List of dukes in the peerages of Britain and Ireland

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This is a list of the 30 present and extant dukes in the peerages of the Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Scotland, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Ireland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1927 and after. For a more complete historical listing, including extinct, dormant, abeyant, forfeit dukedoms in addition to these extant ones, see List of dukedoms in the peerages of Britain and Ireland.

In the peerage of England, the title of Duke was created 74 times (using 40 different titles: the rest were recreations). Twice a woman was created a Duchess in her own right (but only for life). Out of the 74 times, 37 titles are now extinct (including the two women's), 16 titles were forfeit or surrendered, 10 were merged with the crown, and 11 are extant (see list below), the first, Cornwall, is a title that automatically goes to the heir apparent (if and only if he is also the eldest living son of the Sovereign). One of the duchies that was merged into the crown, Lancaster, still provides income to the sovereign. All but three of the non-royal ducal titles which became extinct did so before the 19th century (the Duke of Leeds became extinct in 1964, the Duke of Newcastle in 1988, and the Duke of Portland in 1990). The last English dukedom to be forfeit became so in 1715, the last British dukedom to become extinct was the title of Duke of Portland in 1990.[1]

The oldest six titles – created between 1337 and 1386 – were Duke of Cornwall (1337), Duke of Lancaster (1351), Duke of Clarence (1362), Duke of York (1385), Duke of Gloucester (1385), and Duke of Ireland (1386). The Duke of Ireland was a title used for only two years and is somewhat confusing since only a small portion of Ireland was really under the control of England in 1386; it is not to be confused with the dukedoms of the peerage of Ireland. Clarence has not been used since 1478, when George (the brother of Edward IV) was executed for treason. (However Clarence has since been used as half of a double title, most recently until 1892 when Victoria's grandson (and son of the Prince of Wales), the Duke of Clarence and Avondale, died at the age of 28.) The titles of Duke of York and the Duke of Gloucester have both become extinct more than once and been re-created as titles within the peerage of the United Kingdom. Both titles are reserved for princes (and their descendants), the Duke of Lancaster has merged with the Crown and so is held by the monarch. On 29 September 1397, in an unprecedented move six dukedoms were created on a single day. None of these titles is extant.

Besides the dukedoms of Cornwall and Lancaster, the oldest extant title is that of Duke of Norfolk, dating from 1483 (the title was first created in 1397), the Duke of Norfolk is considered the Premier Duke of England. The premier duke of Scotland is the Duke of Hamilton and Brandon, the premier duke of Ireland is the Duke of Leinster.[2]

Order of precedence[edit]

Heraldic representation of the Coronet of a British Duke.

The general order of precedence among dukes is:

  1. Dukes in the Peerage of England, in order of creation
  2. Dukes in the Peerage of Scotland, in order of creation
  3. Dukes in the Peerage of Great Britain, in order of creation
  4. Dukes in the Peerage of Ireland created before 1801, in order of creation
  5. Dukes in the Peerage of the United Kingdom and Dukes in the Peerage of Ireland created after 1801, in order of creation

Whilst the general order of precedence is set according to the age of the peerage, the sovereign's Grace may accord any peer higher precedence than his date of creation would warrant, the royal dukes are Dukes of the United Kingdom; but they rank higher in the order of precedence than the age of their titles would suggest, due to their close relationship to the monarch. The Prince of Wales holds precedence above all dukes, royal and non-royal and is the Duke of Cornwall and of Rothesay.

Dukes in the peerages of Britain and Ireland[edit]

Number Title Date of creation Arms Current holder Age Peerage Notes
1. The Duke of Cornwall (1337) [Notes 1] Arms of the Duchy of Cornwall.svg HRH The Prince Charles, 23rd Duke of Cornwall (1948-11-14) 14 November 1948 (age 68) England Also Duke of Rothesay in the Peerage of Scotland (1398) – see below
2. The Duke of Norfolk (1483) Arms of the Duke of Norfolk.svg Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk (1956-12-02) 2 December 1956 (age 60) England
3. The Duke of Somerset (1547) Coat of Arms of the Duke of Somerset.svg John Seymour, 19th Duke of Somerset (1952-12-30) 30 December 1952 (age 64) England
4. The Duke of Richmond and Gordon (1675) Duke of richmond.svg Charles Gordon-Lennox, 10th Duke of Richmond (1929-09-19) 19 September 1929 (age 87) England Also Duke of Lennox in the Peerage of Scotland (1675) – see below
5. The Duke of Grafton (1675) Blason Henri Charles FitzRoy (1663-1690), 1er Duc de Grafton.svg Henry FitzRoy, 12th Duke of Grafton (1978-04-06) 6 April 1978 (age 39) England
6. The Duke of Beaufort (1682) Arms of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset.svg Henry Somerset, 12th Duke of Beaufort (1952-05-22) 22 May 1952 (age 65) England
7. The Duke of St Albans (1684) Blason Charles II Beauclerk (1696-1751) 2e duc de Saint-Albans.svg Murray Beauclerk, 14th Duke of St Albans (1939-01-19) 19 January 1939 (age 78) England
8. The Duke of Bedford (1694) Arms of the Duke of Bedford.svg Andrew Russell, 15th Duke of Bedford (1962-03-30) 30 March 1962 (age 55) England
9. The Duke of Devonshire (1694) Cavendish coat of arms.svg Peregrine Cavendish, 12th Duke of Devonshire (1944-04-27) 27 April 1944 (age 73) England
10. The Duke of Marlborough (1702) Arms of Winston Churchill.svg Jamie Spencer-Churchill, 12th Duke of Marlborough (1955-11-24) 24 November 1955 (age 61) England
11. The Duke of Rutland (1703) Coat of arms of Duke of Rutland.svg David Manners, 11th Duke of Rutland (1959-05-08) 8 May 1959 (age 58) England
The Duke of Rothesay (1398) [Notes 1] Shield of Arms of the Duke of Rothesay.svg HRH The Prince Charles, 23rd Duke of Rothesay (1948-11-14) 14 November 1948 (age 68) Scotland Also Duke of Cornwall in the Peerage of England (1337) – see above
12. The Duke of Hamilton (1643) Douglas-Hamilton COA.svg Alexander Douglas-Hamilton, 16th Duke of Hamilton (1978-03-31) 31 March 1978 (age 39) Scotland Also Duke of Brandon in the Peerage of Great Britain (1711) – see below
13. The Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry (1663) and (1684) Duke of Buccleuch arms.svg Richard Scott, 10th Duke of Buccleuch (1954-02-14) 14 February 1954 (age 63) Scotland
The Duke of Lennox (1675) Duke of richmond.svg Charles Gordon-Lennox, 10th Duke of Lennox (1929-09-19) 19 September 1929 (age 87) Scotland Also Duke of Richmond in the Peerage of England (1675) – see above
14. The Duke of Argyll (1701) Duke of Argyll arms.svg Torquhil Campbell, 13th Duke of Argyll (1968-05-29) 29 May 1968 (age 49) Scotland Also Duke of Argyll in the Peerage of the United Kingdom (1892) – see below
15. The Duke of Atholl (1703) Duke of Atholl arms.svg Bruce Murray, 12th Duke of Atholl (1960-04-06) 6 April 1960 (age 57) Scotland
16. The Duke of Montrose (1707) Graham of Montrose COA.svg James Graham, 8th Duke of Montrose (1935-04-06) 6 April 1935 (age 82) Scotland
17. The Duke of Roxburghe (1707) Coat of arms of the Duke of Roxburghe.svg Guy Innes-Ker, 10th Duke of Roxburghe (1954-11-18) 18 November 1954 (age 62) Scotland
The Duke of Brandon (1711) Douglas-Hamilton COA.svg Alexander Douglas-Hamilton, 13th Duke of Brandon (1978-03-31) 31 March 1978 (age 39) Great Britain Also Duke of Hamilton in the Peerage of Scotland (1643) – see above
18. The Duke of Manchester (1719) Coat of arms of the Duke of Manchester.svg Alexander Montagu, 13th Duke of Manchester (1962-12-11) 11 December 1962 (age 54) Great Britain
19. The Duke of Northumberland (1766) Coat of Arms of the Duke of Northumberland.svg Ralph Percy, 12th Duke of Northumberland (1956-11-16) 16 November 1956 (age 60) Great Britain
20. The Duke of Leinster (1766) Coat of Arms of the Duke of Leinster.svg Maurice FitzGerald, 9th Duke of Leinster (1948-04-07) 7 April 1948 (age 69) Ireland
21. The Duke of Abercorn (1868) [Notes 2] Arms of the Duke of Abercorn.svg James Hamilton, 5th Duke of Abercorn (1934-07-04) 4 July 1934 (age 83) Ireland
22. The Duke of Wellington (1814) Arms of the Duke of Wellington.svg Charles Wellesley, 9th Duke of Wellington (1945-08-19) 19 August 1945 (age 71) United Kingdom
23. The Duke of Sutherland (1833) Egerton family COA (Dukes of Bridgewater, Dukes of Sutherland).svg Francis Egerton, 7th Duke of Sutherland (1940-02-18) 18 February 1940 (age 77) United Kingdom
24. The Duke of Westminster (1874) Grosvenor family COA (Dukes of Westminster).svg Hugh Grosvenor, 7th Duke of Westminster (1991-01-29) 29 January 1991 (age 26) United Kingdom
The Duke of Gordon (1876) Duke of richmond.svg Charles Gordon-Lennox, 5th Duke of Gordon (1929-09-19) 19 September 1929 (age 87) United Kingdom Also Duke of Richmond in the Peerage of England (1675) and Duke of Lennox in the Peerage of Scotland(1675)
The Duke of Argyll (1892) Duke of Argyll arms.svg Torquhil Campbell, 6th Duke of Argyll (1968-05-29) 29 May 1968 (age 49) United Kingdom Also Duke of Argyll in the Peerage of Scotland (1701) – see above
25. The Duke of Fife (1900) Duke of Fife COA.svg David Carnegie, 4th Duke of Fife (1961-03-03) 3 March 1961 (age 56) United Kingdom
26. The Duke of Gloucester (1928) Arms of Richard, Duke of Gloucester.svg HRH Prince Richard, 2nd Duke of Gloucester [Notes 3] (1944-08-26) 26 August 1944 (age 72) United Kingdom
27. The Duke of Kent (1934) Arms of Edward, Duke of Kent.svg HRH Prince Edward, 2nd Duke of Kent [Notes 3] (1935-10-09) 9 October 1935 (age 81) United Kingdom
28. The Duke of Edinburgh (1947) Arms of Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.svg HRH The Prince Philip, 1st Duke of Edinburgh [Notes 3] (1921-06-10) 10 June 1921 (age 96) United Kingdom
29. The Duke of York (1986) Arms of Andrew, Duke of York.svg HRH The Prince Andrew, 1st Duke of York [Notes 3] (1960-02-19) 19 February 1960 (age 57) United Kingdom
30. The Duke of Cambridge (2011) Arms of William, Duke of Cambridge.svg HRH Prince William, 1st Duke of Cambridge [Notes 3] (1982-06-21) 21 June 1982 (age 35) United Kingdom

List of heirs of Dukes in the Peerages of the British Isles[edit]

Heirs apparent[edit]

  1. HRH The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay, eldest son of the Duke of Edinburgh
  2. HRH Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, eldest son of the Duke of Cornwall and of Rothesay
  3. HRH Prince George of Cambridge, only son of the Duke of Cambridge
  4. Henry Fitzalan-Howard, Earl of Arundel, eldest son of the Duke of Norfolk
  5. Sebastian Seymour, Lord Seymour, eldest son of the Duke of Somerset
  6. Charles Gordon-Lennox, Earl of March and Kinrara, eldest son of the Duke of Richmond, Lennox and Gordon
  7. Alfred FitzRoy, Earl of Euston, only son of the Duke of Grafton
  8. Henry Somerset, Marquess of Worcester, eldest son of the Duke of Beaufort
  9. Charles Beauclerk, Earl of Burford, eldest son of the Duke of St Albans
  10. Henry Russell, Marquess of Tavistock, eldest son of the Duke of Bedford
  11. William Cavendish, Earl of Burlington, eldest son of the Duke of Devonshire (although heirs to that dukedom usually use the greater courtesy title of Marquess of Hartington)
  12. George Spencer-Churchill, Marquess of Blandford, eldest son of the Duke of Marlborough
  13. Charles Manners, Marquess of Granby, eldest son of the Duke of Rutland
  14. Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale, eldest son of the Duke of Hamilton
  15. Walter Scott, Earl of Dalkeith, eldest son of the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry
  16. Archibald Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, eldest son of the Duke of Argyll
  17. Michael Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine, eldest son of the Duke of Atholl
  18. James Graham, Marquess of Graham, eldest son of the Duke of Montrose
  19. Charles Innes-Ker, Marquess of Bowmont and Cessford, eldest son of the Duke of Roxburghe
  20. George Percy, Earl Percy, eldest son of the Duke of Northumberland
  21. Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Douro, eldest son of the Duke of Wellington
  22. James Egerton, Marquess of Stafford, eldest son of the Duke of Sutherland
  23. James Hamilton, Marquess of Hamilton, eldest son of the Duke of Abercorn
  24. Charles Carnegie, Earl of Southesk, eldest son of the Duke of Fife
  25. Alexander Windsor, Earl of Ulster, eldest son of the Duke of Gloucester
  26. George Windsor, Earl of St Andrews, eldest son of the Duke of Kent

Heirs presumptive[edit]

Dukes without heirs[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b As the eldest son of the Sovereign, the Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay ranks higher in precedence than he would by virtue of the seniority of his dukedoms alone.
  2. ^ The Dukedom of Abercorn was created after the Acts of Union 1800. It takes precedence after earlier Dukedoms of the United Kingdom, between the Dukedom of Sutherland and the Dukedom of Westminster.
  3. ^ a b c d e As members of the Royal Family, these dukes rank higher in precedence than they would by virtue of the seniority of their dukedoms alone.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Debretts". n.d. Retrieved 9 March 2015. 
  2. ^ "Debretts". n.d. Retrieved 9 March 2015. 

Sources[edit]