Louis Joseph, Dauphin of France

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Louis Joseph
Dauphin of France
Crownprince, Le Dauphin, Louis-Joseph-Xavier-François of France (1781-1789) - Nationalmuseum - 132462.jpg
Portrait by Adolf Ulrik Wertmüller in 1784
Born (1781-10-22)22 October 1781
Palace of Versailles, France
Died 4 June 1789(1789-06-04) (aged 7)
Château de Meudon, France
Full name
Louis Joseph Xavier François de France
House Bourbon
Father Louis XVI of France
Mother Marie Antoinette

Louis Joseph de France (Louis Joseph Xavier François; 22 October 1781 – 4 June 1789) was the second child and elder son of King Louis XVI of France and Marie Antoinette. As son of a king of France, he was a Fils de France ("Son of France"), and as the eldest son and heir apparent, he was Dauphin of France, (the twenty-sixth "crown prince" of the Capetian and Bourbon monarchies).

Louis Joseph died at age seven of tuberculosis and was succeeded as Dauphin de France by his four-year-old brother Louis-Charles.

Biography[edit]

Louis Joseph Xavier François de France was born at the Palace of Versailles on October 22, 1781. He was the long-awaited Dauphin. His elder sister, Marie Thérèse Charlotte, Madame Royale, was not allowed to succeed to the throne due to the Salic Law. The birth of Louis Joseph at that point ruined his uncle's hopes of becoming the king.[1]

His private household was created upon his birth and he was put into the care of Geneviève Poitrine, one of his wet nurses. She was later accused of transmitting tuberculosis to the young Dauphin. His sous-gouverneur was the Maréchal de camp Antoine Charles Augustin d'Allonville. Another member of his household was Yolande de Polastron, duchesse de Polignac, who was his mother's favorite.

Louis Joseph was very close to his sister and to his parents, who closely watched over his education. He was always praised for being a very bright child for his young age; however, it was often noted that he had very fragile health.

Impact[edit]

The birth of the dauphin has a huge impact on the life of his parents, first the Queen Marie Antoinette began to exercise a real influence on the policy of the state ; she pushed for a foreign policy which was based on a strong alliance with Austria which was a disaster for her public image and the French People began to call her : "l 'Autrichienne ". The Queen also nominated a lot of ministers which supported her conservative and aristocratic government who was against any reforms which caused the French Revolution in the long turn. Finally the Queen got closer to her husband and while he was not the man of her dream with a lot of weight, he was the father of her children and she respected him for that which did not stop her from trying to dominate him by obliging him to follow her policies . Marie Antoinette gained a lot of weight because of this pregnancy ( The king of Sweden described her as "very fat") but she retained a proud and imposing figure with her high heels and tall figure which dominated all figures in her court and even in Europe; Marie Antoinette remained the queen of fashion [2]

Illness[edit]

Bust of the Dauphin Louis Joseph

Around April 1784, when he was just three years old, Louis Joseph had a series of high fevers. Out of fear for his health, he was transported to the Château de La Muette[3] where the air was reputed to have healing properties. The time spent at La Muette seemed to have helped Louis Joseph recover, and almost a year later on March 1785, Louis Joseph returned to La Muette, where he was inoculated against the smallpox. However, his health remained fragile.

In 1786, the fevers returned but his household regarded them as being of no importance. These fevers; however, were the first signs of tuberculosis. In the same year, Louis Joseph's education was turned over to men, as was customary for the sons of the kings of France. At the ceremony, it was noted that Louis Joseph had trouble walking, which was, in fact, caused by a curvature of the spine - something which was treated through the use of corsets en fer - iron corsets. By January 1788 the fevers grew more frequent and the disease progressed quickly.

Louis Joseph died at the Château de Meudon on June 4, 1789, at the age of seven and a half, during the Estates General. He was buried on June 13 in a simple ceremony at the Basilica of St Denis. On 10 August 1793, on order of the National Convention, during the Reign of Terror, his tomb, together with those of the kings and queens of France, members of the royal family, high dignitaries, abbots... were desecrated.[4]

At the death of Louis Joseph, the title of Dauphin passed to his younger brother Louis Charles, Duke of Normandy (1785–1795), who died during the French Revolution, at the Temple prison.

Legacy[edit]

Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, is named after him[5] (Louis Joseph, Dauphin of France). The Pennsylvania legislature, meeting in Philadelphia in 1785, to thank France for helping America win her independence from Great Britain, named the newly formed county, "Dauphin", northwest of Lancaster and north of York, in which Harrisburg is located. The borough of Dauphin, so named when it was incorporated in 1845, is also located in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. It is also, indirectly, named for him.

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Later Louis XVIII of France; he married Princess Marie Josephine Louise of Savoy but had no issue
  2. ^ Fraser & Marie Antoinette 2001, p. 183_195
  3. ^ Personal property of his father, Louis XVI
  4. ^ Suzanne Glover Lindsay, The Revolutionary Exhumations at St-Denis, 1793, Essay, in Conversations: An Online Journal of the Center for the Study of Material and Visual Cultures of Religion (2014), [1]
  5. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 100. 

Bibliography[edit]

History of Dauphin County, Pennsylvania Historical Commission, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

Louis Joseph, Dauphin of France
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: 22 October 1781 Died: 4 June 1789
French royalty
Preceded by
Vacant
Louis Auguste
Dauphin of France
22 October 1781 – 4 June 1789
Succeeded by
Louis Charles