List of countries by GDP (PPP)

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For countries by nominal GDP, see List of countries by GDP (nominal).
Largest economies by GDP PPP in 2017.
According to International Monetary Fund estimates.[1]
The top ten largest economies by GDP (PPP)

This article includes a list of countries by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.[2] Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. The GDP dollar (INT$) data given on this page are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations.

Comparisons using PPP are arguably more useful than nominal when assessing a nation's domestic market because PPP takes into account the relative cost of local goods, services and inflation rates of the country, rather than using international market exchange rates which may distort the real differences in per capita income.[3] It is however limited when measuring financial flows between countries.[4] PPP is often used to gauge global poverty thresholds and is used by the United Nations in constructing the human development index.[3] These surveys such as the International Comparison Program include both tradable and non-tradable goods in an attempt to estimate a representative basket of all goods.[3]

The first table includes estimates for the year 2016, for all current 187 International Monetary Fund (IMF) members, as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan (the official list uses "Taiwan, Province of China"). Data are in millions of international dollars and were calculated by the IMF. Figures were published in April 2015. The second table includes data mostly for the year 2015 for 180 of the 193 current United Nations member states, as well as the two Chinese Special Administrative Regions (Hong Kong and Macau). Data are in billions of international dollars and were compiled by the World Bank. The third table is a tabulation of the CIA World Factbook Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Purchasing Power Parity) data update of 2016. The data for GDP at purchasing power parity have also been rebased using the new International Comparison Program price surveys and extrapolated to 2007.

Lists[edit]

Click on one of the small triangles in the headings to re-order the list according to that category.

List by the International Monetary Fund (Estimates for 2017)[5] List by the World Bank (2015)[6] List by the CIA World Factbook (1993–2016)[7]
Rank Country GDP
(millions of Int$)
 World 125,773,760
1  China 23,066,062
 European Union[n 1] 20,745,308
2  United States 19,377,145
3  India 9,585,371
4  Japan 5,066,064
5  Germany 4,122,402
6  Russia 3,866,330
7  Brazil 3,817,990
8  Indonesia 3,756,730
9  United Kingdom 3,077,510
10  France 3,000,150
11  Mexico 2,410,950
12  Italy 2,289,578
13  Turkey 2,204,510
14  Saudi Arabia 2,145,419
15  South Korea 2,029,861
16  Spain 1,763,430
17  Canada 1,742,660
18  Iran 1,551,110
19  Thailand 1,246,640
20  Australia 1,225,090
21  Egypt 1,173,360
22  Taiwan 1,168,780
23  Nigeria 1,119,520
24  Poland 1,111,010
25  Pakistan 1,059,900
26  Argentina 924,481
27  Malaysia 922,894
28  Netherlands 898,732
29  Philippines 873,966
30  South Africa 758,123
31  Colombia 724,167
32  United Arab Emirates 698,534
33  Bangladesh 686,162
34  Vietnam 645,333
35  Algeria 640,601
36  Iraq 612,329
37  Belgium 526,616
38  Sweden 522,233
39   Switzerland 511,615
40  Singapore 508,449
41  Kazakhstan 473,239
42  Romania 467,436
43  Venezuela 457,134
44  Chile 454,344
45  Hong Kong 444,653
46  Peru 435,881
47  Austria 429,876
48  Norway 376,990
49  Czech Republic 367,965
50  Ukraine 366,315
51  Qatar 353,143
52  Myanmar 342,205
53  Ireland 341,883
54  Kuwait 315,582
55  Israel 312,409
56  Portugal 306,762
57  Greece 304,933
58  Morocco 302,674
59  Hungary 280,058
60  Denmark 274,433
61  Sri Lanka 255,039
62  Finland 237,484
63  Uzbekistan 218,933
64  Angola 194,080
65  Ethiopia 191,879
66  Sudan 186,390
67  New Zealand 183,431
68  Oman 181,407
69  Ecuador 181,306
70  Slovak Republic 178,372
71  Azerbaijan 173,945
72  Dominican Republic 171,709
73  Belarus 168,068
74  Kenya 165,591
75  Tanzania 165,005
76  Bulgaria 150,266
77  Guatemala 140,249
78  Tunisia 137,380
79  Ghana 132,487
80  Puerto Rico 131,849
81  Croatia[n 2] 127,397
82  Serbia 106,537
83  Libya 105,588
84  Turkmenistan 102,013
85  Panama 100,639
86  Syria 98,281
87  Côte d'Ivoire 96,092
88  Uganda 91,543
89  Jordan 90,904
90  Lithuania 90,240
91  Lebanon 88,730
92  Yemen 84,489
93  Costa Rica 84,398
94  Bolivia 83,154
95  Cameroon 82,205
96  Uruguay 76,423
97    Nepal 76,016
98  Democratic Republic of the Congo 70,294
99  Zambia 69,205
100  Bahrain 68,992
101  Slovenia 68,770
102  Paraguay 67,875
103  Afghanistan 67,681
104  Macau 64,735
105  Cambodia 64,365
106  Luxembourg 61,879
107  El Salvador 57,305
108  Latvia 53,710
109  Honduras 45,744
110  Trinidad and Tobago 45,522
111  Laos 44,880
112  Bosnia and Herzegovina 44,832
113  Senegal 43,347
114  Mali 40,909
115  Estonia 40,519
116  Georgia 40,157
117  Madagascar 40,029
118  Botswana 38,790
119  Gabon 38,660
120  Mozambique 38,055
121  Mongolia 37,805
122  Albania 36,241
123  Brunei Darussalam 35,817
124  Burkina Faso 35,680
125  Nicaragua 35,675
126  Republic of Congo 32,467
127  Macedonia 31,851
128  Chad 31,768
129  Equatorial Guinea 30,566
130  Cyprus 30,550
131  Papua New Guinea 29,468
132  Namibia 29,069
133  Zimbabwe 28,203
134  Armenia 28,053
135  Tajikistan 27,550
136  Mauritius 27,434
137  Jamaica 26,452
138  Benin 26,177
139  Rwanda 23,788
140  Malawi 22,658
141  Kyrgyz Republic 21,956
142  Niger 21,742
143  Haiti 20,415
144  South Sudan 20,038
145  Kosovo 19,515
146  Moldova 19,505
147  Mauritania 17,810
148  Malta 17,228
149  Guinea 17,154
150  Iceland 17,114
151  Togo 12,451
152  Swaziland 11,405
153  Sierra Leone 11,403
154  Montenegro 11,234
155  Eritrea 9,671
156  Bahamas 9,352
157  Fiji 8,888
158  Suriname 8,774
159  Burundi 8,223
160  Bhutan 6,991
161  Guyana 6,477
162  Lesotho 6,384
163  Maldives 5,747
164  Barbados 4,991
165  Timor-Leste 4,603
166  Liberia 4,123
167  Cabo Verde 3,807
168  Djibouti 3,656
169  The Gambia 3,574
170  Central African Republic 3,454
171  Belize 3,235
172  Guinea-Bissau 3,058
173  Seychelles 2,757
174  Antigua and Barbuda 2,271
175  St. Lucia 2,168
176  San Marino 2,091
177  Grenada 1,585
178  St. Kitts and Nevis 1,509
179  Comoros 1,329
180  St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1,299
181  Solomon Islands 1,264
182  Samoa 1,084
183  Dominica 854
184  Vanuatu 772
185  São Tomé and Príncipe 745
186  Tonga 583
187  Micronesia 323
188  Palau 296
189  Kiribati 221
190  Marshall Islands 187
191  Tuvalu 41
Rank Country GDP
(millions of Int$)
 World 114,212,979
1  China 19,524,348
 European Union[n 1] 19,137,699
2  United States 17,946,996
3  India 7,982,528
4  Japan 4,738,294
5  Germany 3,799,826
6  Russia 3,579,826
7  Brazil 3,198,898
8  Indonesia 2,842,241
9  United Kingdom 2,691,809
10  France 2,650,823
11  Mexico 2,194,431
12  Italy 2,182,580
13  South Korea 1,748,776
14  Saudi Arabia 1,685,204
15  Spain 1,602,660
16  Canada 1,588,596
17  Turkey 1,543,284
18  Iran 1,357,025
19  Thailand 1,108,108
20  Nigeria 1,091,698
21  Australia 1,082,380
22  Egypt 996,638
23  Poland 993,129
24  Pakistan 952,505
25  Netherlands 820,726
26  Malaysia 815,645
27  Philippines 741,029
28  South Africa 723,516
29  Colombia 665,594
30  United Arab Emirates 643,166
31  Algeria 582,598
32  Venezuela 554,329
33  Vietnam 552,297
34  Iraq 542,520
35  Bangladesh 536,567
36   Switzerland 501,653
37  Belgium 496,477
38  Singapore 471,631
39  Sweden 454,868
40  Kazakhstan 453,981
41  Romania 424,474
 Hong Kong 414,376
42  Austria 411,818
43  Chile 400,534
44  Peru 389,147
45  Czech Republic 339,402
46  Ukraine 339,155
47  Qatar 321,418
48  Norway 319,401
49  Portugal 302,329
50  Israel 296,931
51  Greece 288,778
52  Kuwait 277,554
53  Morocco 273,358
54  Denmark 264,702
55  Ireland 253,635
56  Hungary 251,842
57  Sri Lanka 246,117
58  Cuba (2013) 234,624
59  Finland 222,575
60  Uzbekistan 187,668
61  Angola 184,438
62  Ecuador 183,855
63  Oman 171,692
64  Azerbaijan 171,214
65  New Zealand 169,960
66  Belarus 168,009
67  Sudan 167,909
68  Ethiopia 161,571
69  Slovakia 156,632
70  Dominican Republic 149,627
71  Kenya 141,951
72  Tanzania (mainland) 138,461
73  Tunisia 126,598
74  Guatemala 125,950
75  Puerto Rico 125,861
76  Bulgaria 125,699
77  Ghana 115,137
78  Croatia 111,812
79  Serbia 95,698
80  Yemen 92,432
81  Libya 88,867
82  Turkmenistan 88,657
83  Panama 87,196
84  Jordan 82,631
85  Lebanon 81,547
86  Lithuania 80,699
87 Cote d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire 79,361
88  Costa Rica 73,931
89  Bolivia 73,796
90  Cameroon 72,896
91  Uruguay 72,751
92  Uganda 71,246
93    Nepal 70,090
 Macau 65,383
94  Bahrain 64,656
95  Slovenia 64,229
96  Afghanistan 62,913
97  Zambia 62,458
98  Paraguay 62,458
99  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 60,482
100  Luxembourg 58,065
101  Cambodia 54,263
102  El Salvador 52,701
103  Latvia 48,049
104  Trinidad and Tobago 44,334
105  Mali 42,737
106  Honduras 41,057
107  Bosnia and Herzegovina 40,046
108  Laos 38,605
109  Estonia 36,860
110  Senegal 36,776
111  Mongolia 36,068
112  Botswana 35,763
113  Georgia 35,610
114  Madagascar 35,366
115  Gabon 34,523
116  Mozambique 33,177
117  Albania 32,663
118  Nicaragua 31,564
119  Chad 30,481
120  Burkina Faso 30,041
121  Brunei Darussalam 29,969
122  Congo, Republic of the 29,423
123  Macedonia 28,907
124  Zimbabwe 27,985
125  Cyprus 25,864
126  Namibia 25,606
127  Equatorial Guinea 25,386
128  Armenia 25,329
129  Jamaica 24,704
130  Mauritius 24,596
131  Tajikistan 23,579
132  Benin 22,955
133  South Sudan 22,829
134  West Bank and Gaza 22,155
135  Papua New Guinea 21,384
136  Rwanda 20,418
137  Kyrgyzstan 20,413
138  Malawi 20,359
139  Niger 18,975
140  Haiti 18,875
141  Moldova 17,908
142  Kosovo 17,454
143  Mauritania 15,425
144  Iceland 15,399
145  Guinea 15,213
146  Malta 12,500
147  Swaziland 10,845
148  Togo 10,663
149  Sierra Leone 10,264
150  Montenegro 9,638
151  Bahamas, The 9,233
152  Suriname 9,214
153  Burundi 8,228
154  Fiji 8,171
155  Bhutan 6,258
156  Guyana 5,758
157  Lesotho 5,585
158  Maldives 5,170
159  Barbados 4,659
160  Liberia 3,766
161  Cape Verde 3,482
162  Bermuda 3,409
163  Gambia 3,155
164  Belize 3,064
165  Central African Republic 2,927
166  Djibouti 2,876
167  Timor-Leste 2,813
168  Guinea-Bissau 2,680
169  Seychelles 2,534
170  Antigua and Barbuda 2,109
171  Saint Lucia 2,033
172  Grenada 1,385
173  Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,354
174  Solomon Islands 1,276
175  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1,207
176  Samoa 1,144
177  Comoros 1,105
178  Dominica 820
179  Vanuatu 787
180  Sao Tome and Principe 594
181  Tonga 552
182  Federated States of Micronesia 348
183  Palau 325
184  Kiribati 209
185  Marshall Islands 202
186  Tuvalu 37
Rank Country GDP
(billions of Int$)
Year
 World 119,400 2016 est.
1  China 21,270 2016 est.
 European Union[n 1] 19,180 2016 est.
2  United States 18,560 2016 est.
3  India 8,721 2016 est.
4  Japan 4,932 2016 est.
5  Germany 3,979 2016 est.
6  Russia 3,745 2016 est.
7  Brazil 3,135 2016 est.
8  Indonesia 3,028 2016 est.
9  United Kingdom 2,788 2016 est.
10  France 2,737 2016 est.
11  Mexico 2,307 2016 est.
12  Italy 2,221 2016 est.
13  South Korea 1,929 2016 est.
14  Saudi Arabia 1,731 2016 est.
15  Spain 1,690 2016 est.
16  Canada 1,674 2016 est.
17  Turkey 1,670 2016 est.
18  Iran 1,459 2016 est.
19  Australia 1,189 2016 est.
20  Thailand 1,161 2016 est.
21  Taiwan 1,125 2016 est.
22  Egypt 1,105 2016 est.
23  Nigeria 1,089 2016 est.
24  Poland 1,052 2016 est.
25  Pakistan 988.2 2016 est.
26  Argentina 879.4 2016 est.
27  Netherlands 865.9 2016 est.
28  Malaysia 863.8 2016 est.
29  Philippines 801.9 2016 est.
30  South Africa 736.3 2016 est.
31  Colombia 690.4 2016 est.
32  United Arab Emirates 667.2 2016 est.
33  Bangladesh 628.4 2016 est.
34  Algeria 609.4 2016 est.
35  Iraq 596.7 2016 est.
36  Vietnam 594.9 2016 est.
37  Belgium 508.6 2016 est.
38  Sweden 498.1 2016 est.
39   Switzerland 494.3 2016 est.
40  Singapore 486.9 2016 est.
41  Venezuela 468.6 2016 est.
42  Kazakhstan 460.7 2016 est.
43  Romania 441.0 2016 est.
44  Chile 436.1 2016 est.
 Hong Kong 427.4 2016 est.
45  Austria 415.9 2016 est.
46  Peru 409.9 2016 est.
47  Norway 364.7 2016 est.
48  Czech Republic 350.9 2016 est.
49  Ukraine 349.8 2016 est.
50  Qatar 334.5 2016 est.
51  Ireland 324.3 2016 est.
52  Myanmar 311.1 2016 est.
53  Kuwait 301.1 2016 est.
54  Portugal 297.1 2016 est.
55  Israel 297.0 2016 est.
56  Greece 290.5 2016 est.
57  Morocco 282.8 2016 est.
58  Hungary 267.6 2016 est.
59  Denmark 264.8 2016 est.
60  Sri Lanka 237.8 2016 est.
61  Finland 230.0 2016 est.
62  Uzbekistan 202.3 2016 est.
63  Angola 187.3 2016 est.
64  Ecuador 182.4 2016 est.
65  Sudan 176.3 2016 est.
66  New Zealand 174.8 2016 est.
67  Ethiopia 174.7 2016 est.
68  Oman 173.1 2016 est.
69  Slovakia 169.1 2016 est.
70  Azerbaijan 167.9 2016 est.
71  Belarus 165.4 2016 est.
72  Dominican Republic 160.9 2016 est.
73  Kenya 152.7 2016 est.
74  Tanzania 150.6 2016 est.
75  Bulgaria 143.1 2016 est.
76  Guatemala 132.3 2016 est.
 Puerto Rico 131.0 2016 est.
77  Tunisia 130.8 2016 est.
78  Cuba 128.5 2014 est.
79  Ghana 120.8 2016 est.
80  Serbia 108.5 2016 est.
81  Turkmenistan 94.77 2016 est.
82  Croatia 94.24 2016 est.
83  Panama 93.12 2016 est.
84  Libya 90.98 2016 est.
85  Cote d'Ivoire 87.12 2016 est.
86  Jordan 86.19 2016 est.
87  Lithuania 85.79 2016 est.
88  Lebanon 85.16 2016 est.
89  Uganda 84.93 2016 est.
90  Costa Rica 79.26 2016 est.
91  Bolivia 78.35 2016 est.
92  Cameroon 77.24 2016 est.
93  Uruguay 73.93 2016 est.
94  Yemen 73.45 2016 est.
95    Nepal 71.52 2016 est.
96  Bahrain 66.37 2016 est.
97  Slovenia 66.13 2016 est.
98  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 66.01 2016 est.
99  Zambia 65.17 2016 est.
100  Paraguay 64.12 2016 est.
101  Afghanistan 64.08 2016 est.
 Macau 63.22 2016 est.
102  Cambodia 58.94 2016 est.
103  Luxembourg 58.74 2016 est.
104  Syria 55.80 2015 est.
105  El Salvador 54.79 2016 est.
106  Latvia 50.87 2016 est.
107  Trinidad and Tobago 43.57 2016 est.
108  Honduras 43.19 2016 est.
109  Bosnia and Herzegovina 42.53 2016 est.
110  Laos 40.96 2016 est.
111  North Korea 40.00 2014 est.
112  Senegal 39.72 2016 est.
113  Estonia 38.70 2016 est.
114  Mali 38.09 2016 est.
115  Madagascar 37.49 2016 est.
116  Georgia 37.38 2016 est.
117  Mongolia 36.65 2016 est.
118  Botswana 36.51 2016 est.
119  Gabon 36.22 2016 est.
120  Mozambique 35.31 2016 est.
121  Albania 34.21 2016 est.
122  Brunei 33.73 2016 est.
123  Nicaragua 33.49 2016 est.
124  Burkina Faso 32.99 2016 est.
125  Equatorial Guinea 31.77 2016 est.
126  Chad 30.59 2016 est.
127  Congo, Republic of the 30.27 2016 est.
128  Macedonia 30.13 2016 est.
129  Cyprus 29.26 2016 est.
130  Zimbabwe 28.33 2016 est.
131  Papua New Guinea 28.02 2016 est.
132  Namibia 27.04 2016 est.
133  Armenia 26.56 2016 est.
134  Mauritius 25.85 2016 est.
135  Tajikistan 25.81 2016 est.
136  Jamaica 25.39 2016 est.
137  Benin 24.31 2016 est.
138  Rwanda 21.97 2016 est.
139  Malawi 21.23 2016 est.
 West Bank 21.22 2014 est.
140  Kyrgyzstan 21.01 2016 est.
141  South Sudan 20.88 2016 est.
142  Niger 20.27 2016 est.
143  Haiti 19.36 2016 est.
144  Moldova 18.54 2016 est.
 Kosovo 18.49 2016 est.
145  Mauritania 16.71 2016 est.
146  Malta 16.32 2016 est.
147  Iceland 16.15 2016 est.
148  Guinea 16.08 2016 est.
149  Togo 11.61 2016 est.
 New Caledonia 11.10 2014 est.
150  Swaziland 11.06 2016 est.
151  Sierra Leone 10.64 2016 est.
152  Montenegro 10.61 2016 est.
153  Eritrea 9.169 2016 est.
154  Bahamas, The 9.066 2016 est.
155  Suriname 8.547 2016 est.
156  Fiji 8.374 2016 est.
157  Burundi 7.892 2016 est.
 French Polynesia 7.150 2012 est.
158  Timor-Leste 7.101 2015 est.
159  Monaco 6.790 2013 est.
160  Bhutan 6.383 2015 est.
 Isle of Man 6.298 2012 est.
161  Lesotho 5.777 2015 est.
 Jersey 5.771 2012 est.
162  Guyana 5.770 2015 est.
 Bermuda 5.198 2013 est.
 Guam 4.882 2013 est.
163  Maldives 4.732 2015 est.
164  Barbados 4.658 2015 est.
165  Somalia 4.431 2010 est.
 U.S. Virgin Islands 3.792 2013 est.
166  Liberia 3.780 2015 est.
167  Cape Verde 3.479 2015 est.
 Guernsey 3.451 2013 est.
168  Gambia, The 3.269 2015 est.
169  Liechtenstein 3.200 2009 est.
170  Andorra 3.163 2012 est.
 Curaçao 3.128 2012 est.
171  Djibouti 3.093 2015 est.
172  Belize 3.071 2015 est.
173  Central African Republic 3.052 2015 est.
174  Guinea-Bissau 2.677 2015 est.
175  Seychelles 2.533 2015 est.
 Aruba 2.516 2009 est.
176  Cayman Islands 2.507 2014 est.
 Greenland 2.173 2011 est.
177  Antigua and Barbuda 2.096 2015 est.
178  Saint Lucia 2.032 2015 est.
179  San Marino 1.952 2015 est.
 Gibraltar 1.850 2013 est.
 Faroe Islands 1.471 2010 est.
180  Grenada 1.385 2015 est.
181  Saint Kitts and Nevis 1.358 2015 est.
182  Comoros 1.214 2015 est.
183  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1.211 2015 est.
184  Solomon Islands 1.141 2015 est.
185  Samoa 1.033 2015 est.
 Western Sahara 0.9065 2007 est.
186  Dominica 0.8201 2015 est.
 American Samoa 0.7110 2013 est.
 Northern Mariana Islands 0.682 2013 est.
187  Vanuatu 0.6758 2015 est.
188  Sao Tome and Principe 0.6637 2015 est.
 Turks and Caicos Islands 0.6320 2007 est.
 Saint Martin 0.5615 2005 est.
189  Tonga 0.5230 2014 est.
 British Virgin Islands 0.5000 2010 est.
 Sint Maarten 0.3658 2014 est.
190  Micronesia, Federated States of 0.3103 2015 est.
191  Palau 0.2626 2015 est.
 Cook Islands 0.2441
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0.2153 2006 est.
192  Marshall Islands 0.1869 2015 est.
 Anguilla 0.1754 2009 est.
193  Kiribati 0.1698 2015 est.
 Falkland Islands 0.1645 2007 est.
194  Nauru 0.1508 2015 est.
 Wallis and Futuna 0.0600 2004 est.
 Montserrat 0.0438 2006 est.
195  Tuvalu 0.0390 2016 est.
 Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 0.0311 2009 est.
 Niue 0.0101 2003 est.
 Tokelau 0.0015 1993 est.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU is included because it has many attributes of independent nations, being much more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur.[8] As the EU is not a country, the U.S. is the second ranked country on these lists.
  2. ^ Data for Croatia's 2014 GDP is from the September 2011 WEO Database, the latest available from the IMF.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 13 June 2016. 
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c "Part 4. Applications and Limitations of ICP Data" (PDF). Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  4. ^ PPP Versus the Market: Which Weight Matters?, imf.org, March 2007, Volume 44, Number 1
  5. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 25 February 2017. 
  6. ^ Data (22 July 2016). ""Gross domestic product 2015, PPP", World Bank, accessed on 26 July 2016" (PDF). Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 26 July 2016. ; European Union calculated by sum of individual countries.
  7. ^ Field listing - GDP (PPP exchange rate), CIA World Factbook
  8. ^ CIA (2014). "The World Factbook". Retrieved 15 March 2015. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook. 

External Links[edit]