|First Chilean wheat cycle||wheat||Chile||1687–1810|
|Brazilian Gold Rush||gold||Brazil||18th century|
|Carolina Gold Rush||gold||North Carolina, US||early 19th century|
|Georgia Gold Rush||gold||Georgia, US||1828 – early 1840s|
|Chilean silver rush||silver||Chile||1830–1850|
|Guano Era||guano||Peru||1845 – c. 1870|
|California Gold Rush||gold||California, US||1848–1855|
|Second Chilean wheat cycle||wheat||Chile||mid-19th century – 1870s|
|British Columbia gold rushes||gold||British Columbia, Canada||1850–1941|
|Australian gold rushes||gold||Australia||1851–1906|
|Pennsylvania oil rush||petroleum||northwestern Pennsylvania, US||1859 – early 1870s|
|Otago Gold Rush||gold||Central Otago, New Zealand||1860s|
|Colorado River mining boom||gold||Southwestern US||1861–64|
|West Coast Gold Rush||gold||West Coast, New Zealand||1864–1867|
|Lapland gold rush||gold||Lapland, Finland||1870s|
|Azerbaijan oil boom||petroleum||Azerbaijan||1870s|
|Pilgrim's Rest gold rush||gold||Pilgrim's Rest, Mpumalanga, South Africa||1873|
|Black Hills Gold Rush||gold||Dakota Territory, US||1874 – c. 1880|
|Patagonian sheep farming boom||wool, mutton||Patagonia||late 19th to early 20th century|
|Cripple Creek Gold Rush||gold||Cripple Creek, Colorado, US||late 19th to early 20th century|
|Bodie gold rush||gold||Bodie, California, US||1877–1880|
|First Amazon rubber boom||rubber||Amazon basin||1879–1912|
|Indiana gas boom||natural gas||Indiana, US||early 1880s – early 20th century|
|Ohio oil rush||petroleum||Northwest Ohio, US||1880s – 1930s|
|Tierra del Fuego gold rush||gold||Tierra del Fuego||1883–1906|
|Witwatersrand Gold Rush||gold||South Africa||1886|
|Klondike Gold Rush||gold||Klondike, Yukon, Canada||1896–1899|
|Mount Baker Gold Rush||gold||Whatcom County, Washington, US||1897 – mid-1920s|
|Nome Gold Rush||gold||Nome, Alaska, US||1899–1909|
|Fairbanks Gold Rush||gold||Fairbanks, Alaska, US||early 1900s|
|Texas oil boom||petroleum||Texas, US||1901 – 1940s|
|Cobalt silver rush||silver||Cobalt, Ontario, Canada||1903 – c. 1930|
|Stoy, Illinois oil boom||petroleum||Stoy, Illinois, US||1906–1910|
|Porcupine Gold Rush||gold||Northern Ontario, Canada||1909 – 1950s|
|Kakamega gold rush||gold||Kakamega, Kenya||early 1930s|
|Vatukoula gold rush||gold||Vatukoula, Fiji||1932|
|Second Amazon rubber boom||rubber||Amazon basin||1942–1945|
|Calgary oil boom||petroleum||Calgary, Alberta, Canada||1947 – early 1980s|
|New Zealand wool boom||wool||New Zealand||1951 – late 1950s|
|Mexican oil boom||petroleum||Mexico||1977–1981|
|2000s commodities boom||multiple||worldwide||2000s|
|Uranium bubble of 2007||uranium||worldwide||2005–2007|
|North Dakota oil boom||petroleum, shale gas||North Dakota, US||2006 – present (as of 2015[update])|
|Rhodium bubble||rhodium||worldwide (primarily South Africa, Russia)||2008|
1. Economic boom – The business cycle or economic cycle is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product around its long-term growth trend. The length of a cycle is the period of time containing a single boom. These fluctuations typically involve shifts over time periods of relatively rapid economic growth, and periods of relative stagnation or decline. Business cycles are usually measured by considering the rate of real gross domestic product. Despite the often-applied term cycles, these fluctuations in economic activity do not exhibit uniform or predictable periodicity, the common or popular usage boom-and-bust cycle refers to fluctuations in which the expansion is rapid and the contraction severe. Prior to that point classical economics had either denied the existence of cycles, blamed them on external factors, notably war. Sismondi found vindication in the Panic of 1825, which was the first unarguably international economic crisis and they advocated government intervention and socialism, respectively, as the solution. He devoted hundreds of pages of Das Kapital to crises, in Progress and Poverty, Henry George focused on lands role in crises – particularly land speculation – and proposed a single tax on land as a solution. In 1860 French economist Clement Juglar first identified economic cycles 7 to 11 years long, interest in the different typologies of cycles has waned since the development of modern macroeconomics, which gives little support to the idea of regular periodic cycles. There were great increases in productivity, industrial production and real per capita product throughout the period from 1870 to 1890 that included the Long Depression, there were also significant increases in productivity in the years leading up to the Great Depression. Both the Long and Great Depressions were characterized by overcapacity and market saturation, the effect of technological progress can be seen by the purchasing power of an average hours work, which has grown from $3 in 1900 to $22 in 1990, measured in 2010 dollars. There were similar increases in wages during the 19th century. See Financial crisis, 19th century for listing and details, the first of these crises not associated with a war was the Panic of 1825. Business cycles in OECD countries after World War II were generally more restrained than the business cycles. This was particularly true during the Golden Age of Capitalism, in this period, the economic cycle – at least the problem of depressions – was twice declared dead. The first declaration was in the late 1960s, when the Phillips curve was seen as being able to steer the economy, however, this was followed by stagflation in the 1970s, which discredited the theory. The second declaration was in the early 2000s, following the stability, notably, in 2003, Robert Lucas, in his presidential address to the American Economic Association, declared that the central problem of depression-prevention been solved, for all practical purposes. Unfortunately, this was followed by the 2008–2012 global recession, various regions have experienced prolonged depressions, most dramatically the economic crisis in former Eastern Bloc countries following the end of the Soviet Union in 1991Economic boom – Business cycle with it specific forces in four stages according to Malcolm C. Rorty, 1922
2. Commodity – In economics, a commodity is a marketable item produced to satisfy wants or needs. Economic commodities comprise goods and services, the word commodity came into use in English in the 15th century, from the French commodité, amenity, convenience. Going further back, the French word derives from the Latin commoditas, meaning suitability, convenience, the Latin word commodus meant variously appropriate, proper measure, time, or condition, and advantage, benefit. The term commodity is specifically used for a good or service when the demand for it has no qualitative differentiation across a market. In other words, a commodity good or service has full or partial but substantial fungibility, that is, the market treats its instances as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them. As the saying goes, From the taste of wheat, it is not possible to tell who produced it, a Russian serf, petroleum and copper are other examples of such commodities, their supply and demand being a part of one universal market. Items such as systems, on the other hand, have many aspects of product differentiation, such as the brand, the user interface. The demand for one type of stereo may be larger than demand for another. In contrast, one of the characteristics of a commodity good is that its price is determined as a function of its market as a whole, well-established physical commodities have actively traded spot and derivative markets. Generally, these are basic resources and agricultural products such as ore, sugar. Soft commodities are goods that are grown, while hard commodities are ones that are extracted through mining, there is another important class of energy commodities which includes electricity, gas, coal and oil. Electricity has the characteristic that it is usually uneconomical to store, hence. Commoditization occurs as a goods or services market loses differentiation across its supply base, as such, goods that formerly carried premium margins for market participants have become commodities, such as generic pharmaceuticals and DRAM chips. Following this trend, nanomaterials are emerging from carrying premium profit margins for market participants to a status of commodification, there is a spectrum of commoditization, rather than a binary distinction of commodity versus differentiable product. Many products degree of commoditization depends on the mentality and means. For example, milk, eggs, and notebook paper are not differentiated by many customers, for them, other customers take into consideration other factors besides price, such as environmental sustainability and animal welfare. This is a list of companies trading globally in commodities, descending by size as of October 28,2011, on a commodity exchange, it is the underlying standard stated in the contract that defines the commodity, not any quality inherent in a specific producers product. Commodities exchanges include, Bourse Africa Bursa Malaysia Derivatives Chicago Board of Trade Chicago Mercantile Exchange Dalian Commodity Exchange Euronext and these markets will quickly respond to changes in supply and demand to find an equilibrium price and quantityCommodity – Yerba mate (left), coffee bean (middle) and tea (right), all used for caffeinated infusions, are commodity cash crops.
3. Chilean wheat cycle – In Chilean historiography, the wheat cycle refers to two episodes of booming wheat exports and related changes in society and agriculture. The first cycle occurred from 1687 to the wars and was caused by heavy demand in Peru. The importance of wheat had led the 18th century in Chile to be labelled the wheat century, the second cycle started in the mid-19th century, fueled by the California and Australian gold rushes and ended definitively during the Long depression in the 1870s. Chile has a history of exporting cereals to Peru dating back to 1687 when Peru was struck by both an earthquake and a stem rust epidemic. Chilean soil and climatic conditions were better for cereal production than those of Peru and Chilean wheat was cheaper, according to historians Villalobos et al. the 1687 events were only the detonant factor for exports to start. The Chilean Central Valley, La Serena and Concepción were the districts that came to be involved in export to Peru. Compared with the 19th century, the area cultivated with wheat was very small, initially Chilean latifundia could not meet the wheat demand due to a labour shortage, so had to incorporate temporary workers in addition to the permanent staff. Another response by the latifundia to labour shortages was to act as merchants, in the period 1700 to 1850, this second option was overall more lucrative. The independence wars in Chile and Peru had a impact on the Chilean wheat industry. Trade was disrupted and armies in Chile pillaged the countryside, the Guerra a muerte phase was particularly destructive and ended only to see a period of outlaw banditry occur until the late 1820s. Trade with Peru did not fully recover after the independence struggles, in the 19th century, access to the Californian and Australian markets made wheat export a very lucrative activity. In the mid-19th century, those countries experienced large gold rushes, Chile was at the time the only wheat producer of some importance in the Pacific. At the same time as the cycle, new irrigation canals were built and apiculture. Apart from that, new markets were explored for Chilean agricultural products, the wheat boom did not last for long, by 1855, California managed to supply itself with wheat and from 1858 onwards it went over to export wheat to Chile. The cycle came to an end in the late 1870s due to the increased technification of agriculture in the United States and Argentina, the end of the wheat cycle added to the already difficult situation that Chilean economy was passing through in the 1870s. Exports to England continued at least until 1890Chilean wheat cycle – Economic history of Chile
4. Wheat – Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region but now cultivated worldwide. In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize, since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st Century. This grain is grown on land area than any other commercial food. World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined, globally, wheat is the leading source of vegetal protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals and staple foods. The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. In a small part of the population, gluten – the major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease, non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia. Cultivation and repeated harvesting and sowing of the grains of wild grasses led to the creation of domestic strains, in domesticated wheat, grains are larger, and the seeds remain attached to the ear by a toughened rachis during harvesting. In wild strains, a more fragile rachis allows the ear to easily shatter, as the traits that improve wheat as a food source also involve the loss of the plants natural seed dispersal mechanisms, highly domesticated strains of wheat cannot survive in the wild. Cultivation of wheat began to spread beyond the Fertile Crescent after about 8000 BCE, jared Diamond traces the spread of cultivated emmer wheat starting in the Fertile Crescent sometime before 8800 BCE. Archaeological analysis of wild emmer indicates that it was first cultivated in the southern Levant with finds dating back as far as 9600 BCE, Genetic analysis of wild einkorn wheat suggests that it was first grown in the Karacadag Mountains in southeastern Turkey. Dated archeological remains of wheat in settlement sites near this region, including those at Abu Hureyra in Syria. With the anomalous exception of two grains from Iraq ed-Dubb, the earliest carbon-14 date for einkorn wheat remains at Abu Hureyra is 7800 to 7500 years BCE. Remains of harvested emmer from several sites near the Karacadag Range have been dated to between 8600 and 8400 BCE, that is, in the Neolithic period and these remains were dated by Willem van Zeist and his assistant Johanna Bakker-Heeres to 8800 BCE. They also concluded that the settlers of Tell Aswad did not develop this form of emmer themselves, the cultivation of emmer reached Greece, Cyprus and India by 6500 BCE, Egypt shortly after 6000 BCE, and Germany and Spain by 5000 BCE. The early Egyptians were developers of bread and the use of the oven, by 3000 BCE, wheat had reached the British Isles and Scandinavia. A millennium later it reached China, the oldest evidence for hexaploid wheat has been confirmed through DNA analysis of wheat seeds, dating to around 6400-6200 BCE, recovered from Çatalhöyük. The first identifiable bread wheat with sufficient gluten for yeasted breads has been identified using DNA analysis in samples from a dating to approximately 1350 BCE at Assiros in Macedonia. From Asia, wheat continued to spread throughout Europe, in the British Isles, wheat straw was used for roofing in the Bronze Age, and was in common use until the late 19th centuryWheat – Wheat
5. Chile – Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes, the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands. Spain conquered and colonized Chile in the century, replacing Inca rule in northern and central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic, in the 1960s and 1970s the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010. Chile is today one of South Americas most stable and prosperous nations and it leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, state of peace, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption. It also ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile, another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a locally known as trile. The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, ultimately, Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such. The older spelling Chili was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching over to Chile, stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys, settlement sites from very early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodon and the Pali Aike Craters lava tube. They fought against the Sapa Inca Tupac Yupanqui and his army, the result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. The next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, the Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. The conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarros lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541. Although the Spanish did not find the gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chiles central valleyChile – The Mapuche people were the original inhabitants of southern and central Chile.
6. Brazilian Gold Rush – The Brazilian Gold Rush was a gold rush that started in the 18th century, in the then Portuguese colony of Brazil. The rush opened up the major gold-producing area of Ouro Preto, the rush began when bandeirantes discovered large gold deposits in the mountains of Minas Gerais. The bandeirantes were adventurers who organized themselves into groups to explore the interior of Brazil. Many bandeirantes were of mixed indigenous and European background who adopted the ways of the natives, while the bandeirantes searched for indigenous captives, they also searched for mineral wealth, which led to the gold being discovered. More than 400,000 Portuguese and half a million African slaves came to the region to mine. Many people abandoned the plantations and towns in the northeast coast to go to the gold region. By 1725, half the population of Brazil was living in southeastern Brazil, officially,850 tons of gold were sent to Portugal in the XVIII century. Other gold circulated illegally, and still other gold remained in the colony to adorn churches, in the 18th century, Ouro Preto became for a time the most populous city in the New World, with an estimated population of 80,000 in 1750. At that time, the population of New York was half that number, Minas Gerais was the gold mining center of Brazil. Slave labor was used for the workforce. The discovery of gold in the area caused an influx of European immigrants. They set up numerous bureaucracies, often with conflicting duties and jurisdictions, the officials generally proved unequal to the task of controlling this highly lucrative industry. In 1830, the St. John del Rey Mining Company, controlled by the British, the British brought in modern management techniques and engineering expertise. Located in Nova Lima, the mine produced ore for 125 years, erário Mineral, author Luís Gomes Ferreira Brazilian Gold Gold mining in Brazil Chilean silver rush Tierra del Fuego Gold RushBrazilian Gold Rush – The main square of Ouro Preto - Praça Tiradentes
7. Gold – Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly yellow, dense, soft, malleable. Chemically, gold is a metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions, Gold often occurs in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the element silver and also naturally alloyed with copper. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium, golds atomic number of 79 makes it one of the higher numbered, naturally occurring elements. It is thought to have produced in supernova nucleosynthesis, from the collision of neutron stars. Because the Earth was molten when it was formed, almost all of the present in the early Earth probably sank into the planetary core. Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of acid and hydrochloric acid. Gold also dissolves in solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating. Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but this is not a chemical reaction, as a precious metal, gold has been used for coinage, jewelry, and other arts throughout recorded history. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold is in existence above ground, the world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, and 10% in industry. Gold is also used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine. As of 2014, the worlds largest gold producer by far was China with 450 tonnes, Gold is cognate with similar words in many Germanic languages, deriving via Proto-Germanic *gulþą from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃-. The symbol Au is from the Latin, aurum, the Latin word for gold, the Proto-Indo-European ancestor of aurum was *h₂é-h₂us-o-, meaning glow. This word is derived from the root as *h₂éu̯sōs, the ancestor of the Latin word Aurora. This etymological relationship is presumably behind the frequent claim in scientific publications that aurum meant shining dawn, Gold is the most malleable of all metals, a single gram can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, and an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet. Gold leaf can be thin enough to become semi-transparentGold – Gold, 79 Au
8. North Carolina – North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, North Carolina is the 28th most extensive and the 9th most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties, the most populous municipality is Charlotte, which is the second largest banking center in the United States after New York City. The state has a range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell. The climate of the plains is strongly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a highland climate. North Carolina is bordered by South Carolina on the south, Georgia on the southwest, Tennessee on the west, Virginia on the north, the United States Census Bureau places North Carolina in the South Atlantic division of the southern region. So many ships have been lost off Cape Hatteras that the area is known as the Graveyard of the Atlantic, the most famous of these is the Queen Annes Revenge, which went aground in Beaufort Inlet in 1718. The coastal plain transitions to the Piedmont region along the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, the Piedmont region of central North Carolina is the states most populous region, containing the six largest cities in the state by population. It consists of rolling countryside frequently broken by hills or low mountain ridges. The Piedmont ranges from about 300 feet in elevation in the east to about 1,500 feet in the west, the western section of the state is part of the Appalachian Mountain range. Among the subranges of the Appalachians located in the state are the Great Smoky Mountains, Blue Ridge Mountains, the Black Mountains are the highest in the eastern United States, and culminate in Mount Mitchell at 6,684 feet, the highest point east of the Mississippi River. North Carolina has 17 major river basins, the five basins west of the Blue Ridge Mountains flow to the Gulf of Mexico, while the remainder flow to the Atlantic Ocean. Of the 17 basins,11 originate within the state of North Carolina, but only four are contained entirely within the states border – the Cape Fear, the Neuse, the White Oak, and the Tar-Pamlico basin. Elevation above sea level is most responsible for temperature change across the state, the climate is also influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf Stream, especially in the coastal plain. These influences tend to cause warmer winter temperatures along the coast, the coastal plain averages around 1 inch of snow or ice annually, and in many years, there may be no snow or ice at all. North Carolina experiences severe weather in summer and winter, with summer bringing threat of hurricanes, tropical storms, heavy rainNorth Carolina – North Carolina topographic map
9. Georgia (U.S. state) – Georgia is a state in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1733, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies, named after King George II of Great Britain, Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2,1788. It declared its secession from the Union on January 19,1861 and it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15,1870. Georgia is the 24th largest and the 8th most populous of the 50 United States, from 2007 to 2008,14 of Georgias counties ranked among the nations 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South, Atlanta is the states capital, its most populous city and has been named a global city. Georgia is bordered to the south by Florida, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina, to the west by Alabama, the states northern part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. Georgias highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level, Georgia is the largest state entirely east of the Mississippi River in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures, the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12,1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II. The Trustees implemented a plan for the colonys settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan. In 1742 the colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins Ear, in 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a colony, with a governor appointed by the king. The Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence, the State of Georgias first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24,1778, in 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains, which led to the Georgia Gold Rush and an established federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued its operation until 1861. The subsequent influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act into law, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgias tribes. Despite the Supreme Courts ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that ruled U. S. states were not permitted to redraw the Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched troops to gather the CherokeeGeorgia (U.S. state) – A girl spinner in a Georgia cotton mill, 1909.
10. Silver – Silver is a metallic element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. The symbol Ag stems from Latin argentum, derived from the Greek ὰργὀς, a soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earths crust in the pure, free form, as an alloy with gold and other metals. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, Silver is more abundant than gold, but it is much less abundant as a native metal. Its purity is measured on a per mille basis, a 94%-pure alloy is described as 0.940 fine. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had a role in most human cultures. Silver has long valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many premodern monetary systems in bullion coins, Silver is used in numerous applications other than currency, such as solar panels, water filtration, jewelry, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, and as an investment medium. Silver is used industrially in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, Silver compounds are used in photographic film and X-rays. Dilute silver nitrate solutions and other compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings, catheters. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table, copper and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with an electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell. Silver is a soft, ductile and malleable transition metal. Silver crystallizes in a cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are relatively weak and this observation explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of silver. Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a polish. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm, at wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silvers reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm. The electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater even than copper, during World War II in the US,13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium, mainly because of the wartime shortage of copperSilver – Electrolytically refined silver
11. California Gold Rush – The California Gold Rush began on January 24,1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutters Mill in Coloma, California. The news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States, the Gold Rush initiated the California Genocide, with 100,000 Native Californians dying between 1848 and 1868. By the time it ended, California had gone from a thinly populated ex-Mexican territory to the state of the first nominee for the Republican Party. The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial, whole indigenous societies were attacked and pushed off their lands by the gold-seekers, called forty-niners. The first to hear confirmed information of the rush were the people in Oregon, the Sandwich Islands, and Latin America. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the Gold Rush attracted tens of thousands from Latin America, Europe, Australia, agriculture and ranching expanded throughout the state to meet the needs of the settlers. San Francisco grew from a settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852. Roads, churches, schools and other towns were built throughout California, in 1849 a state constitution was written. The new constitution was adopted by vote, and the future states interim first governor. In September,1850, California became a state, at the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no law regarding property rights in the goldfields and a system of staking claims was developed. Prospectors retrieved the gold from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, although the mining caused environmental harm, more sophisticated methods of gold recovery were developed and later adopted around the world. New methods of transportation developed as steamships came into regular service, by 1869 railroads were built across the country from California to the eastern United States. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, Gold worth tens of billions of todays dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few. However, many returned home with more than they had started with. The Mexican–American War ended on February 3,1848, although California was firmly in American hands before that, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided for, among other things, the formal transfer of Upper California to the United States. The California Gold Rush began at Sutters Mill, near Coloma, on January 24,1848, James W. Marshall, a foreman working for Sacramento pioneer John Sutter, found shiny metal in the tailrace of a lumber mill Marshall was building for Sutter on the American River. Marshall brought what he found to John Sutter, and the two tested the metal. However, rumors started to spread and were confirmed in March 1848 by San Francisco newspaper publisherCalifornia Gold Rush – Sailing to California at the beginning of the Gold Rush
12. Australian gold rushes – During the Australian gold rushes, significant numbers of workers relocated to areas in which gold had been discovered. A number of gold occurred in Australia prior to 1851. This is mainly because, prior to 1851, the government of New South Wales had suppressed news of gold finds which it believed would reduce the workforce. The first gold rush in Australia began in May 1851 after prospector Edward Hargraves claimed to have discovered gold near Orange. Hargraves had been to the Californian goldfields and had learned new gold prospecting techniques such as panning and cradling, Hargraves was offered rewards by the Colony of New South Wales and the Colony of Victoria. Before the end of the year, the rush had spread to many other parts of the state where gold had been found, not just to the west. The Australian gold rushes changed the convict colonies into more cities with the influx of free emigrants. These hopefuls, termed diggers, brought new skills and professions, the mateship that evolved between these diggers and their collective resistance to authority led to the emergence of a unique national identity. Although not all diggers found riches on the goldfields, many decided to stay, in July 1851, Victorias first gold rush began on the Clunes goldfield. Gold, just as in New South Wales, was found in many other parts of the state. When the rush began at Ballarat, diggers discovered it was a prosperous goldfield, lieutenant-Governor, Charles La Trobe visited the site and watched five men uncover 136 ounces of gold in one day. Mount Alexander was even more rich than Ballarat, with gold sitting just under the surface, the shallowness allowed diggers to easily unearth gold nuggets. In 7 months,2.4 million pounds of gold was transported from Mount Alexander to nearby capital cities, the gold rushes caused a huge influx of people from overseas. Australias total population more than tripled from 430,000 in 1851 to 1.7 million in 1871, Australia first became a multicultural society during the gold rush period. Between 1852 and 1860,290,000 people migrated to Victoria from the British Isles,15,000 came from other European countries, non-European immigrants, however, were unwelcome, especially the Chinese. The Chinese were particularly industrious, with techniques that differed widely from the Europeans and this and their physical appearance and fear of the unknown led to them to being persecuted in a racist way that would be regarded as untenable today. In 1855,11,493 Chinese arrived in Melbourne, Chinese travelling outside of New South Wales had to obtain special re-entry certificates. In 1855, Victoria enacted the Chinese Immigration Act 1855, severely limiting the number of Chinese passengers permitted on an arriving vesselAustralian gold rushes – Gold diggings, Ararat, Victoria circa 1854
13. Otago Gold Rush – The Otago Gold Rush was a gold rush that occurred during the 1860s in Central Otago, New Zealand. This was the countrys biggest gold strike, and led to an influx of foreign miners to the area - many of them veterans of other hunts for the precious metal in California and Victoria, Australia. Only a few later, most of the smaller new settlements were deserted. Previously gold had been found in quantities in the Coromandel Peninsula. In September 1852, Charles Ring, a merchant, claimed the prize for a find in Coromandel. The rush lasted only three months. Māori had long known of the existence of gold in Central Otago, for a precious material they relied on greenstone for weaponry and tools, and used greenstone, obsidian and bone carving for jewellery. The first known European Otago gold find was at Goodwood, near Palmerston in October 1851, the find was of a very small amount with no ensuing rush. Instead, the settlement of Dunedin was just three years old, and more practical matters were of importance to the young town. Other finds around the Mataura River in 1856 and the Dunstan Range in 1858 stirred minimal interest and it was two months later that the a gold strike was made that prompted a major influx of prospectors. The public heard about Reads find via a letter published in the Otago Witness on 8 June 1861, with this statement, the gold rush began. By Christmas 14,000 prospectors were on the Tuapeka and Waipori fields, within a year, the regions population swelled greatly, growing by 400 per cent between 1861 and 1864, with prospectors swarming from the dwindling Australian goldfields. Gabriel’s Gully led to the discovery of further goldfields within Central Otago, the Arthurs Point strike led to the largest rush that occurred in Otago. By the end of 1863, the gold rush was over. The number of miners reached its maximum of 18,000 in February 1864, read’s find of gold sparked the interest of people at Dunedin others, people traveled long distances in the hope of striking it rich. These goldfields all gave rise to mining towns and communities of temporarily shops, hotels, as the scope of the goldfields developed, communities became more permanent with buildings constructed in timber and concrete. A restored Chinese Village at Arrowtown is a popular tourist attraction, the news of gold at Gabriel’s Gully reached the inhabitants of Dunedin and the rest of the world, prospectors immediately left their homes in search of gold. The majority of these prospectors were labourers and tradesmen, in their late teensOtago Gold Rush – Old gold workings, St. Bathans, Otago
14. Central Otago – Central Otago is an informal name for the inland part of the Otago region in the South Island of New Zealand. The area commonly known as Central Otago includes both the Central Otago District and the Queenstown-Lakes District to its west, the motto for the area is A World of Difference. The area is dominated by mountain ranges and the reaches of the Clutha River. The wide flat plateau of the Maniototo which lies between the upper reaches of the Taieri River and the Cluthas northern tributary the Manuherikia is also considered part of Central Otago. Characterised by cold winters and hot, dry summers, the area is lightly populated, although there has recently been considerable development around the tourist towns of Queenstown. First significant European occupation came with the discovery of gold at Gabriels Gully near Lawrence in 1861, which led to the Central Otago goldrush. Other towns and villages include Albert Town, Alexandra, Arrowtown, Bannockburn, Clyde, Cromwell, Hawea, Millers Flat, Naseby, Omakau, Ranfurly, Roxburgh, St. Bathans, and Wedderburn. Since the 19th century, most of the economic activity has centred on sheep, stone fruit. In recent years, deer farms and vineyards have increased the economic diversification. Central Otago is the worlds southernmost commercial wine production region, Central Otago is a land of extremes, it is the coldest, driest part of New Zealand. The seasons are defined, summers are hot and low in humidity, winter mornings are often misty, the days cloudless and windless. Alexandra, for example, has the lowest average rainfall recorded anywhere in New Zealand, is the least windy and has 148 frosts annually. Spring warms the soil and fruit tree blossom dominates the district’s orchard areas, temperatures range from minus 3 to 20 deg C, with 10 frosts a month. Average rainfall is 28mm a month and sunshine 206 hours, in summer, daylight lasts as long as 10pm. Temperatures range from 10 to plus 30 deg C on several days, rainfall averages 38mm a month and sunshine is 227 hours. Autumn is brilliant as the orchards and poplar shelterbelts turn red, yellow. Temperatures range from minus 3 to 24 deg C, rainfall averages 30mm a month with 11 frosts monthly and 150 hours of sunshine. Winter brings a range of minus 6 to 15 deg CCentral Otago – T. Gilchrist & Sons - boasts being the oldest existing shop in New Zealand, established 1902, and since 1987 operated by a community trust (but still working as a normal grocery).
15. Steamboats of the Colorado River – Steamboats were tried on the upper Colorado River, in Glen Canyon, on the Green River in Utah and Wyoming, and on the Grand River, above its confluence with the Green River in Utah and in Colorado. These attempts in the late 19th Century and early 20th Century met with little success, the beginnings of the use of steamboats on the Colorado River came as the result of the founding of Fort Yuma during the Yuma War. Costs of such transport was minimally $500 per ton, supplying the fort became so difficult, that for a time it had to be abandoned. Attempts had been made by the Army to bring supplies the 150 miles up from the Gulf of California, first in November 1850 to January 1851, by its transport schooner, Invincible under Captain Alfred H. Wilcox and then by its longboat commanded by Lieutenant George Derby. Later Lieutenant Derby, in his report, recommended that a shallow draft sternwheel steamboat would be the way to send supplies up river to the fort. On board were 250 tons of supplies for the newly reoccupied fort and these they assembled to be poled up the Colorado. However the first barge sank with its cargo a total loss, the second was finally, after a long struggle poled up to Fort Yuma, but what little it carried was soon consumed by the garrison. Subsequently wagons again were sent from the fort to haul the balance of the supplies overland from the estuary through the marshes and woodlands of the Delta. Both of these attempts on the river failed in the face of extreme tides in the estuary or strong currents, hauling supplies from the estuary worked but was less satisfactory than the 185 mile San Diego route over land. Firstly it was a violation of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo for American troops to intrude into Mexican territory, secondly, on top of already costly land shipping was the prospect of the additional expense of Mexican custom duties that would be levied on anything landed on Mexican territory. In November 1852, the Uncle Sam, a 65-foot long side-wheel paddle steamer, also built by Domingo Marcucci and it was brought by the schooner Capacity from San Francisco to the delta by the next contractor to supply the fort, Captain James Turnbull. It was assembled and launched in the estuary,30 miles above the mouth of the Colorado River, equipped with only a 20 horsepower engine, the Uncle Sam could only carry 35 tons of supplies, taking 15 days to make the first 120 mile trip. It made many trips up and down the river, taking four months to finish carrying the supplies for the fort, negligence caused it to sink at its dock below Fort Yuma, and was then washed away before it could be raised, in the spring flood of 1853. Turnbull who meanwhile had returned to the Delta from San Francisco with another cargo and he returned for a new hull, while the army sent wagons to recover the cargo from the delta again. However, Turnbull in financial difficulty, disappeared from the city leaving creditors unpaid, nevertheless, Turnbull had shown the worth of steamboats to solve Fort Yumas supply problem. In late 1852, George Alonzo Johnson with his partner Hartshorne, there it was reassembled at a landing in the upper tidewater of the river and reached Fort Yuma, January 18,1854. This new boat, capable of carrying 50 tons of cargo, was very successful making round trips from the estuary to the fort in only four or five days, costs were cut to $75 per ton. A second reason for the speed of the new steamboat beside its powerful engine was the establishment of the wood-yards along the river between the delta and Fort YumaSteamboats of the Colorado River – Yuma and Fort Yuma across the Colorado River (circa 1875 lithograph). Steamboat is downriver from the ferry crossing that is equipped with poles on both banks to raise the ferry's tow cables above the smokestacks of passing steamboats.
16. Southwestern United States – The population of the area is around 11 million people, with over half that in Arizona, the most populous cities are Phoenix, El Paso, Las Vegas, Albuquerque, and Tucson. Most of the area was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in the Spanish Empire before becoming part of Mexico and it became part of the United States through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the Gadsden Purchase. The deserts dominate the southern and western reaches of the area, the two major rivers of the region are the Colorado River, running in the northern and western areas, and the Rio Grande, running in the south. Formed approximately 8000 years ago, the Chihuahuan Desert is a dry desert. The Chihuahuan Desert spreads across the portion of the region, covering from southeastern Arizona, across southern New Mexico. While it is the second largest desert in the United States, only a third of the desert is within the United States, El Paso is the major city in this desert, with other smaller cities being Las Cruces and Roswell in New Mexico. The Chihuahuan is a rain shadow desert, formed two mountain ranges which block oceanic precipitation from reaching the area. The most prolific plants in this region are agave, yucca and creosote bushes, when people think of the desert southwest, the landscape of the Sonoran Desert is what mostly comes to mind. Rainfall averages between 4–12 inches per year, and the deserts most widely known inhabitant is the saguaro cactus and it is bounded on the northwest by the Mojave Desert, to the north by the Colorado Plateau and to the east by the Arizona Mountains forests and the Chihuahuan Desert. The portion of the Sonora Desert which lies in the Southwestern United States is the most populated area within the region. Six of the top ten major population centers of the region are found within its borders, Phoenix, Tucson, Mesa, Chandler, Glendale, also within its borders are Yuma and Prescott Arizona. The most northwest portion of the American Southwest is covered by the Mojave Desert, bordered on the south by the Sonoran Desert and the east by the Colorado Plateau, its range within the region makes up the southeast tip of Nevada, and the northwestern corner of Arizona. In terms of topography, the Mojave is very similar to the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave is the smallest, driest and hottest desert within the United States. The Mojave gets less than six inches of rain annually, the most prolific vegetation is the tall Joshua tree, which grow as tall as 40 feet, and are thought to live almost 1000 years. Other major vegetation includes the Parry saltbush and the Mojave sage, the Colorado Plateau varies from the large stands of forests in the west, including the largest stand of ponderosa pine trees in the world, to the Mesas to the east. Although not called a desert, the Colorado Plateau is mostly made up of high desert, the Plateau is characterized by a series of plateaus and mesas, interspersed with canyons. The most dramatic example is the Grand Canyon, but that is one of many dramatic vistas included within the Plateau, which includes spectacular lava formations, painted deserts, sand dunes, and badlands. One of the most distinctive features of the Plateau is its longevity, the Plateau can be divided into six sections, three of which fall into the Southwest regionSouthwestern United States – Panoramic view of the southwestern United States.
17. West Coast, New Zealand – The West Coast is a region of New Zealand on the west coast of the South Island, one of the more remote and most sparsely populated areas of the country. It is administered by the West Coast Regional Council, at the territorial authority level, the region comprises Buller District, Grey District and Westland District. The principal towns are Westport, Greymouth, and Hokitika, fiordland is on the west coast, but is in the Southland Region rather than the West Coast Region. Inhabitants of the West Coast are colloquially known as Coasters, the region reaches from Kahurangi Point in the north to Awarua Point in the south, a distance of 600 km. To the west is the Tasman Sea, and to the east are the Southern Alps, much of the land is rugged, with a coastal plain where much of the population resides. The land is very scenic, with wild coastlines, mountains, scenic areas include the Haast Pass, Fox and Franz Josef Glaciers, the Pancake Rocks at Punakaiki and the Heaphy Track. The region has a high rainfall due to the prevailing northwesterly wind pattern and the location of the Southern Alps. The rain shadow effect is responsible for the arid climate of the Canterbury Plains on the other side of the Southern Alps. The regions area is 23,276 km2 and it is divided into the three districts of Buller, Grey and Westland. Industries on the West Coast include mining for coal and alluvial gold, forestry and wood processing, dairy farming has grown strongly - the local dairy co-operatives Westland Milk Products remained independent when most others merged to form Fonterra in 2001. Other industries are the manufacturing and sales of greenstone jewellery, sphagnum moss gathering, the sub-national GDP of the region was estimated at US$779 million in 2003, 1% of national GDP. The region is home to Māori, who valued it for the greenstone found there in abundance, the region was only occasionally visited by Europeans until the discovery of gold near the Taramakau River in 1864 by two Māori, Ihaia Tainui and Haimona Taukau. By the end of the year there were an estimated 1800 prospectors, many of them around the Hokitika area, after that time, the population dwindled, but the main towns that still exist had become established. Following greenstone and gold, the valuable mineral was coal. Discovered near the Buller River in the mid-1840s, mining began in earnest during the 1860s, by the 1880s coal had become the region’s main industry, with mines throughout the northern half of the region, especially around Westport. Many of these continued in operation until the mid-20th century, timber has also long been a major industry, although in recent years there has been an uneasy balance between forestry for wood and forestry for conservation. Much of the region is public land administered by the Department of Conservation, ecotourism is now an important industry, and this goes hand in hand with the conservation efforts. The region is populated, especially in the south, with the 2006 census recording 31,326 inhabitants, up from 30,303 in 2001West Coast, New Zealand – Pancake Rocks, Punakaiki
18. Lapland (Finland) – Lapland is the largest and northernmost region of Finland. The municipalities in the region cooperate in a Regional Council, Lapland borders the region of Northern Ostrobothnia in the south. It also borders the Gulf of Bothnia, Norrbotten County in Sweden, Finnmark County and Troms County in Norway, and Murmansk Oblast and the Republic of Karelia in Russia. The area of Lapland region is 100,367 km², which consists of 92,667 km²of dry land,6,316 km² fresh water and 1,383 km² of sea areas. In south it borders Northern Ostrobothnia region, in west Sweden, in north and west Norway and its borders follow three rivers, Tana, Muonio and Torne. The largest lake is Lake Inari,1,102 km², highest point is on Halti, which reaches 1,324 m on Finnish side of the border. There are eight national parks in Lapland, Bothnian Bay, Lemmenjoki, Oulanka, Pallas-Yllästunturi, Pyhä-Luosto, Riisitunturi, Syöte, the very first snowflakes fall to the ground in late August or early September over the higher peaks. The first ground-covering snow arrives in average in October or late September, permanent snow cover comes between mid-October and end of November, significantly earlier than in southern Finland. The winter is long, approximately seven months, the snow cover is usually thickest in early April. Soon after that the snow starts to melt fast. The thickest snow cover ever was measured in Kilpisjärvi in 19 April 1997, due to the warming effect of the Arctic Sea, the coldest spot is not located in northernmost Lapland but in the north-western corner. The annual mean temperature varies from a couple of degrees below zero in Northwest to a couple of degrees above zero in the southwest, the area of Lapland was split between two counties of the Swedish Realm from 1634 to 1809. The northern and western areas were part of Västerbotten County, while the areas were part of Ostrobothnia County. The northern and western areas were transferred in 1809 to Oulu County, under the royalist constitution of Finland during the first half of 1918, Lapland was to become a Grand Principality and part of the inheritance of the proposed king of Finland. Lapland Province was separated from Oulu Province in 1938, during the Interim Peace and beginning of the Continuation War the government of Finland allowed the Nazi German Army to station itself in Lapland as a part of Operation Barbarossa. After Finland made a peace with the Soviet Union in 1944. The result was the Lapland War, during which almost the whole population of Lapland was evacuated. The Germans used scorched earth tactics in Lapland, before they withdrew to Norway, ninety percent of Rovaniemi, the capital of Lapland, was burned to the ground, with only a few pre-war buildings surviving the destructionLapland (Finland) – First Finnish gold euro commemorative coin
19. Petroleum industry in Azerbaijan – The petroleum industry in Azerbaijan produces about 873,260 barrels of oil per day and 29 billion cubic meters of gas per year as of 2013. Azerbaijan is one of the birthplaces of the oil industry and its history is linked to the fortunes of petroleum. It is poised to become an important oil and gas producer once again, in 1871, Ivan Mirzoev, an ethnic Armenian who was then an otkupchina monopolist, built the first wooden oil derrick followed by another the next year. Drilling was conducted primitively with an arm, whim and manual pump. There is evidence of petroleum being used in trade as early as the 3rd, information on the production of oil on the Apsheron peninsula can be found in the manuscripts of most Arabic and Persian authors. This oil is not good to eat, but it is good for burning and as a salve for men, men come from a long distance to fetch this oil, and in all the neighborhood no other oil is burnt but this. The first detailed description of the Baku oil industry was made by Engelbert Kaempfer, in his notes he confirms the existence of places where natural gas discharges to the surface. Kaempfer describes flaming steppe as follows, it and it was occupying the territory of 88 steps in length and 26 in width. Many 18th and 19th century European accounts of the Caucasus refer to the Fire Temple of Baku at Suraxanı raion, in 1806, the Russian empire occupied Baku Khanate and took monopolistic control of oil production. Later exclusive rights to produce oil were given to individuals, thereby creating the Persian otkupchina lease system, Oil extraction methods in those times were very primitive —mainly hand-dug wells, drilled to very shallow depths. The production volume of those years can be judged from data provided in 1842 by the Caspian Chamber of the Department of State Property Ministry. As a result of monopoly and the absence of growing demand. In 1813, the number of producing wells was 116, then 125 in 1825,120 in 1850, otkupschina system meant that oil production was monopolized by set of individuals who saw no incentive to increase production or improve drilling methods. In 1846, under the supervision of state advisor V. N, semyonov engineer Alekseev drilled a 21 m deep well using a primitive percussion drilling mechanism, in Bibiheybət to explore for oil, with positive results. More than a later, on August 27,1859. A small petrochemical industry sprung up around Baku, as demand for kerosene soared locally, vasily Kokorev, Peter Gubonin and German baron N. E. Tornow built the first kerosene factory in Surakhany, the factory was used to produce kerosene out of kir, an asphalt-like substance. Vitte, a Tiflis pharmacist, built the second paraffin-producing factory on Pirallahi Island, as a result, there was flurry of financial activity and various bank societies and organization were createdPetroleum industry in Azerbaijan – Onshore oil fields in Azerbaijan
20. Pilgrim's Rest, Mpumalanga – Pilgrim’s Rest is a small town in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa which is protected as a provincial heritage site. It was the second of the Transvaal gold fields, attracting a rush of prospectors in 1873, alluvial panning eventually gave way to deeper ore mining. In the 1970s the town, not greatly changed, became a tourist destination, the alluvial gold was discovered by prospector Alec Patterson. He panned Pilgrims Creek, as it known, when the nearby MacMac diggings became too crowded. He kept his find a secret, but a gold rush resulted when fellow prospector William Trafford registered his claim with the Gold Commissioner at MacMac. After it was declared a gold field in September 1873. In the 1880s the alluvial gold dwindled and prospectors were attracted to Barbertons newly discovered gold deposits, towards the end of the 19th century claims were bought up and underground mining started by the company known as TGME. The better-funded mining companies started mining the deeper gold-bearing ore, by 1895 several small mining companies amalgamated to form the Transvaal Gold Mining Estates. In 1911 the 2,000 kW Belvedere power station was completed on the Blyde River and it supplied hydro-electric power to Pilgrims Rest and adjacent communities up to 1992. Pilgrims Rest was southern Africas second town with electricity, the first being Kimberley. Pilgrim’s Rest was the location of a mint during the Second Boer War. This mint struck the famous and extremely rare Veld Pond, the most detailed account attributes the grave to a fortune hunter, one Walter Scott, who committed suicide. Scott would have shot his friend Roy Spencer, son of a well to do English banker, after they returned drunk form a party, Scott suspected Spencer of stealing his purse of gold. Scott pursued Spencer and shot him near the church, the site of the present grave yard, the sobered up Scott found his purse in his tent, and committed suicide when he realised what he had done. Scott was then buried in a grave next to that of his friend. Mining was closed down in 1971 and the village was sold to the government as a national museum, Transvaal Gold Minings Estates, currently part of the listed Simmers and Jack, started gold mining again in 1998. The towns original architecture remains largely unchanged since then, because the town was declared a National Monument and it became a provincial heritage site in 1986. On May 15,2004, the site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List in the Cultural category,2016 World Heritage the town has since spiraled down hill with many of the shops closed down and many shops sit with very little or no workPilgrim's Rest, Mpumalanga – Pilgrim's Rest in 1998
21. Wool – Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids. Wool has several qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur, it is crimped, Wool is produced by follicles which are small cells located in the skin. These follicles are located in the layer of the skin called the epidermis. Follicles can be classed as primary or secondary follicles. Primary follicles produce three types of fiber, Kemp, medullated fibers and true wool fibers, secondary follicles only produce true wool fibers. Medullated fibers share nearly identical characteristics to hair and are long but lack crimp, Kemp fibers are very coarse and shed out. Wools scaling and crimp make it easier to spin the fleece by helping the individual fibers attach to each other, because of the crimp, wool fabrics have greater bulk than other textiles, and they hold air, which causes the fabric to retain heat. Wool has a specific heat coefficient, so it impedes heat transfer in general. This effect has benefited desert peoples, as Bedouins and Tuaregs use wool clothes for insulation, felting of wool occurs upon hammering or other mechanical agitation as the microscopic barbs on the surface of wool fibers hook together. The amount of crimp corresponds to the fineness of the wool fibers, a fine wool like Merino may have up to 100 crimps per inch, while coarser wool like karakul may have as few as one or two. In contrast, hair has little if any scale and no crimp, on sheep, the hair part of the fleece is called kemp. Wool fibers readily absorb moisture, but are not hollow, Wool can absorb almost one-third of its own weight in water. Wool absorbs sound like many other fabrics and it is generally a creamy white color, although some breeds of sheep produce natural colors, such as black, brown, silver, and random mixes. Wool ignites at a higher temperature than cotton and some synthetic fibers, Wool carpets are specified for high safety environments, such as trains and aircraft. Wool is usually specified for garments for firefighters, soldiers, Wool is considered by the medical profession to be allergenic. Sheep shearing is the process by which the fleece of a sheep is cut off. After shearing, the wool is separated into four categories, fleece, broken, bellies. In Australia before being auctioned, all Merino fleece wool is objectively measured for micron, yield, staple length, staple strength, the sheep is given a dip in antiseptic solution after shearing, so as to cure the wounds caused during shearingWool – Wool just before processing
22. Mutton – Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep at different ages. A sheep in its first year is called a lamb, the meat of a juvenile sheep older than one year is hogget, outside North America this is also a term for the living animal. The meat of a sheep is mutton, a term only used for the meat. The term mutton is almost always used to refer to meat in the Indian subcontinent. Lamb is the most expensive of the three types, and in recent decades sheep meat is increasingly only retailed as lamb, sometimes stretching the accepted distinctions given above. The stronger-tasting mutton is now hard to find in many areas, in Australia, the term prime lamb is often used to refer to lambs raised for meat. The definitions for lamb, hogget and mutton vary considerably between countries, younger lambs are smaller and more tender. Mutton is meat from a sheep over two old, and has less tender flesh. In general, the darker the colour, the older the animal, baby lamb meat will be pale pink, while regular lamb is pinkish-red. Lamb — a young sheep under 12 months of age which does not have any permanent incisor teeth in wear, hogget — A term for a sheep of either sex having no more than two permanent incisors in wear, or its meat. Still common in farming usage, it is now rare as a domestic or retail term for the meat, Much of the lamb sold in the UK is hogget to an Antipodean farmer. Mutton — a female or castrated male sheep having more than two permanent incisors in wear, under United States law, lamb is defined in terms of mutton, The term lamb means meat, other than mutton, produced from sheep. Under current federal regulations, only the lamb is used, Lamb — ovine animals of any age, including ewes and rams The terms mutton. Nevertheless, the use of lamb in the United States may be confusing. Under the previous definition, lamb meant meat, other than mutton, the term mutton is applied to goat meat in most of these countries, and the goat population has been rising. For example, mutton-curry is always made from goat meat and it is estimated that over one-third of the goat population is slaughtered every year and sold as mutton. The flavour and texture of milk-fed lamb when grilled or roasted is generally thought to be finer than that of older lamb, the areas in northern Spain where this can be found include Asturias, Cantabria, Castile and León, and La Rioja. Milk-fed lambs are prized for Easter in Greece, when they are roasted on a spitMutton – Lamb
23. Patagonia – Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile. The region comprises the section of the Andes mountains as well as the deserts, steppes. Patagonia has two coasts, a western one towards the Pacific Ocean and an eastern one towards the Atlantic Ocean, the Colorado and Barrancas rivers, which run from the Andes to the Atlantic, are commonly considered the northern limit of Argentine Patagonia. The archipelago of Tierra del Fuego is sometimes included as part of Patagonia, most geographers and historians locate the northern limit of Chilean Patagonia at Reloncaví Estuary. The name Patagonia comes from the word used by Magellan in 1520 to describe the native people that his expedition thought to be giants. It is now believed that the people he called the Patagons were Tehuelches, the hypothesis was accepted and published in the New Review of Spanish Philology in the 2011 article. In the hollows of the plains are ponds or lakes of fresh and brackish water, towards the Andes, the shingle gives place to porphyry, granite, and basalt lavas, animal life becomes more abundant and vegetation more luxuriant. It is characteristic of the flora of the western coast, and consist principally of southern beech and conifers. Among the depressions by which the plateau is intersected transversely, the ones are the Gualichu, south of the Río Negro, the Maquinchao and Valcheta, the Senguerr. There, erosion which is caused principally by the sudden melting, best in evidence where in contact with folded Cretaceous rocks which are uplifted by the Cenozoic granite. It generally separates the plateau from the first lofty hills, the ridges generally called the pre-Cordillera, to the west of these, a similar longitudinal depression extends all along the foot of the snowy Andean Cordillera. This latter depression contains the richest and most fertile land of Patagonia, Lake basins along the Cordillera were also excavated by ice-streams, including Lake Argentino and Lake Fagnano, as well as coastal bays such as Bahía Inútil. There have been discrepancies among geologists on the origin of the Patagonian landmass, víctor Ramos has proposed that the Patagonian landmass originated as an allochtonous terrane that separated from Antarctica and docked in South America 250 to 270 Ma in the Permian era. A2014 study by Robert John Pankhurst and coworkers reject any idea of a far-travelled Patagonia claiming it is likely of parautochtonous origin, the Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits have revealed a most interesting vertebrate fauna. The Patagonian Myolania belongs to the Upper Chalk, having been associated with remains of Dinosauria. In the Cenozoic marine formation, a number of cetaceans has been discovered. At a state level, Patagonia lies inside two countries, Chile and Argentina, both countries have organised their Patagonian territories into non-equivalent administrative subdivisions, Provinces and departments in Argentina, and regions, provinces and communes in Chile. Being a unitary state Chiles first level administrative divisions—the regions—enjoy far less autonomy than Argentine provinces, Argentine provinces have elected governors and parliaments, while Chilean regions have government-appointed intendantsPatagonia – Patagonia
24. Cripple Creek, Colorado – The City of Cripple Creek is the Statutory City that is the county seat of Teller County, Colorado, United States. The city population was 1,189 at the 2010 United States Census, Cripple Creek is a former gold mining camp located 44 miles southwest of Colorado Springs near the base of Pikes Peak. The Cripple Creek Historic District, which received National Historic Landmark status in 1961, includes part or all of city, the city is now a part of the Colorado Springs, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area. For many years Cripple Creeks high valley, at an elevation of 9,494 feet, was considered no more important than a cattle pasture, many prospectors avoided the area after the Mount Pisgah hoax, a mini gold rush caused by salting. On the 20th of October,1890, Robert Miller Bob Womack discovered a rich ore, thousands of prospectors flocked to the region, and before long Winfield Scott Stratton located the famous Independence lode, one of the largest gold strikes in history. In three years, the population increased from five hundred to ten thousand by 1893, although $500 million worth of gold ore was dug from Cripple Creek, Womack died penniless on 10 August 1909. In 1896 Cripple Creek suffered two disastrous fires, the first occurred on April 25 destroying half of the city including much of the business district. Four days later another fire destroyed much of the remaining half, the city was rebuilt in a period of a few months, most historic buildings today date back to 1896. By 1900, Cripple Creek and its city, Victor, were substantial mining communities. During the 1890s, many of the miners in the Cripple Creek area joined a miners union, the Western Federation of Miners. By 1903, the allegiance of the government had shifted. The WFM strike of 1903 and the governors response precipitated the Colorado Labor Wars, through 2005, the Cripple Creek district produced about 23.5 million troy ounces of gold. The underground mines are mostly idle, except for a few small operations, there are significant underground deposits remaining which may become feasible to mine in the future. The current mining operation is conducted by Cripple Creek and Victor Gold Mining Company ran currently by Newmont Mining, the mine operates 24 hours a day,365 days a year. Mine operations, maintenance, and processing departments work a rotating day/night schedule in 12-hour shifts, with many empty storefronts and picturesque homes, Cripple Creek once drew interest as a ghost town. At one point the population dropped to a few hundred, although Cripple Creek was never entirely deserted, in the 1970s and 1980s travelers on photo safari might find themselves in a beautiful decaying historic town. A few restaurants and bars catered to tourists who could pass weathered empty homes with lace curtains hanging in broken windows, Colorado voters allowed Cripple Creek to establish legalized gambling in 1991. Cripple Creek is currently more of a gambling and tourist town than a ghost town, casinos now occupy many historic buildingsCripple Creek, Colorado – Entering Cripple Creek
25. Bodie, California – Bodie is a ghost town in the Bodie Hills east of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Mono County, California, United States, about 75 miles southeast of Lake Tahoe. It is located 12 mi east-southeast of Bridgeport, at an elevation of 8379 feet, as Bodie Historic District, the U. S. Department of the Interior recognizes it as a National Historic Landmark. Also registered as a California Historical Landmark, the ghost town officially became Bodie State Historic Park in 1962, since 2012, Bodie has been administered by the Bodie Foundation, which uses the tagline Protecting Bodies Future by Preserving Its Past. Bodie began as a camp of little note following the discovery of gold in 1859 by a group of prospectors. Bodey perished in a blizzard the following November while making a trip to Monoville. Gold discovered at Bodie coincided with the discovery of silver at nearby Aurora, but while these two towns boomed, interest in Bodie remained lackluster. By 1868 only two companies had built stamp mills at Bodie, and both had failed, rich discoveries in the adjacent Bodie Mine during 1878 attracted even more hopeful people. By 1879, Bodie had a population of approximately 5, 000–7,000 people, one idea maintains that in 1880, Bodie was Californias second or third largest city, but the U. S. Census of that year disproves the popular tale. Over the years, Bodies mines produced gold valued at nearly US$34 million, Bodie boomed from late 1877 through mid– to late 1880. The first newspaper, The Standard Pioneer Journal of Mono County and it started out as a weekly, but soon became a thrice-weekly paper. It was also during this time that a line was built which connected Bodie with Bridgeport and Genoa. California and Nevada newspapers predicted Bodie would become the next Comstock Lode, men from both states were lured to Bodie by the prospect of another bonanza. Gold bullion from the towns nine stamp mills was shipped to Carson City, Nevada, by way of Aurora, Wellington, most shipments were accompanied by armed guards. After the bullion reached Carson City, it was delivered to the mint there, at its peak,65 saloons lined Main Street, which was a mile long. Murders, shootouts, barroom brawls, and stagecoach holdups were regular occurrences, as with other remote mining towns, Bodie had a popular, though clandestine, red light district on the north end of town. She is credited with giving life-saving care to many, but was buried outside the cemetery fence. Bodie had a Chinatown, the street of which ran at a right angle to Bodies Main Street, with several hundred Chinese residents at one point. Opium dens were plentiful in this area, the cemetery includes a Miners Union section, and includes a cenotaph to President James A. GarfieldBodie, California – Bodie
26. Rubber – Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water. Malaysia and Indonesia are two of the leading rubber producers, forms of polyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Currently, rubber is harvested mainly in the form of the latex from the tree or others. The latex is a sticky, milky colloid drawn off by making incisions in the bark, the latex then is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. In major areas, latex is allowed to coagulate in the collection cup, the coagulated lumps are collected and processed into dry forms for marketing. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products, either alone or in combination with other materials, in most of its useful forms, it has a large stretch ratio and high resilience, and is extremely waterproof. The major commercial source of rubber latex is the Pará rubber tree. This species is preferred because it grows well under cultivation, a properly managed tree responds to wounding by producing more latex for several years. Congo rubber, formerly a source of rubber, came from vines in the genus Landolphia. These cannot be cultivated, and the drive to collect latex from wild plants was responsible for many of the atrocities committed under the Congo Free State. The latex exhibits the quality as the natural rubber from rubber trees. In the wild types of dandelion, latex content is low, in Nazi Germany, research projects tried to use dandelions as a base for rubber production, but failed. In collaboration with Continental Tires, IME began a pilot facility, many other plants produce forms of latex rich in isoprene polymers, though not all produce usable forms of polymer as easily as the Pará. Some of them require more processing to produce anything like usable rubber. Some produce other desirable materials, for example gutta-percha and chicle from Manilkara species, the term gum rubber is sometimes applied to the tree-obtained version of natural rubber in order to distinguish it from the synthetic version. The first use of rubber was by the cultures of Mesoamerica. The earliest archeological evidence of the use of latex from the Hevea tree comes the Olmec culture. The Pará rubber tree is indigenous to South America, charles Marie de La Condamine is credited with introducing samples of rubber to the Académie Royale des Sciences of France in 1736Rubber – Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree, Cameroon.
27. Amazon basin – The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. The Amazon drainage basin covers an area of about 7,500,000 km2 and it is located in the countries of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. Most of the basin is covered by the Amazon Rainforest, also known as Amazonia, with a 5,500,000 km2 area of dense tropical forest, this is the largest rainforest in the world. The Amazon River rises in the Andes Mountains at the west of the basin with its tributary the Marañón River in Peru. It is usually considered to be the second longest river in the world, however, a team of Brazilian scientists has claimed that the Amazon is the longest river in the world. It covers about 6,400 km before draining into the Atlantic Ocean, the Amazon and its tributaries form the largest volume of water. The Amazon accounts for about 20% of the water carried to the oceans by rivers. Some of the Amazon rainforests are deforested because of the increasing of cattle ranches, the highest point in the watershed of the Amazon is the peak of Yerupajá at 6,635 m. The Amazon basin formerly flowed west to Pacific Ocean until the Andes formed, politically the basin is divided into the Brazilian Amazônia Legal, the Peruvian Amazon, the Amazon region of Colombia and parts of Bolivia, Ecuador and the Venezuelan state of Amazonas. Plant growth is dense and its variety of inhabitants is comparatively high due to the heavy rainfall. Little sunlight reaches the ground due to the roof canopy by plants. The ground remains dark and damp and only shade tolerant vegetation will grow here, orchids and bromeliads exploit trees and other plants to get closer to the sunlight. They grow hanging onto the branches or tree trunks with aerial roots, not as parasites, species of tropical trees native to the Amazon include Brazil nut, rubber tree and Assai palm. More than 1,400 species of mammals are found in the Amazon and its larger mammals include the jaguar, ocelot, capybara and South American tapir. About 1500 bird species inhabit the Amazon Basin, the biodiversity of the Amazon and the sheer number of diverse bird species is given by the number of different bird families that reside in these humid forests. An example of such would be the family, to which the Guianan cock-of-the-rock belong. Birds such as toucans, and hummingbirds are found here. Macaws are famous for gathering by the hundreds along the cliffs of the Amazon RiverAmazon basin – Aerial view of part of the Amazon rainforest.
28. Petroleum industry in Ohio – The petroleum industry in Ohio dates from 1859. Ohio continues to produce significant quantities of oil and gas, having produced more than 1 billion barrels of oil and 9 trillion cubic feet of gas since 1860. Unconventional resources, primarily in eastern Ohio, are likely to increase production in Ohio, in late 1859, blacksmith William Jeffrey drilled the first well in Ohio specifically intended to produce petroleum. This well is located in Mecca Township, Trumbull County, northeast of Warren, in 1860, similar activity occurred in Macksburg. Oil production climbed year after year, especially after major oil, from Toledo to Lima and into Indiana, the Bowling Green Fault fractured the Trenton Formation limestone, in which hydrocarbons were trapped by overlying rock. In 1891, the likely first overwater drilling operations in the world occurred in Grand Lake, between 1895 and 1903, Ohio was the leading producer of crude oil in the country and thereafter was surpassed by Texas and Oklahoma. The Trenton limetone produced more than 380 million barrels of oil and 2 trillion cubic feet of gas, large scale production of oil continued into the 1930s. Due to inefficient early drilling techniques, the oil fields rapidly lost pressure, during this period, many towns in Ohio experienced rapid boom-to-bust cycles. The usefulness of natural gas was not discovered until the 1880s, up until then, it was considered a “nuisance. ”Findlay was “the gas capital of Ohio in late 1885. ”For example, in Findlay, the first commercial natural gas well began producing in 1884. In 1886, the productive Karg Well and other wells resulted in so much gas being flared that Findlay was known as the City of Light and free fuel and light attracted many industries, by 1888, Findlay was one of the largest glass production centers. The gas was assumed to be inexhaustible, by 1890, gas output began to decline. But Ohio production climbed rapidly, and in 1895 Ohio became Americas leading oil-producing state, Ohio oil production peaked in 1896 at 24 million barrels, but Ohio continued as the leading oil state until 1902, when that title was taken by Oklahoma. Production during mid and late 1900s In northwest Ohio, the production of oil was relatively new, the lack of knowledge about the field of industry led to poor management. In turn, it led to waste during production, resulting in the end of the periods “oil boom. ”Although production significantly dropped with reservoir pressure, oil. More than 220,000 wells have been drilled in 67 of Ohios 88 counties and these wells have produced more than 1 billion barrels of oil and 9 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. Much of the gas production has occurred in the formations of eastern Ohio. In 1814, oil was marketed as “cure-all” medicine. It was dug out of salt wells in southeast OhioPetroleum industry in Ohio – Cygnet, Ohio, in Wood County was a booming oil town with 13 saloons and many workers when this photo was taken in 1885.
29. Northwest Ohio – Northwest or northwestern Ohio consists of multiple counties in the northwestern corner of the United States state of Ohio. This area borders Lake Erie, southern Michigan, and eastern Indiana, some areas in northwestern Ohio are also considered the Black Swamp area. The Toledo metropolitan area is part of the region. Just like any other region, there is no universally agreed-upon boundary for northwestern Ohio, the areas population in the year 2000 was 1,639,144. The area is declining in population, specifically in the northern regions, southern areas such as Marion and Morrow counties as well as the city of Findlay are growing. The city of Toledo serves as the city for the region of Northwest Ohio. Most of the television channels and radio stations are licensed in either Toledo. Though Toledo is a city, the region is primarily agriculture with relatively small centers of commerce in various locations. In recent years, Lucas County has seen a decline in population since 1970, whereas neighboring Wood County and Hancock County have experienced modest, yet steady. Many of the cities, townships, and villages in northwest Ohio are clustered in the Toledo MSA, the counties of Defiance, Fulton, Henry, Paulding, Putnam, Van Wert, and Williams in the state of Ohio are usually classified as extreme northwest Ohio. According to the 2000 Census, the population of this portion of NW Ohio is 234,660, when Allen and Hancock counties are included, the population is 414,428. Just like any other region, there is no universally agreed-upon line for northwestern Ohio, Toledo Express Airport, in suburban Swanton, is the largest airport in northwest Ohio. Toledo Express is served by seven major passenger airlines, and has named one of the five best small airports in the Midwest. Toledo Express is also an air cargo center, serving as the international hub for BAX Global. Toledo Express also hosts the corporate departments of Owens-Illinois, Owens-Corning, Pilkington. Grand Aire Express offers charter and air services from its base at the airport. Additionally, Toledo Express is a base for F-16 fighter jets of the Ohio Air National Guard, detroit Metro is a fortress hub for Delta Air Lines and offers both domestic and international flights. Cleveland Hopkins is a hub for United Airlines and offers domestic and international flightsNorthwest Ohio – Skyline of Toledo, the largest city in Northwest Ohio
30. Tierra del Fuego gold rush – Between 1883 and 1906 Tierra del Fuego experienced a gold rush attracting a large number of Chileans, Argentines and Europeans to the archipelago, including a large number of Dalmatians. The gold rush led to the formation of the first towns in the archipelago, after the goldrush was over most gold diggers left the archipelago, while the remaining settlers engaged in sheep farming and fishing. Indigenous Selknam populations declined sharply during the rush, in 1879 an expedition led by Chilean Navy officer Ramón Serrano Montaner discovered gold in some watercourses of western Tierra del Fuego. However the gold rush was triggered only in 1884 and that year the French steamship Arctique ran aground on the northern coast of Cape Virgenes. An expedition sent for its rescue discovered gold in a place called Zanja a Pique, when news reached Punta Arenas many inhabitants left for Zanja a Pique. From Punta Arenas the news then reached Buenos Aires, in Buenos Aires the press portrayed the gold findings comparing it to the rushes of Australia and California. In that city many companies were formed for the purpose of extracting gold, julio Popper, a mining engineer, was contracted by one of these companies in Buenos Aires. Popper then proceeded to recruit a number of Dalmatians from the immigrants that lived in Buenos Aires those years. With these workers Popper set out to exploit the findings of El Páramo in San Sebastián Bay, another camp was established in Sloggett Bay at the southern coast of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. The gold rush reached the Chilean islands south of Beagle Channel so that by 1893 over thousand men, most of them Dalmatians, however, by 1894 gold extraction begun to decline in these islands and deposits became gradually depleted. A number of enterprises formed in the 1900s to extract gold from the south of Beagle Channel ended with meager results. During his work in Tierra del Fuego Popper was involved in the killings of native Selknam, around the island gold diggers, sheep herders and even police are reported to have assaulted Indian camps to acquire their women. This created even a shortage of women among Fuegian tribes, the capture and control of women in the main island worsened conflicts between rival groups. There are also reports of trade of women during deals between men, by 1894 Porvenir consisted of five houses, two of them liquor stores and a third one a brothel. The Dalmatians involved in the gold rush gradually left mining activities either to return to Dalmatia or Buenos Aires or establish themselves in Punta Arenas, the gold rush caused an improvement in the geographical knowledge of the poorly known islands south of Beagle Channel and linked them to Punta Arenas. Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina Chilean silver rush German colonization of Valdivia, Osorno and LlanquihueTierra del Fuego gold rush – 5-gram gold coin from Tierra del Fuego by Julius Popper.
31. Tierra del Fuego – Tierra del Fuego is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan. The archipelago consists of the island, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, with an area of 48,100 km2. Tierra del Fuego is divided between Chile and Argentina, with the controlling the eastern half of the main island. The southernmost extent of the archipelago is at about latitude 55 S, the earliest known human settlement in Tierra del Fuego dates to around 8,000 B. C. Europeans first explored the islands during Ferdinand Magellans expedition of 1520, Tierra del Fuego, today, petroleum extraction dominates economic activity in the north of Tierra del Fuego, while tourism, manufacturing, and Antarctic logistics are important in the south. The earliest human settlement occurred around 8,000 B. C, the Yaghan were some of the earliest known humans to settle in Tierra del Fuego. Archeological sites with characteristics of their culture have found at locations such as Navarino Island. The name Tierra del Fuego derives from the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, sailing for the Spanish Crown and he believed he was seeing the many fires of the Yaghan, which were visible from the sea, and that the Indians were waiting in the forests to ambush his armada. In 1525 Francisco de Hoces was the first to speculate that Tierra del Fuego was one or more islands rather than part of what was then called Terra Australis, francis Drake in 1578 and a Dutch VOC expedition in 1616 learned more about the geography. The latter expedition named Cape Horn, on his first voyage with the HMS Beagle in 1830, Robert FitzRoy picked up four native Fuegians, including Jemmy Button and brought them to England. The surviving three were taken to London to meet the King and Queen and were, for a time and they returned to Tierra del Fuego in the Beagle with FitzRoy and Charles Darwin, who made extensive notes about his visit to the islands. During the second half of the 19th century, the archipelago began to come under Chilean, both countries sought to claim the whole archipelago based on de jure Spanish colonial titles. Salesian Catholic missions were established in Río Grande and Dawson Island, anglican missions were established by British colonists at Keppel Island in the Falklands in 1855 and in 1870 at Ushuaia on the main island, which continued to operate through the 19th century. Thomas Bridges learned the language and compiled a 30, 000-word Yaghan grammar and it was published in the 20th century and considered an important ethnological work. An 1879 Chilean expedition led by Ramón Serrano Montaner reported large amounts of gold in the streams. This prompted massive immigration to the island between 1883 and 1909. Numerous Argentines, Chileans and Croatians settled in the main island, julius Popper, a Romanian explorer, was one of the most successful entrepreneurs in the region. Granted rights by the Argentine government to exploit any gold deposits he found in Tierra del Fuego, despite the missionaries efforts, many natives diedTierra del Fuego – Tierra del Fuego archipelago in the bottom half of the image
32. Klondike Gold Rush – The Klondike Gold Rush was a migration by an estimated 100,000 prospectors to the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1896 and 1899. Gold was discovered there by miners on August 16,1896 and. Some became wealthy, but the majority went in vain and it has been immortalized in photographs, books, films, and artifacts. To reach the fields most took the route through the ports of Dyea. Here, the Klondikers could follow either the Chilkoot or the White Pass trails to the Yukon River, each of them was required to bring a years supply of food by the Canadian authorities in order to prevent starvation. In all, their equipment weighed close to a ton, which for most had to be carried in stages by themselves, together with mountainous terrain and cold climate this meant that those who persisted did not arrive until summer 1898. Once there, they found few opportunities and many left disappointed, mining was challenging as the ore was distributed in an uneven manner and digging was made slow by permafrost. As a result, some chose to buy and sell claims, building up huge investments. To accommodate the prospectors, boom towns sprang up along the routes and at their end Dawson City was founded at the confluence of the Klondike, from a population of 500 in 1896, the town grew to house around 30,000 people by summer 1898. Built of wood, isolated and unsanitary, Dawson suffered from fires, high prices, despite this, the wealthiest prospectors spent extravagantly gambling and drinking in the saloons. The Native Hän people, on the hand, suffered from the rush, being moved into a reserve to make way for the stampeders. From 1898, the newspapers that had encouraged so many to travel to the Klondike lost interest in it. In the summer of 1899, gold was discovered around Nome in west Alaska, the boom towns declined and the population of Dawson City fell. Gold mining activity lasted until 1903 when production peaked after heavier equipment was brought in, since then the Klondike has been mined on and off, and today the legacy draws tourists to the region and contributes to its prosperity. The indigenous peoples in north-west America had traded in copper prior to European expansion. Most of the tribes were aware that gold existed in region, in the second half of the 19th century, American prospectors began to spread into the area. Making deals with the Native Tlingit and Tagish tribes, the early prospectors opened the important routes of Chilkoot and White Pass, here, they encountered the Hän people, semi-nomadic hunters and fishermen who lived along the Yukon and Klondike Rivers. The Hän did not appear to know about the extent of the deposits in the regionKlondike Gold Rush – Prospectors ascending the Chilkoot Pass, 1898
33. Nome, Alaska – Nome is a city in the Nome Census Area in the Unorganized Borough of the U. S. state of Alaska. The city is located on the southern Seward Peninsula coast on Norton Sound of the Bering Sea, according to the 2010 Census, the city population was 3,598. The 2014 population estimate was 3,788, suggesting a slight increase, Nome was incorporated on April 9,1901, and was once the most populous city in Alaska. Nome lies within the region of the Bering Straits Native Corporation, the city of Nome claims to be home to the worlds largest gold pan, although this claim has been disputed by the Canadian city of Quesnel, British Columbia. In the winter of 1925, a diphtheria epidemic raged among Alaska Natives in the Nome area, fierce territory-wide blizzard conditions prevented delivery of a life-saving serum by airplane from Anchorage. A relay of dog sled teams was organized to deliver the serum, the origin of the citys name Nome is debated, there are three theories. The first is that the name was given by Nomes founder, Jafet Lindeberg, within trekking distance of his home in Kvænangen, Norway. Name next to the unnamed cape, the mapmaker misread the annotation as C. Nome, or Cape Nome, and used that name on his own chart, the third proposed origin of the name is from a misunderstanding of the local Inupiaq word for Where at. The United States Post Office in Nome refused to accept the change, fearing a move of the post office to Nome City, a mining camp on the Nome River, the merchants unhappily agreed to change the name of Anvil City back to Nome. Nome is located at 64°30′14″N 165°23′58″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.6 square miles, of which 12.5 square miles is land and 9.1 square miles is water. Nome has a climate, with long, very cold winters. However, conditions in winter and summer are moderated by the citys coastal location, winters are less severe than in the Interior. For example, Fairbanks at a similar parallel quite far inland has much greater temperature swings with both very warm and cold temperatures throughout the year, the coldest month is January, averaging 5. Average highs stay below freezing from late October until late April, and the average first and last dates of freezing lows are August 30 and June 9, respectively, a freeze-free period of 81 days. The warmest month is July, with an average of 52.2 °F, Snow averages 76 inches per season, with the average first and last dates of measurable snowfall being October 4 and May 16, accumulating snow has not been officially observed in July or August. Precipitation is greatest in the months, and averages 16.8 inches per year. The annual average temperature is 27.35 °F, extreme temperatures range from −54 °F on January 27–28,1989 up to 86 °F on June 19,2013 and July 31,1977Nome, Alaska – Steadman Street facing North from Front Street. Nome in May 2002
34. Texas – Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Other major cities include Austin, the second most populous state capital in the U. S. Texas is nicknamed the Lone Star State to signify its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the states struggle for independence from Mexico. The Lone Star can be found on the Texan state flag, the origin of Texass name is from the word Tejas, which means friends in the Caddo language. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10 percent of Texas land area is desert. Most of the centers are located in areas of former prairies, grasslands, forests. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the term six flags over Texas refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas, Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the United States as the 28th state, the states annexation set off a chain of events that caused the Mexican–American War in 1846. A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, after the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. One Texan industry that thrived after the Civil War was cattle, due to its long history as a center of the industry, Texas is associated with the image of the cowboy. The states economic fortunes changed in the early 20th century, when oil discoveries initiated a boom in the state. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy, as of 2010 it shares the top of the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with California at 57. With a growing base of industry, the leads in many industries, including agriculture, petrochemicals, energy, computers and electronics, aerospace. Texas has led the nation in export revenue since 2002 and has the second-highest gross state product. The name Texas, based on the Caddo word tejas meaning friends or allies, was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves, during Spanish colonial rule, the area was officially known as the Nuevo Reino de Filipinas, La Provincia de Texas. Texas is the second largest U. S. state, behind Alaska, though 10 percent larger than France and almost twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Chile, Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers, the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southTexas – Sam Rayburn Reservoir
35. Cobalt, Ontario – W. E. Logan discovered cobalt in 1884 at the future site of the Agaunico Mine, one mile south of Haileybury. The discovery of ore in the subsequent Cobalt silver rush led to the development of the McKinley Darragh, LaRose, Nipissing. In 1904, Willet Miller, on a visit to Mile 104 on the T&NO, along with the Timmins brothers, the Timmins brothers bought the remaining Fred Larose claims and put up some cabins. By 1908, the camp was considered the worlds largest producer of silver, within a few years the area was one of the largest silver producing areas in the world. Speculation over mining stocks on Wall Street in New York City required mounted police to control the crowds, the town was incorporated in 1906. Its population swelled and peaked at 7,000, in 1911, silver production exceeded 30,000,000 ounces. Mining continued until the 1930s, then slowed to a trickle, activity renewed in the 1950s then slowly dropped off, and there are no longer any operating mines in the area. However, one still operates in the area, and exploration for diamonds. The ore in Cobalt was close to surface, which meant that men with limited experience could prospect and begin mining and those who learned their trade in Cobalt moved north, discovering gold in Kirkland Lake and Timmins and further afield in Canada and around the world. The mining in Cobalt was done with the use of wheelbarrows, pickaxes, hand steel, Cobalt suffered two devastating fires in the 20th century. In 1909, a fire in a cafe spread quickly through debris, half the town was destroyed,150 buildings were lost and 3000 residents left homeless. Fire protection at the time was inadequate and firefighters were forced to dynamite buildings to create a firebreak, on a hot and windy Victoria Day in 1977, a discarded cigarette started a fire that destroyed 140 buildings and left over 400 homeless. The Cobalt Silver Kings played in the inaugural 1910 NHA season, Cobalt, Haileybury, and New Liskeard were formerly known as the Tri-Towns. When Haileybury and New Liskeard were amalgamated into the city of Temiskaming Shores in 2004, however, the two municipalities continue to have a close relationship, including the operation of a shared public transit system. Millions of tons of waste rock and mill tailings were dumped on the land. In Cobalt ores, silver was associated with arsenic minerals, little of this arsenic was ever recovered - most of it ended up in the tailings and waste rock. Today this arsenic contaminates surface water in the area and poses risks to the environment, the latest environmental study shows that Cobalt residents are at no risk, that soil test show it is well below safe levels. The Cobalt area is laced with many miles of underground mine workings, as well as surface trenches, pitsCobalt, Ontario – Cobalt
36. Porcupine Gold Rush – The Porcupine Gold Rush was a gold rush that took place in Northern Ontario starting in 1909 and developing fully by 1911. The mines peaked between the 1940s and 50s, but continue to produce gold to this day, although the smaller mines have been consolidated into a small number of larger holdings. By 2001,67 million troy ounces of gold have been mined from the Porcupine area, for comparison, the well-known Klondike Gold Rush produced about 12 million troy ounces. The Porcupine rush, along with the Cobalt Silver Rush and Kirkland Lake Gold Rush, all in the early 20th century, during the late 17th century, explorers and fur traders established outposts in Northern Ontario to capitalize on the fur trade. The Hudsons Bay Company and the North West Company later developed several trading posts along major routes in Northern Ontario, there were hints of gold in the Porcupine Lake area on a number of occasions before the actual rush started. This was of little interest at the time, as the area was almost inaccessible, a University of Toronto geologist, W. Parks, followed up with three surveying runs in 1898,1899, and 1903. These crossed through the main gold-bearing area along what was known as the Back Road which has since been renamed Goldmine Road. On his return to Toronto, he made a comment that I regard the region south of the Porcupine trail as giving promise of reward to the prospector. A major event that led to the rush was the start of the Temiskaming. As it expanded northward it allowed prospectors to support longer surveys deeper into the bush, almost immediately the massive silver deposits in Cobalt were discovered, leading to a silver rush in 1903. This, in turn, filled Northern Ontario with miners, assayers, prospectors, reuben DAigle was the first to explicitly set out for the Porcupine Lake area in hopes of finding gold. DAigle had earlier been a latecomer to the Klondike, arriving after the rush but nevertheless sticking it out. After returning south he enrolled in a course at Queens University. Discovering Parks earlier report, he finished his course at the University, ignoring the new railway, he hooked up with a Métis guide, Billy Moore, and used the Canadian Pacific Railways mainline running along the northeastern edge of Lake Huron to the Mattagami River. They started off by canoe and eventually reached Porcupine Lake, exploring around the area for some time. Although he found gold in numerous quartz outcroppings, the tiny flakes he saw were in stark contrast to the nuggets that could be panned in the Klondike, and he remained unimpressed. Nevertheless, he returned the next summer in 1907 with a party including several experienced prospectors. Several test pits were dug, but none of them seemed terribly promising, bob Mustard, one of the prospectors in the DAigle party, stated Quartz veins in Ontario never pay to workPorcupine Gold Rush – Specimen gold, probably from Pamour Mine.
37. Northern Ontario – Northern Ontario is a primary geographic and administrative region of the Canadian province of Ontario, the other primary region being Southern Ontario. Most of Northern Ontario is situated on the Canadian Shield, a vast rocky plateau, the climate is characterized by extremes of temperature, extremely cold in winter and hot in summer. The principal industries are mining, forestry, and hydroelectricity, for some purposes, Northern Ontario is further subdivided into Northeastern and Northwestern Ontario. When the region is divided in this way, the three westernmost districts constitute Northwestern Ontario and the other districts constitute Northeastern Ontario, Northeastern Ontario contains two thirds of Northern Ontarios population. In the early 20th century, Northern Ontario was often called New Ontario, the provinces boundaries were provisionally expanded northward and westward in 1874, while the Lake of the Woods region remained subject to a boundary dispute between Ontario and Manitoba. This region was established as the District of Patricia, but was merged into the Kenora District in 1927. The Province of Canada began creating districts in sparsely populated Northern Ontario with the establishment of Algoma District. These districts had no function, they were created for the provision of judicial. Nipissing had no seat until 1895. Up until that date, registry office and higher court services were available at Pembroke in Renfrew County, Nipissing Stipendiary Magistrate and land registrar William Doran established his residence at North Bay in 1885. Following the hotly contested district town election in 1895, North Bay earned the right to become the seat in the new Provisional District of Nipissing. After the creation of the province of Ontario in 1867, the first district to be established was Thunder Bay in 1871 which until then had formed part of Algoma District. The Ontario government was reluctant to establish new districts in the north, Ontarios right to Northwestern Ontario was determined by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1884 and confirmed by the Canada Act,1889 of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. By 1899 there were seven districts, Algoma, Manitoulin, Muskoka, Nipissing, Parry Sound, Rainy River. Five more northern districts were created between 1907 and 1922, Cochrane, Kenora, Sudbury, Temiskaming and Patricia, the Patricia District was then merged into the Kenora District in 1927. Districts are too sparsely populated to maintain a county government system, for example, districts have provincially maintained secondary highways instead of county roads. Geographically, the districts in Northern Ontario are Rainy River, Kenora, Thunder Bay, Cochrane, Timiskaming, Algoma, Sudbury, Nipissing andManitoulin. As well, for administrative purposes, the districts of Muskoka, the federal government continues to retain both more southerly districts in the service area of FedNorNorthern Ontario – North Bay is often considered to be the "Gateway" to Northern Ontario
38. Vatukoula – Vatukoula, is a gold mining settlement in Fiji,9 km inland from the Town of Tavua on Viti Levu, the main Fiji island. Vatukoula may be viewed historically as the cradle of the gold mining industry in Fiji. The discovery of gold in the Tavua district is attributed to Baron de Este, some 20 years later, New Zealand prospector Fielding, began a systematic search along the Nasivi river. However, discovery of gold in quantities in 1932 at Vatukoula, is attributed to Scottish prospector Bill Borthwick. A gold rush ensued – pegs denoting claims went up everywhere – from all the Fiji islands, hundreds of people – villagers, shopkeepers, in 1934, a new Mining Ordinance to regulate the fledgling industry was introduced by the British colonial administration. In the same year, the Emperor Gold Mining Company Ltd. established its operations in Vatukoula, followed in 1935 by the Loloma Gold Mines, N. L. and then by Fiji Mines Development Ltd. The Ordinance also gave rise to a Mines Inspectorate, His Majestys Colonial Mines Service recruiting Australian Frank TM White to set up a Mines Department in Suva, by 1939 White initiated a geological survey of Viti Levu, resulting in Fijis first geological survey map, published in 1943. Citing and building on work, the mineralisation of Fiji was systematically reviewed by a successor, Mines Inspector James FA Taylor. Both open-pit and underground mining were carried out in Vatukoula, by 1952, the population of Vatukoula had reached approximately 4,500 people, second largest in the Colony of Fiji. The largest group was indigenous Fijian, while other groups included Pacific Islanders, Indian, Chinese, European, about a third were employed directly in mining. The remainder comprised their dependents, as well as tradespeople, storekeepers, teachers, police, housing at a basic level was available for most employees, emphasising potable water and sanitation. Industrial safety was promoted by the companies, while services were provided in the community. Primary and secondary educational services were supported variously by government, industry, reflecting the culture of British colonialism, all services were of an uneven standard and aligned along racial, cultural and religious lines. The Emperor Mines Limited shut down on 5 December 2006 due to low price of gold and it sold its operations to Westech International, a private company based in Australia which, in turn, sold the mine to River Diamonds Plc, a Chinese company. The severity of their situation is apparent from a Submission to the EGM Closure Negotiating Committee in support of the Vatukoula Communities, the following vignettes from the Submission reveals the anguish felt by community members, I was in tears. Mrs Dominika Lutua, Principal of Goldfields School, describing her reaction when told on 6 December 2006 that the mine would provide no funds to the school beyond the end of January 2007. They have also supported the company through their labour and dedication. The people of Vatukoula should expect immediate and favourable treatment from their Government, the mine re-opened in April 2008 and is currently producing gold, albeit now on a smaller scaleVatukoula – Native tellurium crystal on sylvanite from the Emperor Mine, Vatukoula, Tavua Gold Field (image width 2 mm)
39. Cigar – A cigar is a tightly-rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco leaf, rolled in a series of types and sizes, that is ignited so that its smoke may be drawn into the mouth. The origins of cigar smoking are still unknown, in Guatemala, a ceramic pot dating back to the tenth century features a Mayan smoking tobacco leaves tied together with a string. Sikar, the term for smoking used by the Maya, may have inspired the name cigar, the word cigar originated from the Spanish cigarro, which in turn probably derives from the Mayan sicar. There is also a possible derivation, or at least an influence, from the Spanish cigarra, the English word came into general use in 1730. Explorer Christopher Columbus is generally credited with the introduction of tobacco to Europe, Tobacco was widely diffused among all of the islands of the Caribbean and therefore they again encountered it in Cuba where Columbus and his men had settled. His sailors reported that the Taínos on the island of Cuba smoked a primitive form of cigar, later, the hobby spread to Italy and, after Sir Walter Raleighs voyages to the Americas, to Britain. Smoking became familiar throughout Europe—in pipes in Britain—by the mid-16th century, in 1542, tobacco started to be grown commercially in America, when the Spaniards established the first cigar factory on the island of Cuba. Tobacco was originally thought to have medicinal qualities, but there were some who considered it evil and it was denounced by Philip II of Spain and James I of England. Around 1592, the Spanish galleon San Clemente brought 50 kilograms of seed to the Philippines over the Acapulco-Manila trade route. The seed was then distributed among the Roman Catholic missionaries, where the clerics found excellent climates, in the 19th century, cigar smoking was common, while cigarettes were still comparatively rare. In the early 20th century, Rudyard Kipling wrote his famous smoking poem, the cigar business was an important industry and factories employed many people before mechanized manufacturing of cigars became practical. Other manufacturers followed, and Key West became another important cigar manufacturing center, in 1885, Ybor moved again, buying land near the then-small city of Tampa, Florida and building the largest cigar factory in the world at the time in the new company town of Ybor City. Thousands of Cuban and Spanish tabaqueros came to the area from Key West, Cuba, local output peaked in 1929, when workers in Ybor City and West Tampa rolled over 500,000,000 clear Havana cigars, earning the town the nickname Cigar Capital of the World. In New York, cigars were made by working in their own homes. It was reported that as of 1883, cigars were being manufactured in 127 apartment houses in New York, employing 1,962 families and 7,924 individuals. A state statute banning the practice, passed late that year at the urging of trade unions on the basis that the practice suppressed wages, was ruled unconstitutional less than four months later. The industry, which had relocated to Brooklyn and other places on Long Island while the law was in effect, as of 1905, there were 80,000 cigar-making operations in the United States, most of them small, family-operated shops where cigars were rolled and sold immediately. Boxes of hand-rolled cigars bear the phrase totalmente a mano or hecho a mano and these premium hand-rolled cigars are significantly different from the machine-made cigars sold in packs at drugstores or gas stationsCigar – A semi-airtight cigar storage tube and a double guillotine-style cutter
40. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
41. 2000s commodities boom – There was a sharp down-turn in prices during 2008 and early 2009 as a result of the credit crunch and sovereign debt crisis, but prices began to rise as demand recovered from late 2009 to mid-2010. On 3 March, Libyas National Oil Corp said that output had halved due to the departure of foreign workers. As this happened, Brent Crude surged to a new high of above $116.00 a barrel as supply disruptions and potential for more unrest in the Middle East, thus the price of oil kept rising into the 2010s. The commodities super-cycle peaked in 2011, driven by a combination of demand from emerging nations. Prior to 2002, only 5 to 10 per cent of trading in the market was attributable to investors. Since 200230 per cent of trading is attributable to investors in the market which has caused higher price volatility. The prices of raw materials were depressed and declining from, roughly,1982 until 1998, from the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation-adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under $25/barrel. Since 1968 the price of gold has ranged widely, from a high of $850/oz on 21 January 1980, the analysis of this period is based on the work of Robert Solow and is rooted in macroeconomic theories of trade including the Mundell–Fleming model. One opinion stated that The volatility and interest rates found its way into commodity inputs, hence, in the case of an economic crisis commodities prices follow the trends in exchange rate and its prices decrease in case there are downward trends of diminishing money supply. Foreign exchange impacts commodities prices and so does money supply, the advent of a crisis will pull commodities prices down, a commodity price bubble, known as the 2000s commodities boom, was created following the collapse of the mid-2000s housing bubble. Commodities were seen as a bet after the bubble economy surrounding housing prices had gone from boom to bust in several western nations, including the UK, USA, Ireland, Greece. Still commodity prices have fluctuated outside predictions, the renewed interest in coal by Chinas and Taiwans energy companies and the rise of alternative power sources like wind farms helped modify coal prices over the 2000s. Russia increased production, but the US offset this with production cuts in the late 1990s and mid-2000s, demand for these metals appeared to be increasing as computers and mobile phones became more popular in the mid to late 2000s. Thulium is used in tubes and neodymium is used in high strength/high grade magnets. Molybdenum, rhodium, neodymium and palladium are relatively scarce metals, while manganese and vanadium are, like phosphorus and sulfur, the major metals such as iron, lead and tin are commonplace. Recycling of the aluminum, ferrous metals, copper fractions, gold, palladium and platinum in mobile phones, battery recycling has helped bring down both the nickel and cadmium prices. Sulfuric acid increased in price 3. 5-fold in less than 1 year while producers of sodium hydroxide have declared force majeure due to flooding, precipitating similarly steep price increases. Both a rising population and a sharp decline in food crop production in favour of a sharp rise in biofuel crops helped cause a sharp rise in basic food stock prices2000s commodities boom – A Neodymium magnet on a bracket from a hard drive.
42. Uranium bubble of 2007 – The uranium bubble of 2007 was a period of nearly exponential growth in the price of natural uranium, starting in 2005 and peaking at roughly $300/kg in mid-2007. This coincided with significant rises of stock price of uranium mining, after mid-2007, the price began to fall again and at end 2010 was relatively stable at around $100/kg. The upward trend for the prices of uranium was already apparent since 2003 and this prompted increases in mining activity. A possible direct cause for the bubble is the flooding of the Cigar Lake Mine, Saskatchewan and this created uncertainty about short-term future of the uranium supply. Other factors are speculation triggered by growing expectations around India and Chinas nuclear programs, however, the sharp fall in prices after mid-2007 caused a lot of new companies focused on exploration and mining to lose their viability and go out of business. Due to increased prospecting, known and inferred reserves of uranium have increased by 15% between 2005 and 2007, 2000s commodities boom Uranium Participation CorporationUranium bubble of 2007 – Monthly uranium spot price in USD per pound from 1980 to 2011. The 2007 price peak is clearly visible.
43. North Dakota oil boom – Despite the Great Recession, the oil boom resulted in enough jobs to provide North Dakota with the lowest unemployment rate in the United States. The boom has given North Dakota, a state with a 2013 population of about 725,000, a billion-dollar budget surplus. North Dakota, which ranked 38th in per capita gross domestic product in 2001, rose steadily with the Bakken boom, expiring leases result in a push to commence drilling and production on as many as possible before they expire. By 2012, income from oil royalties was reportedly paying many local mineral owners $50,000 to $60,000 per month, and some more than $100,000 per month. Bruce Gjovig, head of the UND Center for Innovation Foundation in Grand Forks, the average income in Mountrail County has more than doubled since the boom started, to $52,027 in 2010, putting it into the top 100 richest counties in the United States. The oil boom reduced unemployment in North Dakota to 3.5 percent in December 2011, the number of actively-drilling rigs in North Dakota peaked at 217 rigs in Spring 2012, with the rig count averaging 180-190 throughout 2013. Each of the rigs is estimated to create roughly 125 new full-time jobs and this means a total growth of around 25,000 jobs, including an extra 10,000 jobs for workers who lay pipes to producing wells and produce processing plants. Some estimates predict that North Dakota could have as many as 48,000 new wells, the Bakken boom has propelled North Dakota into the top ranks of oil-producing states. As recently as 2007, North Dakota ranked 8th among the states in oil production, in 2008, the state overtook Wyoming and New Mexico, in 2009 it outproduced Louisiana and Oklahoma. North Dakota surpassed California in oil production in December 2011, then in March 2012 overtook Alaska, the North Dakota state government receives through severance taxes 11.5 percent of the gross value of all oil produced. The boom has given the state of North Dakota a billion-dollar budget surplus, in addition to severance taxes, the state of North Dakota owns extensive mineral rights, which are leased by competitive bidding. In fiscal year 2010, the State Land Department reported that income on its land earned $265 million for the North Dakota school trust fund. The federal government is also an owner of mineral rights in the region. In a January 2013 federal lease sale, the top bid was $19,500 per acre for a lease on one tract in North Dakota. Of the lease sale and royalties from the tracts, the federal government keeps 52 percent. The industrialization and population boom has put a strain on roads, water supplies, sewage systems, some counties have increased in population by almost double from 20,000 to 40,000. The boom has brought with it increases in crime and social problems, the addition of thousands of oil workers has led to a housing shortage, requiring the construction of camps for housing them. Law enforcement agencies have reported increases in offenses, particularly violent crime, drug trafficking, gun crimesNorth Dakota oil boom – Night view of H&P drilling the Bakken.
44. Barley – Barley, a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains, particularly in Eurasia as early as 10,000 years ago, Barley has been used as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods. It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures, Barley grains are commonly made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation. In 2014, barley was ranked fourth among grains in quantity produced behind corn, rice, the Old English word for barley was bære, which traces back to Proto-Indo-European and is cognate to the Latin word farina flour. The direct ancestor of modern English barley in Old English was the derived adjective bærlic, the first citation of the form bærlic in the Oxford English Dictionary dates to around 966 CE, in the compound word bærlic-croft. The underived word bære survives in the north of Scotland as bere, the word barn, which originally meant barley-house, is also rooted in these words. Barley is a member of the grass family and it is a self-pollinating, diploid species with 14 chromosomes. The wild ancestor of domesticated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp, spontaneum, is abundant in grasslands and woodlands throughout the Fertile Crescent area of Western Asia and northeast Africa, and is abundant in disturbed habitats, roadsides and orchards. Outside this region, the barley is less common and is usually found in disturbed habitats. However, in a study of genome-wide diversity markers, Tibet was found to be a center of domestication of cultivated barley. Wild barley has a spike, upon maturity, the spikelets separate. Domesticated barley has nonshattering spikes, making it easier to harvest the mature ears. The nonshattering condition is caused by a mutation in one of two linked genes known as Bt1 and Bt2, many cultivars possess both mutations. The nonshattering condition is recessive, so varieties of barley that exhibit this condition are homozygous for the mutant allele, spikelets are arranged in triplets which alternate along the rachis. In wild barley, only the central spikelet is fertile, while the two are reduced. This condition is retained in certain cultivars known as two-row barleys, a pair of mutations result in fertile lateral spikelets to produce six-row barleys. Recent genetic studies have revealed that a mutation in one gene, two-row barley has a lower protein content than six-row barley, thus a more fermentable sugar content. High-protein barley is best suited for animal feed, Malting barley is usually lower protein which shows more uniform germination, needs shorter steeping, and has less protein in the extract that can make beer cloudyBarley – Barley
45. Maize – Maize, also known as corn, is a large grain plant first domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The six major types of corn are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, popcorn, flour corn, the leafy stalk of the plant produces separate pollen and ovuliferous inflorescences or ears, which are fruits, yielding kernels or seeds. Maize kernels are used in cooking as a starch. Most historians believe maize was domesticated in the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico, recent research modified this view somewhat, scholars now indicate the adjacent Balsas River Valley of south-central Mexico as the center of domestication. The Olmec and Mayans cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica, cooked and its believed that beginning about 2500 BC, the crop spread through much of the Americas. The region developed a network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Nevertheless, recent data indicates that the spread of maize took place even earlier, according to Piperno, A large corpus of data indicates that it was dispersed into lower Central America by 7600 BP and had moved into the inter-Andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and 6000 BP. Since then, even earlier dates have been published, the study also demonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands. Later, maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths and this is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. Before they were domesticated, maize plants only grew small,25 millimetres long corn cobs, Maize is the most widely grown grain crop throughout the Americas, with 361 million metric tons grown in the United States in 2014. Approximately 40% of the crop—130 million tons—is used for corn ethanol, genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe, Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to maize, cassava, or potatoes. Maize flour could not be substituted for wheat for bread, since in Christian belief only wheat could undergo transubstantiation. At another level, Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, that not only would they weaken, despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize and archeological evidence from Florida sites indicate they cultivated it as well. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates and it was cultivated in Spain just a few decades after Columbuss voyages and then spread to Italy, West Africa and elsewhere. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for the plant and it is known by other names around the world. The word corn outside North America, Australia, and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, corn primarily means maize, this usage started as a shortening of Indian corn. Indian corn primarily means maize, but can more specifically to multicolored flint corn used for decorationMaize – Maize
46. Cottonseed oil – Cottonseed oil is a cooking oil extracted from the seeds of cotton plants of various species, mainly Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium herbaceum, that are grown for cotton fiber, animal feed, and oil. Cotton seed has a structure to other oilseeds such as sunflower seed, having an oil-bearing kernel surrounded by a hard outer hull, in processing. Cottonseed oil is used for oil, mayonnaise, salad dressing. Its fatty acid profile generally consists of 70% unsaturated fatty acids, when it is fully hydrogenated, its profile is 94% saturated fat and 2% unsaturated fatty acids. According to the oil industry, cottonseed oil does not need to be hydrogenated as much as other polyunsaturated oils to achieve similar results. Gossypol is a toxic, yellow, polyphenolic compound produced by cotton and other members of the order Malvaceae and this naturally occurring coloured compound is found in tiny glands in the seed, leaf, stem, tap root bark, and root of the cotton plant. The adaptive function of the compound facilitates natural insect resistance, the three key steps of refining, bleaching, and deodorization in producing finished oil act to eliminate the gossypol level. Ferric chloride is used to decolorize cotton seed oil. Once processed, cottonseed oil has a taste and appears generally clear with a light golden color. It has a high smoke point as a frying medium. Density ranges from 0.917 g/cm3 to 0.933 g/cm3, the by-product of cotton processing, cottonseed was considered virtually worthless before the late 19th century. While cotton production expanded throughout the 17th, 18th, and mid 19th centuries, although some of the seed was used for planting, fertilizer, and animal feed, the majority was left to rot or was illegally dumped into rivers. The increased demand for fats and oils, coupled with a decreasing supply caused prices to rise sharply, consequently, many Europeans could not afford to buy the fats and oils they had used for cooking and for lighting. Many United States entrepreneurs tried to take advantage of the increasing European demand for oils, but separating the seed hull from the seed meat proved difficult and most of these ventures failed within a few years. This problem was resolved in 1857, when William Fee invented a huller, with this new invention, cottonseed oil began to be used for illumination purposes in lamps to supplement increasingly expensive whale oil and lard. But by 1859, this use came to end as the petroleum industry emerged, cottonseed oil then began to be used illegally to fortify animal fats and lards. Initially, meat packers secretly added cottonseed oil to the pure fats, a congressional investigation followed, and legislation was passed that required products fortified with cottonseed oil to be labeled as ‘‘lard compound. ”Similarly, cottonseed oil was often blended with olive oil. Once the practice was exposed, many countries put import tariffs on American olive oil, both of these regulatory schemes depressed cottonseed oil sales and exports, once again creating an oversupply of cottonseed oil, which decreased its valueCottonseed oil – Cotton seeds
47. Flaxseed – Flax, Linum usitatissimum, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae. It is a food and fiber crop cultivated in regions of the world. The textiles made from flax are known in the Western countries as linen, and traditionally used for bed sheets, underclothes, the oil is known as linseed oil. In addition to referring to the plant itself, the word flax may refer to the fibers of the flax plant. The plant species is only as a cultivated plant, and appears to have been domesticated just once from the wild species Linum bienne. Several other species in the genus Linum are similar in appearance to L. usitatissimum, cultivated flax, including some that have similar blue flowers, some of these are perennial plants, unlike L. usitatissimum, which is an annual plant. Cultivated flax plants grow to 1.2 m tall, with slender stems, the leaves are glaucous green, slender lanceolate, 20–40 mm long, and 3 mm broad. The flowers are pale blue, 15–25 mm in diameter. The fruit is a round, dry capsule 5–9 mm in diameter, containing several brown seeds shaped like an apple pip. Flax was first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent region, evidence exists of a domesticated oilseed flax with increased seed size by 9,000 years ago from Tell Ramad in Syria. Use of the crop steadily spread, reaching as far as Switzerland, in China and India, domesticated flax was cultivated also by at least 5,000 years ago. Flax was extensively cultivated in ancient Egypt, where the walls had paintings of flowering flax. Egyptian priests only wore linen, as flax was considered a symbol of purity, phoenicians traded Egyptian linen throughout the Mediterranean, and the Romans used it for their sails. Eventually, Flanders became the center of the linen industry in the European Middle Ages. Since then, flax has lost its importance as a commercial crop, Flax is grown for its oil, used as a nutritional supplement, and as an ingredient in many wood-finishing products. Flax is also grown as a plant in gardens. Flax fibers are used to make linen, the Latin species name usitatissimum means most useful. Flax fibers are taken from the stem of the plant, and are two to three times as strong as those of cotton, additionally, flax fibers are naturally smooth and straightFlaxseed – Flax Linum usitatissimum
48. Lumber – Lumber, or timber is wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber may also refer to currently un-needed furniture, as in Lumber room, or an awkward gait, ultimately derived from the look of unfashionable, Lumber may be supplied either rough-sawn, or surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and it is available in many species, usually hardwoods, but it is also readily available in softwoods, such as white pine and red pine, because of their low cost. Lumber is mainly used for structural purposes but has other uses as well. It is classified more commonly as a softwood than as a hardwood, in Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and Britain, the term timber describes sawn wood products, such as floor boards. In the United States and Canada, generally timber describes standing or felled trees, before they are milled into boards, Timber there also describes sawn lumber not less than 5 inches in its smallest dimension. The latter includes the often partly finished lumber used in timber-frame construction, remanufactured lumber is the result of secondary or tertiary processing/cutting of previously milled lumber. Specifically, it is cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Lumber is cut by ripsaw or resaw to create dimensions that are not usually processed by a primary sawmill, resawing is the splitting of 1-inch through 12-inch hardwood or softwood lumber into two or more thinner pieces of full-length boards. For example, splitting a ten-foot 2×4 into two ten-foot 1×4s is considered resawing, structural lumber may also be produced from recycled plastic and new plastic stock. Its introduction has been opposed by the forestry industry. Blending fiberglass in plastic lumber enhances its strength, durability, logs are converted into timber by being sawn, hewn, or split. Sawing with a rip saw is the most common method, because sawing allows logs of lower quality, with grain and large knots. There are various types of sawing, Plain sawn —A log sawn through without adjusting the position of the log, quarter sawn and rift sawn—These terms have been confused in history but generally mean lumber sawn so the annual rings are reasonably perpendicular to the sides of the lumber. Boxed heart—The pith remains within the piece with some allowance for exposure, heart center—the center core of a log. Free of heart center —A side-cut timber without any pith, free of knots —No knots are present. Dimensional lumber is lumber that is cut to standardized width and depth, carpenters extensively use dimensional lumber in framing wooden buildings. Common sizes include 2×4, 2×6, and 4×4, the length of a board is usually specified separately from the width and depthLumber – Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill
49. Oat – The oat, sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name. While oats are suitable for consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats. The wild ancestor of Avena sativa and the related minor crop. Genetic evidence shows the forms of A. sterilis grew in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East. Domesticated oats appear relatively late, and far from the Near East, oats, like rye, are usually considered a secondary crop, i. e. derived from a weed of the primary cereal domesticates wheat and barley. As these cereals spread westwards into cooler, wetter areas, this may have favored the oat weed component, oats are best grown in temperate regions. Oats are a plant, and can be planted either in autumn or in the spring. Oats have numerous uses in foods, most commonly, they are rolled or crushed into oatmeal, oatmeal is chiefly eaten as porridge, but may also be used in a variety of baked goods, such as oatcakes, oatmeal cookies and oat bread. Oats are also an ingredient in many cold cereals, in particular muesli, historical attitudes towards oats have varied. Oat bread was first manufactured in Britain, where the first oat bread factory was established in 1899, in Scotland, they were, and still are, held in high esteem, as a mainstay of the national diet. In Scotland, a dish was made by soaking the husks from oats for a week, so the fine, floury part of the meal remained as sediment to be strained off, boiled and eaten. Oats are also used there as a thickener in soups. Oats are also used as feed for horses when extra carbohydrates. The oat hull may be crushed for the horse to easily digest the grain. They may be given alone or as part of a food pellet. Cattle are also fed oats, either whole or ground into a coarse flour using a mill, burr mill. Winter oats may be grown as a groundcover and ploughed under in the spring as a green fertilizer. They also can be used for pasture, they can be grazed a while, then allowed to head out for grain production, Oat straw is prized by cattle and horse producers as bedding, due to its soft, relatively dust-free, and absorbent natureOat – Oat
50. Peanut oil – Peanut oil, also known as groundnut oil or arachis oil, is a mild-tasting vegetable oil derived from peanuts. The oil is available with a strong flavor and aroma. It is often used in Chinese, South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine, Peanut oil has a high smoke point relative to many other cooking oils, so is commonly used for frying foods. Its major component fatty acids are oleic acid, linoleic acid, the oil also contains some stearic acid, arachidic acid, behenic acid, lignoceric acid and other fatty acids. Antioxidants such as vitamin E are sometimes added to improve the life of the oil. Shortage of whale oil in the Confederacy made peanut oil an attractive alternative during the Civil War, the oil had increased use in the United States during World War II, because of war shortages of other oils. According to the USDA data upon which the table is based,100 g of peanut oil contains 17.7 g of saturated fat,48.3 g of monounsaturated fat. Most highly refined peanut oils remove the allergens and have been shown to be safe for the vast majority of peanut-allergic individuals. However, cold-pressed peanut oils may not remove the allergens and thus could be dangerous to people with peanut allergy. Since the degree of processing for any product is often unclear. If quality control is neglected, peanuts that contain the mold that produces highly toxic aflatoxin can end up contaminating the oil derived from them, Peanut oil, as with other vegetable oils, can be used to make soap by the process of saponification. The oil is safe for use as a massage oil, Peanut researcher George Washington Carver marketed a peanut massage oil. Some medicines and vitamins use arachis oil as a suspension agent, pics Peanut oil Peanut oil at the Peanut Institute website Peanut oil at WebMDPeanut oil – A bottle of peanut oil, with Vitamin E added as a preservative
51. Potato – The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum. The word potato may refer either to the plant itself or to the edible tuber, in the Andes, where the species is indigenous, there are some other closely related cultivated potato species. Potatoes were introduced to Europe in the half of the 16th century by the Spanish. It is the worlds fourth-largest food crop, following maize, wheat, the green leaves and green skins of tubers exposed to the light are toxic. Wild potato species can be throughout the Americas from the United States to southern Chile. Following centuries of breeding, there are now over a thousand different types of potatoes. However, the importance of the potato is variable and changing rapidly. As of 2007 China led the world in production, and nearly a third of the worlds potatoes were harvested in China. The English word potato comes from Spanish patata, the Spanish Royal Academy says the Spanish word is a compound of the Taíno batata and the Quechua papa. The 16th-century English herbalist John Gerard used the terms bastard potatoes and Virginia potatoes for this species, potatoes are occasionally referred to as Irish potatoes or white potatoes in the United States, to distinguish them from sweet potatoes. The name spud for a small potato comes from the digging of soil prior to the planting of potatoes, the word spud traces back to the 16th century. It subsequently transferred over to a variety of digging tools, around 1845, the name transferred to the tuber itself. It was Mario Peis 1949 The Story of Language that can be blamed for the false origin. Pei writes, the potato, for its part, was in disrepute some centuries ago, some Englishmen who did not fancy potatoes formed a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet. The initials of the words in this title gave rise to spud. Like most other pre-20th century acronymic origins, this is false, Potato plants are herbaceous perennials that grow about 60 cm high, depending on variety, with the leaves dying back after flowering, fruiting and tuber formation. They bear white, pink, red, blue, or purple flowers with yellow stamens, in general, the tubers of varieties with white flowers have white skins, while those of varieties with colored flowers tend to have pinkish skins. Potatoes are mostly cross-pollinated by insects such as bumblebees, which carry pollen from other potato plants, tubers form in response to decreasing day length, although this tendency has been minimized in commercial varietiesPotato – Potato
52. Rye – Rye is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop. It is a member of the tribe and is closely related to barley. Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, crisp bread, some whiskeys, some vodkas and it can also be eaten whole, either as boiled rye berries or by being rolled, similar to rolled oats. Rye is a grain and should not be confused with ryegrass, which is used for lawns, pasture. Rye is one of a number of species grow wild in central and eastern Turkey. It is possible that rye traveled west from Turkey as an admixture in wheat. Since the Middle Ages people have cultivated rye widely in Central and it serves as the main bread cereal in most areas east of the French-German border and north of Hungary. In Southern Europe, it was cultivated on marginal lands, claims of much earlier cultivation of rye, at the Epipalaeolithic site of Tell Abu Hureyra in the Euphrates valley of northern Syria remain controversial. Critics point to inconsistencies in the dates, and identifications based solely on grain. Winter rye is any breed of rye planted in the fall to provide cover for the winter. It grows during warmer days of the winter when sunlight temporarily warms the plant above freezing and it is sometimes used in winter gardens and is a common nurse crop. Rye is grown primarily in Eastern, Central and Northern Europe, the main rye belt stretches from northern Germany through Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania and Latvia into central and northern Russia. Rye is also grown in North America, in South America, in Oceania, in Turkey, in Kazakhstan, production levels of rye have fallen in most of the producing nations, as of 2012. For instance, production of rye in Russia fell from 13.9 million metric tons in 1992 to 2.1 t in 2012, most rye is consumed locally or exported only to neighboring countries, rather than being shipped worldwide. Rye is highly susceptible to the ergot fungus, consumption of ergot-infected rye by humans and animals results in a serious medical condition known as ergotism. Ergotism can cause physical and mental harm, including convulsions, miscarriage, necrosis of digits, hallucinations. Historically, damp northern countries that have depended on rye as a staple crop were subject to epidemics of this condition. There have been occurrence of ergotism with periods where there were incidents of people persecuted for being witchesRye – Rye
53. Natural rubber – Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water. Malaysia and Indonesia are two of the leading rubber producers, forms of polyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Currently, rubber is harvested mainly in the form of the latex from the tree or others. The latex is a sticky, milky colloid drawn off by making incisions in the bark, the latex then is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. In major areas, latex is allowed to coagulate in the collection cup, the coagulated lumps are collected and processed into dry forms for marketing. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products, either alone or in combination with other materials, in most of its useful forms, it has a large stretch ratio and high resilience, and is extremely waterproof. The major commercial source of rubber latex is the Pará rubber tree. This species is preferred because it grows well under cultivation, a properly managed tree responds to wounding by producing more latex for several years. Congo rubber, formerly a source of rubber, came from vines in the genus Landolphia. These cannot be cultivated, and the drive to collect latex from wild plants was responsible for many of the atrocities committed under the Congo Free State. The latex exhibits the quality as the natural rubber from rubber trees. In the wild types of dandelion, latex content is low, in Nazi Germany, research projects tried to use dandelions as a base for rubber production, but failed. In collaboration with Continental Tires, IME began a pilot facility, many other plants produce forms of latex rich in isoprene polymers, though not all produce usable forms of polymer as easily as the Pará. Some of them require more processing to produce anything like usable rubber. Some produce other desirable materials, for example gutta-percha and chicle from Manilkara species, the term gum rubber is sometimes applied to the tree-obtained version of natural rubber in order to distinguish it from the synthetic version. The first use of rubber was by the cultures of Mesoamerica. The earliest archeological evidence of the use of latex from the Hevea tree comes the Olmec culture. The Pará rubber tree is indigenous to South America, charles Marie de La Condamine is credited with introducing samples of rubber to the Académie Royale des Sciences of France in 1736Natural rubber – Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree, Cameroon.
54. Soybean oil – Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean. It is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils, as a drying oil, processed soybean oil is also used as a base for printing inks and oil paints. To produce soybean oil, the soybeans are cracked, adjusted for moisture content, the oil is then refined, blended for different applications, and sometimes hydrogenated. Soybean oils, both liquid and partially hydrogenated are sold as vegetable oil, or are ingredients in a variety of processed foods. Most of the residue is used as animal feed. In the 2002–2003 growing season,30, per 100 g, soybean oil has 16 g of saturated fat,23 g of monounsaturated fat, and 58 g of polyunsaturated fat. The major unsaturated fatty acids in soybean oil triglycerides are the polyunsaturates alpha-linolenic acid, 7-10%, and linoleic acid, 51%, and it also contains the saturated fatty acids stearic acid, 4%, and palmitic acid, 10%. The high-proportion of oxidation-prone linolenic acid is undesirable for some uses, three companies, Monsanto Company, DuPont/Bunge, and Asoyia in 2004 introduced low linolenic Roundup Ready soybeans. Hydrogenation may be used to reduce the unsaturation in linolenic acid, the resulting oil is called hydrogenated soybean oil. If the hydrogenation is only complete, the oil may contain small amounts of trans fat. The carcinogen N‐Nitrosodi-n-butylamine has been measured in soybean oil at a concentration of 290 μg/kg, in cheese at 20 to 30 μg/kg and it has also been detected in tobacco smoke at a concentration of 3 ng per cigarette. Soybean oil is used for frying and baking. It is also used as a condiment for salads, soybean oil is one of many drying oils, which means that it will slowly harden upon exposure to air, forming a flexible, transparent, and waterproof solid. Because of this property, it is used in printing ink. However, other oils may be superior for some drying oil applications, while soybean oil has no direct insect repellent activity, it is used as a fixative to extend the short duration of action of essential oils such as geranium oil in several commercial products. Soybean oil is traded at the Chicago Board of Trade in contracts of 60,000 pounds at a time, prices are listed in cents and hundredths of a cent per poundSoybean oil – General
55. Tea – Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub native to Asia. After water, it is the most widely consumed drink in the world, Tea originated in Southwest China, where it was used as a medicinal drink. It was popularized as a drink during the Chinese Tang dynasty. Portuguese priests and merchants introduced it to Europe during the 16th century, during the 17th century, drinking tea became fashionable among Britons, who started large-scale production and commercialization of the plant in India to bypass the Chinese monopoly. The term herbal tea usually refers to infusions of fruit or herbs made without the tea plant, such as steeps of rosehip, chamomile and these are sometimes called tisanes or herbal infusions to prevent confusion with tea made from the tea plant. The tea industry often uses the term fruit tea to refer to what are in fact fruit-flavored black teas. The Chinese character for tea is 茶, originally written with a stroke as 荼. The word is pronounced differently in the different varieties of Chinese, such as chá in Mandarin, zo and dzo in Wu Chinese, there were other ancient words for tea, though ming is the only other one still in common use. Most Chinese languages, such as Mandarin and Cantonese, pronounce it along the lines of cha and these two pronunciations have made their separate ways into other languages around the world. Starting in the seventeen century, the Dutch played a dominant role in the early European tea trade via the Dutch East India Company. The Dutch borrowed the word for tea from Min Chinese, either through trade directly from Fujian or Formosa where they had established a port, or from Malay traders in Bantam, Java. The Dutch then introduced to other European languages this Min pronunciation for tea, including English tea, French thé, Spanish té and this pronunciation is also the most common form worldwide. The Portuguese adopted the Cantonese pronunciation chá, and spread it to India, the Korean and Japanese pronunciations of cha were borrowed into Korean and Japanese during earlier periods of Chinese history. A third form, the increasingly widespread chai, came from Persian چای chay, both the châ and chây forms are found in Persian dictionaries. English has all three forms, cha or char, attested from the 16th century, tea, from the 17th, however, the form chai refers specifically to a black tea mixed with honey, spices and milk in contemporary English. Tea plants are native to East Asia, and probably originated around the points of the lands of north Burma. Tea drinking may have begun in the Yunnan region during the Shang Dynasty in China, Chinese legends attribute the invention of tea to Shennong in 2737 BC, although evidence suggests that tea drinking may have been introduced from the southwest of China. The earliest written records of tea come from China, in the Chronicles of Huayang, it was recorded that the Ba people in Sichuan presented tu to the Zhou kingTea – Oolong tea being infused in a gaiwan
56. Ambergris – Ambergris, ambergrease or grey amber, is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish colour, produced in the digestive system of sperm whales. Freshly-produced ambergris has a marine, fecal odour, however, as it ages, it acquires a sweet, earthy scent, commonly likened to the fragrance of rubbing alcohol, without the vaporous chemical astringency. Although ambergris used to be highly valued by perfumers as a fixative. The word ambergris comes from the Old French ambre gris or grey amber, the word amber comes from the same source but since the late 13th century in Europe, it has been applied almost exclusively to fossilised tree resins from the Baltic region. Ambergris is formed from a secretion of the duct in the intestines of the sperm whale. It is also found in the abdomens of dead sperm whales. The sperm whale usually vomits these, but if one further down the gut. Ambergris is usually passed in the fecal matter and it is speculated that an ambergris mass too large to be passed through the intestines is expelled via the mouth, leading to the reputation of ambergris as primarily coming from whale vomit. Christopher Kemp, the author of Floating Gold, A Natural History of Ambergris, says that it is produced by sperm whales. Ambergris is rare, once expelled by a whale, it often floats for years before making landfall, the very small chance of finding ambergris, and the legal ambiguity involved led perfume makers away from ambergris. Most commercially collected ambergris comes from the Bahamas in the Caribbean, fossilised ambergris from 1.75 million years ago has also been found. A1. 1-kilogram lump of ambergris, found on a beach at Anglesey, Wales, was sold to a French buyer for £11,000 at an auction in Macclesfield, England, on 25 September 2015. A 13-kilogram piece of ambergris was found by two Omanis, washed up on a beach on the Fooshi shores of Sadah province in southern Oman, Ambergris is found in lumps of various shapes and sizes, usually weighing from 15 g to 50 kg, sometimes more. When initially expelled by or removed from the whale, the fatty precursor of ambergris is pale white in colour, soft and its smell has been generally described as a vastly richer and smoother version of isopropanol without its stinging harshness. In this developed condition, ambergris has a specific gravity ranging from 0.780 to 0.926 and it melts at about 62 °C to a fatty, yellow resinous liquid, and at 100 °C it is volatilised into a white vapour. It is soluble in ether, and in volatile and fixed oils, Ambergris is relatively nonreactive to acid. White crystals of a known as ambrein can be separated from ambergris by heating raw ambergris in alcohol. Breakdown of the relatively scentless ambrein through oxidation produces ambroxan and ambrinol, ambroxan is now produced synthetically and used extensively in the perfume industryAmbergris – Ambergris
57. Bristle – A bristle is a stiff hair or feather, either on an animal, such as a pig, or on a tool such as a brush or broom. Synthetic materials such as nylon are used to make bristles in items such as brooms. Bristles are often used to make brushes for cleaning purposes, as they are strongly abrasive, common examples include the toothbrush, the bristle brush and the scrub brush are common household cleaning tools, often used to remove dirt or grease from pots and pans. Bristles are also used on other than for cleaning, notably paintbrushes. Bristles are distinguished as flagged or unflagged, these are known as flocked or unflocked bristles. In cleaning applications, flagged bristles are suited for dry cleaning, in painting, flagged bristles yield more even application. Bristles are found on pig breeds, instead of fur, because the density is less than with fur, pigs are vulnerable to sunburn. One breed, the Tamworth pig, is endowed with a very dense bristle structure such that sunburn damage to skin is minimized, animals named for their bristles include bristlebirds, the bristle-thighed curlew, the bristle-spined porcupine, and the Trinity bristle snail. Bristles also anchor worms to the soil to help the worm move, hairbrush Types of Bristle Materials Used for BrushesBristle – The bristles of a sweeping brush
58. Butter – Butter is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed. It is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk. It is generally used as a spread on plain or toasted bread products and a condiment on cooked vegetables, as well as in cooking, such as baking, sauce making, Butter consists of butterfat, milk proteins and water, and in some types, added salt. Butter may also be sold with added flavourings, such as garlic butter, most frequently made from cows milk, butter can also be manufactured from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats, buffalo, and yaks. Salt such as salt, flavorings and preservatives are sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter produces clarified butter or ghee, which is almost entirely butterfat, Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion resulting from an inversion of the cream, in a water-in-oil emulsion, the milk proteins are the emulsifiers. Butter remains a solid when refrigerated, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, the density of butter is 911 g/L. It generally has a yellow color, but varies from deep yellow to nearly white. Its unmodified color is dependent on the feed and genetics but is commonly manipulated with food colorings in the commercial manufacturing process. The word butter derives from the Latin butyrum, which is the latinisation of the Greek βούτυρον and this may have been a construction meaning cow-cheese, from βοῦς, ox, cow + τυρός, cheese. Nevertheless, the earliest attested form of the stem, turos, is the Mycenaean Greek tu-ro. The root word persists in the name butyric acid, a found in rancid butter. In general use, the term refers to the spread dairy product when unqualified by other descriptors. The word commonly is used to describe puréed vegetable or seed and nut products such as peanut butter and it is often applied to spread fruit products such as apple butter. Fats such as butter and shea butter that remain solid at room temperature are also known as butters. Unhomogenized milk and cream contain butterfat in microscopic globules and these globules are surrounded by membranes made of phospholipids and proteins, which prevent the fat in milk from pooling together into a single mass. Butter is produced by agitating cream, which damages these membranes and allows the milk fats to conjoin, variations in the production method will create butters with different consistencies, mostly due to the butterfat composition in the finished product. Butter contains fat in three forms, free butterfat, butterfat crystals, and undamaged fat globulesButter – Butter at the Borough Market, London
59. Feather – Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. They are considered the most complex integumentary structures found in vertebrates and they are among the characteristics that distinguish the extant birds from other living groups. Although feathers cover most parts of the body of birds, they arise only from certain well-defined tracts on the skin and they aid in flight, thermal insulation, and waterproofing. In addition, coloration helps in communication and protection, plumology is the name for the science that is associated with the study of feathers. Feathers are among the most complex integumentary appendages found in vertebrates and are formed in tiny follicles in the epidermis, or outer skin layer, that produce keratin proteins. There are two types of feather, vaned feathers which cover the exterior of the body. The pennaceous feathers are vaned feathers, also called contour feathers, pennaceous feathers arise from tracts and cover the entire body. In some passerines, filoplumes arise exposed beyond the contour feathers on the neck, the remiges, or flight feathers of the wing, and rectrices, the flight feathers of the tail are the most important feathers for flight. A typical vaned feather features a main shaft, called the rachis, fused to the rachis are a series of branches, or barbs, the barbs themselves are also branched and form the barbules. These barbules have minute hooks called barbicels for cross-attachment, down feathers are fluffy because they lack barbicels, so the barbules float free of each other, allowing the down to trap air and provide excellent thermal insulation. At the base of the feather, the rachis expands to form the hollow tubular calamus which inserts into a follicle in the skin, the basal part of the calamus is without vanes. This part is embedded within the follicle and has an opening at the base. Hatchling birds of species have a special kind of natal down feathers which are pushed out when the normal feathers emerge. Flight feathers are stiffened so as to work against the air in the downstroke, feathers insulate birds from water and cold temperatures. They may also be plucked to line the nest and provide insulation to the eggs, the individual feathers in the wings and tail play important roles in controlling flight. Some species have a crest of feathers on their heads, although feathers are light, a birds plumage weighs two or three times more than its skeleton, since many bones are hollow and contain air sacs. Color patterns serve as camouflage against predators for birds in their habitats, as with fish, the top and bottom colors may be different, in order to provide camouflage during flight. Striking differences in patterns and colors are part of the sexual dimorphism of many bird species and are particularly important in selection of mating pairsFeather – Feather variations
60. Cattle – Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, cattle are raised as livestock for meat, as dairy animals for milk and other dairy products, and as draft animals. Other products include leather and dung for manure or fuel, in some regions, such as parts of India, cattle have significant religious meaning. From as few as 80 progenitors domesticated in southeast Turkey about 10,500 years ago, according to an estimate from 2011, in 2009, cattle became one of the first livestock animals to have a fully mapped genome. Some consider cattle the oldest form of wealth, and cattle raiding consequently one of the earliest forms of theft. Cattle were originally identified as three species, Bos taurus, the European or taurine cattle, Bos indicus, the zebu, and the extinct Bos primigenius. The aurochs is ancestral to both zebu and taurine cattle and these have been reclassified as one species, Bos taurus, with three subspecies, Bos taurus primigenius, Bos taurus indicus, and Bos taurus taurus. Complicating the matter is the ability of cattle to interbreed with other related species. Hybrid individuals and even breeds exist, not only between taurine cattle and zebu, but also one or both of these and some other members of the genus Bos – yaks, banteng. Hybrids such as the breed can even occur between taurine cattle and either species of bison, leading some authors to consider them part of the genus Bos. However, cattle cannot successfully be hybridized with more distantly related bovines such as water buffalo or African buffalo, the aurochs originally ranged throughout Europe, North Africa, and much of Asia. In historical times, its range became restricted to Europe, breeders have attempted to recreate cattle of similar appearance to aurochs by crossing traditional types of domesticated cattle, creating the Heck cattle breed. Cattle did not originate as the term for bovine animals and it was borrowed from Anglo-Norman catel, itself from medieval Latin capitale principal sum of money, capital, itself derived in turn from Latin caput head. Cattle originally meant movable personal property, especially livestock of any kind, the word is a variant of chattel and closely related to capital in the economic sense. The term replaced earlier Old English feoh cattle, property, which today as fee. The word cow came via Anglo-Saxon cū, from Common Indo-European gʷōus = a bovine animal, compare Persian gâv, Sanskrit go-, Welsh buwch. The plural cȳ became ki or kie in Middle English, and a plural ending was often added, giving kine, kien. This is the origin of the now archaic English plural, kine, the Scots language singular is coo or cou, and the plural is kyeCattle – Cattle
61. Goat – The domestic goat is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the family Bovidae and is related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There are over 300 distinct breeds of goat, Goats are one of the oldest domesticated species, and have been used for their milk, meat, hair, and skins over much of the world. In 2011, there were more than 924 million live goats around the globe, according to the UN Food, female goats are referred to as does or nannies, intact males are called bucks or billies, and juveniles of both sexes are called kids. Goat meat from animals is called kid or cabrito, while meat from older animals is known simply as goat or sometimes called chevon. To refer to the male, Old English used bucca until ousted by hegote, hegoote in the late 12th century, nanny goat originated in the 18th century and billy goat in the 19th. Goats are among the earliest animals domesticated by humans, the most recent genetic analysis confirms the archaeological evidence that the wild Bezoar ibex of the Zagros Mountains is the likely original ancestor of probably all domestic goats today. The earliest remnants of domesticated goats dating 10,000 years before present are found in Ganj Dareh in Iran. Goat remains have been found at sites in Jericho, Choga Mami Djeitun and Çayönü. Studies of DNA evidence suggests 10,000 years BP as the domestication date, historically, goat hide has been used for water and wine bottles in both traveling and transporting wine for sale. It has also used to produce parchment. Goats are considered small livestock animals, compared to animals such as cattle, camels and horses, but larger than microlivestock such as poultry, rabbits, cavies. Each recognized breed of goats has specific weight ranges, which vary from over 140 kg for bucks of larger breeds such as the Boer, within each breed, different strains or bloodlines may have different recognized sizes. At the bottom of the range are miniature breeds such as the African Pygmy. Most goats naturally have two horns, of various shapes and sizes depending on the breed, Goats have horns unless they are polled or the horns have been removed, typically soon after birth. There have been incidents of polycerate goats, although this is a genetic rarity thought to be inherited, the horns are most typically removed in commercial dairy goat herds, to reduce the injuries to humans and other goats. Unlike cattle, goats have not been bred to be reliably polled, as the genes determining sex. Breeding together two genetically polled goats results in a number of intersex individuals among the offspring, which are typically sterileGoat
62. Ivory – Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing. It consists mainly of dentine ), one of the structures of teeth. The chemical structure of the teeth and tusks of mammals is the same and it has been valued since ancient times for making a range of items, from ivory carvings to false teeth, fans, and dominoes. Elephant ivory is the most important source, but ivory from mammoth, walrus, hippopotamus, sperm whale, killer whale, narwhal, elk also have two ivory teeth, which are believed to be the remnants of tusks from their ancestors. The national and international trade in ivory of threatened species such as African and Asian elephants is illegal, the word ivory ultimately derives from the ancient Egyptian âb, âbu, through the Latin ebor- or ebur. Both the Greek and Roman civilizations practiced ivory carving to make large quantities of high value works of art, precious religious objects, Ivory was often used to form the white of the eyes of statues. There is some evidence of either whale or walrus ivory used by the ancient Irish, solinus, a Roman writer in the 3rd century claimed that the Celtic peoples in Ireland would decorate their sword-hilts with the teeth of beasts that swim in the sea. Adomnan of Iona wrote a story about St Columba giving a sword decorated with carved ivory as a gift that a penitent would bring to his master so he could redeem himself from slavery. The Syrian and North African elephant populations were reduced to extinction, the Chinese have long valued ivory for both art and utilitarian objects. Southeast Asian kingdoms included tusks of the Indian elephant in their annual tribute caravans to China, Chinese craftsmen carved ivory to make everything from images of deities to the pipe stems and end pieces of opium pipes. The Buddhist cultures of Southeast Asia, including Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia, Ivory was prized for containers due to its ability to keep an airtight seal. It was also carved into elaborate seals utilized by officials to sign documents. In Southeast Asian countries, where Muslim Malay peoples live, such as Malaysia, Indonesia, in the Philippines, ivory was also used to craft the faces and hands of Catholic icons and images of saints prevalent in the Santero culture. Tooth and tusk ivory can be carved into a vast variety of shapes, examples of modern carved ivory objects are okimono, netsukes, jewelry, flatware handles, furniture inlays, and piano keys. Additionally, warthog tusks, and teeth from sperm whales, orcas and hippos can also be scrimshawed or superficially carved, Ivory usage in the last thirty years has moved towards mass production of souvenirs and jewelry. In Japan, the increase in wealth sparked consumption of solid ivory hanko – name seals – which before this time had made of wood. Prior to the introduction of plastics, ivory had many ornamental and practical uses and it was formerly used to make cutlery handles, billiard balls, piano keys, Scottish bagpipes, buttons and a wide range of ornamental items. Ivory can be taken from dead animals – however, most ivory came from elephants that were killed for their tusks, for example, in 1930 to acquire 40 tons of ivory required the killing of approximately 700 elephantsIvory – The solid ivory image of Our Lady of Manaoag in her imperial regalia. Genuine ivory is held more valuable than gold among Santero artisans. Pangasinan, Philippines.
63. Lard – Lard is pig fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms. It is obtained from any part of the pig where there is a proportion of adipose tissue. It can be rendered by steaming it or boiling it in water and then separating the insoluble fat from the water and it is a semi-soft white fat with a high saturated fatty acid content and no transfats, and refined lard is usually sold as paper-wrapped blocks. Lard is commonly used in cuisines around the world as a cooking fat or shortening. It is an ingredient in various dishes such as sausages, pates and fillings. Its use in contemporary cuisine has diminished with the increased popularity of vegetable oils. The culinary qualities of lard vary somewhat depending on the part of the pig from which the fat was taken, Lard can be obtained from any part of the pig where there is a high concentration of fatty tissue. The highest grade of lard, known as leaf lard, is obtained from the visceral fat deposit surrounding the kidneys. Leaf lard has little pork flavor, making it ideal for use in baked goods, the next-highest grade is obtained from fatback, the hard subcutaneous fat between the back skin and muscle of the pig. Lard may be rendered by either of two processes, wet or dry, in dry rendering, the fat is exposed to high heat in a pan or oven without the presence of water. The two processes yield somewhat differing products, wet-rendered lard has a more neutral flavor, a lighter color, and a high smoke point. Dry-rendered lard is somewhat more browned in color and flavor and has a lower smoke point, rendered lard produces an unpleasant smell when mixed with oxygen. Industrially-produced lard, including much of the lard sold in supermarkets, is rendered from a mixture of high-, Lard is often hydrogenated to improve its stability at room temperature. Hydrogenated lard sold to consumers typically contains fewer than 0.5 g of transfats per 13 g serving, Lard is also often treated with bleaching and deodorizing agents, emulsifiers, and antioxidants such as BHT. These treatments make it consistent and prevent spoilage. Consumers seeking a higher-quality source of lard typically seek out artisanal producers of rendered lard, a by-product of dry-rendering lard is deep-fried meat, skin and membrane tissue known as cracklings. Lard consists mainly of fats, which in the language of chemistry are known as triglycerides and these triglycerides are composed of three fatty acids and the distribution of fatty acids varies from oil to oil. In general lard is similar to tallow in its composition, pigs that have been fed different diets will have lard with a significantly different fatty acid content and iodine valueLard – Wet-rendered lard, from pork fatback.
64. Milk – Milk is a pale liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the source of nutrition for infant mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mothers antibodies to its young and it contains many other nutrients including protein and lactose. As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from non-human mammals during or soon after pregnancy, Dairy farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011, from 260 million dairy cows. India is the worlds largest producer of milk, and is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, the ever increasing rise in domestic demand for dairy products and a large demand-supply gap could lead to India being a net importer of dairy products in the future. The United States, India, China and Brazil are the worlds largest exporters of milk and milk products, China and Russia were the worlds largest importers of milk and milk products until 2016 when both countries became self-sufficient, contributing to a worldwide glut of milk. Throughout the world, there are more than six billion consumers of milk and milk products, over 750 million people live in dairy farming households. The term milk comes from Old English meoluc, milc, from Proto-Germanic *meluks milk, there are two distinct types of milk consumption, a natural source of nutrition for all infant mammals and a food product for humans of all ages that is derived from other animals. In almost all mammals, milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding, the early milk from mammals is called colostrum. Colostrum contains antibodies that provide protection to the baby as well as nutrients. The makeup of the colostrum and the period of secretion varies from species to species, for humans, the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months and breastfeeding in addition to other food for at least two years. In some cultures it is common to breastfeed children for three to five years, and the period may be longer, fresh goats milk is sometimes substituted for breast milk. This introduces the risk of the child developing electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, megaloblastic anemia, in many cultures of the world, especially the West, humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other animals as a food product. Initially, the ability to digest milk was limited to children as adults did not produce lactase, Milk was therefore converted to curd, cheese and other products to reduce the levels of lactose. Thousands of years ago, a chance mutation spread in human populations in Europe that enabled the production of lactase in adulthood and this allowed milk to be used as a new source of nutrition which could sustain populations when other food sources failed. Milk is processed into a variety of products such as cream, butter, yogurt, kefir, ice cream. Modern industrial processes use milk to produce casein, whey protein, lactose, condensed milk, powdered milk, whole milk, butter and cream have high levels of saturated fat. The sugar lactose is found only in milk, forsythia flowers, the enzyme needed to digest lactose, lactase, reaches its highest levels in the small intestine after birth and then begins a slow decline unless milk is consumed regularlyMilk – A glass of pasteurized cow's milk
65. Silk – Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by insect larvae to form cocoons. The best-known silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity, Silk is produced by several insects, but generally only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacturing. There has been research into other types of silk, which differ at the molecular level. Silk is mainly produced by the larvae of insects undergoing complete metamorphosis, Silk production also occurs in Hymenoptera, silverfish, mayflies, thrips, leafhoppers, beetles, lacewings, fleas, flies, and midges. Other types of arthropod produce silk, most notably various arachnids such as spiders, the word silk comes from Old English sioloc, from Greek σηρικός serikos, silken, ultimately from an Asian source. Several kinds of silk, which are produced by caterpillars other than the mulberry silkworm, have been known and used in China, South Asia. However, the scale of production was far smaller than for cultivated silks. Thus, the way to obtain silk suitable for spinning into textiles in areas where commercial silks are not cultivated was by tedious. Commercial silks originate from reared silkworm pupae, which are bred to produce a silk thread with no mineral on the surface. The pupae are killed by either dipping them in boiling water before the adult moths emerge or by piercing them with a needle. These factors all contribute to the ability of the cocoon to be unravelled as one continuous thread. Wild silks also tend to be difficult to dye than silk from the cultivated silkworm. Genetic modification of domesticated silkworms is used to facilitate the production of more types of silk. Silk fabric was first developed in ancient China, the earliest example of silk fabric is from 3630 BC, and it was used as wrapping for the body of a child from a Yangshao culture site in Qingtaicun at Xingyang, Henan. Legend gives credit for developing silk to a Chinese empress, Leizu, because of its texture and lustre, silk rapidly became a popular luxury fabric in the many areas accessible to Chinese merchants. Silk was in demand, and became a staple of pre-industrial international trade. In July 2007, archaeologists discovered intricately woven and dyed silk textiles in a tomb in Jiangxi province, Silk is described in a chapter on mulberry planting by Si Shengzhi of the Western HanSilk – Four of the most important domesticated silk moths. Top to bottom: Bombyx mori, Hyalophora cecropia, Antheraea pernyi, Samia cynthia. From Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (1885–1892)
66. Wool top – Topmaking mills make wool top, a semi-processed product from raw wool. The process requires that the wool be scoured and combed and sorted, the longer fibers resulting from the process are called tops, and are in a form ready for spinning. To be closer to customers, much of the industry has moved from Australia, Europe, many British companies produce high quality wool top in Britain from British wool and fibre, most work with the fleece from cleaning it to hand dyingWool top – Materials
67. Coal – Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon, along with quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen. A fossil fuel, coal forms when plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, then sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal. This involves biological and geological processes that take place over time, throughout history, coal has been used as an energy resource, primarily burned for the production of electricity and heat, and is also used for industrial purposes, such as refining metals. Coal is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, the extraction of coal, its use in energy production and its byproducts are all associated with environmental and health effects including climate change. Coal is extracted from the ground by coal mining, since 1983, the worlds top coal producer has been China. In 2015 China produced 3,747 million tonnes of coal –47. 7% of 7,861 million tonnes world coal production, in 2015 other large producers were United States, India, European Union and Australia. The word originally took the col in Old English, from Proto-Germanic *kula. In Old Turkic languages, kül is ash, cinders, öčür is quench, the compound charcoal in Turkic is öčür kül, literally quenched ashes, cinders, coals with elided anlaut ö- and inflection affixes -ülmüş. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in low-lying wetland areas, due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil. As more and more soil deposited over them, they were compressed, the temperature also rose as they sank deeper and deeper. As the process continued the plant matter was protected from biodegradation and oxidation and this trapped the carbon in immense peat bogs that were eventually covered and deeply buried by sediments. Under high pressure and high temperature, dead vegetation was slowly converted to coal, as coal contains mainly carbon, the conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called carbonization. The wide, shallow seas of the Carboniferous Period provided ideal conditions for coal formation, the exception is the coal gap in the Permian–Triassic extinction event, where coal is rare. Coal is known from Precambrian strata, which predate land plants — this coal is presumed to have originated from residues of algae, in its dehydrated form, peat is a highly effective absorbent for fuel and oil spills on land and water. It is also used as a conditioner for soil to make it able to retain. Lignite, or brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal, jet, a compact form of lignite, is sometimes polished and has been used as an ornamental stone since the Upper PalaeolithicCoal – Anthracite coal
68. Heating oil – Heating oil, or oil heat, is a low viscosity, liquid petroleum product used as a fuel oil for furnaces or boilers in buildings. Home heating oil is often abbreviated as HHO, Heating oil consists of a mixture of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons in the 14- to 20-carbon atom range that condense between 250 and 350 °C during oil refining. Heating oil condenses at a lower temperature than petroleum jelly, bitumen, candle wax, and lubricating oil, but at a higher temperature than kerosene, the heavy hydrocarbons condense between 340–400 °C. Heating oil produces 138,500 British thermal units per US gallon, number 2 fuel oil has a flash point of 52 °C. Most heating oil products are very similar to diesel fuel used as motor fuel. This means that the two can often be interchanged at the point of use. However, the taxation of the two differs in many places, with heating oil being taxed less than motor fuel and this creates an incentive to buy heating oil at a lower price and then use it as motor fuel, avoiding the fuel tax. To make enforcement possible, some visual difference or odor difference must be introduced to the oil, therefore, red dyes are usually added, resulting in the red diesel name in countries like the United Kingdom. In the U. S. the fuel oil dyed red is not taxed for highway use, since 2002, Solvent Yellow 124 has been added as a Euromarker in the European Union. It is sometimes stored in storage tanks but less often than ASTs. ASTs are used for smaller installations due to the lower cost factor, Heating oil is less commonly used as an industrial fuel or for power generation. Leaks from tanks and piping are an environmental concern, various federal and state regulations are in place regarding the proper transportation, storage and burning of heating oil, which is classified as a hazardous material by federal regulators. Heating oil is known in the United States as No.2 heating oil, in the U. S. it must conform to ASTM standard D396. Diesel and kerosene, while often confused as being similar or identical, Heating oil is widely used in both the United States and Canada. The heating oil futures contract trades in units of 1,000 barrels with a minimum fluctuation of $0.0001 per gallon and is based on delivery in New York Harbor, the Department of Energy tracks the prices homeowners pay for home heating fuel. There are also a number of websites that allow owners to compare the price per gallon they are paying with the Department of Energy data as well as other consumers in their area. Likewise the US Energy Information Administration collects heating oil price statistics, Heating oil is mostly used in the northeastern United States, with the majority of that heating oil coming from Irving Oils refinery in Saint John, New Brunswick, the largest oil refinery in Canada. Unlike most oil industries, Heating oil is primarily distributed to consumers through family-owned small businesses, such as Levco Oil and this is primarily due to its limited market and the inability to update gas infrastructure in the northeastHeating oil – Illustration on where the parts of an oil storage tank which require inspection may be located. Tank design may vary from tank to tank.
69. Propane – Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8, a gas, at standard temperature and pressure, but compressible to a transportable liquid. A by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining, it is used as a fuel for engines, oxy-gas torches, portable stoves. Propane is one of a group of liquefied petroleum gases, the others include butane, propylene, butadiene, butylene, isobutylene, and mixtures thereof. Propane was first identified as a component in gasoline by Walter O. Snelling of the U. S. Bureau of Mines in 1910. The volatility of these lighter hydrocarbons caused them to be known as wild because of the vapor pressures of unrefined gasoline. On March 31, the New York Times reported on Snellings work with liquefied gas and that a steel bottle will carry enough gas to light an ordinary home for three weeks. It was during this time that Snelling, in cooperation with Frank P. Peterson, Chester Kerr, together, they established American Gasol Co. the first commercial marketer of propane. Snelling had produced relatively pure propane by 1911, and on March 25,1913, a separate method of producing LP gas through compression was created by Frank Peterson and its patent granted on July 2,1912. The 1920s saw increased production of LP gas, with the first year of recorded production totaling 223,000 US gallons in 1922. In 1927, annual marketed LP gas production reached 1 million US gallons, and by 1935, major industry developments in the 1930s included the introduction of railroad tank car transport, gas odorization, and the construction of local bottle-filling plants. The year 1945 marked the first year that annual LP gas sales reached a billion gallons, by 1947, 62% of all U. S. homes had been equipped with either natural gas or propane for cooking. In 1950,1,000 propane-fueled buses were ordered by the Chicago Transit Authority, in 2004 it was reported to be a growing $8-billion to $10-billion industry with over 15 billion US gallons of propane being used annually in the U. S. The prop- root found in propane and names of compounds with three-carbon chains was derived from propionic acid. Propane is produced as a by-product of two processes, natural gas processing and petroleum refining. The processing of natural gas involves removal of butane, propane, additionally, oil refineries produce some propane as a by-product of cracking petroleum into gasoline or heating oil. The supply of propane cannot easily be adjusted to meet increased demand, about 90% of U. S. propane is domestically produced. The United States imports about 10% of the propane consumed each year, with about 70% of that coming from Canada via pipeline, the remaining 30% of imported propane comes to the United States from other sources via ocean transport. After it is produced, North American propane is stored in salt cavernsPropane – A 20 lb (9.1 kg) steel propane cylinder. This cylinder is fitted with an overfill prevention device (OPD) valve, as evidenced by the trilobular handwheel.
70. Nickel – Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the metals and is hard and ductile. Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron, a reflection of the origin of elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis. An iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose Earths inner core, use of nickel has been traced as far back as 3500 BCE. Nickel was first isolated and classified as an element in 1751 by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt. The elements name comes from a mischievous sprite of German miner mythology, Nickel, an economically important source of nickel is the iron ore limonite, which often contains 1–2% nickel. Nickels other important ore minerals include garnierite, and pentlandite, major production sites include the Sudbury region in Canada, New Caledonia in the Pacific, and Norilsk in Russia. Nickel is slowly oxidized by air at room temperature and is considered corrosion-resistant, historically, it has been used for plating iron and brass, coating chemistry equipment, and manufacturing certain alloys that retain a high silvery polish, such as German silver. About 6% of world production is still used for corrosion-resistant pure-nickel plating. Nickel-plated objects sometimes provoke nickel allergy, Nickel has been widely used in coins, though its rising price has led to some replacement with cheaper metals in recent years. Nickel is one of four elements that are ferromagnetic around room temperature, alnico permanent magnets based partly on nickel are of intermediate strength between iron-based permanent magnets and rare-earth magnets. The metal is valuable in modern times chiefly in alloys, about 60% of world production is used in nickel-steels, other common alloys and some new superalloys comprise most of the remainder of world nickel use, with chemical uses for nickel compounds consuming less than 3% of production. As a compound, nickel has a number of chemical manufacturing uses. Nickel is a nutrient for some microorganisms and plants that have enzymes with nickel as an active site. Nickel is a metal with a slight golden tinge that takes a high polish. It is one of four elements that are magnetic at or near room temperature. Its Curie temperature is 355 °C, meaning that bulk nickel is non-magnetic above this temperature, the unit cell of nickel is a face-centered cube with the lattice parameter of 0.352 nm, giving an atomic radius of 0.124 nmNickel – Nickel, 28 Ni
71. Zinc – Zinc is a chemical element with the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table, in some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium, both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state, and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in Earths crust and has five stable isotopes, the most common zinc ore is sphalerite, a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest workable lodes are in Australia, Asia, and the United States, Zinc is refined by froth flotation of the ore, roasting, and final extraction using electricity. Zinc metal was not produced on a large scale until the 12th century in India and was unknown to Europe until the end of the 16th century, the mines of Rajasthan have given definite evidence of zinc production going back to the 6th century BC. To date, the oldest evidence of pure zinc comes from Zawar, in Rajasthan, alchemists burned zinc in air to form what they called philosophers wool or white snow. The element was named by the alchemist Paracelsus after the German word Zinke. German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is credited with discovering pure metallic zinc in 1746, work by Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta uncovered the electrochemical properties of zinc by 1800. Corrosion-resistant zinc plating of iron is the application for zinc. Other applications are in batteries, small non-structural castings. A variety of compounds are commonly used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate, zinc chloride, zinc pyrithione, zinc sulfide. Zinc is an essential mineral perceived by the public today as being of exceptional biologic and public health importance, Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases. In children, deficiency causes growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility, enzymes with a zinc atom in the reactive center are widespread in biochemistry, such as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans. Consumption of excess zinc can cause ataxia, lethargy and copper deficiency, Zinc is a bluish-white, lustrous, diamagnetic metal, though most common commercial grades of the metal have a dull finish.6 pm. The metal is hard and brittle at most temperatures but becomes malleable between 100 and 150 °C, above 210 °C, the metal becomes brittle again and can be pulverized by beating. Zinc is a conductor of electricity. For a metal, zinc has relatively low melting and boiling points, the melting point is the lowest of all the transition metals aside from mercury and cadmium. Many alloys contain zinc, including brass, Other metals long known to form binary alloys with zinc are aluminium, antimony, bismuth, gold, iron, lead, mercury, silver, tin, magnesium, cobalt, nickel, tellurium, and sodiumZinc – Zinc, 30 Zn
72. Platinum – Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious and its name is derived from the Spanish term platina, translated into little silver. Platinum is a member of the group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of elements. It has six naturally occurring isotopes and it is one of the rarer elements in Earths crust with an average abundance of approximately 5 μg/kg. It occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some deposits, mostly in South Africa. Because of its scarcity in Earths crust, only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, Platinum is one of the least reactive metals. It has remarkable resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures, consequently, platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum. Because it occurs naturally in the sands of various rivers. Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry. Being a heavy metal, it leads to health issues upon exposure to its salts, compounds containing platinum, such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin, are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer. Pure platinum is a lustrous, ductile, and malleable, silver-white metal, Platinum is more ductile than gold, silver or copper, thus being the most ductile of pure metals, but it is less malleable than gold. The metal has excellent resistance to corrosion, is stable at temperatures and has stable electrical properties. Platinum reacts with oxygen slowly at high temperatures. It reacts vigorously with fluorine at 500 °C to form platinum tetrafluoride and it is also attacked by chlorine, bromine, iodine, and sulfur. Platinum is insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid, but dissolves in hot aqua regia to form chloroplatinic acid and its physical characteristics and chemical stability make it useful for industrial applications. Its resistance to wear and tarnish is well suited to use in fine jewelry, the most common oxidation states of platinum are +2 and +4. The +1 and +3 oxidation states are common, and are often stabilized by metal bonding in bimetallic species. As is expected, tetracoordinate platinum compounds tend to adopt 16-electron square planar geometries, Platinum has six naturally occurring isotopes, 190Pt, 192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, and 198PtPlatinum – Platinum, 78 Pt
73. Commodity market – A commodity market is a market that trades in primary economic sector rather than manufactured products. Soft commodities are products such as wheat, coffee, cocoa. Hard commodities are mined, such as gold and oil, Investors access about 50 major commodity markets worldwide with purely financial transactions increasingly outnumbering physical trades in which goods are delivered. Futures contracts are the oldest way of investing in commodities, Futures are secured by physical assets. Commodity markets can include physical trading and derivatives trading using spot prices, forwards, futures, farmers have used a simple form of derivative trading in the commodity market for centuries for price risk management. A financial derivative is an instrument whose value is derived from a commodity termed an underlier. Derivatives are either exchange-traded or over-the-counter, derivatives such as futures contracts, Swaps, Exchange-traded Commodities, forward contracts have become the primary trading instruments in commodity markets. Futures are traded on regulated commodities exchanges, Over-the-counter contracts are privately negotiated bilateral contracts entered into between the contracting parties directly. Exchange-traded funds began to feature commodities in 2003, Gold ETFs are based on electronic gold that does not entail the ownership of physical bullion, with its added costs of insurance and storage in repositories such as the London bullion market. According to the World Gold Council, ETFs allow investors to be exposed to the market without the risk of price volatility associated with gold as a physical commodity. Commodity-based money and commodity markets in an early form are believed to have originated in Sumer between 4500 BC and 4000 BC. Sumerians first used clay tokens sealed in a vessel, then clay writing tablets to represent the amount—for example. These promises of time and date of delivery resemble futures contract, early civilizations variously used pigs, rare seashells, or other items as commodity money. Since that time traders have sought ways to simplify and standardize trade contracts, Gold and silver markets evolved in classical civilizations. At first the precious metals were valued for their beauty and intrinsic worth and were associated with royalty, in time, they were used for trading and were exchanged for other goods and commodities, or for payments of labor. Gold, measured out, then became money, golds scarcity, unique density and the way it could be easily melted, shaped, and measured made it a natural trading asset. Beginning in the late 10th century, commodity markets grew as a mechanism for allocating goods, labor, land, indeed, the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, often cited as the first stock exchange, originated as a market for the exchange of commodities. Early trading on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange often involved the use of sophisticated contracts, including short sales, forward contractsCommodity market – Financial markets
74. Use value – Use value or value in use is the utility of consuming a good—the want-satisfying power of a good or service in classical political economy. The concepts of value, use value, utility, exchange value and price have a long history in economic and philosophical thought, from Aristotle to Adam Smith. Marx comments for example that in English writers of the 17th century we frequently find worth in the sense of value in use, the use-value of a product therefore exists as a material reality vis-a-vis social needs regardless of the individual need of any particular person. The use-value of a commodity is specifically a social use-value, meaning that it has a generally accepted use-value for others in society, and not just for the producer. Marx adds that, Marx acknowledges that a price or value can be imputed to goods or assets which are not reproducible goods. The transformation of a use-value into a social use-value and into a commodity is not automatic or spontaneous, for example, it must be possible to trade it, and to transfer ownership or access rights to it from one person or organization to another in a secure way. There must also be a market demand for it. And all that may depend greatly on the nature of the use-value itself, as well as the ability to package, store, preserve, in the case of information or communication as use-values, transforming them into commodities may be a complex and problem-fraught process. To produce a car, for example, you objectively require steel, necessary relationships therefore exist between different use-values, because they are technically, materially and practically related. Some authors therefore write about a complex or technological complex. A good example would be all the different products involved in the production, the category of use-value is also important in distinguishing different economic sectors according to their specific type of output. Following Quesnays analysis of economic reproduction, Marx distinguished between the economic sector producing means of production and the sectors producing consumer goods and luxuries. In modern national accounts more subtle distinctions are made, for example between primary, secondary and tertiary production, semi-durable and durable goods, and so on, Marx himself explicitly rejected Sweezys and Unos interpretation. The fact is that Marx himself, in the introduction to his Grundrisse manuscript, had defined the economic sphere as the totality of production, circulation, distribution and consumption. It was only later that such as Walter Benjamin, Fernand Braudel, Ben Fine, Manuel Castells. Marxs concept of use-value seems akin to, but in reality differs from the concept of utility. Marx usually assumes in his analysis that products sold in the market have a use-value to the buyer, the neoclassicals, on the other hand, typically see prices as the quantitative expression of the general utility of products for buyers and sellers, instead of expressing their exchange-value. In neoclassical economics this utility is ultimately determined by the buyer of a goodUse value – World GDP (PPP) per capita by country (2014)
75. Gold rush – A gold rush is a new discovery of gold that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune. Major gold rushes took place in the 19th century in Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, the wealth that resulted was distributed widely because of reduced migration costs and low barriers to entry. While gold mining itself was unprofitable for most diggers and mine owners, some people made fortunes. The resulting increase in the gold supply stimulated global trade. Historians have written extensively about the migration, trade, colonization, Gold rushes helped spur a huge immigration that often led to permanent settlement of new regions. Activities propelled by gold rushes define significant aspects of the culture of the Australian, at a time when the worlds money supply was based on gold, the newly mined gold provided economic stimulus far beyond the gold fields. Gold rushes extend back as far as gold mining, to the Roman Empire, whose gold mining was described by Diodorus Siculus and Pliny the Elder, within each mining rush there is typically a transition through progressively higher capital expenditures, larger organizations, and more specialized knowledge. They may also progress from high-unit value to lower unit value minerals, a rush typically begins with the discovery of placer gold made by an individual. At first the gold may be washed from the sand and gravel by individual miners with little training, using a pan or similar simple instrument. Winning the gold in this manner requires almost no capital investment, only a pan or equipment that may be built on the spot. The low investment, the value per unit weight of gold. After the sluice-box stage, placer mining may become increasingly large scale, requiring larger organisations, small claims owned and mined by individuals may need to be merged into larger tracts. Difficult-to-reach placer deposits may be mined by tunnels, water may be diverted by dams and canals to placer mine active river beds or to deliver water needed to wash dry placers. The more advanced techniques of ground sluicing, hydraulic mining and dredging may be used, typically the heyday of a placer gold rush would last only a few years. Hard rock mining, like mining, may evolve from low capital investment and simple technology to progressively higher capital. The surface outcrop of a gold-bearing vein may be oxidized, so that the gold occurs as native gold, the first miners may at first build a simple arrastra to crush their ore, later, they may build stamp mills to crush ore more quickly. As the miners dig down, they may find that the part of vein contains gold locked in sulfide or telluride minerals. If the ore is still rich, it may be worth shipping to a distant smelterGold rush – Sailing to California at the beginning of the Gold Rush
76. Cariboo Gold Rush – The Cariboo Gold Rush was a gold rush in the Colony of British Columbia, which earlier joined the Canadian province of British Columbia. By 1865, following the strikes along Williams Creek, the rush was in full swing, several towns grew up, the most famous of these being Barkerville, now preserved as a heritage site and tourist attraction. Richfield was the first strike on Williams Creek, and became the seat of government in the region, connected to Barkerville via the canyon of Williams Creek, Richfield became part of Greater Barkerville along with Cameron Town. The Cariboo Gold Rush is the most famous of the rushes in British Columbia. The Colonys creation had been prompted by an influx of American prospectors to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush three years earlier in 1858, which had its locus in the area from Lillooet to Yale. Unlike its southern counterpart, the population of the Cariboo Gold Rush was largely British and Canadian, the electorate of the Cariboo riding were among the most pro-Confederation in the colony, and this was in no small part because of the strong Canadian element in the local populace. Towns along the Cariboo Road include Clinton,100 Mile House and Williams Lake, during the rush, the largest and most important town lay at the roads end at Barkerville, which had grown up around the most profitable and famous of the many Cariboo mining camps. The wagon roads most important freight was the Gold Escort, which brought government bullion to Yale for shipment to the colonial treasury, a 1976 young adult novel, Cariboo Runaway, by Sandy Frances Duncan, is set in the Cariboo area during the Cariboo Gold Rush. Cariboo camels Hudsons Bay Brigade Trail Old Cariboo Road Omineca Gold Rush River Trail Map of the Cariboo Gold Rush Gold In Cariboo chapter, A History of British Columbia, scholefield, British Columbia Historical Association pp. 165-178Cariboo Gold Rush – Barkerville (1865), shown rebuilt after the Great Fire, with its new, straightened and wider, Main Street. The creek in the foreground is Williams Creek, which is paralleled by Main Street throughout.
77. Omineca Gold Rush – The Omineca Gold Rush was a gold rush in British Columbia, Canada in the Omineca region of the Northern Interior of the province. Gold was first discovered there in 1861, but the rush didnt begin until late in 1869 with the discovery at Vital Creek, the first recorded gold discovery in the Omineca district was made by William Cust and Edward Cary in the summer of 1861. The two men had traveled up from Alexandria that spring and returned in the fall with 60 ounces of gold between them, despite such a small return for a summer filled with labor and hardship, they returned the following year with a group of more than twenty prospectors. In later years, some of men would make major gold discoveries in the region, notably, Ezra Evans. Along the Finlay River they discovered gold at a bar four miles from Finlays Forks, the bar would yield four ounces a day for each man. Another group of men on the Parsnip River, discovered 60 ounces of gold, however, most of these newcomers were unsuccessful and, to make matters worse, supplies were scarce. Many prospectors had to leave the diggings and return to their homes in defeat, two that stayed on and prospected at Toys Bar were John Giscome and Henry McDame, both of whom had worked on the Peace, Smoky and Nation Rivers. McDame had made a discovery in the Cassiar district and McDames Creek was named in his honor. In 1868, four of the miners, Ezra Evans Twelve-foot Davis, William Humphrey and Gaylord went from Fort St. James up to Takla Landing via the Stuart, Trembleur and Takla Lakes. Along the way they discovered what they believed was silver but was actually arquerite. They named the creek where they made this discovery Silver Creek, the four miners went back to Quesnel that fall and appealed for funds to explore the Omineca area the following year. A group of miners was organized and after a concerted effort they raised more than $1000 from Quesnel farmers, the group of prospectors would be called the Peace River Prospecting Party. Strangely, the party was made up of one of the original discoverers of Silver Creek. The omission of Evans, Davis and Gaylord would be an error that the organizers would regret. The rest of the group was Vital Laforce and Mike Byrnes, both of whom had been scouts for the Overland Telegraph Company, along with Patrick Kelly, James Hawkins and Allen Hawkins. The Peace River Prospecting Party set out from Quesnel on May 3,1869 having been supplied with a boat, the necessary tools. The party followed the route via the Fraser, Nechako and Stuart Rivers and up through Stuart, Trembleur. When they arrived at Silver Creek, Vital Laforce discovered gold on one of its tributaries on June 21, in honor of this discovery the creek was named Vital Creek and the nearby mountains were named Vital MountainsOmineca Gold Rush – Sluice Box
78. New South Wales gold rush – New South Wales experienced the first gold rush in Australia, a period generally accepted to lie between 1851 and 1880. This period in the history of New South Wales resulted in a growth in the population. The California Gold Rush three years prior signaled the impacts on society that gold fever would produce, both positive and negative, the New South Wales colonial government concealed the early discoveries, but various factors changed the policy. Gold was first officially discovered in Australia on 15 February 1823, by assistant surveyor James McBrien, at Fish River, McBrien noted in his field survey book At E.1 chain 50 links to river and marked a gum tree. At this place I found numerous particles of gold convenient to river, the finds were suppressed by the colonial government to avoid a likely dislocation of the relatively small community. It was feared that convicts and free settlers would leave their assigned locations to rush to the new find to seek their fortunes. Reportedly Governor George Gipps said to Clarke when he exhibited his gold, Put it away, Mr Clarke, recent evidence shows another find by William Tipple Smith near Ophir in 1848 was also kept quiet until the government was ready to exploit the resource. The Californian goldrush started in 1848 and immediately began to leave Australia for California. To stem the exodus the New South Wales colonial government decided to alter its position, in 1849 the colonial government sought approval of the Colonial Office in England to allow the exploitation of the mineral resources of New South Wales. A geologist was requested and this led to the appointment of Samuel Stutchbury, a reward was offered for the first person to find payable gold. The discovery of gold was the discovery that changed a nation, twenty-eight years after the Fish River discovery, a man named Edward Hargraves discovered a grain of gold in a billabong near Bathurst in 1851. Edward returned to New South Wales from the Californian goldfields where he was unfortunately unsuccessful, Hargraves decided to begin searching for gold in the state of New South Wales. The geological features of the country around Bathurst, with its quartz outcrops and gullies, seemed similar to those of the Californian fields. In February 1851, Hargraves and his guide, John Lister, set out on horseback with a pan and rocking-cradle, to Lewis Ponds Creek, on 12 February 1851, they found gold at a place he called Ophir. He said that once in the bed he somehow felt surrounded by gold. Initially keeping the secret, he travelled to Sydney and met the Colonial Secretary in March. Soon the claim was recognised and Hargraves was appointed the Commissioner of Lands and he also received a £10,000 reward from the New South Wales government, as well as a life pension and a £5,000 reward from the Victorian government. Due to a dispute with his partners, however, some of the reward was withheld, the find was proclaimed on 14 May 1851 and within days the first Australian gold rush began with 100 diggers searching for their goldNew South Wales gold rush – A mine at Gulgong, NSW 1871-1875
79. Western Australian gold rushes – Significant finds included, Halls Creek in 1885, found by Charles Hall and Jack Slattery. Near Southern Cross in 1887, found by the party of Harry Francis Anstey, Cue in 1891, found by Michael Fitzgerald, Edward Heffernan and Tom Cue. Coolgardie in 1892, by Arthur Bailey and William Ford, Kalgoorlie in 1893, by Patrick Paddy Hannan, Tom Flanagan and Dan Shea. A small rush at Nundamurrah Pool, on the Greenough River, near Mullewa, capital works, including roads and railways and in 1896, construction of the ambitious Goldfields Water Supply Scheme, came about on the back of the gold rushes. The population in Western Australia in 1891 was 49,782, by 1895 it had doubled to 100,515, and by 1901 was 184,124. The far-reaching nature of the mining excitement drew men from all over the world in 1895, there was a total of 29,523 immigrants in 1895, while the emigration amounted to 11,129, leaving Western Australia the gainer by 18,394 persons. The population of the colony in 1895 was 101,235, the immigration in December was greater than that of any preceding month, and totalled 4,540. Most of these came from the Eastern colonies, which were still greatly depressed. These previously unexplored eastern districts were hot and barren and had limited water supplies or pre-existing infrastructure to support sudden influxes of people. As a result, all supplies had to be carted, either from Perth or Esperance, carted water was sold for up to 5 shillings per gallon. Prospector Charles Hall and others found alluvial gold in the eastern Kimberly region in 1885, the find created the first gold rush in Western Australia. In terms of yield, the rush was not particularly successful. It was nearly 40 years after the Victorian rushes, the Yilgarn gold rush refers to a rush which commenced in 1888 after the November 1887 discovery of gold in the Yilgarn Hills area, north of Southern Cross. Yilgarn is an Aboriginal word for quartz, a common indicator of gold. Gold was discovered in 1892 though there is uncertainty as to who made the first find, Michael Fitzgerald and Edward Heffernan collected 260 ounces after being given a nugget by an Aboriginal known as Governor. Tom Cue travelled to Nannine to register their claim, the townsite was gazetted in 1893 and named after Tom Cue. The towns first water supply was a well in the centre of the street, after an outbreak of typhoid fever. The water supply was replaced by another well dug near Lake Nallan, the town of Day Dawn,8 kilometres south, was established within a year, by 1900 a hospital and cemetery were established between the two towns and they had three newspapers operatingWestern Australian gold rushes – Western Australian population growth between 1880 and 1897.
80. Ouro Preto – Ouro Preto is located in one of the main areas of the Brazilian Gold Rush. Officially,800 tons of gold were sent to Portugal in the XVIII century, other gold circulated illegally, and still other gold remained in the colony to adorn churches and for other uses. In the 18th century, Ouro Preto became for a time the most populous city in the New World, at that time, the population of New York was half that number, and the population of São Paulo did not reach 8,000. Population, Data from the 2010 Census Resident population,70,227 Urban area,56,293 Rural area,9,985 Area of the municipality,1,245 km² Temperature, in June and July the temperature can reach -2 degrees Celsius. The highest point is Pico de Itacolomi with 1,722 meters, rivers, sources for the Velhas, Piracicaba, Gualaxo do Norte, Gualaxo do Sul, Mainart e Ribeirão Funil. Per Capita Income, R$23,622 HDI,0, founded at the end of the 17th century, Ouro Preto was originally called Vila Rica, or rich village, the focal point of the gold rush and Brazils golden age in the 18th century under Portuguese rule. The city centre contains well-preserved Portuguese colonial architecture, with few signs of urban development. New construction must keep with the citys historical aesthetic, 18th- and 19th-century churches decorated with gold and the sculptured works of Aleijadinho make Ouro Preto a tourist destination. The tremendous wealth from mining in the 18th century created a city which attracted the intelligentsia of Europe. At that time, Vila Rica was the largest city in Brazil, in 1789, Ouro Preto became the birthplace of the Inconfidência Mineira, a failed attempt to gain independence from Portugal. The leading figure, Tiradentes, was hanged as a threat to any future revolutionaries, in 1876, the Escola de Minas was created. This school established the foundation for several of the mineral discoveries in Brazil. Ouro Preto was capital of Minas Gerais from 1720 until 1897, the state government was moved to the new, planned city of Belo Horizonte. Main economic activities are tourism, transformation industries, and mineral riches such as deposits of iron, bauxite, manganese, talc, minerals of note are, gold, hematite, dolomite, tourmaline, pyrite, muscovite, topaz and imperial topaz. The imperial topaz is a stone found in Ouro Preto. Soapstone handicraft items are a popular souvenir among tourists, and can be found in shops in the town centre. Jewelry made of precious and semi-precious gemstones can also be found in abundance for sale. Ouro Preto is also a university town with a student lifeOuro Preto – Museum of Betraval and Tiradentes Square
81. Serra Pelada – Serra Pelada was a large gold mine in Brazil 430 kilometres south of the mouth of the Amazon River. The mine was famous by the images taken by Alfredo Jaar. Because of the nature of the operation estimating the number of miners was difficult. Today the Serra Pelada mine is abandoned and the giant open pit that was created by hand has filled with water, in January 1979 Farmer Genésio Ferreira da Silva hired a geologist to investigate whether gold he found on his property was part of a larger deposit. A local child swimming on the banks of a river found a 6 grams nugget of gold. Soon word leaked out that indeed da Silva was sitting upon one of the largest deposits in the world, by the end of the week a gold rush had started with thousands of people descending on the farm to mine. Five weeks later, there were 10 000 on Ferreiras property and another 12 000 nearby, huge nuggets were quickly discovered, the biggest weighing nearly 6.8 kilograms, $108,000 at the 1980 market price. At first the only way to get to the site was by plane or foot. Miners would often pay exorbitant prices to have taxis drive them from the nearest town to the end of a track, from there. The growing town, since it could only be made of material that was carried in by hand, was a collection of haphazard shacks, each miner had a claim 2 metres by 3 metres. By May 1980 there were 4 000 such claims, early in the history of the mine, the Brazilian military took over operations to prevent exploitation of the workers and conflict between miners and owners. Before the military takeover basic goods were sold for inflated prices by the mine owners. The infamous Sebastião Rodrigues de Moura managed the mine for a brief period, while the military government banned women and alcohol at the actual mine, the nearby town became a town of stores and whores. Thousands of underage girls prostituted themselves for gold flakes while around 60–80 unsolved murders occurred in the every month. Because of the use of mercury in the extraction process large areas around the mine are considered dangerously contaminated. People eating fish downstream from the mine have elevated mercury levels, Brazilian comedy group Os Trapalhões made in 1982 Os Trapalhões na Serra Pelada, where four friends try to strike it rich at the Serra Pelada mine. A documentary video Gold Lust created by Neil Hollander in 1984, aired by WNET, powaqqatsi, a 1988 documentary film, opens with footage of Serra Pelada The Rundown. A2003 American comedy film, occurs at a mine with many elements based on the Serra PeladaSerra Pelada – The former pit of Serra Pelada now forms a lake
82. Gold mining – Gold mining is the resource extraction of gold by mining. As of 2015, the worlds largest gold producer by far was China with 455 tonnes, the second-largest producer, Australia, mined 270 tonnes in the same year, followed by Russia with 250 tonnes. It is impossible to know the date that humans first began to mine gold. The graves of the necropolis were built between 4700 and 4200 BC, indicating that gold mining could be at least 7000 years old. A group of German and Georgian archaeologists claims the Sakdrisi site in southern Georgia, dating to the 3rd or 4th millennium BC, bronze age gold objects are plentiful, especially in Ireland and Spain, and there are several well known possible sources. Romans used hydraulic mining methods, such as hushing and ground sluicing on a scale to extract gold from extensive alluvial deposits. Mining was under the control of the state but the mines may have been leased to civilian contractors some time later, Gold was a prime motivation for the campaign in Dacia when the Romans invaded Transylvania in what is now modern Romania in the second century AD. The legions were led by the emperor Trajan, and their exploits are shown on Trajans Column in Rome, under the Eastern Roman Empire Emperor Justinians rule, gold was mined in the Balkans, Anatolia, Armenia, Egypt, and Nubia. In the area of the Kolar Gold Fields in Bangarpet Taluk, Kolar District of Karnataka state, India, gold was first mined prior to the 2nd and 3rd century AD by digging small pits. The Champion reef at the Kolar gold fields was mined to a depth of 50 metres during the Gupta period in the fifth century AD, during the Chola period in the 9th and 10th century AD, the scale of the operation grew. The metal continued to be mined by the eleventh century kings of South India, the Vijayanagara Empire from 1336 to 1560, and later by Tipu Sultan, the king of Mysore state and it is estimated that the total gold production in Karnataka to date is 1000 tons. The mining of the Slovak deposit primarily around Kremnica was the largest of the Medieval period in Europe, the discovery of gold in the Witwatersrand led to the Second Boer War and ultimately the founding of South Africa. The Carlin Trend of Nevada, U. S. was discovered in 1961, as of 2015, the worlds largest gold producer by far was China with 455 tonnes/year. The second-largest producer, Australia, mined 270 tonnes in the same year, despite the decreasing gold content of ores, the production is increasing. This can be achieved with industrial installations, and new process, placer mining is the technique by which gold that has accumulated in a placer deposit is extracted. Placer deposits are composed of loose material that makes tunneling difficult. Gold panning is mostly a manual technique of separating gold from other materials, wide, shallow pans are filled with sand and gravel that may contain gold. The pan is submerged in water and shaken, sorting the gold from the gravel, as gold is much denser than rock, it quickly settles to the bottom of the panGold mining – Super Pit gold mine in Western Australia