milanese banks, the SBI, had many issues resolving its resources and it did not have support from foreign banks nor enough savings domestically. Other banks during this time in Italy, specifically during the 1907 international crisis, had high liquid assets, a group of industrialists and bankers from Milan transformed the banking institute Figli di Weil Schott e C. into the Società Bancaria Milanese. Most traditional industries have relocated to other locations other than cities or have closed down since the late 1970s in Italy. However, Milan, became Italys most successful postindustrial city, milans service sector has benefited from the efficiency of the citys banks and the stock market, the Borsa Italiana located in Piazza degli Affari in the centre of the city. The majority of the services revolve around the Fashion industry, there are specialties in the city in furniture design, graphic design, among other specialtiesEconomy of Milan – Borsa Italiana, the Stock Exchange in Milan
92. Economy of Turin – Turin is Italys third largest economic center after Rome and Milan. In 2004, Turin produced a GDP of 25,439 billion euros,2. 2% of the national figure, the Turin greater metropolitan area produced 44,146 billion euros,3. 8% of the Italian GDP. Turins taxable income was 12,455 billion euros, the Province of Turin, is Italys second largest export market with a share of 5. 2% of the national total. Its industries include manufacturing and engineering, production of confectionery and chocolate, there has also been growth in construction, tourism and service industries. Founded in 1826, Caffarel is the oldest chocolate factory in the world, National banks with a presence in Turin include Intesa Sanpaolo and UniCredit Group. In 2006, there were 231,645 businesses registered in the Province of Turin and 112,255 in the city and these numbers represent just under 50% of all those in the Piedmont region and 4% of the Italian total. There were 21,987 foreign entrepreneurs, with the majority being non-EU, difficulties which industry in Turin has faced include a long phase of industrial restructuring, a crisis in Fiat, and transfer of production to developing nations. Data from 2006 indicated that growth in Italian GDP at that time was due to resumption of exports of cars from the Fiat Group, such automotive companies include Iveco, Alfa Romeo, Abarth and Lancia, Pininfarina, Bertone and Giugiaro). General Motors, while breaking a commercial and productive alliance with Fiat, the automotive components industry has expanded and modernised in response to Fiats success. There is a network of over 350 companies, the Turin Chamber of Commerces From Concept to Car project, involving 145 companies aimed to promote the excellence of the sector throughout the world. Beginning in the 1980s, tertiary sector industry in Turin has grown in importance, Turin hosts headquarters of the Intesa Sanpaolo banking group, the second largest group in Italy measured by market capitalization. Fondazione CRT, Reale Mutua Assicurazioni, Alleanza Toro and Fondiaria Sai are also present, in Turin, there are programs, for example, the New Turin Economy Project working to assist collaboration in the private technology sector. Companies and institutions involved include, Polytechnic Institute Mario Boella, Istituto Galileo Ferraris and the Centro ricerche Fiat, Torino Wireless, there is a concentration of such companies at Environment Park and Virtual Reality & Multi Media Park. The 2006 Winter Olympics contributed to Turins progress after a period of economic doldrums, however, some were not sure of its effect. Giorgetto Giugiaro, whose classic industrial designs range from Canon cameras to VW, if the villas we have in La Collinas were in Milan, people would call them the Beverly Hills of Europe. But our problem is that we are not able to talk about what we have, Giugiaro told me about a friend who owns two Rolls-Royces but wont take them out, for fear of showing off. So he drives around town in a car and leaves his Rolls in the garage. In 2008, the Turin area was visited by 5.3 million tourists, the conversion of large urban areas, previously occupied by factories has contributed to recent economic growthEconomy of Turin – Fiat 500 (2007)
93. Italian government debt – The Italian government debt is the public debt owed by the government of Italy to all public and private lenders. As of January 2014, the Italian government debt stands at €2.1 trillion, however, Italy has the lowest share of public debt held by non-residents of all eurozone countries and the countrys national wealth is four times larger than its public debt. Italy ran a deficit of 4. 6% of GDP in 2010. Italian debt was almost 120% of GDP and this led investors to view Italian debt bonds as a risky asset. On 15 July and 14 September 2011, Italys government passed austerity measures meant to save €124 billion, on 8 November 2011 the Italian bond yield was 6. 74% for 10-year bonds, climbing above the 7% level where the country is thought to lose access to financial markets. The interim government expected to put the new laws into practice was led by former European Union Competition Commissioner Mario Monti, government debt reached 127. 0% of GDP in 2012. Government debt reached 130. 4% of GDP in 2013, government debt reached 131. 1% of GDP in 2014. The Italian government has sought to privatise government assets in 2014 in order to reduce debt, in January 2014 the Italian government also agreed to offer citizens a chance to use a new voluntary disclosure scheme to repatriate assets held abroad, often in Swiss banks. Italy has offered several tax amnesties over the past few years, in 2014, the Bank of Italy estimated that Italians held €180 billion in undeclared assets abroad, a figure that was three times as high as in 2004. Taxation in Italy Italian welfare state Europe, Eurozone crisisItalian government debt – The debt to GDP ratio of selected countries, 2010. Italy is displayed in purple.
94. Borsa Italiana – Borsa Italiana S. p. A. based in Milan, is Italys stock exchange. It manages and organises domestic market, regulating procedures for admission and listing of companies and intermediaries, following exchange privatisation in 1997, the Company was established and became effective since January 2,1998. It is now a subsidiary of the London Stock Exchange Group plc since June 23,2007, in 2015, overall capitalisation for listed company on Borsa Italiana was worth €465Bln, representing % of Italian GDP. Borsa Italiana is also known as Piazza Affari, after the city square of Milan where its headquarters is located. Borsa Italiana is chaired by Andrea Sironi while Raffaele Jerusalmi serves as CEO, the two, moreover, are also both members of the Board of Directors of London Stock Exchange Group. The Borsa di commercio di Milano was established by Eugène de Beauharnais, viceroy of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, in March 2016, the London Stock Exchange Group announced it had agree to merge in an all-stock deal with Deutsche Borse. Borsa Italiana acts as a management firm operating with autonomy. It organises and manages the domestic market along with Italian. Among its leading tasks, Borsa Italiana supervises listed companies, defining rules for admission and listings, major trading markets for Borsa Italiana are, MTA, the leading equity market, which is devoted to mid and large-size companiesBorsa Italiana – Italian Stock Exchange Borsa Italiana
95. Internet in Italy – The Internet country code top-level domain for Italy is. it and is sponsored by Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. The. eu domain is used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. Currently Internet access is available to businesses and home users in forms, including dial-up, fiber, cable, DSL. The Fibre for Italy project aims to reach 20 million people in Italys 15 largest cities by 2015, the government has also started the Italia Digitale project, which aims to provide at least 50% of Italians with high-speed internet access by 2020. The government aims to extend the network to rural areas. Despite this, theres a debate going because the company is investing on copper and on the fiber-to-the-cabinet technology. The FTTC and VDSL2 technologies can bring up to 100/20 Mbit/s connections to the final customer. TIM and Fastweb have plans to increase FTTC speeds with vectoring to up to 200/50 Mbit/s streams before the end of 2016. The FTTH network is developing as well, with a standard 300/20 Mbit/s connection at the same price as FTTC. Figures published by the National Institute of Statistics showed at end-2011 that 58, 8% of Italian families had a computer,54, 5% had access to the internet. Over one-fourth of Italian internet users aged 14 and older made a purchase during 2011. This has inhibited the opening of hotspots across Italy, with a number of hotspots 5 times lower than France and the conspicuous absence of Municipal wireless networks. Considering the above-mentioned law at too shrink, a law should facilitate the opening and access of Wi-Fi Hotspots. Only at the end of 2010, a bipartisan bill allowed for the repeal of article 7 of the Pisanu law. The abrogation was finally made by the Monti Cabinet, which has not entered the renewal extension in the decree of 2011, currently internet filtering in Italy is applied on web-sites which display child pornography and on some P2P web-sites. A pervasive filtering is applied to gambling websites who dont have a local license to operate in Italy. Telecommunications in Italy Censorship in Italy Italy profile, on OpenNet Initiative website, «Non è un paese per Internet. In cinque anni dieci leggi contro la Rete», article from the newspaper Il Fatto Quotidiano, Internet access and use in the EU27 in 2008, Eurostat news releaseInternet in Italy – A sign posted on the door of an internet cafe in Florence regarding Italian Law No. 155 of 31 July 2005
96. Tourism in Italy – With 48.6 million tourists a year, Italy is the fifth most visited country in international tourism arrivals. People mainly visit Italy for its art, cuisine, history, fashion and culture, its beautiful coastline and beaches, its mountains. Italy also contains more World Heritage Sites than any country in the world. Tourism is one of Italys fastest growing and most profitable industrial sectors, traders and merchants came to Italy from several different parts of the world. Pilgrims, for centuries and still today, would come to the city, the trade empires of Venice, Pisa and Genoa meant that several traders, businessmen and merchants from all over the world would also regularly come to Italy. In the 16th and early 17th century, with the height of the Renaissance, several came to Italy to study Italian architecture. Real tourism only affected in Italy in the half of the 17th century. This was a period in which European aristocrats, many of whom were British, visited parts of Europe, Italy, Greece and this was in order to study ancient architecture and the local culture. The Grand Tour was in essence triggered by the book Voyage to Italy, by Roman Catholic priest Richard Lassels, due to the Grand Tour, tourism became even more prevalent - making Italy one of the most desired destinations for millions of people. Once inside what would be modern-day Italy, these tourists would begin by visiting Turin for a short while. On the way there, Milan was also a stop, yet a trip to the city was not considered essential. If a person came via boat, then they would remain a few days in Genoa, yet, the main destination in Northern Italy was Venice, which was considered a vital stop, as well as cities around it such as Verona, Vicenza and Padua. Tourists rarely, yet occasionally, got to Trieste, as the Tour went on, Tuscan cities were also very important itinerary stops. Florence was an attraction, and other Tuscan towns, such as Siena, Pisa, Lucca. The most prominent stop in Central Italy, however, was Rome, later, they would go down to the Bay of Naples, and after their discovery in 1756, Pompeii and Herculaneum were popular too. Sicily was considered a significant part of the trail, and several, such as Goethe, throughout the 17th to 18th centuries, the Grand Tour was mainly reserved for academics or the elite. Nevertheless, circa 1840, rail transport was introduced and the Grand Tour started to fall out of vogue, hence. The 1840s saw the period in which the Victorian middle classes toured the country, several Americans were also able to visit Italy, and many more tourists came to the peninsulaTourism in Italy – The Amalfi Coast seen from Ravello in Campania. This is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Italy.
97. Transport in Italy – Italy has well developed and private transportation options. Italian rail network is extensive, especially in the north, generally eclipsing the need for a such as bus or air. Italy has 2,507 people and 12.46 km2 per kilometer of rail track, Italys road network is also widespread, with a total length of about 487,700 km. It comprises both a motorway network, mostly toll roads, and national and local roads. Because of its long seacoast, Italy also has a number of harbors for the transportation of both goods and passengers. Italy has been a seafaring peninsula dating back to the days of the Etruscans, Transport networks in Italy are fully integrated into the Trans-European Transport Networks. The Italian railway system has a length of 19,394 km, the active lines are 16,723 km. The network is growing with the construction of the new high-speed rail network. The narrow gauge tracks are,112 km of 1,000 mm gauge,1,211 km of 950 mm gauge A major part of the Italian rail network is managed and operated by Ferrovie dello Stato, a state owned company. Other regional agencies, mostly owned by entities such as regional governments. The Italian railways are subsidised by the government, receiving €8.1 billion in 2009, travellers who often make use of the railway during their stay in Italy might use Rail Passes, such as the European Inter-Rail or Italys national and regional passes. These rail passes allow travellers the freedom to use regional trains during the validity period, regional passes, such as Io viaggio ovunque Lombardia, offer one-day, multiple-day and monthly period of validity. There are also passes for adults, who travel as a group. Foreign travellers should purchase these passes in advance, so that the passes could be delivered by post prior to the trip, when using the rail passes, the date of travel needs to be filled in before boarding the trains. In 1967, the Bologna-Florence high-speed line, with speeds up to 230 km/h, opened to passenger traffic, subsequently, high-speed rail tracks connect Milan to Bologna, Florence to Rome and Rome to Naples. The Bologna-Florence high-speed line was upgraded to 300 km/h and the current journey time is 35 minutes, a new high-speed line linking Milan and Turin, operating at 300 km/h, opened to passenger traffic in 2009, reducing the journey time from 2 hours to 1 hour. The high-speed line between Naples and Salerno are still under construction, construction of the Milan-Venice high-speed line has begun in 2013. The operator of high-speed trains is Trenitalia, since 2012, a new and Italys first private train operator, NTV Italo, run high-speed services in competition with TrenitaliaTransport in Italy – A Frecciarossa high-speed train
98. Corruption in Italy – Corruption in Italy is a major problem. In Transparency Internationals annual surveys, Italy has consistently been regarded as the most corrupt country in the Eurozone, according to 2016 results of Corruption Perception Index of Transparency International, Italy ranks 60th place out of 176 countries. Corruption costs Italy a reported €60 billion a year, which amount to four percent of its GDP, on the 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index, Italy took 61st place out of 174 countries, scoring on a par with Senegal, Montenegro, and South Africa. Political corruption remains a major problem particularly in Southern Italy including Calabria, parts of Campania, political parties are ranked the most corrupt institution in Italy, closely followed by public officials and Parliament, according to Transparency Internationals Global Corruption Barometer 2013. Regarding business and corruption, foreign investments and economic growth are hindered by organized crime, Business executives from World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014 consider corruption one of the problems for doing business in Italy. Procurement process, mainly in water, roads and railway projects, Italian culture has been described as being characterized by “an ambiguous attitude to graft. “Many Italians, ” maintained a 2010 report, have accepted corruption, the Mafia plays a key role in both public and private corruption. Arising “out of business deals, ” as Forbes put it, the Mafia historically “acted as a guarantor for contracts, until relatively recent history, almost every deal in the country was enforced by a ‘man of honor. Similarly, the 2009 LAquila earthquake, in which over 300 people died, was described as a reminder to Italians of the risks they take by tolerating a corrupt political system. A 1992–94 corruption scandal called Tangentopoli, uncovered by the so-called Mani pulite investigation, “rocked Italy to its core”, but the probes “fizzled out” and afterwards the bribery just got worse. The political impact of Mani Pulite remains the worst scandal of all modern Italy, the public outrage over the corruption led to “the sudden extinction of five different political factions that had controlled Italys government since 1946. A new political establishment took their place, but corruption resumed, one target of the 1992 through 1994 corruption probes was Gianstefano Frigerio, then a Christian Democrat MP. During 1992–94, he was the defendant in four trials, one case fell afoul of the statute of limitations, but in the remaining three cases he was found guilty. He managed to have his six-year prison sentence reduced, then turned into a community service sentence and he was then re-elected to parliament in 2001, and arrested again in 2014 for participation in the massive corruption scheme surrounding the Expo in Milan. It is widely believed that two judges, Paolo Borsellino and Giovanni Falcone, were murdered in 1992 because of their efforts to punish corrupt ties between Mafia and politicians, in 2012, 65% of Italians told Transparency International that they thought corruption had intensified during the previous three years. In April 2016, Italian Supreme Court judge Piercamillo Davigo, who had prosecuted widespread political corruption in the 1990s, “The politicians haven’t stopped stealing, they’ve stopped being ashamed of it, ” he said. “Now they blatantly claim a right to do what they used to do secretly. ”Nicola Gratteri, a 2013 report in The Guardian identified “Organised crime and corruption” as one of six problems currently facing Italy. The Mafia, once confined largely to the south, now operated nationwide, and had spread beyond drug trafficking and prostitution to transport, public health, since 2000, Italy has experienced perceived corruption levels on par with Post-Soviet, Eastern European transition nationsCorruption in Italy – Political corruption
99. Crime in Italy – Crime in Italy is combated by the spectrum of Italian law enforcement agencies. In 2012, Italy had a rate of 0.9 per 100,000 population. There were a total of 530 murders in Italy in 2012, the Mafia originated in Italy, and its influence is widespread in Italian society, directly affecting a reported 22% of Italians and 14. 6% of Italys Gross Domestic Product. Public figures such as former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi have been charged with association in organized criminal acts, the fight against the Mafia has cost many lives, including victims of high-profile assassinations, such as judges Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino. Together, they exert influence over 13 million Italians and their business involvement is on a European and global scale. Businesses, entrepreneurs, shopkeepers, and craftsmen in these regions are expected to pay a pizzo, or protection money. There is rarely any possibility of escaping payment, and those not complying find their business premises and lives at risk, people not able to meet demands might find their business partly or completely taken over by organized crime. In 2009, organized crime in Italy generated $189 billion in revenue, Italy has a lower per capita rate of rape than most of the advanced Western countries in the European Union. According to Police authorities data, the rate of sexual assaults per 100,000 inhabitants is significantly higher in the Northern region than in the Southern ones. In 2009, Lombardia and Emilia Romagna were the regions with the highest rate of sexual offences per 100.000 inhabitants, followed by Trentino Alto Adige and Tuscany, Piedmont and Liguria, Umbria. In this respect, all major Southern regions like Sicily, Calabria, Puglia, Campania were the safest in the national territory, with the only exception of Friuli Venezia Giulia in the North. Fraud is a contributor to Italys crime rate, with some level of fraud appearing in all sectors of the economy since the countrys founding in 1861. Notable cases of financial fraud include the collapse of Parmalat in the years of the 21st century. The percentage rose above ten percent in some of the southern provinces, a case was revealed in 2010 where in one quartiere of Naples alone,400 people were found to be claiming mental illness although healthy. Political corruption remains a problem in Italy, particularly in Southern Italy including Calabria, parts of Campania. Political parties are ranked as the most corrupt institution in Italy, closely followed by public officials and Parliament, levels of crime are unevenly spread throughout the peninsula. High unemployment and waste management problems continue to affect Naples, Italian media have attributed the citys waste disposal issues to the activity of the Camorra organised crime network, in 2007, Silvio Berlusconis government held senior meetings in Naples to demonstrate their intention to solve these problems. In June 2012, allegations of blackmail, extortion and illicit contract tendering emerged in relation to the waste management issuesCrime in Italy – Italian police in Perugia in central Italy.
100. Demographics of Italy – However the distribution of the population is widely uneven. In addition, after centuries of net emigration, from the 1980s Italy has experienced large-scale immigration for the first time in modern history, according to the Italian government, there were an estimated 5,000,073 foreign nationals resident in Italy. High fertility and birth rates persisted until the 1970s, after which they started to dramatically decline, at the end of the first decade of the 21st century, one in five Italians was over 65 years old. However, as a result of the immigration of the last two decades, in recent years Italy experienced a significant growth in birth rates. The total fertility rate has climbed from an all-time low of 1.18 children per woman in 1995 to 1.41 in 2008. Since the 1984 Lateran Treaty agreement, Italy has no official religion, however, it recognizes the role the Catholic Church plays in Italian society. 87. 8% of the population identify as Catholic,5. 8% as non-believers or atheists,2. 6% as Muslims, about 68% of Italian population is classified as urban, a relatively low figure among developed countries. However, none of these new local authorities has yet fully operative. Between 1898 and 1914, the years of Italian diaspora. Italian communities once thrived in the former African colonies of Eritrea, Somalia, all of Libyas Italians were expelled from the North African country in 1970. In addition, after the annexation of Istria in 1945, up to 350,000 ethnic Italians left Titoist Yugoslavia. Today, large numbers of people with full or significant Italian ancestry are found in Brazil, Argentina, US, France, Venezuela, Uruguay, Canada, the official figures also exclude illegal immigrants, the so-called clandestini, whose numbers are very difficult to determine. In May 2008 The Boston Globe quoted an estimate of 670,000 for this group, the second most important area of immigration to Italy has always been the neighbouring North Africa, with soaring arrivals as a consequence of the Arab Spring. Furthermore, in recent years, growing migration fluxes from the Far East, the number of unregistered Romanians is difficult to estimate, but the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network suggested that in 2007 that there might have been half a million or more. Overall, at the end of the 2000s the foreign population of Italy was from, Europe, Africa, Asia. The distribution of immigrants is largely uneven in Italy,84. 9% of immigrants live in the northern and central parts of the country, while only 15. 1% live in the southern half of the peninsula. Ethnologue has estimated there are about 55 million speakers of the language in Italy. However, between 120 and 150 million people use Italian as a second or cultural language, worldwide and its development was also influenced by the Germanic languages of the post-Roman invadersDemographics of Italy – Rome Milan
101. Secondary education in Italy – The Scuola secondaria di primo grado it is mandatory, lasts three years and is the first stage in which different specialized professors teach different subjects. It provides further education on the subjects studied at the scuola primaria, with the addition of technology and it has a common programme for all pupils, and covers all the classical subjects. Before the Moratti reform it was called scuola media di primo grado or scuola media inferiore, the scuola secondaria di secondo grado – formerly known as scuola media superiore – lasts five years. Every tier involves an exam at the end of the year, called esame di maturità. Any type of school that lasts five years grants access to the final exam, called esame di maturità or esame di stato. It is designed to give students the skills to progress to any university or higher educational institution, for historical reasons, there are three types of Scuola secondaria di secondo grado, subsequently divided into further specializations. Liceo Istituto tecnico Istituto professionale Programmes are generally decided at national level, moreover, students in state-owned schools perform better than students in private schools. A typical Italian student is age 19 when they enter university, the Italian school system also features the scuola serale, aimed at adults and working students. The education received in a liceo is mostly theoretical, with a specialization in a field of studies. Types of liceo include, Liceo classico – dedicated to studies, features Latin, Ancient Greek, Italian, history. Liceo artistico – which is oriented toward arts teaching – both in a theoretical and practical way and its subjects are painting, sculpture, decoration, graphics, design, audiovisual, multimedia, scenography and architecture. Liceo delle scienze umane – where the emphasis is more on relational, behavioral and educational, such as pedagogy, anthropology, psychology, sociology and it replaces the previous istituto magistrale. Liceo musicale e coreutico – often linked with a conservatory, which comprises two sectors, musicale – which specializes in music and teaches students to play an instrument, coreutico – which specializes in dance and choreography. The istituto darte was a form of istituto professionale, which offered an education focused on art history. Today it is part of the liceo artistico, the subjects are chosen between the ones of the last year by each examining board, excluding those of the first and second test. Up to 30 points on an oral exam regarding all the subjects of the last year up to 5 points in cases the examining board judges appropriate to meriting students. The exam is passed with a score of 60 or more, and any secondary school diploma is valid for access to any university course. itSecondary education in Italy – A scuola secondaria di primo grado (aka scuola media), in Morbio
102. Feminism in Italy – Feminism in Italy originated during the Italian renaissance period, beginning in the late 13th century. Italian writers such as Christine de Pizan, Moderata Fonte, Lucrezia Marinella, in contrast to feminist movements in France and United Kingdom, early womens rights advocates in Italy emphasized womens education and improvement in social conditions. Italian feminism suffered a setback under the fascist government of Benito Mussolini in the first half of the twentieth century, in the post-war period, feminist movements surged, with public activism over issues such as divorce and abortion during the 1970s. Renaissance thinkers regularly challenged conventional wisdom from the Medieval period and earlier, humanism became the new way of looking at politics, science, the arts, education, and other fields. Humanism pushed aside the Medieval Christian concept of a social order that placed regular citizens in a subservient position relative to members of the clergy. The Renaissance man was the ideal to emulate, however, she tempered her assertions by writing that men were created to rule, and women to follow. Renaissance Italy saw the development of education, including the establishment of several universities. Some fortunate women who could afford it were able to gain an education on their own, the rare Renaissance man who supported education for women saw it as a way of improving her virtue, and to make her more obedient to her husband. Education intended to create leaders was seen as wasted on women, outside of a convent setting, where they had been confined during the Middle Ages, educated women were stepping out into the secular intellectual arena. From the Renaissance and continuing into the Early Modern era, they hosted salons, where men and women of intellect mingled and discussed literature, politics, and other influential topics. By the late 16th and early 17th century, women writers presented themselves and were embraced by contemporary culture as learned wives, mothers, by the late Renaissance, educated Italian women were writing in every conceivable genre, from domestic correspondence to poetry, dialogues and even theology. At a time when most women belonged to the peasant class, educated women who could read and write about feminisms various aspects were in an isolated position. In order to gain supporters for feminist causes, an appeal to women at all levels of society was needed, beginning in the mid-19th century, enterprising women began to reach out to middle-class women through new print media, mass-market books and periodicals. Italys Casati Law of 1859 set the groundwork for a system to train women as teachers in public schools. Anna Maria Mozzoni triggered a widespread movement in Italy through the publication of Woman. Women who had participated in the unification struggles were dissatisfied with the contained in the Republic of Italys new Civil Code. Mozzonis book raised awareness of injustices in Italys family law that discriminated against women, Mozzoni campaigned against state regulation of prostitution. She also translated On the Subjugation of Women by John Stuart Mill into Italian, in 1881, to promote womens suffrage, she founded the League for the Promotion of the Interests of Women in MilanFeminism in Italy – The Virgin Reading (1505–10), by Vittore Carpaccio. Literacy spread among upper class women in Italy during the Renaissance.
103. Gambling in Italy – Gambling in Italy has existed for centuries and has taken on many forms. The history of gambling in Italy dates back to the days of the Roman Empire and it is also due to them that the game came to other European countries. It was in Venice, that in 1638 the first gambling house Ridotto was opened and it was sanctioned by the government aiming to control gambling activity of the citizens. Although the admission to that house was free, only rich people could afford to play there. The games played were biribi resembling lottery and bassetta, both games had a very high house edge. In 1774 Ridotto was closed which resulted in the growth of popularity of the closed gambling clubs and these clubs were called casinos, so the word casino itself is of Italian origin. Baccarat originated in Italy in the 15th century, bingo is also of an Italian origin. In the 1530s, the Italians played game called Lo Giuoco del Lotto D’Italia that resembled bingo, the Italian Criminal law proclaims gambling illegal, be it organized in a public place, an open-to-public place or a private club. At the same time, according to the Italian law, theres a difference between the games of luck and games where the outcome depends on the players skills, sports-betting, lotteries and some other activities fall into the category of legal and regulated gambling activities. Only the State has the right to allow gambling, AAMS is granted the power to issue licenses and regulate other gambling matters. The punishment for breaking the law ranges from fines to imprisonment, Italy has come a long way from totally prohibiting all gambling activities, to legalizing some of them under certain conditions. The main reason why the Italian government adhered to strict rules was the desire to avoid the negative effects associated with the industry. The Finance Act 2007 was another milestone in the regulation of gambling in Italy and it legalized card games of skill, specifying that such games should be played in the form of a tournament with the stake equal to the tournament entry fee. Other poker games as well as video games based on the same rules were prohibited as being dependent wholly on pure luck. The Comunitaria decree was a breakthrough for the gambling industry in Italy. It provided a regulation for cash poker games and casino games, one of its most notable aspects was the new tax regime based on the profit rather than on the turnover. A flat rate of 20% was to be applied to all newly legalized games except the video lottery games, operators organizing sports and horse betting, lotteries and skill games still had to pay 3% of total tournament buy-ins sold. Also, the new decree obliged operators to pay back to players at least 90% of the money in the form of winningsGambling in Italy – Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum
104. Health in Italy – As with any developed country, Italy has adequate and sufficient water and food distribution, and levels of nutrition and sanitation are high. Italy has a good and sufficient water supply, yet, especially due to droughts, a problem which often presents itself regarding drinking water is water pollution and the presence of harmful purifying chemicals and/or herbicides, which can cause several health problems. According to an issued by the state, the maximum presence of herbicides or similar materials in Italy drinking water is 0.5 μg per litre. Italys nutritious and generally healthy cuisine ensures that Italians are well-nourished, the relatively recent addition of several drugs to meats has meant that controls have increased from 4,000 in 1988 to 56,831 in 1991. Despite this, the greatest risk from exposure to radiation is found indoors, Italy has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. However, Italys high average varies greatly by regions, in the more affluent north, the life expectancy at birth in 1990 for a man would be lower than in the south yet for a woman, the average is higher in the north than in the south. Central Italy has the highest average, with 74.7 for men and 81.0 for women, in 2003, the average national life expectancy at birth for a woman was 78~84, and for a man 71~77. By 2009, this average had increased to 77.26 for men. Italy also has a low rate of infant mortality, that of 5.51 out of 1000 people. From 1970 to 1989, the rate went down dramatically, from 11 and 10.3 for men and women. Smoking in Italy has decreased greatly in the past decades for men, from a country where in 1966 a 68. 5% average of the male population smoked, this had gone down to a ~37% average in 1991. Yet, for women, it increased from ~15% for women in 1966, to ~16. 5%, notably in the centre, healthcare in Italy Timeline of healthcare in ItalyHealth in Italy – An old social insurance card (dated 1921) belonging to the Istituto Nazionale della Previdenza Sociale, which makes sure that workers are not injured from work, and if they are, that they are insured.
105. Immigration to Italy – Immigration to Italy occurs from a variety of countries. As of 1 January 2015, there were 5,014,437 foreign nationals resident in Italy and this amounted to 8. 2% of the countrys population and represented an increase of 92,352 over the previous year. These figures include children born in Italy to foreign nationals, but exclude foreign nationals who have subsequently acquired Italian nationality and they also exclude illegal immigrants whose numbers are difficult to determine. In May 2008, The Boston Globe quoted an estimate of 670,000 for this group, the children born in Italy to foreign mothers were 102.000 in 2012,99.000 in 2013 and 97.000 in 2014. Many illegal immigrants from Africa make the boat journey across the Mediterranean Sea to Italy. Once in Italy, immigrants seeking asylum often are unable to due to the Dublin Regulation requirement that they stay in the first country where they are processed. About a million Romanians, around 10% of them being Roma, are registered as living in Italy. As of 2013, the foreign born population origin was subdivided as follows, Europe, Africa, Asia, America, and Oceania. Many immigration patterns to Italy have been noted, most for work purposes, due to this booming economy, the European nations began to seek manpower for their workforce, and began looking to migrant workers. In Italy, the first waves of migrant workers began in the 1970s when many migrant workers sought easy to find, another wave of the earliest groups to travel to Italy were the Filipino. Many women came to Italy to work in domestic and care-taker jobs in order to provide for their families back home. Since the early 2000s, the island of Lampedusa has become a prime transit point for immigrants and asylum seekers from Africa. In 2004, the Libyan and Italian governments reached an agreement that obliged Libya to accept those deported from Italian territories. This resulted in the return of many people from Lampedusa to Libya between 2004 and 2005 without the endorsement of European Parliament. By 2006, many immigrants were paying people smugglers in Libya to help get them to Lampedusa by boat, on arrival, most were then transferred by the Italian government to reception centres in mainland Italy. Many were then released because their deportation orders were not enforced, in 2009, the overcrowded conditions at the islands temporary immigrant reception centre came under criticism by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. The unit, which was built for a maximum capacity of 850 people, was reported to be housing nearly 2,000 boat people. A significant number of people were sleeping outdoors under plastic sheeting, a fire started as an inmate riot destroyed a large portion of the holding facility on 19 February 2009Immigration to Italy – Senegalese workers at the Potato festival in Vimercate (Lombardy) in 2015
106. Nobility of Italy – They often held lands as fiefs and were sometimes endowed with hereditary titles or nobiliary particles. From the Middle Ages until 1861, Italy was not a country but was a number of separate kingdoms and other states. These were often related through marriage to other and to other European royal families. Before Italian Unification there was a relatively large nobility in Italy, there were also families which had been part of Italian nobility for many decades or even centuries. These families freely intermarried with aristocratic nobility, like other noble families, those with both papal power and money were able to purchase comunes or other tracts of land and elevate family patriarchs and other relatives to noble titles. Hereditary patriarchs were appointed Duke, Marquis and even Prince of various 16th-, according to Ranke, Popes commonly elevated members of prominent families to the position of Cardinal, especially second and third sons who would not otherwise inherit hereditary titles. Popes also elevated their own family members – especially nephews – to the position of Cardinal-Nephew. The period was famous for papal nepotism and many families, such as the Barberini and Pamphili, modern Italy is dotted with the fruits of their success – various family palazzi remain standing today as a testament to their sometimes meteoric rise to power. The architect of Italian unification was Count Camillo Benso di Cavour, rome itself remained for a further decade under the Papacy, and became part of the Kingdom of Italy only in 1870. Those nobles who maintained allegiance to the pope became known as the Black Nobility, after the unification, the kings of Italy continued to create titles of nobility to eminent Italians, this time with a validity for all of the Italian territory. For example, General Enrico Cialdini was created Duca di Gaeta for his role during the unification, the practice continued until the 20th century, when nominations would be made by the Prime Minister of Italy and approved by the Crown. In the aftermath of the First World War, most Italians who were ennobled received their titles through the patronage of the Mussolini government, examples include General Armando Diaz, Admiral Paolo Thaon di Revel, Commodore Luigi Rizzo, Costanzo Ciano, Dino Grandi and Cesare Maria de Vecchi. Many of these were victory titles for services rendered to the nation in the Great War, the writer and aviator Gabriele dAnnunzio was created Principe di Montenevoso in 1924, and the physicist, inventor, and Nobel laureate Guglielmo Marconi was also ennobled in 1924 as Marchese Marconi. In 1937, Ettore Tolomei was ennobled as Conte della Vetta, after the successful Italian invasion of Abyssinia, the Mussolini government recommended further Italians to the king for titles of nobility. For example, Marshal Pietro Badoglio was created Marchese del Sabotino and later Duke of Addis Abeba, in 1946, the Kingdom of Italy was replaced by a republic. Under the Italian Constitution adopted in 1948, titles of nobility are not legally recognised, certain predicati recognised before 1922 may continue to be attached to surnames and used in legal documents. Often these were historic feudal territories of noble families, a high court ruling in 1967 definitively established that the heraldic-nobiliary legislation of the Kingdom of Italy is not current law. The southern kingdoms of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia, as well as the Papal states, granted the titles typical of such as Spain, France or England, Prince, Duke, Marquis, CountNobility of Italy – Caserta Palace
107. Racism in Italy – Racism in Italy deals with the relations of Italians and outgroups in the history of Italy. Racism like bigotry is encountered in most societies, and Italy has been no exception, for decades after unification, the country lacked a cohesive national identity, and hostility to outsiders was mainly a matter of regional antipathies. Italys colonial adventures led to an upsurge in explicit racial antipathies for the peoples colonized, under Benito Mussolinis fascist state, once the régime consolidated its pact with Nazi Germany, anti-Semitic laws were passed, as were laws prohibiting internal migration under certain circumstances. The post-war mass migrations from the south towards the industrialized north engendered a degree of anti-southern prejudice, in 2011, a report by Human Rights Watch pointed to growing indications of a rise in xenophobia within Italian society. In Medieval Italy, slavery was widespread, but was justified more often on rather than racial grounds. Almost all slaves in Genoa belonged to non-European races, the situation was different in Venice and Palermo, scientific racism was popularized in Italy by criminologist Cesare Lombroso. Lombrosos theory of atavism compared white civilization and other races with primitive or savage societies and his theories connecting physiognomy to criminal behavior explicitly blamed higher homicide rates in southern Italy on the influence of African and Asian blood on its population. In 1871 Lombroso published The White Man and the Man of Color, Lombroso equated the criminal tendencies of the white population to residual blackness. The ideas of Lombroso about race would spread around Europe at the end of the 19th century, other Italian anthropologists and sociologists also explored Lombrosos path of scientific racism. Niceforo held these views as late as 1952, claiming that Negroid and Mongoloid types were frequent in the lower classes. In 1907 anthropologist Ridolfo Livi attempted to show that Mongolian facial features correlated with poorer populations, however, he maintained that the superiority of the Italian race was proven by its capability to positively assimilate other ethnic components. Italian Jews had one of the highest rates of integration in mixed marriages in the diaspora and it is still debated whether Italian Fascism was originally anti-Semitic. Mussolini originally distinguished his position Hitlers fanatical racism while affirming he himself was a Zionist, more broadly, he even proposed building a mosque in Rome as a sign that Italy was the Protector of Islam, a move blocked by a horrified Pope. German propagandists often derided what they called Italys Kosher Fascism, there were however some Fascists, Roberto Farinacci and Giovanni Preziosi being prime examples, who held fringe extremist racist views before the alliance with Nazi Germany. The book however had little impact until the mid-1930s and it has also been indicated Benito Mussolini had his own, if somewhat different from Nazi, brand of racist views. Mussolini was quoted as saying, the man has to subdue the black, brown. Mussolini had held the view that a contingent of Italian Jews had lived in Italy since the days of the Kings of Rome. One of Mussolinis mistresses, Margherita Sarfatti, was Jewish, there were even some Jews in the National Fascist Party, such as Ettore Ovazza who founded the Jewish Fascist paper La Nostra Bandiera in 1935Racism in Italy – Front page of the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera on 11 November 1938: the fascist regime has approved the racial laws, enacting persecution of the Italian Jews. The title reads: The laws for the defense of race approved by the Council of Ministers.
108. Religion in Italy – Religion in Italy is characterised by the predominance of Christianity and an increasing diversity of religious practices, beliefs and denominations. Most Christians in Italy adhere to the Catholic Church, among religious minorities, Islam is the largest, followed by Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, Protestantism, Jehovahs Witnesses, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Judaism. Regarding Italian citizens, according to a 2006 survey by Eurispes, Catholics made up 87. 8% of the population, according to the same poll in 2010, those percentages fell to 76. 5% and 24. 4%, respectively. Other sources give different accounts of Italys Islamic population, usually around 2%, in 2016 Eurispes found that 71. 1% of Italians were Catholic,5 points down from 2010, but their religious practice was on the rise at 25. 4%. The countrys Catholic patron saints are Francis of Assisi and Catherine of Siena, according to a 2006 survey by Eurispes, Catholics made up 87. 8% of the population, with 36. 8% describing themselves as observants. According to the poll in 2010, those percentages fell to 76. 5% and 24. 4%. Other sources give different accounts of Italys Islamic population, usually around 2%, in 2016 Eurispes found that 71. 1% of Italians were Catholic,5 points down from 2010, but their religious practice was on the rise at 25. 4%. Additionally, there are significant differences in religious beliefs by gender, age, the headquarters of the 1. 2-billion strong Catholic Church, the State of Vatican City, is an enclave within the city of Rome and, thus, the Italian territory. The Churchs world leader, the Pope, is the Bishop of Rome, the current Pope is Francis, born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, who, before his election in 2013, is from Argentina and was the Archbishop of Buenos Aires from 1998 to his installation. Francis is the third non-Italian Pope in a row, after John Paul II from Poland, the Italian territory is divided in 225 Catholic dioceses and, according to Church statistics, 96% of the countrys population was baptised as Catholic. Most of which have involved in social activities and have frequently supplied Italian politics with their members. The two churches include the majority of the population in Piana degli Albanesi, Sicily and Lungro, Calabria, in the Protestant context, it is also worth mentioning the Evangelical Christian Church of the Brethren and the Italian section of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Italy is home to around 45,000 Jews, who are one of the most ancient Jewish communities in the world. The Jewish presence dates to the pre-Christian Roman period and has continued, despite periods of persecution and expulsions from parts of the country from time to time. The twenty-one Jewish local communities are affiliated to the Union of Italian Jewish Communities, immigration has brought to Italy many religious minorities, especially Islam and Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy. By the numbers, in 2015 the country was home to around 1,850,000 Muslims, not surprisingly the Assemblies of God in Italy, the Federation of Pentecostal Churches and several smaller evangelical/Pentecostal denominations have the majority of their communities in the South. Additionally, several churches, especially African initiated churches, most of which evangelical and/or Pentecostal, are taking roots in the country. Among the fastest-growing new religious denominations in Italy a special place is held by the Jehovahs Witnesses, then, come four faiths professed mainly by immigrants, Buddhists, Hindus, Sikhs, and Latter-day SaintsReligion in Italy – The St. Peter's Basilica, viewed from the Tiber, the Vatican Hill / City in the back and Castel Sant'Angelo to the right, Rome
109. Quattrocento – Quattrocento encompasses the artistic styles of the late Middle Ages and the early Renaissance. After the decline of the Western Roman Empire in 476, economic disorder and this was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages, which lasted roughly until the 11th century, when trade picked up, population began to expand and the papacy regained its authority. In Italy, urban centers arose that were populated by merchant and trade classes, money replaced land as the medium of exchange, and increasing numbers of serfs became freedmen. The changes in Medieval Italy and the decline of feudalism paved the way for social, cultural, the Quattrocento is viewed as the transition from the Medieval period to the age of the Renaissance, principally in the cities of Rome, Florence, Milan, Venice and Naples. Instead, Quattrocento artists and sculptors incorporated the more classic forms developed by Roman, since the Quattrocento overlaps with part of the Renaissance movement, it would be inaccurate to say that a particular artist was Quattrocento or Renaissance. Artists of the time probably would not have identified themselves as members of a movement, also see the list of 27 prominent 15th century painters made contemporaneously by Giovanni Santi, Raphael Sanzios father as part of a poem for the Duke of Urbino. The Robert Lehman Collection I, Italian Paintings, new York, Princeton, The Metropolitan Museum of Art in association with Princeton University Press. CS1 maint, Multiple names, authors listQuattrocento – Sandro Botticelli 's Annunciation, painted from 1489-1490, is an example of Quattrocento art.
110. Italian art – Since ancient times, Greeks, Etruscans and Celts have inhabited the south, centre and north of the Italian peninsula respectively. Ancient Rome finally emerged as the dominant Italian and European power, Italy retained its artistic dominance into the 17th century with Mannerism and the Baroque, and cultural tourism became a major prop to an otherwise faltering economy. In the 18th century Neoclassicism originated in Rome, but this was the last such Italian-born style that spread to all Western art, Italian art has influenced several major movements throughout the centuries and has produced several great artists, including painters, architects and sculptors. Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the largest number of any country in the world, Etruscan bronze figures and a terracotta funerary reliefs include examples of a vigorous Central Italian tradition which had waned by the time Rome began building her empire on the peninsula. The Etruscan paintings that have survived to modern times are mostly wall frescoes from graves and these are the most important example of pre-Roman figurative art in Italy known to scholars. The frescoes consist of painting on top of fresh plaster, so that when the plaster is dried the painting part of the plaster and an integral part of the wall. Colours were made from stones and minerals in different colours that ground up and mixed in a medium, from the mid 4th century BC chiaroscuro began to be used to portray depth and volume. Sometimes scenes of life are portrayed, but more often traditional mythological scenes. The concept of proportion does not appear in any surviving frescoes, one of the best-known Etruscan frescoes is that of Tomb of the Lioness at Tarquinia. The Etruscan were responsible for constructing Romes earliest monumental buildings, Roman temples and houses were closely based on Etruscan models. Elements of Etruscan influence in Roman temples included the podium and the emphasis on the front at the expense of the three sides. Large Etruscan houses were grouped around a hall in much the same way as Roman town Large houses were later built around an atrium. The influence of Etruscan architecture gradually declined during the republic in the face of influences from elsewhere, Etruscan architecture was itself influenced by the Greeks, so that when the Romans adopted Greek styles, it was not a totally alien culture. During the 2nd century BC, the flow of these works, by the end of the republic, when Vitruvius wrote his treatise on architecture, Greek architectural theory and example were dominant. With the expansion of the empire, Roman architecture spread over a wide area, in many areas elements of style were influenced by local tastes, particularly decoration, but the architecture remained recognizably Roman. Styles of vernacular architecture were influenced to varying degrees by Roman architecture, by the 1st century AD, Rome had become the biggest and most advanced city in the world. The ancient Romans came up with new technologies to improve the citys sanitation systems, roads and they developed a system of aqueducts that piped freshwater into the city, and they built sewers that removed the citys waste. The wealthiest Romans lived in houses with gardensItalian art – Rome under the emperor Constantine.
111. List of castles in Italy – This is a list of castles in Italy by location. Built in 1430 by the Calepio family, camozzi Vertova Castle, Costa di Mezzate. Built in the 15th century by the Counts Martinengo-Colleoni, built in the 15th century by the warlord Bartolomeo Colleoni. Built in the 14th century by the Avogadri family, built around 1450–70 by the Sforza family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Province of Brescia Brescia Castle, Brescia, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family and the Republic of Venice. Commonly known as Rocca Magna, built in the 9th–12th centuries, built in the 13th century by the Scaliger family. Province of Como Castello Baradello, Como, built in the 12th century by Frederick Barbarossa. Province of Cremona Soncino Castle, Soncino, built in the 10th century and renovated in the 15th century by the Sforza family. Province of Lecco Castello Andriani, Dervio, Lombardy Province of Lodi Province of Mantua Castles Asola Castle, built in the 14th century by the Gonzaga family. Castiglione delle Stiviere Castle, Castiglione delle Stiviere, towers Castel Goffredo Civic Tower Castle, Castel Goffredo. Province of Milan Castles Abbiategrasso Castle, Abbiategrasso, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 13th–14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 13th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Borromeo family, built in the 14th century by the Visconti family. Built in the 14th century by the Visconti family but it dates back to the 10th century, built in the 13th century by the Della Torre family. Known as Castello Mediceo, it was built in the 13th century by the Visconti family, built in the 15th century by the Borromeo familyList of castles in Italy – Forte Spagnolo, L'Aquila
112. Cinema of Italy – The Cinema of Italy comprises the films made within Italy or by Italian directors. As of 2014, Italian films have won 14 Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film, the most of any country, as well as 12 Palmes dOr, early Italian films were typically adaptations of books or stage plays. One of the first cinematic avante-garde movements, Italian Futurism, took place in Italy in the late 1910s, after a period of decline in the 1920s, the Italian film industry was revitalized in the 1930s with the arrival of sound film. A popular Italian genre during this period, the Telefoni Bianchi, post-World War II Italy saw the rise of the influential Italian neorealist movement, which launched the directorial careers of Luchino Visconti, Roberto Rossellini, and Vittorio De Sica. Neorealism declined in the late 1950s in favor of lighter films, such as those of the Commedia allitaliana genre and important directors like Federico Fellini, actresses such as Sophia Loren, Giulietta Masina and Gina Lollobrigida achieved international stardom during this period. The Spaghetti Western achieved popularity in the mid-1960s, peaking with Sergio Leones Dollars Trilogy, erotic Italian thrillers, or giallos, produced by directors such as Mario Bava and Dario Argento in the 1970s, influenced the horror genre worldwide. During the 1980s and 1990s, directors such as Ermanno Olmi, Bernardo Bertolucci, Giuseppe Tornatore, Gabriele Salvatores, lumière trainees produced short films documenting everyday life and comic strips in the late 1890s and early 1900s. Pioneering Italian cinematographer Filoteo Alberini patented his Kinetograph during this period, the Italian film industry took shape between 1903 and 1908, led by three major organizations, Cines, based in Rome, and the Turin-based companies Ambrosio Film and Itala Film. Other companies soon followed in Milan and Naples, and these early companies quickly attained a respectable production quality and were able to market their products both within Italy and abroad. Early Italian films typically consisted of adaptations of books or stage plays, such as Mario Caserinis Otello and Arturo Ambrosios 1908 adaptation of the novel, also popular during this period were films about historical figures, such as Caserinis Beatrice Cenci and Ugo Falenas Lucrezia Borgia. LInferno, produced by Milano Films in 1911, was the first full-length Italian feature film ever made, popular early Italian actors included Emilio Ghione, Alberto Collo, Bartolomeo Pagano, Amleto Novelli, Lyda Borelli, Ida Carloni Talli, Lidia Quaranta and Maria Jacobini. Enrico Guazzones 1913 film Quo Vadis was one of the earliest blockbusters in history, utilizing thousands of extras. Giovanni Pastrones 1914 film Cabiria was a larger production, requiring two years and a record budget to produce. Nino Martoglios Lost in Darkness, also produced in 1914, documented life in the slums of Naples, between 1911 and 1919, Italy was home to the first avant-garde movement in cinema, inspired by the countrys Futurism movement. The 1916 Manifesto of Futuristic Cinematography was signed by Filippo Marinetti, Armando Ginna, Bruno Corra, Giacomo Balla, to the Futurists, cinema was an ideal art form, being a fresh medium, and able to be manipulated by speed, special effects and editing. The Italian film industry struggled against rising foreign competition in the years following World War I, several major studios, among them Cines and Ambrosio, formed the Unione Cinematografica Italiana to coordinate a national strategy for film production. This effort was unsuccessful, however, due to a wide disconnect between production and exhibition. Among the notable Italian films of the silent era were Mario Camerinis RotaioCinema of Italy – Thaïs (1917)
113. Italian cuisine – Italian cuisine is the culinary typical or originating from Italy. It has developed through centuries of social and political changes, with roots stretching to antiquity, Italian cuisine is characterized by its simplicity, with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients. Italian cooks rely chiefly on the quality of the rather than on elaborate preparation. Ingredients and dishes vary by region, many dishes that were once regional, however, have proliferated with variations throughout the country. Cheese and wine are a part of the cuisine, with many variations. Coffee, specifically espresso, has become important in Italian cuisine, Italian cuisine has developed over the centuries. Although the country known as Italy did not unite until the 19th century, Italian food started to form after the fall of the Roman Empire, when different cities began to separate and form their own traditions. Many different types of bread and pasta were made, and there was a variation in cooking techniques and preparation. For example, the north of Italy is known for its risottos, the central/middle of the country is known for its tortellini, the first known Italian food writer was a Greek Sicilian named Archestratus from Syracuse in the 4th century BCE. He wrote a poem that spoke of using top quality and seasonal ingredients and he said that flavors should not be masked by spices, herbs or other seasonings. He placed importance on simple preparation of fish, simplicity was abandoned and replaced by a culture of gastronomy as the Roman Empire developed. By the time De re coquinaria was published in the 1st century CE, it contained 470 recipes calling for heavy use of spices, the Romans employed Greek bakers to produce breads and imported cheeses from Sicily as the Sicilians had a reputation as the best cheesemakers. The Romans reared goats for butchering, and grew artichokes and leeks, with culinary traditions from Rome and Athens, a cuisine developed in Sicily that some consider the first real Italian cuisine. Arabs invaded Sicily in the 9th century, introducing spinach, almonds, Normans also introduced casseroles, salt cod and stockfish, which remain popular. Food preservation was either chemical or physical, as refrigeration did not exist, meats and fish would be smoked, dried or kept on ice. Brine and salt were used to pickle items such as herring, root vegetables were preserved in brine after they had been parboiled. Other means of preservation included oil, vinegar or immersing meat in congealed, rendered fat, for preserving fruits, liquor, honey and sugar were used. The northern Italian regions show a mix of Germanic and Roman culture while the south reflects Arab influence, the oldest Italian book on cuisine is the 13th century Liber de coquina written in NaplesItalian cuisine – Italian cuisine
114. Italian wine – Italy is home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world, and Italian wines are known worldwide for their broad variety. Italy, closely followed by France, is the world’s largest wine producer by volume and its contribution is about 45–50 million hl per year, and represents about ⅓ of global production. Italian wine is exported around the world and is extremely popular in Italy. Grapes are grown in almost every region of the country and there are more than one million vineyards under cultivation, although vines had been cultivated from the wild Vitis vinifera grape for millennia, it wasnt until the Greek colonization that wine-making flourished. Viticulture was introduced into Sicily and southern Italy by the Mycenaean Greeks and it was during the Roman defeat of the Carthaginians in the 2nd century BC that Italian wine production began to further flourish. During this time, viticulture outside of Italy was prohibited under Roman law and it was customary to mix wine with a good proportion of water which may otherwise have been unpalatable, making wine drinking a fundamental part of early Italian life. As the laws on provincial viticulture were relaxed, vast vineyards began to flourish in the rest of Europe, especially Gaul and this coincided with the cultivation of new vines, like biturica. These vineyards became hugely successful, to the point that Italy ultimately became a centre for provincial wines. Depending on the vintage, modern Italy is the worlds largest or second largest wine producer, in 2005, production was about 20% of the global total, second only to France, which produced 26%. In the same year, Italys share in dollar value of table wine imports into the U. S. was 32%, Australias was 24%, along with Australia, Italys market share has rapidly increased in recent years. In 1963, the first official Italian system of classification of wines was launched, Vini Varietali, These are generic wines that are made either mostly from one kind of authorized international grapes or entirely from two or more of them. The grape and the vintage can be indicated on the label, Vini DOP, This category includes two sub-categories, i. e. Vini DOC and Vini DOCG. DOC wines must have been IGP wines for at least 5 years and they also must follow stricter production regulations than IGP wines. A DOC wine can be promoted to DOCG if it has been a DOC for at least 10 years, in addition to fulfilling the requisites for DOC wines, before commercialization DOCG wines must pass stricter analyses, including a tasting by a specifically appointed committee. DOCG wines have also demonstrated a superior commercial success, currently there exist 332 DOCs and 73 DOCGs for a total of 405 DOPs. A number of sub-categories also exist regulating the production of sparkling wines, within the DOP category, Classico is a wine produced in the historically oldest part of the protected territory. Superiore is a wine with at least 0.5 more alc%/vol than its correspondent regular DOP wine and produced using a smaller allowed quantity of grapes per hectare, Riserva is a wine that has been aged for a minimum period of time, depending on the typology. Sometimes, Classico or Superiore are themselves part of the name of the DOP, the Italian Ministry of Agriculture regularly publishes updates to the official classificationItalian wine – A classic Italian vineyard scene, with vines growing together with olive trees.
115. List of Italian orders of knighthood – There are five orders of knighthood awarded in recognition of service to the Italian Republic. Below these sit a number of decorations, associated and otherwise. However, the former Royal House of Savoy also continues to award knighthoods in three orders of chivalry previously recognised by the Kingdom of Italy. The degrees of knighthood, not all of which apply to all orders, are Knight, Officer, Commander, Grand Officer, Knight Grand Cross and Knight Grand Cross with cordon. The use of awards of the Holy See is subject to permission, today these continue merely as dynastic orders of the former Royal house in exile. While their bestowal is suppressed by law in Italy, the use of those decorations conferred prior to 1951 is permitted, exclusive of any right of precedence in official ceremonies. The Sardinian orders of the Most Holy Annunciation, of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, in contrast to the Republican orders, the feminine style Dama is used for women. The Knight Bachelor, usually transmitted by male primogeniture, was similar to a British baronetcy and these Cavaliere Ereditario were not, however, members of an order of chivalry. Nobility of Italy Italian honorifics Order Presidenza della Repubblica - Le Onorificenze Ordini dinastici della Real Casa di SavoiaList of Italian orders of knighthood – Letters patent of a Knight of Vittorio Veneto, shown with badge and miniature.
116. Italian fashion – Italy is one of the leading countries in fashion design, alongside others such as France, United States, United Kingdom, Germany and Japan. Cities such as Palermo, Venice, Milan, Naples, Florence and Vicenza started to produce goods, hats, cosmetics, jewelry. Milan is generally considered to be one of the big four fashion capitals, along with New York City, Paris, and London, occasionally. Italian fashion can be connected to the most generalized concept of Made in Italy. Italian luxury goods are renowned for the quality of their own textiles. The non profit making association which disciplines, co-ordinates and promotes the development of Italian Fashion is the National Chamber of Italian Fashion and it was set up in 1958 in Rome and now is settled in Milan and represents all the highest cultural values of Italian Fashion. This association has pursued a policy of organisational support aimed at the knowledge, promotion and development of fashion through events with a highly intellectual image in Italy, a few Italian designers head some important fashion brands outside Italy. Among the newest labels or younger designers, the most prominent are Aquilano. Piccione, Andrea Pompilio, Fausto Puglisi, San Andres Milano, Francesco Scognamiglio, Vivetta and Alberto Zambelli. Italy also is home to fashion magazines, such as Vogue Italia, Vanity Fair, Elle, Glamour, Grazia, Amica, Flair. Italian fashion reached its peak during the Renaissance, until the 1970s, Italian fashion was mainly designed for the rich and famous, more or less like the French Haute Couture. Yet, in the 1970s and 80s, Italian fashion started to concentrate on ready-to-wear clothes, such as coats, jackets, trousers, shirts, jeans, jumpers and miniskirts. Today, Milan and Rome are Italys fashion capitals, and are international centres for fashion design, competing with other cities such as Tokyo, Los Angeles, London, Paris. Also, other such as Venice, Florence, Naples, Vicenza, Bologna, Genoa. The countrys main shopping districts are the Via Montenapoleone fashion district and the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele, Via dei Condotti, and Via de Tornabuoni. Italian fashion is dominated by Milan, Rome, and to an extent, Florence. Nonetheless, there are other cities which play an important role in Italian fashion. In 2009, Milan was regarded as the fashion capital, even surpassing New York, Paris, Rome. In 2011, Milan was ranked #4, behind London, New York, international fashion labels also operate shops in Milan, including an Abercrombie & Fitch flagship store which has become a main consumer attractionItalian fashion – Clothes by Valentino
117. Music of Italy – The music of Italy ranges across a broad spectrum of opera and instrumental classical music and a body of popular music drawn from both native and imported sources. Music has traditionally one of the cultural markers of Italian national and ethnic identity and holds an important position in society. Instrumental and vocal music is an iconic part of Italian identity, spanning experimental art music and international fusions to symphonic music. Opera is integral to Italian musical culture, and has become a segment of popular music. Italian folk music is an important part of the musical heritage. Italian music has held up in high esteem in history. More than other elements of Italian culture, Italian music is generally eclectic, No parochial protectionist movement has ever attempted to keep Italian music pure and free from foreign influence, except briefly under the Fascist regime of the 1920s and 30s. As a result, Italian music has elements of the many peoples that have dominated or influenced the country, including French, German. The countrys historical contributions to music are also an important part of national pride, Italy has a strong sense of national identity through distinctive culture - a sense of an appreciation of beauty and emotionality, which is strongly evidenced in the music. Cultural, political and social issues are also expressed through music in Italy. Allegiance to music is integrally woven into the identity of Italians. Most folk musics are localized, and unique to a region or city. The musical output of Italy remains characterized by diversity and creative independence a rich variety of types of expression. With the growing industrialization that accelerated during the 20th and 21st century, Italian society gradually moved from a base to an urban. Immigration from North Africa, Asia, and other European countries led to diversification of Italian music. Traditional music came to exist only in pockets, especially as part of dedicated campaigns to retain local musical identities. Music and politics have been intertwined for centuries in Italy, composers who strayed ran certain risks. Among the best known of such cases was the Neapolitan composer Domenico Cimarosa, when the republic fell, he was tried for treason along with other revolutionariesMusic of Italy – Some common geographical names used as points of reference in Italy.
118. Italian classical music – More specific terms such as Gregorian chant, Ambrosian chant, Gallican chant are also found. Generally speaking, they all refer to a style of monophonic, unaccompanied, early Christian singing performed by monks, the differences may be marginal—or even great, in some cases. These differences reflect the ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversity that existed after the fall of the Roman Empire on the Italian peninsula. Different monastic traditions arose within the Roman Catholic Church throughout Italy, yet, in spite of the differences, the similarities are great. Obviously, where Greek rites were practiced, the chants were sung in the Greek language and not in Latin, the Trecento, from about 1300 to 1420, was a period of vigorous activity in Italy in the arts, including painting, architecture, literature, and music. The music of the Trecento pioneered new forms of expression, especially in secular song and in the use of vernacular language, secular music before the year 1500 was largely the work of jongleurs, troubadours and mimes. Thus, Dante showed with the Divine Comedy in 1300 that the language could be a vehicle for fine literature. Logically, that extended to the lyrics of the songs that people sang, two points are worth mentioning in this regard, we know much more about the words of songs than we know about the actual sound of the music. Words were written down much more ease than melodies were notated. We only know that southern French folk music, today, sounds quite a bit different from Sicilian folk music, most people do not think of music when they hear the term Renaissance. The years between 1500 and 1600 are the most revolutionary period in European musical history, it is the century in which harmony was developed and the century that gave birth to opera. Readers will have noted the move from the monophony of Gregorian chants to the complicated polyphonies of madrigals, the desire—perhaps need—for homophonic music arose from a number of factors. Thus, if you generate notes at 400,600,800, the important city in Italy in this development of music in the 16th century was Florence. Besides Florence, two other Italian cities are particularly worthy of mention in the period around 1600, there is somewhat of a friendly rivalry between advocates of the two cities as to which one is more important in the history of the development of music in Italy. The period from about 1600 to 1750 encompasses the musical Baroque, many important things happened in this period. This latter element is an extension of the concept of homophonic music, instrumental forms include such things as the sonata and fugue. Important names in music within this period in Italy are Alessandro Scarlatti, from the early 18th century to the end of that century encompasses what historians call classical music. The term classical is appropriate for this period of music in that it marks the standardization of forms such as the symphonyItalian classical music – Francesco Landini, the most famous composer of the Trecento, playing a portative organ (illustration from the Fifteenth-century Squarcialupi Codex)
119. Flag of Italy – The flag of Italy is a tricolour featuring three equally sized vertical pales of green, white and red, with the green at the hoist side. Its current form has been in use since 18 June 1946 and was adopted on 1 January 1948. The first entity to use the Italian tricolour was the Cisalpine Republic in 1797, a more religious interpretation is that the green represents hope, the white represents faith, and the red represents charity, this references the three theological virtues. The tricolour was used for the first time on November 13–14. The law students defined themselves as patriots and wore tricolour cockades to signal they were insipred by Jacobin revolutionary ideals, standard or flag of three colours, green, white, and red. The flag was maintained until 1802, when it was renamed the Napoleonic Italian Republic, and a new flag was adopted, in 1799, the independent Republic of Lucca came under French influence and adopted as its flag a horizontal tricolour with green uppermost, this lasted until 1801. In 1805 Napoleon installed his sister, Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi, as Princess of Lucca and this affair is commemorated in the opening of Leo Tolstoys War and Peace. In the same year, after Napoleon had crowned himself first French Emperor, the flag of the Kingdom of Italy was that of the Republic in rectangular form, charged with the golden Napoleonic eagle. This remained in use until the abdication of Napoleon in 1814, between 1848 and 1861, a sequence of events led to the independence and unification of Italy, this period of Italian history is known as the Risorgimento, or resurgence. During this period, the became the symbol which united all the efforts of the Italian people towards freedom. The Italian tricolour, defaced with the Savoyan coat of arms, was first adopted as war flag by the Kingdom of Sardinia–Piedmont army on 1848, in his Proclamation to the Lombard-Venetian people, Charles Albert said. In order to more clearly with exterior signs the commitment to Italian unification. Have the Savoy shield placed on the Italian tricolour flag, as the arms, blazoned gules a cross argent, mixed with the white of the flag, it was fimbriated azure, blue being the dynastic colour, although this does not conform to the heraldic rule of tincture. The rectangular civil and state variants were adopted in 1851 and it is worthy of note, however, that the arms bear the red-white-red flag of Austria, the opponent of Italian unification. This flag lasted from 3 April 1848 until 19 May 1849, the Provisional Government of Sicily, which lasted from 12 January 1848 to 15 May 1849, adopted the Italian tricolour, defaced with the trinacria, or triskelion. These lasted until 6 and 24 August 1849 respectively, in 1849, the new Roman Republic adopted an Italian tricolour, sent from Venice, bearing the legend DIO E POPOLO in red capital letters. This lasted for four months, while the Papal States of the Church was in abeyance, in 1860, the flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was again modified to the defaced Italian tricolour with the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies coat of arms. On 15 April 1861, the flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia was declared the flag of the newly formed Kingdom of ItalyFlag of Italy – Italian soldiers with the RSI flag in Rome, March 1944
120. Italia turrita – Italia Turrita is the national personification or allegory of Italy, characterised by a mural crown typical of Italian civic heraldry of Medieval communal origin. In broader terms, the crown symbolizes its mostly urban history and she often holds in her hands a bunch of corn ears, during the fascist era, she held a bundle of the lictors. Italy’s first allegory, a female head, appears on the coins coined during the Social War between the Roman Republic and several other cities of Central Italy from 91 to 88 BC. Under the emperor Augustus, a representation of Italy known as Saturnia Tellus was sculpted in marble on Ara Pacis’ external wall in Rome. Another allegory of Italy appears on the coins coined during the reign of emperor Nerva in 97 AD and this mythographical setting-up of the Italian land became also popular during the Middle Ages. In 1490, Ludovico Sforza, duke of Milan, had an Italia turrita painted on a medallion of the castle in Piazza Ducale, the Caesaris Astrum appeared again in 1574 on the cover of Historiarium de Regno Italiae, a book written by the historian Carlo Sigonio. Over her head, a star is usually seen shining radiant. Emblem of Italy National personification Mural crown Stella dItalia Giovanni Lista, La Stella dItalia, Edizioni Mudima, the front page of La Domenica del Corriere on 25 May 1958 depicted Italia Turrita voting in that day’s general electionItalia turrita – Statue of Italia Turrita in Reggio Calabria.
121. Italian philosophy – Italy over the ages has had a vast influence on Western philosophy, beginning with the Greeks and Romans, and going onto Renaissance humanism, the Age of Enlightenment and modern philosophy. Roman philosophy was influenced by that of Greece. Italian Medieval philosophy was mainly Christian, and included several important philosophers, Aquinas was the student of Albert the Great, a brilliant Dominican experimentalist, much like the Franciscan, Roger Bacon of Oxford in the 13th century. Aquinas reintroduced Aristotelian philosophy to Christianity and he believed that there was no contradiction between faith and secular reason. He believed that Aristotle had achieved the pinnacle in the human striving for truth and he was a professor at the prestigious University of Paris. The Renaissance was an essentially Italian movement, and also a period of the arts. As with all periods, there is a drift of dates, reasons for categorization. In particular, the Renaissance, more than later periods, is thought to begin in Italy with the Italian Renaissance and roll through Europe. Renaissance Humanism was a European intellectual movement that was a component of the Renaissance, beginning in Florence in the latter half of the 14th century. The humanist movement developed from the rediscovery by European scholars of Latin literary, initially, a humanist was simply a scholar or teacher of Latin literature. Humanism offered the necessary intellectual and philological tools for the first critical analysis of texts, an early triumph of textual criticism by Lorenzo Valla revealed the Donation of Constantine to be an early medieval forgery produced in the Curia. Italian Renaissance humanists believed that the arts should be practiced by all levels of richness. They also approved of self, human worth and individual dignity and they hold the belief that everything in life has a determinate nature, but mans privilege is to be able to choose his own path. He finally took thought concerning the creation of man, the nature of all other beings is limited and constrained within the bounds of law. Thou shalt have the power to degenerate into the forms of life. Thou shalt have the power, out of thy souls judgement, to be born into the higher forms, Italy was also affected by a movement called Neoplatonism, which was a movement which had a general revival of interest in Classical antiquity. Interest in Platonism was especially strong in Florence under the Medici, in 1459 John Argyropoulos was lecturing on Greek language and literature at Florence, and Marsilio Ficino became his pupil. Following suggestions laid out by Gemistos Plethon, Ficino tried to synthesize Christianity and his most famous work was The PrinceItalian philosophy – St Thomas Aquinas.
122. List of caves in Italy – The following article shows a list of caves in Italy. Main concentration of Italian caves is close to the Alps and the Apennine Mountains, the main Italian touristic caves are Castellana and Frasassi. Other notable show caves are Pertosa, the Wind Cave, the Giant Cave, Castelcivita, Villanova, Toirano, the caves are listed by alphabetical order and there are shown the main touristic caves and other notable underground voids. Grotto List of caves Index of the caves of Italy Photos of Italian caves on FlickrList of caves in Italy – View of Castellana Caves