|First Chilean wheat cycle||wheat||Chile||1687–1810|
|Brazilian Gold Rush||gold||Brazil||18th century|
|Carolina Gold Rush||gold||North Carolina, US||early 19th century|
|Georgia Gold Rush||gold||Georgia, US||1828 – early 1840s|
|Chilean silver rush||silver||Chile||1830–1850|
|Guano Era||guano||Peru||1845 – c. 1870|
|California Gold Rush||gold||California, US||1848–1855|
|Second Chilean wheat cycle||wheat||Chile||mid-19th century – 1870s|
|British Columbia gold rushes||gold||British Columbia, Canada||1850–1941|
|Australian gold rushes||gold||Australia||1851–1906|
|Pennsylvania oil rush||petroleum||northwestern Pennsylvania, US||1859 – early 1870s|
|Otago Gold Rush||gold||Central Otago, New Zealand||1860s|
|Colorado River mining boom||gold||Southwestern US||1861–64|
|West Coast Gold Rush||gold||West Coast, New Zealand||1864–1867|
|Lapland gold rush||gold||Lapland, Finland||1870s|
|Azerbaijan oil boom||petroleum||Azerbaijan||1870s|
|Pilgrim's Rest gold rush||gold||Pilgrim's Rest, Mpumalanga, South Africa||1873|
|Black Hills Gold Rush||gold||Dakota Territory, US||1874 – c. 1880|
|Patagonian sheep farming boom||wool, mutton||Patagonia||late 19th to early 20th century|
|Cripple Creek Gold Rush||gold||Cripple Creek, Colorado, US||late 19th to early 20th century|
|Bodie gold rush||gold||Bodie, California, US||1877–1880|
|First Amazon rubber boom||rubber||Amazon basin||1879–1912|
|Indiana gas boom||natural gas||Indiana, US||early 1880s – early 20th century|
|Ohio oil rush||petroleum||Northwest Ohio, US||1880s – 1930s|
|Tierra del Fuego gold rush||gold||Tierra del Fuego||1883–1906|
|Witwatersrand Gold Rush||gold||South Africa||1886|
|Klondike Gold Rush||gold||Klondike, Yukon, Canada||1896–1899|
|Mount Baker Gold Rush||gold||Whatcom County, Washington, US||1897 – mid-1920s|
|Nome Gold Rush||gold||Nome, Alaska, US||1899–1909|
|Fairbanks Gold Rush||gold||Fairbanks, Alaska, US||early 1900s|
|Texas oil boom||petroleum||Texas, US||1901 – 1940s|
|Cobalt silver rush||silver||Cobalt, Ontario, Canada||1903 – c. 1930|
|Stoy, Illinois oil boom||petroleum||Stoy, Illinois, US||1906–1910|
|Porcupine Gold Rush||gold||Northern Ontario, Canada||1909 – 1950s|
|Kakamega gold rush||gold||Kakamega, Kenya||early 1930s|
|Vatukoula gold rush||gold||Vatukoula, Fiji||1932|
|Second Amazon rubber boom||rubber||Amazon basin||1942–1945|
|Calgary oil boom||petroleum||Calgary, Alberta, Canada||1947 – early 1980s|
|New Zealand wool boom||wool||New Zealand||1951 – late 1950s|
|Mexican oil boom||petroleum||Mexico||1977–1981|
|2000s commodities boom||multiple||worldwide||2000s|
|Uranium bubble of 2007||uranium||worldwide||2005–2007|
|North Dakota oil boom||petroleum, shale gas||North Dakota, US||2006 – present (as of 2015[update])|
|Rhodium bubble||rhodium||worldwide (primarily South Africa, Russia)||2008|
1. Price index – A price index is a normalized average of price relatives for a given class of goods or services in a given region, during a given interval of time. It is a designed to help to compare how these price relatives, taken as a whole. Price indexes have several potential uses, for particularly broad indices, the index can be said to measure the economys general price level or a cost of living. More narrow price indices can help producers with business plans and pricing, sometimes, they can be useful in helping to guide investment. Some notable price indices include, Consumer price index Producer price index Export price index Import price index GDP deflator No clear consensus has emerged on who created the first price index. The earliest reported research in this came from Welshman Rice Vaughan who examined price level change in his 1675 book A Discourse of Coin. Vaughan wanted to separate the impact of the influx of precious metals brought by Spain from the New World from the effect due to currency debasement. Vaughan compared labor statutes from his own time to similar statutes dating back to Edward III and these statutes set wages for certain tasks and provided a good record of the change in wage levels. Vaughans analysis indicated that price levels in England had risen six to eightfold over the preceding century, while Vaughan can be considered a forerunner of price index research, his analysis did not actually involve calculating an index. In 1707 Englishman William Fleetwood created perhaps the first true price index, an Oxford student asked Fleetwood to help show how prices had changed. The student stood to lose his fellowship since a fifteenth-century stipulation barred students with annual incomes over five pounds from receiving a fellowship, Fleetwood, who already had an interest in price change, had collected a large amount of price data going back hundreds of years. Fleetwood proposed an index consisting of averaged price relatives and used his methods to show that the value of five pounds had changed greatly over the course of 260 years and he argued on behalf of the Oxford students and published his findings anonymously in a volume entitled Chronicon Preciosum. Of course, for any purpose, quantities purchased are rarely if ever identical across any two periods. As such, this is not a very practical index formula, one might be tempted to modify the formula slightly to P = ∑ ∑ This new index, however, doesnt do anything to distinguish growth or reduction in quantities sold from price changes. To see that this is so, consider what happens if all the double between t 0 and t n while quantities stay the same, P will double. Now consider what happens if all the double between t 0 and t n while all the prices stay the same, P will double. In either case the change in P is identical, as such, P is as much a quantity index as it is a price index. Various indices have been constructed in an attempt to compensate for this difficulty, the two most basic formulae used to calculate price indices are the Paasche index and the Laspeyres indexPrice index – William Fleetwood
2. Tulip mania – Tulip mania or tulipomania was a period in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for bulbs of the recently introduced tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and then suddenly collapsed. At the peak of tulip mania, in March 1637, some single tulip bulbs sold for more than 10 times the income of a skilled craftsman. The term tulip mania is now often used metaphorically to refer to any large economic bubble when asset prices deviate from intrinsic values, the 1637 event was popularized in 1841 by the book Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds, written by British journalist Charles Mackay. According to Mackay, at one point 12 acres of land were offered for a Semper Augustus bulb, Mackay claims that many such investors were ruined by the fall in prices, and Dutch commerce suffered a severe shock. Although Mackays book is a classic, his account is contested, many modern scholars feel that the mania was not as extraordinary as Mackay described and argue that not enough price data are available to prove that a tulip bulb bubble actually occurred. Research is difficult because of the economic data from the 1630s—much of which come from biased. Some modern economists have proposed rational explanations, rather than a speculative mania, for the rise, for example, other flowers, such as the hyacinth, also had high initial prices at the time of their introduction, which immediately fell. The high asset prices may also have driven by expectations of a parliamentary decree that contracts could be voided for a small cost—thus lowering the risk to buyers. Tulip bulbs were soon distributed from Vienna to Augsburg, Antwerp and he planted his collection of tulip bulbs and found they were able to tolerate the harsher conditions of the Low Countries, shortly thereafter the tulip began to grow in popularity. The tulip was different from other flower known to Europe at that time. The appearance of the tulip as a status symbol at this time coincides with the rise of newly independent Hollands trade fortunes. No longer the Spanish Netherlands, its resources could now be channeled into commerce. Amsterdam merchants were at the center of the lucrative East Indies trade, as a result, tulips rapidly became a coveted luxury item, and a profusion of varieties followed. They were classified in groups, the tulips of red, yellow, or white were known as Couleren, the multicolored Rosen, Violetten, and the rarest of all. The multicolor effects of intricate lines and flame-like streaks on the petals were vivid and spectacular, growers named their new varieties with exalted titles. Many early forms were prefixed Admirael, often combined with the growers names, generael was another prefix used for around thirty varieties. Later varieties were given even more extravagant names, derived from Alexander the Great or Scipio, or even Admiral of Admirals, however, naming could be haphazard and varieties highly variable in quality. Most of these varieties have now died out, tulips grow from bulbs, and can be propagated through both seeds and budsTulip mania – A tulip, known as "the Viceroy" (viseroij), displayed in the 1637 Dutch catalog 'Verzameling van een Meenigte Tulipaanen'. Its bulb cost between 3,000 and 4,200 guilders (florins) depending on size (aase). A skilled craftsman at the time earned about 300 guilders a year.
3. Commodity – In economics, a commodity is a marketable item produced to satisfy wants or needs. Economic commodities comprise goods and services, the word commodity came into use in English in the 15th century, from the French commodité, amenity, convenience. Going further back, the French word derives from the Latin commoditas, meaning suitability, convenience, the Latin word commodus meant variously appropriate, proper measure, time, or condition, and advantage, benefit. The term commodity is specifically used for a good or service when the demand for it has no qualitative differentiation across a market. In other words, a commodity good or service has full or partial but substantial fungibility, that is, the market treats its instances as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them. As the saying goes, From the taste of wheat, it is not possible to tell who produced it, a Russian serf, petroleum and copper are other examples of such commodities, their supply and demand being a part of one universal market. Items such as systems, on the other hand, have many aspects of product differentiation, such as the brand, the user interface. The demand for one type of stereo may be larger than demand for another. In contrast, one of the characteristics of a commodity good is that its price is determined as a function of its market as a whole, well-established physical commodities have actively traded spot and derivative markets. Generally, these are basic resources and agricultural products such as ore, sugar. Soft commodities are goods that are grown, while hard commodities are ones that are extracted through mining, there is another important class of energy commodities which includes electricity, gas, coal and oil. Electricity has the characteristic that it is usually uneconomical to store, hence. Commoditization occurs as a goods or services market loses differentiation across its supply base, as such, goods that formerly carried premium margins for market participants have become commodities, such as generic pharmaceuticals and DRAM chips. Following this trend, nanomaterials are emerging from carrying premium profit margins for market participants to a status of commodification, there is a spectrum of commoditization, rather than a binary distinction of commodity versus differentiable product. Many products degree of commoditization depends on the mentality and means. For example, milk, eggs, and notebook paper are not differentiated by many customers, for them, other customers take into consideration other factors besides price, such as environmental sustainability and animal welfare. This is a list of companies trading globally in commodities, descending by size as of October 28,2011, on a commodity exchange, it is the underlying standard stated in the contract that defines the commodity, not any quality inherent in a specific producers product. Commodities exchanges include, Bourse Africa Bursa Malaysia Derivatives Chicago Board of Trade Chicago Mercantile Exchange Dalian Commodity Exchange Euronext and these markets will quickly respond to changes in supply and demand to find an equilibrium price and quantityCommodity – Yerba mate (left), coffee bean (middle) and tea (right), all used for caffeinated infusions, are commodity cash crops.
4. Netherlands – The Netherlands is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country. Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country also ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life. The Netherlands also ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder, Nether and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Boven, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, however, changed over time tremendouslyNetherlands – The Netherlands in 5500 BC
5. Chilean wheat cycle – In Chilean historiography, the wheat cycle refers to two episodes of booming wheat exports and related changes in society and agriculture. The first cycle occurred from 1687 to the wars and was caused by heavy demand in Peru. The importance of wheat had led the 18th century in Chile to be labelled the wheat century, the second cycle started in the mid-19th century, fueled by the California and Australian gold rushes and ended definitively during the Long depression in the 1870s. Chile has a history of exporting cereals to Peru dating back to 1687 when Peru was struck by both an earthquake and a stem rust epidemic. Chilean soil and climatic conditions were better for cereal production than those of Peru and Chilean wheat was cheaper, according to historians Villalobos et al. the 1687 events were only the detonant factor for exports to start. The Chilean Central Valley, La Serena and Concepción were the districts that came to be involved in export to Peru. Compared with the 19th century, the area cultivated with wheat was very small, initially Chilean latifundia could not meet the wheat demand due to a labour shortage, so had to incorporate temporary workers in addition to the permanent staff. Another response by the latifundia to labour shortages was to act as merchants, in the period 1700 to 1850, this second option was overall more lucrative. The independence wars in Chile and Peru had a impact on the Chilean wheat industry. Trade was disrupted and armies in Chile pillaged the countryside, the Guerra a muerte phase was particularly destructive and ended only to see a period of outlaw banditry occur until the late 1820s. Trade with Peru did not fully recover after the independence struggles, in the 19th century, access to the Californian and Australian markets made wheat export a very lucrative activity. In the mid-19th century, those countries experienced large gold rushes, Chile was at the time the only wheat producer of some importance in the Pacific. At the same time as the cycle, new irrigation canals were built and apiculture. Apart from that, new markets were explored for Chilean agricultural products, the wheat boom did not last for long, by 1855, California managed to supply itself with wheat and from 1858 onwards it went over to export wheat to Chile. The cycle came to an end in the late 1870s due to the increased technification of agriculture in the United States and Argentina, the end of the wheat cycle added to the already difficult situation that Chilean economy was passing through in the 1870s. Exports to England continued at least until 1890Chilean wheat cycle – Economic history of Chile
6. Brazilian Gold Rush – The Brazilian Gold Rush was a gold rush that started in the 18th century, in the then Portuguese colony of Brazil. The rush opened up the major gold-producing area of Ouro Preto, the rush began when bandeirantes discovered large gold deposits in the mountains of Minas Gerais. The bandeirantes were adventurers who organized themselves into groups to explore the interior of Brazil. Many bandeirantes were of mixed indigenous and European background who adopted the ways of the natives, while the bandeirantes searched for indigenous captives, they also searched for mineral wealth, which led to the gold being discovered. More than 400,000 Portuguese and half a million African slaves came to the region to mine. Many people abandoned the plantations and towns in the northeast coast to go to the gold region. By 1725, half the population of Brazil was living in southeastern Brazil, officially,850 tons of gold were sent to Portugal in the XVIII century. Other gold circulated illegally, and still other gold remained in the colony to adorn churches, in the 18th century, Ouro Preto became for a time the most populous city in the New World, with an estimated population of 80,000 in 1750. At that time, the population of New York was half that number, Minas Gerais was the gold mining center of Brazil. Slave labor was used for the workforce. The discovery of gold in the area caused an influx of European immigrants. They set up numerous bureaucracies, often with conflicting duties and jurisdictions, the officials generally proved unequal to the task of controlling this highly lucrative industry. In 1830, the St. John del Rey Mining Company, controlled by the British, the British brought in modern management techniques and engineering expertise. Located in Nova Lima, the mine produced ore for 125 years, erário Mineral, author Luís Gomes Ferreira Brazilian Gold Gold mining in Brazil Chilean silver rush Tierra del Fuego Gold RushBrazilian Gold Rush – The main square of Ouro Preto - Praça Tiradentes
7. Gold – Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly yellow, dense, soft, malleable. Chemically, gold is a metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions, Gold often occurs in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the element silver and also naturally alloyed with copper. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium, golds atomic number of 79 makes it one of the higher numbered, naturally occurring elements. It is thought to have produced in supernova nucleosynthesis, from the collision of neutron stars. Because the Earth was molten when it was formed, almost all of the present in the early Earth probably sank into the planetary core. Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of acid and hydrochloric acid. Gold also dissolves in solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating. Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but this is not a chemical reaction, as a precious metal, gold has been used for coinage, jewelry, and other arts throughout recorded history. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold is in existence above ground, the world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, and 10% in industry. Gold is also used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine. As of 2014, the worlds largest gold producer by far was China with 450 tonnes, Gold is cognate with similar words in many Germanic languages, deriving via Proto-Germanic *gulþą from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃-. The symbol Au is from the Latin, aurum, the Latin word for gold, the Proto-Indo-European ancestor of aurum was *h₂é-h₂us-o-, meaning glow. This word is derived from the root as *h₂éu̯sōs, the ancestor of the Latin word Aurora. This etymological relationship is presumably behind the frequent claim in scientific publications that aurum meant shining dawn, Gold is the most malleable of all metals, a single gram can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, and an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet. Gold leaf can be thin enough to become semi-transparentGold – Gold, 79 Au
8. Carolina Gold Rush – The Carolina Gold Rush, the first gold rush in the United States, followed the discovery of a large gold nugget in North Carolina in 1799, by a 12-year-old boy named Conrad Reed. He spotted the nugget while playing in Meadow Creek on his familys farm in Cabarrus County, Conrad took the 17 lb gold nugget home to show his father, however gold was not commonly seen in their community and the value of the nugget was not understood. The nugget was used as a stop in the familys home for several years. In 1802, Conrads father, John Reed, showed the rock to a jeweler, Reed, still unaware of the real value of his doorstop, sold it to the jeweler for $3.50. After learning of the value of the resource on his land John Reed entered into a partnership with Federick Kisor, James Love, in the year 1803 the men found a nugget weighing 28 pounds. News of the discovery was quickly spread by regional newspapers and land owners across the area began to search for gold on their property. Nearly all of the land was owned and the beginning of the Carolina Gold Rush was largely conducted by farmers at the end of the growing season each year. These farmers were capable of conducting shallow surface mining of the known as placer mining. With this progression of mining technique, the profession of mining became a necessity as underground tunnels, the region of Cornwall England had bred miners for decades, who skillfully extracted the copper from their deep mines until, by the early 19th century, those deposits became exhausted. Learning of new opportunity in North Carolina many of these miners immigrated in pursuit of work, some of the ore mills built in the Carolinas can be seen to resemble the design of the old mines in Cornwall. The expertise that these minors taught to the Carolina men spread throughout the region as men sought gold across the Carolina Slate Belt, the Reed Gold Mine, was designated a National Historic Landmark. Visitors can explore reconstructed underground mining tunnels, over 2,500 ounces of gold was deposited in the Philadelphia Mint by 1824. In 1835, Andrew Jackson signed into a law bill to open three branch mints, in Charlotte, North Carolina, and Dahlonega, Georgia, for minting gold coinage, the ones in Charlotte and Dahlonega were to mint the newly discovered gold. Georgia Gold Belt Georgia Gold Rush Charlotte Mint Dahlonega MintCarolina Gold Rush – Carolina Gold Belt, showing, south to north, the Haile, Brewer, Howie, Stuart, Moore, Long, Means, Pioneer Mills, Reed, Ferris, Rocky River, Buffalo, Phoenix, San Cristian, Concord, Moratock, Eisenhauer, Mt. Mackin, Russel, Gold Hill, Reimer, Dunns Mt., Salisbury, Silver Hill, Emmons, Silver Valley, Hoover Hill, and Jones mines. Gold-quartz veins are found in the schists.
9. Georgia Gold Rush – The Georgia Gold Rush was the second significant gold rush in the United States and the first in Georgia, and overshadowed the previous rush in North Carolina. It started in 1829 in present-day Lumpkin County near the county seat, Dahlonega, by the early 1840s, gold became difficult to find. Many Georgia miners moved west when gold was found in the Sierra Nevada in 1848, while the discovery in Georgia in 1828 was the event that led to what is called the Georgia Gold Rush, there were reports of gold in the North Georgia Mountains much earlier. Since the 16th century, American Indians in Georgia told European explorers that the amounts of gold which they possessed came from mountains of the interior. Some poorly documented accounts exist of Spanish or French mining gold in North Georgia between 1560 and 1690, but they are based on supposition and on rumors passed on by Indians. In summing up known sources, Yeates observed, “Many of these accounts and traditions seem to be quite plausible. Nevertheless, it is probable that the Spaniards would have abandoned mines which were afterwards found to be quite profitable, as those in North Georgia. ”Hernando de Soto led an expedition in 1540, and came across a young native who showed the Spaniards how gold was mined, melted. Ozley Bird Saunook, a former Cherokee chief, claimed his people knew of gold in the area as early as the century when de Soto passed through the region. In 1799, gold was discovered in Cabarrus County, North Carolina, Conrad had the stone identified in Fayetteville, North Carolina, three years later. By 1804, this Carolina Gold Rush resulted in placer mining, the gold belt was extended north into Virginia, and south into South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. No one knows which version of the find is accurate, Some anecdotes have either Frank Logan or his slave making the find in White County, Georgia. Another version of the White County find has John Witheroods finding a three-ounce nugget along Dukes Creek, still another version was that the North Carolina prospector Jesse Hogan found gold near Dahlonega, Georgia, at Wards Creek. Thomas Bowen supposedly found gold in the roots of a tree along Dukes Creek. Benjamin Parks found gold on his birthday in 1828 while walking along a deer path, however, these stories have no contemporary documents to support their validity. No matter who made the discovery in 1828, the gold rush started in 1829 in Lumpkin County. One of the first public accounts was on August 1,1829, so it appears that what we long anticipated has come to pass at last, namely, that the gold region of North and South Carolina, would be found to extend into Georgia. Gold was discovered in Carroll County, Georgia, in 1830, in the early stages of the gold rush, the majority of the mining was placer mining. The Philadelphia Mint received $212,000 in gold from Georgia in 1830, other estimates were that in 1831 there were 6,000 to 10,000 miners between the Chestatee River and the Etowah RiverGeorgia Gold Rush – Gold veinlets (they appear white) in a sample of gneiss from the Battle Branch Mine in Lumpkin County
10. Chilean silver rush – Between 1830 and 1850 Chilean silver mining grew at an unprecedented space which transformed mining into one of the countrys principal sources of wealth. The rush caused rapid demographic, infrastructural, and economic expansion in the semi-arid Norte Chico mountains where the silver deposits lay, a number of Chileans made large fortunes in the rush and made investments in other areas of the economy of Chile. By the 1850s the rush was in decline and lucrative silver mining ended in the 1870s. At the same time mining activity in Chile reoriented to saltpetre operations, placer deposits of gold were exploited by the Spanish in the 16th century following their arrival in the same century. However, only after the independence in the 19th century did mining once again get prominence among economic activities in Chile, following the discovery of silver at Agua Amarga and Arqueros the Norte Chico mountains north of La Serena were exhaustively prospected. In 1832 prospector Juan Godoy found a silver outcrop 50 km south of Copiapó in Chañarcillo, Godoy successfully claimed the discovered outcrop in his name and the name of José Godoy and Miguel Gallo. The finding attracted thousands of people to the place and generated significant wealth, during the heyday of Chañarcillo it produced more than 332 tons of silver ore until the deposits begun to be exhausted in 1874. A settlement of 600 people mushroomed in Chañarcillo leading to the establishment of surveillance system to avoid disorders and theft of ore. The settlement evolved over time to a town named Juan Godoy which came to have a plaza, school, market, hospital, theater, a railroad station, following the discovery of Chañarcillo many other ores were found near Copiapó well into the 1840s. The many findings resulted in the court of Copiapó receiving numerous claims, in 1848 another large ore deposit was discovered at Tres Puntas sparkling yet another rush. Copiapó experienced a demographic and urbanistic growth during the rush. The town became a centre for trade and services of a mining district. In 1851 Copiapó was connected by railroad to Caldera, its port of export. The mining zone slowly grew northwards into the border with Bolivia. Agriculture in Norte Chico also expanded as a consequence of the rush, by 1855, Copiapó was already in decline. At the end of the rush, rich miners had diversified their assets into banking, agriculture, trade. In 1870,1570 miners worked in the Chañarcillo mines, however the mines were exhausted by 1874, despite this, Chañarcillo was the most productive mining district in 19th century Chile. A last major discovery of silver occurred 1870 in Caracoles in Bolivian territory adjacent to Chile, apart from being discovered by Chileans, the ore was also extracted with Chilean capital and minersChilean silver rush – Drawing of an early 19th-century Chilean miner.
11. Guano – Guano is the accumulated excrement of seabirds, seals, or cave-dwelling bats. As a manure, guano is an effective fertilizer due to its exceptionally high content of nitrogen, phosphate and potassium. During the twentieth century, guano-producing birds became an important target of conservation programs, today, guano is increasingly sought after by organic farmers. Seabird guano consists of nitrogen-rich ammonium oxalate and urate, phosphates, as well as some earth salts, the word guano originates from the Andean indigenous language Quechua, which refers to any form of dung used as an agricultural fertilizer. Archaeological evidence suggests that Andean people have collected guano from small islands, spanish colonial documents suggest that the rulers of the Inca Empire assigned great value to guano, restricted access to it, and punished any disturbance of the birds with death. The Guanay cormorant has historically been the most abundant and important producer of guano, other important guano producing species off the coast of Peru are the Peruvian pelican and the Peruvian booby. At that time, massive deposits of guano existed on some islands, in this context the United States passed the Guano Islands Act in 1856, which gave U. S. citizens discovering a source of guano on an unclaimed island exclusive rights to the deposits. Nine of these islands are still officially U. S. territories, control over guano played a central role in the Chincha Islands War between Spain and a Peruvian-Chilean alliance. Indentured workers from China played an important role in guano harvest, the first group of 79 Chinese workers arrived in Peru in 1849, by the time that trade ended a quarter of a century later, over 100,000 of their fellow countrymen had been imported. There is no evidence that enslaved Pacific Islanders participated in guano mining. Between 1847 and 1873, there was a significant increase in Peruvian guano exports, after 1870, the use of Peruvian guano as a fertilizer was eclipsed by saltpeter in the form of caliche extraction from the interior of the Atacama Desert, not far from the guano areas. Since 1909, when the Peruvian government took over guano extraction for use by Peru farmers, South Africa independently developed its own guano industry based on sustained-yield production from marine birds during this period, as well. Both industries eventually collapsed due to pressure from overfishing, DNA testing has suggested that new potato varieties imported alongside Peruvian seabird guano in 1842 brought a virulent strain of potato blight that began the Irish Potato Famine. The ideal type of guano is found in dry climates. Post-depositional decomposition and ammonia volatilization of penguin guano also plays an important role in the evolution of ornithogenic sediments in the cold, Bat guano is usually mined in caves and this mining is associated with a corresponding loss of troglobytic biota and diminishing of biodiversity. Guano deposits support a variety of cave-adapted invertebrates that rely on bat feces as their sole source of nutrition. The greatest damage caused by mining to caves with extant guano deposits is to the bat colonies themselves, bats are highly vulnerable to regular disturbance to their roosts. Some species, such as Phyllonycteris aphylla, have low fat reserves, many species will drop pups when in panic, with subsequent death, leading to a steady reduction in populationGuano – The nest of the Peruvian booby is made of almost pure guano.
12. Peru – Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty with its capital in Lima, ideas of political autonomy later spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence, subsequently, the country has undergone changes in government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict as well as periods of stability, Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is a country with a high Human Development Index score. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing, the Peruvian population, estimated at 31.2 million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages and this mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music. The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans, thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega, son of an Inca princess, the Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using such as irrigation and terracing, camelid husbandry. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money, the oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal, the Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Perus Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, on the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca, Wari, and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica. Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo, in the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in CuscoPeru – Sculpted Chavin head embedded in one of the walls of the temple of Chavín de Huantar
13. California Gold Rush – The California Gold Rush began on January 24,1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutters Mill in Coloma, California. The news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States, the Gold Rush initiated the California Genocide, with 100,000 Native Californians dying between 1848 and 1868. By the time it ended, California had gone from a thinly populated ex-Mexican territory to the state of the first nominee for the Republican Party. The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial, whole indigenous societies were attacked and pushed off their lands by the gold-seekers, called forty-niners. The first to hear confirmed information of the rush were the people in Oregon, the Sandwich Islands, and Latin America. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the Gold Rush attracted tens of thousands from Latin America, Europe, Australia, agriculture and ranching expanded throughout the state to meet the needs of the settlers. San Francisco grew from a settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852. Roads, churches, schools and other towns were built throughout California, in 1849 a state constitution was written. The new constitution was adopted by vote, and the future states interim first governor. In September,1850, California became a state, at the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no law regarding property rights in the goldfields and a system of staking claims was developed. Prospectors retrieved the gold from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, although the mining caused environmental harm, more sophisticated methods of gold recovery were developed and later adopted around the world. New methods of transportation developed as steamships came into regular service, by 1869 railroads were built across the country from California to the eastern United States. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, Gold worth tens of billions of todays dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few. However, many returned home with more than they had started with. The Mexican–American War ended on February 3,1848, although California was firmly in American hands before that, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided for, among other things, the formal transfer of Upper California to the United States. The California Gold Rush began at Sutters Mill, near Coloma, on January 24,1848, James W. Marshall, a foreman working for Sacramento pioneer John Sutter, found shiny metal in the tailrace of a lumber mill Marshall was building for Sutter on the American River. Marshall brought what he found to John Sutter, and the two tested the metal. However, rumors started to spread and were confirmed in March 1848 by San Francisco newspaper publisherCalifornia Gold Rush – Sailing to California at the beginning of the Gold Rush
14. Pennsylvania – Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, the state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary. The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States, it came into being in 1681 as a result of a land grant to William Penn. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden and it was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12,1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the states largest city of Philadelphia, during the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washingtons headquarters during the winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west, of a total 46,055 square miles,44,817 square miles are land,490 square miles are inland waters, and 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States, Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Cities include Philadelphia, Reading, Lebanon and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, Bethlehem, the northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston City, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest, the state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and the Erie Plain. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the corner, has a humid continental climate. The largest city, Philadelphia, has characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware. Moving toward the interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, the Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania ca. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their lands in AmericaPennsylvania – World's End State Park, Sullivan County
15. Steamboats of the Colorado River – Steamboats were tried on the upper Colorado River, in Glen Canyon, on the Green River in Utah and Wyoming, and on the Grand River, above its confluence with the Green River in Utah and in Colorado. These attempts in the late 19th Century and early 20th Century met with little success, the beginnings of the use of steamboats on the Colorado River came as the result of the founding of Fort Yuma during the Yuma War. Costs of such transport was minimally $500 per ton, supplying the fort became so difficult, that for a time it had to be abandoned. Attempts had been made by the Army to bring supplies the 150 miles up from the Gulf of California, first in November 1850 to January 1851, by its transport schooner, Invincible under Captain Alfred H. Wilcox and then by its longboat commanded by Lieutenant George Derby. Later Lieutenant Derby, in his report, recommended that a shallow draft sternwheel steamboat would be the way to send supplies up river to the fort. On board were 250 tons of supplies for the newly reoccupied fort and these they assembled to be poled up the Colorado. However the first barge sank with its cargo a total loss, the second was finally, after a long struggle poled up to Fort Yuma, but what little it carried was soon consumed by the garrison. Subsequently wagons again were sent from the fort to haul the balance of the supplies overland from the estuary through the marshes and woodlands of the Delta. Both of these attempts on the river failed in the face of extreme tides in the estuary or strong currents, hauling supplies from the estuary worked but was less satisfactory than the 185 mile San Diego route over land. Firstly it was a violation of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo for American troops to intrude into Mexican territory, secondly, on top of already costly land shipping was the prospect of the additional expense of Mexican custom duties that would be levied on anything landed on Mexican territory. In November 1852, the Uncle Sam, a 65-foot long side-wheel paddle steamer, also built by Domingo Marcucci and it was brought by the schooner Capacity from San Francisco to the delta by the next contractor to supply the fort, Captain James Turnbull. It was assembled and launched in the estuary,30 miles above the mouth of the Colorado River, equipped with only a 20 horsepower engine, the Uncle Sam could only carry 35 tons of supplies, taking 15 days to make the first 120 mile trip. It made many trips up and down the river, taking four months to finish carrying the supplies for the fort, negligence caused it to sink at its dock below Fort Yuma, and was then washed away before it could be raised, in the spring flood of 1853. Turnbull who meanwhile had returned to the Delta from San Francisco with another cargo and he returned for a new hull, while the army sent wagons to recover the cargo from the delta again. However, Turnbull in financial difficulty, disappeared from the city leaving creditors unpaid, nevertheless, Turnbull had shown the worth of steamboats to solve Fort Yumas supply problem. In late 1852, George Alonzo Johnson with his partner Hartshorne, there it was reassembled at a landing in the upper tidewater of the river and reached Fort Yuma, January 18,1854. This new boat, capable of carrying 50 tons of cargo, was very successful making round trips from the estuary to the fort in only four or five days, costs were cut to $75 per ton. A second reason for the speed of the new steamboat beside its powerful engine was the establishment of the wood-yards along the river between the delta and Fort YumaSteamboats of the Colorado River – Yuma and Fort Yuma across the Colorado River (circa 1875 lithograph). Steamboat is downriver from the ferry crossing that is equipped with poles on both banks to raise the ferry's tow cables above the smokestacks of passing steamboats.
16. Petroleum industry in Azerbaijan – The petroleum industry in Azerbaijan produces about 873,260 barrels of oil per day and 29 billion cubic meters of gas per year as of 2013. Azerbaijan is one of the birthplaces of the oil industry and its history is linked to the fortunes of petroleum. It is poised to become an important oil and gas producer once again, in 1871, Ivan Mirzoev, an ethnic Armenian who was then an otkupchina monopolist, built the first wooden oil derrick followed by another the next year. Drilling was conducted primitively with an arm, whim and manual pump. There is evidence of petroleum being used in trade as early as the 3rd, information on the production of oil on the Apsheron peninsula can be found in the manuscripts of most Arabic and Persian authors. This oil is not good to eat, but it is good for burning and as a salve for men, men come from a long distance to fetch this oil, and in all the neighborhood no other oil is burnt but this. The first detailed description of the Baku oil industry was made by Engelbert Kaempfer, in his notes he confirms the existence of places where natural gas discharges to the surface. Kaempfer describes flaming steppe as follows, it and it was occupying the territory of 88 steps in length and 26 in width. Many 18th and 19th century European accounts of the Caucasus refer to the Fire Temple of Baku at Suraxanı raion, in 1806, the Russian empire occupied Baku Khanate and took monopolistic control of oil production. Later exclusive rights to produce oil were given to individuals, thereby creating the Persian otkupchina lease system, Oil extraction methods in those times were very primitive —mainly hand-dug wells, drilled to very shallow depths. The production volume of those years can be judged from data provided in 1842 by the Caspian Chamber of the Department of State Property Ministry. As a result of monopoly and the absence of growing demand. In 1813, the number of producing wells was 116, then 125 in 1825,120 in 1850, otkupschina system meant that oil production was monopolized by set of individuals who saw no incentive to increase production or improve drilling methods. In 1846, under the supervision of state advisor V. N, semyonov engineer Alekseev drilled a 21 m deep well using a primitive percussion drilling mechanism, in Bibiheybət to explore for oil, with positive results. More than a later, on August 27,1859. A small petrochemical industry sprung up around Baku, as demand for kerosene soared locally, vasily Kokorev, Peter Gubonin and German baron N. E. Tornow built the first kerosene factory in Surakhany, the factory was used to produce kerosene out of kir, an asphalt-like substance. Vitte, a Tiflis pharmacist, built the second paraffin-producing factory on Pirallahi Island, as a result, there was flurry of financial activity and various bank societies and organization were createdPetroleum industry in Azerbaijan – Onshore oil fields in Azerbaijan
17. Black Hills Gold Rush – The Black Hills Gold Rush took place in Dakota Territory in the United States. It began in 1874 following the Custer Expedition and reached a peak in 1876-77, rumors and poorly documented reports of gold in the Black Hills go back to the early 19th century. In the 1860s, Roman Catholic missionary Father De Smet is reported to have seen Sioux Indians carrying gold which they told him came from the Black Hills, prior to the Gold Rush, the Black Hills were used by Native Americans. The United States government recognized the Black Hills as belonging to the Sioux by the Treaty of Laramie in 1868, despite being within Indian territory, and therefore off-limits, white Americans were increasingly interested in the gold-mining possibilities of the Black Hills. Prospectors found gold in 1874 near present-day Custer, South Dakota, the tale of first gold discovery in the Black Hills was thrown into question in 1887 by the discovery of what has become known as the Thoen Stone. Many of the miners came up the Missouri River from Kansas, the Black Hills Gold Rush began in 1874. The first arrivals were a force of 1000 men led by George Armstrong Custer to investigate reports that the area contained gold and they found small amounts of gold in present-day Custer, South Dakota, and looked for better-paying locations. They moved north, establishing the towns of Hill City, Sheridan, at each spot, they found flakes of gold, but not the bonanza they sought. Things changed when the miners stumbled across Deadwood and Whitewood Creeks in the northern Black Hills, for the initial discoverers, each spade of earth revealed a veritable fortune in gold. By 1876, miners had claimed all the land around the creeks, although all the land was claimed, thousands more flocked in, hoping to find a missed spot. The gold the miners found was placer gold, loose gold pieces that were mixed in with the rocks, most good prospectors knew that this placer gold was eroded from hard-rock deposits. So while many still flocked to Deadwood, others looked for the deposits that were the source of the placer gold. On April 9,1876 Fred and Moses Manuel, Hank Harney and Alex Engh discovered an outcropping near Lead, South Dakota, they claimed their find. They had located the area from which the gold in Deadwood Creek had eroded. Here, the men produced 10% of the gold supply over the next 125 years. Many more prospectors hoped to find another Homestake so they continued to look, the workers crushed the rock to release the gold, concentrated the gold by gravity methods, and then exposed the concentrate to mercury that would amalgamate or mix with the gold. Miners call this kind of gold extraction free milling, Gold existed elsewhere in the Black Hills, but it was not in the free-milling state. In these conditions, gold was chemically bound to the rock and it was called refractory gold oreBlack Hills Gold Rush – The Homestake Mine in 1889
18. Patagonian sheep farming boom – In late 19th and early 20th century sheep farming expanded across the Patagonian grasslands making the southern regions of Argentina and Chile one of the worlds foremost sheep farming areas. The sheep farming boom attracted thousands of immigrants from Chiloé and Europe to southern Patagonia, early sheep farming in Patagonia was oriented towards wool production but changed over time with the development of industrial refrigerators towards meat export. Besides altering the demographic and economic outlook of Southern Patagonia the sheep farming boom also changed the steppe ecosystem, sheep farming in Patagonia was carried out in a estancia system. Each of these estancias was administered from a casco central where administrators, foremen, sociedad Explotadora de Magallanes possessed more than 200,000 sheep by 1901. In 1843 Chile established a colony in Brunswick Peninsula to assert sovereignty over the strategic Strait of Magellan, early sheep herding activity in the Chilean colony was very modest. The first men to realize the potential for large-scale sheep herding in the lands around the Strait of Magellan were a group of British immigrants that settled in Punta Arenas in the 1870s. The first successful attempt at farming in the Straits of Magellan is credited to the Englishman Henry Reynard who raised sheep in 1877 on Isabel Island. These sheep were brought to the Straits of Magellan by Chilean governor Diego Dublé Almeida who travelled specifically for purpose to the Falkland Islands Chacabuco in 1876. In Port Stanley he bought 300 sheep and back in Chile he sold them to Henry Reynard, by 1878 this first sheep-raising experiment was considered a success and it created a huge demand for land among individuals who attempted to establish their own sheep-raising businesses. All the best sheep-herding areas along the Strait had been leased or reserved by 1884, the sheep farming boom altered not only the demographic and economic outlook of Southern Patagonia, but also changed the steppe ecosystem. Research suggests that sheep excrement might have caused eutrophication of lagoons like Potrok Aike, the Strait of Magellan and the Atlantic coast were covered by natural grasslands so no clearing of forests occurred during the introduction of sheep. Amazon rubber boom Argentine beef New Zealand wool boom Patagonia rebeldePatagonian sheep farming boom – Economic history of Chile
19. Mutton – Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep at different ages. A sheep in its first year is called a lamb, the meat of a juvenile sheep older than one year is hogget, outside North America this is also a term for the living animal. The meat of a sheep is mutton, a term only used for the meat. The term mutton is almost always used to refer to meat in the Indian subcontinent. Lamb is the most expensive of the three types, and in recent decades sheep meat is increasingly only retailed as lamb, sometimes stretching the accepted distinctions given above. The stronger-tasting mutton is now hard to find in many areas, in Australia, the term prime lamb is often used to refer to lambs raised for meat. The definitions for lamb, hogget and mutton vary considerably between countries, younger lambs are smaller and more tender. Mutton is meat from a sheep over two old, and has less tender flesh. In general, the darker the colour, the older the animal, baby lamb meat will be pale pink, while regular lamb is pinkish-red. Lamb — a young sheep under 12 months of age which does not have any permanent incisor teeth in wear, hogget — A term for a sheep of either sex having no more than two permanent incisors in wear, or its meat. Still common in farming usage, it is now rare as a domestic or retail term for the meat, Much of the lamb sold in the UK is hogget to an Antipodean farmer. Mutton — a female or castrated male sheep having more than two permanent incisors in wear, under United States law, lamb is defined in terms of mutton, The term lamb means meat, other than mutton, produced from sheep. Under current federal regulations, only the lamb is used, Lamb — ovine animals of any age, including ewes and rams The terms mutton. Nevertheless, the use of lamb in the United States may be confusing. Under the previous definition, lamb meant meat, other than mutton, the term mutton is applied to goat meat in most of these countries, and the goat population has been rising. For example, mutton-curry is always made from goat meat and it is estimated that over one-third of the goat population is slaughtered every year and sold as mutton. The flavour and texture of milk-fed lamb when grilled or roasted is generally thought to be finer than that of older lamb, the areas in northern Spain where this can be found include Asturias, Cantabria, Castile and León, and La Rioja. Milk-fed lambs are prized for Easter in Greece, when they are roasted on a spitMutton – Lamb
20. Cripple Creek, Colorado – The City of Cripple Creek is the Statutory City that is the county seat of Teller County, Colorado, United States. The city population was 1,189 at the 2010 United States Census, Cripple Creek is a former gold mining camp located 44 miles southwest of Colorado Springs near the base of Pikes Peak. The Cripple Creek Historic District, which received National Historic Landmark status in 1961, includes part or all of city, the city is now a part of the Colorado Springs, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area. For many years Cripple Creeks high valley, at an elevation of 9,494 feet, was considered no more important than a cattle pasture, many prospectors avoided the area after the Mount Pisgah hoax, a mini gold rush caused by salting. On the 20th of October,1890, Robert Miller Bob Womack discovered a rich ore, thousands of prospectors flocked to the region, and before long Winfield Scott Stratton located the famous Independence lode, one of the largest gold strikes in history. In three years, the population increased from five hundred to ten thousand by 1893, although $500 million worth of gold ore was dug from Cripple Creek, Womack died penniless on 10 August 1909. In 1896 Cripple Creek suffered two disastrous fires, the first occurred on April 25 destroying half of the city including much of the business district. Four days later another fire destroyed much of the remaining half, the city was rebuilt in a period of a few months, most historic buildings today date back to 1896. By 1900, Cripple Creek and its city, Victor, were substantial mining communities. During the 1890s, many of the miners in the Cripple Creek area joined a miners union, the Western Federation of Miners. By 1903, the allegiance of the government had shifted. The WFM strike of 1903 and the governors response precipitated the Colorado Labor Wars, through 2005, the Cripple Creek district produced about 23.5 million troy ounces of gold. The underground mines are mostly idle, except for a few small operations, there are significant underground deposits remaining which may become feasible to mine in the future. The current mining operation is conducted by Cripple Creek and Victor Gold Mining Company ran currently by Newmont Mining, the mine operates 24 hours a day,365 days a year. Mine operations, maintenance, and processing departments work a rotating day/night schedule in 12-hour shifts, with many empty storefronts and picturesque homes, Cripple Creek once drew interest as a ghost town. At one point the population dropped to a few hundred, although Cripple Creek was never entirely deserted, in the 1970s and 1980s travelers on photo safari might find themselves in a beautiful decaying historic town. A few restaurants and bars catered to tourists who could pass weathered empty homes with lace curtains hanging in broken windows, Colorado voters allowed Cripple Creek to establish legalized gambling in 1991. Cripple Creek is currently more of a gambling and tourist town than a ghost town, casinos now occupy many historic buildingsCripple Creek, Colorado – Entering Cripple Creek
21. Bodie, California – Bodie is a ghost town in the Bodie Hills east of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Mono County, California, United States, about 75 miles southeast of Lake Tahoe. It is located 12 mi east-southeast of Bridgeport, at an elevation of 8379 feet, as Bodie Historic District, the U. S. Department of the Interior recognizes it as a National Historic Landmark. Also registered as a California Historical Landmark, the ghost town officially became Bodie State Historic Park in 1962, since 2012, Bodie has been administered by the Bodie Foundation, which uses the tagline Protecting Bodies Future by Preserving Its Past. Bodie began as a camp of little note following the discovery of gold in 1859 by a group of prospectors. Bodey perished in a blizzard the following November while making a trip to Monoville. Gold discovered at Bodie coincided with the discovery of silver at nearby Aurora, but while these two towns boomed, interest in Bodie remained lackluster. By 1868 only two companies had built stamp mills at Bodie, and both had failed, rich discoveries in the adjacent Bodie Mine during 1878 attracted even more hopeful people. By 1879, Bodie had a population of approximately 5, 000–7,000 people, one idea maintains that in 1880, Bodie was Californias second or third largest city, but the U. S. Census of that year disproves the popular tale. Over the years, Bodies mines produced gold valued at nearly US$34 million, Bodie boomed from late 1877 through mid– to late 1880. The first newspaper, The Standard Pioneer Journal of Mono County and it started out as a weekly, but soon became a thrice-weekly paper. It was also during this time that a line was built which connected Bodie with Bridgeport and Genoa. California and Nevada newspapers predicted Bodie would become the next Comstock Lode, men from both states were lured to Bodie by the prospect of another bonanza. Gold bullion from the towns nine stamp mills was shipped to Carson City, Nevada, by way of Aurora, Wellington, most shipments were accompanied by armed guards. After the bullion reached Carson City, it was delivered to the mint there, at its peak,65 saloons lined Main Street, which was a mile long. Murders, shootouts, barroom brawls, and stagecoach holdups were regular occurrences, as with other remote mining towns, Bodie had a popular, though clandestine, red light district on the north end of town. She is credited with giving life-saving care to many, but was buried outside the cemetery fence. Bodie had a Chinatown, the street of which ran at a right angle to Bodies Main Street, with several hundred Chinese residents at one point. Opium dens were plentiful in this area, the cemetery includes a Miners Union section, and includes a cenotaph to President James A. GarfieldBodie, California – Bodie
22. Rubber – Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water. Malaysia and Indonesia are two of the leading rubber producers, forms of polyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Currently, rubber is harvested mainly in the form of the latex from the tree or others. The latex is a sticky, milky colloid drawn off by making incisions in the bark, the latex then is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. In major areas, latex is allowed to coagulate in the collection cup, the coagulated lumps are collected and processed into dry forms for marketing. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products, either alone or in combination with other materials, in most of its useful forms, it has a large stretch ratio and high resilience, and is extremely waterproof. The major commercial source of rubber latex is the Pará rubber tree. This species is preferred because it grows well under cultivation, a properly managed tree responds to wounding by producing more latex for several years. Congo rubber, formerly a source of rubber, came from vines in the genus Landolphia. These cannot be cultivated, and the drive to collect latex from wild plants was responsible for many of the atrocities committed under the Congo Free State. The latex exhibits the quality as the natural rubber from rubber trees. In the wild types of dandelion, latex content is low, in Nazi Germany, research projects tried to use dandelions as a base for rubber production, but failed. In collaboration with Continental Tires, IME began a pilot facility, many other plants produce forms of latex rich in isoprene polymers, though not all produce usable forms of polymer as easily as the Pará. Some of them require more processing to produce anything like usable rubber. Some produce other desirable materials, for example gutta-percha and chicle from Manilkara species, the term gum rubber is sometimes applied to the tree-obtained version of natural rubber in order to distinguish it from the synthetic version. The first use of rubber was by the cultures of Mesoamerica. The earliest archeological evidence of the use of latex from the Hevea tree comes the Olmec culture. The Pará rubber tree is indigenous to South America, charles Marie de La Condamine is credited with introducing samples of rubber to the Académie Royale des Sciences of France in 1736Rubber – Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree, Cameroon.
23. Amazon basin – The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. The Amazon drainage basin covers an area of about 7,500,000 km2 and it is located in the countries of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. Most of the basin is covered by the Amazon Rainforest, also known as Amazonia, with a 5,500,000 km2 area of dense tropical forest, this is the largest rainforest in the world. The Amazon River rises in the Andes Mountains at the west of the basin with its tributary the Marañón River in Peru. It is usually considered to be the second longest river in the world, however, a team of Brazilian scientists has claimed that the Amazon is the longest river in the world. It covers about 6,400 km before draining into the Atlantic Ocean, the Amazon and its tributaries form the largest volume of water. The Amazon accounts for about 20% of the water carried to the oceans by rivers. Some of the Amazon rainforests are deforested because of the increasing of cattle ranches, the highest point in the watershed of the Amazon is the peak of Yerupajá at 6,635 m. The Amazon basin formerly flowed west to Pacific Ocean until the Andes formed, politically the basin is divided into the Brazilian Amazônia Legal, the Peruvian Amazon, the Amazon region of Colombia and parts of Bolivia, Ecuador and the Venezuelan state of Amazonas. Plant growth is dense and its variety of inhabitants is comparatively high due to the heavy rainfall. Little sunlight reaches the ground due to the roof canopy by plants. The ground remains dark and damp and only shade tolerant vegetation will grow here, orchids and bromeliads exploit trees and other plants to get closer to the sunlight. They grow hanging onto the branches or tree trunks with aerial roots, not as parasites, species of tropical trees native to the Amazon include Brazil nut, rubber tree and Assai palm. More than 1,400 species of mammals are found in the Amazon and its larger mammals include the jaguar, ocelot, capybara and South American tapir. About 1500 bird species inhabit the Amazon Basin, the biodiversity of the Amazon and the sheer number of diverse bird species is given by the number of different bird families that reside in these humid forests. An example of such would be the family, to which the Guianan cock-of-the-rock belong. Birds such as toucans, and hummingbirds are found here. Macaws are famous for gathering by the hundreds along the cliffs of the Amazon RiverAmazon basin – Aerial view of part of the Amazon rainforest.
24. Indiana gas boom – The Indiana gas boom was a period of active drilling and production of natural gas in the Trenton Gas Field, in the US state of Indiana and the adjacent northwest part of Ohio. The boom began in the early 1880s and lasted into the early 20th century, when the Indiana natural gas belt was discovered, the citizens were unaware of what they had found. Nearly a decade passed without action to recover the resource, once its significance was realized, further exploration showed the Indiana gas belt was the largest deposit of natural gas discovered until then. The resource was rapidly tapped for use, because the gas was being wasted in use, the Indiana General Assembly attempted to regulate its use. In a series of cases, the Indiana Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the law, the poor understanding of oil and gas wells at the time led to the loss of an estimated 90% of the natural gas by venting into the atmosphere or by widespread misuse. By 1902 the yield from the fields began to decline, leading to a switch to alternative forms of energy, with most of the gas removed from the field, there was no longer enough pressure to pump the oil out of the ground. An estimated 900 million barrels of oil remain in the field, advancements in artificial lift technology have led to extraction of some of the oil, but at a relatively slow rate and high cost compared to more productive fields. Natural gas was first discovered in Indiana in 1876, coal miners in the town of Eaton were boring a hole in search of coal. After they reached a depth of about 600 feet, a noise came from the ground. Some believed that they had breached the ceiling of Hell and they plugged the hole and did not drill any more at that location. In 1884, natural gas was discovered in Ohio and the news of the discovery was published in the local Indiana newspapers, residents of Eaton remembered the early incident near their town and realized the magnitude of the discovery. Returning to the site, a company reopened the hole and drilled down another 322 feet, when the escaping gas was ignited, the flame reached 12 feet into the air and was visible from Muncie. Gas fever swept the state and thousands of gas wells were created, explorers found that the gas field was the largest of natural gas fields found up to that date, covering an area of 5,120 square miles. The belt came to be called the Trenton Gas Field, drillers found large quantities of oil in addition to the natural gas. The Trenton Gas Field was almost completely interconnected, so a well at any one location lowered pressure across the entire field, whenever new holes were bored, a pipe was created off the main line. It was lit with a constant flame as proof that the gas was flowing, although burning such a flame wasted massive amounts of the resource, the practice became common. The constant burning gas flare was called a flambeau, the gas discovery stimulated the development of industry in northern Indiana. The Ball Corporation opened in Muncie, using the fuel to make glassIndiana gas boom – Natural gas miners and their drill, near Kokomo, Indiana, c. 1885
25. Northwest Ohio – Northwest or northwestern Ohio consists of multiple counties in the northwestern corner of the United States state of Ohio. This area borders Lake Erie, southern Michigan, and eastern Indiana, some areas in northwestern Ohio are also considered the Black Swamp area. The Toledo metropolitan area is part of the region. Just like any other region, there is no universally agreed-upon boundary for northwestern Ohio, the areas population in the year 2000 was 1,639,144. The area is declining in population, specifically in the northern regions, southern areas such as Marion and Morrow counties as well as the city of Findlay are growing. The city of Toledo serves as the city for the region of Northwest Ohio. Most of the television channels and radio stations are licensed in either Toledo. Though Toledo is a city, the region is primarily agriculture with relatively small centers of commerce in various locations. In recent years, Lucas County has seen a decline in population since 1970, whereas neighboring Wood County and Hancock County have experienced modest, yet steady. Many of the cities, townships, and villages in northwest Ohio are clustered in the Toledo MSA, the counties of Defiance, Fulton, Henry, Paulding, Putnam, Van Wert, and Williams in the state of Ohio are usually classified as extreme northwest Ohio. According to the 2000 Census, the population of this portion of NW Ohio is 234,660, when Allen and Hancock counties are included, the population is 414,428. Just like any other region, there is no universally agreed-upon line for northwestern Ohio, Toledo Express Airport, in suburban Swanton, is the largest airport in northwest Ohio. Toledo Express is served by seven major passenger airlines, and has named one of the five best small airports in the Midwest. Toledo Express is also an air cargo center, serving as the international hub for BAX Global. Toledo Express also hosts the corporate departments of Owens-Illinois, Owens-Corning, Pilkington. Grand Aire Express offers charter and air services from its base at the airport. Additionally, Toledo Express is a base for F-16 fighter jets of the Ohio Air National Guard, detroit Metro is a fortress hub for Delta Air Lines and offers both domestic and international flights. Cleveland Hopkins is a hub for United Airlines and offers domestic and international flightsNorthwest Ohio – Skyline of Toledo, the largest city in Northwest Ohio
26. Tierra del Fuego gold rush – Between 1883 and 1906 Tierra del Fuego experienced a gold rush attracting a large number of Chileans, Argentines and Europeans to the archipelago, including a large number of Dalmatians. The gold rush led to the formation of the first towns in the archipelago, after the goldrush was over most gold diggers left the archipelago, while the remaining settlers engaged in sheep farming and fishing. Indigenous Selknam populations declined sharply during the rush, in 1879 an expedition led by Chilean Navy officer Ramón Serrano Montaner discovered gold in some watercourses of western Tierra del Fuego. However the gold rush was triggered only in 1884 and that year the French steamship Arctique ran aground on the northern coast of Cape Virgenes. An expedition sent for its rescue discovered gold in a place called Zanja a Pique, when news reached Punta Arenas many inhabitants left for Zanja a Pique. From Punta Arenas the news then reached Buenos Aires, in Buenos Aires the press portrayed the gold findings comparing it to the rushes of Australia and California. In that city many companies were formed for the purpose of extracting gold, julio Popper, a mining engineer, was contracted by one of these companies in Buenos Aires. Popper then proceeded to recruit a number of Dalmatians from the immigrants that lived in Buenos Aires those years. With these workers Popper set out to exploit the findings of El Páramo in San Sebastián Bay, another camp was established in Sloggett Bay at the southern coast of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. The gold rush reached the Chilean islands south of Beagle Channel so that by 1893 over thousand men, most of them Dalmatians, however, by 1894 gold extraction begun to decline in these islands and deposits became gradually depleted. A number of enterprises formed in the 1900s to extract gold from the south of Beagle Channel ended with meager results. During his work in Tierra del Fuego Popper was involved in the killings of native Selknam, around the island gold diggers, sheep herders and even police are reported to have assaulted Indian camps to acquire their women. This created even a shortage of women among Fuegian tribes, the capture and control of women in the main island worsened conflicts between rival groups. There are also reports of trade of women during deals between men, by 1894 Porvenir consisted of five houses, two of them liquor stores and a third one a brothel. The Dalmatians involved in the gold rush gradually left mining activities either to return to Dalmatia or Buenos Aires or establish themselves in Punta Arenas, the gold rush caused an improvement in the geographical knowledge of the poorly known islands south of Beagle Channel and linked them to Punta Arenas. Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina Chilean silver rush German colonization of Valdivia, Osorno and LlanquihueTierra del Fuego gold rush – 5-gram gold coin from Tierra del Fuego by Julius Popper.
27. Witwatersrand Gold Rush – The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush in 1886 that led to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa. It was key part of the Mineral Revolution, but it was not until 1886 that the massive wealth of the Witwatersrand would be uncovered. The first discovery of gold in the region is recorded as being in 1852 in the Pardekraal farm by J. H. Davis an English miner and he sold £600 of gold to the Transvaal Treasury and was subsequently ordered to leave the country. Another find by Pieter Jacob Marais was recorded in 1853 on the Jukskei River, though there were smaller mining operations in the region, it wasn’t until 1884 and the subsequent 1886 discovery at Langlaagte that the Witwatersrand gold rush got underway in earnest. His discovery is recorded in history with a monument where the original gold outcrop is believed to be located, ironically, Harrison is believed to have sold his claim for less than 10 Pounds before leaving the area. News of gold spread rapidly and reached Cecil Rhodes in Kimberley, Rhodes purchased the first batch of Witwatersrand gold from Bantjes for £3000. This purchase would be the first transaction of the newly formed company Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa, the worlds largest ever gold rush had begun and South Africa would never be the same. News spread around the world and prospectors from Australia to California began arriving en masse, Bantjes, whose father had educated Kruger when he was a boy during the Great Trek, had discussions with Kruger regarding those measures. One of them was to heavy taxes on the sale of dynamite to the foreigners so as to slow the momentum. This only agitated the miners and which gave the British a reason to make a grab for the gold fields, the disastrous Jameson Raid followed which put Cecil Rhodes in the spotlight. The Jameson Raid was supported by Rhodes and led by Sir Leander Starr Jameson and its intent was to overthrow the Transvaal government and turn the region into a British colony. There were 500 men who took part in the uprising,21 were killed and it did not take long for fortune-seekers from all over the world to flock to the area, and soon what was a dusty mining village known as Ferreiras Camp was formalised into a settlement. Initially, the ZAR did not believe that the gold would last for long and this is the reason why Johannesburgs central business district streets are so narrow. There is some dispute as to the origin of the name Johannesburg and to which Johannes, a common Dutch name, the city was named after. It is thought to be named after two state surveyors who were sent to choose an area for the layout of the new town, Johann Rissik and Christiaan Johannes Joubert. Within 10 years, the town was already the largest in South Africa, outstripping the growth of Cape Town, the gold rush saw massive development of Johannesburg and the Witwatersrand, and the area remains the prime metropolitan area of South Africa. One consequence of the rush was the construction of the first railway lines in this part of Africa. This was the first working railway line in the Transvaal, the discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand also created a super wealthy class of miners and industrialists known as RandlordsWitwatersrand Gold Rush – George Harrison Park
28. Whatcom County – Whatcom County /ˈhwɒtkəm/ is a county located in the U. S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, the population was 201,140 and it is bordered by Canada on the north, Okanogan County on the east, Skagit County on the south, and the Strait of Georgia on the west. The county seat and largest city is Bellingham, the county was created from Island County by the Washington Territorial Legislature on March 9,1854. It originally included the territory of present-day San Juan and Skagit counties and its name derives from the Lummi word Xwotʼqom, meaning noisy water. Whatcom County comprises the Bellingham, WA Metropolitan Statistical Area, Whatcom Countys northern border is the Canada–US border with the Canadian province of British Columbia. Adjoining the county on the north are five of metropolitan Vancouvers suburbs, Delta, White Rock, Surrey, Langley, several shopping malls and other services in Bellingham and elsewhere in the county are geared to cross-border shopping and recreation. The five crossing points are two at Blaine, as well as at Lynden, Sumas, and Point Roberts. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 2,503 square miles. The county includes Lake Whatcom, which empties into Bellingham Bay by way of Whatcom Creek, physiographically, Whatcom County is an extension of the Fraser Valley or Lower Mainland area of British Columbia. This is essentially the lowland plain of the Fraser River. At some periods in the past one of the Fraser Rivers lower arms entered Bellingham Bay near Bellingham via what is now the mouth of the Nooksack River. A very small part of the county, Point Roberts, about 5 square miles, is an extension of the Tsawwassen Peninsula, the highest point in the county is the peak of the active volcano Mount Baker at 10,778 feet above sea level. The lowest points are at sea level along the Pacific Ocean, SR20 connecting US101 and Sidney, British Columbia with Newport, Washington via the North Cascades Highway. Farthest north highway thru the Cascade Mountains in USA, note that this highway does not connect to most of Whatcom County – Instead, a person would have to travel south to Sedro-Woolley in Skagit County to connect to Highway 20. Alaska Marine Highway connecting Alaska highways to the Interstate Highway System, the population density was 79 people per square mile. There were 73,893 housing units at a density of 35 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 88. 41% White,0. 69% Black or African American,2. 82% Native American,2. 78% Asian,0. 14% Pacific Islander,2. 49% from other races, and 2. 66% from two or more races. 5. 21% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any raceWhatcom County – Sign at county boundary, 1970
29. Fairbanks – Fairbanks /ˈfɛrbæŋks/ is a home rule city and the borough seat of the Fairbanks North Star Borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. Fairbanks is the largest city in the Interior region of Alaska,2014 estimates put the population of the city proper at 32,469, and the population of the Fairbanks North Star Borough at 99,357, making it the second most populous metropolitan area in Alaska. Fairbanks is home to the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the campus of the University of Alaska system. Captain E. T. Barnette founded Fairbanks in August 1901 while headed to Tanacross, the steamboat on which Barnette was a passenger, the Lavelle Young, ran aground while attempting to negotiate shallow water. Barnette, along with his party and supplies, were deposited along the banks of the Chena River 7 miles upstream from its confluence with the Tanana River, the two met Barnette where he disembarked and convinced him of the potential of the area. Barnette set up his trading post at the site, still intending to make it to Tanacross. Teams of gold prospectors soon congregated in and around the newly founded Fairbanks, they built drift mines, dredges, agricultural activity still occurs today in the Tanana Valley, but mostly to the southeast of Fairbanks in the communities of Salcha and Delta Junction. During the early days of Fairbanks, its vicinity was a producer of agricultural goods. What is now the northern reaches of South Fairbanks was originally the farm of Paul J. Rickert, Farmers Loop Road and Badger Road, loop roads north and east of Fairbanks, were also home to major farming activity. Badger Road is named for Harry Markley Badger, a resident of Fairbanks who later established a farm along the road. Ballaine and McGrath Roads, side roads of Farmers Loop Road, were named for prominent local farmers. The Haines - Fairbanks 626 mile long 8 petroleum products pipeline was constructed during the period 1953-55, the presence of the U. S. military has remained strong in Fairbanks. Ladd became Fort Wainwright in 1960, the post was annexed into Fairbanks city limits during the 1980s, Fairbanks suffered from numerous floods in its first six decades, whether from ice jams during spring breakup or due to heavy rainfall. On August 14,1967, after record rainfall upstream, the Chena began to surge over its banks, flooding almost the entire town of Fairbanks overnight. The project was designed to prevent a repetition of the 1967 flood by being able to water in the Chena upstream from Fairbanks into the Tanana River. Fairbanks is located in the central Tanana Valley, straddling the Chena River near its confluence with the Tanana River, immediately north of the city is a chain of hills that rises gradually until it reaches the White Mountains and the Yukon River. The southern border of the city is the Tanana River, South of the river is the Tanana Flats, an area of marsh and bog that stretches for more than 100 miles until it rises into the Alaska Range, which is visible from Fairbanks on clear days. To the east and west are low valleys separated by ridges of hills up to 3,000 feet above sea level, the Tanana Valley is crossed by many low streams and rivers that flow into the Tanana RiverFairbanks – Downtown Fairbanks, Alaska
30. Texas – Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Other major cities include Austin, the second most populous state capital in the U. S. Texas is nicknamed the Lone Star State to signify its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the states struggle for independence from Mexico. The Lone Star can be found on the Texan state flag, the origin of Texass name is from the word Tejas, which means friends in the Caddo language. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10 percent of Texas land area is desert. Most of the centers are located in areas of former prairies, grasslands, forests. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the term six flags over Texas refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas, Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the United States as the 28th state, the states annexation set off a chain of events that caused the Mexican–American War in 1846. A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, after the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. One Texan industry that thrived after the Civil War was cattle, due to its long history as a center of the industry, Texas is associated with the image of the cowboy. The states economic fortunes changed in the early 20th century, when oil discoveries initiated a boom in the state. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy, as of 2010 it shares the top of the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with California at 57. With a growing base of industry, the leads in many industries, including agriculture, petrochemicals, energy, computers and electronics, aerospace. Texas has led the nation in export revenue since 2002 and has the second-highest gross state product. The name Texas, based on the Caddo word tejas meaning friends or allies, was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves, during Spanish colonial rule, the area was officially known as the Nuevo Reino de Filipinas, La Provincia de Texas. Texas is the second largest U. S. state, behind Alaska, though 10 percent larger than France and almost twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Chile, Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers, the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southTexas – Sam Rayburn Reservoir
31. Porcupine Gold Rush – The Porcupine Gold Rush was a gold rush that took place in Northern Ontario starting in 1909 and developing fully by 1911. The mines peaked between the 1940s and 50s, but continue to produce gold to this day, although the smaller mines have been consolidated into a small number of larger holdings. By 2001,67 million troy ounces of gold have been mined from the Porcupine area, for comparison, the well-known Klondike Gold Rush produced about 12 million troy ounces. The Porcupine rush, along with the Cobalt Silver Rush and Kirkland Lake Gold Rush, all in the early 20th century, during the late 17th century, explorers and fur traders established outposts in Northern Ontario to capitalize on the fur trade. The Hudsons Bay Company and the North West Company later developed several trading posts along major routes in Northern Ontario, there were hints of gold in the Porcupine Lake area on a number of occasions before the actual rush started. This was of little interest at the time, as the area was almost inaccessible, a University of Toronto geologist, W. Parks, followed up with three surveying runs in 1898,1899, and 1903. These crossed through the main gold-bearing area along what was known as the Back Road which has since been renamed Goldmine Road. On his return to Toronto, he made a comment that I regard the region south of the Porcupine trail as giving promise of reward to the prospector. A major event that led to the rush was the start of the Temiskaming. As it expanded northward it allowed prospectors to support longer surveys deeper into the bush, almost immediately the massive silver deposits in Cobalt were discovered, leading to a silver rush in 1903. This, in turn, filled Northern Ontario with miners, assayers, prospectors, reuben DAigle was the first to explicitly set out for the Porcupine Lake area in hopes of finding gold. DAigle had earlier been a latecomer to the Klondike, arriving after the rush but nevertheless sticking it out. After returning south he enrolled in a course at Queens University. Discovering Parks earlier report, he finished his course at the University, ignoring the new railway, he hooked up with a Métis guide, Billy Moore, and used the Canadian Pacific Railways mainline running along the northeastern edge of Lake Huron to the Mattagami River. They started off by canoe and eventually reached Porcupine Lake, exploring around the area for some time. Although he found gold in numerous quartz outcroppings, the tiny flakes he saw were in stark contrast to the nuggets that could be panned in the Klondike, and he remained unimpressed. Nevertheless, he returned the next summer in 1907 with a party including several experienced prospectors. Several test pits were dug, but none of them seemed terribly promising, bob Mustard, one of the prospectors in the DAigle party, stated Quartz veins in Ontario never pay to workPorcupine Gold Rush – Specimen gold, probably from Pamour Mine.
32. Kakamega – Kakamega is also the genus of the Grey-chested babbler, a bird Kakamega is a town in western Kenya lying about 30 km north of the Equator. It is the headquarters of Kakamega County, the town has a population of 99,987. Kakamega is 52 km north of Kisumu, the third largest city in Kenya, the average elevation of Kakamega is 1,535 metres. Kakamega county is Kenyas second most populous county after Nairobi, the county has 9 constituencies in total, namely Butere, Mumias East, Matungu, Khwisero, Shinyalu, Lurambi, ikolomani, Lugari and Malava. Kakamega was so named because the word kakamega translates roughly to pinch in Kiluhyah, Kakamega derives its modern name from the local dialect. To the hosts though, the visitors were more like ‘pinching’ the Obusuma, the resulting administrative area was named ‘Kakamega’, which roughly translates to ‘pinch. ’ Local Inhabitants are mostly the Luhya tribe, whose economic activity is mainly farming and fishing. Kakamega serves as the headquarters of Kenyas largest sugar producing firm, Mumias Sugar, Kakamega was the scene of the Kakamega gold rush in the early 1930s, fueled partly by the reports of the geologist Albert Ernest Kitson. It is expected to spur growth in capital of Western Province. Kakamega Forest is the main tourist destination in the area, another attraction is the Crying Stone of Ilesi located along the highway towards Kisumu. It is a 40 metres high rock dome resembling a figure whose eyes drop water. In the recently concluded elections, Wycliffe Oparanya was voted as the first Governor of Kakamega County, Kakamega forms a municipality with ten wards. All of them belong to Lurambi Constituency, which has a total of fifteen wards, the remaining five are located within Kakamega municipal Council, the rural council of Kakamega District. Kakamega area receives a high amount of annual precipitation and contains Kakamega Forest. With few bushes along the darkened forest floor, the obstacle is ancient fallen tree trunks blocking the paths between the standing trees. More than 400 species of birds have found in the Kakamega rainforest. The many song birds fill the air with various birdcalls, Kakamega is also home to Africas largest and most aggressive cobra, the Kakamega forest cobra. Reputed by locals to spend a lot of time in the trees, stories abound of fearsome attacks on unsuspecting passers-by, other snakes in the area include the forest adder, black mamba, and the green mamba. There are official guides in Kakamega rainforest who take tourists visiting the forest around in the forest nature trails, most of the tour guides have participated in various areas of research into the biology of the forest, and they are thus well qualified to describe the areaKakamega – Crying Stone of Ilesi
33. Vatukoula – Vatukoula, is a gold mining settlement in Fiji,9 km inland from the Town of Tavua on Viti Levu, the main Fiji island. Vatukoula may be viewed historically as the cradle of the gold mining industry in Fiji. The discovery of gold in the Tavua district is attributed to Baron de Este, some 20 years later, New Zealand prospector Fielding, began a systematic search along the Nasivi river. However, discovery of gold in quantities in 1932 at Vatukoula, is attributed to Scottish prospector Bill Borthwick. A gold rush ensued – pegs denoting claims went up everywhere – from all the Fiji islands, hundreds of people – villagers, shopkeepers, in 1934, a new Mining Ordinance to regulate the fledgling industry was introduced by the British colonial administration. In the same year, the Emperor Gold Mining Company Ltd. established its operations in Vatukoula, followed in 1935 by the Loloma Gold Mines, N. L. and then by Fiji Mines Development Ltd. The Ordinance also gave rise to a Mines Inspectorate, His Majestys Colonial Mines Service recruiting Australian Frank TM White to set up a Mines Department in Suva, by 1939 White initiated a geological survey of Viti Levu, resulting in Fijis first geological survey map, published in 1943. Citing and building on work, the mineralisation of Fiji was systematically reviewed by a successor, Mines Inspector James FA Taylor. Both open-pit and underground mining were carried out in Vatukoula, by 1952, the population of Vatukoula had reached approximately 4,500 people, second largest in the Colony of Fiji. The largest group was indigenous Fijian, while other groups included Pacific Islanders, Indian, Chinese, European, about a third were employed directly in mining. The remainder comprised their dependents, as well as tradespeople, storekeepers, teachers, police, housing at a basic level was available for most employees, emphasising potable water and sanitation. Industrial safety was promoted by the companies, while services were provided in the community. Primary and secondary educational services were supported variously by government, industry, reflecting the culture of British colonialism, all services were of an uneven standard and aligned along racial, cultural and religious lines. The Emperor Mines Limited shut down on 5 December 2006 due to low price of gold and it sold its operations to Westech International, a private company based in Australia which, in turn, sold the mine to River Diamonds Plc, a Chinese company. The severity of their situation is apparent from a Submission to the EGM Closure Negotiating Committee in support of the Vatukoula Communities, the following vignettes from the Submission reveals the anguish felt by community members, I was in tears. Mrs Dominika Lutua, Principal of Goldfields School, describing her reaction when told on 6 December 2006 that the mine would provide no funds to the school beyond the end of January 2007. They have also supported the company through their labour and dedication. The people of Vatukoula should expect immediate and favourable treatment from their Government, the mine re-opened in April 2008 and is currently producing gold, albeit now on a smaller scaleVatukoula – Native tellurium crystal on sylvanite from the Emperor Mine, Vatukoula, Tavua Gold Field (image width 2 mm)
34. New Zealand – New Zealand /njuːˈziːlənd/ is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal, the countrys varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealands capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland, sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that later were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand, in 1840, representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands. In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, today, the majority of New Zealands population of 4.7 million is of European descent, the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealands culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, New Zealand is a developed country and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, education, economic freedom and quality of life. Since the 1980s, New Zealand has transformed from an agrarian, Queen Elizabeth II is the countrys head of state and is represented by a governor-general. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes, the Realm of New Zealand also includes Tokelau, the Cook Islands and Niue, and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealands territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it Staten Landt, in 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand, Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the country before the arrival of Europeans. Māori had several names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North, Middle and South, in 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907, this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised and this set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te WaipounamuNew Zealand – The Waitangi sheet from the Treaty of Waitangi
35. Cigar – A cigar is a tightly-rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco leaf, rolled in a series of types and sizes, that is ignited so that its smoke may be drawn into the mouth. The origins of cigar smoking are still unknown, in Guatemala, a ceramic pot dating back to the tenth century features a Mayan smoking tobacco leaves tied together with a string. Sikar, the term for smoking used by the Maya, may have inspired the name cigar, the word cigar originated from the Spanish cigarro, which in turn probably derives from the Mayan sicar. There is also a possible derivation, or at least an influence, from the Spanish cigarra, the English word came into general use in 1730. Explorer Christopher Columbus is generally credited with the introduction of tobacco to Europe, Tobacco was widely diffused among all of the islands of the Caribbean and therefore they again encountered it in Cuba where Columbus and his men had settled. His sailors reported that the Taínos on the island of Cuba smoked a primitive form of cigar, later, the hobby spread to Italy and, after Sir Walter Raleighs voyages to the Americas, to Britain. Smoking became familiar throughout Europe—in pipes in Britain—by the mid-16th century, in 1542, tobacco started to be grown commercially in America, when the Spaniards established the first cigar factory on the island of Cuba. Tobacco was originally thought to have medicinal qualities, but there were some who considered it evil and it was denounced by Philip II of Spain and James I of England. Around 1592, the Spanish galleon San Clemente brought 50 kilograms of seed to the Philippines over the Acapulco-Manila trade route. The seed was then distributed among the Roman Catholic missionaries, where the clerics found excellent climates, in the 19th century, cigar smoking was common, while cigarettes were still comparatively rare. In the early 20th century, Rudyard Kipling wrote his famous smoking poem, the cigar business was an important industry and factories employed many people before mechanized manufacturing of cigars became practical. Other manufacturers followed, and Key West became another important cigar manufacturing center, in 1885, Ybor moved again, buying land near the then-small city of Tampa, Florida and building the largest cigar factory in the world at the time in the new company town of Ybor City. Thousands of Cuban and Spanish tabaqueros came to the area from Key West, Cuba, local output peaked in 1929, when workers in Ybor City and West Tampa rolled over 500,000,000 clear Havana cigars, earning the town the nickname Cigar Capital of the World. In New York, cigars were made by working in their own homes. It was reported that as of 1883, cigars were being manufactured in 127 apartment houses in New York, employing 1,962 families and 7,924 individuals. A state statute banning the practice, passed late that year at the urging of trade unions on the basis that the practice suppressed wages, was ruled unconstitutional less than four months later. The industry, which had relocated to Brooklyn and other places on Long Island while the law was in effect, as of 1905, there were 80,000 cigar-making operations in the United States, most of them small, family-operated shops where cigars were rolled and sold immediately. Boxes of hand-rolled cigars bear the phrase totalmente a mano or hecho a mano and these premium hand-rolled cigars are significantly different from the machine-made cigars sold in packs at drugstores or gas stationsCigar – A semi-airtight cigar storage tube and a double guillotine-style cutter
36. 2000s commodities boom – There was a sharp down-turn in prices during 2008 and early 2009 as a result of the credit crunch and sovereign debt crisis, but prices began to rise as demand recovered from late 2009 to mid-2010. On 3 March, Libyas National Oil Corp said that output had halved due to the departure of foreign workers. As this happened, Brent Crude surged to a new high of above $116.00 a barrel as supply disruptions and potential for more unrest in the Middle East, thus the price of oil kept rising into the 2010s. The commodities super-cycle peaked in 2011, driven by a combination of demand from emerging nations. Prior to 2002, only 5 to 10 per cent of trading in the market was attributable to investors. Since 200230 per cent of trading is attributable to investors in the market which has caused higher price volatility. The prices of raw materials were depressed and declining from, roughly,1982 until 1998, from the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation-adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under $25/barrel. Since 1968 the price of gold has ranged widely, from a high of $850/oz on 21 January 1980, the analysis of this period is based on the work of Robert Solow and is rooted in macroeconomic theories of trade including the Mundell–Fleming model. One opinion stated that The volatility and interest rates found its way into commodity inputs, hence, in the case of an economic crisis commodities prices follow the trends in exchange rate and its prices decrease in case there are downward trends of diminishing money supply. Foreign exchange impacts commodities prices and so does money supply, the advent of a crisis will pull commodities prices down, a commodity price bubble, known as the 2000s commodities boom, was created following the collapse of the mid-2000s housing bubble. Commodities were seen as a bet after the bubble economy surrounding housing prices had gone from boom to bust in several western nations, including the UK, USA, Ireland, Greece. Still commodity prices have fluctuated outside predictions, the renewed interest in coal by Chinas and Taiwans energy companies and the rise of alternative power sources like wind farms helped modify coal prices over the 2000s. Russia increased production, but the US offset this with production cuts in the late 1990s and mid-2000s, demand for these metals appeared to be increasing as computers and mobile phones became more popular in the mid to late 2000s. Thulium is used in tubes and neodymium is used in high strength/high grade magnets. Molybdenum, rhodium, neodymium and palladium are relatively scarce metals, while manganese and vanadium are, like phosphorus and sulfur, the major metals such as iron, lead and tin are commonplace. Recycling of the aluminum, ferrous metals, copper fractions, gold, palladium and platinum in mobile phones, battery recycling has helped bring down both the nickel and cadmium prices. Sulfuric acid increased in price 3. 5-fold in less than 1 year while producers of sodium hydroxide have declared force majeure due to flooding, precipitating similarly steep price increases. Both a rising population and a sharp decline in food crop production in favour of a sharp rise in biofuel crops helped cause a sharp rise in basic food stock prices2000s commodities boom – A Neodymium magnet on a bracket from a hard drive.
37. Uranium – Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92. It is a metal in the actinide series of the periodic table. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons, Uranium is weakly radioactive because all its isotopes are unstable. The most common isotopes in natural uranium are uranium-238 and uranium-235, Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the primordially occurring elements. Its density is about 70% higher than that of lead, and it occurs naturally in low concentrations of a few parts per million in soil, rock and water, and is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite. In nature, uranium is found as uranium-238, uranium-235, Uranium decays slowly by emitting an alpha particle. The half-life of uranium-238 is about 4.47 billion years, many contemporary uses of uranium exploit its unique nuclear properties. Uranium-235 is the naturally occurring fissile isotope, which makes it widely used in nuclear power plants. However, because of the amounts found in nature, uranium needs to undergo enrichment so that enough uranium-235 is present. Uranium-238 is fissionable by fast neutrons, and is fertile, meaning it can be transmuted to fissile plutonium-239 in a nuclear reactor, another fissile isotope, uranium-233, can be produced from natural thorium and is also important in nuclear technology. In sufficient concentration, these maintain a sustained nuclear chain reaction. This generates the heat in nuclear reactors, and produces the fissile material for nuclear weapons. Depleted uranium is used in kinetic energy penetrators and armor plating, Uranium is used as a colorant in uranium glass, producing lemon yellow to green colors. Uranium glass fluoresces green in ultraviolet light and it was also used for tinting and shading in early photography. The 1789 discovery of uranium in the mineral pitchblende is credited to Martin Heinrich Klaproth, eugène-Melchior Péligot was the first person to isolate the metal and its radioactive properties were discovered in 1896 by Henri Becquerel. An ensuing arms race during the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union produced tens of thousands of weapons that used uranium metal. The security of those weapons and their fissile material following the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 is a concern for public health. When refined, uranium is a white, weakly radioactive metalUranium – Uranium, 92 U
38. North Dakota oil boom – Despite the Great Recession, the oil boom resulted in enough jobs to provide North Dakota with the lowest unemployment rate in the United States. The boom has given North Dakota, a state with a 2013 population of about 725,000, a billion-dollar budget surplus. North Dakota, which ranked 38th in per capita gross domestic product in 2001, rose steadily with the Bakken boom, expiring leases result in a push to commence drilling and production on as many as possible before they expire. By 2012, income from oil royalties was reportedly paying many local mineral owners $50,000 to $60,000 per month, and some more than $100,000 per month. Bruce Gjovig, head of the UND Center for Innovation Foundation in Grand Forks, the average income in Mountrail County has more than doubled since the boom started, to $52,027 in 2010, putting it into the top 100 richest counties in the United States. The oil boom reduced unemployment in North Dakota to 3.5 percent in December 2011, the number of actively-drilling rigs in North Dakota peaked at 217 rigs in Spring 2012, with the rig count averaging 180-190 throughout 2013. Each of the rigs is estimated to create roughly 125 new full-time jobs and this means a total growth of around 25,000 jobs, including an extra 10,000 jobs for workers who lay pipes to producing wells and produce processing plants. Some estimates predict that North Dakota could have as many as 48,000 new wells, the Bakken boom has propelled North Dakota into the top ranks of oil-producing states. As recently as 2007, North Dakota ranked 8th among the states in oil production, in 2008, the state overtook Wyoming and New Mexico, in 2009 it outproduced Louisiana and Oklahoma. North Dakota surpassed California in oil production in December 2011, then in March 2012 overtook Alaska, the North Dakota state government receives through severance taxes 11.5 percent of the gross value of all oil produced. The boom has given the state of North Dakota a billion-dollar budget surplus, in addition to severance taxes, the state of North Dakota owns extensive mineral rights, which are leased by competitive bidding. In fiscal year 2010, the State Land Department reported that income on its land earned $265 million for the North Dakota school trust fund. The federal government is also an owner of mineral rights in the region. In a January 2013 federal lease sale, the top bid was $19,500 per acre for a lease on one tract in North Dakota. Of the lease sale and royalties from the tracts, the federal government keeps 52 percent. The industrialization and population boom has put a strain on roads, water supplies, sewage systems, some counties have increased in population by almost double from 20,000 to 40,000. The boom has brought with it increases in crime and social problems, the addition of thousands of oil workers has led to a housing shortage, requiring the construction of camps for housing them. Law enforcement agencies have reported increases in offenses, particularly violent crime, drug trafficking, gun crimesNorth Dakota oil boom – Night view of H&P drilling the Bakken.
39. Cocoa bean – The beans are the basis of chocolate, and of such Mesoamerican foods as mole and tejate. The word cocoa comes from the Spanish word cacao, which is derived from the Nahuatl word cacahuatl, the Nahuatl word, in turn, ultimately derives from the reconstructed Proto Mije-Sokean word *kakaw~*kakawa. It originated in Central America and parts of Mexico, more than 5,000 years ago, it was consumed by pre-Columbian cultures along the Yucatán, including the Mayans, and as far back as Olmeca civilization in spiritual ceremonies. It also grows in the foothills of the Andes in the Amazon and Orinoco basins of South America and its range may have been larger in the past, evidence of its wild range may be obscured by cultivation of the tree in these areas since long before the Spanish arrived. The cocoa bean was a currency throughout Mesoamerica before the Spanish conquest. Cacao trees grow in a geographical zone, of about 20° to the north and south of the Equator. Nearly 70% of the world today is grown in West Africa. The cacao plant was first given its name by Swedish natural scientist Carl Linnaeus in his original classification of the plant kingdom. Cocoa was an important commodity in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, flavored with vanilla or other spices, his chocolate was whipped into a froth that dissolved in the mouth. No fewer than 60 portions each day reportedly may have been consumed by Moctezuma II, chocolate was introduced to Europe by the Spaniards, and became a popular beverage by the mid-17th century. They also introduced the tree into the West Indies and the Philippines. It was also introduced into the rest of Asia and into West Africa by Europeans, in the Gold Coast, modern Ghana, cacao was introduced by an African, Tetteh Quarshie. Due to heat buildup in the process, cacao beans lose most of the purplish hue and become mostly brown in color. This skin is released easily after roasting by winnowing, white seeds are found in some rare varieties, usually mixed with purples, and are considered of higher value. The three main varieties of plant are Forastero, Criollo, and Trinitario. The first is the most widely used, comprising 80-90% of the production of cocoa. Cocoa beans of the Criollo variety are rarer and considered a delicacy, Criollo plantations have lower yields than those of Forastero, and also tend to be less resistant to several diseases that attack the cocoa plant, hence very few countries still produce it. One of the largest producers of Criollo beans is Venezuela, Trinitario is a hybrid between Criollo and Forastero varietiesCocoa bean – Cocoa pods in various stages of ripening
40. Cotton – Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose, under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will tend to increase the dispersal of the seeds. The plant is a native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa. The greatest diversity of wild species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia. Cotton was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds, the fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, China is the worlds largest producer of cotton, but most of this is used domestically. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years, in the United States, cotton is usually measured in bales, which measure approximately 0.48 cubic meters and weigh 226.8 kilograms. Cotton cultivation in the region is dated to the Indus Valley Civilization, the Indus cotton industry was well-developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the industrialization of India. Between 2000 and 1000 BC cotton became widespread across much of India, for example, it has been found at the site of Hallus in Karnataka dating from around 1000 BC. Cotton fabrics discovered in a cave near Tehuacán, Mexico have been dated to around 5800 BC, the domestication of Gossypium hirsutum in Mexico is dated between 3400 and 2300 BC. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, and traded with fishing villages along the coast for supplies of fish. The Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and this may be a reference to tree cotton, Gossypium arboreum, which is a native of the Indian subcontinent. According to the Columbia Encyclopedia, Cotton has been spun, woven and it clothed the people of ancient India, Egypt, and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, in Iran, the history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era, however, there are few sources about the planting of cotton in pre-Islamic Iran. The planting of cotton was common in Merv, Ray and Pars of Iran, in Persian poets poems, especially Ferdowsis Shahname, there are references to cotton. Marco Polo refers to the products of Persia, including cotton. John Chardin, a French traveler of the 17th century who visited the Safavid Persia, during the Han dynasty, cotton was grown by Chinese peoples in the southern Chinese province of Yunnan. Mohamed Ali Pasha accepted the proposition and granted himself the monopoly on the sale and export of cotton in Egypt, and later dictated cotton should be grown in preference to other cropsCotton – Cotton
41. Cottonseed oil – Cottonseed oil is a cooking oil extracted from the seeds of cotton plants of various species, mainly Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium herbaceum, that are grown for cotton fiber, animal feed, and oil. Cotton seed has a structure to other oilseeds such as sunflower seed, having an oil-bearing kernel surrounded by a hard outer hull, in processing. Cottonseed oil is used for oil, mayonnaise, salad dressing. Its fatty acid profile generally consists of 70% unsaturated fatty acids, when it is fully hydrogenated, its profile is 94% saturated fat and 2% unsaturated fatty acids. According to the oil industry, cottonseed oil does not need to be hydrogenated as much as other polyunsaturated oils to achieve similar results. Gossypol is a toxic, yellow, polyphenolic compound produced by cotton and other members of the order Malvaceae and this naturally occurring coloured compound is found in tiny glands in the seed, leaf, stem, tap root bark, and root of the cotton plant. The adaptive function of the compound facilitates natural insect resistance, the three key steps of refining, bleaching, and deodorization in producing finished oil act to eliminate the gossypol level. Ferric chloride is used to decolorize cotton seed oil. Once processed, cottonseed oil has a taste and appears generally clear with a light golden color. It has a high smoke point as a frying medium. Density ranges from 0.917 g/cm3 to 0.933 g/cm3, the by-product of cotton processing, cottonseed was considered virtually worthless before the late 19th century. While cotton production expanded throughout the 17th, 18th, and mid 19th centuries, although some of the seed was used for planting, fertilizer, and animal feed, the majority was left to rot or was illegally dumped into rivers. The increased demand for fats and oils, coupled with a decreasing supply caused prices to rise sharply, consequently, many Europeans could not afford to buy the fats and oils they had used for cooking and for lighting. Many United States entrepreneurs tried to take advantage of the increasing European demand for oils, but separating the seed hull from the seed meat proved difficult and most of these ventures failed within a few years. This problem was resolved in 1857, when William Fee invented a huller, with this new invention, cottonseed oil began to be used for illumination purposes in lamps to supplement increasingly expensive whale oil and lard. But by 1859, this use came to end as the petroleum industry emerged, cottonseed oil then began to be used illegally to fortify animal fats and lards. Initially, meat packers secretly added cottonseed oil to the pure fats, a congressional investigation followed, and legislation was passed that required products fortified with cottonseed oil to be labeled as ‘‘lard compound. ”Similarly, cottonseed oil was often blended with olive oil. Once the practice was exposed, many countries put import tariffs on American olive oil, both of these regulatory schemes depressed cottonseed oil sales and exports, once again creating an oversupply of cottonseed oil, which decreased its valueCottonseed oil – Cotton seeds
42. Orange juice – Orange juice is the liquid extract of the fruit of the orange tree, produced by squeezing oranges. It comes in different varieties, including blood orange, navel oranges, valencia orange, clementine. As well as variations in oranges used, some varieties include differing amounts of vesicles, known as pulp in American English. These vesicles contain the juice of the orange and can be left in or removed during the manufacturing process, how juicy these vesicles are depend upon many factors, such as species, variety, and season. In American English, the name may be abbreviated as OJ. Orange juice is offered to every visitor at each of the states five Florida Welcome Centers, commercial orange juice with a long shelf life is made by drying and later rehydrating the juice, or by concentrating the juice and later adding water to the concentrate. Prior to drying, the juice may also be pasteurized and oxygen removed from it, necessitating the addition of a flavor pack. The health value of orange juice is debatable and it has a high concentration of vitamin C, but also a very high concentration of simple sugars, comparable to soft drinks. As a result, some government nutritional advice has been adjusted to encourage substitution of orange juice with raw fruit, which is digested more slowly, during World War II, American soldiers rejected vitamin C-packed lemon crystals because of their unappetizing taste. Thus the government searched for a food that would fulfill the needs of the soldiers, have a desirable taste. The federal government, the Florida department of Citrus, along with a group of scientists desired to develop a product to canned orange juice. Unfortunately, frozen concentrated orange juice was developed three years after the war had ended, by 1949, orange juice processing plants in Florida were producing over 10 million gallons of concentrated orange juice. Consumers were captivated with the idea of concentrated canned orange juice as it was affordable, tasty, convenient, the preparation was simple, thaw the juice, add water, and stir. However, by the 1980s, food scientists developed a more fresh-tasting juice known as reconstituted ready to serve juice. Eventually in the 1990s, “not from concentrate” orange juice was developed, a cup serving of raw, fresh orange juice, amounting to 248 grams or 8 ounces, has 124 mg of vitamin C. It has 20.8 g of sugars and has 112 Calories and it also supplies potassium, thiamin, and folate. Citrus juices contain flavonoids that may have health benefits, Orange juice is also a source of the antioxidant hesperidin. Because of its citric acid content, orange juice is acidic, commercial squeezed orange juice is pasteurized and filtered before being evaporated under vacuum and heatOrange juice – A glass of pulp-free orange juice
43. Lumber – Lumber, or timber is wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber may also refer to currently un-needed furniture, as in Lumber room, or an awkward gait, ultimately derived from the look of unfashionable, Lumber may be supplied either rough-sawn, or surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and it is available in many species, usually hardwoods, but it is also readily available in softwoods, such as white pine and red pine, because of their low cost. Lumber is mainly used for structural purposes but has other uses as well. It is classified more commonly as a softwood than as a hardwood, in Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and Britain, the term timber describes sawn wood products, such as floor boards. In the United States and Canada, generally timber describes standing or felled trees, before they are milled into boards, Timber there also describes sawn lumber not less than 5 inches in its smallest dimension. The latter includes the often partly finished lumber used in timber-frame construction, remanufactured lumber is the result of secondary or tertiary processing/cutting of previously milled lumber. Specifically, it is cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Lumber is cut by ripsaw or resaw to create dimensions that are not usually processed by a primary sawmill, resawing is the splitting of 1-inch through 12-inch hardwood or softwood lumber into two or more thinner pieces of full-length boards. For example, splitting a ten-foot 2×4 into two ten-foot 1×4s is considered resawing, structural lumber may also be produced from recycled plastic and new plastic stock. Its introduction has been opposed by the forestry industry. Blending fiberglass in plastic lumber enhances its strength, durability, logs are converted into timber by being sawn, hewn, or split. Sawing with a rip saw is the most common method, because sawing allows logs of lower quality, with grain and large knots. There are various types of sawing, Plain sawn —A log sawn through without adjusting the position of the log, quarter sawn and rift sawn—These terms have been confused in history but generally mean lumber sawn so the annual rings are reasonably perpendicular to the sides of the lumber. Boxed heart—The pith remains within the piece with some allowance for exposure, heart center—the center core of a log. Free of heart center —A side-cut timber without any pith, free of knots —No knots are present. Dimensional lumber is lumber that is cut to standardized width and depth, carpenters extensively use dimensional lumber in framing wooden buildings. Common sizes include 2×4, 2×6, and 4×4, the length of a board is usually specified separately from the width and depthLumber – Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill
44. Oat – The oat, sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name. While oats are suitable for consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats. The wild ancestor of Avena sativa and the related minor crop. Genetic evidence shows the forms of A. sterilis grew in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East. Domesticated oats appear relatively late, and far from the Near East, oats, like rye, are usually considered a secondary crop, i. e. derived from a weed of the primary cereal domesticates wheat and barley. As these cereals spread westwards into cooler, wetter areas, this may have favored the oat weed component, oats are best grown in temperate regions. Oats are a plant, and can be planted either in autumn or in the spring. Oats have numerous uses in foods, most commonly, they are rolled or crushed into oatmeal, oatmeal is chiefly eaten as porridge, but may also be used in a variety of baked goods, such as oatcakes, oatmeal cookies and oat bread. Oats are also an ingredient in many cold cereals, in particular muesli, historical attitudes towards oats have varied. Oat bread was first manufactured in Britain, where the first oat bread factory was established in 1899, in Scotland, they were, and still are, held in high esteem, as a mainstay of the national diet. In Scotland, a dish was made by soaking the husks from oats for a week, so the fine, floury part of the meal remained as sediment to be strained off, boiled and eaten. Oats are also used there as a thickener in soups. Oats are also used as feed for horses when extra carbohydrates. The oat hull may be crushed for the horse to easily digest the grain. They may be given alone or as part of a food pellet. Cattle are also fed oats, either whole or ground into a coarse flour using a mill, burr mill. Winter oats may be grown as a groundcover and ploughed under in the spring as a green fertilizer. They also can be used for pasture, they can be grazed a while, then allowed to head out for grain production, Oat straw is prized by cattle and horse producers as bedding, due to its soft, relatively dust-free, and absorbent natureOat – Oat
45. Peanut oil – Peanut oil, also known as groundnut oil or arachis oil, is a mild-tasting vegetable oil derived from peanuts. The oil is available with a strong flavor and aroma. It is often used in Chinese, South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine, Peanut oil has a high smoke point relative to many other cooking oils, so is commonly used for frying foods. Its major component fatty acids are oleic acid, linoleic acid, the oil also contains some stearic acid, arachidic acid, behenic acid, lignoceric acid and other fatty acids. Antioxidants such as vitamin E are sometimes added to improve the life of the oil. Shortage of whale oil in the Confederacy made peanut oil an attractive alternative during the Civil War, the oil had increased use in the United States during World War II, because of war shortages of other oils. According to the USDA data upon which the table is based,100 g of peanut oil contains 17.7 g of saturated fat,48.3 g of monounsaturated fat. Most highly refined peanut oils remove the allergens and have been shown to be safe for the vast majority of peanut-allergic individuals. However, cold-pressed peanut oils may not remove the allergens and thus could be dangerous to people with peanut allergy. Since the degree of processing for any product is often unclear. If quality control is neglected, peanuts that contain the mold that produces highly toxic aflatoxin can end up contaminating the oil derived from them, Peanut oil, as with other vegetable oils, can be used to make soap by the process of saponification. The oil is safe for use as a massage oil, Peanut researcher George Washington Carver marketed a peanut massage oil. Some medicines and vitamins use arachis oil as a suspension agent, pics Peanut oil Peanut oil at the Peanut Institute website Peanut oil at WebMDPeanut oil – A bottle of peanut oil, with Vitamin E added as a preservative
46. Rapeseed – Rapeseed, also known as rape, oilseed rape, rapa, rappi, rapaseed, is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae, consumed in China and Southern Africa as a vegetable. The name derives from the Latin for turnip, rāpa or rāpum, older writers usually distinguished the turnip and rape by the adjectives round and long, respectively. Rutabagas, Brassica napobrassica, are considered a variety of B. napus. Some botanists also include the closely related B. rapa within B. napus, B. napus is cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed, the third-largest source of vegetable oil in the world. The term rape derives from the Latin word for turnip, rapum, rapeseed is known by many common names in the English language. Some names have only applied to certain subspecies, forms. B. napus = B. napus subsp and this list is from the Germplasm Resources Information Network, which attributes the names to other sources, Brassica napus – rape B. napus subsp. Napus – Argentine canola, canola, colza, oilseed rape, napus f. annua – annual rape and summer rape B. napus subsp. Napus f. napus – swede rape B. napus subsp, napus var. pabularia – Hanover-salad, rape kale, and Siberian kale B. napus subsp. Rapifera – rutabaga, swede, Swedish turnip, and winter rape Brassica napus grows to 100 cm high with lower leaves pinnatifid and glaucous, the flowers are yellow and about 17 mm across. B. napus differs from B. nigra, but can be distinguished by the leaves which do not clasp the stem. In north-east of Ireland B. napus and B. rapa are recorded as escapes in roadside verges, in 1973, Canadian agricultural scientists launched a marketing campaign to promote canola consumption. Today, rapeseed is grown for the production of animal feeds, edible oils, and biodiesel, leading producers include the European Union, Canada, China, India. In India,6.7 million tons are produced annually, the Food and Agriculture Organization reports 36 million tons of rapeseed were produced in the 2003–2004 season, and estimated 58.4 million tons in the 2010–2011 season. In Europe, rapeseed is primarily cultivated for feed, owing to its very high lipid. Natural rapeseed oil contains 50% erucic acid, wild seeds also contain high levels of glucosinolates, chemical compounds that significantly lowered the nutritional value of rapeseed press cakes for animal feed. In North America, the term canola—a contraction of Canada and ola, meaning oil—became widely used to refer to rapeseed, the rapeseed is the harvested component of the crop. The crop is grown as a winter cover cropRapeseed – Rapeseed oil seed
47. Rice – Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a part of the worlds human population. It is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize, wild rice, from which the crop was developed, may have its native range in Australia. Chinese legends attribute the domestication of rice to Shennong, the emperor of China. Genetic evidence has shown that rice originates from a single domestication 8, previously, archaeological evidence had suggested that rice was domesticated in the Yangtze River valley region in China. From East Asia, rice was spread to Southeast and South Asia, Rice was introduced to Europe through Western Asia, and to the Americas through European colonization. There are many varieties of rice and culinary preferences tend to vary regionally, in some areas such as the Far East or Spain, there is a preference for softer and stickier varieties. Rice, a monocot, is grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial. The rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and it has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm long, the edible seed is a grain 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate. However, rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems. Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade, the traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings. The name wild rice is used for species of the genera Zizania and Porteresia. The Greek word is the source of all European words, the origin of the Greek word is unclear. It is sometimes held to be from the Tamil word அரிசி, however, Krishnamurti disagrees with the notion that Old Tamil arici is the source of the Greek term, and proposes that it was borrowed from descendants of Proto-Dravidian *wariñci instead. The varieties of rice are typically classified as long-, medium-, the grains of long-grain rice tend to remain intact after cooking, medium-grain rice becomes more sticky. Medium-grain rice is used for dishes, for risotto in ItalyRice – A mixture of brown, white, and red indica rice, also containing wild rice, Zizania species
48. Rye – Rye is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop. It is a member of the tribe and is closely related to barley. Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, crisp bread, some whiskeys, some vodkas and it can also be eaten whole, either as boiled rye berries or by being rolled, similar to rolled oats. Rye is a grain and should not be confused with ryegrass, which is used for lawns, pasture. Rye is one of a number of species grow wild in central and eastern Turkey. It is possible that rye traveled west from Turkey as an admixture in wheat. Since the Middle Ages people have cultivated rye widely in Central and it serves as the main bread cereal in most areas east of the French-German border and north of Hungary. In Southern Europe, it was cultivated on marginal lands, claims of much earlier cultivation of rye, at the Epipalaeolithic site of Tell Abu Hureyra in the Euphrates valley of northern Syria remain controversial. Critics point to inconsistencies in the dates, and identifications based solely on grain. Winter rye is any breed of rye planted in the fall to provide cover for the winter. It grows during warmer days of the winter when sunlight temporarily warms the plant above freezing and it is sometimes used in winter gardens and is a common nurse crop. Rye is grown primarily in Eastern, Central and Northern Europe, the main rye belt stretches from northern Germany through Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania and Latvia into central and northern Russia. Rye is also grown in North America, in South America, in Oceania, in Turkey, in Kazakhstan, production levels of rye have fallen in most of the producing nations, as of 2012. For instance, production of rye in Russia fell from 13.9 million metric tons in 1992 to 2.1 t in 2012, most rye is consumed locally or exported only to neighboring countries, rather than being shipped worldwide. Rye is highly susceptible to the ergot fungus, consumption of ergot-infected rye by humans and animals results in a serious medical condition known as ergotism. Ergotism can cause physical and mental harm, including convulsions, miscarriage, necrosis of digits, hallucinations. Historically, damp northern countries that have depended on rye as a staple crop were subject to epidemics of this condition. There have been occurrence of ergotism with periods where there were incidents of people persecuted for being witchesRye – Rye
49. Natural rubber – Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water. Malaysia and Indonesia are two of the leading rubber producers, forms of polyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Currently, rubber is harvested mainly in the form of the latex from the tree or others. The latex is a sticky, milky colloid drawn off by making incisions in the bark, the latex then is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. In major areas, latex is allowed to coagulate in the collection cup, the coagulated lumps are collected and processed into dry forms for marketing. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products, either alone or in combination with other materials, in most of its useful forms, it has a large stretch ratio and high resilience, and is extremely waterproof. The major commercial source of rubber latex is the Pará rubber tree. This species is preferred because it grows well under cultivation, a properly managed tree responds to wounding by producing more latex for several years. Congo rubber, formerly a source of rubber, came from vines in the genus Landolphia. These cannot be cultivated, and the drive to collect latex from wild plants was responsible for many of the atrocities committed under the Congo Free State. The latex exhibits the quality as the natural rubber from rubber trees. In the wild types of dandelion, latex content is low, in Nazi Germany, research projects tried to use dandelions as a base for rubber production, but failed. In collaboration with Continental Tires, IME began a pilot facility, many other plants produce forms of latex rich in isoprene polymers, though not all produce usable forms of polymer as easily as the Pará. Some of them require more processing to produce anything like usable rubber. Some produce other desirable materials, for example gutta-percha and chicle from Manilkara species, the term gum rubber is sometimes applied to the tree-obtained version of natural rubber in order to distinguish it from the synthetic version. The first use of rubber was by the cultures of Mesoamerica. The earliest archeological evidence of the use of latex from the Hevea tree comes the Olmec culture. The Pará rubber tree is indigenous to South America, charles Marie de La Condamine is credited with introducing samples of rubber to the Académie Royale des Sciences of France in 1736Natural rubber – Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree, Cameroon.
50. Soybean – Glycine max, commonly known as soybean in North America or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses. The plant, classed as a rather than a pulse by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Fat-free soybean meal is a significant and cheap source of protein for animal feeds, for example, soybean products, such as textured vegetable protein, are ingredients in many meat and dairy substitutes. The beans contain significant amounts of acid, dietary minerals. Soy vegetable oil, used in food and industrial applications, is product of processing the soybean crop. Traditional non-fermented food uses of soybeans include soy milk from which tofu and tofu skin are made, fermented soy foods include soy sauce, fermented bean paste, natto and tempeh. The main countries growing soybeans are the United States, Brazil, the English words soy and soya are ultimately derived from the Japanese pronunciation of shōyu, the Sino-Japanese word for soy sauce, by way of the Dutch adaptation of the same word, soja. The genus Glycine Willd. is divided two subgenera, Glycine and Soja. Includes the cultivated soybean, Glycine max Merr. and the wild soybean, Glycine soja is the wild ancestor of Glycine max, and grows wild in China, Japan, Korea and Russia. The subgenus Glycine consists of at least 25 wild perennial species, for example, Glycine canescens F. J. Herm. and G. tomentella Hayata, perennial soybean originated in Africa and is now a widespread pasture crop in the tropics. Like some other crops of long domestication, the relationship of the soybean to wild-growing species can no longer be traced with any degree of certainty. It is a variety with a very large number of cultivars. Like most plants, soybeans grow in distinct morphological stages as they develop from seeds into fully mature plants, the first stage of growth is germination, a process that first becomes apparent as a seeds radicle emerges. This is the first stage of growth and occurs within the first 48 hours under ideal growing conditions. The first photosynthetic structures, the cotyledons, develop from the hypocotyl and these cotyledons both act as leaves and as a source of nutrients for the immature plant, providing the seedling nutrition for its first 7 to 10 days. The first true leaves develop as a pair of single blades, subsequent to this first pair, mature nodes form compound leaves with three blades. Mature trifoliolate leaves, having three to four leaflets per leaf, are often between 6–15 cm long and 2–7 cm broad, under ideal conditions, stem growth continues, producing new nodes every four days. Before flowering, roots can grow 1.9 cm per day, if rhizobia are present, root nodulation begins by the time the third node appearsSoybean – Soybean
51. Soybean oil – Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean. It is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils, as a drying oil, processed soybean oil is also used as a base for printing inks and oil paints. To produce soybean oil, the soybeans are cracked, adjusted for moisture content, the oil is then refined, blended for different applications, and sometimes hydrogenated. Soybean oils, both liquid and partially hydrogenated are sold as vegetable oil, or are ingredients in a variety of processed foods. Most of the residue is used as animal feed. In the 2002–2003 growing season,30, per 100 g, soybean oil has 16 g of saturated fat,23 g of monounsaturated fat, and 58 g of polyunsaturated fat. The major unsaturated fatty acids in soybean oil triglycerides are the polyunsaturates alpha-linolenic acid, 7-10%, and linoleic acid, 51%, and it also contains the saturated fatty acids stearic acid, 4%, and palmitic acid, 10%. The high-proportion of oxidation-prone linolenic acid is undesirable for some uses, three companies, Monsanto Company, DuPont/Bunge, and Asoyia in 2004 introduced low linolenic Roundup Ready soybeans. Hydrogenation may be used to reduce the unsaturation in linolenic acid, the resulting oil is called hydrogenated soybean oil. If the hydrogenation is only complete, the oil may contain small amounts of trans fat. The carcinogen N‐Nitrosodi-n-butylamine has been measured in soybean oil at a concentration of 290 μg/kg, in cheese at 20 to 30 μg/kg and it has also been detected in tobacco smoke at a concentration of 3 ng per cigarette. Soybean oil is used for frying and baking. It is also used as a condiment for salads, soybean oil is one of many drying oils, which means that it will slowly harden upon exposure to air, forming a flexible, transparent, and waterproof solid. Because of this property, it is used in printing ink. However, other oils may be superior for some drying oil applications, while soybean oil has no direct insect repellent activity, it is used as a fixative to extend the short duration of action of essential oils such as geranium oil in several commercial products. Soybean oil is traded at the Chicago Board of Trade in contracts of 60,000 pounds at a time, prices are listed in cents and hundredths of a cent per poundSoybean oil – General
52. Sugar – Sugar is the generic name for sweet, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. There are various types of derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose, fructose, the table sugar or granulated sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar is used in prepared foods and it is added to some foods, in the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk, longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol may also have a sweet taste, low-calorie food substitutes for sugar, described as artificial sweeteners, include aspartame and sucralose, a chlorinated derivative of sucrose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants and are present in sufficient concentrations for efficient commercial extraction in sugarcane, the world production of sugar in 2011 was about 168 million tonnes. The average person consumes about 24 kilograms of sugar each year, equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, since the latter part of the twentieth century, it has been questioned whether a diet high in sugars, especially refined sugars, is good for human health. Sugar has been linked to obesity, and suspected of, or fully implicated as a cause in the occurrence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, macular degeneration, the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. The English word sugar ultimately originates from the Sanskrit शर्करा, via Arabic سكر as granular or candied sugar, the contemporary Italian word is zucchero, whereas the Spanish and Portuguese words, azúcar and açúcar, respectively, have kept a trace of the Arabic definite article. The Old French word is zuchre and the contemporary French, sucre, the earliest Greek word attested is σάκχαρις. The English word jaggery, a brown sugar made from date palm sap or sugarcane juice, has a similar etymological origin – Portuguese jagara from the Sanskrit शर्करा. Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times and it was not plentiful or cheap in early times and honey was more often used for sweetening in most parts of the world. Originally, people chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness, sugarcane was a native of tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. edule, one of the earliest historical references to sugarcane is in Chinese manuscripts dating back to 8th century BC that state that the use of sugarcane originated in India. Sugar was found in Europe by the 1st century AD, but only as an imported medicine and it is a kind of honey found in cane, white as gum, and it crunches between the teeth. It comes in lumps the size of a hazelnut, sugar is used only for medical purposes. Sugar remained relatively unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals that were easier to store, crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century ADSugar – Closeup of raw (unrefined, unbleached) sugar
53. Bristle – A bristle is a stiff hair or feather, either on an animal, such as a pig, or on a tool such as a brush or broom. Synthetic materials such as nylon are used to make bristles in items such as brooms. Bristles are often used to make brushes for cleaning purposes, as they are strongly abrasive, common examples include the toothbrush, the bristle brush and the scrub brush are common household cleaning tools, often used to remove dirt or grease from pots and pans. Bristles are also used on other than for cleaning, notably paintbrushes. Bristles are distinguished as flagged or unflagged, these are known as flocked or unflocked bristles. In cleaning applications, flagged bristles are suited for dry cleaning, in painting, flagged bristles yield more even application. Bristles are found on pig breeds, instead of fur, because the density is less than with fur, pigs are vulnerable to sunburn. One breed, the Tamworth pig, is endowed with a very dense bristle structure such that sunburn damage to skin is minimized, animals named for their bristles include bristlebirds, the bristle-thighed curlew, the bristle-spined porcupine, and the Trinity bristle snail. Bristles also anchor worms to the soil to help the worm move, hairbrush Types of Bristle Materials Used for BrushesBristle – The bristles of a sweeping brush
54. Civet (perfumery) – Civet, also known as civet musk, is the glandular secretion produced by both sexes of the civet cat. A number of species of civet, Civettictis civetta of Ethiopia, and Viverra zibetha and Viverricula indica of India, Malaya, Indochina, most civet is however produced by civet farms in Africa, where the secreted oil is taken from the pouches of caged animals once a week. African civets typically produce three to four grams of each week. In 2000, civet sold for five hundred dollars per kilogram. Civet is a soft, almost liquid material and it is pale yellow when fresh, darkening in the light and becoming salve-like in consistency. Its odor is strong, even putrid as a pure substance and it is prepared for use in perfumery by solvent extraction to yield either a tincture, an absolute, or a resinoid. The chemical in civet oil that gives it most of its odor is civetone. The oil also includes various other such as cyclopentadecanone, cyclohexadecanone, cycloheptadecanone. The animal scent is reinforced by the presence of smaller amounts of indole and skatole, civet has a distinctly different odor from musk and was formerly a versatile ingredient of fine fragrances. It is being displaced by 5-cyclohexadecen-1-one which is easily synthesized. Civet absolute is used as a flavor and in perfumery, the USA does not allow civets to be imported, as the species can transmit the SARS virus. The USA does however permit the importation of civet oil, as long as it has been treated to ensure it is noninfectious, the name derives from the Arabic zabād or sinnawr al-zabād, civet cat, by way of Old Italian zibetto and Middle French civette. The 10th century Arab historian al-Masudi mentioned civet as a spice in his book Murūdj al-dhahab, civet was among the many trade items that caravans, controlled by the Ghana empires, carried from the Niger valley to North AfricaCivet (perfumery) – The African civet, Civettictis civetta, is one of the species that secretes civet fluid.
55. Feather – Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. They are considered the most complex integumentary structures found in vertebrates and they are among the characteristics that distinguish the extant birds from other living groups. Although feathers cover most parts of the body of birds, they arise only from certain well-defined tracts on the skin and they aid in flight, thermal insulation, and waterproofing. In addition, coloration helps in communication and protection, plumology is the name for the science that is associated with the study of feathers. Feathers are among the most complex integumentary appendages found in vertebrates and are formed in tiny follicles in the epidermis, or outer skin layer, that produce keratin proteins. There are two types of feather, vaned feathers which cover the exterior of the body. The pennaceous feathers are vaned feathers, also called contour feathers, pennaceous feathers arise from tracts and cover the entire body. In some passerines, filoplumes arise exposed beyond the contour feathers on the neck, the remiges, or flight feathers of the wing, and rectrices, the flight feathers of the tail are the most important feathers for flight. A typical vaned feather features a main shaft, called the rachis, fused to the rachis are a series of branches, or barbs, the barbs themselves are also branched and form the barbules. These barbules have minute hooks called barbicels for cross-attachment, down feathers are fluffy because they lack barbicels, so the barbules float free of each other, allowing the down to trap air and provide excellent thermal insulation. At the base of the feather, the rachis expands to form the hollow tubular calamus which inserts into a follicle in the skin, the basal part of the calamus is without vanes. This part is embedded within the follicle and has an opening at the base. Hatchling birds of species have a special kind of natal down feathers which are pushed out when the normal feathers emerge. Flight feathers are stiffened so as to work against the air in the downstroke, feathers insulate birds from water and cold temperatures. They may also be plucked to line the nest and provide insulation to the eggs, the individual feathers in the wings and tail play important roles in controlling flight. Some species have a crest of feathers on their heads, although feathers are light, a birds plumage weighs two or three times more than its skeleton, since many bones are hollow and contain air sacs. Color patterns serve as camouflage against predators for birds in their habitats, as with fish, the top and bottom colors may be different, in order to provide camouflage during flight. Striking differences in patterns and colors are part of the sexual dimorphism of many bird species and are particularly important in selection of mating pairsFeather – Feather variations
56. Cattle – Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, cattle are raised as livestock for meat, as dairy animals for milk and other dairy products, and as draft animals. Other products include leather and dung for manure or fuel, in some regions, such as parts of India, cattle have significant religious meaning. From as few as 80 progenitors domesticated in southeast Turkey about 10,500 years ago, according to an estimate from 2011, in 2009, cattle became one of the first livestock animals to have a fully mapped genome. Some consider cattle the oldest form of wealth, and cattle raiding consequently one of the earliest forms of theft. Cattle were originally identified as three species, Bos taurus, the European or taurine cattle, Bos indicus, the zebu, and the extinct Bos primigenius. The aurochs is ancestral to both zebu and taurine cattle and these have been reclassified as one species, Bos taurus, with three subspecies, Bos taurus primigenius, Bos taurus indicus, and Bos taurus taurus. Complicating the matter is the ability of cattle to interbreed with other related species. Hybrid individuals and even breeds exist, not only between taurine cattle and zebu, but also one or both of these and some other members of the genus Bos – yaks, banteng. Hybrids such as the breed can even occur between taurine cattle and either species of bison, leading some authors to consider them part of the genus Bos. However, cattle cannot successfully be hybridized with more distantly related bovines such as water buffalo or African buffalo, the aurochs originally ranged throughout Europe, North Africa, and much of Asia. In historical times, its range became restricted to Europe, breeders have attempted to recreate cattle of similar appearance to aurochs by crossing traditional types of domesticated cattle, creating the Heck cattle breed. Cattle did not originate as the term for bovine animals and it was borrowed from Anglo-Norman catel, itself from medieval Latin capitale principal sum of money, capital, itself derived in turn from Latin caput head. Cattle originally meant movable personal property, especially livestock of any kind, the word is a variant of chattel and closely related to capital in the economic sense. The term replaced earlier Old English feoh cattle, property, which today as fee. The word cow came via Anglo-Saxon cū, from Common Indo-European gʷōus = a bovine animal, compare Persian gâv, Sanskrit go-, Welsh buwch. The plural cȳ became ki or kie in Middle English, and a plural ending was often added, giving kine, kien. This is the origin of the now archaic English plural, kine, the Scots language singular is coo or cou, and the plural is kyeCattle – Cattle
57. Horse – H. O. R. S. E. is a form of poker commonly played at the high-stakes tables of casinos. It consists of rounds of cycling among, Texas Hold em, Omaha hi-low split-eight or better, Razz, Seven card Stud. H. O. R. S. E. is a limit game, however, in some tournament situations, the final table is no-limit hold em. C. H. O. R. S. E adds Chowaha or Crazy Pineapple to the mix and this is convenient at such team events as BARGE, when it helps to have as many flop games as stud games. T. H. O. R. S. E. H. A. is another 8-Game Mix which includes more games than most other mixed poker games, pokerStars started offering this game in 2008. It consists of limit 2-7 Triple Draw, limit Texas hold em, limit Omaha Hi-Lo, limit Razz, limit Seven-card Stud, limit Seven card Stud Hi-Lo, no limit Texas hold em and pot limit Omaha. 10-Game, the latest variation on the poker games, overtook T. H. O. R. S. E. H. A. in the extent of its game inclusion. Full Tilt Poker also offers the 9-Game, which includes all poker variants from the 10-Game with the exception of Badugi, a 12 Game Mix has also been proposed as a variation and as an extension to the 10-Game mix. A13 Game Mix can also be constructed by adding No Limit Holdem to the games of the 12 Game Mix, made its debut at the World Series of Poker in 2002 with a $2,000 buy-in. John Hennigan won the event, earning $117,320, tournament made its debut at the 2006 World Series of Poker. Chip Reese won the event, earning $1,716,000 for first place, after Reese died at the end of 2007, the Chip Reese Memorial Trophy was created in his honor. The trophy is awarded to the winner of the $50,000 championship event since the 2008 World Series of Poker. The $50,000 buy-in tournament returned for the 2007 WSOP, the $50,000 event, which awarded $2,276,832 to first place, was won by professional player Freddy Deeb. Events with $2,500 and $5,000 buy-ins were also on the 2007 WSOP program, the 2008 $50,000 H. O. R. S. E event was won by Scotty Nguyen, who received $1,989,120 for his victory. This was also the first time that the Chip Reese Memorial Trophy had been awarded to the winner of the competition, event was won by David Bach, for $1,276,802. World Championship event was replaced by The Poker Players Championship, with an identical buy-in, event, the final table was no-limit hold em. Michael Mizrachi won the first Players Championship and with it the Chip Reese Memorial Trophy, the 2010 WSOP also featured a new $10,000 H. O. R. S. E. Championship, joining already-existing events with $1,500 and $3,000 buy-insHorse
58. Ivory – Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing. It consists mainly of dentine ), one of the structures of teeth. The chemical structure of the teeth and tusks of mammals is the same and it has been valued since ancient times for making a range of items, from ivory carvings to false teeth, fans, and dominoes. Elephant ivory is the most important source, but ivory from mammoth, walrus, hippopotamus, sperm whale, killer whale, narwhal, elk also have two ivory teeth, which are believed to be the remnants of tusks from their ancestors. The national and international trade in ivory of threatened species such as African and Asian elephants is illegal, the word ivory ultimately derives from the ancient Egyptian âb, âbu, through the Latin ebor- or ebur. Both the Greek and Roman civilizations practiced ivory carving to make large quantities of high value works of art, precious religious objects, Ivory was often used to form the white of the eyes of statues. There is some evidence of either whale or walrus ivory used by the ancient Irish, solinus, a Roman writer in the 3rd century claimed that the Celtic peoples in Ireland would decorate their sword-hilts with the teeth of beasts that swim in the sea. Adomnan of Iona wrote a story about St Columba giving a sword decorated with carved ivory as a gift that a penitent would bring to his master so he could redeem himself from slavery. The Syrian and North African elephant populations were reduced to extinction, the Chinese have long valued ivory for both art and utilitarian objects. Southeast Asian kingdoms included tusks of the Indian elephant in their annual tribute caravans to China, Chinese craftsmen carved ivory to make everything from images of deities to the pipe stems and end pieces of opium pipes. The Buddhist cultures of Southeast Asia, including Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia, Ivory was prized for containers due to its ability to keep an airtight seal. It was also carved into elaborate seals utilized by officials to sign documents. In Southeast Asian countries, where Muslim Malay peoples live, such as Malaysia, Indonesia, in the Philippines, ivory was also used to craft the faces and hands of Catholic icons and images of saints prevalent in the Santero culture. Tooth and tusk ivory can be carved into a vast variety of shapes, examples of modern carved ivory objects are okimono, netsukes, jewelry, flatware handles, furniture inlays, and piano keys. Additionally, warthog tusks, and teeth from sperm whales, orcas and hippos can also be scrimshawed or superficially carved, Ivory usage in the last thirty years has moved towards mass production of souvenirs and jewelry. In Japan, the increase in wealth sparked consumption of solid ivory hanko – name seals – which before this time had made of wood. Prior to the introduction of plastics, ivory had many ornamental and practical uses and it was formerly used to make cutlery handles, billiard balls, piano keys, Scottish bagpipes, buttons and a wide range of ornamental items. Ivory can be taken from dead animals – however, most ivory came from elephants that were killed for their tusks, for example, in 1930 to acquire 40 tons of ivory required the killing of approximately 700 elephantsIvory – The solid ivory image of Our Lady of Manaoag in her imperial regalia. Genuine ivory is held more valuable than gold among Santero artisans. Pangasinan, Philippines.
59. Lard – Lard is pig fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms. It is obtained from any part of the pig where there is a proportion of adipose tissue. It can be rendered by steaming it or boiling it in water and then separating the insoluble fat from the water and it is a semi-soft white fat with a high saturated fatty acid content and no transfats, and refined lard is usually sold as paper-wrapped blocks. Lard is commonly used in cuisines around the world as a cooking fat or shortening. It is an ingredient in various dishes such as sausages, pates and fillings. Its use in contemporary cuisine has diminished with the increased popularity of vegetable oils. The culinary qualities of lard vary somewhat depending on the part of the pig from which the fat was taken, Lard can be obtained from any part of the pig where there is a high concentration of fatty tissue. The highest grade of lard, known as leaf lard, is obtained from the visceral fat deposit surrounding the kidneys. Leaf lard has little pork flavor, making it ideal for use in baked goods, the next-highest grade is obtained from fatback, the hard subcutaneous fat between the back skin and muscle of the pig. Lard may be rendered by either of two processes, wet or dry, in dry rendering, the fat is exposed to high heat in a pan or oven without the presence of water. The two processes yield somewhat differing products, wet-rendered lard has a more neutral flavor, a lighter color, and a high smoke point. Dry-rendered lard is somewhat more browned in color and flavor and has a lower smoke point, rendered lard produces an unpleasant smell when mixed with oxygen. Industrially-produced lard, including much of the lard sold in supermarkets, is rendered from a mixture of high-, Lard is often hydrogenated to improve its stability at room temperature. Hydrogenated lard sold to consumers typically contains fewer than 0.5 g of transfats per 13 g serving, Lard is also often treated with bleaching and deodorizing agents, emulsifiers, and antioxidants such as BHT. These treatments make it consistent and prevent spoilage. Consumers seeking a higher-quality source of lard typically seek out artisanal producers of rendered lard, a by-product of dry-rendering lard is deep-fried meat, skin and membrane tissue known as cracklings. Lard consists mainly of fats, which in the language of chemistry are known as triglycerides and these triglycerides are composed of three fatty acids and the distribution of fatty acids varies from oil to oil. In general lard is similar to tallow in its composition, pigs that have been fed different diets will have lard with a significantly different fatty acid content and iodine valueLard – Wet-rendered lard, from pork fatback.
60. Milk – Milk is a pale liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the source of nutrition for infant mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mothers antibodies to its young and it contains many other nutrients including protein and lactose. As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from non-human mammals during or soon after pregnancy, Dairy farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011, from 260 million dairy cows. India is the worlds largest producer of milk, and is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, the ever increasing rise in domestic demand for dairy products and a large demand-supply gap could lead to India being a net importer of dairy products in the future. The United States, India, China and Brazil are the worlds largest exporters of milk and milk products, China and Russia were the worlds largest importers of milk and milk products until 2016 when both countries became self-sufficient, contributing to a worldwide glut of milk. Throughout the world, there are more than six billion consumers of milk and milk products, over 750 million people live in dairy farming households. The term milk comes from Old English meoluc, milc, from Proto-Germanic *meluks milk, there are two distinct types of milk consumption, a natural source of nutrition for all infant mammals and a food product for humans of all ages that is derived from other animals. In almost all mammals, milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding, the early milk from mammals is called colostrum. Colostrum contains antibodies that provide protection to the baby as well as nutrients. The makeup of the colostrum and the period of secretion varies from species to species, for humans, the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months and breastfeeding in addition to other food for at least two years. In some cultures it is common to breastfeed children for three to five years, and the period may be longer, fresh goats milk is sometimes substituted for breast milk. This introduces the risk of the child developing electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, megaloblastic anemia, in many cultures of the world, especially the West, humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other animals as a food product. Initially, the ability to digest milk was limited to children as adults did not produce lactase, Milk was therefore converted to curd, cheese and other products to reduce the levels of lactose. Thousands of years ago, a chance mutation spread in human populations in Europe that enabled the production of lactase in adulthood and this allowed milk to be used as a new source of nutrition which could sustain populations when other food sources failed. Milk is processed into a variety of products such as cream, butter, yogurt, kefir, ice cream. Modern industrial processes use milk to produce casein, whey protein, lactose, condensed milk, powdered milk, whole milk, butter and cream have high levels of saturated fat. The sugar lactose is found only in milk, forsythia flowers, the enzyme needed to digest lactose, lactase, reaches its highest levels in the small intestine after birth and then begins a slow decline unless milk is consumed regularlyMilk – A glass of pasteurized cow's milk
61. Musk – MuSK is a receptor tyrosine kinase required for the formation and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction. It is activated by a nerve-derived proteoglycan called agrin, upon activation by its ligand agrin, MuSK signals via the proteins called casein kinase 2, Dok-7 and rapsyn, to induce clustering of acetylcholine receptors. In addition to the mentioned, other proteins are then gathered. The nerve terminates onto the endplate, forming the neuromuscular junction - a structure required to transmit nerve impulses to the muscle, antibodies directed against this protein are found in those patients with myasthenia gravis not demonstrating antibodies to the acetylcholine receptorMusk
62. Pork bellies – Pork belly is a boneless cut of fatty meat from the belly of a pig. Pork belly is popular in East Asian, European and North American cuisine and this cut of meat is enormously popular in Chinese, Korean and Philippine cuisine. In Chinese cuisine, pork belly is usually diced, browned, then braised with skin on. Pork belly is used to make Slowly Braised Pork Belly or Dongpo pork in China, in Colombian cuisine pork belly strips are fried and served as part of bandeja paisa. In Alsatian cuisine, pork belly is used to make choucroute garnie, in German cuisine, pork belly is used to make schlachtplatte. Pancetta is made from pork belly, in Okinawan cuisine, rafute is traditionally eaten for longevity. Koreans cook Samgyeopsal on a grill with garlic, often accompanied by soju, in Philippine cuisine, pork belly is marinated in a mixture of crushed garlic, vinegar, salt and pepper before being grilled. It is then served with soy sauce and vinegar or vinegar with garlic, Pork belly prepared this way is called inihaw in Filipino and sinugba in Cebuano. Seasoned pork belly deep-fried and served chopped into pieces is called lechon kawali, in Swiss cuisine, pork belly is used to make the Berner Platte. In British cuisine pork belly is primarily cooked using two methods and this is often accompanied by a sweet chilli baste or sauce. For barbecued belly pork the meat is seasoned and slow cooked in a pan by indirect heat on a covered barbecue, heat is again varied to produce tender meat with hard crackling. Pork belly is used in the UK to make streaky bacon. In the United States, bacon is most often made from pork bellies, uncured whole pork belly is a popular dish as well. The pork belly futures contract became an icon of futures and commodities trading and it is frequently used as a pars pro toto for commodities in general and appears in several depictions of the arena in popular entertainment. The futures contracts were useful in guiding inventories and establishing forward pricing, the unit of trading was 20 short tons of frozen, trimmed bellies. Pork bellies can be kept in storage for an extended period of time. In more recent years pork belly futures prominence declined, eventually they were among the least-traded contracts on the CME, and were delisted for trading on July 18,2011Pork bellies – Uncooked pork belly, with rind (skin)
63. Silk – Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by insect larvae to form cocoons. The best-known silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity, Silk is produced by several insects, but generally only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacturing. There has been research into other types of silk, which differ at the molecular level. Silk is mainly produced by the larvae of insects undergoing complete metamorphosis, Silk production also occurs in Hymenoptera, silverfish, mayflies, thrips, leafhoppers, beetles, lacewings, fleas, flies, and midges. Other types of arthropod produce silk, most notably various arachnids such as spiders, the word silk comes from Old English sioloc, from Greek σηρικός serikos, silken, ultimately from an Asian source. Several kinds of silk, which are produced by caterpillars other than the mulberry silkworm, have been known and used in China, South Asia. However, the scale of production was far smaller than for cultivated silks. Thus, the way to obtain silk suitable for spinning into textiles in areas where commercial silks are not cultivated was by tedious. Commercial silks originate from reared silkworm pupae, which are bred to produce a silk thread with no mineral on the surface. The pupae are killed by either dipping them in boiling water before the adult moths emerge or by piercing them with a needle. These factors all contribute to the ability of the cocoon to be unravelled as one continuous thread. Wild silks also tend to be difficult to dye than silk from the cultivated silkworm. Genetic modification of domesticated silkworms is used to facilitate the production of more types of silk. Silk fabric was first developed in ancient China, the earliest example of silk fabric is from 3630 BC, and it was used as wrapping for the body of a child from a Yangshao culture site in Qingtaicun at Xingyang, Henan. Legend gives credit for developing silk to a Chinese empress, Leizu, because of its texture and lustre, silk rapidly became a popular luxury fabric in the many areas accessible to Chinese merchants. Silk was in demand, and became a staple of pre-industrial international trade. In July 2007, archaeologists discovered intricately woven and dyed silk textiles in a tomb in Jiangxi province, Silk is described in a chapter on mulberry planting by Si Shengzhi of the Western HanSilk – Four of the most important domesticated silk moths. Top to bottom: Bombyx mori, Hyalophora cecropia, Antheraea pernyi, Samia cynthia. From Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (1885–1892)
64. Sponge – Sponges are the basalmost clade of animals of the phylum Porifera. Sponges have unspecialized cells that can transform into other types and that often migrate between the cell layers and the mesohyl in the process. Sponges do not have nervous, digestive or circulatory systems, instead, most rely on maintaining a constant water flow through their bodies to obtain food and oxygen and to remove wastes. Sponges are similar to animals in that they are multicellular, heterotrophic, lack cell walls. Unlike other animals, they lack true tissues and organs, and have no body symmetry, the shapes of their bodies are adapted for maximal efficiency of water flow through the central cavity, where it deposits nutrients, and leaves through a hole called the osculum. Many sponges have internal skeletons of spongin and/or spicules of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide, all sponges are sessile aquatic animals. Although there are species, the great majority are marine species. A few species of sponge that live in food-poor environments have become carnivores that prey mainly on small crustaceans, most species use sexual reproduction, releasing sperm cells into the water to fertilize ova that in some species are released and in others are retained by the mother. The fertilized eggs form larvae which swim off in search of places to settle, sponges are known for regenerating from fragments that are broken off, although this only works if the fragments include the right types of cells. A few species reproduce by budding, the mesohyl functions as an endoskeleton in most sponges, and is the only skeleton in soft sponges that encrust hard surfaces such as rocks. More commonly, the mesohyl is stiffened by mineral spicules, by spongin fibers or both, demosponges use spongin, and in many species, silica spicules and in some species, calcium carbonate exoskeletons. Demosponges constitute about 90% of all known species, including all freshwater ones. The fragile glass sponges, with scaffolding of silica spicules, are restricted to polar regions, fossils of all of these types have been found in rocks dated from 580 million years ago. In addition Archaeocyathids, whose fossils are common in rocks from 530 to 490 million years ago, are now regarded as a type of sponge, the single-celled choanoflagellates resemble the choanocyte cells of sponges which are used to drive their water flow systems and capture most of their food. This along with studies of ribosomal molecules have been used as morphological evidence to suggest sponges are the sister group to the rest of animals. Some studies have shown that sponges do not form a group, in other words do not include all. Recent phylogenetic analyses suggest that comb jellies rather than sponges are the group to the rest of animals. By the 1950s, though, these had been overfished so heavily that the industry almost collapsed, sponges and their microscopic endosymbionts are now being researched as possible sources of medicines for treating a wide range of diseasesSponge
65. Tallow – Tallow is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. It is solid at room temperature, unlike suet, tallow can be stored for extended periods without the need for refrigeration to prevent decomposition, provided it is kept in an airtight container to prevent oxidation. In industry, tallow is not strictly defined as beef or mutton fat, in this context, tallow is animal fat that conforms to certain technical criteria, including its melting point. It is common for commercial tallow to contain fat derived from animals, such as lard from pigs. The diagram to the shows the chemical structure of a typical triglyceride molecule. Tallow is used mainly in producing soap and animal feed, tallow can be used for the production of biodiesel in much the same way as oils from plants are currently used. Because tallow is derived from animal by-products which have little to no value to food industries. The United States Air Force has experimented successfully with the use of tallow in aviation biofuels. During five days of flight testing from August 23 to 27,2010, at Edwards Air Force Base, California, a significant use of tallow is for the production of shortening. It is one of the ingredients of Native American food called pemmican. Tallow is sometimes used in deep frying in place of other oils, before switching to pure vegetable oil in 1990, the McDonalds corporation cooked its French fries in a mixture of 93% beef tallow and 7% cottonseed oil. Many items of goods are produced from tallow, which was widely available domestically. Tallow can also be used as flux for soldering and it is also the primary ingredient in some leather conditioners. Tallow used to be used commonly in high-end shaving soaps, in particular those of elite British firms such as Geo, F Trumper, Truefitt & Hill, and Taylor of Old Bond Street. Tallow-based shaving soaps have enjoyed a resurgence in recent years due to gaining popularity of traditional wet-shaving, tallow also has a use in printmaking where it is combined with bitumen and applied to metal print plates to provide a resist to acid etching. The use of trace amounts of tallow as an additive to the used in polymer banknotes came to light in November 2016. Notes issued in 24 countries including Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom were found to be affected, leading to objections from vegans, in Leviticus 3, 14-17 the Israelites are forbidden to eat the suet surrounding certain internal organs of animals sacrificed at the Temple. This suet is Halakhically called chelev, tallow once was widely used to make moulded candles before more convenient wax varieties became available—and for some time after, as they continued to be a cheaper alternativeTallow – Tallow made by rendering calf suet
66. Wool top – Topmaking mills make wool top, a semi-processed product from raw wool. The process requires that the wool be scoured and combed and sorted, the longer fibers resulting from the process are called tops, and are in a form ready for spinning. To be closer to customers, much of the industry has moved from Australia, Europe, many British companies produce high quality wool top in Britain from British wool and fibre, most work with the fleece from cleaning it to hand dyingWool top – Materials
67. Coal – Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon, along with quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen. A fossil fuel, coal forms when plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, then sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal. This involves biological and geological processes that take place over time, throughout history, coal has been used as an energy resource, primarily burned for the production of electricity and heat, and is also used for industrial purposes, such as refining metals. Coal is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, the extraction of coal, its use in energy production and its byproducts are all associated with environmental and health effects including climate change. Coal is extracted from the ground by coal mining, since 1983, the worlds top coal producer has been China. In 2015 China produced 3,747 million tonnes of coal –47. 7% of 7,861 million tonnes world coal production, in 2015 other large producers were United States, India, European Union and Australia. The word originally took the col in Old English, from Proto-Germanic *kula. In Old Turkic languages, kül is ash, cinders, öčür is quench, the compound charcoal in Turkic is öčür kül, literally quenched ashes, cinders, coals with elided anlaut ö- and inflection affixes -ülmüş. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in low-lying wetland areas, due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil. As more and more soil deposited over them, they were compressed, the temperature also rose as they sank deeper and deeper. As the process continued the plant matter was protected from biodegradation and oxidation and this trapped the carbon in immense peat bogs that were eventually covered and deeply buried by sediments. Under high pressure and high temperature, dead vegetation was slowly converted to coal, as coal contains mainly carbon, the conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called carbonization. The wide, shallow seas of the Carboniferous Period provided ideal conditions for coal formation, the exception is the coal gap in the Permian–Triassic extinction event, where coal is rare. Coal is known from Precambrian strata, which predate land plants — this coal is presumed to have originated from residues of algae, in its dehydrated form, peat is a highly effective absorbent for fuel and oil spills on land and water. It is also used as a conditioner for soil to make it able to retain. Lignite, or brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal, jet, a compact form of lignite, is sometimes polished and has been used as an ornamental stone since the Upper PalaeolithicCoal – Anthracite coal
68. Ethanol fuel – Ethanol fuel is ethyl alcohol, the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, used as fuel. It is most often used as a fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline. The first production car running entirely on ethanol was the Fiat 147, nowadays, cars are able to run using 100% ethanol fuel or a mix of ethanol and gasoline. It is commonly made from such as corn or sugarcane. World ethanol production for transport fuel tripled between 2000 and 2007 from 17×109 liters to more than 52×109 liters, from 2007 to 2008, the share of ethanol in global gasoline type fuel use increased from 3. 7% to 5. 4%. Ethanol fuel has a gasoline gallon equivalency value of 1.5 US gallons, Ethanol fuel is widely used in Brazil and in the United States, and together both countries were responsible for 87. 1% of the worlds ethanol fuel production in 2011. Most cars on the road today in the U. S. can run on blends of up to 10% ethanol, since 1976 the Brazilian government has made it mandatory to blend ethanol with gasoline, and since 2007 the legal blend is around 25% ethanol and 75% gasoline. By December 2011 Brazil had a fleet of 14.8 million flex-fuel automobiles, bioethanol is a form of quasi-renewable energy that can be produced from agricultural feedstocks. It can be made from common crops such as hemp, sugarcane, potato, cassava. There has been debate about how useful bioethanol is in replacing gasoline. Recent developments with cellulosic ethanol production and commercialization may allay some of these concerns, Cellulosic ethanol offers promise because cellulose fibers, a major and universal component in plant cells walls, can be used to produce ethanol. According to the International Energy Agency, cellulosic ethanol could allow ethanol fuels to play a bigger role in the future. During ethanol fermentation, glucose and other sugars in the corn are converted into ethanol, c6H12O6 →2 C2H5OH+2 CO2 + heat Ethanol fermentation is not 100% selective with other side products such as acetic acid, glycols and many other products produced. They are mostly removed during ethanol purification, fermentation takes place in an aqueous solution. The resulting solution has an content of around 15%. Ethanol is subsequently isolated and purified by a combination of adsorption and distillation. During combustion, ethanol reacts with oxygen to carbon dioxide, water. It is also possible to generate ethanol out of cellulosic materials and that, however, requires a pretreatment that splits the cellulose into glycose molecules and other sugars that subsequently can be fermentedEthanol fuel – Saab 9-3 SportCombi BioPower. The second E85 flexifuel model introduced by Saab in the Swedish market.
69. Propane – Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8, a gas, at standard temperature and pressure, but compressible to a transportable liquid. A by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining, it is used as a fuel for engines, oxy-gas torches, portable stoves. Propane is one of a group of liquefied petroleum gases, the others include butane, propylene, butadiene, butylene, isobutylene, and mixtures thereof. Propane was first identified as a component in gasoline by Walter O. Snelling of the U. S. Bureau of Mines in 1910. The volatility of these lighter hydrocarbons caused them to be known as wild because of the vapor pressures of unrefined gasoline. On March 31, the New York Times reported on Snellings work with liquefied gas and that a steel bottle will carry enough gas to light an ordinary home for three weeks. It was during this time that Snelling, in cooperation with Frank P. Peterson, Chester Kerr, together, they established American Gasol Co. the first commercial marketer of propane. Snelling had produced relatively pure propane by 1911, and on March 25,1913, a separate method of producing LP gas through compression was created by Frank Peterson and its patent granted on July 2,1912. The 1920s saw increased production of LP gas, with the first year of recorded production totaling 223,000 US gallons in 1922. In 1927, annual marketed LP gas production reached 1 million US gallons, and by 1935, major industry developments in the 1930s included the introduction of railroad tank car transport, gas odorization, and the construction of local bottle-filling plants. The year 1945 marked the first year that annual LP gas sales reached a billion gallons, by 1947, 62% of all U. S. homes had been equipped with either natural gas or propane for cooking. In 1950,1,000 propane-fueled buses were ordered by the Chicago Transit Authority, in 2004 it was reported to be a growing $8-billion to $10-billion industry with over 15 billion US gallons of propane being used annually in the U. S. The prop- root found in propane and names of compounds with three-carbon chains was derived from propionic acid. Propane is produced as a by-product of two processes, natural gas processing and petroleum refining. The processing of natural gas involves removal of butane, propane, additionally, oil refineries produce some propane as a by-product of cracking petroleum into gasoline or heating oil. The supply of propane cannot easily be adjusted to meet increased demand, about 90% of U. S. propane is domestically produced. The United States imports about 10% of the propane consumed each year, with about 70% of that coming from Canada via pipeline, the remaining 30% of imported propane comes to the United States from other sources via ocean transport. After it is produced, North American propane is stored in salt cavernsPropane – A 20 lb (9.1 kg) steel propane cylinder. This cylinder is fitted with an overfill prevention device (OPD) valve, as evidenced by the trilobular handwheel.
70. Aluminium – Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal, Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite, Aluminium is remarkable for the metals low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the industry and important in transportation and structures, such as building facades. The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium, despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of these salts abundance, the potential for a role for them is of continuing interest. Aluminium is a soft, durable, lightweight, ductile. It is nonmagnetic and does not easily ignite, a fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation. The yield strength of aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has about one-third the density and stiffness of steel and it is easily machined, cast, drawn and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a cubic structure. Aluminium has an energy of approximately 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin. Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits, the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts, particularly in the presence of dissimilar metals. In highly acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, primarily because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminiumAluminium – Aluminium, 13 Al
71. Aluminium alloy – Aluminium alloys are alloys in which aluminium is the predominant metal. The typical alloying elements are copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon, tin, there are two principal classifications, namely casting alloys and wrought alloys, both of which are further subdivided into the categories heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable. About 85% of aluminium is used for products, for example rolled plate, foils. Cast aluminium alloys yield cost-effective products due to the low melting point, the most important cast aluminium alloy system is Al–Si, where the high levels of silicon contribute to give good casting characteristics. Aluminium alloys are used in engineering structures and components where light weight or corrosion resistance is required. Alloys composed mostly of aluminium have been important in aerospace manufacturing since the introduction of metal-skinned aircraft. Aluminium-magnesium alloys are both lighter than aluminium alloys and much less flammable than alloys that contain a very high percentage of magnesium. Aluminium alloy surfaces will develop a white, protective layer of aluminium oxide if left unprotected by anodizing and/or correct painting procedures, referred to as dissimilar-metal corrosion, this process can occur as exfoliation or as intergranular corrosion. Aluminium alloys can be heat treated. This causes internal element separation, and the metal then corrodes from the inside out, Aluminium alloy compositions are registered with The Aluminum Association. Aluminium alloys with a range of properties are used in engineering structures. Alloy systems are classified by a system or by names indicating their main alloying constituents. Selecting the right alloy for a given application entails considerations of its strength, density, ductility, formability, workability, weldability. A brief historical overview of alloys and manufacturing technologies is given in Ref. Aluminium alloys are used extensively in aircraft due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. On the other hand, pure aluminium metal is too soft for such uses. Aluminium alloys typically have an elastic modulus of about 70 GPa, therefore, for a given load, a component or unit made of an aluminium alloy will experience a greater deformation in the elastic regime than a steel part of identical size and shape. Though there are aluminium alloys with somewhat-higher tensile strengths than the commonly used kinds of steel, with completely new metal products, the design choices are often governed by the choice of manufacturing technology. Extrusions are particularly important in regard, owing to the ease with which aluminium alloys, particularly the Al–Mg–Si seriesAluminium alloy – Aluminium alloy bicycle wheel. 1960s Bootie Folding Cycle
72. Cobalt – Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27. Like nickel, cobalt is found in the Earths crust only in chemically combined form, the free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal. In 1735, such ores were found to be reducible to a new metal, today, some cobalt is produced specifically from various metallic-lustered ores, for example cobaltite, but the main source of the element is as a by-product of copper and nickel mining. The copper belt in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, cobalt is primarily used in the preparation of magnetic, wear-resistant and high-strength alloys. The compounds, cobalt silicate and cobalt aluminate give a deep blue color to glass, ceramics, inks, paints. Cobalt occurs naturally as only one isotope, cobalt-59. Cobalt-60 is an important radioisotope, used as a radioactive tracer. Cobalt is the center of coenzymes called cobalamins, the most common example of which is vitamin B12. As such, it is a trace dietary mineral for all animals. Cobalt in inorganic form is also a micronutrient for bacteria, algae, cobalt is a ferromagnetic metal with a specific gravity of 8.9. The Curie temperature is 1,115 °C and the moment is 1. 6–1.7 Bohr magnetons per atom. Cobalt has a relative permeability two-thirds that of iron, metallic cobalt occurs as two crystallographic structures, hcp and fcc. The ideal transition temperature between the hcp and fcc structures is 450 °C, but in practice, the difference is so small that random intergrowth of the two is common. Cobalt is a weakly reducing metal that is protected from oxidation by an oxide film. It is attacked by halogens and sulfur, heating in oxygen produces Co3O4 which loses oxygen at 900 °C to give the monoxide CoO. The metal reacts with fluorine at 520 K to give CoF3, with chlorine, bromine and iodine and it does not react with hydrogen gas or nitrogen gas even when heated, but it does react with boron, carbon, phosphorus, arsenic and sulfur. At ordinary temperatures, it reacts slowly with mineral acids, and very slowly with moist, common oxidation states of cobalt include +2 and +3, although compounds with oxidation states ranging from −3 to +5 are also known. A common oxidation state for simple compounds is +2 and these salts form the pink-colored metal aquo complex 2+ in waterCobalt – electrolytically refined cobalt chips
73. Lead – Lead is a chemical element with atomic number 82 and symbol Pb. When freshly cut, it is bluish-white, it tarnishes to a dull gray upon exposure to air and it is a soft, malleable, and heavy metal with a density exceeding that of most common materials. Lead has the second-highest atomic number of the stable elements. Lead is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal and its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature and tendency to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead are found in the +2 oxidation state. Exceptions are mostly limited to organolead compounds, like the lighter members of the group, lead exhibits a tendency to bond to itself, it can form chains, rings, and polyhedral structures. Lead is easily extracted from its ores and was known to people in Western Asia. A principal ore of lead, galena, often bears silver, Lead production declined after the fall of Rome and did not reach comparable levels again until the Industrial Revolution. Nowadays, global production of lead is about ten million tonnes annually, Lead has several properties that make it useful, high density, low melting point, ductility, and relative inertness to oxidation. In the late 19th century, lead was recognized as poisonous, Lead is a neurotoxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, damaging the nervous system and causing brain disorders and, in mammals, blood disorders. A lead atom has 82 electrons, arranged in a configuration of 4f145d106s26p2. The combined first and second ionization energies—the total energy required to remove the two 6p electrons—is close to that of tin, leads upper neighbor in group 14. This is unusual since ionization energies generally fall going down a group as an elements outer electrons become more distant from the nucleus, the similarity is caused by the lanthanide contraction—the decrease in element radii from lanthanum to lutetium, and the relatively small radii of the elements after hafnium. The contraction is due to shielding of the nucleus by the lanthanide 4f electrons. The combined first four ionization energies of lead exceed those of tin, for this reason lead, unlike tin, mostly forms compounds in which it has an oxidation state of +2, rather than +4. Relativistic effects, which become particularly prominent at the bottom of the periodic table, as a result, the 6s electrons of lead become reluctant to participate in bonding, a phenomenon called the inert pair effect. A related outcome is that the distance between nearest atoms in crystalline lead is unusually long, the lighter group 14 elements form stable or metastable allotropes having the tetrahedrally coordinated and covalently bonded diamond cubic structure. The energy levels of their outer s- and p-orbitals are close enough to allow mixing into four hybrid sp3 orbitalsLead – Lead, 82 Pb
74. Tin – Tin is a chemical element with symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It is a metal in group 14 of the periodic table. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains tin dioxide, Tin shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, and has two main oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, metallic tin is not easily oxidized in air. The first alloy used on a scale was bronze, made of tin and copper. After 600 BC, pure metallic tin was produced, pewter, which is an alloy of 85–90% tin with the remainder commonly consisting of copper, antimony, and lead, was used for flatware from the Bronze Age until the 20th century. In modern times, tin is used in alloys, most notably tin/lead soft solders. Another large application for tin is corrosion-resistant tin plating of steel, inorganic tin compounds are rather non-toxic. Because of its low toxicity, tin-plated metal was used for packaging as tin cans. However, overexposure to tin may cause problems with metabolizing essential trace elements such as copper and zinc, Tin is a soft, malleable, ductile and highly crystalline silvery-white metal. When a bar of tin is bent, a sound known as the tin cry can be heard from the twinning of the crystals. Tin melts at the low temperature of about 232 °C, the lowest in group 14, the melting point is further lowered to 177.3 °C for 11 nm particles. β-tin, which is stable at and above room temperature, is malleable, in contrast, α-tin, which is stable below 13.2 °C, is brittle. α-tin has a cubic crystal structure, similar to diamond. α-tin has no properties at all because its atoms form a covalent structure in which electrons cannot move freely. It is a dull-gray powdery material with no common uses other than a few specialized semiconductor applications and these two allotropes, α-tin and β-tin, are more commonly known as gray tin and white tin, respectively. Two more allotropes, γ and σ, exist at temperatures above 161 °C, in cold conditions, β-tin tends to transform spontaneously into α-tin, a phenomenon known as tin pest. Commercial grades of tin resist transformation because of the effect of the small amounts of bismuth, antimony, leadTin – left: white, beta, β; right: gray, alpha, α
75. Commodity market – A commodity market is a market that trades in primary economic sector rather than manufactured products. Soft commodities are products such as wheat, coffee, cocoa. Hard commodities are mined, such as gold and oil, Investors access about 50 major commodity markets worldwide with purely financial transactions increasingly outnumbering physical trades in which goods are delivered. Futures contracts are the oldest way of investing in commodities, Futures are secured by physical assets. Commodity markets can include physical trading and derivatives trading using spot prices, forwards, futures, farmers have used a simple form of derivative trading in the commodity market for centuries for price risk management. A financial derivative is an instrument whose value is derived from a commodity termed an underlier. Derivatives are either exchange-traded or over-the-counter, derivatives such as futures contracts, Swaps, Exchange-traded Commodities, forward contracts have become the primary trading instruments in commodity markets. Futures are traded on regulated commodities exchanges, Over-the-counter contracts are privately negotiated bilateral contracts entered into between the contracting parties directly. Exchange-traded funds began to feature commodities in 2003, Gold ETFs are based on electronic gold that does not entail the ownership of physical bullion, with its added costs of insurance and storage in repositories such as the London bullion market. According to the World Gold Council, ETFs allow investors to be exposed to the market without the risk of price volatility associated with gold as a physical commodity. Commodity-based money and commodity markets in an early form are believed to have originated in Sumer between 4500 BC and 4000 BC. Sumerians first used clay tokens sealed in a vessel, then clay writing tablets to represent the amount—for example. These promises of time and date of delivery resemble futures contract, early civilizations variously used pigs, rare seashells, or other items as commodity money. Since that time traders have sought ways to simplify and standardize trade contracts, Gold and silver markets evolved in classical civilizations. At first the precious metals were valued for their beauty and intrinsic worth and were associated with royalty, in time, they were used for trading and were exchanged for other goods and commodities, or for payments of labor. Gold, measured out, then became money, golds scarcity, unique density and the way it could be easily melted, shaped, and measured made it a natural trading asset. Beginning in the late 10th century, commodity markets grew as a mechanism for allocating goods, labor, land, indeed, the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, often cited as the first stock exchange, originated as a market for the exchange of commodities. Early trading on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange often involved the use of sophisticated contracts, including short sales, forward contractsCommodity market – Financial markets
76. Futures contract – In finance, a futures contract is a standardized forward contract which can be easily traded between parties other than the two initial parties to the contract. The parties initially agree to buy and sell an asset for an agreed upon today, with delivery and payment occurring at a future point. Because it is a function of an asset, a futures contract is a derivative product. Contracts are negotiated at futures exchanges, which act as a marketplace between buyers and sellers, the buyer of a contract is said to be long position holder, and the selling party is said to be short position holder. For example, in gold trading, the margin varies between 2% and 20% depending on the volatility of the spot market. The first futures contracts were negotiated for agricultural commodities, and later contracts were negotiated for natural resources such as oil. The original use of futures contracts was to mitigate the risk of price or exchange rate movements by allowing parties to fix prices or rates in advance for future transactions. The Chicago Board of Trade listed the first-ever standardized exchange traded forward contracts in 1864, by 1875 cotton futures were being traded in Bombay in India and within a few years this had expanded to futures on edible oilseeds complex, raw jute and jute goods and bullion. The 1972 creation of the International Monetary Market, the worlds first financial futures exchange, in 1976, the IMM added interest rate futures on US treasury bills, and in 1982 they added stock market index futures. Although futures contract are oriented towards a future point, their main purpose is to mitigate risk of default by either party in the intervening period. In this vein, the futures exchange requires both parties to put up initial cash, or a bond, known as the margin. To mitigate the risk of default, the product is marked to market on a basis where the difference between the initial agreed-upon price and the actual daily futures price is reevaluated daily. If the margin account goes below a certain value set by the Exchange, then a call is made. This process is known as marking to market, thus on the delivery date, the amount exchanged is not the specified price on the contract but the spot value. Upon marketing the strike price is reached and creates lots of income for the caller. To minimize credit risk to the exchange, traders must post a margin or a performance bond, to minimize counterparty risk to traders, trades executed on regulated futures exchanges are guaranteed by a clearing house. The clearing house becomes the buyer to each seller, and the seller to each Buyer and this enables traders to transact without performing due diligence on their counterparty. Margin requirements are waived or reduced in cases for hedgers who have physical ownership of the covered commodity or spread traders who have offsetting contracts balancing the positionFutures contract – Finance
77. Futures exchange – These types of contracts fall into the category of derivatives. The opposite of the market is the spots market, where trades will occur immediately after a transaction agreement has been made. Futures instruments are priced according to the movement of the underlying asset, the aforementioned category is named derivatives because the value of these instruments are derived from another asset class. Speculators absorb some of the risk but hedging appears to drive most commodity markets, the equilibrium futures price can be either below or above the expected future price. Rollover hedges can extend insurance from short-horizon contracts over longer periods. In Ancient Mesopotamia, around 1750 BC, the sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, created one of the first legal codes, the Code of Hammurabi. Hammurabi’s Code allowed sales of goods and assets to be delivered for a price, at a future date, required contracts to be in writing and witnessed. The code facilitated the first derivatives, in the form of forward, an active derivatives market existed, with trading carried out at temples. One of the earliest written records of futures trading is in Aristotles Politics and he tells the story of Thales, a poor philosopher from Miletus who developed a financial device, which involves a principle of universal application. Thales used his skill in forecasting and predicted that the olive harvest would be exceptionally good the next autumn. Confident in his prediction, he made agreements with local olive-press owners to deposit his money with them to guarantee him exclusive use of their olive presses when the harvest was ready, the first modern organized futures exchange began in 1710 at the Dojima Rice Exchange in Osaka, Japan. The London Metal Market and Exchange Company was founded in 1877, but the market traces its origins back to 1571, before the exchange was created, business was conducted by traders in London coffee houses using a makeshift ring drawn in chalk on the floor. At first only copper was traded, lead and zinc were soon added but only gained official trading status in 1920. The exchange was closed during World War II and did not re-open until 1952, the range of metals traded was extended to include aluminium, nickel, tin, aluminium alloy, steel, and minor metals cobalt and molybdenum. The exchange ceased trading plastics in 2011, the total value of the trade is around $US11.6 trillion annually. The United States followed in the early 19th century, Chicago has the largest future exchange in the world, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. In March 2008 the Chicago Mercantile Exchange announced its acquisition of NYMEX Holdings, Inc. the parent company of the New York Mercantile Exchange, cMEs acquisition of NYMEX was completed in August 2008. For most exchanges, forward contracts were standard at the time, however, most forward contracts were not honored by both the buyer and the seller. In 1848 the Chicago Board of Trade was formed, Trading was originally in forward contracts, the first contract was written on March 13,1851Futures exchange – Financial markets
78. Heritage commodification – Heritage commodification is the process by which cultural themes and expressions come to be evaluated primarily in terms of their exchange value, specifically within the context of cultural tourism. These cultural expressions and aspects of heritage become cultural goods, transformed into commodities to be bought, sold, modern heritage tourism reproduces an economic dynamic that is dependent upon capital from tourists and corporations in creating sustained viability. Tourism is often tied to economic development, so many populations see globalization as providing increased access to vital medical services. The tourism industry has rapidly growing during the past two decades, and the expansion will probably continue well into the future. There were nearly one billion tourist arrivals in 2008, compared to only twenty-five million in 1950, moreover, in 2008, tourism directly accounted for nearly one trillion US dollars. Worldwide, approximately five percent of GDP is generated by tourism, in response to tourist expectations and often cultural and racial stereotypes, local populations reflect back the gaze of the expectations of tourists in order to benefit financially. This gaze is often described as a process, in which often important local cultural expressions are reduced to commodities. This gaze can also serve as a booster of ethnic identity and this reconstruction of ethnicity becomes important, because locals tend to act out cultural patterns and behaviors that they believe would satisfy tourists most. The local populations play on stereotypes that Westerners have on their cultures, in the village of San Jose Succotz in Belize, local Mayan populations had given up many of their traditional practices and traditions. In recreating these images, their identities were changed completely and they were placed back within a present of classical Maya indigenous cultiural expressions. One anthropologist has studied how in one Maya village of Yucatán, Mexico, involvement in tourism is seen as dangerous and urban Maya are seen as outsiders to the traditional Maya society. The migrant workers follow the promise of jobs and socioeconomic advancement to the tourist destinations of Cancun, traditional Maya de-ethnicize urban Maya people as a strategy to keep their traditional ways of life intact. This one anthropologist believes that the traditional Maya fear the urbanization of Maya people because of the cultural commodification that often accompanies the tourism industry and this potential commodification is seen as detrimental to traditional Maya ways of life, mostly by anthropologists who carry a negative ideological perspective on tourism. This idea however cannot be generalized to other Maya communities in Yucatán or even to other communities in Mexico or any where else in Latin America. In contrast, there are examples throughout Yucatán and Quintana Roo where Maya people are involved in tourism service sector in positive. While the Maya people are not required to engage in the industry, tourism often incorporates entire Maya towns. This disjunction between public performance and daily life is a reality for many Maya people living and working in Central America. Heritage tourism excursions tend to be associated with one group in a given localityHeritage commodification – Statue of a Sphinx at the Musée du Louvre, Paris, France.
79. Exchange value – Exchange Value is a short story written by Charles R. Johnson. Loftis and Cooter, are two brothers living in a Chicago apartment, who although do not generally take a part of criminal activity. Bailey, who leaves her apartment at night to ask for food handouts, is a West Indian woman with all the appearances of a beggar. Having not seen Bailey for several days, and seeing her mailbox full, Loftis and Cooter assumed she had left the neighborhood, and would therefore be an easy mark for burglary. Upon breaking into her house from her window, the brothers first have to bypass several surprising booby traps. In addition to the transported items like money was a nearly complete Model A Ford. Cooter immediately has misgivings about both the hoard, and the fact that he and his brother are about to take it, Loftis takes Cooter into Baileys bedroom where they find Bailey dead and decaying in her bed, grotesquely being consumed by maggots and a single rat. Cooter faints, and Loftis drags him back to the living room, working for an old rich family for over twenty years, Bailey had been willed their entire estate upon their death, and had been rich and wealthy for longer than both Cooter and Loftis had been alive. Totally in cash there was almost 900,000 dollars, in addition to bank books, Cooter feels excited at the new future this property gives him and his brother, how they are set for life. Cooter takes off and purchases a fine leather jacket and suit immediately, Loftis additionally had taken trash into their apartment, and takes off for work, even though the two have stolen almost 900,000 dollars in cash. After Loftis leaves for work, Cooter watches as Miss Bailey’s death is discovered by their landlord, and watches as they depart with her corpse. ”Loftis does not come home at the time he would from work. As the days pass, the home of the falls into similar disrepair that Bailey’s did, their toilet stops working. With fear of discovery, they call a repairman to fix the toilet. Finally, four days after Loftis left for work, he returns home, with a haunted look, walking after him, Cooter finds him asleep, his face haunted. Beside his bedstand Cooter finds a penny wrapped in a newspaper with the words “Found while walking down Devon Avenue. However, by refusing to any of the money to pursue that future, they sacrifice the “future. Exchange Value, reflects the promises and power of money in our society, the corrupting power money has on us, and how hope goes both ways, being a corrupting influence in this case. Cooter and Loftis, especially Loftis, look like they are going to follow Miss Baileys example, not necessarily to the grave, but in the usage of her richesExchange value
80. Use value – Use value or value in use is the utility of consuming a good—the want-satisfying power of a good or service in classical political economy. The concepts of value, use value, utility, exchange value and price have a long history in economic and philosophical thought, from Aristotle to Adam Smith. Marx comments for example that in English writers of the 17th century we frequently find worth in the sense of value in use, the use-value of a product therefore exists as a material reality vis-a-vis social needs regardless of the individual need of any particular person. The use-value of a commodity is specifically a social use-value, meaning that it has a generally accepted use-value for others in society, and not just for the producer. Marx adds that, Marx acknowledges that a price or value can be imputed to goods or assets which are not reproducible goods. The transformation of a use-value into a social use-value and into a commodity is not automatic or spontaneous, for example, it must be possible to trade it, and to transfer ownership or access rights to it from one person or organization to another in a secure way. There must also be a market demand for it. And all that may depend greatly on the nature of the use-value itself, as well as the ability to package, store, preserve, in the case of information or communication as use-values, transforming them into commodities may be a complex and problem-fraught process. To produce a car, for example, you objectively require steel, necessary relationships therefore exist between different use-values, because they are technically, materially and practically related. Some authors therefore write about a complex or technological complex. A good example would be all the different products involved in the production, the category of use-value is also important in distinguishing different economic sectors according to their specific type of output. Following Quesnays analysis of economic reproduction, Marx distinguished between the economic sector producing means of production and the sectors producing consumer goods and luxuries. In modern national accounts more subtle distinctions are made, for example between primary, secondary and tertiary production, semi-durable and durable goods, and so on, Marx himself explicitly rejected Sweezys and Unos interpretation. The fact is that Marx himself, in the introduction to his Grundrisse manuscript, had defined the economic sphere as the totality of production, circulation, distribution and consumption. It was only later that such as Walter Benjamin, Fernand Braudel, Ben Fine, Manuel Castells. Marxs concept of use-value seems akin to, but in reality differs from the concept of utility. Marx usually assumes in his analysis that products sold in the market have a use-value to the buyer, the neoclassicals, on the other hand, typically see prices as the quantitative expression of the general utility of products for buyers and sellers, instead of expressing their exchange-value. In neoclassical economics this utility is ultimately determined by the buyer of a goodUse value – World GDP (PPP) per capita by country (2014)
81. Pike's Peak Gold Rush – An estimated 100,000 gold seekers took part in one of the greatest gold rushes in North American history. The participants in the rush were known as Fifty-Niners after 1859. But in fact the location of the Pikes Peak Gold Rush was 85 miles north of Pikes Peak and it was only named Pikes Peak Gold Rush because of how well known and important Pikes Peak was. The rush was exemplified by the slogan Pikes Peak or Bust, a reference to the prominent mountain at the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains that guided many early prospectors to the region westward over the Great Plains. The prospectors provided the first major European-American population in the region, the rush created a few mining camps such as Denver City and Boulder City that would develop into cities. Many smaller camps such as Auraria and Saint Charles City were absorbed by larger camps, scores of other mining camps have faded into ghost towns, but quite a few camps such as Central City, Black Hawk, Georgetown, and Idaho Springs survive. For many years people had suspected the mountains had numerous rich gold deposits, in 1835, a French trapper by the name of Eustace Carriere had ended up losing his party and wandered through the mountains for many weeks. During these weeks he found many gold specimens which he took back to New Mexico for examination. Upon examination, they turned out to be pure gold, but when he tried to lead an expedition back to the location of where he found the gold, they came up short because he could not quite remember the location. The Rocky Mountain gold failed to impress or delay men with visions of unlimited wealth in California, as the hysteria of the California Gold Rush faded, many discouraged gold seekers returned home. Rumors of gold in the Rocky Mountains persisted and several small parties explored the region, in the summer of 1857, a party of Spanish-speaking gold seekers from New Mexico worked a placer deposit along the South Platte River about 5 miles above Cherry Creek in what is today Denver. William Greeneberry Green Russell was a Georgian who worked in the California gold fields in the 1850s, Russell was married to a Cherokee woman, and through his connections to the tribe, he heard about an 1849 discovery of gold along the South Platte River. Green Russell organized a party to prospect along the South Platte River and they rendezvoused with Cherokee tribe members along the Arkansas River in present-day Oklahoma and continued westward along the Santa Fe Trail. Others joined the party along the way until their number reached 107, upon reaching Bents Fort, they turned to the northwest, reaching the confluence of Cherry Creek and the South Platte on May 23. The site of their initial explorations is in present-day Confluence Park in Denver and they began prospecting in the river beds, exploring Cherry Creek and nearby Ralston Creek but without success. The site of the discovery is in the present-day Denver suburb of Englewood, just north of the junction of U. S. Highway 285, by 1860, Denver City, Golden City, and Boulder City were substantial towns serving the mines. Rapid population growth led to the creation of the Colorado Territory in 1861, the Pikes Peak Gold Rush sent many into a frenzy, prompting them to pack up their belongings and head to Colorado. They gathered their supplies, wagons, mules, mining equipment, as early as the spring of 1859, people raced to the Pikes Peak countryPike's Peak Gold Rush – Gold prospectors in the Rocky Mountains of western Kansas Territory.
82. Fraser Canyon Gold Rush – The rush overtook the region around the discovery, and was centered on the Fraser Canyon from around Hope and Yale to Pavilion and Fountain, just north of Lillooet. The rush is credited with instigating European-Canadian settlement on the mainland of British Columbia and it was the catalyst for the founding of the Colony of British Columbia, the building of early road infrastructure, and the founding of many towns. People in San Francisco and the California gold fields greeted the news with excitement, within a month 30,000 men had descended upon Victoria. Until that time, the village had had a population of only about 500, all these routes were technically illegal since the Governor required that entry to the colony to be made via Victoria, but thousands came overland anyway. Accurate numbers of miners, especially on the upper Fraser, are difficult to reckon. Many of those first-arrived of European and British origin were Californian by culture, the numbers of Americans associated with the gold rush must be understood to be inherently European-ethnic to start with. Anglo-American Southerners and New Englanders were well represented and this estimate was based on the Yale area and did not include the non-mining hangers-on population. Moody arrived in British Columbia in December 1858, commanding the Royal Engineers, Moody had hoped to begin immediately the foundation of a capital city, but upon his arrival at Fort Langley he learned of an outbreak of violence at the settlement of Hills Bar. This led to an incident popularly known as Ned McGowans War, during the fall of 1858, tensions increased between miners and the Nlakapamux, the First Nations people of the Canyon. This led to the Fraser Canyon War, the governor arrived in Yale to accept the apologies of the Americans who had waged war on the natives. Wanting to make the British military and governmental presence more visible, Douglas appointed justices of the peace, troops to maintain order, however, were still in short supply. Competition and interracial tensions between European Americans and non-white miners erupted on Christmas Eve 1858, with the beating of Isaac Dixon and he was the town barber and in later years was a popular journalist in the Cariboo. Dixon was beaten by two men from Hills Bar, the main town in the southern part of the goldfields. The complicated series of events that ensued is known as McGowans War and they did not need to use force, and were able to resolve the matter peacefully. The team also dealt with the corruption of British appointees in the area and this title was also briefly held by Port Douglas, Yale, and later on by Barkerville. By 1860, however, the gold-bearing sandbars of the Fraser were depleted, many of the miners had either drifted back to the U. S. or dispersed further into the British Columbia wilderness in search of unstaked riches. Many others moved on to a rush in Colorado. Hauka, New Star Books, Vancouver ISBN 1-55420-001-6 British Columbia Chronicle, Gold & Colonists, Helen and G. P. VFraser Canyon Gold Rush – The New Eldorado: "A Complete View of the Newly Discovered Goldfields"
83. Cariboo Gold Rush – The Cariboo Gold Rush was a gold rush in the Colony of British Columbia, which earlier joined the Canadian province of British Columbia. By 1865, following the strikes along Williams Creek, the rush was in full swing, several towns grew up, the most famous of these being Barkerville, now preserved as a heritage site and tourist attraction. Richfield was the first strike on Williams Creek, and became the seat of government in the region, connected to Barkerville via the canyon of Williams Creek, Richfield became part of Greater Barkerville along with Cameron Town. The Cariboo Gold Rush is the most famous of the rushes in British Columbia. The Colonys creation had been prompted by an influx of American prospectors to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush three years earlier in 1858, which had its locus in the area from Lillooet to Yale. Unlike its southern counterpart, the population of the Cariboo Gold Rush was largely British and Canadian, the electorate of the Cariboo riding were among the most pro-Confederation in the colony, and this was in no small part because of the strong Canadian element in the local populace. Towns along the Cariboo Road include Clinton,100 Mile House and Williams Lake, during the rush, the largest and most important town lay at the roads end at Barkerville, which had grown up around the most profitable and famous of the many Cariboo mining camps. The wagon roads most important freight was the Gold Escort, which brought government bullion to Yale for shipment to the colonial treasury, a 1976 young adult novel, Cariboo Runaway, by Sandy Frances Duncan, is set in the Cariboo area during the Cariboo Gold Rush. Cariboo camels Hudsons Bay Brigade Trail Old Cariboo Road Omineca Gold Rush River Trail Map of the Cariboo Gold Rush Gold In Cariboo chapter, A History of British Columbia, scholefield, British Columbia Historical Association pp. 165-178Cariboo Gold Rush – Barkerville (1865), shown rebuilt after the Great Fire, with its new, straightened and wider, Main Street. The creek in the foreground is Williams Creek, which is paralleled by Main Street throughout.
84. Western Australian gold rushes – Significant finds included, Halls Creek in 1885, found by Charles Hall and Jack Slattery. Near Southern Cross in 1887, found by the party of Harry Francis Anstey, Cue in 1891, found by Michael Fitzgerald, Edward Heffernan and Tom Cue. Coolgardie in 1892, by Arthur Bailey and William Ford, Kalgoorlie in 1893, by Patrick Paddy Hannan, Tom Flanagan and Dan Shea. A small rush at Nundamurrah Pool, on the Greenough River, near Mullewa, capital works, including roads and railways and in 1896, construction of the ambitious Goldfields Water Supply Scheme, came about on the back of the gold rushes. The population in Western Australia in 1891 was 49,782, by 1895 it had doubled to 100,515, and by 1901 was 184,124. The far-reaching nature of the mining excitement drew men from all over the world in 1895, there was a total of 29,523 immigrants in 1895, while the emigration amounted to 11,129, leaving Western Australia the gainer by 18,394 persons. The population of the colony in 1895 was 101,235, the immigration in December was greater than that of any preceding month, and totalled 4,540. Most of these came from the Eastern colonies, which were still greatly depressed. These previously unexplored eastern districts were hot and barren and had limited water supplies or pre-existing infrastructure to support sudden influxes of people. As a result, all supplies had to be carted, either from Perth or Esperance, carted water was sold for up to 5 shillings per gallon. Prospector Charles Hall and others found alluvial gold in the eastern Kimberly region in 1885, the find created the first gold rush in Western Australia. In terms of yield, the rush was not particularly successful. It was nearly 40 years after the Victorian rushes, the Yilgarn gold rush refers to a rush which commenced in 1888 after the November 1887 discovery of gold in the Yilgarn Hills area, north of Southern Cross. Yilgarn is an Aboriginal word for quartz, a common indicator of gold. Gold was discovered in 1892 though there is uncertainty as to who made the first find, Michael Fitzgerald and Edward Heffernan collected 260 ounces after being given a nugget by an Aboriginal known as Governor. Tom Cue travelled to Nannine to register their claim, the townsite was gazetted in 1893 and named after Tom Cue. The towns first water supply was a well in the centre of the street, after an outbreak of typhoid fever. The water supply was replaced by another well dug near Lake Nallan, the town of Day Dawn,8 kilometres south, was established within a year, by 1900 a hospital and cemetery were established between the two towns and they had three newspapers operatingWestern Australian gold rushes – Western Australian population growth between 1880 and 1897.
85. Serra Pelada – Serra Pelada was a large gold mine in Brazil 430 kilometres south of the mouth of the Amazon River. The mine was famous by the images taken by Alfredo Jaar. Because of the nature of the operation estimating the number of miners was difficult. Today the Serra Pelada mine is abandoned and the giant open pit that was created by hand has filled with water, in January 1979 Farmer Genésio Ferreira da Silva hired a geologist to investigate whether gold he found on his property was part of a larger deposit. A local child swimming on the banks of a river found a 6 grams nugget of gold. Soon word leaked out that indeed da Silva was sitting upon one of the largest deposits in the world, by the end of the week a gold rush had started with thousands of people descending on the farm to mine. Five weeks later, there were 10 000 on Ferreiras property and another 12 000 nearby, huge nuggets were quickly discovered, the biggest weighing nearly 6.8 kilograms, $108,000 at the 1980 market price. At first the only way to get to the site was by plane or foot. Miners would often pay exorbitant prices to have taxis drive them from the nearest town to the end of a track, from there. The growing town, since it could only be made of material that was carried in by hand, was a collection of haphazard shacks, each miner had a claim 2 metres by 3 metres. By May 1980 there were 4 000 such claims, early in the history of the mine, the Brazilian military took over operations to prevent exploitation of the workers and conflict between miners and owners. Before the military takeover basic goods were sold for inflated prices by the mine owners. The infamous Sebastião Rodrigues de Moura managed the mine for a brief period, while the military government banned women and alcohol at the actual mine, the nearby town became a town of stores and whores. Thousands of underage girls prostituted themselves for gold flakes while around 60–80 unsolved murders occurred in the every month. Because of the use of mercury in the extraction process large areas around the mine are considered dangerously contaminated. People eating fish downstream from the mine have elevated mercury levels, Brazilian comedy group Os Trapalhões made in 1982 Os Trapalhões na Serra Pelada, where four friends try to strike it rich at the Serra Pelada mine. A documentary video Gold Lust created by Neil Hollander in 1984, aired by WNET, powaqqatsi, a 1988 documentary film, opens with footage of Serra Pelada The Rundown. A2003 American comedy film, occurs at a mine with many elements based on the Serra PeladaSerra Pelada – The former pit of Serra Pelada now forms a lake