Mysteries of Egypt
- Omar Sharif - Grandfather
- Kate Maberly - Granddaughter
- Timothy Davies - Howard Carter
- Julian Curry - Carnarvon
1. IMAX – IMAX is a motion picture film format and a set of cinema projection standards developed in Canada by Graeme Ferguson, Roman Kroitor, Robert Kerr, and William C. IMAX has the capacity to record and display images of far greater size, since 2002, some feature films have been converted into IMAX format for displaying in IMAX theatres and some have also been partially shot in IMAX. IMAX is the most widely used system for special-venue film presentations, as of June 2016, there were 1,102 IMAX theatres in 69 countries. The desire to increase the impact of film has a long history. In 1929, Fox introduced Fox Grandeur, the first 70 mm film format, in the 1950s, the potential of 35 mm film to provide wider projected images was explored in the processes of CinemaScope and VistaVision, following multi-projector systems such as Cinerama. While impressive, Cinerama was difficult to install, during Expo 67 in Montreal, the National Film Board of Canadas In the Labyrinth and Fergusons Man and the Polar Regions both used multi-projector, multi-screen systems. Each encountered technical difficulties led them to found a company called Multiscreen. As it became clear that a single, large-screen image had more impact than multiple smaller ones and was a viable product direction. An IMAX 3D theatre also is in operation near the former Expo 67 site at the Montreal Science Centre in the Port of Old Montreal, tiger Child, the first IMAX film, was demonstrated at Expo 70 in Osaka, Japan. The first permanent IMAX installation was built at the Cinesphere theatre at Ontario Place in Toronto and it debuted in May 1971, showing the film North of Superior. The installation is still in place, however, Ontario Place is on hiatus for redevelopment, during Expo 74 in Spokane, Washington, an IMAX screen that measured 27 m ×20 m was featured in the US Pavilion. It became the first IMAX Theatre to not be partnered with any brand of movie theaters. About five million visitors viewed the screen, which covered the total visual field when looking directly forward. This created a sensation of motion in most viewers, and motion sickness in some, much to the dismay of the majority of Spokane and the disapproval of the IMAX Corporation itself, it will be demolished because of its inability to project films digitally. An IMAX 3D & Digital theater was built in Spokane. However, its screen-size is less than half that of the original, due to protests, the IMAX Corporation has been able to remodel the area with the city, and turn the U. S. Pavilion itself into the first permanent outdoor IMAX screen, the first permanent IMAX Dome installation, the Eugene Heikoff and Marilyn Jacobs Heikoff Dome Theatre at the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center, opened in San Diegos Balboa Park in 1973, the first permanent IMAX 3D theatre was built in Vancouver, British Columbia for Transitions at Expo 86, and was in use until September 30,2009IMAX – Audiences view a film using 3D glasses.
2. Howard Carter – Howard Carter was an English archaeologist and Egyptologist who became world-famous after discovering the intact tomb of the 18th Dynasty Pharaoh, Tutankhamun in November 1922. Howard Carter was born in Kensington on 9 May 1874, the son of Samuel John Carter, an artist and his father trained and developed Howards artistic talents. Carter spent much of his childhood with relatives in the Norfolk market town of Swaffham, nearby was the mansion of the Amherst family, Didlington Hall, containing a sizable collection of Egyptian antiques, which sparked Carters interest in that subject. Although only 17, Carter was innovative in improving the methods of copying tomb decoration, in 1892, he worked under the tutelage of Flinders Petrie for one season at Amarna, the capital founded by the pharaoh Akhenaten. From 1894 to 1899, he worked with Édouard Naville at Deir el-Bahari, in 1899, Carter was appointed to the position of Chief Inspector of the Egyptian Antiquities Service. He supervised a number of excavations at Thebes, in 1904, he was transferred to the Inspectorate of Lower Egypt. Carter was praised for his improvements in the protection of, and accessibility to, existing excavation sites, the Antiquities Service also provided funding for Carter to head his own excavation projects. Carter sided with the Egyptian personnel, in 1907, after three hard years for Carter, Lord Carnarvon employed him to supervise Carnarvons Egyptian excavations in the Valley of the Kings. Gaston Maspero introduced the two to ensure that Howard Carter imposed modern archaeological methods and systems of recording, Carnarvon financed Carters work in the Valley of the Kings to 1914, but excavations and study were interrupted until 1917 by the First World War. Carter enthusiastically resumed his work following the end of the First World War, on 4 November 1922, Carters excavation group found steps that Carter hoped led to Tutankhamuns tomb, and he wired Lord Carnarvon to come to Egypt. He was able to peer in by the light of a candle and see many of the gold. He did not yet know whether it was a tomb or merely a cache, Carnarvon asked, Can you see anything. Carter replied with the words, Yes, wonderful things. The next several months were spent cataloguing the contents of the antechamber under the often stressful supervision of Pierre Lacau, director general of the Department of Antiquities of Egypt. On 16 February 1923, Carter opened the doorway and found that it did indeed lead to a burial chamber. Carters own notes and photographic evidence indicate that he, Lord Carnarvon, the tomb is considered the best preserved and most intact pharaonic tomb ever found in the Valley of the Kings. The clearance of the tomb with its thousands of objects continued until 1932, following his sensational discovery, Carter retired from archaeology and became a part-time agent for collectors and museums, including the Cleveland Museum of Art and the Detroit Institute of Arts. Carter died of lymphoma in Kensington, London, on 2 March 1939, Carter is now buried in Putney Vale Cemetery in LondonHoward Carter – Howard Carter
3. Tutankhamun – Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period. He has, since his discovery, been referred to as King Tut. His original name, Tutankhaten, means Living Image of Aten, in hieroglyphs, the name Tutankhamun was typically written Amen-tut-ankh, because of a scribal custom that placed a divine name at the beginning of a phrase to show appropriate reverence. The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon of Tutankhamuns nearly intact tomb received worldwide press coverage and it sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamuns mask, now in the Egyptian Museum, remains the popular symbol. Exhibits of artifacts from his tomb have toured the world, in February 2010, the results of DNA tests confirmed that he was the son of Akhenaten. His mother was Akhenatens sister and wife, whose name is unknown, the mysterious deaths of a few of those who excavated Tutankhamuns tomb has been popularly attributed to the curse of the pharaohs. Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten and one of Akhenatens sisters, as a prince, he was known as Tutankhaten. He ascended to the throne in 1333 BC, at the age of nine or ten and his wet nurse was a woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara. His teacher was most likely Sennedjem, when he became king, he married his half-sister, Ankhesenpaaten, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun. They had two daughters, both stillborn, computed tomography studies released in 2011 revealed that one daughter died at 5–6 months of pregnancy and the other at 9 months of pregnancy. No evidence was found in either mummy of congenital anomalies or an apparent cause of death, given his age, the king probably had very powerful advisers, presumably including General Horemheb and Grand Vizier Ay. Horemheb records that the king appointed him lord of the land as hereditary prince to maintain law and he also noted his ability to calm the young king when his temper flared. In his third year, under the influence of his advisors. He ended the worship of the god Aten and restored the god Amun to supremacy, the ban on the cult of Amun was lifted and traditional privileges were restored to its priesthood. The capital was moved back to Thebes and the city of Akhetaten abandoned and this is when he changed his name to Tutankhamun, Living image of Amun, reinforcing the restoration of Amun. As part of his restoration, the king initiated building projects, in particular at Karnak in Thebes, many monuments were erected, and an inscription on his tomb door declares the king had spent his life in fashioning the images of the gods. The traditional festivals were now celebrated again, including those related to the Apis Bull, Horemakhet and his restoration stela says, The temples of the gods and goddesses. Their shrines were deserted and overgrown and their sanctuaries were as non-existent and their courts were used as roadsTutankhamun – Mask of Tutankhamun's mummy, the popular icon for ancient Egypt at The Egyptian Museum.
4. Omar Sharif – Omar Sharif was an Egyptian actor. He began his career in his country in the 1950s. His films included Lawrence of Arabia, Doctor Zhivago, and Funny Girl and he was nominated for an Academy Award. He won three Golden Globe Awards and a César Award, Sharif, who spoke Arabic, English, Greek, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian fluently, was often cast as a foreigner of some sort. He bridled at travel restrictions imposed by the government of Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser, the estrangement led to an amicable divorce from his wife, the iconic Egyptian actress Faten Hamama. He had converted to Islam in order to marry her and he was a lifelong horse racing enthusiast, and at one time ranked among the worlds top contract bridge players. Omar Sharif, whose adopted surname means noble or nobleman in Arabic, was born on 10 April 1932 as Michel Dimitri Chalhoub in Alexandria, Egypt, to a Melkite Catholic family. His father, Joseph Chalhoub, a precious woods merchant originally from Zahlé, Lebanon, moved to the city of Alexandria in the early 20th century. His family moved to Cairo when he was four and his mother, Claire Saada, was a noted society hostess, and Egypts King Farouk was a regular visitor prior to his deposition in 1952. In his youth, Sharif studied at Victoria College, Cairo and he later graduated from Cairo University with a degree in mathematics and physics. He worked for a while in his fathers precious wood business before studying acting at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, in 1955, Sharif changed his name and converted to Islam in order to marry fellow Egyptian actress Faten Hamama. In 1954, Sharif began his career in Egypt with a role in Shaytan Al-Sahra. In the same year he appeared in Sira Fi al-Wadi and he quickly rose to stardom, appearing in Egyptian productions, including La Anam in 1958, Sayyidat al-Qasr in 1959 and the Anna Karenina adaptation Nahr el hub in 1961. He and his wife co-starred in several movies as romantic leads, Sharifs first English-language role was that of Sherif Ali in David Leans historical epic Lawrence of Arabia in 1962. Casting Sharif in what is now considered one of the most demanding supporting roles in Hollywood history was complex and risky as he was virtually unknown at the time outside of Egypt. However, as historian Steven Charles Caton notes, Lean insisted on using ethnic actors when possible to make the film authentic, Sharif would later use his ambiguous ethnicity in other films, I spoke French, Greek, Italian, Spanish and even Arabic, he said. As Sharif noted, his accent enabled him to play the role of a foreigner without anyone knowing exactly where I came from, over the next few years, Sharif co-starred in other films, including Behold a Pale Horse. Director Fred Zinnemann said he chose Sharif partly on the suggestion of David Lean and he said he was an absolutely marvelous actor, If you possibly can take a look at himOmar Sharif – Sharif in 1963
5. Julian Curry – Julian Curry is an English actor best known for playing Claude Erskine-Browne in ITVs comedy-drama Rumpole of the Bailey. The son of William Burnlee Curry and Marjorie Graham Curry, he made his first television appearance in 1965 in an episode of the series For Whom the Bell Tolls, at the National Theatre he has appeared in Measure for Measure, The Bacchae, and The Alchemist. He has toured with the Old Vic Company, the RSC, Curry also holds a Diploma from the Wine and Spirit Education Trust, and was for some years a freelance member of the Circle of Wine Writers. He has performed his one-man entertainment Hic. or The Entire History of Wine over 150 times in many parts of the world and he wrote and recorded the Naxos audiobook A Guide to Wine. He is also the author of Shakespeare on Stage, a collection of interviews with thirteen leading actors focussing on specific Shakespearean roles and he was married to actress Sheila Reid but the marriage was dissolved. He was later married to Josephine Edmunds but the marriage was also dissolved and they have two sons, Finn and Patrick. He is currently married to actress and writer Mary Chater, smashing Time The Mini-Affair - Ronnie The Brontë Sisters - Mr. Lazovert Vanished. A Video Seance - Father Seven Days to Live - Prof. Ed Saunders Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow - Dr. Vargas Julian Curry at the Internet Movie DatabaseJulian Curry – Julian Curry at the STR annual Theatre Book Prize presentation in May 2011
6. Internet Movie Database – In 1998 it became a subsidiary of Amazon Inc, who were then able to use it as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes. As of January 2017, IMDb has approximately 4.1 million titles and 7.7 million personalities in its database, the site enables registered users to submit new material and edits to existing entries. Although all data is checked before going live, the system has open to abuse. The site also featured message boards which stimulate regular debates and dialogue among authenticated users, IMDb shutdown the message boards permanently on February 20,2017. Anyone with a connection can read the movie and talent pages of IMDb. A registration process is however, to contribute info to the site. A registered user chooses a name for themselves, and is given a profile page. These badges range from total contributions made, to independent categories such as photos, trivia, bios, if a registered user or visitor happens to be in the entertainment industry, and has an IMDb page, that user/visitor can add photos to that page by enrolling in IMDbPRO. Actors, crew, and industry executives can post their own resume and this fee enrolls them in a membership called IMDbPro. PRO can be accessed by anyone willing to pay the fee, which is $19.99 USD per month, or if paid annually, $149.99, which comes to approximately $12.50 per month USD. Membership enables a user to access the rank order of each industry personality, as well as agent contact information for any actor, producer, director etc. that has an IMDb page. Enrolling in PRO for industry personnel, enables those members the ability to upload a head shot to open their page, as well as the ability to upload hundreds of photos to accompany their page. Anyone can register as a user, and contribute to the site as well as enjoy its content, however those users enrolled in PRO have greater access and privileges. IMDb originated with a Usenet posting by British film fan and computer programmer Col Needham entitled Those Eyes, others with similar interests soon responded with additions or different lists of their own. Needham subsequently started an Actors List, while Dave Knight began a Directors List, and Andy Krieg took over THE LIST from Hank Driskill, which would later be renamed the Actress List. Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working, the goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible. By late 1990, the lists included almost 10,000 movies and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. On October 17,1990, Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts which could be used to search the four lists, at the time, it was known as the rec. arts. movies movie databaseInternet Movie Database – Internet Movie Database (IMDb)
7. Akhenaten – Akhenaten known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV, was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC. An early inscription likens the Aten to the sun as compared to stars, Akhenaten tried to bring about a departure from traditional religion, yet in the end it would not be accepted. After his death, his monuments were dismantled and hidden, his statues were terminated and he was all but lost from history until the discovery during the 19th century of the site of Akhetaten, the city he built and designed for the worship of Aten, at Amarna. DNA analysis has determined that the man buried in KV55 is the father of King Tutankhamun, the future Akhenaten was a younger son of Amenhotep III and Chief Queen Tiye. The eldest son Crown Prince Thutmose was recognized as the heir of Amenhotep III but he died relatively young, there is much controversy around whether Amenhotep IV succeeded to the throne on the death of his father Amenhotep III or whether there was a coregency. Other literature by Donald Redford, William Murnane, Alan Gardiner, in February 2014, the Egyptian Ministry for Antiquities announced what it called conclusive evidence that Akhenaten shared power with his father for at least 8 years. The evidence came from the found in the Luxor tomb of Vizier Amenhotep-Huy. A team of Spanish archeologists have been working at this tomb, Amenhotep IV was crowned in Thebes and there he started a building program. He decorated the entrance to the precincts of the temple of Amun-Re with scenes of his worshiping Re-Harakhti. He soon decreed the construction of a dedicated to the Aten in Eastern Karnak. This Temple of Amenhotep IV was called the Gempaaten, the Gempaaten consisted of a series of buildings, including a palace and a structure called the Hwt Benben which was dedicated to Queen Nefertiti. Other Aten temples constructed at Karnak during this time include the Rud-menu, during this time he did not repress the worship of Amun, and the High Priest of Amun was still active in the fourth year of his reign. The king appears as Amenhotep IV in the tombs of some of the nobles in Thebes, Kheruef, Ramose, in the tomb of Ramose, Amenhotep IV appears on the west wall in the traditional style, seated on a throne with Ramose appearing before the king. On the other side of the doorway, Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti are shown in the window of appearance with the Aten depicted as the sun disc. In the Theban tomb of Parennefer, Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti are seated on a throne with the sun disk depicted over the king, among the latter-known documents referring to Amenhotep IV are two copies of a letter from the Steward Of Memphis Apy to the pharaoh. The documents were found in Gurob and are dated to regnal year 5, third month of the Growing Season, on day 13, Month 8, in the fifth year of his reign, the king arrived at the site of the new city Akhetaten. A month before that Amenhotep IV had officially changed his name to Akhenaten, Amenhotep IV changed most of his 5 fold titulary in year 5 of his reign. The only name he kept was his prenomen or throne name of Neferkheperure, some recent debate has focused on the extent to which Akhenaten forced his religious reforms on his peopleAkhenaten – Statue of Akhenaten in the early Amarna style.
8. The Younger Lady – The Younger Lady is the informal name given to a mummy discovered in the Egyptian Valley of the Kings, in tomb KV35 by archeologist Victor Loret in 1898. Through recent DNA tests this mummy has been identified as the mother of the Pharaoh Tutankhamun, the mummy also has been given the designation KV35YL and 61072, and currently resides in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Early speculation was that this mummy was the remains of Queen Nefertiti, which remains plausible, all were found together, lying naked side-by-side and unidentified in a small antechamber of the tomb. All three mummies had been damaged by ancient tomb robbers. There has been speculation as to the identity of the Younger Lady mummy. Upon finding the mummy, Victor Loret initially had believed it be that of a man as the mummys head had been shaved. A closer inspection later made by Dr. Grafton Elliot Smith confirmed that the mummy was that of a female, recently, autosomal and mitochondrial DNA testing have shown conclusively that the mummy is that of a female and, that she was the mother of Tutankhamun. The results also show that she was a full-sister to her husband, the mummy from KV55, and that they were both the children of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye. There is also a theory that the lady is Meritaten, daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. The theory goes that Meritaten married Smenkhare, believed to be her uncle, the theory holds weight as inbreeding makes it harder to distinguish the generations, but there is one problem with this theory. Meritaten must be a descendant of Queen Tiye, or her mother Thuya. Nefertitis lineage is nowhere specified, and if Meritaten is the younger lady and it has been suggested that, indeed, the Younger Lady is Nefertiti, as incest was not uncommon. This would mean that Akhenaten did marry his own sister and that he, furthermore, Nefertiti, who may have survived her husband, may be identical with Smenkhare and may have adopted this name if she took over the reign after Akhenatens death. All this is not proven, but should be mentioned as a plausible scenario. Grafton Elliot Smith provided a description of the mummy in his survey of the ancient royal mummies at the beginning of the twentieth century. He found the mummy to be 1.58 m in height and he also noted the major damage done by ancient tomb robbers, who smashed the anterior wall of the mummys chest, and had torn the right arm off just below the shoulder. Smith presumed that she was a member of the royal familyThe Younger Lady – Discovery
9. Ankhesenamun – Ankhesenamun was a queen of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Born as Ankhesenpaaten, she was the third of six daughters of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten and his Great Royal Wife Nefertiti. The change in her name reflects the changes in Ancient Egyptian religion during her lifetime after her fathers death and her youth is well documented in the ancient reliefs and paintings of the reign of her parents. Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun shared the same father but Tutankhamuns mother has recently established by genetic evidence as one of Akhenatens sisters. She was most likely born in year 4 of Akhenatens reign and he possibly made his wife his co-regent and had his family portrayed in a realistic style in all official artwork. Ankhesenamun was definitely married to one king, she was the Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Tutankhamun and it is also possible that she was briefly married to Tutankhamuns successor, Ay, believed by some to be her maternal grandfather. It has also been posited that she may have been the Great Royal Wife of her father, Akhenaten, after the death of her mother. Recent DNA tests released in February 2010 have also speculated that one of two late 18th dynasty queens buried in KV21 could be her mummy, both mummies are thought, because of DNA, to be members of the ruling house. Ankhesenpaaten was born in a time when Egypt was in the midst of a religious revolution. Her father had abandoned the old deities of Egypt in favor of the Aten, hitherto a minor aspect of the sun-god and she is believed to have been born in Waset, but probably grew up in her fathers new capital city of Akhetaten. The three eldest daughters – Meritaten, Meketaten, and Ankhesenpaaten – became the Senior Princesses and participated in many functions of the government and she is believed to have been married first to her own father. This was not unusual for Egyptian royal families and she is thought to have been the mother of the princess Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit when she was twelve, although the parentage is unclear. After her fathers death and the reigns of Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten. Following their marriage, the couple honored the deities of the religion by changing their names to Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun. The couple appear to have had two stillborn daughters, as Tutankhamuns only known wife was Ankhesenamun, it is highly likely the fetuses found in Tutankhamuns tomb are her daughters. Some time in the year of his reign, at about the age of eighteen, Tutankhamun died suddenly. A ring discovered is thought to show that Ankhesenamun married Ay shortly before she disappeared from history, on the walls of Ays tomb it is Tey, not Ankhesenamun, who appears as queen. She probably died during or shortly after his reign and no burial has been found for her yet, a document was found in the ancient Hittite capital of Hattusa which dates to the Amarna period, the so-called Deeds of Suppiluliuma IAnkhesenamun – Discovery
10. Amenhotep III – Amenhotep III, also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent, was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. According to different authors, he ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC, or from June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC, Amenhotep III was Thutmoses son by a minor wife, Mutemwiya. His reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when he died in the 38th or 39th year of his reign, his son initially ruled as Amenhotep IV, but then changed his own royal name to Akhenaten. The son of the future Thutmose IV and a minor wife Mutemwiya and he was a member of the Thutmosid family that had ruled Egypt for almost 150 years since the reign of Thutmose I. Amenhotep III was the father of two sons with his Great Royal Wife Tiye and their first son, Crown Prince Thutmose, predeceased his father and their second son, Amenhotep IV, later known as Akhenaten, ultimately succeeded Amenhotep III to the throne. Amenhotep III also may have been the father of a third child—called Smenkhkare, Amenhotep III and Tiye may also have had four daughters, Sitamun, Henuttaneb, Isis or Iset, and Nebetah. They appear frequently on statues and reliefs during the reign of their father, Nebetah is attested only once in the known historical records on a colossal limestone group of statues from Medinet Habu. Amenhotep III elevated two of his four daughters—Sitamun and Isis—to the office of royal wife during the last decade of his reign. Evidence that Sitamun already was promoted to office by Year 30 of his reign, is known from jar-label inscriptions uncovered from the royal palace at Malkata. The goddess Hathor herself was related to Ra as first the mother and later wife, hence, Amenhotep IIIs marriage to his two daughters should not be considered unlikely based on contemporary views of marriage. Amenhotep III is known to have married several women, Gilukhepa. Tadukhepa, the daughter of his ally Tushratta of Mitanni, Around Year 36 of his reign, a daughter of Kurigalzu, king of Babylon. A daughter of Kadashman-Enlil, king of Babylon, a daughter of Tarhundaradu, ruler of Arzawa. A daughter of the ruler of Ammia, Amenhotep III has the distinction of having the most surviving statues of any Egyptian pharaoh, with over 250 of his statues having been discovered and identified. Since these statues span his life, they provide a series of portraits covering the entire length of his reign. Their lengthy inscribed texts extol the accomplishments of the pharaoh, for instance,123 of these commemorative scarabs record the large number of lions that Amenhotep III killed with his own arrows from his first regnal year up to his tenth year. Similarly, five other state that the foreign princess who would become a wife to him, Gilukhepa. She was the first of many such princesses who would enter the pharaohs household, another eleven scarabs record the excavation of an artificial lake he had built for his Great Royal Wife, Queen Tiye, in his eleventh regnal year, Regnal Year 11 under the Majesty ofAmenhotep III – Colossal statue of Amenhotep III
11. George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon – He was educated at Eton College and Trinity College, Cambridge. He inherited the Bretby Hall estate in Derbyshire from his grandmother, Anne Elizabeth, Dowager Countess of Chesterfield. In 1902, he established Highclere Stud to breed thoroughbred racehorses, in 1905, he was appointed one of the Stewards at the new Newbury Racecourse. His family has maintained the connection ever since and his grandson, the 7th Earl, was racing manager to Queen Elizabeth II from 1969, and one of the Queens closest friends. Lord Carnarvon was an enthusiastic amateur Egyptologist, undertaking in 1907 to sponsor the excavation of tombs in Deir el-Bahri. Howard Carter joined him as his assistant in the excavations and it is now established that it was Gaston Maspero, then Director of the Antiquities Department, who proposed Carter to Lord Carnarvon. He received in 1914 the concession to dig in the Valley of the Kings, in 1922, he and Howard Carter together opened the tomb of Tutankhamun in the Valley of the Kings, exposing treasures unsurpassed in the history of archaeology. Lord Carnarvon married Almina Victoria Maria Alexandra Wombwell, illegitimate daughter of millionaire banker Alfred de Rothschild, at St. Margarets Church, Westminster, on 26 June 1895. They had two children, Henry George Herbert, 6th Earl of Carnarvon, who married Anne Catherine Tredick Wendell and had one son and they divorced in 1936 and from 1939 to 1947, he was married to actress/dancer Tilly Losch. Lady Evelyn Leonora Almina Herbert, who married Sir Brograve Beauchamp, on 19 March 1923 Carnarvon suffered a severe mosquito bite infected by a razor cut. On 5 April, he died in the Continental-Savoy Hotel in Cairo and this led to the story of the Curse of Tutankhamun, the Mummys Curse. His death is most probably explained by blood poisoning after accidentally shaving a mosquito bite infected with erysipelas, Carnarvons tomb, appropriately for an archaeologist, is located within an ancient hill fort overlooking his family seat at Beacon Hill, Burghclere, Hampshire. Carnarvon was survived by his wife Almina, who remarried, Carnarvon has been portrayed several times in film, video game and television productions, By Harry Andrews in the 1980 Columbia Pictures Television production The Curse of King Tuts Tomb. By Julian Curry in the 1998 IMAX documentary Mysteries of Egypt, by Julian Wadham in the 2005 BBC docudrama Egypt. By Sam Neill in the 2016 ITV series Tutankhamun, Evelyn Carnahan from the film The Mummy is an homage to Lord Carnarvons daughter, Lady Evelyn. Lord Carnarvon is the quest leader for the Archaeologist role in the classic text-based video game Nethack, Highclere is owned by the present earl. Five years explorations at Thebes, a record of work done 1907-1911, london, Henry Frowde. with Howard Carter, Five Years Explorations at Thebes - A Record of Work Done 1907-1911, ed. Paul Kegan,2004. Five Years Explorations at Thebes Fiona Carnarvon, Egypt at Highclere - The discovery of Tutankhamun, Fiona Carnarvon, Carnarvon & Carter - the story of the two Englishman who discovered the tomb of Tutankhamun, Highclere Enterprises LPP,2007George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon – Lord Carnarvon, who was the chief financial backer on many of Howard Carter 's Egyptian excavations.
12. KV62 – KV62 is the standard Egyptological designation for the tomb of the young pharaoh Tutankhamun in the Valley of the Kings, now renowned for the wealth of valuable antiquities it contained. The tomb was densely packed with items in great disarray, partly due to its small size, the two robberies, and the apparently hurried nature of its completion. Due to the state of the tomb, and to Carters meticulous recording technique, the tomb took eight years to empty, Tutankhamuns tomb had been entered at least twice, not long after he was buried and well before Carters discovery. The outermost doors of the enclosing the kings nested coffins were unsealed. In 1907, just before his discovery of the tomb of Horemheb, erroneously assuming that this site, numbered finally as KV54, was Tutankhamuns complete tomb, Davis concluded the dig. But Davis was to be proven spectacularly wrong, the British Egyptologist Howard Carter hired a crew to help him excavate at the site of KV62. Carter went back to a line of huts that he had abandoned a few seasons earlier, after clearance of the huts and rock debris beneath, they found a stone step cut into the bedrock. A flight of steps was partially uncovered, leading to the top of a mud-plastered doorway stamped with indistinct oval seals, called cartouches. Carter ordered the staircase to be refilled, and sent a telegram to Carnarvon, the excavators cleared the stairway completely, which allowed clearer seals lower down on the door to be read, seals bearing the name of Tutankhamun. However, further examination showed that the blocking had been breached and resealed on at least two occasions. Clearing the blocking led to a corridor that was completely blocked with packed limestone chippings, through which a robbers tunnel had been excavated. At the end of the tunnel was a sealed door that had been breached and re-sealed in antiquity. Carter then made a hole in the door, and used a candle to check for foul gases, the first step to the stairs was found on November 4,1922. The following day saw the exposure of a complete staircase, the end of November saw access to the antechamber and the discovery of the annex, and then the burial chamber and treasury. On November 29, the tomb was opened, and the first announcement, the first item was removed from the tomb on December 27. On February 16,1923, the chamber was opened. On February 12,1924, the lid of the sarcophagus was raised. In April, Carter argued with the Antiquities Service and left the excavation for the United States, work started in the treasury on October 24,1926, and between October 30 and December 15,1927, the annex was emptied and examinedKV62 – The wall decorations in KV62's burial chamber are modest in comparison with other royal tombs found in the Valley of the Kings.
13. Tutankhamun's mummy – On October 28,1925, English Egyptologist Howard Carter and his team removed the lid on the third and last sarcophagus of the burial chamber in tomb KV62, revealing the mummy of Tutankhamun. His burial chamber was found in the Valley of the Kings in the Theban Necropolis in 1922 and it would be another two years before the mummy and its famous death mask were discovered inside the tomb. Tutankhamun was the 11th pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt, the discovery of the tomb as a whole was one of the most significant and famous archeological discoveries in modern times. There has been speculation about the alleged Curse of the Pharaohs. Tutankhamun was the 11th pharaoh during the 18th Dynasty of the New Kingdom, however, an educated estimate is that he ruled over Ancient Egypt from about 1355-1346 BCE. After an initial examination of the 3, 300-year-old mummy, it was estimated that Tutankhamun was a teenager of approximately 17–19 years of age when he died. Since it was believed that Tutankhamun became king as child no more than ten years old, following the discovery of Tutankhamuns mummy, much debate has arisen as to his exact cause of death. This has led to medical studies and procedures performed on his remains. Tutankhamen was believably poisoned but he was possibly in an accident or suffered a blow to the head. Theodore M. Davis, an archeologist contemporary with Carter, discovered pottery with Tutankhamuns name a short distance from where Carter would on November 4,1922 discover KV62. The location at the Valley of the Kings was significant to the New Kingdom because it is where the pharaohs of the time and some important people to the king were buried. The idea behind burying them there was that it was supposed to be a location in a remote area since tomb robbing was a constant problem during Ancient Egyptian times. Unfortunately the location was not as secret as it was hoped to be, Tutankhamuns tomb did suffer from some tomb robbing, but overall much of it was left intact and some areas including the burial chamber appeared to be left unscathed. On November 11–19,1925 Dr. Douglas Derry and Dr. Saleh Bey Hamdi along with Carter and other members of the team began to examine the mummy. Although the wrappings were in condition, it seemed they were of the same material as that which other kings from the period had been wrapped in. As each layer was removed, the team began to discover many fine objects wrapped between the all over Tutankhamuns body, including gold jewelry, daggers, and pieces of armor. Once the layers had been removed and they could begin to examine the actual corpse. He was determined to have been approximately 5 feet,6 inches, since Carters discovery and examination of the mummy there have been three important further examinations done with more modern medical techniques and equipmentTutankhamun's mummy – Tutankhamun's mummy
14. Lotus chalice – The Lotus chalice or Alabaster chalice, called the Wishing Cup by Howard Carter, derives from the tomb of the Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamun. The object received the find number 014 and is now on display in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, with the inventory number JE67465. The tomb of the king in the East Valley of the Kings was uncovered almost untouched in the Valley of the Kings in West Thebes by Howard Carter on 4 November 1922. The lotus chalice was one of the first objects which Carter, the vessel was almost directly behind the entrance of the corridor to the antechamber, where they broke in, on the ground. This was not its original position, the lotus chalice is made from a single piece of alabaster. The chalice has the shape of a lotus in full bloom, the handles on both sides are identical, shaped like lotus flowers growing upward, with the god Heh seated on a basket on the tips of the leaves. In each hand Heh holds a palm rib with notches for counting the years, a kneeling image of the god was the hieroglyph for the number one million. The same motif is found on other items from the tomb, at the upper end of each palm rib there is an ankh symbol, the sign of life. The chalice therefore symbolises the infinite and eternal life of King Tutankhamun, the lotus is significant in Egyptian mythology for the birth of the sun god, who emerged from the lotus, after it had risen out of the flood of the primeval waters of Nun. The name of the king in the centre of the open flower therefore symbolised his rebirth. The inscriptions are engraved and filled with dark paste, Howard Carter copied the inscriptions and asked Alan Gardiner to provide a translation, since he required this for publication. The main lotus, which forms the actual chalice, had the throne name and personal name. The first column names him as beloved of Amun-Re, Lord of the throne of the two Lands, Lord of Heaven, the writing runs from right to left. The inscription on the rim of the chalice is to be read in two directions, from right to left, beginning with the Horus falcon, are the more rarely attested Horus name and Nebty name of Tutankhamun. Because of the inscription, Howard Carter called the lotus chalice the Kings Wishing Cup, the wish inscription from the lotus chalice is quoted on the second gravestone of Howard Carter. In addition to being displayed in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and it was also on display with the exhibition number 39 in the world-touring Treasures of Tutankhamun exhibition. Alabaster-Kelch in Ausstellungskatalog Tutanchamun in Köln. von Zabern, Mainz 1980, ISBN 3-8053-0438-2, thames & Hudson, London 2007, ISBN 978-0-500-05151-1, p.27. Der ewige Glanz des jungen Pharaos, müller, Köln 2000, ISBN 88-8095-545-4, p.311Lotus chalice – Lotus chalice replica
15. Anubis Shrine – The Anubis Shrine was part of the grave gods of Tutankhamun. The tomb was discovered almost intact on 4 November 1922 in the Valley of the Kings in west Thebes) by Howard Carter, today the object, with the find number 261, is an exhibit at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, with the inventory number JE61444. The Anubis Shrine was found behind the entrance, which lead from the grave chamber into the so-called Store Room. The shrine, with a figure of Anubis on top was facing towards the west, behind it was the Canopic chest with the Pharaohs canopic jars inside. During the work in the chamber, the entrance to the Store Room was blocked up with wooden boards. The investigation and clearance of the Store Room began in the excavation season. The statue of the Anubis, depicted completely in animal form was attached to the roof of the shrine and this jackal lying on the shrine is made from wood, covered with black paint. The insides of the ears, the eyebrows, and the rims of the eyes of the animal are worked in gold leaf, as well as the collar. The whites of the eyes are made from calcite and the pupils from obsidian, the claws are in silver, which was more valuable than gold in Ancient Egypt. The Anubis statue was wrapped in a shirt which was from the seventh regnal year of the Pharaoh Akhenaten. Underneath it was a fine linen gauze which was tied at the front of the neck. A scarf was wound around the neck of the figure, with lotus and cornflowers woven into it, between its front legs was an inscribed tablet with the name of Akhenatens eldest daughter, Meritaten. An Anubis statue found in the tomb of the Pharaoh Horemheb is similar, in his records, Howard Carter called it a pylon after the structures found in front of the great temples at Karnak and Philae, which it resembles in shape. Like the jackal, the shrine is made of wood. Inscriptions run horizontally along the edge and vertically along the sides on all faces of the shrine. There are no inscriptions on the base, the inscriptions invoke two manifestations of Anubis, Imiut und Khenti-Seh-netjer. Inside the shrine are four small trays and a large compartment and these contain a range of jewelry, amulets and everyday objects, whose function is not entirely clear. The shrine was placed on a kind of sledge, which had two carrying poles projecting from the front and backAnubis Shrine – Anubis Shrine
16. Curse of the pharaohs – The curse of the pharaohs refers to an alleged curse believed by some to be cast upon any person who disturbs the mummy of an Ancient Egyptian person, especially a pharaoh. This curse, which does not differentiate between thieves and archaeologists, allegedly can cause bad luck, illness or death. Since the mid-20th century, many authors and documentaries have argued that the curse is real in the sense of being caused by scientifically explicable causes such as bacteria or radiation. There are occasional instances of genuine ancient curses appearing inside or on the façade of a tomb and these appear to be directed towards the ka priests to protect the tomb carefully and preserve its ritual purity rather than as a warning for potential robbers. There had been stories of going back to the 19th century. Despite popular misconceptions, no curse was actually found inscribed in the Pharaohs tomb, the evidence for curses relating to King Tutankhamun is considered to be so meager that Donald B. Redford viewed it as unadulterated clap trap. Curses relating to tombs are extremely rare, possibly because the idea of such desecration was unthinkable and they most frequently occur in private tombs of the Old Kingdom era. The tomb of Ankhtifi contains the warning, any ruler who, shall do evil or wickedness to this coffin. May Hemen not accept any goods he offers, and may his heir not inherit, the tomb of Khentika Ikhekhi contains an inscription, As for all men who shall enter this my tomb. An end shall be made for him, I shall seize his neck like a bird. I shall cast the fear of myself into him, curses after the Old Kingdom era are less common though more severe, sometimes invoking the ire of Thoth or the destruction of Sekhemet. Zahi Hawass quotes an example of a curse, Cursed be those who disturb the rest of a Pharaoh and they that shall break the seal of this tomb shall meet death by a disease that no doctor can diagnose. In 1699, Louis Penicher wrote an account in which he recorded how a Polish traveler bought two mummies in Alexandria and embarked on a sea journey with the mummies in the cargo hold. The traveler was alarmed by recurring visions of two specters, and the seas did not abate until the mummies were thrown overboard. Zahi Hawass recalled that as a young archaeologist excavating at Kom Abu-Bellou he had to transport a number of artifacts from the Greco-Roman site and his cousin died on that day, on its anniversary, his uncle died and on the third anniversary his aunt died. May the hippopotamus be against them in water, the scorpion against them on land, though not superstitious, he decided not to disturb the mummies. However, he later was involved in the removal of two child mummies from Bahariya Oasis to a museum and reported he was haunted by the children in his dreams, the phenomena did not stop until the mummy of the father was re-united with the children in the museum. He came to the conclusion that mummies should not be displayed, Hawass also recorded an incident of a sick young boy who loved Ancient Egypt and was subject to a miracle cure in the Egyptian Museum when he looked into the eyes of the mummy of King Ahmose ICurse of the pharaohs – The Royal Cobra (Uraeus), representing the protector goddess Wadjet, atop the mask of Tutankhamun.
17. King Tut (song) – King Tut is a novelty song performed by Steve Martin and the Toot Uncommons. It was released as a single in 1978, sold over a million copies, Martin previewed the song in a live performance during the April 22,1978 episode of Saturday Night Live. The song was included on Martins album A Wild and Crazy Guy. King Tut paid homage to Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun and presents a caricature of the sensational Treasures of Tutankhamun traveling exhibit that toured seven United States cities from 1976 to 1979, the exhibit attracted approximately eight million visitors. In the Saturday Night Live performance of King Tut, loyal subjects appease a joyful King Tut with kitchen appliances, an instrumental solo is delivered by saxophone player Lou Marini, who steps out of a sarcophagus—painted gold—to great laughter. Martin had brought the song to the show and asked if he could perform it, Martin and the Steep Canyon Rangers recorded the song in a bluegrass version for their 2011 album, Rare Bird Alert. The song is the subject of analysis in Melani McAlisters Epic Encounters, Culture, Media. Interests in the Middle East, 1945–2000 and it is also referenced in a dialogue in the video game The Lost Vikings at the end of one of the Egyptian themed levels of the game. Chicago radio superstation WLS-AM, which gave the song much airplay and it spent four weeks at the number-one position on their chart during the time the Tut exhibition was on display at the Field Museum of Natural History in downtown Chicago. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics Live performance of King Tut by Steve Martin on YouTubeKing Tut (song) – "King Tut"
18. The Curse of King Tut's Tomb (1980 film) – The Curse of King Tuts Tomb is a 1980 British-American mystery thriller film directed by Philip Leacock and starring Eva Marie Saint, Harry Andrews and Paul Scofield, with Tom Baker. The English archaeologist Howard Carter and his financier, Lord Carnarvon discover after years of search the grave of Tut-Ench-Amun, rumors about a curse that invites to anyone who disturbs the peace grave circulate in public. For even the art collector Sabastian is after the legendary gold sarcophagus. The Curse of the Pharaoh seems to be effective, for there will be a series of mysterious deaths and it was shot in Egypt and in England. The score was composed by American jazz musician Gil Mellé and it was released as two-part film on 8 May and 9 May 1980. A Region 2 DVD release by Network DVD was released in 2011, the Curse of King Tuts Tomb at the Internet Movie DatabaseThe Curse of King Tut's Tomb (1980 film) – Discovery
19. Tutenstein – Tutenstein is an American animated television series, produced by Porchlight Entertainment for Discovery Kids based on the comic by Jay Stephens which was published in Oni Press JetCat Clubhouse. The half-hour series features young mummy Tutankhensetamun who is awakened about 3,000 years after his accidental death, the name is a portmanteau of Tutankhamun and Frankenstein. On October 11,2008, a TV movie entitled Tutenstein, ABN reported with regard to the ongoing theme of ancient temples and history found in his animated shows Tutenstein and The Secret Saturdays, Stephens quips, Im a nerd. I like reading about history and mythology, and the past is full of surprises. The production company, PorchLight Entertainment, which is based in Los Angeles, California, has won Emmys for the first, irish TV production company Telegael, which is based in An Spidéal, Co Galway, also won an Emmy Award for the second season. The Scepter of Was being portrayed as a magic wand is fictional. Unlike Tutankhamun, who died at the age of 18, this Tut died when he was 10, on the other hand, Tutenstein is drawn with a cleft lip, just like the real Tutankhamun. The ancient game senet did exist, but as no rules for the game have been preserved. Egyptologist Dr. Kasia Szpakowska served as a consultant to the series, the resolutions of the stories are fairly predictable – Tut uses his powers for good to help his friends, and harmony is restored – but the situation is unusual enough to keep the show fresh. DVD Verdict said To be fair, as a product of the Discovery Channel and its educational childrens programming, the attempt of an educational station to compete with more popular stations. Each episode incorporates some educational tidbits, explaining aspects of ancient Egyptian mythology, unfortunately, the learning gets a bit mixed up with all the other nonsense. The Sydney Morning Herald wrote Its The Mummy for kids, theres no Brendan Fraser or Rachel Weisz here, but the humorous dialogue – and the inclusion of a talking cat – should be a winner among younger viewers. The series premiered on Discovery Kids and NBC on November 1,2003, after the closure of Discovery Kids, The Hub aired the show from October 11,2010 until December 31,2011. It also aired on the American Spanish network Azteca America from December 1,2013 until June 1,2014 and it also aired on Jetix in Europe, Nickelodeon and ABC in Australia, and Maxi TV in Turkey. Tutenstein at the Big Cartoon DataBase Tutenstein at the Internet Movie Database Tutenstein at TV. comTutenstein – Discovery
20. The Curse of King Tut's Tomb (2006 film) – The Curse of King Tuts Tomb is a 2006 fantasy adventure television film directed by Russell Mulcahy, starring Casper Van Dien, Leonor Varela, and Jonathan Hyde. With Ras blessing, Tutankhamun manages to overcome Set and keep the demon under control by breaking an emerald tablet into four pieces, however, the tradeoff is that he must remain in the Underworld. In 1922, Danny Fremont, an archaeologist, is searching for the last piece of the tablet and he found the first three pieces earlier, but they were seized from him by his rival, Morgan Sinclair. Sinclair uses the Hellfire Councils influence to damage Fremonts reputation and cause him to lose his job, Fremont is undaunted by the challenges he faces. Despite their efforts, the last piece falls into the hands of Sinclair. Sinclair assembles all four pieces in the tomb, absorbs the powers, and unleashes Set. He also gets rid of the Hellfire Councils members later, Fremont and his companions manage to hold off Sinclair and other enemies and make their way back to the tomb, where they open a portal to the Underworld. In the Underworld, Fremont and his friends succeed in finding and freeing Tutankhamun, meanwhile, Sinclair is absorbed by Set, who then attacks Fremont. At the critical moment, Barakat prays to Ra to empower Tutankhamun, Tutankhamun springs to life, fights and destroys Set, and brings Fremont and Barakat safely out of the Underworld. Before leaving, Tutankhamun thanks them and tells them that all things are as they should have been, Fremont and Barakat do not understand what he means and they leave the tomb just before it closes by itself. Fremont chances upon Howard Carter and gives him the map to Tutankhamuns tomb, at the end, in the Museum of Antiquities, Fremont proposes to Barakat and she agrees to marry him. Casper Van Dien as Danny Fremont, an archaeologist searching for Tutankhamens tomb, Jonathan Hyde as Morgan Sinclair, Fremonts rival and an Egyptologist working for the Hellfire Council. Leonor Varela as Azelia Barakat, an Egyptologist who becomes Fremonts romantic interest, steven Waddington as Jason McGreevy, Fremonts buddy. Niko Nicotera as Andrew Walker, Fremonts buddy and he has tuberculosis but is given a cure by Sinclair. In return, he leads Sinclair to the last piece of the tablet, tat Whalley as Rembrandt, a prisoner who joins Fremonts expedition. Brendan Patricks as Brian Eastcliff, a British aristocrat who joins Fremont in his expedition, patrick Toomey as Jacques Belmond, the leader of a group of French mercenaries who joins Fremont in his expedition. Malcolm McDowell as Nathan Cairns, the chairman of the Hellfire Council, simon Callow as George Russell, a member of the Hellfire Council. Rajesh Balwani as Prakesh, the museum curator who serves as Sinclairs adviser, robin Das as Mahmoud, an Egyptian medium who helps Fremont and his friends communicate with Tutankhamens spiritThe Curse of King Tut's Tomb (2006 film) – DVD cover
21. Tut (miniseries) – Tut is a Canadian-American miniseries that premiered on U. S. cable network Spike on July 19,2015. The three-part miniseries is based on the life of Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun, Tut was first announced by Spike in May 2014. The miniseries marks a return by the network towards scripted programming, such event series have also been recently popular among other networks, such as History. Tut is produced by Muse Entertainment, best known for its other miniseries The Kennedys, avan Jogia as Tutankhamun, the Pharaoh of Egypt. He is a naive and handsome young man, ben Kingsley as Ay, the Grand Vizir. Nonso Anozie as General Horemheb, Tutankhamuns savvy and power hungry military strategist, sibylla Deen as Ankhesenamun, the calculating and conniving sister-wife of Tutankhamun, who was forced to marry her own brother by their late father in order to preserve their monotheistic society. Alexander Siddig as Amun, the High Priest, a political figure who holds great influence in Tutankhamuns inner sanctum. Kylie Bunbury as Suhad, a beautiful and endearing girl of Mitanni descent, peter Gadiot as Ka, King Tutankhamuns close confidant and seemingly loyal friend. Iddo Goldberg as Lagus, an Egyptian soldier who develops a bond with Tutankhamun. Alistair Toovey as Nahkt, Ays stepson, steve Toussaint as Tushratta, king of the Mitanni. Silas Carson as Pharaoh Akhenaten, the father of Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun, steve Chusak as Paranefer, Akhenatens servant. Geoffrey Burton as Dagi, chief physician of the Egyptians, ismail Kanater as the Priest of Sobek. The series has garnered negative reviews, robert Bianco of USA Today exclaims, Tut miniseries is overstuffed melodrama. While, Keith Uhlich of The Hollywood Reporter writes, Spike networks three-night miniseries about the Egyptian boy king Tutankhamun inspires no devotion, Tut at the Internet Movie Database Tut at TV GuideTut (miniseries) – Tut