1.
Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts
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The International musical festival Svyatoslav Richter's December nights has been held in the Pushkin museum since 1981. The facility was founded by professor Ivan Tsvetaev. Tsvetaev persuaded the millionaire and philanthropist Yuriy Nechaev-Maltsov and the fashionable architect Roman Klein of the urgent need to give Moscow a fine arts museum. The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts' building was designed by Roman Klein and Vladimir Shukhov and financed primarily by Yury Nechaev-Maltsov. Construction work began in 1898 and continued till 1912. Ivan Rerberg headed structural engineering effort on the museum site for 12 years, till 1909. In 2008, President Dmitri A. Medvedev announced plans for a $177 million restoration. In 2014, Russian architect Yuri Grigoryan, his firm Project Meganom, were chosen to take over the project. Tsvetaev's dream was realised in May 1912, when the museum opened its doors to the public. The museum was originally named after Alexander III, although the government provided only 200,000 rubles toward its construction, in comparison with over 2 million from Nechaev-Maltsev. Its first exhibits were copies of ancient statuary, thought indispensable for the education of art students. The only genuinely ancient items - Moscow Mathematical Papyrus and Story of Wenamun - had been contributed by Vladimir Golenishchev three years earlier. The entire collection of Western art from the Museum Roumjantsev was added too. These paintings formed a nucleus of the Pushkin museum's collections of Western art. But the most important paintings were added later from the State Museum of New Western Art.
Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts
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Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts.
Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts
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André Derain, 1905, Le séchage des voiles (The Drying Sails), oil on canvas, 82 x 101 cm. Exhibited at the 1905 Salon d'Automne
Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts
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Eberswalde Hoard
Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts
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Priam's Treasure
2.
Thirteenth dynasty of Egypt
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The Thirteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom. Some writers join it to Dynasties XIV as part of the Second Intermediate Period. Dynasty XIII lasted from approximately 1803 BC until approximately 1649 BC, i.e. for 154 years. The 13th dynasty was a direct continuation of the preceding 12th dynasty, with its first ruler believed to be a son of Amenemhat IV. In later texts, this dynasty is usually described as an era of chaos and disorder. Unfortunately, the true chronology of this dynasty is difficult to determine as there are few monuments dating from the period. Many of the kings' names are only known from odd fragmentary inscriptions or from scarabs. The names and order in the table are based on Dodson and Hilton and Ryholt. Following these kings, the remaining rulers of the 13th Dynasty are only attested by finds from Upper Egypt. This may indicate the abandonment of the old capital Itjtawy in favor of Thebes. Daphna Ben Tor believes that this event was triggered by the invasion of the eastern Delta and the Memphite region by Canaanite rulers. For some authors, this marks the end of the Middle Kingdom and the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. Unfortunately, the stele is of unknown provenance. This is now the dominant hypothesis in Egyptology and Sobekhotep Sekhemre Khutawy is referred to as Sobekhotep I in this article. Dodson and Hilton similarly believe that Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep predated Khaankhre Sobekhotep.
Thirteenth dynasty of Egypt
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Statue of the royal sealer and high steward Gebu, 13th dynasty, c. 1700 BC from the temple of Amun in Karnak.
3.
Second Intermediate Period of Egypt
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It is best known as the period whose reign comprised the Fifteenth dynasty. The Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt came with the death of Queen Sobekneferu. Retaining the seat of the twelfth dynasty, the thirteenth dynasty ruled from Itjtawy near Memphis and Lisht, south of the apex of the Nile Delta. The Thirteenth Dynasty is notable for the accession of the first formally Khendjer. The Fifteenth Dynasty dates approximately from 1650 to 1550 BC. Known rulers of the Fifteenth Dynasty are as follows: c. 1590? BC-1550 BC Khamudi, c. 1550-1540 BC The Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt was the first Hyksos dynasty, ruled from Avaris, without control of the entire land. The Hyksos preferred to stay in northern Egypt since they infiltrated from the north-east. The names and order of kings is uncertain. The Turin King list indicates that there were six Hyksos kings, with an obscure Khamudi listed as the final king of the Fifteenth Dynasty. This is also supported by the fact that this king employed a third prenomen during his reign: Nebkhepeshre. Apepi likely employed different prenomens throughout various periods of his reign. The Sixteenth Dynasty ruled the Theban region for 70 years. Of the two chief versions of Manetho's Aegyptiaca, Dynasty XVI is described by the more reliable Africanus as "shepherd kings", but as Theban.
Second Intermediate Period of Egypt
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Thebes (Luxor Temple pictured) was the capital of many of the Dynasty XVI pharaohs.
4.
Thebes, Egypt
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Thebes, known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about 800 kilometers south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the Egyptian city of Luxor. Thebes was the main city of the Upper Egyptian nome. It was close to the eastern desert, with their valuable mineral resources and trade routes. It was the wealthiest city of ancient Egypt at its heyday. Thebes is the Latinized form of the hellenized form of the Demotic Egyptian Ta-pe. This was the local name not for the Karnak temple complex on the northern east bank of the city. From the end of the New Kingdom, Thebes was known as Niwt-Imn the "City of Amun". Amun was the chief of the Theban Triad of gods whose other members were Mut and Khonsu. This name probably also as the "No" mentioned in Ezekiel and Jeremiah. In the graeca, Amun was seen as a form of Zeus. The name was therefore translated as Diospolis the "City of Zeus". To distinguish it by this name, it was known as the Great Diospolis. Thebes was located along the banks of the Nile River from the Delta. It was built largely on the alluvial plains of the Nile Valley which follows a great bend of the Nile.
Thebes, Egypt
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Egypt - Temple of Seti, east entrance, Thebes. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection
Thebes, Egypt
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Luxor Temple
Thebes, Egypt
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The Theban Necropolis
5.
Hieratic
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It is a cursive writing system used in the provenance of the pharaohs in Egypt and Nubia. Hieratic developed alongside cursive hieroglyphs, from which it is separate yet intimately related. Hieratic was primarily written with a reed brush on papyrus allowing scribes to write quickly without resorting to the time-consuming hieroglyphs. In the 2nd AD, the term hieratic was first used by Saint Clement of Alexandria. It can also be an adjective meaning "f or associated with sacred offices; sacerdotal." In the Proto-Dynastic Period of Egypt, hieratic first developed alongside the more formal hieroglyphic script. Hieratic is an error to view hieratic as a derivative of hieroglyphic writing. Indeed, the earliest texts from Egypt are produced with no indication their signs are descendants of hieroglyphs. Monumental hieroglyphs carved in stone did not appear until the 1st Dynasty, well after hieratic had been established as a scribal practice. The two writing systems, therefore, are parallel developments, rather than a single linear one. It was used into the Graeco-Roman Period. During the Græco-Roman period, when Demotic had become the administrative script, hieratic was limited primarily to religious texts. In general, hieratic was much more important than hieroglyphs throughout Egypt's history, being the script used in daily life. Hieratic was also the system first taught to students, knowledge of hieroglyphs being limited to a small minority who were given additional training. In fact, Hieratic is often possible to detect errors in hieroglyphic texts that came about due to a misunderstanding of an hieratic text.
Hieratic
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One of four official letters to vizier Khay copied onto fragments of limestone (an ostracon).
Hieratic
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Hieratic
Hieratic
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Exercise tablet with hieratic excerpt from The Instructions of Amenemhat. Dynasty XVIII, reign of Amenhotep I, c. 1514–1493 BC. Text reads: "Be on your guard against all who are subordinate to you... Trust no brother, know no friend, make no intimates."
6.
Egyptian mathematics
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Ancient Egyptian mathematics is the mathematics, developed and used in Ancient Egypt c.3000 to c.300 BC. Written evidence of the use of mathematics dates back to at least 3000 BC with the ivory labels found in Tomb U-j at Abydos. These labels appear to have been used as tags for grave goods and some are inscribed with numbers. The lines in the diagram are spaced at a distance of one cubit and show the use of that unit of measurement. The earliest true mathematical documents date to the 12th dynasty. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus which dates to the Second Intermediate Period is said to be based on an older mathematical text from the 12th dynasty. The Moscow Mathematical Papyrus and Rhind Mathematical Papyrus are so-called mathematical problem texts. They consist of a collection of problems with solutions. These texts may have been written by a teacher or a student engaged in solving typical mathematics problems. An interesting feature of Ancient Egyptian mathematics is the use of unit fractions. Scribes used tables to help them work with these fractions. The Egyptian Mathematical Leather Roll for instance is a table of unit fractions which are expressed as sums of other unit fractions. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus and some of the other texts contain 2 n tables. These tables allowed the scribes to rewrite any fraction of the form 1 n as a sum of unit fractions. In the worker's village of Deir el-Medina several ostraca have been found that record volumes of dirt removed while quarrying the tombs.
Egyptian mathematics
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Slab stela of Old Kingdom princess Neferetiabet (dated 2590–2565 BC) from her tomb at Giza, painting on limestone, now in the Louvre.
Egyptian mathematics
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Image of Problem 14 from the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus. The problem includes a diagram indicating the dimensions of the truncated pyramid.
7.
Egyptologist
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A practitioner of the discipline is an "Egyptologist". The first explorers were the ancient Egyptians themselves. Thutmose IV had the dream that inspired his restoration carved on the famous Stele. Less than two centuries later, fourth son of Ramesses II, is famed for restoring historic buildings, tombs and temples including the pyramid. Many including the pyramids, were restored by them. The Romans too carried out restoration work in this most ancient of lands. A number of their accounts have survived and offer insights as to conditions in their respective time periods. A teacher at Cairo's Al-Azhar University in the 13th century, wrote detailed descriptions on Egyptian monuments. Similarly, the Egyptian al-Maqrizi wrote detailed accounts of Egyptian antiquities. The British captured Egypt from the French and gained the Rosetta Stone. Modern Egyptology is generally perceived as beginning about 1822. Egyptology's modern history begins with the invasion of Egypt by Napoleon Bonaparte. The subsequent publication of Description de l'Égypte between 1829 made numerous Egyptian source materials available to Europeans for the first time. Ippolito Rosellini were some of the first Egyptologists of wide acclaim. The German Karl Richard Lepsius was an early participant in the investigations of Egypt; recording several sites.
Egyptologist
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The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafre's Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex
Egyptologist
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Hieroglyphs and depictions transcribed by Ippolito Rosellini in 1832
Egyptologist
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A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs
8.
Vladimir Golenishchev
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Vladimir Semyonovich Golenishchev was one of the first and most accomplished Russian Egyptologists. The son of a well-to-do merchant, was educated at the Saint Petersburg University. In 1884 -- 85 he financed excavations in Wadi Hammamat, followed by the research at Tell el-Maskhuta in 1888 -- 89. He also published the so-called Hermitage papyri, including the Prophecy of Neferti, now stored in the Hermitage Museum. Having sold his collection to the Moscow Museum of Fine Arts in 1909, Golenishchev settled in Egypt. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, he never returned to Russia, residing in Nice and Cairo. In Egypt, he held the chair in Egyptology at the University of Cairo from 1924 to 1929. He was also employed by the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, where he catalogued hieratic papyri. Golenishchev died in Nice aged 90. His papers are held at the Centre Wl. Paris and also in the Griffith Institute, Oxford. Egyptian Collection of the Hermitage Museum Oscar Eduardovich Lemm Boris Turayev Centre Wl. Golenischeff, Paris Bibliography of Vladimir Golenishchev
Vladimir Golenishchev
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Vladimir Golenishchev
9.
Palaeography
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Palaeography or paleography is the study of ancient and historical handwriting. The discipline is important for understanding, authenticating, dating ancient texts. However, it cannot in general be used to pinpoint dates with high precision. Palaeography can be an essential skill for historians and philologists, as it tackles two main difficulties. Knowledge of abbreviations enables the palaeographer to understand the text. Palaeography can be used to provide information about the date at which a document was written. Scholars also tend to oversimplify diachronic development, assuming models of simplicity rather than complexity". The Aramaic script was written in a consonantal form with a direction from right to left. One innovation in Aramaic is the matres lectionis system to indicate certain vowels. Early Phoenician-derived scripts did not have letters for vowels, so most texts recorded just consonants. Most likely as a consequence of phonetic changes in North Semitic languages, the Aramaeans reused certain letters in the alphabet to represent long vowels. The letter aleph was employed to write /ā/, he for /ō/, yod for /ī/, vav for /ū/. Aramaic writing and language supplanted Babylonian cuneiform and Akkadian language, even in their homeland in Mesopotamia. The wide diffusion of Aramaic letters led to its writing being used not only in monumental inscriptions, but also on papyrus and potsherds. In the Aramaic papyri and potsherds, words are separated usually by a small gap, as in modern writing.
Palaeography
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William Shakespeare's will, written in secretary hand: a script difficult for modern readers to interpret
Palaeography
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Table showing the Mandaic alphabet (Abagada) with some of the mysteries represented by the letters
Palaeography
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Detail of the Berlin papyrus 9875 showing the 5th column of Timotheus' Persae, with a coronis symbol to mark the end.
Palaeography
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The Derveni Papyrus, a Greek Macedonian philosophical text dating around 340 BC, considered Europe's oldest manuscript
10.
Soviet Union
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A union of multiple subnational Soviet republics, economy were highly centralized. The Soviet Union was a one-party federation, governed by the Communist Party as its capital. They established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, beginning a civil war between the counter-revolutionary "Whites." In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian, Byelorussian republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin initiated a centrally planned command economy. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, after which the two countries invaded Poland in September 1939. In June 1941 the Germans invaded, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945. The territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of economic liberalization, known as "de-Stalinization" and "Khrushchev's Thaw", occurred under the leadership of Nikita Khrushchev. The country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took an early lead with the first ever satellite and the first human spaceflight. The war was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters.
Soviet Union
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Vladimir Lenin addressing a crowd with Trotsky, 1920
Soviet Union
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Flag
Soviet Union
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Stalin and Nikolai Yezhov, head of the NKVD. After Yezhov was executed, he was edited out of the image.
Soviet Union
11.
Oriental studies
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European study of the region formerly known as "the Orient" had primarily religious origins, which has remained an important motivation until recent times. The Greek translations from Arabic, was an important factor in the Middle Ages. From the 18th century archaeology became a link from the discipline to a wide European public, as treasures brought back filled new European museums. In the last century, itself have participated on equal terms in the discipline. The classical world had very imprecise knowledge of most of the world further East, including the "Seres". However, there was substantial Roman trade with India in the Imperial period. During the Middle Ages, Muslims and Jews were considered the "alien" enemies of Christendom. Gerard of others based themselves in Al-Andaluz to take advantage of the Arabic libraries and scholars there. Later, with the Christian Reconquista in full progress, such contacts became rarer in Spain. Chairs of Hebrew, Arabic and Aramaic were briefly established at four other universities following the Council of Vienne. There was vague from which luxury goods were imported. From the Age of Exploration, European interest in mapping Asia, especially the sea-routes, became intense, though mostly pursued outside the universities. University Oriental studies became systematic with the linguistic and religious aspects initially continuing to dominate. There was also a political dimension, as translations for diplomatic purposes were needed, even before the West engaged actively beyond the Ottoman Empire. The chair in Arabic was founded in about 1643.
Oriental studies
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Ancient Assyrian antiquities in the British Museum. In the 19th century the placing of spectacular antiquities in the new museums brought unusual interest from the general public to Oriental studies.
Oriental studies
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Hayton of Corycus remitting his report on the Mongols, to Pope Clement V, in 1307.
Oriental studies
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Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi (徐光啟) (right) in the Chinese edition of Euclid's Elements (幾何原本) published in 1607.
Oriental studies
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The old building of the Asiatic Society in Calcutta, founded by William Jones in 1784.
12.
Rhind Mathematical Papyrus
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The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus is one of the best known examples of Egyptian mathematics. It dates to around BC. It is one of the two well-known Mathematical Papyri along with the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus. The Rhind Papyrus is larger than the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus, while the latter is older than the former. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus dates to the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. It was copied from a now-lost text from the reign of king Amenemhat III. Written in the hieratic script, this Egyptian manuscript consists of multiple parts which in total make it over 5m long. The papyrus began to be mathematically translated in the late 19th century. The mathematical aspect remains incomplete in several respects. The Ahmose writes this copy. A handful of these stand out. A more recent overview of the Rhind Papyrus was published by Robins and Shute. The first part of the Rhind papyrus consists of a collection of 21 arithmetic and 20 algebraic problems. The problems start out followed by completion problems and more involved linear equations. The first part of the papyrus is taken up by the 2/n table.
Rhind Mathematical Papyrus
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A portion of the Rhind Papyrus
Rhind Mathematical Papyrus
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Building
13.
Frustum
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In geometry, a frustum is the portion of a solid that lies between one or two parallel planes cutting it. A right frustum is a parallel truncation of a right pyramid. The term is commonly used in computer graphics to describe the three-dimensional region, visible on the screen. It is formed by a clipped pyramid; in particular, culling is a method of hidden surface determination. In the industry, frustum is the common term for the fairing between two stages of a multistage rocket, shaped like a truncated cone. Each section is a floor or base of the frustum. Its axis if any, is that of the original pyramid. A frustum is circular if it has circular bases; it is right if the axis is oblique otherwise. The height of a frustum is the distance between the planes of the two bases. Pyramids can be viewed as degenerate cases of frusta, where one of the cutting planes passes through the apex. The pyramidal frusta are a subclass of the prismatoids. Two frusta joined at their bases make a bifrustum. Where b are the base and top side lengths of the truncated pyramid, h is the height. Substituting from its definition, the Heronian mean of areas B1 and B2 is obtained. Certain Native American mounds also form the frustum of a pyramid.
Frustum
14.
Cubit
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The cubit is an ancient unit based on the forearm length from the middle finger tip to the elbow bottom. Cubits of various lengths were employed in many parts of the world in antiquity, during the Middle Ages and as recently Early Modern Times. The term is still used in the length of the forearm being frequently used to determine the interval between stakes placed within the hedge. The Egyptian royal cubit is the earliest attested standard measure. Cubit rods were used for the measurement of length. Fourteen such rods, including one cubit rod, were described and compared by Lepsius in 1865. The bar dates from c. 2650 BC and Unger claimed it was used as a standard. This irregularly formed and irregularly marked rule supposedly defined the Sumerian cubit as about 518.6 mm. The Near Eastern or Biblical cubit is usually estimated as approximately 457.2 mm. The Greek cubit, called a pēchys, measured approximately 462.4 mm. The short cubit from the wrist to the elbow, called the pygmē, measured approximately 345.4 mm. According to Vitruvius, a cubit was equal to 1 1⁄2 Roman feet or 6 palm widths. A cubit arm in heraldry may be sinister. It may be vested and may be shown in various positions, most commonly erect, but also fesswise, is often shown grasping objects. It is most often used erect by the families of Poyntz of Iron Acton Rolle of Stevenstone and Turton.
Cubit
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Egyptian cubit rod in the Liverpool World Museum
Cubit
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Cubit rod of Maya, 1336-1327 BC (Eighteenth Dynasty)
Cubit
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Cubit rod from the Turin Museum.
Cubit
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The Nippur cubit-rod in the Archeological Museum of Istanbul, Turkey
15.
Egyptian hieroglyphs
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Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt. It combined alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters. Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood. Egyptian scripts are derived from hieroglyphic writing; Meroitic was a late derivation from Demotic. The system continued to be used throughout the Late Period, well as the Persian and Ptolemaic periods. Late survivals of hieroglyphic use are found well into the Roman period, extending into the 4th century AD. The decipherment of hieroglyphs would only be solved with the help of the Rosetta Stone. The hieroglyph comes from a compound of ἱερός and γλύφω, supposedly a calque of an Egyptian phrase mdw · w-nṯr "god's words". The glyphs themselves were called τὰ ἱερογλυφικὰ γράμματα "the sacred engraved letters". The hieroglyph has become a noun in English, standing for an hieroglyphic character. As used in the previous sentence, the word hieroglyphic is an adjective, but hieroglyphic has also become a noun in English, at least in non-academic usage. Hieroglyphs emerged from the preliterate artistic traditions of Egypt. For example, symbols on Gerzean pottery from c. 4000 BC have been argued to resemble hieroglyphic writing. There are around 800 hieroglyphs dating back to New Kingdom Eras. By the Greco-Roman period, there are more than 5,000.
Egyptian hieroglyphs
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A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs.
Egyptian hieroglyphs
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Hieroglyphs on a funerary stela in Manchester Museum
Egyptian hieroglyphs
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The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum
Egyptian hieroglyphs
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Hieroglyphs typical of the Graeco-Roman period
16.
Sphere
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A sphere is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space, the surface of a completely round ball. The given point is the center of the mathematical ball. While outside mathematics the terms "sphere" and "ball" are sometimes used interchangeably, in mathematics a distinction is made between the ball. The sphere share the same radius, diameter, center. The area of a sphere is: A = 4 π r 2. The total volume is the summation of all shell volumes: V ≈ ∑ A ⋅ r. In the limit as δr approaches zero this equation becomes: V = ∫ 0 r A d r ′. Substitute V: 4 3 π r 3 = ∫ 0 r A d r ′. Differentiating both sides of this equation with respect to r yields A as a function of r: 4 π r 2 = A. Which is generally abbreviated as: A = 4 π r 2. Alternatively, the element on the sphere is given in spherical coordinates by dA = r2 sin θ dθ dφ. For more generality, see element. Archimedes first derived this formula, which shows that the volume inside a sphere is 2/3 that of a circumscribed cylinder. The total volume is the summation of all incremental volumes: V ≈ ∑ π y 2 ⋅ δ x. In the limit as δx approaches zero this equation becomes: V = ∫ − r r π y 2 d x.
Sphere
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Circumscribed cylinder to a sphere
Sphere
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A two-dimensional perspective projection of a sphere
Sphere
Sphere
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Deck of playing cards illustrating engineering instruments, England, 1702. King of spades: Spheres
17.
Volume
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Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance or shape occupies or contains. Volume is often quantified numerically using the cubic metre. Three mathematical shapes are also assigned volumes. Circular shapes can be easily calculated using arithmetic formulas. Volumes of a complicated shape can be calculated by integral calculus if a formula exists for the shape's boundary. Two-dimensional shapes are assigned zero volume in the three-dimensional space. The volume of a solid can be determined by fluid displacement. Displacement of liquid can also be used to determine the volume of a gas. The combined volume of two substances is usually greater than the volume of one of the substances. However, sometimes one substance dissolves in the combined volume is not additive. In geometry, volume is expressed by means of the volume form, is an important global Riemannian invariant. In thermodynamics, volume is a conjugate variable to pressure. Any unit of length gives a corresponding unit of volume: the volume of a cube whose sides have the given length. For example, a cubic centimetre is the volume of a cube whose sides are one centimetre in length. In the International System of Units, the standard unit of volume is the cubic metre.
Volume
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A measuring cup can be used to measure volumes of liquids. This cup measures volume in units of cups, fluid ounces, and millilitres.
18.
Berlin Papyrus 6619
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The two readable fragments were published by Hans Schack-Schackenburg in 1902. The papyrus is one of the primary sources of Egyptian mathematics. The Berlin Papyrus contains two problems, the first stated as "the area of a square of 100 is equal to that of two smaller squares. The side of one is + 1/4 the side of the other." Papyrology Timeline of mathematics Egyptian fraction Simultaneous equation examples from the Berlin papyrus Two algebra problems compared to RMP algebra Two suggested solutions
Berlin Papyrus 6619
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Berlin Papyrus 6619, as reproduced in 1900 by Schack-Schackenburg
19.
Boris Turaev
–
Boris Alexandrovich Turayev was a Russian scholar who studied the Ancient Near East. He was admitted in 1918. After graduating from the University of St Petersburg Turayev worked in museums of Berlin, Paris and London. Since 1896, he delivered lectures at the University of St Petersburg. He was an ordinary professor of this university since 1911. For a time he lived in the building, preparing the collection for exhibition. His own collection of Egyptian antiquities went to the State Hermitage. Boris Turayev's magnum opus, History of Ancient East, brought him recognition throughout Europe. It was the comprehensive study that analyzed the whole history and culture of the Ancient Middle East. He also wrote books about Egyptian mythology. Complete Bibliography of Boris Turayev Turaev's History of the Ancient East online
Boris Turaev
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Boris Turayev.
20.
Great Soviet Encyclopedia
–
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias. Published by Russia. The GSE claimed to be the general-purpose encyclopedia. The idea of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia emerged on the initiative of a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. There were three editions. The first edition of 65 volumes was published during 1926–1947, the chief editor being Otto Schmidt. The third edition of 1969–1978 contains 30 volumes. An exact replica of the third edition, was published by Rubricon.com in 2000. ... With exhaustive completeness it must show the superiority of socialist culture over the culture of the capitalist world. Operating on the encyclopedia should give tendencies in various provinces of science and technics. The third edition of the GSE subsequently expanded on the role of education: "Education is essential to preparing for life and work. They are working under a directive that orders them to orient their encyclopedia sharply as a political tract. The encyclopedia was thus planned to provide the intellectual underpinning for the Soviet world offensive in the duel for men's minds. The Soviet government ordered it as a fighting propaganda weapon.
Great Soviet Encyclopedia
–
Большая советская энциклопедия
Great Soviet Encyclopedia
–
Complete set of an English-language version of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia
21.
JSTOR
–
JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing back issues of academic journals, it now also includes books and primary sources, current issues of journals. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals. President of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, founded JSTOR. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of space to maintain a comprehensive collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term. Full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution. JSTOR originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. It became a fully searchable index accessible from any ordinary web browser. Special software was put in place to make graphs clear and readable. With the success of this limited project, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. The work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially. Until January 2009 JSTOR operated in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
JSTOR
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The JSTOR front page
22.
Moscow Mathematical Papyrus
–
Golenishchev bought the papyrus in 1892 or 1893 in Thebes. It later entered the collection of the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow, where it remains today. It is a mathematical papyrus along with the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. The Moscow Mathematical Papyrus is older than the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, while the latter is the larger of the two. The papyrus is well known for some of its geometry problems. Problems 10 and 14 compute a surface area and the volume of a frustum respectively. The remaining problems are more common in nature. 3 are ship's part problems. Aha problems involve finding unknown quantities if the sum of the part of it are given. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus also contains four of these type of problems. Problems 1, 25 of the Moscow Papyrus are Aha problems. For problem 19 asks one to calculate a quantity taken 1 and 1/2 times and added to 4 to make 10. The pefsu number is mentioned in many offering lists. Calculate 1/2 of the result will be 2 1/2 Take this 2 1/2 four times The result is 10. Then you say to him: "Behold!
Moscow Mathematical Papyrus
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14th problem of the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (V. Struve, 1930)
Moscow Mathematical Papyrus
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