# Louvre Pyramid

The Louvre Pyramid

The Louvre Pyramid (Pyramide du Louvre) is a large glass and metal pyramid designed by Chinese-American architect I.M. Pei, surrounded by three smaller pyramids, in the main courtyard (Cour Napoléon) of the Louvre Palace (Palais du Louvre) in Paris. The large pyramid serves as the main entrance to the Louvre Museum. Completed in 1989,[1] it has become a landmark of the city of Paris.

## Design and construction

Inside the Pyramid: the view of the Louvre Museum in Paris from the underground lobby of the Pyramid.

Commissioned by the President of France, François Mitterrand, in 1984, it was designed by the architect I. M. Pei. The structure, which was constructed entirely with glass segments and metal poles, reaches a height of 21.6 metres (71 ft).[2] Its square base has sides of 34 metres (112 ft) and a base surface area of 1,000 square metres (11,000 sq ft).[3] It consists of 603 rhombus-shaped and 70 triangular glass segments.[2] The pyramid structure was engineered by Nicolet Chartrand Knoll Ltd. of Montreal (Pyramid Structure / Design Consultant) and Rice Francis Ritchie of Paris (Pyramid Structure / Construction Phase).[4]

The pyramid and the underground lobby beneath it were created because of a series of problems with the Louvre's original main entrance, which could no longer handle the enormous number of visitors on an everyday basis.[citation needed] Visitors entering through the pyramid descend into the spacious lobby then re-ascend into the main Louvre buildings.[citation needed]

For design historian Mark Pimlott, "I.M. Pei’s plan distributes people effectively from the central concourse to myriad destinations within its vast subterranean network... the architectonic framework evokes, at gigantic scale, an ancient atrium of a Pompeiian villa; the treatment of the opening above, with its tracery of engineered castings and cables, evokes the atria of corporate office buildings; the busy movement of people from all directions suggests the concourses of rail termini or international airports."[5]

Several other museums have duplicated this concept, most notably the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago. The Dolphin Centre, featuring a similar pyramid, was opened in April 1982, by Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester.[6] The construction work on the pyramid base and underground lobby was carried out by the Vinci construction company.[7]

The large glass pyramid seen at night
The large glass pyramid seen by day

## History

In 1839, according to one newspaper account, in ceremonies commemorating the "glorious revolution" of 1830, "The tombs of the Louvre were covered with black hangings and adorned with tricolored flags. In front and in the middle was erected an expiatory monument of a pyramidical shape, and surmounted by a funeral vase."[8]

## Controversy

The construction of the pyramid triggered many years of strong and lively aesthetic and political debate.[9] Criticisms tended to fall into four areas: (1) the modernist style of the edifice being inconsistent with the classic French Renaissance style and history of the Louvre; (2) the pyramid being an unsuitable symbol of death from ancient Egypt; (3) the project being an immodest, pretentious, megalomaniacal folly imposed by then-President Francois Mitterrand; and (4) Chinese-American architect I.M. Pei being insufficiently French to be entrusted with the task of updating the treasured Parisian landmark.[10]

Those criticizing the aesthetics said it was "sacrilegious" to tamper with the Louvre's majestic old French Renaissance architecture, and called the pyramid an anachronistic intrusion of an Egyptian death symbolism in the middle of Paris.[11] Meanwhile, Political critics referred to the structure as Pharaoh Francois' Pyramid.[10] While some continue to feel the harsh modernism of the edifice is out of place, others consider the juxtaposition of contrasting architectural styles a successful merger of the old and the new.[12][13][14]

During the design phase, there was a proposal[by whom?] that the design include a spire on the pyramid to simplify window washing. Pei objected, however, and this proposal was eliminated.

## Urban legend of 666 panes

It has been claimed by some that the glass panes in the Louvre Pyramid number exactly 666, "the number of the beast", often associated with Satan. Dominique Stezepfandt's book François Mitterrand, Grand Architecte de l'Univers declares that "the pyramid is dedicated to a power described as the Beast in the Book of Revelation (...) The entire structure is based on the number 6."

The story of the 666 panes originated in the 1980s, when the official brochure published during construction did indeed cite this number (even twice, though a few pages earlier the total number of panes was given as 672 instead). The number 666 was also mentioned in various newspapers. The Louvre museum, however, states that the finished pyramid contains 673 glass panes (603 rhombi and 70 triangles).[2] A higher figure was obtained by David A. Shugarts, who reports that the pyramid contains 689 pieces of glass.[15] Shugarts obtained the figure from the Pei's offices.

Elementary maths allows for easy counting of the panes: each of the three sides of the pyramid without an entrance has 18 triangular panes and 17 rows of rhombic ones arranged in a triangle, thus giving ${\displaystyle \textstyle {\frac {17\cdot (17+1)}{2}}=153}$ rhombic panes (171 panes total). The side with the entrance, however, has 11 panes fewer (9 rhombic, 2 triangular), so the whole pyramid consists of ${\displaystyle 4\cdot 153-9=603}$ rhombi and ${\displaystyle 4\cdot 18-2=70}$ triangles, 673 panes total.

The myth resurfaced in 2003, when Dan Brown incorporated it in his best-selling novel The Da Vinci Code, in which the protagonist reflects that "this pyramid, at President Mitterrand's explicit demand, had been constructed of exactly 666 panes of glass — a bizarre request that had always been a hot topic among conspiracy buffs who claimed 666 was the number of Satan".[16] However, David A. Shugarts reports that according to a spokeswoman of the offices of Pei, the French President never specified the number of panes to be used in the pyramid. Noting how the 666 rumor circulated in some French newspapers in the mid-1980s, she commented: "If you only found those old articles and didn't do any deeper fact checking, and were extremely credulous, you might believe the 666 story".[15]

Comparison of approximate profiles of the Louvre Pyramid with some notable pyramidal or near-pyramidal buildings. Dotted lines indicate original heights, where data are available. In its SVG file, hover over a pyramid to highlight and click for its article.

## La Pyramide Inversée

Main article: La Pyramide Inversée

La Pyramide Inversée (The Inverted Pyramid) is a skylight in the Carrousel du Louvre shopping mall in front of the Louvre Museum. It looks like an upside-down and smaller version of the Louvre Pyramid.

## Renovation

Designed for a museum that attracted 4.5 million visitors a year, the pyramid proved inadequate by the time the Louvre's attendance had doubled in 2014. Between 2014 and 2017, the layout of the foyer area in the Cour Napoleon beneath the glass pyramid is undergoing a thorough redesign, including better access to the pyramid and the Passage Richelieu.[17]

## References

1. ^ Simons, Marlise (28 March 1993). "5 Pieces of Europe's Past Return to Life: France; A vast new exhibition space as the Louvre renovates". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 October 2008.
2. ^ a b c "Architecture: Louvre Pyramid". Glass on the Web. June 2005. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
3. ^ Official Press Release, Louvre. ""Pyramid" Project Launch: The Musée du Louvre is improving visitor reception (2014-2016)" (PDF). Louvre. p. 10. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
4. ^ "Grand Louvre: Phase I". Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
5. ^ Pimlott, Mark (2007). "The Grand Louvre & I.M. Pei". Without and Within: Essays on Territory and the Interior (Excerpt). Rotterdam: Episode Publishers. Retrieved 13 August 2012 – via artdesigncafe.
6. ^ Steer, Phil. "Dolphin Centre: Brief History". Romford Now & Then.[self-published source]
7. ^ "History". Vinci. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
8. ^
9. ^ Tempest, Rone. "Controversial New Pyramid Entrance to the Louvre Opens in Paris". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
10. ^ a b Bernstein, Richard. "I.M. Pei's Pyramid: A Provocative Plan for The Louvre". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
11. ^ Goldberger, Paul. "Pei Pyramid and New Louvre Open Today". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
12. ^ Stamberg, Susan. "Landmark At The Louvre: The Pyramid Turns 20". NPR. National Public Radio. Retrieved 16 May 2016.,
13. ^ Carbone, Ken. "Viva Le Louvre! At 20, I.M. Pei's Controversial Pyramid Defies Critics". Fast Company. Mansueto Ventures, LLC. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
14. ^ Souza, Eduardo. "AD Classics: Le Grande Louvre / I.M. Pei". Arch Daily. Plataforma Networks Broadcasting Architecture Worldwide. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
15. ^ a b Secrets of the Code, edited by Dan Burstein, p. 259.[full citation needed]
16. ^ Dan Brown. The Da Vinci Code, p. 21.[full citation needed]
17. ^ Pes, Javier (28 April 2014). "Louvre's Director Makes Unblocking Pyramid Bottleneck a Priority". The Art Newspaper. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014.