|First Chilean wheat cycle||wheat||Chile||1687–1810|
|Brazilian Gold Rush||gold||Brazil||18th century|
|Carolina Gold Rush||gold||North Carolina, US||early 19th century|
|Georgia Gold Rush||gold||Georgia, US||1828 – early 1840s|
|Chilean silver rush||silver||Chile||1830–1850|
|Guano Era||guano||Peru||1845 – c. 1870|
|California Gold Rush||gold||California, US||1848–1855|
|Second Chilean wheat cycle||wheat||Chile||mid-19th century – 1870s|
|British Columbia gold rushes||gold||British Columbia, Canada||1850–1941|
|Australian gold rushes||gold||Australia||1851–1906|
|Pennsylvania oil rush||petroleum||northwestern Pennsylvania, US||1859 – early 1870s|
|Otago Gold Rush||gold||Central Otago, New Zealand||1860s|
|Colorado River mining boom||gold||Southwestern US||1861–64|
|West Coast Gold Rush||gold||West Coast, New Zealand||1864–1867|
|Lapland gold rush||gold||Lapland, Finland||1870s|
|Azerbaijan oil boom||petroleum||Azerbaijan||1870s|
|Pilgrim's Rest gold rush||gold||Pilgrim's Rest, Mpumalanga, South Africa||1873|
|Black Hills Gold Rush||gold||Dakota Territory, US||1874 – c. 1880|
|Patagonian sheep farming boom||wool, mutton||Patagonia||late 19th to early 20th century|
|Cripple Creek Gold Rush||gold||Cripple Creek, Colorado, US||late 19th to early 20th century|
|Bodie gold rush||gold||Bodie, California, US||1877–1880|
|First Amazon rubber boom||rubber||Amazon basin||1879–1912|
|Indiana gas boom||natural gas||Indiana, US||early 1880s – early 20th century|
|Ohio oil rush||petroleum||Northwest Ohio, US||1880s – 1930s|
|Tierra del Fuego gold rush||gold||Tierra del Fuego||1883–1906|
|Witwatersrand Gold Rush||gold||South Africa||1886|
|Klondike Gold Rush||gold||Klondike, Yukon, Canada||1896–1899|
|Mount Baker Gold Rush||gold||Whatcom County, Washington, US||1897 – mid-1920s|
|Nome Gold Rush||gold||Nome, Alaska, US||1899–1909|
|Fairbanks Gold Rush||gold||Fairbanks, Alaska, US||early 1900s|
|Texas oil boom||petroleum||Texas, US||1901 – 1940s|
|Cobalt silver rush||silver||Cobalt, Ontario, Canada||1903 – c. 1930|
|Stoy, Illinois oil boom||petroleum||Stoy, Illinois, US||1906–1910|
|Porcupine Gold Rush||gold||Northern Ontario, Canada||1909 – 1950s|
|Kakamega gold rush||gold||Kakamega, Kenya||early 1930s|
|Vatukoula gold rush||gold||Vatukoula, Fiji||1932|
|Second Amazon rubber boom||rubber||Amazon basin||1942–1945|
|Calgary oil boom||petroleum||Calgary, Alberta, Canada||1947 – early 1980s|
|New Zealand wool boom||wool||New Zealand||1951 – late 1950s|
|Mexican oil boom||petroleum||Mexico||1977–1981|
|2000s commodities boom||multiple||worldwide||2000s|
|Uranium bubble of 2007||uranium||worldwide||2005–2007|
|North Dakota oil boom||petroleum, shale gas||North Dakota, US||2006 – present (as of 2015[update])|
|Rhodium bubble||rhodium||worldwide (primarily South Africa, Russia)||2008|
1. Price index – It is a statistic designed to help to compare how these price relatives, taken as a whole, differ between geographical locations. Price indexes have potential uses. For particularly broad indices, the index can be said to measure a cost of living. More narrow price indices can help producers with pricing. Sometimes, they can be useful in helping to guide investment. Vaughan compared labor statutes to similar statutes dating back to Edward III. These statutes provided a good record of the change in wage levels. Vaughan's analysis indicated that price levels in England had risen six to eightfold over the preceding century. While Vaughan can be considered a forerunner of price research, his analysis did not actually involve calculating an index. In 1707 Englishman William Fleetwood created perhaps the true price index. An Oxford student asked Fleetwood to help show how prices had changed. The student stood to lose his fellowship since a fifteenth-century stipulation barred students from receiving a fellowship. Fleetwood, who already had an interest in change, had collected a large amount of price data going back hundreds of years. He published his findings anonymously in a volume entitled Chronicon Preciosum. For any practical purpose, quantities purchased are rarely if ever identical across any two periods.Price index – William Fleetwood
2. Tulip mania – At the peak of tulip mania, in March 1637, some single tulip bulbs sold for more than 10 times the annual income of a skilled craftsman. The term "mania" is now often used metaphorically to refer to any large economic bubble when asset prices deviate from intrinsic values. The 1637 event was popularized by the book Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds, written by British journalist Charles Mackay. According at one point 12 acres of land were offered for a Semper Augustus bulb. Dutch commerce suffered a severe shock. Although Mackay's book is a classic, his account is contested. Research is difficult because of the limited economic data from the 1630s—much of which come from biased and very speculative sources. Some modern economists have proposed rational explanations, rather than a speculative mania, for the fall in prices. For example, other flowers, such as the hyacinth, also had initial prices at the time of their introduction, which immediately fell. Tulip bulbs were soon distributed to Augsburg, Antwerp and Amsterdam. The tulip was different from every other flower known to Europe with a saturated intense petal color that no other plant had. The appearance of the nonpareil tulip as a symbol at this time coincides with the rise of newly independent Holland's trade fortunes. No longer the Spanish Netherlands, its economic resources could now be channeled into the country embarked on its Golden Age. Amsterdam merchants were at the center of the lucrative East Indies trade, where one voyage could yield profits of 400%. As a result, a profusion of varieties followed.Tulip mania – A tulip, known as "the Viceroy" (viseroij), displayed in the 1637 Dutch catalog 'Verzameling van een Meenigte Tulipaanen'. Its bulb cost between 3,000 and 4,200 guilders (florins) depending on size (aase). A skilled craftsman at the time earned about 300 guilders a year.
3. Economic boom – The business cycle or economic cycle is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product around its long-term growth trend. The length of a cycle is the period of time containing a single boom and contraction in sequence. These fluctuations typically involve shifts over time between periods of periods of relative stagnation or decline. Business cycles are usually measured by considering the rate of real gross domestic product. Despite the often-applied term cycles, these fluctuations in economic activity do not exhibit predictable periodicity. The popular usage boom-and-bust cycle refers to fluctuations in which the expansion is rapid and the contraction severe. Sismondi found vindication in the Panic of 1825, the first unarguably economic crisis, occurring in peacetime. They advocated government socialism, respectively, as the solution. He devoted hundreds of pages of Das Kapital to crises. In 1860 French economist Clement Juglar first identified economic cycles 7 to 11 years long, although he cautiously did not claim any rigid regularity. Interest in the different typologies of cycles has waned since the development of modern macroeconomics, which gives little support to the idea of periodic cycles. There were also significant increases in productivity in the years leading up to the Great Depression. Both the Long and Great Depressions were characterized by overcapacity and saturation. There were similar increases in real wages during the 19th century. See Financial crisis: 19th century for listing and details.Economic boom – Business cycle with it specific forces in four stages according to Malcolm C. Rorty, 1922
4. Commodity – In economics, a commodity is a marketable item produced to satisfy wants or needs. Often the item is fungible. Economic commodities comprise goods and services. The commodity came into use in English from the French commodité, "amenity, convenience". Going further back, the French word derives from the Latin commoditas, meaning "advantage". The Latin word commodus meant variously "appropriate", "proper measure, time, or condition", "advantage, benefit". The commodity is specifically used for an economic service when the demand for it has no qualitative differentiation across a market. Copper are other examples of such commodities, demand being a part of one universal market. Items on the other hand, have many aspects such as the brand, the user interface and the perceived quality. The demand for one type of stereo may be much larger than demand for another. In contrast, one of the characteristics of a good is that its price is determined as a whole. Physical commodities have actively traded derivative markets. Generally, these are agricultural products such as sugar, rice. Soft commodities are goods that are grown, while hard commodities are ones that are extracted through mining. There is another important class of energy commodities which includes electricity, oil.Commodity – Yerba mate (left), coffee bean (middle) and tea (right), all used for caffeinated infusions, are commodity cash crops.
5. Tulip – The tulip is a Eurasian and North African genus of perennial, bulbous plants in the lily family. It is a herbaceous herb with showy flowers, of which around 75 wild species are currently accepted. The tulip's centre of diversity is in the Pamir, Tien Shan mountains. It is a common element of winter-rain Mediterranean vegetation. A number of many hybrid cultivars are grown in gardens or as potted plants. Tulips are spring-blooming perennials that grow from bulbs. Depending on the species, tulip plants can be between 28 inches high. Larger species tend to have multiple leaves. Plants typically have two to six leaves, some species up to 12. A few species bear multiple flowers on their scapes. The generally cup or star-shaped flower has three petals and three sepals, which are often termed tepals because they are nearly identical. These six tepals are often marked with darker colorings. Tulip flowers come except pure blue. The flowers have six basifixed stamens with filaments shorter than the tepals. The ovaries are superior, with three chambers.Tulip – Tulip
6. Netherlands – The Netherlands is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a small, densely populated country located in Western Europe with three island territories in the Caribbean. The largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament. The name Holland is also incorrectly used to refer informally to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. "Netherlands" literally influenced by its low land and flat geography, with only about 50 % of its land exceeding one metre above sea level. Most of the areas below level are man-made. Since the 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, amounting to nearly 17 % of the country's current land mass. With a density of 408 people per km2 -- 505 if water is excluded -- the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country. Only Bangladesh, Taiwan have both a larger population and higher population density. England at 420 people per km2 is also more densely populated when the total area of the Netherlands including water is used. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, after the United States. This is partly due to the fertility of the mild climate. In 2001, it became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage. The Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union.Netherlands – The Netherlands in 5500 BC
7. Chilean wheat cycle – In Chilean historiography, the wheat cycle refers to two episodes of booming wheat exports and related changes in society and agriculture. The first cycle was caused by heavy demand in Peru. The importance of wheat had led the 18th century in Chile to be labelled the century. The second cycle started in the mid-19th century, fueled by Australian gold rushes and ended definitively during the Long depression in the 1870s. Chile has a history of exporting cereals to Peru dating back to 1687 when Peru was struck by a stem rust epidemic. Climatic conditions were better for cereal production than those of Peru and Chilean wheat was cheaper and of better quality than Peruvian wheat. According to historians Villalobos et al. the 1687 events were only the detonant factor for exports to start. The Chilean Central Valley, Concepción were the districts that came to be involved in cereal export to Peru. Compared with the 19th century, the area cultivated with wheat was production modest. Initially Chilean latifundia could not meet the demand due to a labour shortage, so had to incorporate temporary workers in addition to the permanent staff. Another response by the latifundia to labour shortages was to act from farmers that hired land. In the period 1700 to 1850, this second option was overall more lucrative. The independence wars in Chile and Peru had a negative impact on the Chilean industry. Armies in Chile pillaged the countryside. The Guerra a muerte phase ended only to see a period of outlaw banditry occur until the late 1820s.Chilean wheat cycle – Economic history of Chile
8. Wheat – Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region but now cultivated worldwide. In 2016, production of wheat was 749 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize, with more than rice. Since 1960, production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st Century. This grain is grown on more area than any other commercial food. World trade in wheat is greater for all other crops combined. The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. In domesticated wheat, the seeds remain attached to the ear by a toughened rachis during harvesting. In wild strains, a more fragile rachis allows the ear to easily disperse the spikelets. Cultivation of wheat began to spread after about 8000 BCE. Jared Diamond traces the spread of cultivated wheat starting in the Fertile Crescent sometime before 8800 BCE. Archaeological analysis of wild emmer indicates that it was first cultivated in the southern Levant with finds dating back far as 9600 BCE. Genetic analysis of wild wheat suggests that it was first grown in the Karacadag Mountains in southeastern Turkey. Remains of harvested emmer from several sites near the Karacadag Range have been dated to between 8600 and BCE, in the Neolithic period. These remains were dated to 8800 BCE. The cultivation of emmer reached Greece, Cyprus and India shortly after 6000 BCE, Germany and Spain by 5000 BCE.Wheat – Wheat
9. Chile – It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty. The arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great wealth, principally copper. Southern Chile features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, islands. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged as a relatively stable authoritarian republic. In the 1970s the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil. Chile is today one of South America's most prosperous nations. It leads American nations in rankings of human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption. It also ranks high regionally of the state and democratic development. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile. Ultimately, Almagro is credited after naming the Mapocho valley as such.Chile – The Mapuche people were the original inhabitants of southern and central Chile.
10. Brazilian Gold Rush – The Brazilian Gold Rush was a gold rush that started in the 18th century, in the then Portuguese colony of Brazil. The rush opened up the gold-producing area of Ouro Preto, then the aptly named Vila Rica. The rush began when bandeirantes discovered large gold deposits in the mountains of Minas Gerais. The bandeirantes were adventurers who organized themselves into small groups to explore the interior of Brazil. Many bandeirantes were of European background who adopted the ways of the natives, which permitted them to survive in the interior rain forest. While the bandeirantes searched for indigenous captives, they also searched for wealth, which led to the gold being discovered. Half a million African slaves came to the gold region to mine. Many people abandoned the sugar towns in the northeast coast to go to the gold region. By 1725, half the population of Brazil was living in southeastern Brazil. Officially, 850 tons of gold were sent in the XVIII century. Still other gold remained in the colony to adorn churches and for other uses. In the 18th century, Ouro Preto became for a time the most populous city with an estimated population of 80,000 in 1750. At that time, the population of São Paulo did not reach 8,000. Minas Gerais was the gold center of Brazil. Slave labor was generally used for the workforce.Brazilian Gold Rush – The main square of Ouro Preto - Praça Tiradentes
11. Gold – Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and the atomic number 79. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a group 11 element. It is solid under standard conditions. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid series with the native element silver and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium. Gold's atomic number of 79 makes one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally in the universe. Because the Earth was molten when it was just formed, almost all of the gold present in the early Earth probably sank into the planetary core. Aqua regia can dissolve it. The acid mixture causes the formation of a soluble anion. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide, which are used in electroplating. This is not a chemical reaction. Gold is a precious metal used throughout recorded history. A total of 183,600 tonnes of gold is in existence above ground, as of 2014.Gold – Gold, 79 Au
12. Brazil – Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 km. It covers 47.3 % of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats. This environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection. Brazil was inhabited by tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic following a military coup d'état. An military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. Brazil's economy is the world's ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of 2015.Brazil – Megaliths in the Solstice Archaeological Park, in Amapá, erected between 500 and 2000 years ago, probably to carry out astronomical observations.
13. Carolina Gold Rush – The Carolina Gold Rush, the first gold rush in the United States, followed discovery of gold in North Carolina in 1799. It was not until a few years later that word of men started coming to North Carolina from other states. The US Mint gave no further details. In 1799, young Conrad Reed, found a shiny rock while playing at a creek on his family's farm in Cabarrus County, North Carolina. His family kept it as a doorstop until 1802. John Reed, took the rock to a jeweler who recognized it as gold and bought it from the unaware Reed for $3.50. A year later, one of the slaves held by the Reed family, found a 28-pound nugget of gold on the property. John Reed became a wealthy man. The Reed Gold Mine, was designated a National Historic Landmark. Visitors can explore underground mining tunnels. Over 2,500 ounces of gold was deposited by 1824. The ones in Charlotte and Dahlonega were to mint the newly discovered gold. Georgia Gold Belt Georgia Gold Rush Charlotte Mint Dahlonega MintCarolina Gold Rush – Carolina Gold Belt, showing, south to north, the Haile, Brewer, Howie, Stuart, Moore, Long, Means, Pioneer Mills, Reed, Ferris, Rocky River, Buffalo, Phoenix, San Cristian, Concord, Moratock, Eisenhauer, Mt. Mackin, Russel, Gold Hill, Reimer, Dunns Mt., Salisbury, Silver Hill, Emmons, Silver Valley, Hoover Hill, and Jones mines. Gold-quartz veins are found in the schists.
14. North Carolina – North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th most extensive and the 9th most populous of the U.S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties. The capital is Raleigh. It is the second largest banking center in the United States after New York City. The climate of the coastal plains is strongly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the subtropical climate zone. The western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. The United States Census Bureau places North Carolina in the South Atlantic division of the southern region. The most famous of these is the Queen Anne's Revenge, which went aground in Beaufort Inlet in 1718. The coastal plain transitions along the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, the elevation at which waterfalls first appear on streams and rivers. The Piedmont region of central North Carolina is the state's most populous region, containing the six largest cities in the state by population. It consists of gently rolling countryside frequently broken by low mountain ridges. The Piedmont ranges in the east to about 1,500 feet in the west.North Carolina – North Carolina topographic map
15. Georgia Gold Rush – It started in 1829 in present-day Lumpkin County near the county seat, Dahlonega, soon spread through the North Georgia mountains, following the Georgia Gold Belt. By the early 1840s, gold became difficult to find. Many Georgia miners moved west when gold was found in the Sierra Nevada in 1848, starting the California Gold Rush. Since the 16th century, American Indians in Georgia told European explorers that the small amounts of gold which they possessed came from mountains of the interior. In summing up known sources, Yeates observed: "Many of these traditions seem to be quite plausible. Nevertheless, it is hardly probable that the Spaniards would have abandoned mines which were afterwards found to be quite profitable, as those in North Georgia.” In 1799, gold was discovered in North Carolina, when Conrad Reed found a 17-pound "glittering stone" in Little Meadow Creek, on his father's farm. Conrad had the stone identified in North Carolina, three years later. The gold belt was extended south into South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama. Another version of the White County find has John Witheroods finding a three-ounce nugget along Dukes Creek. Still another version was that the North Carolina prospector Jesse Hogan found gold at Ward's Creek. Thomas Bowen supposedly found gold along Duke's Creek. However, these stories have no contemporary documents to support their validity. No matter who made the gold discovery in 1828, the gold rush began spreading rapidly. One of the public accounts was on August 1, 1829, when the Georgia Journal, ran the following notice.Georgia Gold Rush – Gold veinlets (they appear white) in a sample of gneiss from the Battle Branch Mine in Lumpkin County
16. Georgia (U.S. state) – Georgia is a state in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1733, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. Named after King George II of Great Britain, Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. It declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states. It was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 24th largest and the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South. The state's northern part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level; the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean. Georgia is the largest state east of the Mississippi River in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures. The British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II. The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery.Georgia (U.S. state) – A girl spinner in a Georgia cotton mill, 1909.
17. Chilean silver rush – Between 1830 and 1850 Chilean silver mining grew at an unprecedented space which transformed mining into one of the country's principal sources of wealth. The rush caused demographic, infrastructural, economic expansion in the semi-arid Norte Chico mountains where the silver deposits lay. A number of Chileans made investments in other areas of the economy of Chile. By the 1850s the rush was in decline and lucrative mining definitely ended in the 1870s. At the same time activity in Chile reoriented to saltpetre operations. Placer deposits of gold were exploited in the 16th century following their arrival in the same century. However, only after the independence in the 19th century did mining again get prominence among economic activities in Chile. Following the discovery of silver at Agua Amarga and Arqueros the Norte Chico mountains north of La Serena were exhaustively prospected. In 1832 prospector Juan Godoy found a silver outcrop 50 km south of Copiapó in Chañarcillo. Godoy successfully claimed the name of José Godoy and Miguel Gallo. The finding generated significant wealth. During the heyday of Chañarcillo it produced more than 332 tons of silver ore until the deposits begun to be exhausted in 1874. A settlement of 600 people mushroomed in Chañarcillo leading to the establishment of system to avoid disorders and theft of ore. Following the discovery of Chañarcillo other ores were found near Copiapó well into the 1840s. The many findings resulted in the court of Copiapó receiving numerous claims.Chilean silver rush – Drawing of an early 19th-century Chilean miner.
18. Silver – Silver is the metallic element with the atomic number 47. Its symbol is Ag, from the Latin argentum, derived from the Greek ὰργὀς, ultimately from a Proto-Indo-European root reconstructed as * h2erǵ -, "grey" or "shining". It exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, reflectivity of any metal. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Its purity is typically measured on a per mille basis; a 94%-pure alloy is described as "0.940 fine". As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures. Silver is used as an investment medium. Silver is used industrially in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions. Silver compounds are used in photographic film and X-rays. Other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings, catheters, other medical instruments. Silver is similar in its chemical properties to its two vertical neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table, copper and gold. Silver is an extremely soft, ductile and malleable metal, though it is slightly less malleable than gold. Silver crystallizes in a cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12, where only the single 5s electron is delocalized, similarly to copper and gold. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are relatively weak.Silver – Electrolytically refined silver
19. Guano Era – The Guano Era refers to a period of stability and prosperity in Peru during the mid-19th century. It was sustained on the substantial revenues generated by the strong leadership of president Ramón Castilla. The starting date for the era is commonly considered to be 1845, the year in which Castilla started his first administration. It ended shortly in 1866. He invaded Bolivia in 1841 with the Battle of Ingavi commencing a war between the two countries. In the process he died during the Battle of Ingavi. At his death, a state of discord ran with various military caudillos claiming themselves president. Ramon Castilla assumed the presidency. From 1845 to 1862, Castilla exercised influence over the daily life of his citizens. His first government ended on 20 April 1851 allowing the general Jose Rufino Echenique assume power. Echenique a military officer, had been one of the top advisors of Castilla's government. Using his military influence, Echenique continued on the progress of Castilla's government to further advance the social and economic aspirations of Peru. Ramon Castilla eventually became involved in the rebellion, soon becoming its leader. In the battle of La Palma, Ramon Castilla assumed the presidency for a second time. The economic aspect of the era was expressed through the implementation of budgets.Guano Era – Under the governship of Castilla, Peru entered one of its most prosperous times
20. Guano – Guano is the accumulated excrement of seabirds, seals, or cave-dwelling bats. As a manure, guano is a highly effective fertilizer due to its exceptionally high content of nitrogen, potassium: nutrients essential for plant growth. During the twentieth century, guano-producing birds influenced the development of environmental consciousness. Guano is increasingly sought after by organic farmers. Seabird guano consists of nitrogen-rich ammonium urate, phosphates, as well as some earth salts and impurities. The word "guano" originates from the Andean indigenous Quechua, which refers to any form of dung used as an agricultural fertilizer. The Guanay cormorant has historically been the most important producer of guano. Important guano producing species off the coast of Peru are the Peruvian pelican and the Peruvian booby. At that time, massive deposits of guano existed in some cases more than 50 m deep. Nine of these islands are still officially U.S. territories. Control over guano played a central role between Spain and a Peruvian-Chilean alliance. Indentured workers from China played an important role in harvest. There is no documentary evidence that enslaved Pacific Islanders participated in mining. High-grade phosphate deposits on Nauru, Banaba Island, Christmas Island, other raised atolls were not produced by marine birds. South Africa independently developed its own guano industry based on sustained-yield production during this period as well.Guano – The nest of the Peruvian booby is made of almost pure guano.
21. Peru – Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. Ideas of political autonomy gained its independence, formally proclaimed in 1821. Three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence. Subsequently, the country has undergone changes in government to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of internal conflict as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Peru is a democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is a poverty level around 25.8 percent. Its economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing. The Peruvian population, estimated at million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as cuisine, literature, music. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega, a conquistador. The Spanish Crown gave legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru.Peru – Sculpted Chavin head embedded in one of the walls of the temple of Chavín de Huantar
22. California Gold Rush – The California Gold Rush began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California. All in the news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. Of the 300,000, approximately half arrived by half came overland on the California Trail and the Gila River trail. The gold-seekers, called "forty-niners", often faced substantial hardships on the trip. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the Gold Rush attracted tens of thousands from Latin America, Europe, China. At first, the prospectors retrieved the gold from riverbeds using simple techniques, such as panning. More sophisticated methods of gold recovery were later adopted around the world. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, increasing the proportion of gold companies to individual miners. Gold worth tens of billions of today's dollars was recovered, which led for a few. However, many returned home with little more than they had started with. The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial. San Francisco grew from a small settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 by 1852. Roads, churches, other towns were built throughout California. In 1849 a constitution was written. The future state's interim first governor and legislature were chosen.California Gold Rush – Sailing to California at the beginning of the Gold Rush
23. California – California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. The capital is Sacramento. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, largest after New York City. The state also has the nation's most populous county, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. A major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. The Spanish Empire then claimed it in their New Spain colony. The western portion of Alta California then was admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. If it were a country, California would be the 35th most populous. Fifty-eight percent of the state's economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the state's economy, California's industry has the highest output of any U.S. state. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a remote land rich in gold. They were robust of body with great virtue. The island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. This conventional wisdom that maps were drawn to reflect this way, lasted as late as the 1700's. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.California – A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park
24. British Columbia – British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, with a population of more than 4 million people located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. British Columbia is also the Cascadia bioregion, along with the U.S. states of Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Alaska. Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada. Its Latin motto is Splendor occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for the Queen who created the original colonies. The largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the third-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871. The original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Notably, the Tsilhqot ` in Nation has established Aboriginal title as a result of the recent Supreme Court of Canada decision. BC's economy is diverse, with service producing industries accounting for the largest portion of the province's GDP. It is the site of major Pacific ports that enable international trade. Its climate encourages outdoor tourism, though its economic mainstay has long been resource extraction, principally logging, farming, mining.British Columbia – Strait of Georgia, near Vancouver.
25. Australian gold rushes – During the Australian gold rushes, significant numbers of workers relocated to areas in which gold had been discovered. A number of gold finds occurred in Australia prior to 1851, but only the gold found from 1851 onwards created gold rushes. Hargraves had learned prospecting techniques such as cradling. Hargraves was offered rewards by the Colony of New South Wales and the Colony of Victoria. The Australian gold rushes changed the convict colonies into more progressive cities with the influx of free emigrants. These hopefuls, termed diggers, brought new skills and professions, contributing to a burgeoning economy. The mateship that evolved between these diggers and their collective resistance to authority led to the emergence of a unique national identity. Although not all diggers found riches on the goldfields, many decided to stay and integrate into these communities. In July 1851, Victoria's first gold rush began on the Clunes goldfield. As in New South Wales, was also found in other parts of the state. When the rush began at Ballarat, diggers discovered it was a prosperous goldfield. Lieutenant-Governor, Charles La Trobe visited the site and watched five men uncover 136 ounces of gold in one day. Mount Alexander was even more rich than Ballarat. With gold sitting just under the surface, the shallowness allowed diggers to easily unearth gold nuggets. In 7 months, 2.4 million pounds of gold was transported from Mount Alexander to nearby capital cities.Australian gold rushes – Gold diggings, Ararat, Victoria circa 1854
26. Pennsylvania oil rush – The Pennsylvania oil rush was a boom in petroleum production which occurred in northwestern Pennsylvania from 1859 to the early 1870s. It was the first boom in the United States. The rush began in Titusville, Pennsylvania, in the Oil Creek Valley when Colonel Edwin L. Drake struck "rock oil" there. Other towns on the shores of Oil Creek expanded rapidly as oil wells and refineries shot up across the region. By the mid-1870s, the "rush" to drill wells and control production was over. Some oil industry remains in Pennsylvania. Before petroleum was used as a fuel, oil had many uses. In Pennsylvania, the American tribes had been using oil from seeps for several centuries. These oil seeps, which are areas where oil spontaneously escapes the earth in gas or form, were common across northern Pennsylvania. With few uses for crude oil, the label served primarily to deter farmers who found the black soil inhospitable to their crops. Later, other uses became known. With petroleum seeps popping up across western Pennsylvania, it became difficult for other extractive industries, especially for water wells to extract salt. This business was popular in the area at the time but with oil into the wells, it became much more difficult. In 1849 Samuel Kier began extracting oil from the saltwater wells on his property. Upon further examination, Kier recognized that the medicinal oil being prescribed to his wife was the same in chemistry as the oil found in his wells.Pennsylvania oil rush – A Pennsylvanian oil field in 1862.
27. Petroleum – Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation. It consists of hydrocarbons of other organic compounds. The petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. Petroleum has mostly been recovered by drilling. Reservoir characterization have been completed. It is estimated that the world consumes about 95 million barrels each day. The burning of fossil fuels plays the major role in the current episode of global warming. The petroleum comes from Greek: πέτρα for rocks and Greek: ἔλαιον for oil. The term was found in 10th-century Old English sources. It was used in the treatise De Natura Fossilium, published in 1546 by the German mineralogist Georg Bauer, also known as Georgius Agricola. Petroleum, in another, has been used since ancient times, is now important across society, including in economy, politics and technology. Great quantities of it were found on the banks of one of the tributaries of the Euphrates. Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society. By 347 AD, oil was produced from bamboo-drilled wells in China.Petroleum – Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas
28. Pennsylvania – Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. Pennsylvania is the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The state's five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, Reading. The state capital is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden. It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary.Pennsylvania – World's End State Park, Sullivan County
29. Otago Gold Rush – The Otago Gold Rush was a gold rush that occurred during the 1860s in Central Otago, New Zealand. Only a few years later, gold extraction became more long-term, industrialised-mechanical process. Previously gold had been found near Nelson in 1842. In September 1852, a timber merchant, claimed the prize for a find in Coromandel. The rush lasted about three months. Having no knowledge of metallurgy had no use for the ore. For a precious material they used greenstone, obsidian and bone carving for jewellery. The first known European Otago gold find was near Palmerston in October 1851. The find was of a very small amount with no ensuing "rush". Instead, more practical matters were of higher importance to the young town. Other finds around the Dunstan Range in 1858 stirred minimal interest. It was two months later that a gold strike was made that prompted a major influx of prospectors. The public heard about Read's find via a letter published on 8 June 1861, documenting a ten-day-long prospecting tour he had made. With this statement, the gold rush began. By Christmas 14,000 prospectors were on the Tuapeka and Waipori fields.Otago Gold Rush – Old gold workings, St. Bathans, Otago
30. Central Otago – Central Otago is an informal name for the inland part of the Otago region in the South Island of New Zealand. The area commonly known as Central Otago includes both the Queenstown-Lakes District to its west. The motto for the area is "A World of Difference". The area tributaries. First European occupation came with the discovery of gold at Gabriel's Gully near Lawrence in 1861, which led to the Central Otago goldrush. Other villages include Albert Town, Alexandra, Arrowtown, Bannockburn, Clyde, Cromwell, Hawea, Millers Flat, Naseby, Omakau, Ranfurly, Roxburgh, St. Bathans, Wedderburn. Since the 19th century, most of the area's economic activity has centred on sheep, tourism. In recent years, deer vineyards have increased the region's economic diversification. Central Otago is the world's southernmost commercial wine region. Central Otago is a land of extremes: it is the driest part of New Zealand. The seasons are sharply defined: summers are hot and low in humidity; winter mornings are often misty, the nights freezing. Alexandra, for example, has the lowest average annual rainfall recorded anywhere in New Zealand, has 148 frosts annually. Spring warms the soil and fruit blossom dominates the district's orchard areas. Temperatures range from minus 3 with 10 frosts a month. Average rainfall is sunshine 206 hours.Central Otago – T. Gilchrist & Sons - boasts being the oldest existing shop in New Zealand, established 1902, and since 1987 operated by a community trust (but still working as a normal grocery).
31. Steamboats of the Colorado River – These attempts in the late 19th Century and 20th Century met with little success. The beginnings of the use of steamboats on the Colorado River came during the Yuma War. Costs of such transport was minimally $500 per ton. Supplying the fort became so difficult, that for a time it had to be abandoned. Attempts had been made by the Army to bring supplies the 150 miles up from the Gulf of California. Later Lieutenant Derby, in his report, recommended that a shallow draft sternwheel steamboat would be the way to send supplies up river to the fort. On board were 250 tons of supplies for the newly reoccupied fort and a pair of knocked down flatboats, built by Domingo Marcucci in San Francisco. These they assembled to be poled up the Colorado. However the first barge sank with a total loss. The second was finally, what little it carried was soon consumed by the garrison. Hauling supplies from the estuary was less satisfactory than the 185 mile San Diego route over land. Firstly it was a violation of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo for American troops to intrude into Mexican territory. In November 1852, a 65-foot long side-wheel paddle steamer, also built by Domingo Marcucci, became the first steamboat on the Colorado River. It was brought by the schooner Capacity by the next contractor to supply the fort, Captain James Turnbull. It was launched in the estuary, 30 miles above the mouth of the Colorado River.Steamboats of the Colorado River – Yuma and Fort Yuma across the Colorado River (circa 1875 lithograph). Steamboat is downriver from the ferry crossing that is equipped with poles on both banks to raise the ferry's tow cables above the smokestacks of passing steamboats.
32. Southwestern United States – Most of the area was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in the Spanish Empire before becoming part of Mexico. It became part of the United States through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the Gadsden Purchase. The deserts dominate the western reaches of the area, while the plateau is the main north of the Mogollon Rim. The two major rivers of the region are the Colorado River, running in the northern and western areas, the Rio Grande, running in the south. Formed approximately 8000 years ago, the Chihuahuan Desert is a relatively dry desert, although it is slightly wetter than the Sonoran Desert to the west. El Paso is the major city in this desert, with other smaller cities being Las Cruces and Roswell in New Mexico. The Chihuahuan is a "rain shadow" desert, formed between two mountain ranges which block oceanic precipitation from reaching the area. The most prolific plants in this region are creosote bushes, in addition to the ubiquitous cacti. When people think of the desert southwest, the landscape of the Sonoran Desert is what mostly comes to mind. Rainfall averages between 4–12 inches per year, the desert's most widely known inhabitant is the saguaro cactus, unique to the desert. The portion of the Sonora Desert which lies in the Southwestern United States is the most populated area within the region. Six of the top ten major population centers of the region are found within its borders: Phoenix, Tucson, Mesa, Chandler, Glendale, Scottsdale, all in Arizona. Also within its borders are Yuma and Prescott Arizona. The most northwest portion of the American Southwest is covered by the Mojave Desert. In terms of topography, the Mojave is very similar to the Great Basin Desert, which lies just to its north.Southwestern United States – Panoramic view of the southwestern United States.
33. West Coast, New Zealand – It is administered by the West Coast Regional Council. At the territorial level, the region comprises Buller District, Grey District and Westland District. The principal towns are Westport, Greymouth and Hokitika. Fiordland is in the Southland Region rather than the West Coast Region. Inhabitants of the West Coast are colloquially known as "Coasters". The region reaches to Awarua Point in the south, a distance of 600 km. To the west to the east are the Southern Alps. Much of the land is rugged, with a coastal plain where much of the population resides. The land is very scenic, with wild coastlines, a very high proportion of native bush, much of it native temperate rain forest. Scenic areas include the Haast Pass, Fox and Franz Josef Glaciers, the Heaphy Track. The rain effect is responsible for the relatively arid climate of the Canterbury Plains on the other side of the Southern Alps. The region's area is 23,276 km2. It is divided into the three districts of Buller, Grey and Westland. Industries on the West Coast include alluvial gold, forestry and wood processing, also fishing, tourism and farming. Dairy farming has grown strongly - the local dairy co-operatives Westland Milk Products remained independent when most others merged to form Fonterra in 2001.West Coast, New Zealand – Pancake Rocks, Punakaiki
34. Lapland (Finland) – Lapland is the largest and northernmost region of Finland. The municipalities in the region cooperate in a Regional Council. Lapland borders the region of Northern Ostrobothnia in the south. The area of Lapland region is 100,367 km ², which consists of 92,667 km ² of dry land, 1,383 km ² of sea areas. In south it borders Northern Ostrobothnia region, in west Sweden, in east Russia. Its borders follow three rivers: Tana, Muonio and Torne. The largest lake is 1,102 km ². Highest point is on Halti, which reaches 1,324 m on Finnish side of the border. There are eight national parks in Lapland: Bothnian Bay, Lemmenjoki, Oulanka, Pallas-Yllästunturi, Pyhä-Luosto, Riisitunturi, Syöte and Urho Kekkonen National Park. The very first snowflakes fall to early September over the higher peaks. The ground-covering snow arrives in average in October or late September. Permanent cover comes between mid-October and end of November, significantly earlier than in southern Finland. The winter is approximately seven months. The cover is usually thickest in early April. Soon after that the snow cover starts to melt fast.Lapland (Finland) – First Finnish gold euro commemorative coin
35. Petroleum industry in Azerbaijan – The petroleum industry in Azerbaijan produces about 873,260 barrels of oil per day and 29 billion cubic meters of gas per year as of 2013. Azerbaijan is one of the birthplaces of the industry. Its history is linked to the fortunes of petroleum. It is poised to become an important oil and producer once again. In 1871, an ethnic Armenian, then an otkupchina monopolist, built the first wooden oil derrick followed by another the next year. Drilling was conducted primitively with a balance arm, manual pump. There is evidence of petroleum being used in trade early as the 3rd and 4th centuries. Information on the production of oil on the Apsheron peninsula can be found in the manuscripts of Persian authors. This oil is not good to eat; but it is good as a salve for men and camels affected with itch or scab. In all the neighborhood no other oil is burnt but this." The detailed description of the Baku oil industry was made by Engelbert Kaempfer, Secretary of the Swedish Embassy to Persia in 1683. In his notes he confirms the existence of places where natural gas discharges to the surface. It was occupying the territory of 26 in width." In 1806, the Russian empire took monopolistic control of oil production. Later exclusive rights to produce oil were given to individuals, thereby creating the Persian otkupchina system.Petroleum industry in Azerbaijan – Onshore oil fields in Azerbaijan
36. Azerbaijan – Azerbaijan, officially the Republic of Azerbaijan, is a country in the South Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Southwest Asia and Southeastern Europe. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence in 1918. The country was incorporated as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. The modern Republic of Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence on 30 August 1991, prior to the official dissolution of the USSR in December 1991. In September 1991, the Armenian majority of the Nagorno-Karabakh region seceded to form the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. Seven adjacent districts outside it became de facto independent with the end of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994. These regions are internationally recognized pending a solution to the status of the Nagorno-Karabakh, found through negotiations facilitated by the OSCE. Azerbaijan is a semi-presidential republic. The country is a member state for Peace program. It is one of six independent Turkic states, the TÜRKSOY community. Azerbaijan holds membership in 38 international organizations. It is one of the founding members of GUAM, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Its term of office began on 19 June 2006. Azerbaijan is also a member state of the Non-Aligned Movement, is a correspondent at the International Telecommunication Union. All major political forces in the country are secularist.Azerbaijan – Petroglyphs in Gobustan dating back to 10,000 BC indicating a thriving culture. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered to be of "outstanding universal value"
37. Pilgrim's Rest, Mpumalanga – Pilgrim’s Rest is a small town in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa, protected as a provincial heritage site. It was the second of the gold fields, attracting a rush of prospectors in 1873, soon after the MacMac diggings started some 5 kilometres away. Alluvial panning eventually gave way to deeper mining. In the 1970s the town, not greatly changed, became a destination. The alluvial gold was discovered by prospector Alec Patterson. He panned Pilgrim's Creek, as it became known, when the MacMac diggings became too crowded. A gold rush resulted when fellow prospector William Trafford registered his claim with the Gold Commissioner at MacMac. After it was officially declared a gold field in September 1873, the town suddenly grew to inhabitants searching for alluvial gold. Prospectors were attracted to Barberton's newly discovered gold deposits. Towards underground mining started by the company known as TGME. The better-funded mining companies started mining the deeper gold-bearing ore. By 1895 small mining companies amalgamated to form the Transvaal Gold Mining Estates. In 1911 the kW Belvedere power station was completed on the Blyde River, some 30 km to the east. It supplied hydro-electric power up to 1992. Pilgrim's Rest was southern Africa's second town with street electricity, also a mining town.Pilgrim's Rest, Mpumalanga – Pilgrim's Rest in 1998
38. Black Hills Gold Rush – The Black Hills Gold Rush took place in Dakota Territory in the United States. It reached a peak in 1876-77. Poorly documented reports of gold in the Black Hills go back to the early 19th century. Prior to the Gold Rush, the Black Hills were used by Native Americans. The United States government recognized the Black Hills as belonging by the Treaty of Laramie in 1868. Despite being within Indian territory, therefore off-limits, white Americans were increasingly interested in the gold-mining possibilities of the Black Hills. The deposit turned out to be small. Many of the miners eventually returned there. The Black Hills Gold Rush began in 1874. They looked for better paying locations. They moved north, establishing the towns of Hill City, Pactola. At each spot they found flakes of gold, but not the bonanza they sought. Things changed when the miners stumbled in the northern Black Hills. For the initial discoverers, each spade of earth revealed a veritable fortune in gold. By 1876, miners had claimed all the land around the creeks.Black Hills Gold Rush – The Homestake Mine in 1889
39. Dakota Territory – The name refers to the Dakota branch of the Sioux tribes which occupied the area at the time. Most of Dakota Territory was formerly part of the Minnesota and Nebraska territories. When Minnesota became a state in 1858, the leftover area between the Missouri River and Minnesota's western boundary fell unorganized. Three years later President-elect Abraham Lincoln's cousin-in-law, J.B.S. Todd, personally lobbied for territory status and the U.S. Congress formally created Dakota Territory. It became an organized territory on March 2, 1861. The Department of the Northwest sent expeditions in 1863, 1865. It also established forts in Dakota Territory to protect the frontier settlements of the Territory, Iowa and Minnesota and the traffic along the Missouri River. Following the Civil War, hostilities continued with the Sioux until the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie. By 1868, creation of new territories reduced Dakota Territory to the present boundaries of the Dakotas. Territorial counties were defined including Bottineau County, others. During the existence of the organized territory, the population first increased slowly and then very rapidly from 1870 to 1880. Because the Sioux were considered very hostile and a threat to early settlers, the white population grew slowly. Gradually, the settlers' population grew and the Sioux were not considered as severe a threat. The population increase can largely be attributed to the growth of the Northern Pacific Railroad.Dakota Territory – Dakota territory historical coat of arms (illustrated, 1876)
40. Patagonian sheep farming boom – The sheep boom attracted thousands of immigrants from Chiloé and Europe to southern Patagonia. Early farming in Patagonia was oriented towards wool production but changed over time with the development of industrial refrigerators towards meat export. Besides altering the economic outlook of Southern Patagonia the sheep farming boom also changed the steppe ecosystem. Sheep farming in Patagonia was carried out in a system. Each of these estancias was administered from a central where administrators, foremen and workers lived. Sociedad Explotadora de Magallanes possessed more than 200,000 sheep by 1901. In 1843 Chile established a colony in Brunswick Peninsula to assert sovereignty over the strategic Strait of Magellan. Early sheep herding activity in the Chilean colony was very modest. In Port Stanley he bought 300 sheep and back in Chile he sold them to Henry Reynard. All the best sheep-herding areas along the Strait had been reserved by 1884. The sheep boom altered not only the demographic and economic outlook of Southern Patagonia, but also changed the steppe ecosystem. Sheep might also have caused considerable erosion. The Strait of the Atlantic coast were covered by natural grasslands so no clearing of forests occurred during the introduction of sheep. Amazon rubber boom Argentine beef New Zealand wool boom Patagonia rebeldePatagonian sheep farming boom – Economic history of Chile
41. Wool – Wool has several qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur: it is crimped, it grows in staples. Wool is produced by follicles which are small cells located in the skin. Follicles can be classed as either secondary follicles. Primary follicles produce three types of fiber, Kemp, true wool fibers. Secondary follicles only produce true wool fibers. Medullated fibers lack crimp and elasticity. Kemp fibers shed out. Wool's crimp make it easier to spin the fleece by helping the individual fibers attach to each other, so they stay together. Because of the crimp, they hold air, which causes the fabric to retain heat. Wool has a specific heat coefficient, so it impedes heat transfer in general. This effect has benefited desert peoples, as Bedouins and Tuaregs use wool clothes for insulation. Felting of wool occurs upon hammering or mechanical agitation as the microscopic barbs on the surface of wool fibers hook together. The amount of crimp corresponds to the fineness of the wool fibers. A fine wool like Merino may have up to 100 crimps per inch, while wool like karakul may have as few as one or two. In contrast, hair has little ability to bind into yarn.Wool – Wool just before processing
42. Mutton – Lamb, hogget, mutton are the meat of domestic sheep at different ages. Its meat is also called lamb. The meat of a juvenile sheep older than one year is hogget; outside North America this is also a term for the living animal. The meat of an adult sheep is a term only used for the meat, not the living animals. The mutton is almost always used to refer to goat meat in the Indian subcontinent. The stronger-tasting mutton is now hard to find despite the efforts of the Mutton Renaissance Campaign in the UK. In Australia, the term prime lamb is often used to refer to lambs raised for meat. The definitions for lamb, mutton vary considerably between countries. Younger lambs are more tender. Mutton is meat from a sheep over two years old, has less flesh. In general, the darker the colour, the older the animal. Baby meat will be pale pink, while regular lamb is pinkish-red. Lamb — a young sheep under 12 months of age which does not have any permanent incisor teeth in wear. Hogget — A term for a sheep of either sex having no more than two permanent incisors in wear, or its meat. Still common in usage, it is now rare as a domestic or retail term for the meat.Mutton – Lamb
43. Patagonia – Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile. The region comprises the southern section of the Andes mountains well as the deserts, steppes and grasslands east of this southern portion of the Andes. Patagonia has an eastern one towards the Atlantic Ocean. The Colorado and Barrancas rivers, which run to the Atlantic, are commonly considered the northern limit of Argentine Patagonia. The archipelago of Tierra del Fuego is sometimes included as part of Patagonia. Most historians locate the northern limit of Chilean Patagonia at Reloncaví Estuary. The Patagonia comes from the word patagón used by Magellan in 1520 to describe the native people that his expedition thought to be giants. It is now believed that the people he called the Patagons were Tehuelches, who tended to be taller than Europeans of the time. The hypothesis was published in the New Review of Spanish Philology in the 2011 article. In the hollows of the plains are ponds or lakes of fresh and brackish water. The Andes, the shingle gives place to porphyry, granite, basalt lavas, animal life becomes more abundant and vegetation more luxuriant. It consist principally of southern beech and conifers. There, erosion, caused principally by the sudden retreat of ice aided by tectonic changes, has scooped out a deep longitudinal depression. Best in evidence where in contact with folded Cretaceous rocks which are uplifted by the Cenozoic granite. It generally separates the plateau from the lofty hills, the ridges generally called the pre-Cordillera.Patagonia – Patagonia
44. Cripple Creek, Colorado – The City of Cripple Creek is the Statutory City, the county seat of Teller County, Colorado, United States. The city population was 1,189 at the 2010 United States Census. Cripple Creek is a gold camp located 44 miles southwest of Colorado Springs near the base of Pikes Peak. The Cripple Creek Historic District, which received National Historic Landmark status in 1961, includes part or all of city and includes surrounding area. The city is now a part of the Colorado Springs, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area. For many years Cripple Creek's high valley, at an elevation of 9,494 feet, was considered no more important than a cattle pasture. Many prospectors avoided the area after the Mount Pisgah hoax, a mini gold rush caused by salting. On the 20th of 1890, Robert Miller "Bob" Womack discovered the last great Colorado gold rush began. Before long Winfield Scott Stratton located the famous lode, one of the largest gold strikes in history. In three years, the population increased from five hundred to ten thousand by 1893. Although $500 million worth of gold ore was dug from Cripple Creek, Womack died penniless on 10 August 1909. In 1896 Cripple Creek suffered two disastrous fires. The first occurred on April 25 destroying half of the city including much of the business district. Four days later another fire destroyed much of the remaining half. The city was rebuilt in a period of a few months, most historic buildings today date back to 1896.Cripple Creek, Colorado – Entering Cripple Creek
45. Bodie, California – It is located 12 mi east-southeast of Bridgeport, at an elevation of 8379 feet. As Bodie Historic District, the U.S. Department of the Interior recognizes it as a National Historic Landmark. Also registered as a California Historical Landmark, the town officially receives about 200,000 visitors yearly. Since 2012, Bodie has been administered by the Bodie Foundation, which uses the tagline Protecting Bodie's Future by Preserving Its Past. Bodie began as a mining camp of little note following the discovery of gold including W. S. Bodey. Gold discovered with the discovery of the distant Comstock Lode beneath Virginia City, Nevada. But while these two towns boomed, interest in Bodie remained lackluster. By 1868 only two companies had built stamp mills at Bodie, both had failed. Rich discoveries in the adjacent Bodie Mine during 1878 attracted even more hopeful people. By 1879, Bodie had a population of approximately 5,000–7,000 people and around 2,000 buildings. One idea maintains that in 1880, Bodie was California's second or third largest city, but the U.S. Census of that year disproves the popular tale. Over the years, Bodie's mines produced gold valued at nearly US$34 million. Bodie boomed from late 1877 through mid– to late 1880. The Standard Pioneer Journal of Mono County, published its first edition on October 1877. It started out as a weekly, but soon became a thrice-weekly paper.Bodie, California – Bodie
46. Amazon rubber boom – The rubber boom occurred largely between 1879 and 1912. There was associated activities from 1942 to 1945 during the Second World War. Natural rubber is an elastomer, also known as tree gum, caoutchouc, which comes from the rubber tree in tropical regions. Around 1736, a French astronomer recalled how Amerindians used rubber to waterproof cloaks. He brought several samples of rubber back to France. Rubber was used by scientist Joseph Priestley in England. It was not until the 1800s that the demand for rubber began. The first factory for rubber products was in the year 1803. However, the material still had disadvantages: at temperature, it was sticky. At higher temperatures, the rubber stickier, while at lower temperatures it became hard and rigid. The South Amerindians first discovered rubber; sometime dating back to 1600BC. The Amerindians in the Amazon rainforest developed ways to extract rubber from a member of the Euphorbiaceae family. A white liquid contains rubber particles dispersed in an aqueous serum. The rubber, which constitutes about 35% of the latex, is chemically cis-1,4-polyisoprene. Latex is practically a neutral substance, with a pH of 7.0 to 7.2.Amazon rubber boom – Map showing the region of the Amazon which enjoyed the rubber boom. It includes part of Brazil and Bolivia, along the rivers Madeira, Mamoré and Guaporé, near which the Madeira-Mamoré Railroad was built.
47. Rubber – Malaysia is one of the leading producers of rubber. Forms of polyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Natural rubber is used by many manufacturing companies for the production of rubber products. Currently, rubber is harvested mainly from the rubber tree or others. The latex is a milky colloid drawn off by making incisions into the bark and collecting the fluid in vessels in a process called "tapping". The latex then is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. Natural rubber is used extensively in many products, either alone or in combination with other materials. In major areas, latex is allowed to coagulate in the cup. The coagulated lumps are processed into dry forms for marketing. In most of its useful forms, it is extremely waterproof. Compared to vulcanized rubber, uncured rubber has relatively few uses. It is used for cements; for adhesive, insulating, friction tapes; and for crepe rubber used in insulating blankets and footwear. Vulcanized rubber, on the other hand, has numerous applications. Being relatively impermeable to gases, rubber is useful in the manufacture of articles such as air hoses, balloons, cushions. Indian rubber balls or lacrosse balls are made out of rubber.Rubber – Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree, Cameroon.
48. Amazon basin – The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. The Amazon basin covers an area of about 7,500,000 km2, or roughly 40 percent of the South American continent. It is located in the countries of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. Most of the basin is covered by the Amazon Rainforest, also known as Amazonia. With a 5,500,000 km2 area of tropical forest, this is the largest rainforest in the world. The Amazon River rises in the Andes Mountains at the west of the basin with its main tributary the Marañón River in Peru. It is usually considered to be the second longest river in the world. However, a team of Brazilian scientists has claimed that the Amazon is the longest river in the world. It covers about 6,400 km before draining into the Atlantic Ocean. Its tributaries form the largest volume of water. The Amazon accounts for about 20 % of the total water carried by rivers. Some of the Amazon rainforests are deforested because of the increasing of soy beans field. The highest point in the watershed of the Amazon is the peak of Yerupajá at 6,635 m. The Amazon basin formerly flowed west to Pacific Ocean until the Andes formed, causing the basin to flow eastward towards the Atlantic Ocean. The sunlight can not reach the ground because of the dense roof created by plants.Amazon basin – Aerial view of part of the Amazon rainforest.
49. Indiana gas boom – The boom began in the early 1880s and lasted into the early 20th century. When the Indiana natural belt was discovered, the citizens were unaware of what they had found. Nearly a decade passed without action to recover the resource. Once its significance was realized, further exploration showed the Indiana belt was the largest deposit of natural gas discovered until then. The resource was rapidly tapped for use. Because the gas was being wasted in use, the Indiana General Assembly attempted to regulate its use. In a series of cases, the Indiana Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the law. By 1902 the yield from the fields began leading to a switch to alternative forms of energy. With most of the gas removed from the field, there was no longer enough pressure to pump the oil out of the ground. An estimated million barrels of oil remain in the field. Natural gas was first discovered in 1876. Coal miners in the town of Eaton were boring a hole in search of coal. A foul odor came from the hole. The event scared the miners. Some believed that they had breached the ceiling of Hell.Indiana gas boom – Natural gas miners and their drill, near Kokomo, Indiana, c. 1885
50. Natural gas – The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas. Natural gas is a fossil fuel used as a source of energy for heating, cooking, generation. It is also used as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals. It is a non-renewable resource. Natural gas is associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates. Petroleum is another resource and fuel found in close proximity to and with natural gas. Most natural gas was created by two mechanisms: biogenic and thermogenic. Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material. When gas is associated with production it may be considered a byproduct and be burnt as flare gas. The World Bank estimates that over 150 cubic kilometers of natural gas are vented annually. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must be processed to meet the specifications of marketable natural gas. Natural gas is informally referred to simply as "gas", especially when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal. However, it is not to be confused with gasoline, especially in North America, where the gasoline is often shortened in colloquial usage to gas. Natural gas was used in about 500 BCE.Natural gas – Natural gas coming out of the ground in Taiwan.
51. Indiana – Indiana /ɪndiˈænə/ is a U.S. state located in the midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted as the 19th U.S. state on December 11, 1816. Before becoming a territory, varying cultures of historic Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross product of $298 billion in 2012. Indiana has metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 and a number of smaller industrial cities and towns. The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or simply "Indian Land". It also stems from Indiana's territorial history. On May 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory. A resident of Indiana is known as a Hoosier. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads who hunted large game such as mastodons. They created stone tools made out by chipping, knapping and flaking. The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization.Indiana – State sign, Interstate 65
52. Petroleum industry in Ohio – The petroleum industry in Ohio dates from 1859. Unconventional resources, primarily in eastern Ohio, are likely to increase production in Ohio. In late 1859, blacksmith William Jeffrey drilled the first well in Ohio specifically intended to produce petroleum. This well is located in Trumbull County, northeast of Warren. In 1860, similar activity occurred in Macksburg. Oil production climbed year after year, especially after major gas reserves were found in Wood County in northwest Ohio in the 1880s. From Toledo into Indiana, the Bowling Green Fault fractured the Trenton Formation limestone, in which hydrocarbons were trapped by overlying rock. Between 1903, Ohio was the leading producer of crude oil in the country and thereafter was surpassed by Texas and Oklahoma. Large production of oil continued into the 1930s. Due to early drilling techniques, the oil fields rapidly lost pressure. During this period, many towns in Ohio experienced boom-to-bust cycles. The usefulness of natural gas was not discovered until the 1880s. Up until then, it was considered a “nuisance.” Findlay was "the capital of Ohio in late 1885." In Findlay, the first commercial natural gas well began producing in 1884.Petroleum industry in Ohio – Cygnet, Ohio, in Wood County was a booming oil town with 13 saloons and many workers when this photo was taken in 1885.
53. Northwest Ohio – Northwest or northwestern Ohio consists of multiple counties in the northwestern corner of the United States state of Ohio. This area borders Lake Erie, eastern Indiana. Some areas in northwestern Ohio are also considered the Black Swamp area. The Toledo metropolitan area is also part of the region. The area's population in the year 2000 was 1,639,144. The area is declining in population, specifically in the northern regions. Southern areas such as Marion and Morrow counties well as the city of Findlay are growing. The city of Toledo serves as the principal city for the region of Northwest Ohio. Most of the region's television channels and radio stations are licensed in either Toledo, nearby Bowling Green. Though Toledo is an industrial city, the region is primarily agriculture with relatively small centers of commerce in various locations. Many of the cities, villages in northwest Ohio are clustered in the Toledo MSA. This list is incomplete. Williams in the state of Ohio are usually classified as extreme northwest Ohio. According to the 2000 Census, the population of this portion of NW Ohio is 234,660. When Allen and Hancock counties are included, the population is 414,428.Northwest Ohio – Skyline of Toledo, the largest city in Northwest Ohio
54. Tierra del Fuego gold rush – The gold rush fueled economic growth in Punta Arenas. After the goldrush was over most gold diggers left the archipelago, while the remaining settlers engaged in sheep fishing. Indigenous Selk'nam populations declined sharply during the rush. In 1879 an expedition led by Chilean Navy officer Ramón Serrano Montaner discovered gold in some watercourses of western Tierra del Fuego. However the gold rush was triggered only in 1884. The French steamship Arctique ran aground on the northern coast of Cape Virgenes. An expedition sent for its rescue discovered gold in a place called a Pique. When news reached Punta Arenas many inhabitants left for Zanja a Pique. From Punta Arenas the news then reached Buenos Aires. In Buenos Aires the press portrayed the gold findings comparing it to the rushes of Australia and California. In that city many companies were formed for the purpose of extracting gold. A mining engineer, was contracted by one of these companies in Buenos Aires. Popper then proceeded to recruit a number of Dalmatians from the many immigrants that lived in Buenos Aires those years. With these workers Popper set out to exploit the findings of El Páramo in San Sebastián Bay. Another camp was established in Sloggett Bay at the southern coast of Isla Grande Tierra del Fuego.Tierra del Fuego gold rush – 5-gram gold coin from Tierra del Fuego by Julius Popper.
55. Tierra del Fuego – Tierra del Fuego is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan. The southernmost extent of the archipelago is at about 55 S. The earliest known human settlement in Tierra del Fuego dates to around 8,000 B.C. Today, petroleum extraction dominates economic activity in the north of Tierra del Fuego, while tourism, manufacturing, Antarctic logistics are important in the south. The earliest human settlement occurred around 8,000 B.C. The Yaghan were some of the earliest known humans to settle in Tierra del Fuego. Archeological sites with characteristics of their culture have been found at locations such as Navarino Island. Originally called the "Land of Smoke", the name was later changed to "Land of Fire". A Dutch VOC expedition in 1616 learned more about the geography. The latter expedition named Cape Horn. On his first voyage with the HMS Beagle in 1830, Robert FitzRoy brought them to England. The surviving three were, for a time, celebrities. They returned with FitzRoy and Charles Darwin, who made extensive notes about his visit to the islands. During the second half of the 19th century, the archipelago began to come under Argentine influence. Both countries sought to claim the whole archipelago based on de jure colonial titles.Tierra del Fuego – Tierra del Fuego archipelago in the bottom half of the image
56. Witwatersrand Gold Rush – The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush in 1886 that led to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa. It was key part of the Mineral Revolution. But it was not until 1886 that the massive wealth of the Witwatersrand would be uncovered. The first discovery of gold in the region is recorded as being by J.H. Davis an English miner. He was subsequently ordered to leave the country. Another was subject to similar secrecy. His discovery is recorded with a monument where the original gold outcrop is believed to be located, a park named in his honour. Ironically, Harrison is believed to have sold his claim before leaving the area. News of gold reached Cecil Rhodes in Kimberley. Rhodes purchased the first batch of Witwatersrand gold for # 3000. This purchase would be Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa. South Africa would never be the same. Bantjes, whose father had educated Kruger when he was a boy during the Great Trek, had discussions with Kruger regarding those "measures." One of them was to place heavy taxes on the sale of dynamite to the foreigners as to slow the momentum. This only agitated the miners and which gave a reason to make a grab for the gold fields and take the lot for themselves.Witwatersrand Gold Rush – George Harrison Park
57. South Africa – South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world with close to 53 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. It is the only country that borders both the Indian Ocean. The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of Asian, multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures, religions. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, among the highest number of any country in the world. Regular elections have been held for almost a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising racial segregation. Since 1994, all linguistic groups have had political representation in the country's democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is often referred to as the "Rainbow Nation" to describe the country's newly multicultural diversity in the wake of segregationist apartheid ideology. The World Bank classifies a newly industrialised country. Its economy is the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa.South Africa – Mapungubwe Hill, the site of the former capital of the Kingdom of Mapungubwe
58. Klondike Gold Rush – The Klondike Gold Rush was a migration by an estimated 100,000 prospectors to the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1896 and 1899. Some became wealthy, but the majority went in vain. It has been immortalized in photographs, artifacts. To reach the gold fields most took the route through the ports of Dyea and Skagway in Southeast Alaska. Here, the Klondikers could follow either the White sail down to the Klondike. Each of them was required to bring a year's supply of food by the Canadian authorities in order to prevent starvation. In all, their equipment weighed close to a ton, which for most had to be carried in stages by themselves. Together with mountainous terrain and cold climate this meant that those who persisted did not arrive until summer 1898. There, they found many left disappointed. Mining was challenging as the ore was distributed in an uneven manner and digging was made slow by permafrost. As a result, some miners chose letting others do the work. From a population of 500 in 1896, the hastily constructed town came to house around 30,000 people by summer 1898. Built of wood, unsanitary, Dawson suffered from fires, epidemics. Despite this, the wealthiest prospectors spent extravagantly gambling and drinking in the saloons. The Native Hän people, on the other hand, suffered from the rush, being moved into a reserve to make way for the stampeders, many died.Klondike Gold Rush – Prospectors ascending the Chilkoot Pass, 1898
59. Klondike, Yukon – The Klondike is a region of the Yukon territory in northwest Canada, east of the Alaskan border. It lies around a small river that enters the Yukon River from the east at Dawson City. The Klondike is lasted until 1899. Gold has been mined continuously in that early 1970s. The name "Klondike" evolved from the Hän Tr ` ondëk, which means "hammerstone water". Early gold seekers found it difficult to pronounce the First Nations word, so "Klondike" was the result of this poor pronunciation. The climate is exceedingly severe -- extremely cold during the long winter. For seven months of the year, intense cold prevails, occur at intervals until May. By October 20, ice is formed over all the rivers. The ground for the better part of the year is frozen to the depth of 1 to 3 metres. Two step with music by Oscar Telgmann was published in Kingston, Ontario by the Music Emporium, c. 1897. 1897. Jack London's novel The Call of the Wild was published in 1903. Klondike was a series aired by NBC in 1960-61. The Discovery Channel aired the six-episode Klondike miniseries in 2014.Klondike, Yukon – Hunker Creek Valley, Klondike
60. Whatcom County – Whatcom County /ˈhwɒtkəm/ is a county located in the U.S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, the population was 201,140. It is bordered on the west. Largest city is Bellingham. The county was created from Island County on March 9, 1854. It originally included the territory of present-day San Juan and Skagit counties, which were later organized after additional settlement. Its name derives from the Lummi Xwotʼqom, meaning "noisy water." Whatcom County comprises WA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Whatcom County's northern border is the Canada–US border with the Canadian province of British Columbia. Adjoining the county on the north are five of metropolitan Vancouver's suburbs, Delta, White Rock, Surrey, Langley, and, in the central Fraser Valley, Abbotsford. Other services in Bellingham and elsewhere in the county are geared to cross-border shopping and recreation. The five crossing points are two at Blaine; as as at Lynden; Sumas; and Point Roberts. The county includes Lake Whatcom, which empties by way of Whatcom Creek. Physiographically, Whatcom County is an extension of the Fraser Valley or "Lower Mainland" area of British Columbia. This is essentially the lowland plain of the Fraser River.Whatcom County – Sign at county boundary, 1970
61. Nome Gold Rush – The Nome Gold Rush was a gold rush in Nome, Alaska, approximately 1899–1909. It is separated by the ease of which gold could be obtained. Much of the gold could be recovered without any need for a claim. During the rush Nome was the biggest town in Alaska. Together with the Klondike Gold Rush, Nome is the biggest gold north of 60 degrees latitude on the North American continent. It later rushes like Fairbanks. It is memorialized to Alaska. The area is mined as Nome mining district and by tourists. Total production of gold from the area is estimated to be 112 metric tonnes. Inupiaq Eskimos had camped for centuries in the Nome area before Russians came. In the 18th century, they established the port of St. Michael, 125 miles for sailing on Yukon. Fur whalers from many countries visited the area. A few church missions were established beginning in the 1880s. Gold was found in smaller amounts at Council 1897, subsequently other places in the area. News of the discovery reached that winter.Nome Gold Rush – Prospectors on Nome beach ca. 1900.
62. Nome, Alaska – Nome is a city in the Nome Census Area in the Unorganized Borough of the U.S. state of Alaska. The city is located on the southern Seward Peninsula coast on Norton Sound of the Bering Sea. According to the 2010 Census, the city population was 3,598. The 2014 population estimate was 3,788, suggesting a slight increase. Nome was incorporated on April 9, 1901, was once the most populous city in Alaska. Nome lies within the region of the Bering Straits Native Corporation. In the winter of 1925, a epidemic raged in the Nome area. Blizzard conditions prevented delivery of a life-saving serum by airplane from Anchorage. A relay of dog sled teams was organized to deliver the serum. The origin of the city's name "Nome" is debated; there are three theories. The officer had written "? Name" next to the unnamed cape. The mapmaker misread the annotation as "C. Nome", or Cape Nome, used that name on his own chart; the city in turn took its name from the cape. The third proposed origin of the name is from a misunderstanding of the local Inupiaq word for "Where at?", Naami.Nome, Alaska – Steadman Street facing North from Front Street. Nome in May 2002
63. Fairbanks Gold Rush – The Fairbanks Gold Rush was a gold rush that took place in Fairbanks, Alaska in the early 1900s. Fairbanks was a city largely built at the beginning of the 20th century. Exploration continue to thrive in and around modern-day Fairbanks. Felix Pedro spent years searching for gold. He tried to find gold in the valleys of the Tanana Valley where Fairbanks would begin before he found the "American Klondike". Low water conditions stopped the journey before Barnette could reach his destination. Captain Charles Adams, turned into the Chena River, a tributary of the Tanana, instead. Adams refused to go further, so the Barnettes set up shop there. Barnette opened a post on the Chena River after Pedro had told him he had made some good "prospects." After Wada spread the word about the gold being discovered, many miners who had not already left for the Nome Gold Rush traveled to Fairbanks. The prospectors soon found jobs working for Barnette -- prospecting by panning and sluicing for gold in Fairbanks. Fairbanks mining district Felice Pedroni, an Italian immigrant into the Alaska Gold RushFairbanks Gold Rush – Felix Pedro
64. Fairbanks – Fairbanks /ˈfɛrbæŋks/ is a home rule city and the borough seat of the Fairbanks North Star Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska. Fairbanks is the largest city in the Interior region of Alaska. Fairbanks is home to the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the oldest of Alaska's current universities. Captain E. T. Barnette founded Fairbanks in August 1901 while headed to Tanacross, where he intended to set up a post. The steamboat on which Barnette was the Lavelle Young, ran aground while attempting to negotiate shallow water. Along with his party and supplies, were deposited along the banks of the Chena River 7 miles upstream from its confluence with the Tanana River. The two met Barnette where he convinced him of the potential of the area. Barnette set up his post at the site, still intending to eventually make it to Tanacross. Agricultural activity still occurs today in the communities of Salcha and Delta Junction. During the early days of Fairbanks, its vicinity was a major producer of agricultural goods. Loop roads north and east of Fairbanks, were also home to major farming activity. The Haines - Fairbanks 626 mile long 8" petroleum products pipeline was constructed during the period 1953-55. The presence of the U.S. military has remained strong in Fairbanks. Ladd became Fort Wainwright in 1960; the post was annexed during the 1980s. Fairbanks suffered in its first six decades whether from ice jams during spring breakup or due to heavy rainfall.Fairbanks – Downtown Fairbanks, Alaska
65. Texas oil boom – The find was unprecedented in its size and ushered in industrialization that has few parallels in U.S. history. By 1940 Texas had come to dominate U.S. production. Some historians even define the beginning of the world's Oil Age as the beginning of this era in Texas. This period had a transformative effect on Texas. At the turn of the century, the state was predominantly rural with no large cities. By the end of World War II, the populations of Texas cities had broken into the top 20 nationally. The city grew during the decades following the era. This period, however, developed the Beaumont/Port Arthur area, where the boom began. H. Roy Cullen, H. L. Hunt, Clint Murchison were the four most influential businessmen during this era. These men became in the state and the nation. The Spindletop strike of 1901, at the time the world's most productive petroleum ever found, is considered by most historians as the beginning point. This single discovery brought worldwide attention to the state. As the Great Depression lowered demand, investors fled. In manufacturing centers such as Beaumont, Houston, Dallas, the boom continued to varying degrees until the end of World War II. By the end of the war, the economies of the urban areas of the state had matured.Texas oil boom – The Lucas gusher at Spindletop, the first major gusher in Texas
66. Texas – Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Major cities include Austin, the second most populous state capital in the U.S. and El Paso. The "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal. The origin of Texas, is from the word, "Tejas", which means ` friends' in the Caddo language. Due to geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes that resemble both the U.S. southern and southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U.S. southwestern deserts, less than 10 percent of Texas' area is desert. Most of the population centers are located in areas of former prairies, grasslands, the coastline. The term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory. Spain was the European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the United States as the 28th state. The state's annexation set off a chain of events that caused the Mexican–American War in 1846. After the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. One Texan industry that thrived after the Civil War was cattle.Texas – Sam Rayburn Reservoir
67. Cobalt, Ontario – W.E. Logan discovered cobalt in 1884 of Haileybury. The discovery of high-grade ore in the subsequent Cobalt rush led to the development of the McKinley Darragh, LaRose, Nipissing, O'Brien silver mines. In 1904, Willet Miller, on a visit on the T&NO, along with the Timmins brothers, named the future town Cobalt. The Timmins brothers bought the remaining Fred Larose put up some cabins. By 1908, the camp was considered the world's largest producer of cobalt. Within a few years the area was one of the largest silver producing areas in the world. Speculation over mining stocks on Wall Street in New York City required mounted police to control the crowds. The town was incorporated in 1906. Its population peaked at 7,000. In 1911, production exceeded 30,000,000 ounces. Mining continued until the 1930s, then slowed to a trickle. There are no longer any operating mines in the area. However, exploration for diamonds and other minerals is ongoing. Those who learned their trade in Cobalt further afield in Canada and around the world. The mining in Cobalt was done with the use of wheelbarrows, pickaxes, hand dynamite.Cobalt, Ontario – Cobalt
68. Porcupine Gold Rush – The Porcupine Gold Rush was a gold rush that took place in Northern Ontario starting in 1909 and developing fully by 1911. For comparison, the well-known Klondike Gold Rush produced about million troy ounces. During the 17th century, explorers and fur traders established outposts in Northern Ontario to capitalize on the fur trade. The North West Company later developed several trading posts along major routes in Northern Ontario. There were hints of gold in the Porcupine Lake area on a number of occasions before the actual rush started. This was at the time as the area was almost inaccessible. W. Parks, followed up with three surveying runs in 1898, 1899, 1903. These crossed through the gold-bearing area along what was known as ` the Back Road' which has since been renamed "Goldmine Road". A major event that led to the eventual rush was the start of the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway running through to Cochrane. Immediately the massive silver deposits in Cobalt were discovered, leading to a "silver rush" in 1903. This, in turn, filled Northern Ontario for rapid development of new mining sites. Reuben D'Aigle was the first to explicitly set out for the Porcupine Lake area in hopes of finding gold. After returning south he used the library to pore over mining reports for new gold deposits. Discovering Parks' earlier report, he immediately set out for Porcupine. They eventually reached Porcupine Lake, exploring around the area for some time.Porcupine Gold Rush – Specimen gold, probably from Pamour Mine.
69. Northern Ontario – Northern Ontario is a primary geographic and administrative region of the Canadian province of Ontario; the other primary region being Southern Ontario. Most of Northern Ontario is situated on a vast rocky plateau. The climate is characterized by extremes of temperature, hot in summer. The principal industries are mining, hydroelectricity. For some purposes, Northern Ontario is further subdivided into Northeastern and Northwestern Ontario. The other districts constitute "Northeastern Ontario." Northeastern Ontario contains two thirds of Northern Ontario's population. In the 20th century, Northern Ontario was often called "New Ontario", although this name fell into disuse because of its colonial connotations. This region was merged into the Kenora District in 1927. The Province of Canada began creating judicial districts in sparsely populated Northern Ontario with Nipissing District in 1858. These districts had no municipal function; they were created from the district seat. Nipissing had no seat until 1895. Up until that date, higher court services were available at Pembroke in Renfrew County. Nipissing Stipendiary Magistrate and registrar William Doran established his residence at North Bay in 1885. Following the hotly contested district election in 1895, North Bay earned the right to become the district seat in the new Provisional District of Nipissing.Northern Ontario – North Bay is often considered to be the "Gateway" to Northern Ontario
70. Kakamega – Kakamega is also the genus of the Grey-chested babbler, a bird Kakamega is a town in western Kenya lying about 30 km north of the Equator. It is the headquarters of Kakamega County. The town has a population of 99,987. Kakamega is 52 km north of Kisumu, a port city on Lake Victoria. The average elevation of Kakamega is 1,535 metres. Kakamega county is Kenya's second most populous county after Nairobi. The county has 9 constituencies in total, namely Butere, Mumias East, Matungu, Khwisero, Shinyalu, Lurambi, ikolomani, Lugari and Malava. Kakamega derives its modern name from the local dialect. To the hosts though, the visitors were more like ‘pinching’ the Obusuma. Kakamega serves as the headquarters of Mumias Sugar, located in the town of Mumias. Kakamega was the scene of the Kakamega gold rush in the early 1930s, fueled partly by the reports of the geologist Albert Ernest Kitson. It is expected to spur growth in this capital of Western Province. Kakamega Forest is the main destination in the area. Another attraction is the Crying Stone of Ilesi located along the highway towards Kisumu. It is a 40 metres high dome resembling a human figure whose "eyes" drop water.Kakamega – Crying Stone of Ilesi
71. Vatukoula – Vatukoula, is a gold mining settlement in Fiji, 9 kilometres inland from the Town of Tavua on Viti Levu, the main Fiji island. Vatukoula may be viewed historically as the cradle of the gold mining industry in Fiji. The discovery of gold in the Tavua district is attributed to Baron de Este, who found it in 1872. New Zealand prospector Fielding, began a systematic search along the Nasivi river. However, discovery of gold in commercial quantities in 1932 at Vatukoula, is attributed to Scottish prospector Bill Borthwick. In 1934, a new Mining Ordinance to regulate the fledgling industry was introduced by the colonial administration. By 1939 White initiated a geological survey of Viti Levu, resulting in Fiji's geological survey map, published in 1943. Building on this work, the mineralisation of Fiji was systematically reviewed by a successor, Mines Inspector James FA Taylor, in 1953. Underground mining were carried out in Vatukoula. By 1952, the population of Vatukoula had reached approximately 4,500 people, second largest in the Colony of Fiji. The largest group was indigenous Fijian, while other groups included people of mixed origins. About a third were employed directly in mining. The remainder comprised their dependents, well as tradespeople, storekeepers, teachers, police and public service officials. Housing at a basic level was available for most employees, emphasising potable sanitation. Industrial safety was promoted by the companies, while medical services were provided in the community.Vatukoula – Native tellurium crystal on sylvanite from the Emperor Mine, Vatukoula, Tavua Gold Field (image width 2 mm)
72. Calgary – Calgary is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta. The Calgary CMA is home to the second-highest number of corporate head offices in Canada among the country's 800 largest corporations. Calgary anchors the south end of what Statistics Canada defines as the "Calgary–Edmonton Corridor". In 1988, Calgary became the first Canadian city to host the Winter Olympic Games. Calgary was named after Calgary on the Isle of Mull, Scotland. Alternatively, the name might be Gaelic for either "clear running water" or "bay farm". The Calgary area was inhabited by pre-Clovis people whose presence has been traced back at least 11,000 years. In 1787, cartographer David Thompson spent the winter with a band of Peigan encamped along the Bow River. He was a Hudson's Bay Company trader and the first recorded European to visit the area. John Glenn was the first documented European settler in the Calgary area, in 1873. The site became a post of the North-West Mounted Police. The NWMP detachment was assigned in 1875 to protect the western plains from US whisky traders, to protect the fur trade. Originally named Fort Brisebois, after NWMP officer Éphrem-A. Brisebois, it was renamed Fort Calgary in 1876 by Colonel James Macleod. Over a century later, the Canadian Pacific Railway headquarters moved to Calgary from Montreal in 1996.Calgary – From top left: Scotiabank Saddledome and Downtown Calgary, SAIT Polytechnic, Calgary Stampede, Canada Olympic Park, Lougheed House, Stephen Avenue, Calgary Zoo
73. New Zealand – New Zealand /njuːˈziːlənd/ is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—that of the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, the South Island, or Te Waipounamu—and numerous smaller islands. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland. Sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that later were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands. In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is mainly derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, with English predominant. New Zealand is a developed country with a market economy. New Zealand is ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, economic quality of life. Queen Elizabeth II is the country's head of state and is represented by a governor-general.New Zealand – The Waitangi sheet from the Treaty of Waitangi
74. Cigar – The origins of smoking are still unknown. In Guatemala, a ceramic pot dating back to the tenth century features a Mayan tobacco leaves tied together with a string. The term for smoking used by the Maya, may have inspired the name cigar. The cigar originated from the Spanish cigarro, which in turn probably derives from the Mayan sicar. There is also a possible derivation, or at least an influence, from the Spanish cigarra, due to their similar shape. The English word came in 1730. Explorer Christopher Columbus is generally credited to Europe. Later, the hobby spread to Italy and, after Sir Walter Raleigh's voyages to the Americas, to Britain. Smoking became familiar throughout Europe—in pipes in Britain—by the mid-16th century. In 1542, tobacco started to be grown commercially in America, when the Spaniards established the first factory on the island of Cuba. There were some who considered it evil. It was denounced by James I of England. Around 1592, the Spanish galleon San Clemente brought 50 kilograms of tobacco seed over the Acapulco-Manila trade route. The seed was then distributed among the Roman Catholic missionaries, where the clerics found excellent soils for growing high-quality tobacco on Philippine soil. In the 19th century, smoking was common, while cigarettes were still comparatively rare.Cigar – A semi-airtight cigar storage tube and a double guillotine-style cutter
75. United States – Forty-eight of the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The territories are scattered about the Caribbean Sea. Nine time zones are covered. The geography, wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's fourth-largest country by total area and the third-most populous. It is home to the world's largest immigrant population. Urbanization leads to growing megaregions. Paleo-Indians migrated to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between the colonies in the aftermath of the Seven Years' War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, were felt to have provided federal powers. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led in the country.United States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
76. 2000s commodities boom – On 3 Libya's National Oil Corp said that output had halved due to the departure of foreign workers. Thus the price of oil kept rising into the 2010s. The commodities super-cycle peaked in 2011, "driven from emerging nations and low supply growth." Prior to 2002, only 5 to 10 per cent of trading in the commodities market was attributable to investors. Since 2002 "30 per cent of trading is attributable to investors in the commodities market" which "has caused higher price volatility." The prices of raw materials were depressed and declining from, roughly, 1982 until 1998. From the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation-adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under $25/barrel. The analysis of this period is rooted in macroeconomic theories of trade including the Mundell -- Fleming model. One opinion stated that "The interest rates found its way into commodity inputs and all sectors of the world economy." Foreign exchange so does money supply: the advent of a crisis will pull commodities prices down. A commodity bubble, known as the 2000s commodities boom, was created following the collapse of the mid-2000s housing bubble. Still commodity prices have fluctuated outside predictions. The US offset this with production cuts in the late 1990s and mid-2000s. Demand for these metals appeared to be increasing as mobile phones became more popular in the mid to late 2000s. Neodymium is used in high strength/high grade magnets.2000s commodities boom – A Neodymium magnet on a bracket from a hard drive.
77. Uranium bubble of 2007 – This coincided with significant rises of price of uranium mining and exploration companies. After mid-2007, at end 2010 was relatively stable at around $100/kg. The upward trend for the prices of uranium was already apparent since 2003. This prompted increases in activity. This created uncertainty about short-term future of the supply. Other factors are a reduction in available weapons-grade uranium. Due to increased prospecting, inferred reserves of uranium have increased by 15 % between 2005 and 2007. 2000s commodities boom Uranium Participation CorporationUranium bubble of 2007 – Monthly uranium spot price in USD per pound from 1980 to 2011. The 2007 price peak is clearly visible.
78. Uranium – Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92. It is a silvery-white metal in the actinide series of the periodic table. A atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons. Uranium is weakly radioactive because all its isotopes are unstable. The most common isotopes in natural uranium are uranium-235. Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the primordially occurring elements. Its density is slightly lower than that of gold or tungsten. In nature, uranium is found as a very small amount of uranium-234. Uranium decays slowly by emitting an alpha particle. Contemporary uses of uranium exploit its unique nuclear properties. Uranium-235 has the distinction of being the only naturally occurring fissile isotope. Uranium-238 is fertile, meaning it can be transmuted to fissile plutonium-239 in a nuclear reactor. Another fissile isotope, uranium-233, is also important in nuclear technology. In sufficient concentration, these isotopes maintain a nuclear chain reaction. This produces the fissile material for nuclear weapons.Uranium – Uranium, 92 U
79. North Dakota oil boom – Despite the Great Recession, the oil boom resulted in enough jobs to provide North Dakota with the lowest unemployment rate in the United States. The boom has given a billion-dollar budget surplus. Expiring leases result in a push to commence production on as many as possible before they expire. By 2012, income from oil royalties was reportedly paying $50,000 to $60,000 per month, some more than $100,000 per month. Head of the UND Center for Innovation Foundation in Grand Forks, estimated that the boom was creating 2,000 millionaires per year in North Dakota. The boom reduced unemployment in North Dakota to 3.5 percent in December 2011, the lowest of any state in the US. The number of actively-drilling rigs in North Dakota peaked at 217 rigs with the rig count averaging 180-190 throughout 2013. Each of the rigs is estimated to create roughly 125 full-time jobs. This means a total growth including an extra 10,000 jobs for workers who lay pipes to producing wells and produce processing plants. Some estimates predict that North Dakota could have as many as 48,000 new wells, with drilling taking place over the next two to three decades. The Bakken boom has propelled North Dakota into the top ranks of oil-producing states. As recently as 2007, North Dakota ranked 8th in oil production. In 2008, the state overtook New Mexico; in 2009 it outproduced Louisiana and Oklahoma. The North Dakota government receives through severance taxes 11.5 percent of the gross value of all oil produced. The boom has given a billion-dollar budget surplus.North Dakota oil boom – Night view of H&P drilling the Bakken.
80. Shale gas – Shale gas is natural gas, found trapped within shale formations. Some analysts expect that shale gas will greatly expand worldwide supply. China is estimated to have gas reserves. The Obama administration believes that increased shale development will help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In 2012, US dioxide emissions dropped to a 20-year low. But shale-gas discoveries are also opening up new resources of tight oil / "shale oil". Shale gas was first extracted as a resource in Fredonia, New York, in shallow, low-pressure fractures. The federal government also provided tax rules benefiting the industry in the 1980 Energy Act. The Department of Energy later partnered with private gas companies to complete the first successful multi-fracture horizontal well in shale in 1986. The federal government further incentivized drilling from 1980-2000. A crucial input to both hydraulic fracturing in shale and offshore oil drilling, originated from coalbeds research at Sandia National Laboratories. The DOE program also applied two technologies, developed previously by industry, horizontal drilling, to shale gas formations. That led to microseismic imaging. Mitchell Energy achieved the economical shale fracture in 1998 using slick-water fracturing. According to the IEA, shale gas could increase technically recoverable natural gas resources by almost 50%.Shale gas – Derrick and platform of drilling gas wells in Marcellus Shale - Pennsylvania
81. North Dakota – North Dakota is the 39th state of the United States, having been admitted to the union on November 2, 1889. The largest city is Fargo. The 4th least populous and the 4th least densely populated of the 50 United States. The development has driven low unemployment. North Dakota is located in the U.S. region known as the Great Plains. With an area of 70,762 square miles, North Dakota is the 19th largest state. The western half of the state consists to the west of the Missouri River. Theodore Roosevelt National Park are located in the Badlands. The region is abundant in fossil fuels including natural gas, lignite coal. The Missouri River forms the third largest man-made lake in the United States, behind the Garrison Dam. The central region of the state is divided into the Missouri Plateau. The eastern part of the state consists of the bottom of glacial Lake Agassiz. Its fertile soil, drained by the meandering Red River flowing northward into Lake Winnipeg, supports a large industry. The largest natural lake in the state, is also found in the east. Eastern North Dakota is overall flat; however, there are significant buttes in western North Dakota.North Dakota – View of western North Dakota
82. Rhodium – It is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45. Rhodium is a rare, silvery-white, hard, chemically inert metal. Rhodium is a member of the group. Rhodium has only one naturally occurring 103Rh. Rhodium is one of most valuable precious metals. It is a noble metal, resistant to corrosion, found together with the other members of the platinum group metals. The element's major use is as one of the catalysts in the catalytic converters in automobiles. White gold is often plated with a thin layer to improve its appearance while sterling silver is often rhodium-plated for tarnish resistance. Rhodium detectors are used in nuclear reactors to measure the neutron level. It was discovered by William Hyde Wollaston, soon after his discovery of palladium. He used crude ore presumably obtained from South America. His procedure involved neutralizing the acid with sodium hydroxide. He then precipitated the platinum by adding ammonium chloride. Most other metals like copper, lead, rhodium were precipitated with zinc. Nitric acid dissolved all but palladium and rhodium.Rhodium – Rhodium, 45 Rh
83. Barley – Barley, a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains, particularly in Eurasia as early as 13,000 years ago. It is used in barley bread of various cultures. Barley grains are commonly made in a traditional and ancient method of preparation. In 2014, barley was ranked fourth among grains in quantity produced behind corn, wheat. The Old English word for ` barley' was bære, cognate to the Latin word farina "flour". The direct ancestor of English "barley" in Old English was the derived adjective bærlic, meaning "of barley". The first citation of the bærlic in the Oxford English Dictionary dates to around 966 CE, in the compound word bærlic-croft. The underived bære survives in the north of Scotland as bere, refers to a specific strain of six-row barley grown there. The barn, which originally meant "barley-house", is also rooted in these words. Barley is a member of the family. It is a diploid species with 14 chromosomes. The wild ancestor of Hordeum vulgare subsp. Outside this region, the wild barley is usually found in disturbed habitats. However, in a study of genome-wide diversity markers, Tibet was found to be an additional center of domestication of cultivated barley.Barley – Barley
84. Cocoa bean – The "beans" are the basis of chocolate, well as Mesoamerican foods, such as mole and tejate. The word "cocoa" derives from the Spanish cacao, derived from the Nahuatl word cacahuatl. The Nahuatl word, in turn, ultimately derives from the reconstructed Proto Mije-Sokean word * ~ * kakawa. It originated in Central America well as parts of Mexico. Originally over 5000 years ago, consumed along the Yucatán including the Mayans, as far back as Olmeca civilization in spiritual ceremonies. It can be found as well in the Amazon and Orinoco basins of South America, current-day Colombia and Venezuela. Today examples of wild cacao still can be found there. The bean was a common currency throughout Mesoamerica before the Spanish conquest. Cacao trees grow to the north and south of the Equator. Today is grown in West Africa. Cocoa was an important commodity in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. Flavored with vanilla or other spices, his chocolate was whipped into a froth that dissolved in the mouth. Each day reportedly may have been consumed by Moctezuma II, 2,000 more by the nobles of his court. Chocolate became a popular beverage by the mid-17th century. They also introduced the tree into the West Indies and the Philippines.Cocoa bean – Cocoa pods in various stages of ripening
85. Maize – Maize, also known as corn, is a large grain plant first domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The six major types of corn are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, sweet corn. The leafy stalk of the plant ovuliferous ears, which are fruits, yielding kernels. Maize kernels are often used in cooking as a starch. Most historians believe maize was domesticated in the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico. Recent research modified this view somewhat; scholars now indicate the adjacent Balsas River Valley of south-central Mexico as the center of domestication. The Olmec and Mayans cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica, cooked, ground or processed through nixtamalization. Beginning about 2500 BC, the crop spread through much of the Americas. The region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Nevertheless, recent data indicates that the spread of maize took place even earlier. Since then, even earlier dates have been published. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates. The study also demonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands. Later, maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths. This is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands.Maize – Maize
86. Cotton – The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will tend to increase the dispersal of the seeds. The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions including the Americas, Africa, India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found followed by Australia and Africa. Cotton was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds. The fiber is most often used to make a soft, breathable textile. Current estimates for production are about 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, accounting for 2.5 % of the world's arable land. Most of this is used domestically. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years. In the United States, cotton is usually measured in bales, which weigh 226.8 kilograms. Some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the industrialization of India. Between 1000 BC cotton became widespread across much of India. For example, it has been found in Karnataka dating from around 1000 BC. Cotton fabrics discovered in a cave near Tehuacán, Mexico have been dated to around BC. The domestication of Gossypium hirsutum in Mexico is dated between 2300 BC.Cotton – Cotton
87. Cottonseed oil – Cottonseed oil is used for salad oil, mayonnaise, similar products because of its flavor stability. Its acid profile generally consists of 70 % unsaturated fatty acids, 26 % saturated fatty acids. When it is fully hydrogenated, its profile is 2 % unsaturated fatty acids. According to the cottonseed industry, cottonseed oil does not need to be hydrogenated as much as other polyunsaturated oils to achieve similar results. Gossypol is a toxic, polyphenolic compound produced by cotton and other members of the order Malvaceae, such as okra. This naturally occurring coloured compound is found in tiny glands in root of the cotton plant. The adaptive function of the compound facilitates natural resistance. The three key steps of refining, deodorization in producing finished oil act to eliminate the gossypol level. Ferric chloride is often used to decolorize cotton oil. It has a relatively high point as a frying medium. Density ranges to 0.933 g/cm3. The by-product of processing, cottonseed was considered virtually worthless before the late 19th century. While production expanded throughout the 17th, 18th, mid 19th centuries, a largely worthless stock of cottonseed grew. Although some of the seed was used for planting, fertilizer, feed, the majority was left to rot or was illegally dumped into rivers. The increased demand for fats and oils, coupled with a decreasing supply caused prices to rise sharply.Cottonseed oil – Cotton seeds
88. Flaxseed – Flax, Linum usitatissimum, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae. It is a food and fiber cultivated in cooler regions of the world. The textiles made from flax are known in the Western countries as linen, traditionally used for bed sheets, table linen. The oil is known as linseed oil. In addition to referring to the plant itself, the word "flax" may refer to the unspun fibers of the plant. Some of these are perennial plants, unlike L. usitatissimum, an annual plant. Cultivated flax plants grow to 1.2 m tall, with slender stems. The leaves are glaucous green, slender lanceolate, 20 -- 3 mm broad. The flowers are 15 -- 25 mm in diameter, with five petals. The fruit is dry capsule 5 -- 9 mm in diameter, containing several glossy brown seeds shaped like an apple pip, 4 -- 7 mm long. Flax was first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent region. Evidence exists of a oilseed flax with increased seed size by 9,000 years ago from Tell Ramad in Syria. Use of the crop steadily spread, reaching far as Switzerland and Germany by 5,000 years ago. In China and India, domesticated flax was cultivated also by at least 5,000 years ago. Mummies were entombed in linen.Flaxseed – Flax Linum usitatissimum
89. Orange juice – Orange juice is the liquid extract of the fruit of the orange tree, produced by squeezing oranges. It comes in different varieties, including blood orange, navel oranges, valencia orange, clementine, tangerine. These vesicles can be left in or removed during the manufacturing process. How juicy these vesicles are depend upon many factors such as species. Variety, season. In American English, the name may be abbreviated as "OJ". Orange juice is offered at each of the state's five Florida Welcome Centers. The value of orange juice is debatable. It has a high concentration of vitamin C, but also a very high concentration of simple sugars, comparable to soft drinks such as colas. During World War II, American soldiers rejected vitamin lemon crystals because of their unappetizing taste. Unfortunately, concentrated orange juice was developed three years after the war had ended. By 1949, orange processing plants in Florida were producing over 10 million gallons of concentrated orange juice. Consumers were captivated with the idea of concentrated orange juice as it was affordable, tasty, convenient, a vitamin-C packed product. The preparation was simple, thaw the juice, stir. However by the 1980’s, food scientists developed a more fresh-tasting juice known as reconstituted ready to serve juice.Orange juice – A glass of pulp-free orange juice
90. Lumber – Lumber, or timber is wood, processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber may also refer to currently un-needed furniture, as in an awkward gait, ultimately derived from the look of unfashionable and unwanted furniture. Lumber may be surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for other items requiring additional cutting and shaping. Lumber has many other uses as well. It is classified more commonly as a softwood than as a hardwood, because 80% of lumber comes from softwood. In Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and Britain, the timber describes sawn wood products, such as floor boards. In the United States and Canada, generally timber describes felled trees, before they are milled into boards, which are called lumber. Timber there also describes lumber not less than 5 inches in its smallest dimension. The latter includes the partly finished lumber used in timber-frame construction. Remanufactured lumber is the result of previously milled lumber. Specifically, it is cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Lumber is cut by resaw to create dimensions that are not usually processed by a primary sawmill. Resawing is the splitting of 1-inch through 12-inch hardwood or softwood lumber into two or more thinner pieces of full-length boards. For example, splitting a ten-foot 2x4 into two ten-foot 1x4s is considered resawing.Lumber – Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill
91. Oat – The oat, sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, known by the same name. While oats are suitable for human consumption as rolled oats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed. A. byzantina, is the hexaploid wild oat A. sterilis. Genetic evidence shows the ancestral forms of A. sterilis grew in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East. Domesticated oats appear far from the Near East, in Bronze Age Europe. Oats, like rye, are usually considered a secondary crop, i.e. derived from a weed of the primary cereal domesticates barley. As these cereals spread westwards into cooler, wetter areas, this may have led to its domestication. Oats are best grown in temperate regions. Oats can be planted either in autumn or in the spring. Oats have numerous uses in foods; most commonly, they are ground into fine oat flour. Oatmeal may also be used in a variety of baked goods, such as oatcakes, oatmeal cookies and oat bread. Oats are also an ingredient in cold cereals, in particular muesli and granola. Historical attitudes towards oats have varied. Bread was first manufactured in Britain, where the first oat bread factory was established in 1899. In Scotland, they still are, held in high esteem, as a mainstay of the national diet.Oat – Oat
92. Olive oil – Olive oil is a fat obtained from the olive, a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. The oil is produced by pressing whole olives. It is commonly used in as a salad dressing. It finds uses in some religions. It is associated with the Mediterranean diet popularized in North America for its possible health benefits. The olive is one of the three core food plants in Mediterranean cuisine, the grape. Olive trees have been grown since the 8th millennium BC. Spain is followed by Italy and Greece. Per capita consumption is however highest in Greece, followed by Spain, Italy, Morocco. Rising steadily. The composition of olive oil varies with the cultivar, time of harvest and extraction process. It consists mainly with smaller amounts of other fatty acids including linoleic acid and palmitic acid. The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin; wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples early as the 8th millennium BC. The wild tree originated in Asia Minor or in ancient Greece. It is not clear where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor, in the Levant, or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent..Olive oil – Extra-virgin olive oil
93. Palm oil – Palm oil is naturally reddish in color because of a high beta-carotene content. Along with coconut oil, oil is semisolid at room temperature. Palm oil is a common ingredient of Brazil. In 2004, an group called the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil was formed to work with the palm industry to address these concerns. It is believed that Arab traders brought the oil palm to Egypt. It is more likely that the palm was brought by its founding peoples who migrated from other regions of the African continent. Palm oil from E. guineensiss has long been recognized in West and Central African countries, is widely used as a cooking oil. European merchants trading with West Africa occasionally purchased oil as a cooking oil in Europe. Palm oil became a highly sought-after commodity during Britain's Industrial Revolution. Palm oil formed the basis such as the American Palmolive brand. Palm oil, like all fats, is composed of fatty acids, esterified with glycerol. Palm oil has an especially high concentration of saturated fat, specifically, of the 16-carbon saturated palmitic acid, to which it gives its name. Oleic acid is also a major constituent of oil. Unrefined oil is a significant source of part of the vitamin E family. Many processed foods either contain palm oil or various ingredients derived from it.Palm oil – Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling
94. Peanut oil – Peanut oil, also known as groundnut oil or arachis oil, is a mild-tasting vegetable oil derived from peanuts. The oil is available with aroma, analogous to sesame oil. It is often used in Chinese, South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine, both in the case of roasted oil, for added flavor. Oil has a high smoke point relative to many other cooking oils, so is commonly used for frying foods. Its major component fatty acids are oleic acid, palmitic acid. The oil also contains some stearic acid, arachidic acid, behenic acid, other fatty acids. Antioxidants such as E are sometimes added to improve the shelf life of the oil. Shortage of oil in the Confederacy made peanut oil an attractive alternative during the Civil War. The oil had increased use in the United States because of war shortages of other oils. Most highly refined peanut oils have been shown to be safe for "the vast majority of peanut-allergic individuals". However, cold-pressed peanut oils thus could be highly dangerous to people with peanut allergy. Since the degree of processing for any particular product is often unclear, "avoidance is prudent." If control is neglected, peanuts that contain the mold that produces highly toxic aflatoxin can end up contaminating the oil derived from them. Oil, as with other vegetable oils, can be used to make soap by the process of saponification. The oil is safe for use as a oil.Peanut oil – A bottle of peanut oil, with Vitamin E added as a preservative
95. Potato – The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum. The word "potato" may refer either to the plant itself or to the edible tuber. In the Andes, where the species is indigenous, there are some other closely related cultivated potato species. Potatoes have since become an integral part of much of the world's supply. It is the world's fourth-largest crop, following maize, rice. The green leaves and green skins of tubers exposed to the light are toxic. Wild potato species can be found to southern Chile. Following centuries of selective breeding, there are now over a thousand different types of potatoes. However, the local importance of the potato is variable and changing rapidly. As of 2007 China led the world in potato production, nearly a third of the world's potatoes were harvested in China and India. The English word potato comes from Spanish patata. The Spanish Royal Academy says the Spanish word is a compound of the Taíno batata and the Quechua papa. The English herbalist John Gerard referred to sweet potatoes as "common potatoes". Potatoes are occasionally referred to as "Irish potatoes" or "white potatoes" in the United States, to distinguish them from sweet potatoes. The name spud for a small potato comes from the digging of soil prior to the planting of potatoes.Potato – Potato
96. Rapeseed – The name is first recorded in English at the end of the 14th century. Older writers usually distinguished the rape by the adjectives ` round' and ` long', respectively. Brassica napobrassica, are sometimes considered a variety of B. napus. Some botanists also include the closely related B. rapa within B. napus. B. napus is cultivated mainly for the third-largest source of vegetable oil in the world. The term "rape" derives from the Latin word for rapum. Rapeseed is known by common names in the English language. Some names have only been applied to certain subspecies, varieties of B. napus. B. napus = B. napus subsp. Napus = B. napus subsp. Napus f. napus. This list is from the Germplasm Resources Information Network, which attributes the names to other sources: Brassica napus – rape B. napus subsp. Napus – Argentine canola, canola, colza, oilseed rape, rape B. napus subsp. Napus f. annua – annual rape and summer rape B. napus subsp. Napus f. napus – swede rape B. napus subsp.Rapeseed – Rapeseed oil seed
97. Rice – Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia. It is the agricultural commodity with the worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize, according to 2012 FAOSTAT data. Wild rice, from which the crop was developed, may have its native range in Australia. Chinese legends attribute the domestication of rice to Shennong, inventor of Chinese agriculture. Genetic evidence has shown that rice originates in the Pearl River valley region of Ancient China. Previously, archaeological evidence had suggested that rice was domesticated in the Yangtze River region in China. From East Asia, rice was spread to Southeast and South Asia. Rice was introduced to Europe through European colonization. Culinary preferences tend to vary regionally. In some areas such as Spain, there is a preference for softer and stickier varieties. The plant can grow to 1 -- 1.8 m tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and soil fertility. It has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30 -- 50 cm long. The edible seed is a grain 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick.Rice – A mixture of brown, white, and red indica rice, also containing wild rice, Zizania species
98. Rye – It is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop. Rye is closely related to barley and wheat. Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, crisp bread, some whiskeys, animal fodder. Rye can also be eaten whole, by being rolled, similar to rolled oats. It should not be confused with ryegrass, used for lawns, pasture, hay for livestock. It is one of a number of species that grow wild in adjacent areas. 1800–1500 BCE. Rye is possible that rye was only later cultivated in its own right. Since the Middle Ages people have cultivated rye widely in Central and Eastern Europe. Rye serves as the main cereal in most areas east of the French-German border and north of Hungary. In Southern Europe, Rye was cultivated on marginal lands. Claims of much earlier cultivation at the Epipalaeolithic site of Tell Abu Hureyra in the Euphrates valley of northern Syria remain controversial. Identifications based solely on grain, rather than on chaff. Winter rye is any breed of rye planted in the fall to provide cover for the winter. Rye grows during warmer days of the winter when sunlight temporarily warms the plant above freezing, even while there is general cover.Rye – Rye
99. Natural rubber – Malaysia is one of the leading producers of rubber. Forms of polyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Natural rubber is used by many manufacturing companies for the production of rubber products. Currently, rubber is harvested mainly from the rubber tree or others. The latex is a milky colloid drawn off by making incisions into the bark and collecting the fluid in vessels in a process called "tapping". The latex then is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. Natural rubber is used extensively in many products, either alone or in combination with other materials. In major areas, latex is allowed to coagulate in the cup. The coagulated lumps are processed into dry forms for marketing. In most of its useful forms, it is extremely waterproof. Compared to vulcanized rubber, uncured rubber has relatively few uses. It is used for cements; for adhesive, insulating, friction tapes; and for crepe rubber used in insulating blankets and footwear. Vulcanized rubber, on the other hand, has numerous applications. Being relatively impermeable to gases, rubber is useful in the manufacture of articles such as air hoses, balloons, cushions. Indian rubber balls or lacrosse balls are made out of rubber.Natural rubber – Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree, Cameroon.
100. Soybean – Fat-free meal is a cheap source of protein for animal feeds and many packaged meals. For example, soybean products, such as textured protein, are ingredients in many dairy substitutes. The beans contain significant amounts of B vitamins. Oil, used in food and industrial applications, is another product of processing the soybean crop. Non-fermented food uses of soybeans include milk from which tofu and tofu skin are made. Fermented soy foods include soy sauce, tempeh. The main countries growing soybeans are the United States, Brazil and Argentina. The genus Glycine Willd. is divided into two subgenera, Glycine and Soja. The subgenus Soja F.J. Herm. Includes the cultivated soybean, Glycine max Merr. and the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc. Both species are annuals. Glycine soja is the wild ancestor of Glycine max, grows wild in China, Japan, Korea and Russia. Perennial soybean is now a widespread crop in the tropics. Like some other crops of long domestication, the relationship of the modern soybean to wild-growing species can no longer be traced with any degree of certainty.Soybean – Soybean
101. Soybean oil – Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean. It is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils. As a drying oil, processed oil is also used as a base for printing inks and oil paints. To produce oil, the soybeans are cracked, adjusted for moisture content, heated to between 60 and 88 ° C, rolled into flakes, solvent-extracted with hexanes. The oil is then refined, sometimes hydrogenated. Soybean oils, both partially hydrogenated are sold as "vegetable oil," or are ingredients in a wide variety of processed foods. Most of the remaining residue is used as feed. Per 100 g, oil has 16 g of saturated fat, 23 g of monounsaturated fat, 58 g of polyunsaturated fat. The unsaturated fatty acids in soybean oil triglycerides are the polyunsaturates alpha-linolenic acid, 7-10 %, linoleic acid, 51 %; and the monounsaturate oleic acid, 23 %. It also contains the fatty acids stearic acid, 4 %, palmitic acid, 10 %. The high-proportion of linolenic acid is undesirable for some uses, such as cooking oils. Three companies, Monsanto Company, Asoyia in 2004 introduced low linolenic Roundup Ready soybeans. Hydrogenation may be used to reduce the unsaturation in linolenic acid. The resulting oil is called hydrogenated oil. If the hydrogenation is only partially complete, the oil may contain small amounts of trans fat.Soybean oil – General
102. Sugar – Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. They are composed of carbon, oxygen. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars include glucose, fructose, galactose. The table or sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide. Other disaccharides include lactose. Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides. Chemically-different substances are not classified as sugars. Some are used for sugar described as artificial sweeteners. Sugars are present in sufficient concentrations for efficient extraction only in sugarcane and sugar beet. A great expansion in its production took place with the establishment of sugar plantations in the West Indies and Americas. This was the first time that sugar became available to the common people, who had previously had to rely on honey to sweeten foods. The world produced about million tonnes of sugar in 2011. The average person consumes about 24 kilograms of each year, equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, per day. Since the latter part of the twentieth century, it has been questioned whether a diet high in especially refined sugars, is good for human health.Sugar – Closeup of raw (unrefined, unbleached) sugar
103. Tea – Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub native to Asia. After water, it is the most widely consumed drink in the world. Tea originated in Southwest China, where it was used as a medicinal drink. Tea drinking spread to other East Asian countries. Portuguese merchants introduced it to Europe during the 16th century. During the 17th century, tea became fashionable among Britons, who started large-scale production and commercialization of the plant in India to bypass the Chinese monopoly. The phrase herbal tea usually refers to herbs made without the tea plant, such as steeps of rosehip, chamomile, or rooibos. These are also known as herbal infusions to distinguish them from "tea" as it is commonly understood. The Chinese character for tea is originally written with an extra stroke as 荼, acquired its current form during the Tang Dynasty. There were ancient words for tea, though ming is the only other one still in common use. These two pronunciations have made their separate ways into other languages around the world. Starting in the early seventeen century, the Dutch played a dominant role in the European tea trade via the Dutch East India Company. The Dutch then introduced to European languages this Min pronunciation for tea, including English tea, French thé, Spanish té, German Tee. This pronunciation is also the most common form worldwide. The Portuguese spread it to India.Tea – Oolong tea being infused in a gaiwan
104. Animal product – An animal product is any material derived from the body of an animal. Examples are fat, flesh, blood, milk, lesser known products, such as isinglass and rennet. The sale of animal by-products allows the industry to compete economically with industries selling sources of vegetable protein. Generally, products made from decomposed animals, such as petroleum formed from the ancient remains of marine animals, are not considered animal products. Crops grown in soil fertilized with animal remains are rarely characterized as animal products. Several diets prohibit the inclusion of some animal products, including vegetarian, halaal. Other diets, such as the raw vegan diet, exclude any material of animal origin. Slaughterhouse waste is defined as body parts cut off in the preparation of carcasses for use as food. This waste can come from several sources, including slaughterhouses, restaurants, farms. Vegan Society - Criteria For Vegan Food Extensive list identifying animal-derived and vegan ingredients FDA Consumer Magazine: The Lowdown on Labels Heinz, G. & Hautzinger, P. "Meat Processing Technology", Food and Agriculture Organization, 2007, accessed March 30, 2012. Leoci, R. Animal by-products: origins, uses, European regulations, Mantova: Universitas Studiorum, 2014. ISBN 978-88-97683-47-6 Mian N Riaz, Riaz N Riaz, Muhammad M Chaudry. Halal Food Production, CRC Press, 2004. ISBN 1-58716-029-3 Tsai, Michelle.Animal product – Varieties of goat cheese
105. Ambergris – Ambergris, ambergrease or grey amber, is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish colour, produced in the digestive system of sperm whales. The word "amber" is derived from the Arabic word for ambergris, "ʿanbar". Freshly-produced ambergris has a marine, fecal odour. However, as it ages, it acquires a earthy scent, commonly likened to the fragrance of rubbing alcohol, without the vaporous astringency. Although ambergris used to be highly valued by perfumers as a fixative, it has largely been replaced by synthetic ambroxan. The word ambergris comes from the Old French "ambre gris" or "grey amber", which in turn derives from the Arabic word "ʿanbar", meaning ambergris. It is also sometimes found in the abdomens of dead sperm whales. If one travels down the gut, it will be covered in ambergris. Ambergris is usually passed in the fecal matter. Ambergris takes years to form. Ambergris is rare; once expelled by a whale, it often floats for years before making landfall. The very small chance of finding ambergris, the legal ambiguity involved led perfume makers away from ambergris. Most commercially collected ambergris comes from the Bahamas in the Caribbean, particularly New Providence. Fossilised ambergris from 1.75 million years ago has also been found. Ambergris is found in lumps of various sizes, usually weighing to 50 kg sometimes more.Ambergris – Ambergris
106. Bristle – A bristle is a stiff hair or feather, either on an animal, such as a pig, or on a tool such as a brush or broom. Synthetic materials such as nylon are also used to make bristles in items such as sweepers. Bristles are often used to make brushes for cleaning purposes, as they are strongly abrasive; common examples include the toothbrush and brush. The scrub brush are common household cleaning tools, often used to remove dirt or grease from pots and pans. Bristles are also used other than for cleaning, notably paintbrushes. Bristles are distinguished as unflagged; these are also known as flocked or unflocked bristles. In cleaning applications, flagged bristles are suited for dry cleaning, unflagged suited for wet cleaning. In painting, flagged bristles yield more even application. Bristles are found on pig breeds, instead of fur. Because the density is less than with fur, pigs are vulnerable to sunburn. The Tamworth pig, is endowed with a very dense bristle structure such that sunburn damage to skin is minimized. Animals named for their bristles include bristlebirds, the bristle-thighed curlew, the Trinity bristle snail. Bristles also anchor worms to the soil to help the move. Hairbrush Types of Bristle Materials Used for BrushesBristle – The bristles of a sweeping brush
107. Butter – Butter is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat, solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed. It is made by churning fresh or fermented milk, to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk. Butter consists in some types, added salt. Butter may also be sold with added flavourings, such as garlic butter. Most frequently made from cows' milk, butter can also be manufactured from the milk including sheep, goats, buffalo, yaks. Salt such as dairy salt, preservatives are sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter produces clarified butter or ghee, almost entirely butterfat. Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion resulting from an inversion of the cream; in a water-in-oil emulsion, the milk proteins are the emulsifiers. Butter remains a solid when refrigerated, but melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32 -- 35 ° C. The density of butter is 911 g/L. It varies from deep yellow to nearly white. Its unmodified color is commonly manipulated with food colorings in the commercial manufacturing process, most commonly annatto or carotene. The butter derives from the Latin butyrum, the latinisation of the Greek βούτυρον. This may have been a construction "cow-cheese", from βοῦς, "ox, cow" + τυρός, "cheese". Nevertheless, the earliest attested form of turos, is the Mycenaean Greek tu-ro, written in Linear B syllabic script.Butter – Butter at the Borough Market, London
108. Cashmere wool – Cashmere wool, usually simply known as cashmere, is a fiber obtained from cashmere goats and other types of goat. Common usage defines the fiber as wool but it is finer and softer than sheep's wool. Some say it is hair, but as seen below, cashmere requires the removal of hair from the wool. The word cashmere is an old spelling of the Kashmir region in northernmost geographical region of South Asia. Cashmere is fine in texture, strong, light, soft. Garments made from it provide excellent insulation, approximately three times that of sheep wool. Cashmere is also softer than regular wool. In the United States, under the U.S. The average fiber diameter may be subject to a coefficient of variation around the mean that shall not exceed 24 percent. Cashmere wool fiber for clothing and other textile articles is obtained from the neck region of Cashmere and other goats. Historically, fine-haired Cashmere goats have been called Capra hircus laniger, as if they were a subspecies of the domestic goat Capra hircus. However, they are now more commonly considered part of the domestic goat subspecies Capra aegagrus hircus. For the fine underdown to be sold and processed further, it must be de-haired. De-hairing is a mechanical process that separates the coarse hairs from the fine hair. After de-hairing, the resulting "cashmere" is ready to be dyed and converted into textile yarn, fabrics and garments.Cashmere wool – Cashmere scarves
109. Civet (perfumery) – Civet, also known as civet musk, is the glandular secretion produced by both sexes of the civet cat. A number of species of civet, Viverra zibetha and Viverricula indica of India, Malaya, Indochina, Indonesia, can yield civet oil. Most civet is however produced by civet farms in Africa, where the secreted oil is taken from the pouches of caged animals once a week. African civets typically produce each week. In 2000, civet sold for about hundred dollars per kilogram. Civet is a soft, almost liquid material. It is yellow when fresh, darkening in the light and becoming salve-like in consistency. Its odor is strong, once diluted it is pleasantly and sweetly aromatic. It is prepared by solvent extraction to yield either a tincture, an absolute, or a resinoid. The chemical in civet oil that gives most of its distinctive odor is civetone, at a concentration of between 2.5 and 3.4 percent. The oil also includes other ketones such as cyclopentadecanone, cyclohexadecanone, cycloheptadecanone, 6-cis-cycloheptadecenone. Civet was formerly a versatile ingredient of fine fragrances. It is being displaced by 5-cyclohexadecen-1-one, more easily synthesized. Civet absolute is used in perfumery. The USA does not allow civets to be imported, as the species can transmit the SARS virus.Civet (perfumery) – The African civet, Civettictis civetta, is one of the species that secretes civet fluid.
110. Feather – Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on coelurosaurian dinosaurs. They are considered indeed a premier example of a complex evolutionary novelty. They are among the characteristics that distinguish the extant birds from other living groups. Although feathers cover most parts of the body of birds, they arise only from well-defined tracts on the skin. They aid in flight, waterproofing. In addition, coloration helps in protection. Plumology is the name for the science, associated with the study of feathers. There are two basic types of feather: down feathers which are underneath the vaned feathers. The pennaceous feathers are vaned feathers. Also called contour feathers, pennaceous feathers cover the entire body. The filoplume, is hairlike and grows along the fluffy down feathers. In some passerines, filoplumes arise exposed beyond the contour feathers on the neck. Flight feathers of the wing, rectrices, the flight feathers of the tail are the most important feathers for flight. A vaned feather features a main shaft, called the rachis. Fused to the rachis are a series of branches, or barbs; the barbs themselves are also branched and form the barbules.Feather – Feather variations
111. Cattle – Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. Cattle are raised as livestock for meat, as draft animals. Other products include dung for manure or fuel. In some regions, such as parts of India, cattle have religious meaning. In 2009, cattle became one of the first livestock animals to have a fully mapped genome. Cattle raiding consequently one of the earliest forms of theft. Cattle were originally identified as separate species: Bos taurus, the European or "taurine" cattle; Bos indicus, the zebu; and the extinct Bos primigenius, the aurochs. The aurochs is ancestral to both taurine cattle. Now, these have been reclassified as one species, Bos taurus, with three subspecies: Bos taurus primigenius, Bos taurus taurus. Complicating the matter is the ability of cattle to interbreed with other closely related species. However, cattle can not successfully be hybridized with more distantly related bovines such as African buffalo. The aurochs originally ranged throughout Europe, much of Asia. In historical times, the last known individual died in Masovia, Poland, in about 1627. Breeders have attempted to recreate cattle of similar appearance by crossing traditional types of domesticated cattle creating the Heck cattle breed. Cattle did not originate as the term for bovine animals.Cattle – Cattle
112. Goat – The domestic goat is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is closely related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There are over 300 distinct breeds of goat. Goats have been used for their milk, meat, hair, skins over much of the world. In 2011, there were more than million live goats around the globe, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Female goats are referred to as "does" or "nannies;" juveniles of both sexes are called "kids". Castrated males are called "wethers". To refer to the male, Old English used bucca until ousted by hegote, hegoote in the 12th century. Nanny goat originated in the 18th century and goat in the 19th. Goats are among the earliest animals domesticated by humans. The earliest remnants of domesticated goats dating 10,000 years before present are found in Ganj Dareh in Iran. Studies of evidence suggests 10,000 years BP as the domestication date. Historically, goat hide has been used in both traveling and transporting wine for sale. It has also been used to produce parchment. Within each breed, different bloodlines may have different recognized sizes.Goat
113. Hide (skin) – A hide or skin is an animal skin treated for human use. Commercial hides include leather from cattle and other livestock animals, buckskin, alligator skin and snake skin. All are used for shoes, other fashion accessories. Leather is also used in upholstery, interior decorating, harnesses. Most leather making is now industrialized and large-scale. Various tannins are used for this purpose. The term "hide" is sometimes expanded to include furs, which are harvested from various species, including cats, bears. The Inuit, for example, used animal hides for summer tents, kayaks. In early medieval era hides were used to protect wooden castles and defence buildings from setting alight during a siege. Various Indian tribes used hides in the construction of tepees and wigwams, moccasins, buckskins. They were sometimes used as window coverings. Until the invention of drum heads in the 1950s, animal hides or metal was used. Vellum -- a kind of paper made from processed skins -- was introduced to the Eastern Mediterranean during the Iron Age, supposedly at Pergamon. The Assize of Weights and Measures—one of the statutes of uncertain date from c. 1300—mentions rawhide, gloves, parchment, vellum among the principal items of England's commerce.Hide (skin) – Fresh tanned leather
114. Horse – H.O.R.S.E. is a form of poker commonly played at the high-stakes tables of casinos. H.O.R.S.E. is a game, including hold'em. However, in some tournament situations, the final table is no-limit hold'em. C.H.O.R.S.E adds Chowaha or Crazy Pineapple to the mix. This is convenient at such team events as BARGE, when it helps to have as many flop games as stud games. C.H.O.R.S.E.L adds lowball. T.H.O.R.S.E.H.A. is another 8-Game Mix which includes more games than most other mixed poker games. PokerStars started offering this game in 2008. The latest variation on the mixed poker games, overtook T.H.O.R.S.E.H.A. in the extent of its game inclusion. Full Tilt Poker also offers the 9-Game, which includes all poker variants from the 10-Game with the exception of Badugi. A 12 Game Mix has also been proposed to the 10-Game mix. A 13 Game Mix can also be constructed by adding No Limit Hold'em to the games of the 12 Game Mix. H.O.R.S.E. Made its debut at the World Series of Poker in 2002 with a $2,000 buy-in. John Hennigan won the event, earning $117,320.Horse
115. Ivory – Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing. It consists mainly of dentine ), one of the physical structures of teeth and tusks. The chemical structure of the tusks of mammals is the same, regardless of the species of origin. It has been valued for making a range of items, from ivory carvings to false teeth, fans, dominoes. Ivory from mammoth, walrus, hippopotamus, sperm whale, killer whale, narwhal and wart hog are used as well. Elk also have two ivory teeth, which are believed to be the remnants of tusks from their ancestors. The international trade in ivory of threatened species such as African and Asian elephants is illegal. The ivory ultimately derives from the ancient Egyptian âb, âbu, through the Latin ebor - or ebur. Ivory was often used to form the white of the eyes of statues. There is some evidence of either whale or ivory used by the ancient Irish. The Syrian and African elephant populations were reduced to extinction, probably due to the demand for ivory in the Classical world. The Chinese have long valued ivory for utilitarian objects. Asian kingdoms included tusks of the Indian elephant in their annual tribute caravans to China. Chinese craftsmen carved ivory to end pieces of opium pipes. The Buddhist cultures of Southeast Asia, including Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia, traditionally harvested ivory from their domesticated elephants.Ivory – The solid ivory image of Our Lady of Manaoag in her imperial regalia. Genuine ivory is held more valuable than gold among Santero artisans. Pangasinan, Philippines.
116. Lard – Lard is pig fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms. It is obtained from any part of the pig where there is a high proportion of adipose tissue. Refined lard is usually sold as paper-wrapped blocks. Since lard is obtained from a pig, it is not suitable for vegetarians. Lard is commonly used around the world as a cooking fat or shortening, or as a spread similar to butter. The culinary qualities of lard vary somewhat depending on the part of the pig from how the lard was processed. Lard can be obtained from any part of the pig where there is a high concentration of fatty tissue. The highest grade of lard, known as lard, is obtained from the "flare" visceral fat deposit surrounding the kidneys and inside the loin. The next-highest grade is obtained from fatback, muscle of the pig. Lard may be rendered by either of two processes: dry. In dry rendering, the fat is exposed without the presence of water. The two processes yield somewhat differing products. Wet-rendered lard has a more neutral flavor, a high smoke point. Dry-rendered lard has a lower smoke point. Rendered lard produces an unpleasant smell when mixed with oxygen.Lard – Wet-rendered lard, from pork fatback.
117. Milk – Milk is a pale liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which can reduce the risk of many diseases. It contains other nutrients including protein and lactose. As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from non-human mammals during or soon after pregnancy. Dairy farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk from 260 million dairy cows. It exports few other milk products. The United States, India, China and Brazil are the world's largest exporters of milk products. Throughout the world, there are more than billion consumers of milk and milk products. Over million people live in dairy farming households. The term "milk" comes from "Old English milc, from Proto-Germanic * meluks "milk"". In almost all mammals, milk is fed through breastfeeding, either directly or by expressing the milk to be stored and consumed later. The early milk from mammals is called colostrum. Colostrum contains antibodies that provide protection to the newborn baby well as nutrients and growth factors. The makeup of the period of secretion varies from species to species.Milk – A glass of pasteurized cow's milk
118. Musk – MuSK is a receptor tyrosine kinase required for the formation and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction. It is activated by a nerve-derived proteoglycan called agrin. Upon activation by its ligand agrin, MuSK signals via the proteins called Casein kinase 2, rapsyn, to induce "clustering" of acetylcholine receptors. In addition to the proteins mentioned, other proteins are then gathered, to form the endplate to the junction. The nerve terminates onto the endplate, thus initiating muscle contraction. Antibodies directed against this protein are found in those patients with myasthenia gravis not demonstrating antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor. In preclinical models of anti-MuSK myasthenia gravis, administration of 3,4-diaminopyridine increases reduces muscle weakness.Musk
119. Pork bellies – Pork belly is a boneless cut of fatty meat from the belly of a pig. Belly is popular in East Asian, European and North American cuisine. This cut of meat is enormously popular in Chinese, Philippine cuisine. In Chinese cuisine, belly is usually diced, browned then slowly braised with skin on, or sometimes marinated and cooked as a whole slab. Belly is used to make Slowly Braised Pork Belly or Dongpo pork in China. In Colombian pork belly strips are fried and served as part of bandeja paisa. In Alsatian cuisine, belly is used to make choucroute garnie. In German cuisine, belly is used to make schlachtplatte. Pancetta is made from belly. In Okinawan cuisine, rafute is traditionally eaten for longevity. Koreans cook Samgyeopsal on a grill with garlic, often accompanied by soju. In Philippine cuisine, belly is marinated in a mixture of crushed garlic, vinegar, salt and pepper before being grilled. It is then served with garlic. Belly prepared this way is called inihaw in Filipino and sinugba in Cebuano. Seasoned belly deep-fried and served chopped into pieces is called lechon kawali.Pork bellies – Uncooked pork belly, with rind (skin)
120. Sheep – The sheep is a quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock. Like all ruminants, sheep are members of the even-toed ungulates. Although the name "sheep" applies in everyday usage it almost always refers to Ovis aries. Numbering a little over billion, domestic sheep are also the most numerous species of sheep. Sheep are most likely descended from the wild mouflon of Europe and Asia. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleece, milk. A sheep's wool is usually harvested by shearing. Ovine meat is mutton when from older ones. Sheep are also occasionally raised for pelts, as dairy animals, or as model organisms for science. Sheep husbandry has been fundamental to many civilizations. In the modern era, Australia, New Zealand, the British Isles are most closely associated with sheep production. Sheepraising has a large lexicon of unique terms which vary considerably by dialect. A group of sheep is called a flock, mob. Many specific terms for the various life stages of sheep exist, generally related to lambing, shearing, age. As livestock, sheep are most often associated with Arcadian imagery.Sheep – Domestic sheep
121. Silk – Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons. The best-known silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity. Generally only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacturing. There has been some research into other types of silk, which differ at the molecular level. Some insects such as webspinners and raspy crickets produce silk throughout their lives. Production also occurs in Hymenoptera, silverfish, mayflies, thrips, leafhoppers, beetles, lacewings, fleas, flies, midges. Other types of arthropod produce most notably various arachnids such as spiders. The silk comes from Old English sioloc, from Greek σηρικός serikos, "silken", ultimately from an Asian source. However, the scale of production was always far smaller for cultivated silks. Thus, the only way to obtain silk suitable for spinning into textiles in areas where commercial silks are not cultivated was by labor-intensive carding. Commercial silks originate from reared pupae, which are bred to produce a white-colored silk thread with no mineral on the surface. The pupae are killed by either dipping them by piercing them with a needle. Wild silks also tend to be more difficult to dye from the cultivated silkworm. Genetic modification of domesticated silkworms is used to facilitate the production of more useful types of silk.Silk – Four of the most important domesticated silk moths. Top to bottom: Bombyx mori, Hyalophora cecropia, Antheraea pernyi, Samia cynthia. From Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (1885–1892)
122. Sponge – Sponges are animals of the phylum Porifera. That often migrate between the main cell layers and the mesohyl in the process. Sponges do not have nervous, circulatory systems. Instead, most rely on maintaining a constant flow through their bodies to obtain food and oxygen and to remove wastes. Sponges are similar to other animals in that they are multicellular, heterotrophic, produce sperm cells. Unlike other animals, they have no body symmetry. Many sponges spicules of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide. All sponges are aquatic animals. Although there are freshwater species, the great majority are marine species, ranging to depths exceeding 8,800 m. A few species of sponge that live in food-poor environments have become carnivores that prey mainly on small crustaceans. The fertilized eggs form larvae which swim off in search of places to settle. Sponges are known for regenerating from fragments that are broken off, although this only works if the fragments include the right types of cells. A few species reproduce by budding. The mesohyl functions as an endoskeleton in most is the only skeleton in soft sponges that encrust hard surfaces such as rocks. More commonly, the mesohyl is stiffened by spongin fibers or both.Sponge
123. Tallow – It is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. Tallow is solid at temperature. In industry, tallow is not strictly defined as beef or fat. In this context, tallow is fat that conforms to certain technical criteria, including its melting point. Tallow is common for commercial tallow to contain fat derived from other animals, such as lard from pigs, or even from plant sources. The diagram to the right shows the chemical structure of a typical molecule. It is used mainly in producing soap and feed. It can be used in much the same way as oils from plants are currently used. Because tallow is derived from animal by-products which have little to no value to commercial food industries, Tallow avoids some of the food vs. debate. The United States Air Force has experimented successfully with the use of tallow in aviation biofuels. A significant use of tallow is for the production of shortening. Tallow is one of the main ingredients of American food called pemmican. It is sometimes used in deep frying in place of other oils. Before switching to pure oil in 1990, the McDonald's corporation cooked its French fries in a mixture of 93 % beef tallow and 7 % cottonseed oil. Many items of traditional goods are produced from tallow, widely available domestically.Tallow – Tallow made by rendering calf suet
124. Wool top – Topmaking mills make wool top, a semi-processed product from raw wool. The process requires that the wool be combed and sorted. The longer fibers resulting from the process are in a form ready for spinning. To be closer to customers, much of the industry has moved to China. British companies produce high quality wool top in Britain from British wool and fibre; most work with the fleece from cleaning it to hand dying.Wool top – Materials
125. Coal – Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon, along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, nitrogen. This involves geological processes that take place over time. The extraction of coal, its byproducts are all associated with environmental and health effects including climate change. Coal is extracted by coal mining. Since 1983, the world's top producer has been China. In 2011 China produced million tonnes of coal -- 49.5 % of 7,695 million tonnes world coal production. In 2011 large producers were United States, India, European Union and Australia. In Old Turkic languages, kül is "cinders", öčür is "quench". The compound "charcoal" in Turkic is kül, literally "quenched ashes, cinders, coals" with elided anlaut ö - and inflection affixes - ülmüş. The word took in the thirteenth century. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in wetland areas. Due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil. As more soil deposited over them, they were compressed.Coal – Anthracite coal
126. Compressed hydrogenCompressed hydrogen – Compressed Hydrogen
127. Ethanol fuel – Ethanol fuel is ethyl alcohol, the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, used as fuel. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline. The first production car running entirely on ethanol was the Fiat 147, introduced in 1978 in Brazil by Fiat. Nowadays, cars are able to run using 100% ethanol fuel or a mix of ethanol and gasoline. It is commonly made from biomass such as corn or sugarcane. World production for fuel tripled to more than 52 × 109 liters. From 2007 to 2008, the share of ethanol in global gasoline type fuel use increased from 3.7% to 5.4%. By December 2011 Brazil had a fleet of million flex-fuel motorcycles that regularly use neat fuel. Bioethanol is a form of quasi-renewable energy that can be produced from agricultural feedstocks. It can be made from very common crops such as corn. There has been considerable debate about how useful bioethanol is in replacing gasoline. Recent developments with cellulosic ethanol production and commercialization may allay some of these concerns. Cellulosic ethanol offers promise because cellulose fibers, a major and universal component in plant cells walls, can be used to produce ethanol. According to the International Energy Agency, cellulosic ethanol could allow ethanol fuels to play a much bigger role in the future. During ethanol fermentation, glucose and other sugars in the corn are converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide.Ethanol fuel – Saab 9-3 SportCombi BioPower. The second E85 flexifuel model introduced by Saab in the Swedish market.
128. Heating oil – Heating oil, or oil heat, is a low viscosity, liquid petroleum product used as a fuel oil for furnaces or boilers in buildings. Home oil is often abbreviated as HHO. Heating oil consists of a mixture of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons in the 14 - to 20-carbon range that condense between 250 and 350 ° C during oil refining. The heavy hydrocarbons condense between 340–400 °C. Heating oil produces 138,500 British thermal units per US gallon and weighs 8.2 pounds per US gallon. Number 2 fuel oil has a flash point of 52 °C. Most heating oil products are chemically very similar to diesel fuel used as motor fuel. This means that the two can often be successfully interchanged at the point of use. However, the taxation of the two differs with heating oil being taxed less than motor fuel. This creates an incentive to buy oil at a lower price and then use it as motor fuel, avoiding the fuel tax. To make enforcement possible, some visual difference or difference must be introduced to the oil. Therefore, red dyes are usually added, resulting in the "red diesel" name in countries like the United Kingdom. In the U.S. the fuel oil red is not taxed for highway use; the dye makes it easy to identify its use in on-road vehicles. Since 2002, Solvent Yellow 124 has been added as a "Euromarker" in the European Union. It is sometimes stored in underground storage tanks but less often than ASTs.Heating oil – Illustration on where the parts of an oil storage tank which require inspection may be located. Tank design may vary from tank to tank.
129. Propane – Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8, a gas, at standard temperature and pressure, but compressible to a transportable liquid. A by-product of natural gas refining, it is commonly used as a fuel for engines, oxy-gas torches, portable stoves, residential central heating. Propane is one of a group of liquefied petroleum gases. The others include butane, propylene, butadiene, mixtures thereof. Propane was first identified in 1910. The volatility of these lighter hydrocarbons caused them to be known as "wild" because of the high vapor pressures of unrefined gasoline. Together, they established the commercial marketer of propane. On March 1913, his method of processing and producing LP gases was issued patent # 1,056,845. A separate method of producing gas through compression was created by its patent granted on July 2, 1912. The 1920s saw increased production of LP gas, with the first year of recorded production totaling 223,000 US gallons in 1922. Major industry developments in the 1930s included the introduction of the construction of local bottle-filling plants. The 1945 marked the first year that annual gas sales reached a billion gallons. By 1947, 62% of all U.S. homes had been equipped with either natural gas or propane for cooking. In 1950, by 1958, sales in the U.S. had reached billion US gallons annually. Propane is produced as a by-product of petroleum refining.Propane – A 20 lb (9.1 kg) steel propane cylinder. This cylinder is fitted with an overfill prevention device (OPD) valve, as evidenced by the trilobular handwheel.
130. Thorium – Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. A actinide metal, thorium is one of only two significantly radioactive elements that still occur naturally in large quantities as a primordial element. A atom has 90 protons and therefore 90 electrons, of which four are valence electrons. Thorium metal is tarnishes black when exposed to air, forming the dioxide. Thorium is weakly radioactive: all its known isotopes are unstable. Thorium is still widely used as an alloying element in TIG welding electrodes. Only a few thorium reactors have yet been completed. Thorium is a soft, paramagnetic, bright silvery radioactive metal. In the periodic table, it is located to the right of the actinide actinium, below the lanthanide cerium. Pure thorium, as normal for metals, can be cold-rolled, swaged, drawn. The properties of thorium vary widely depending on the amount of impurities in the sample: the major impurity is usually dioxide. The purest thorium specimens usually contain about a tenth of a percent of the dioxide. These values lie intermediate between those of its neighbours protactinium, showing the continuity of trends across the early actinides. Thorium's melting point of 1750 ° C is above both that of protactinium. Thorium has a bulk modulus of 54 GPa, comparable to those of scandium.Thorium – Thorium, 90 Th
131. Aluminium – Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, ductile metal. Aluminium is the third most abundant element in its most abundant metal. Aluminium makes up about 8% of the crust by mass, though it is less common in the mantle below. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium is remarkable for its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and structures, such as building facades and window frames. The sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium. Aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of these salts' abundance, studies continue. Aluminium is a relatively soft, durable, lightweight, malleable metal with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness. It does not easily ignite. A fresh film of aluminium serves as an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation.Aluminium – Aluminium, 13 Al
132. Aluminium alloy – Aluminium alloys are alloys in which aluminium is the predominant metal. The typical alloying elements are copper, magnesium, manganese, zinc. There are wrought alloys, both of which are further subdivided into the categories heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable. About 85 % of aluminium is used for example rolled plate, extrusions. Cast aluminium alloys yield cost-effective products due to the low melting point, although they generally have lower tensile strengths than wrought alloys. The most important cast system is Al -- Si, where the high levels of silicon contribute to give good casting characteristics. Aluminium alloys are widely used in engineering components where corrosion resistance is required. Alloys composed mostly of aluminium have been very important in aerospace manufacturing since the introduction of metal-skinned aircraft. Aluminium-magnesium alloys are both lighter than other aluminium alloys and much less flammable than alloys that contain a very high percentage of magnesium. Aluminium alloy surfaces will develop a protective layer of oxide if left unprotected by anodizing and/or correct painting procedures. Referred to as dissimilar-metal corrosion, this process can occur as corrosion. Aluminium alloys can be improperly heat treated. This causes internal element separation, the metal then corrodes from the inside out. Aluminium alloy compositions are registered with The Aluminum Association. Aluminium alloys with a wide range of properties are used in engineering structures.Aluminium alloy – Aluminium alloy bicycle wheel. 1960s Bootie Folding Cycle
133. Cobalt – Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27. Like nickel, cobalt is found in chemically combined form, save for small deposits found in alloys of natural meteoric iron. The free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, silver-gray metal. In 1735, this was ultimately named for the kobold. The belt in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic and Zambia yields most of the cobalt mined worldwide. Cobalt is primarily used in the preparation of magnetic, high-strength alloys. The compounds, cobalt silicate and aluminate give a distinctive deep blue color to glass, ceramics, inks, paints and varnishes. Cobalt occurs naturally as only one isotope, cobalt-59. Cobalt-60 is a commercially important radioisotope, used as a radioactive tracer and for the production of high gamma rays. Cobalt is the active center of coenzymes called cobalamins, the most common example of, vitamin B12. As such, it is an trace dietary mineral for all animals. Cobalt in inorganic form is also a micronutrient for bacteria, algae and fungi. Cobalt is a ferromagnetic metal with a specific gravity of 8.9. The Curie temperature is 1,115 the magnetic moment is 1.6 -- 1.7 Bohr magnetons per atom. Cobalt has a relative permeability two-thirds that of iron.Cobalt – electrolytically refined cobalt chips
134. Copper – Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft, ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. This was the first source of the metal to be used by humans, c. 8000 BC. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris. Decorative art prominently features copper, both in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are also used as bacteriostatic agents, wood preservatives. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In crustaceans copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobin in fish and other vertebrates. In humans, copper is found mainly in the liver, bone. The adult body contains between 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight. Hence a healthy human weighing 60 kilogram contains approximately 0.1 g of copper. However, this small amount is essential to the human well-being. The filled d-shells in these elements contribute little to interatomic interactions, which are dominated through metallic bonds. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in copper are relatively weak.Copper – Native copper (~4 cm in size)
135. Lead – Lead is a chemical element with atomic number 82 and symbol Pb. It is a malleable, heavy metal. Lead's density of 11.34 g/cm3 exceeds that of most common materials. Lead has the second highest atomic number of all practically stable elements. Lead is relatively inert unless powdered. Its weakened metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature: it and its oxides react with both acids and bases. It also displays a marked tendency toward covalent bonding. Its compounds are most commonly found unlike the lighter group 14 elements. Exceptions are mostly limited to organolead compounds, where the positive charge on lead is stabilized. Like 14 elements, lead shows a tendency to bond to itself, forming complicated chain, ring, or polyhedral structures. The metal was known to prehistoric people in Western Asia. While its dullness prevented it from high demand, galena -- a principle ore of lead -- often bore silver in it, which helped initiate production of lead. Lead became easily available to common people. After the fall of Rome, those of Rome were not surpassed anywhere until as late as the Industrial Revolution. Lead has several properties that make it advantageous to use, alongside its commonness: relative inertness against oxygen attack.Lead – Lead, 82 Pb
136. Molybdenum – Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42. The name is from lead, since its ores were confused with lead ores. Molybdenum minerals have been known throughout history, but the element was discovered in 1778 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. The metal was first isolated in 1781 by Peter Jacob Hjelm. Molybdenum does not occur naturally as a free metal on Earth; it is found only in various oxidation states in minerals. The free element, a silvery metal with a gray cast, has the sixth-highest melting point of any element. When molybdenum-bearing minerals contact water, the molybdate ion MoO2 − 4 is quite soluble. Industrially, molybdenum compounds are used in high-pressure and high-temperature applications as pigments and catalysts. Molybdenum-bearing enzymes are by far the most bacterial catalysts for breaking the chemical bond in molecular nitrogen in the process of biological fixation. At least 50 molybdenum enzymes are now known in animals, although cyanobacterial enzymes are involved in nitrogen fixation. These nitrogenases contain molybdenum in a form different from other molybdenum enzymes, which all contain fully oxidized molybdenum in a molybdenum cofactor. In its pure form, molybdenum is a silvery-grey metal with a Mohs hardness of 5.5. It has a melting point of ° C; of the naturally occurring elements, only tantalum, osmium, carbon have higher melting points. Weak oxidation of molybdenum starts at 300 °C. It has one of the lowest coefficients of thermal expansion among commercially used metals.Molybdenum – Molybdenum, 42 Mo
137. Nickel – Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a golden tinge. Nickel is hard and ductile. Meteoric nickel is found in combination as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis. An iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose Earth's inner core. Use of nickel has been traced as back as 3500 BCE. Nickel was first classified as a chemical element in 1751 by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who initially mistook the ore for a copper mineral. The element's name comes from a mischievous sprite of Nickel, that personified the fact that copper-nickel ores resisted refinement into copper. An economically important source of nickel is the iron limonite, which often contains 1 -- 2 % nickel. Nickel's important ore minerals include garnierite, pentlandite. Major production sites include the Sudbury region in Canada, Norilsk in Russia. Nickel is considered corrosion-resistant. About 6 % of world production is still used for corrosion-resistant pure-nickel plating. Nickel-plated objects sometimes provoke nickel allergy. Nickel has been widely used in coins, though its rising price has led to some replacement with cheaper metals in recent years.Nickel – Nickel, 28 Ni
138. Steel – Steel's metal is iron, able to take on two crystalline forms, body centered cubic and face centered cubic, depending on its temperature. It is the interaction of those allotropes with the alloying elements, primarily carbon, that gives their range of unique properties. The carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.1% of its weight. Steel's strength compared to pure iron is only possible at the expense of iron's ductility, of which iron has an excess. With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, a new era of mass-produced steel began. This was followed by Siemens-Martin process and then Gilchrist-Thomas process that refined the quality of steel. With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron. Steel is one of the most common materials in the world, with more than 1.3 billion tons produced annually. It is a major component in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, weapons. Modern steel is generally identified by various grades defined by assorted organizations. The steel originates from the Proto-Germanic adjective stakhlijan, related to stakhla. The content of steel is between 0.002 % and 2.1 % by weight for plain iron -- carbon alloys. These values vary depending on alloying elements such as manganese, chromium, nickel, iron, carbon and so on. Basically, steel is an iron-carbon alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction. In contrast, iron does undergo eutectic reaction.Steel – The steel cable of a colliery winding tower
139. Tin – Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50, is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table. It is obtained chiefly from the cassiterite, which contains tin dioxide, SnO2. Metallic tin is not easily oxidized in air. The first alloy used on a large scale was bronze, made of copper, from as early as 3000 BC. After 600 BC, metallic tin was produced. In modern times, tin is used in most notably tin/lead soft solders, which are typically 60 % or more tin. Another large application for tin is corrosion-resistant plating of steel. Inorganic tin compounds are rather non-toxic. Tin is a ductile and highly crystalline silvery-white metal. When a bar of tin is bent, a crackling sound known as the "cry" can be heard from the twinning of the crystals. Tin melts at the lowest in group 14. The point is further lowered to 177.3 ° C for 11 nm particles. β-tin, stable above room temperature, is malleable. In contrast, α-tin, stable below 13.2 °C, is brittle. α-tin has a diamond cubic crystal structure, similar to diamond, silicon or germanium.Tin – left: white, beta, β; right: gray, alpha, α
140. Zinc – Zinc is a chemical element with the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table. Zinc has five stable isotopes. The most common ore is sphalerite, a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest workable lodes are in Australia, the United States. Zinc is refined by froth flotation of the ore, final extraction using electricity. The mines of Rajasthan have given definite evidence of production going back to the 6th century BC. Alchemists burned zinc in air to form what they called "white snow". The element was probably named after the German word Zinke. German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is credited with discovering metallic zinc in 1746. Work by Alessandro Volta uncovered the electrochemical properties of zinc by 1800. Corrosion-resistant plating of iron is the major application for zinc. Other applications are in electrical batteries, alloys such as brass. Zinc is an essential mineral perceived by the public today as being of "exceptional biologic and public importance", especially regarding prenatal and postnatal development. Zinc deficiency is associated with many diseases.Zinc – Zinc, 30 Zn
141. Palladium – Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46. It is a lustrous silvery-white metal discovered by William Hyde Wollaston. He named it after the asteroid Pallas, itself named after the epithet of the Greek goddess Athena, acquired by her when she slew Pallas. A group of elements referred as the platinum group metals. Palladium is the least dense of them. Palladium is also used in electronics, dentistry, medicine, hydrogen purification, jewelry. Palladium is a key component of fuel cells, which react hydrogen with oxygen to produce water. Ore deposits of palladium and other PGMs are rare. Recycling is also a source, mostly from scrapped catalytic converters. Limited supply sources result in considerable interest. Palladium belongs to group 10 in the periodic table, but the configuration in the outermost electron shells is atypical for group 10. Fewer electron shells are filled than the elements directly preceding it. The valence shell has eighteen electrons -- ten more than the eight found from onward. Palladium is a soft silver-white metal that resembles platinum. It has the lowest point of the platinum group metals.Palladium – Palladium, 46 Pd
142. Platinum – Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78. Platinum is malleable, highly unreactive, gray-white metal. Its name is derived from the Spanish term platina, translated into "little silver". Platinum is a member of the platinum group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of elements. It has six naturally occurring isotopes. It is one of the rarer elements in Earth's crust with an average abundance of approximately 5 μg/kg. It occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits, mostly in South Africa, which accounts for 80% of the world production. Platinum is one of the least reactive metals. It has remarkable resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures, is therefore considered a noble metal. Consequently, platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum. Because it occurs naturally in the alluvial sands of various rivers, it was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts. It is used in catalytic converters, jewelry. Compounds containing platinum, such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin, are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer. Pure platinum is a lustrous, ductile, malleable, silver-white metal. Platinum is more ductile than gold, silver or copper, thus being the most ductile of pure metals, but it is less malleable than gold.Platinum – Platinum, 78 Pt
143. Commodity market – A commodity market is a market that trades in primary economic sector rather than manufactured products. Soft commodities are agricultural products such as wheat, coffee, sugar. Hard commodities are mined, such as oil. Investors access about 50 major commodity markets worldwide with purely financial transactions increasingly outnumbering physical trades in which goods are delivered. Futures contracts are the oldest way of investing in commodities. Futures are secured by physical assets. Commodity markets can include physical trading and derivatives trading using spot prices, forwards, options on futures. Farmers have used a simple form of derivative trading for centuries for price risk management. A financial derivative is a financial instrument whose value is derived from a commodity termed an underlier. Derivatives are either over-the-counter. Derivatives such as futures contracts, Swaps, forward contracts have become the primary trading instruments in commodity markets. Futures are traded on regulated exchanges. Over-the-counter contracts are "privately negotiated bilateral contracts entered into between the contracting parties directly". Exchange-traded funds began to feature commodities in 2003. Commodity-based commodity markets in a crude early form are believed to have originated in Sumer between 4500 BC and 4000 BC.Commodity market – Financial markets
144. Futures contract – In finance, a futures contract is a standardized forward contract which can be easily traded between parties other than the two initial parties to the contract. Because it is a function of an underlying asset, a futures contract is a derivative product. Contracts are negotiated at exchanges, which act as a marketplace between buyers and sellers. The selling party is said to be short position holder. In gold futures trading, the margin varies between 2 % and 20 % depending on the volatility of the spot market. Later futures contracts were negotiated for natural resources such as oil. The Chicago Board of Trade listed the first-ever ` exchange traded' forward contracts in 1864, which were called futures contracts. The world's first financial futures exchange, launched currency futures. In 1976, in 1982 they added stock market index futures. Although futures contract are oriented towards a future point, their main purpose is to mitigate risk of default by either party in the intervening period. In this vein, the futures exchange requires both parties to put up a performance bond, known as the margin. This process is known as marking to market. Thus on the date, the amount exchanged is not the specified price on the contract but the spot value. Upon marketing the price is often reached and creates lots of income for the "caller." To minimize risk to the exchange, traders must post a margin or a performance bond, typically 5 % -15 % of the contract's value.Futures contract – Finance
145. Futures exchange – These types of contracts fall into the category of derivatives. Futures instruments are priced according to the movement of the underlying asset. The aforementioned category is named "derivatives" because the value of these instruments are derived from another class. Hedging appears to drive most commodity markets. The equilibrium futures price can be either below or above the expected price... Rollover hedges can extend insurance from short-horizon contracts over longer periods." Around 1750 BC, the sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, created one of the first legal codes: the Code of Hammurabi. The code facilitated the first derivatives, in the form of forward and contracts. An active derivatives market existed, with trading carried out at temples. One of the earliest written records of futures trading is in Aristotle's Politics. He tells the story of Thales, a poor philosopher from Miletus who developed a "financial device, which involves a principle of universal application". Thales predicted that the olive harvest would be exceptionally good the next autumn. The modern organized futures exchange began in 1710 at the Dojima Rice Exchange in Osaka, Japan. Before the exchange was created, business was conducted by traders in London coffee houses using a makeshift ring drawn in chalk on the floor. At only copper was traded. Lead and zinc only gained official trading status in 1920.Futures exchange – Financial markets
146. List of commodities exchanges – A commodities exchange is an exchange where various commodities and derivatives products are traded. Most commodity markets across the trade in agricultural products and other raw materials and contracts based on them. These contracts can include spot prices, forwards, options on futures. Sophisticated products may include interest rates, environmental instruments, swaps, or ocean freight contracts. Exchanges usually trade futures contracts on commodities, such as trading contracts to receive something, say corn, in a certain month. This protects the buyer from price rises. Investors also buy and sell the futures contracts in attempt to make a profit and provide liquidity to the system. However, due to the financial leverage provided by the exchange, commodity futures traders face a substantial risk. Main commodity exchanges worldwide: Commodity market Commodity trading in private electronic markets List of futures exchanges List of traded commoditiesList of commodities exchanges – The floor of the Chicago Board of Trade, a major commodities exchange in the United States.
148. Commodification of nature – Theorists use a framing in order to contest the perspectives of "market environmentalism," which sees marketization as a solution to environmental degradation. Undesirable physical and ethical consequences brought about by the commodification of natural resources and processes. Commodification itself is a process by which services not produced for sale are converted into an exchangeable form. It involves multiple elements, including privatization, alienation, individuation, abstraction, displacement. Nature, as a concept, however, is very difficult to define, with many layers including external environments as well as humans themselves. The commodification of nature has its origins in the rise of capitalism. The ideological aspect of this process, was closely bound to questions of the environment. Privatization was presented by thinkers like Bentham, Locke and Malthus. Marxists define capitalism as a socio-economic system whose central goal is the accumulation of more wealth through the exchange of commodities. While the form is not unique to capitalism, in it economic production is motivated increasingly by exchange. Competition provides constant pressure for growth in a "restless and unstable process," making the system expansionary and "tendentially all-encompassing." Since the late 1980s, an ideology of "environmentalism" has gained prominence within environmental policy. Such a perspective is based in economic theory, which sees degradation as a result of the absence of prices in environmental goods. A neoliberal approach constructs nature as a "currency" valued in international markets and given "the opportunity to earn its own right to survive." This "selling nature to save it" approach requires economic valuation -- either indirectly, as through direct commodification.Commodification of nature – Commodification as an integrated process of "stretching" and "deepening"
149. Heritage commodification – These cultural aspects of heritage become "cultural goods"; transformed into commodities to be bought, sold and profited from in the heritage tourism industry. Modern tourism reproduces an economic dynamic, dependent upon capital from tourists and corporations in creating sustained viability. Tourism is often directly tied to economic development, so many populations see globalization as providing increased access to important commodities. The expansion will probably continue well into the future. There were nearly billion tourist arrivals in 2008, compared to only twenty-five million in 1950. Moreover, in 2008, tourism directly accounted for nearly trillion US dollars. A similar proportion of people are employed in the tourism industry. This "reconstruction of ethnicity" becomes important, because locals tend to act out cultural behaviors that they believe would satisfy tourists most. The local populations play on stereotypes that Westerners seek to perform them as best they can to satisfy the consumer demand. In the village of San Jose Succotz in Belize, local Mayan populations had given up many of their traditional traditions. Traditional Maya “de-ethnicize” urban Maya people as a strategy to keep their traditional ways of life intact. This one anthropologist believes that the traditional Maya fear the urbanization of Maya people because of the cultural commodification that often accompanies the industry. This potential commodification is seen as detrimental to Maya ways of life, mostly by anthropologists who carry a negative ideological perspective on tourism. In contrast, there are examples throughout Yucatán and Quintana Roo where Maya people are heavily involved in tourism sector in positive and willing ways. While the Maya people are not required to engage in the industry, tourism often incorporates entire Maya towns and marketplaces.Heritage commodification – Statue of a Sphinx at the Musée du Louvre, Paris, France.
150. Value (economics) – Economic value is a measure of the benefit provided by a good or service to an economic agent. Note that economic value is economic value the same thing as market value. If a consumer is willing to buy a good, it implies that the customer places a higher value on the good than the market price. The difference between the value to the market price is called "consumer surplus". It is easy to see situations where the actual value is considerably larger than the price: purchase of drinking water is one example. The economic value of a service has puzzled economists since the beginning of the discipline. First, economists tried to extend that definition to goods which can be exchanged. From this analysis came the concepts value in exchange. Value is linked through the mechanism of exchange. When an economist observes an exchange, two important value functions are revealed: those of the seller. Value is how much a desired object or condition is worth relative to other objects or conditions. The metrics are the subject of a "Theory of Value." Value theories are a large part of the disagreements between the various schools of economic theory. This is determined primarily by the demand for the relative to supply in a perfectly competitive market. Many economic theories equate the value of a commodity with its price, whether the market is competitive or not.Value (economics) – Value or Price
151. Exchange value – "Exchange Value" is a short story written by Charles R. Johnson. Bailey, who only leaves her apartment at night to ask for food handouts, is a Indian woman with all the appearances of a beggar. Upon breaking from her side window, the brothers first have to bypass several surprising booby traps: boxes of glass set beside the window. In addition to the easily transported items like money was a nearly complete "Model A Ford," two pianos, multiple sections of a deceased tree, trash. Loftis takes Cooter into Bailey's bedroom where they find Bailey dead and grotesquely being consumed by maggots and a single rat. Cooter feels excited at the new future this property gives his brother, how they are set for life. Cooter takes off and explores the city in celebration as Loftis unusually stays home, appearing thoughtful. Loftis additionally had taken trash into their apartment, takes off for work, even though the two have stolen almost 900,000 dollars in cash. After Loftis leaves for work, Cooter watches as Miss Bailey's death watches as they depart with her corpse. Loftis does not come home at the normal time actually doesn't come home for several days. Finally, four days after Loftis left for work, he returns home, with a haunted look, stumbling into his bedroom. Walking after him, Cooter finds his face haunted. Beside his bedstand Cooter finds a single penny wrapped in a newspaper with the words “Found while walking down Devon Avenue.” However, by refusing to sacrifice any of the money to pursue that future, they sacrifice the "future," they have been desiring. Given the opportunity to change their lives, the brothers refuse to do so, fearing that they will waste their one chance.Exchange value
152. Use value – Use value or value in use is the utility of consuming a good—the want-satisfying power of a good or service in classical political economy. The use-value of a product therefore exists as a reality vis-a-vis social needs regardless of the individual need of any particular person. Use-value as an aspect of the commodity coincides with the physical existence of the commodity. Wheat, for example, is a distinct use-value differing from the use-values of cotton, paper, etc.. A use-value is realized only in the process of consumption. The same use-value can be used in various ways. But the extent of its possible application is limited as an object with distinct properties. Marx is, moreover, determined only qualitatively but also quantitatively. Different use-values have different measures appropriate to their physical characteristics; for example, a bushel of wheat, a yard of linen. Whatever its social form may be, wealth always consists of use-values, which in the first instance are not affected by this form. From the taste of wheat Marx is not possible to tell who produced it, a Russian serf, an English capitalist. Although use-values therefore exist within the social framework, they do not express the social relations of production. For instance, let us take as a use-value a commodity such as a diamond. We cannot tell by looking at it that the diamond is a commodity. It is immaterial to the use-value whether it is a commodity.Use value – World GDP (PPP) per capita by country (2014)
153. Gold rush – A gold rush is a new discovery of gold that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune. The wealth that resulted was distributed widely of reduced migration costs and low barriers to entry. The merchants and transportation facilities made large profits. The resulting increase in the world's gold supply stimulated global investment. Historians have written extensively about the migration, trade, environmental history associated with gold rushes. Gold rushes helped spur a huge immigration that often led to permanent settlement of new regions. Activities propelled by gold rushes define significant aspects of the culture of the Australian and North American frontiers. At a time when the world's supply was based on gold, the newly mined gold provided economic stimulus far beyond the gold fields. Within each rush there is typically a transition through progressively higher capital expenditures, larger organizations, more specialized knowledge. They may also progress to lower unit value minerals. A rush typically begins with the discovery of gold made by an individual. At first the gold may gravel by individual miners with little training, using a gold pan or similar simple instrument. After the sluice-box stage, mining may become increasingly large scale, requiring larger organisations and higher capital expenditures. Small claims mined by individuals may need to be merged into larger tracts. Difficult-to-reach placer deposits may be mined by tunnels.Gold rush – Sailing to California at the beginning of the Gold Rush
154. Pike's Peak Gold Rush – An estimated 100,000 gold seekers took part in one of the greatest gold rushes in North American history. But in fact the location of the Pike's Peak Gold Rush was 85 miles north of Pike's Peak. It was only named Pike's Peak Gold Rush because of how well important Pike's Peak was. The prospectors provided the major European-American population in the region. The rush created a few mining camps such as Boulder City that would develop into cities. Many smaller camps such as Saint Charles City were absorbed by larger camps and towns. Quite a few camps such as Central City, Black Hawk, Georgetown, Idaho Springs survive. For many years people had suspected the mountains had rich gold deposits. In 1835, a French trapper by the name of Eustace Carriere had wandered through the mountains for many weeks. During these weeks he found many gold specimens which he later took back to New Mexico for examination. Upon examination, they turned out to be "pure gold". The discoveries were not reported for several years. As the hysteria of the California Gold Rush faded, discouraged gold seekers returned home. Several small parties explored the region. William Greeneberry "Green" Russell was a Georgian who worked in the 1850s.Pike's Peak Gold Rush – Gold prospectors in the Rocky Mountains of western Kansas Territory.
155. Fraser Canyon Gold Rush – The rush is credited with instigating European-Canadian settlement on the mainland of British Columbia. It was the catalyst for the founding of the Colony of British Columbia, the founding of many towns. People in the California gold fields greeted the news with excitement. Within a month 30,000 men had descended upon Victoria. Until that time, the village had had a population of about 500. Many returned to San Francisco. Thousands came overland anyway. Accurate numbers of miners, especially on the upper Fraser, are therefore difficult to reckon. This included Maritimers such as Amor De Cosmos and others. The numbers of "Americans" associated with the gold rush must be understood to be inherently European-ethnic to start with. Anglo-American Southerners and New Englanders were well represented. This estimate did not include the non-mining "hangers-on" population. Moody arrived in British Columbia in December 1858, commanding the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment. This led to an incident popularly known as "Ned McGowan's War", where Moody successfully quashed a group of American miners. During the fall of 1858, tensions increased between the First Nations people of the Canyon.Fraser Canyon Gold Rush – The New Eldorado: "A Complete View of the Newly Discovered Goldfields"
156. Cariboo Gold Rush – The Cariboo Gold Rush was a gold rush in the Colony of British Columbia, which later became part of the Canadian province of British Columbia. By 1865, following the strikes along Williams Creek, the rush was in full swing. Several towns grew up, the most famous of these being Barkerville, now preserved as a heritage attraction. Richfield was the first strike on Williams Creek, became the seat of government in the region, particularly of the courts. Connected to Barkerville via the canyon of Williams Creek, Richfield became part of "Greater Barkerville" along with Cameron Town. Unlike its southern counterpart, the population of the Cariboo Gold Rush was largely British and Canadian, although the first wave of the rush was largely American. Towns along the Cariboo Road include Williams Lake, although most had their beginnings before the Cariboo rush began. The road's most important freight was the Gold Escort, which brought government bullion to the colonial treasury. Cariboo Runaway, by Sandy Frances Duncan, is set during the Cariboo Gold Rush. Scholefield, British Columbia Historical Association pp. 165-178Cariboo Gold Rush – Barkerville (1865), shown rebuilt after the Great Fire, with its new, straightened and wider, Main Street. The creek in the foreground is Williams Creek, which is paralleled by Main Street throughout.
157. Omineca Gold Rush – The Omineca Gold Rush was a gold rush in British Columbia, Canada in the Omineca region of the Northern Interior of the province. The rush didn't begin until late in 1869 with the discovery at Vital Creek. The recorded gold discovery in the Omineca district was made by William Cust and Edward Cary in the summer of 1861. The two men had returned in the fall with 60 ounces of gold between them. Despite such a small return for a summer filled with hardship, they returned the following year with a group of more than twenty prospectors. In later years, some of these men would make major gold discoveries in the region, notably, Peter Toy. Along the Finlay River they named it Toy's Bar after Peter Toy. The bar would yield a day for each man. Another group of men on the Parsnip River, discovered 60 ounces of gold. To make matters worse, supplies were scarce. Many prospectors had to return to their homes in defeat. McDame's Creek was named in his honor. Along the way they discovered what they initially was actually arquerite, an amalgam of native silver and mercury. They named the creek where they made Silver Creek. The four miners appealed for funds to explore the Omineca area the following year.Omineca Gold Rush – Sluice Box
158. Victorian gold rush – The Victorian gold rush was a period in the history of Victoria, Australia approximately between 1851 and the late 1860s. Victoria's greatest yield for one year was in 1856, when 3,053,744 troy ounces of gold were won from the diggings. From 1851 to 1896 the Victorian Mines Department reported that a total of 61,034,682 oz of gold was mined in Victoria. Gold was first discovered in Australia on 15 February 1823, at Fish River, between Rydal and Bathurst. The find was not pursued for policy reasons. Gold discoveries in Beechworth, Ballarat and Bendigo sparked gold rushes similar to the California Gold Rush. At its peak some two tonnes of gold per week flowed in Melbourne. Melbourne was a major boomtown during the gold rush. The city became the centre of the colony with rail networks radiating to the regional ports. Politically, Victoria's goldminers introduced secret ballots, based on Chartist principles. As gold dwindled, pressures for land reform, political reform grew and generated social struggles. A Land Convention in Melbourne during 1857 demanded reform. Melbourne became one of the great cities of the world. Following the huge gold rushes were the Chinese in 1854. In short, the gold rush was reshaped Victoria, its society and politics.Victorian gold rush – Nerrena Fossickers in Nerrena Creek outside Ballarat
159. New South Wales gold rush – New South Wales experienced the first gold rush in Australia, a period generally accepted to lie between 1851 and 1880. The California Gold Rush three years prior signaled the impacts on society that fever would produce, both positive and negative. Various factors changed the policy. Gold was first officially discovered by assistant surveyor James McBrien, at Fish River, between Rydal and Bathurst. McBrien noted in his field book "At E. 1 chain 50 links to river and marked a gum tree. At this place I found numerous particles of gold convenient to river". The finds were suppressed by the colonial government to avoid a likely dislocation of the relatively small community. Reportedly Governor George Gipps said to Clarke when he exhibited his gold; "we shall all have our throats cut." Recent evidence shows another find in 1848 was also kept quiet until the government was ready to exploit the resource. The goldrush started in 1848 and immediately people began to leave Australia for California. To stem the exodus the New South Wales colonial government decided to encourage the search for payable gold. In 1849 the colonial government sought approval of the Colonial Office in England to allow the exploitation of the mineral resources of New South Wales. This led to the appointment of Samuel Stutchbury. A reward was offered for the first person to find payable gold. The discovery of gold was the discovery that changed a nation.New South Wales gold rush – A mine at Gulgong, NSW 1871-1875
160. Western Australian gold rushes – Significant finds included: Halls Creek in 1885, found by Charles Hall and Jack Slattery. Triggered the "Kimberley gold rush". Near Southern Cross in 1887, found by the party of Harry Francis Anstey. The "Yilgarn gold rush". Cue in 1891, found by Tom Cue. The "Murchison gold rush". Coolgardie by William Ford. Kalgoorlie by Patrick "Paddy" Hannan, Dan Shea. A small rush at Nundamurrah Pool, on the Greenough River, near Mullewa, east of Geraldton occurred in August 1893. Capital works, including roads and railways and in 1896, construction of the ambitious Goldfields Water Supply Scheme, came about on the back of the gold rushes. The population in Western Australia in 1891 was 49,782. By 1895 it had doubled to 100,515, by 1901 was 184,124. The far-reaching nature of the excitement drew men in 1895. There was a total of 29,523 immigrants in 1895, while the emigration amounted to 11,129, leaving Western Australia the gainer by 18,394 persons. The population of the colony in 1895 was 101,235, made up of 69,727 males and 31,508 females.Western Australian gold rushes – Western Australian population growth between 1880 and 1897.
161. Gold mining – The graves of the necropolis were built between 4200 BC, indicating that mining could be at least 7000 years old. Bronze age gold objects are plentiful, especially in Ireland and Spain, there are several well known possible sources. The mines may have been leased to some time later. Gold was a prime motivation for the campaign in Dacia when the Romans invaded Transylvania in what is now modern Romania in the second century AD. Their exploits are shown on the several reproductions of the column elsewhere. Under the Eastern Roman Empire Emperor Justinian's rule, gold was mined in the Balkans, Anatolia, Armenia, Egypt, Nubia. The Champion reef at the Kolar gold fields was mined during the Gupta period in the fifth AD. During the Chola period in the 10th AD, the scale of the operation grew. It is estimated that the total gold production in Karnataka to date is 1000 tons. The mining of the Slovak deposit primarily around Kremnica was the largest of the Medieval period in Europe. The discovery of gold in the Witwatersrand led to the Second Boer War and ultimately the founding of South Africa. The Carlin Trend of Nevada, U.S. was discovered in 1961. Despite the decreasing gold content of ores, the production is increasing. This can be achieved with industrial installations, new process, like hydrometallurgy. Placer mining is the technique by which gold that has accumulated in a placer deposit is extracted.Gold mining – Super Pit gold mine in Western Australia