1. Music – Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound and silence, which exist in time. The common elements of music are pitch, rhythm, the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. Different types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. The word derives from Greek μουσική. Ancient Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, saying, for example, "There is no noise, only sound." The creation, performance, even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. There are many types including popular music, traditional music, art music, music written for religious ceremonies and work songs such as chanteys. For example, it can be hard to draw the line between heavy metal. Within the arts, music may be classified as a performing art, as an auditory art. People may make music like a teen playing cello in a youth orchestra, or working as a professional musician or singer. The word derives from Greek μουσική. This is derived from the "...Greek mousike " of the Muses," from fem. of mousikos "pertaining to the Muses," from Mousa "Muse". Modern spelling from 1630s. In classical Greece, any art in which the Muses presided, but especially music and poetry."Music – A painting on an Ancient Greek vase depicts a music lesson (c. 510 BC).
2. Acoustic instrument – Acoustic music is music that solely or primarily uses instruments that produce sound through acoustic means, as opposed to electric or electronic means. The retronym "acoustic music" appeared after the advent such as the electric guitar, electric violin, electric organ and synthesizer. Performers of acoustic music often increase the volume of their output using electronic amplifiers. However, these amplification devices remain reproduce its natural sound accurately. Often a microphone is placed in front of an acoustic instrument, then wired up to an amplifier. It has its origins in the music of the 1960s. The trend has also been dubbed in some cases. Randel, Don Michael. The Harvard Dictionary of Music. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01163-2. Jermance, Frank. Navigating the Music Industry: Current Issues & Business Models. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 978-0-634-02652-2.Acoustic instrument – A Spanish guitar
3. Electronic instrument – An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound using electronics. Such an instrument sounds by outputting an audio signal that ultimately drives a loudspeaker. An electronic instrument might include a user interface often by adjusting the pitch, frequency, or duration of each note. All musical instruments can be viewed as a subset of audio signal processing applications. Simple musical instruments are sometimes called sound effects; the border between sound effects and actual musical instruments is often hazy. Musical instruments are now widely used in most styles of music. Development of new electronic musical instruments, synthesizers continues to be a highly active and interdisciplinary field of research. In the 18th-century, composers adapted a number of acoustic instruments to exploit the novelty of electricity. The former instrument consisted of a instrument of over 700 strings, electrified temporarily to enhance sonic qualities. The latter was a instrument with plectra activated electrically. However, neither instrument used electricity as a sound-source. The electric synthesizer was invented in 1876 by Elisha Gray. The Musical Telegraph used steel reeds transmitted over a telephone line. Gray also built a simple device into later models, which consisted of a diaphragm vibrating in a magnetic field. A significant invention, which later had a profound effect on electronic music, was the audion in 1906.Electronic instrument – Ondes Martenot created by Maurice Martenot, 1928
4. Musical instrument – A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. The history of musical instruments dates to the beginnings of human culture. Early musical instruments may have been used for ritual, such as a trumpet to signal a drum in a religious ceremony. Cultures eventually developed performance of melodies for entertainment. Musical instruments evolved with changing applications. The origin of the first device considered a musical instrument is disputed. The oldest object that some scholars refer to as a simple flute, dates back as far as 67,000 years. Some consensus dates early flutes to about 37,000 years ago. Many musical instruments were made from animal skins, bone, wood, other non-durable materials. Musical instruments developed independently in populated regions of the world. However, contact among civilizations caused rapid adaptation of most instruments in places far from their origin. By the Middle Ages, Europeans played instruments from North Africa. Cultures of North, Central, South America shared musical instruments. By 1400, musical development slowed in many areas and was dominated by the Occident.Musical instrument – Anne Vallayer-Coster, Attributes of Music, 1770. This still life painting depicts a variety of French Baroque musical instruments, such as a natural horn, transverse flute, musette, violin, and lute.
5. Live music – A concert is a live music performance in front of an audience. A recital is a concert by small group which follows a program, such as featuring the works of a single composer. A recitalist is a musician who gives frequent recitals. The invention of the solo recital has been attributed to Franz Liszt. The performance may be by a musical ensemble, such as an orchestra, choir, or band. Indoor concerts held in the largest venues are sometimes called arena concerts or amphitheatre concerts. Informal names for a concert include gig. Regardless of venue, musicians usually perform on a stage. Concerts often require live support with professional audio equipment. Before recorded music, concerts provided the main opportunity to hear musicians play. The nature of a concert varies by musical genre, the venue. Concerts by a small jazz small bluegrass band may have the same order of program, mood, volume -- but vary in music and dress. In a similar way, a particular musician, genre of music might attract concert attendees with similar dress, hairstyle, behavior. For example, concert goers in the 1960s often had long hair, inexpensive clothing made of natural fibers. Regular attendees to a venue might also have a recognizable style that comprises that venue's scene.Live music – A classical music concert in the Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne, Australia, 2005
6. Sound recording and reproduction – The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording. Analog sound reproduction is the reverse process, with a bigger loudspeaker diaphragm causing changes to atmospheric pressure to form acoustic sound waves. Digital recording and reproduction converts the analog sound signal picked up by the microphone to a digital form by the process of digitization. This lets the audio data be stored and transmitted by a wider variety of media. A digital audio signal must be reconverted to analog form during playback before it is amplified and connected to a loudspeaker to produce sound. Long before sound was first recorded, music was recorded—first by written notation, then also by mechanical devices. According to Charles B. The Banu Musa brothers also invented an automatic flute player, which appears to have been the first programmable machine. According to Fowler, the automata were a robot band that performed "...more than fifty facial and body actions during each musical selection." In the 14th century, Flanders introduced a mechanical bell-ringer controlled by a rotating cylinder. Similar designs appeared in barrel organs, musical clocks, barrel pianos, musical boxes. The fairground organ, developed in 1892, used a system of accordion-folded punched cardboard books. The player piano, first demonstrated in 1876, used a punched paper scroll that could store an arbitrarily long piece of music. This technology to record a live performance onto a piano roll was not developed until 1904. Piano rolls were in continuous mass production from 1896 to 2008.Sound recording and reproduction – Frances Densmore recording Blackfoot chief Mountain Chief on a cylinder phonograph for the Bureau of American Ethnology (1916)
7. DJing – A disc jockey is a person who mixes recorded music as it is playing. DJs also create mixes that are recorded for later sale and distribution. DJs use equipment that can mix them together. This allows the DJ to develop unique mixes of songs. Often, this involves aligning the beats of the music sources so their rhythms do not clash when they are played together. DJ equipment also allows the DJ to preview a source of recorded music in headphones before playing it for the audience. There are several types of jockey. Radio personalities introduce and play music, broadcast on AM, FM, digital or Internet radio stations. Club DJs play music in bars, nightclubs or discothèques, or at parties or raves, or even in stadiums. Mobile DJs play recorded music at a variety of events. There are also many competitions for DJs that specialize in different turntablism techniques, such as hip hop music-style "scratching" or other kinds of techniques. Other types of DJ use musical performance techniques that allow them to be categorized as performing musicians, depending on the situation. Hip hop DJs and are also often songwriters or music producers who use sampling to create backing instrumentals for new tracks. Many electronica producers who also work as DJs often perform music by combining turntablism with keyboards or live electronics. According to a 2012 study, there are approximately 1 million professional disc jockeys in the world.DJing – A DJ performing at an event
8. Sampling (music) – Sampling was originally developed by experimental musicians working with musique electroacoustic music, who physically manipulated tape loops or vinyl records on a phonograph. By the late 1960s, the use of tape sampling influenced the development of minimalist music and the production of psychedelic rock and jazz fusion. Sampling is now most often done with a sampler, originally a piece of hardware, but today, more commonly a program. However, turntablists continue to sample using traditional methods. Often "samples" consist of one part such as a rhythm break, then used to construct the beat for another song. For instance, hip music developed from DJs looping the breaks from songs to enable continuous dancing. Samples can also consist including those in non-musical media such as movies, TV shows and advertising. Sampling does not necessarily mean using pre-existing recordings. Others have sampled their own original recordings. The use of sampling is musically. Aside from legal issues, sampling has been both criticized. Today take different approaches to sampling, with some critical of its obvious use. Those whose own work has been sampled have also voiced a wide variety of opinions both for and against sampling. Once recorded, samples can be edited, looped. Types of samples include: The drums and percussion parts of modern recordings are really a variety of short samples of beats strung together.Sampling (music) – DJ Premier looking for samples he can use