1. Afghanistan – Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately 32 million, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north and its territory covers 652,000 km2, making it the 41st largest country in the world. The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khiljis, Mughals, Hotaks, Durranis, the political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a state in the Great Game between British India and the Russian Empire. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah unsuccessfully attempted to modernize the country and it remained peaceful during Zahir Shahs forty years of monarchy. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a series of wars that devastated much of Afghanistan. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, the root name Afghan was used historically in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, and the suffix -stan means place of in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more specifically in a historical sense, however, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan. An important site of historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites. The country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and it has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, and the Islamic Empire. Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the area of Afghanistan has been closely connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east, west. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, and the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan, Afghanistan, in more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well, after 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic people from Central Asia began moving south into Afghanistan, among them were many Indo-European-speaking Indo-Iranians. These tribes later migrated further into South Asia, Western Asia, the region at the time was referred to as ArianaAfghanistan – History of Afghanistan
2. Islamic Republic – An Islamic republic is the name given to several states in countries ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, and Mauritania. Pakistan first adopted the title under the constitution of 1956, Mauritania adopted it on 28 November 1958. Iran adopted it after the 1979 Iranian Revolution that overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty, Afghanistan adopted it in 1992 upon Jamiat-e Islami seizing capital Kabul from the Communists. Despite the similar name the countries differ greatly in their governments, the term Islamic republic has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. To some Muslim religious leaders in the Middle East and Africa who advocate it and they see it as a compromise between a purely Islamic caliphate, and secular nationalism and republicanism. On 12 Farvadin, it was announced that 98.2 percent of the Iranian voters wanted to establish the Islamic Republic, before the Islamic Republic referendum, some political groups suggested various names for the ideology of the Iranian revolution, such as the Republic or the democratic republic. But Ruhollah Khomeini, the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, asked people to vote for the name Islamic Republic, not a word more and not a word less. According to a commentary on Constitution, just as the establishment of Islamic Republic system is based on the beliefs of people namely governing of right, justice, however, its continuation lasted with the same principles and there is an important role for the beliefs of Iranian people. Also those beliefs are of complete and determinate roles in all affairs and those beliefs considered as guidelines for governors and statesmen. There is an important role for such as the principle of unity of God. There are, in spite of that, other principles are to the submission in front of Allah, therefore legislation is limited to god and laws so far as correspond to divine legislation are valid. Belief in divine revelation and prophecy also are essential to Islamic viewworld and we have two kinds of justice. First kind is legislative and the kind is creative or Takivini. Creative justice is based on the Justice and equality, legislative justice is respected to Making divine law in Islamic society. Besides, the basis of Shia school is in terms of Imamate or leadership, according to the principle of Imamate in Shia, it is indispensable to obey of the prophet of God and of those possessed of authority. Shia Ulama believe that the conception of term those possessed of authority denoted on Innocent Shia Imams, certainly when Imam is absent, Valy faghih is in charge of leadership of society. In other word, religious leaders undertake the responsibility of Imamate, sometimes it refers to generosity, nobleness and honor. However Islam considers with two sorts of dignity for human beings, essential or innate dignity and acquired dignity, according to innate dignity, Human being possessed of the right of living among other creaturesIslamic Republic – Islamic republics shown in green.
3. Pashto language – Pashto, known in Persian literature as Afghānistani and in Urdu and Hindi literature as Paṭhānī, is the South-Central Asian language of the Pashtuns. Its speakers are called Pashtuns or Pukhtuns and sometimes Afghans or Pathans and it is an Eastern Iranian language, belonging to the Indo-European family. Pashto is one of the two languages of Afghanistan, and it is the second-largest regional language of Pakistan, mainly spoken in the west and northwest of the country. Pakistans Federally Administered Tribal Areas are almost 100% Pashto-speaking, while it is the majority language of the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pashto is the main language among the Pashtun diaspora around the world. The total number of Pashto-speakers is estimated to be 45–60 million people worldwide, Pashto belongs to the Northeastern Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian branch, but Ethnologue lists it as Southeastern Iranian. Pashto has two main groups, “soft” and “hard”, the latter known as Pakhto. As a national language of Afghanistan, Pashto is primarily spoken in the east, south, and southwest, the exact numbers of speakers are unavailable, but different estimates show that Pashto is the mother tongue of 45–60% of the total population of Afghanistan. In Pakistan Pashto is spoken as a first language by about 15. 42% of Pakistans 170 million people and it is the main language of the Pashtun-majority regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and northern Balochistan. It is also spoken in parts of Mianwali and Attock districts of the Punjab province and in Islamabad, modern Pashto-speaking communities are found in the cities of Karachi and Hyderabad in Sindh. Other communities of Pashto speakers are found in Tajikistan, and further in the Pashtun diaspora, there are also communities of Pashtun descent in the southwestern part of Jammu and Kashmir. Pashto is one of the two languages of Afghanistan, along with Dari. Since the early 18th century, all the kings of Afghanistan were ethnic Pashtuns except for Habibullah Kalakani, Persian as the literary language of the royal court was more widely used in government institutions while Pashto was spoken by the Pashtun tribes as their native tongue. Although officially strengthening the use of Pashto, the Afghan elite regarded Persian as a “sophisticated language, king Zahir Shah thus followed suit after his father Nadir Khan had decreed in 1933, that both Persian and Pashto were to be studied and utilized by officials. Thus Pashto became a language, a symbol for Afghan nationalism. The status of language was reaffirmed in 1964 by the constitutional assembly when Afghan Persian was officially renamed to Dari. The lyrics of the anthem of Afghanistan are in Pashto. In Pakistan, Urdu and English are the two official languages, Pashto has no official status at the federal level. On a provincial level, Pashto is the language of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Federally Administered Tribal AreasPashto language – Pashto language on the map of Afghanistan.The brown areas speak Pashto.
4. Dari language – Dari or Dari Persian is the variety of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan. Dari is the officially recognized and promoted since 1964 by the Afghan government for the Persian language. Hence, it is known as Afghan Persian in many Western sources. As defined in the Constitution of Afghanistan, it is one of the two languages of Afghanistan, the other is Pashto. Dari is the most widely spoken language in Afghanistan and the language of approximately 25–50% of the population. The Iranian and Afghan types of Persian are mutually intelligible, with differences found primarily in the vocabulary, in historical usage, Dari refers to the Middle Persian court language of the Sassanids. Dari is a given to the New Persian language since the 10th century, widely used in Arabic. Since 1964, it has been the name in Afghanistan for the Persian spoken there. In Afghanistan, Dari refers to a dialect form of Persian that is the standard language used in administration, government, radio, television. Because of a preponderance of Dari native speakers, who refer to the language as Fārsi. There are different opinions about the origin of the word Dari, the majority of scholars believes that Dari refers to the Persian word dar or darbār, meaning Court, as it was the formal language of the Sassanids. The original meaning of the word dari is given in a notice attributed to Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ, according to him, Pārsī was the language spoken by priests, scholars, and the like, it is the language of Fars. It is obvious that this refers to the Middle Persian. As for Dari, he says, it is the language of the cities of Madāen, is connected with presence at court. Among the languages of the people of Khorasan and the east, in general, Iranian languages are known from three periods, usually referred to as Old, Middle, and New periods. But it is thought that the first person in Europe to use the term Deri for Dari was Thomas Hyde, at Oxford, in his chief work, ferghana, Samarkand, and Bukhara were starting to be linguistically Darified in originally Khorezmian and Soghdian areas during Samanid rule. Dari Persian spread around the Oxus River region, Afghanistan, and Khorasan after the Arab conquests, the replacement of the Pahlavi script with the Arabic script in order to write the Persian language was done by the Tahirids in 9th century Khorasan. Persian was rooted into Central Asia by the Samanids, the role of lingua franca that Sogdian originally played was succeeded by Persian after the arrival of IslamDari language – Dari in Persian script (Nastaʿlīq style)
5. Landlocked country – A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas. There are currently 49 such countries, including five partially recognised states, only two, Bolivia and Paraguay in South America, lie outside Afro-Eurasia. As a rule, being landlocked creates political and economic handicaps that access to the high seas avoids, for this reason, states large and small across history have striven to gain access to open waters, even at great expense in wealth, bloodshed, and political capital. The economic disadvantages of being landlocked can be alleviated or aggravated depending on degree of development, language barriers, some historically landlocked countries are quite affluent, such as Switzerland, Luxembourg, and Austria, all of which frequently employ neutrality to their political advantage. The majority, however, are classified as Landlocked Developing Countries,9 of the 12 countries with the lowest Human Development Indices are landlocked. Historically, being landlocked has been disadvantageous to a countrys development and it cuts a nation off from such important sea resources as fishing, and impedes or prevents direct access to seaborne trade, a crucial component of economic and social advance. As such, coastal regions tended to be wealthier and more populated than inland ones. Paul Collier in his book The Bottom Billion argues that being landlocked in a poor geographic neighborhood is one of four major development traps by which a country can be held back. In general, he found that when a neighboring country experiences better growth, for landlocked countries, the effect is particularly strong, as they are limited in their trading activity with the rest of the world. He states, If you are coastal, you serve the world, if you are landlocked, others have argued that being landlocked may actually be a blessing as it creates a natural tariff barrier which protects the country from cheap imports. In some instances, this has led to more robust local food systems, Landlocked developing countries have significantly higher costs of international cargo transportation compared to coastal developing countries. Since Bosnia and Herzegovina is a new country, railways and ports have not been built for its need, there is no freight port along its short coastline at Neum, making it effectively landlocked, although there are plans to change this. Instead the port of Ploče in Croatia is used, after World War I, in the Treaty of Versailles, a part of Germany designated the Polish corridor was given to the new Second Polish Republic, for access to the Baltic Sea. This gave Poland a short coastline, but without a large harbour and this was also the pretext for making Danzig with its harbour the Free City of Danzig, to which Poland was given free access. However, the Germans placed obstacles to free access, especially when it came to military material. In response, the fishing harbour of Gdynia was soon greatly enlarged. Stettin was annexed by Poland after World War II, but Hamburg continued the contract so that part of the port may still be used for sea trade by a successor of Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic. The Danube is a waterway, and thus landlocked Austria, Hungary, Moldova, SerbiaLandlocked country – Bolivia 's loss of its coast in the War of the Pacific (1879–1884) remains a major political issue
6. Central Asia – Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north. It is also referred to as the -stans as the five countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix -stan. Central Asias five former Soviet republics are Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Central Asia has historically been closely tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road. It has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people, goods, the Silk Road connected Muslim lands with the people of Europe, India, and China. This crossroads position has intensified the conflict between tribalism and traditionalism and modernization, in pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, Central Asia was predominantly Iranian, peopled by Eastern Iranian-speaking Bactrians, Sogdians and Chorasmians and the semi-nomadic Scythians and Parthians. Central Asia is sometimes referred to as Turkestan, the idea of Central Asia as a distinct region of the world was introduced in 1843 by the geographer Alexander von Humboldt. The borders of Central Asia are subject to multiple definitions, historically built political geography and geoculture are two significant parameters widely used in the scholarly literature about the definitions of the Central Asia. The most limited definition was the one of the Soviet Union. This definition was also used outside the USSR during this period. However, the Russian culture has two terms, Средняя Азия and Центральная Азия. Since then, this has become the most common definition of Central Asia, the UNESCO general history of Central Asia, written just before the collapse of the USSR, defines the region based on climate and uses far larger borders. An alternative method is to define the region based on ethnicity and these areas include Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Turkic regions of southern Siberia, the five republics, and Afghan Turkestan. Afghanistan as a whole, the northern and western areas of Pakistan, the Tibetans and Ladakhi are also included. Insofar, most of the peoples are considered the indigenous peoples of the vast region. Central Asia is a large region of varied geography, including high passes and mountains, vast deserts. The vast steppe areas of Central Asia are considered together with the steppes of Eastern Europe as a geographical zone known as the Eurasian Steppe. Much of the land of Central Asia is too dry or too rugged for farming, the Gobi desert extends from the foot of the Pamirs, 77° E, to the Great Khingan Mountains, 116°–118° E. Central Asia has the following geographic extremes, The worlds northernmost desert, at Buurug Deliin Els, Mongolia, the Northern Hemispheres southernmost permafrost, at Erdenetsogt sum, Mongolia, 46°17′ NCentral Asia – On the southern shore of Issyk Kul lake, Issyk Kul Region.
7. South Asia – Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as Nepal and northern parts of India situated south of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush. South Asia is bounded on the south by the Indian Ocean and on land by West Asia, Central Asia, East Asia, the current territories of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka form the countries of South Asia. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation is an economic cooperation organisation in the region which was established in 1985, South Asia covers about 5.1 million km², which is 11. 51% of the Asian continent or 3. 4% of the worlds land surface area. The population of South Asia is about 1.749 billion or about one fourth of the worlds population, overall, it accounts for about 39. 49% of Asias population and is home to a vast array of peoples. The area of South Asia and its extent is not clear cut as systemic. Aside from the region of South Asia, formerly part of the British Empire, there is a high degree of variation as to which other countries are included in South Asia. Modern definitions of South Asia are consistent in including Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar is included by some scholars in South Asia, but in Southeast Asia by others. Some do not include Afghanistan, others question whether Afghanistan should be considered a part of South Asia or the Middle East, the mountain countries of Nepal and Bhutan, and the island countries of Sri Lanka and Maldives are generally included as well. Myanmar is often added, and by various deviating definitions based on often substantially different reasons, the British Indian Ocean Territory, the common concept of South Asia is largely inherited from the administrative boundaries of the British Raj, with several exceptions. The Aden Colony, British Somaliland and Singapore, though administered at various times under the Raj, have not been proposed as any part of South Asia. Additionally Burma was administered as part of the Raj until 1937, the 562 princely states that were protected by but not directly ruled by the Raj became administrative parts of South Asia upon joining Union of India or Dominion of Pakistan. China and Myanmar have also applied for the status of members of SAARC. This bloc of countries include two independent countries that were not part of the British Raj – Nepal, and Bhutan, Afghanistan was a British protectorate from 1878 until 1919, after the Afghans lost to the British in the Second Anglo-Afghan war. The United Nations Statistics Divisions scheme of sub-regions include all eight members of the SAARC as part of Southern Asia, population Information Network includes Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burma, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka as part of South Asia. Maldives, in view of its characteristics, was admitted as a member Pacific POPIN subregional network only in principle, the Hirschman–Herfindahl index of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific for the region includes only the original seven signatories of SAARC. The British Indian Ocean Territory is connected to the region by a publication of Janes for security considerations, the inclusion of Myanmar in South Asia is without consensus, with many considering it a part of southeast Asia and others including it within South Asia. Afghanistan was of importance to the British colonial empire, especially after the Second Anglo-Afghan War over 1878–1880, Afghanistan remained a British protectorate until 1919, when a treaty with Vladimir Lenin included the granting of independence to Afghanistan. Following Indias partition, Afghanistan has generally included in South AsiaSouth Asia – While South Asia had never been a coherent geopolitical region, it has a distinct geographical identity
8. Iran – Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the worlds 17th-most-populous country. It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers. During the 18th century, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body. Following a coup instigated by the U. K. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. Iran is a member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC. Its political system is based on the 1979 Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris, Kurds and Lurs. Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, however, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was then shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeablyIran – Cave painting in Doushe cave, Lorestan, Iran, 8th millennium BC
9. Turkmenistan – Turkmenistan has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. In medieval times, Merv was one of the cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road. Annexed by the Russian Empire in 1881, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the movement in Central Asia. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic, Turkmenistan possesses the worlds fourth largest reserves of natural gas resources. Most of the country is covered by the Karakum Desert, since 1993, citizens have received government-provided electricity, water and natural gas free of charge. Turkmenistan was ruled by President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov until his death in 2006, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow was elected president in 2007. According to Human Rights Watch, Turkmenistan remains one of the world’s most repressive countries, after suspending the death penalty, the use of capital punishment was formally abolished in the 2008 constitution. Historically inhabited by the Indo-Iranians, the history of Turkmenistan begins with its annexation by the Achaemenid Empire of Ancient Iran. In the 8th century AD, Turkic-speaking Oghuz tribes moved from Mongolia into present-day Central Asia, part of a powerful confederation of tribes, these Oghuz formed the ethnic basis of the modern Turkmen population. In the 10th century, the name Turkmen was first applied to Oghuz groups that accepted Islam, There they were under the dominion of the Seljuk Empire, which was composed of Oghuz groups living in present-day Iran and Turkmenistan. Turkmen soldiers in the service of the played a important role in the spreading of Turkic culture when they migrated westward into present-day Azerbaijan. In the 12th century, Turkmen and other tribes overthrew the Seljuk Empire, in the next century, the Mongols took over the more northern lands where the Turkmens had settled, scattering the Turkmens southward and contributing to the formation of new tribal groups. The sixteenth and eighteenth centuries saw a series of splits and confederations among the nomadic Turkmen tribes, by the 16th century, most of those tribes were under the nominal control of two sedentary Uzbek khanates, Khiva and Bukhoro. Turkmen soldiers were an important element of the Uzbek militaries of this period, in the 19th century, raids and rebellions by the Yomud Turkmen group resulted in that groups dispersal by the Uzbek rulers. According to Paul R. Spickard, Prior to the Russian conquest, Russian forces began occupying Turkmen territory late in the 19th century. From their Caspian Sea base at Krasnovodsk, the Russians eventually overcame the Uzbek khanates, in 1916 the Russian Empires participation in World War I resonated in Turkmenistan, as an anticonscription revolt swept most of Russian Central Asia. In 1924 the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic was formed from the tsarist province of Transcaspia, by the late 1930s, Soviet reorganization of agriculture had destroyed what remained of the nomadic lifestyle in Turkmenistan, and Moscow controlled political life. The Ashgabat earthquake of 1948 killed over 110,000 people, during the next half-century, Turkmenistan played its designated economic role within the Soviet Union and remained outside the course of major world eventsTurkmenistan – Turkmen helmet (15th century).
10. Uzbekistan – Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan, is one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world. Located in Central Asia, it is a unitary, constitutional, presidential republic, comprising twelve provinces, one autonomous republic and a capital city. Uzbekistan is bordered by five landlocked countries, Kazakhstan to the north, Tajikistan to the southeast, Kyrgyzstan to the northeast, Afghanistan to the south, and Turkmenistan to the southwest. Once part of the Turkic Khaganate and later Timurid Empires, the region that includes the Republic of Uzbekistan was conquered in the early 16th century by Eastern Turkic-speaking nomads. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, it declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991, Uzbekistan is officially a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. The countrys official language is Uzbek, a Turkic language written in the Latin alphabet and spoken natively by approximately 85% of the population, however, Uzbeks constitute 81% of the population, followed by Russians, Tajiks, Kazakhs, and others. A majority of Uzbeks are non-denominational Muslims, Uzbekistan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, UN, and the SCO. While officially a republic, non-governmental human rights organizations define Uzbekistan as an authoritarian state with limited civil rights. Uzbekistans economy relies mainly on commodity production, including cotton, gold, uranium, despite the declared objective of transition to a market economy, its government continues to maintain economic controls which imports in favour of domestic import substitution. Uzbekistan has an area of 447,400 square kilometres and it is the 56th largest country in the world by area and the 42nd by population. Among the CIS countries, it is the 4th largest by area, Uzbekistan lies between latitudes 37° and 46° N, and longitudes 56° and 74° E. It stretches 1,425 kilometres from west to east and 930 kilometres from north to south, Uzbekistan also shares a short border with Afghanistan to the south. Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country and it is one of two doubly landlocked countries in the world, the other being Liechtenstein. In addition, due to its location within a series of endorheic basins, less than 10% of its territory is intensively cultivated irrigated land in river valleys and oases. The rest is vast desert and mountains, the climate in the Republic of Uzbekistan is continental, with little precipitation expected annually. The average summer high temperature tends to be 40 °C, while the winter low temperature is around −23 °C. Uzbekistan has a rich and diverse natural environment, the Aral Sea used to be the fourth-largest inland sea on Earth, acting as an influencing factor in the air moisture and arid land use. Since the 1960s, the decade when the misuse of the Aral Sea water began, it has shrunk to less than 50% of its former area, reliable, or even approximate data, have not been collected, stored or provided by any organization or official agencyUzbekistan – Comparison of the Aral Sea between 1989 and 2014.
11. Tajikistan – Tajikistan, officially the Republic of Tajikistan, is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated 8 million people in 2013, and an area of 143,100 km2. It is bordered by Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to the south, the Republic of Uzbekistan to the west, the Kyrgyz Republic to the north, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan lies to the south, separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. Traditional homelands of Tajik people included present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan, a civil war was fought almost immediately after independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability, Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistans 8 million people belong to the Tajik ethnic group, many Tajiks also speak Russian as their second language. Mountains cover more than 90% of the country and it has a transition economy that is highly dependent on remittances, aluminium and cotton production. Tajikistan means the Land of the Tajiks, the suffix -stan is Persian for place of or country and Tajik is, most likely, the name of a pre-Islamic tribe. Tajikistan appeared as Tadjikistan or Tadzhikistan in English prior to 1991 and this is due to a transliteration from the Russian, Таджикистан. In Russian, there is no single letter j to represent the phoneme /ʤ/ and дж, Tadzhikistan is the most common alternate spelling and is widely used in English literature derived from Russian sources. Tadjikistan is the spelling in French and can occasionally be found in English language texts, the way of writing Tajikistan in the Perso-Arabic script is. The earliest recorded history of the dates back to about 500 BCE when much, if not all. After the regions conquest by Alexander the Great it became part of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, northern Tajikistan was part of Sogdia, a collection of city-states which was overrun by Scythians and Yuezhi nomadic tribes around 150 BCE. The Silk Road passed through the region and following the expedition of Chinese explorer Zhang Qian during the reign of Wudi commercial relations between Han China and Sogdiana flourished. Sogdians played a role in facilitating trade and also worked in other capacities, as farmers, carpetweavers, glassmakers. Later the Hephthalite Empire, a collection of tribes, moved into the region. Central Asia continued in its role as a crossroads, linking China, the steppes to the north. It was temporarily under the control of the Tibetan empire and Chinese from 650–680, the Samanid Empire,819 to 999, restored Persian control of the region and enlarged the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara which became the cultural centres of Iran and the region was known as Khorasan. The Kara-Khanid Khanate conquered Transoxania and ruled between 999–1211, during Genghis Khans invasion of Khwarezmia in the early 13th century the Mongol Empire took control over nearly all of Central AsiaTajikistan – The Samanid ruler Mansur I (961 – 976).
12. China – China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, respectively, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War. The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is also the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, however, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was then applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and then to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the QingChina – Yinxu, ruins of an ancient palace dating from the Shang Dynasty (14th century BCE)
13. Origins of the name Afghan – The ethnonym Afghan has been used in the past to denote a member of the Pashtuns, and that usage still persists in some places in Afghanistan. The name Afghanistan is a derivation from the ethnonym Afghan, originally in the loose meaning land of the Pashtuns, in the 3rd century, the Sassanids mentioned an eastern tribe called Abgân, which is attested in its Arabic form Afġān in the 10th century Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam. Through the nineteenth century, the term Afghan was used by writers as a synonym for Pashtun. Since the Afghan Constitution of 1964, Afghan officially refers to every citizen of the state of Afghanistan, the Encyclopædia Iranica explains, From a more limited, ethnological point of view, Afġān is the term by which the Persian-speakers of Afghanistan designate the Paštūn. The term Afġān has probably designated the Paštūn since ancient times, under the form Avagānā, this ethnic group is first mentioned by the Indian astronomer Varāha Mihira in the beginning of the 6th century in his Brhat-samhita. Hiven Tsiang, a Chinese Buddhist pilgrim visiting the Afghanistan area several times between 630 and 644 CE, speaks about the tribes inhabiting the region. According to scholars such as V. Minorsky, W. K, gillet, the word Afghan has appeared in the 982 Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam, where a reference is made to a village. Saul, a pleasant village on a mountain, Saul was probably located near Gardez, in the Paktia province of Afghanistan. Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam also speaks of a king in Ninhar, who shows a public display of conversion to Islam, even though he has over 30 wives, which are described as Muslim, Afghan and it should be noted that some of these names were used as geographical terms. For example, Hindu has been used historically as a term to describe someone who was native from the general region known as Hindustan or the Indian subcontinent. Al-Utbi, the Ghaznavid chronicler, in his Tarikh-i Yamini records that many Afghans, the Afghans and Khiljis who resided among the mountains having taken the oath of allegiance to Subooktugeen, many of them were enlisted in his army, after which he returned in triumph to Ghizny. In the 11th century, Afghans are mentioned in Al-Birunis Tarikh-ul Hind and it is recorded that Afghans were also enrolled in the Ghurid Kingdom. By the beginning of the Khilji dynasty in 1290, Afghans have been known in northern India. Ibn Battuta, a famous Moroccan traveler, visiting Afghanistan following the era of the Khilji dynasty in 1333 writes and we travelled on to Kabul, formerly a vast town, the site of which is now occupied by a village inhabited by a tribe of Persians called Afghans. They hold mountains and defiles and possess considerable strength, and are mostly highwaymen and their principal mountain is called Kuh Sulayman. It is told that the prophet Sulayman ascended this mountain and having looked out over India, from this marriage many children were born, among whom were two sons famous in history. The one Lodhi, the other Sur, who each, subsequently, in the writings of the 17th-century Pashto poet Khushal Khattak, it states Pull out your sword and slay any one, that says Pashtun and Afghan are not one. Arabs know this and so do Romans, Afghans are Pashtuns, Pashtuns are Afghans, the last part of the name -stān is a Persian suffix for place of, the Pashto translation of which is stogna prominent in many languages of AsiaOrigins of the name Afghan – Tents of Afghan nomads in Badghis Province of Afghanistan who are known in Pashto language as Kuchans. They are mostly Ghilji and migrate from region to region depending on the season. Early peasant farming villages came into existence in Afghanistan about 7,000 years ago.
14. Indian subcontinent – Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically, it is the region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west. Politically, the Indian subcontinent usually includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, sometimes, the term South Asia is used interchangeably with Indian subcontinent. There is no consensus about which countries should be included in each and it is first attested in 1845 to refer to the North and South Americas, before they were regarded as separate continents. Its use to refer to the Indian subcontinent is seen from the twentieth century. It was especially convenient for referring to the region comprising both the British India and the states under British Paramountcy. The term Indian subcontinent also has a geological significance and it was, like the various continents, a part of the supercontinent of Gondwana. A series of tectonic splits caused formation of basins, each drifting in various directions. The geological region called the Greater India once included the Madagascar, Seychelles, Antartica, as a geological term, Indian subcontinent has meant that region formed from the collision of the Indian basin with Eurasia nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene. The Indian subcontinent has been a particularly common in the British Empire. The region, state Mittal and Thursby, has also labelled as India, Greater India. The BBC and some sources refer to the region as the Asian Subcontinent. Some academics refer to it as South Asian Subcontinent, the terms Indian subcontinent and South Asia are sometimes used interchangeably. There is no accepted definition on which countries are a part of South Asia or Indian subcontinent. In dictionary entries, the term subcontinent signifies a large, distinguishable subdivision of a continent, the region experienced high volcanic activity and plate subdivisions, creating Madagascar, Seychelles, Antartica, Austrolasia and the Indian subcontinent basin. The Indian subcontinent drifted northeastwards, colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago and this geological region largely includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The zone where the Eurasian and Indian subcontinent plates meet remains one of the active areas. The English term mainly continues to refer to the Indian subcontinent, physiographically, it is a peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the eastIndian subcontinent – Indian subcontinent
15. Silk Road – While the term is of modern coinage, the Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk carried out along its length, beginning during the Han dynasty. The Han dynasty expanded Central Asian sections of the routes around 114 BCE, largely through missions and explorations of the Chinese imperial envoy. The Chinese took great interest in the safety of their trade products, though silk was certainly the major trade item exported from China, many other goods were traded, as well as religions, syncretic philosophies, and various technologies. Diseases, most notably plague, also spread along the Silk Routes, in addition to economic trade, the Silk Road was a route for cultural trade among the civilizations along its network. The main traders during antiquity included the Chinese, Arabs, Turkmens, Indians, Persians, Somalis, Greeks, Syrians, Romans, Georgians, Armenians, Bactrians, in June 2014, UNESCO designated the Changan-Tianshan corridor of the Silk Road as a World Heritage Site. The Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative Eurasian silk and horse trade, the German terms Seidenstraße and Seidenstraßen were coined by Ferdinand von Richthofen, who made seven expeditions to China from 1868 to 1872. The term Silk Route is also used, although the term was coined in the 19th century, it did not gain widespread acceptance in academia or popularity among the public until the 20th century. The first book entitled The Silk Road was by Swedish geographer Sven Hedin in 1938, the fall of the Soviet Union and Iron Curtain in 1989 led to a surge of public and academic interest in Silk Road sites and studies in the former Soviet republics of Central Asia. Use of the term Silk Road is not without its detractors and he notes that traditional authors discussing East-West trade such as Marco Polo and Edward Gibbon never labelled any route as a silk one in particular. From the 2nd millennium BCE, nephrite jade was being traded from mines in the region of Yarkand, some remnants of what was probably Chinese silk dating from 1070 BCE have been found in Ancient Egypt. The Great Oasis cities of Central Asia played a role in the effective functioning of the Silk Road trade. This style is reflected in the rectangular belt plaques made of gold and bronze, with other versions in jade. The tomb of a Scythian prince near Stuttgart, Germany, dated to the 6th century BCE, was excavated and found to have not only Greek bronzes but also Chinese silks. Scythians accompanied the Assyrian Esarhaddon on his invasion of Egypt, soghdian Scythian merchants played a vital role in later periods in the development of the Silk Road. By the time of Herodotus, the Royal Road of the Persian Empire ran some 2,857 km from the city of Susa on the Karun to the port of Smyrna on the Aegean Sea. It was maintained and protected by the Achaemenid Empire and had postal stations, by having fresh horses and riders ready at each relay, royal couriers could carry messages the entire distance in nine days, while normal travellers took about three months. The next major step in the development of the Silk Road was the expansion of the Greek empire of Alexander the Great into Central Asia and this later became a major staging point on the northern Silk Route. They continued to expand eastward, especially during the reign of Euthydemus, there are indications that he may have led expeditions as far as Kashgar in Chinese Turkestan, leading to the first known contacts between [China and the West around 200 BCESilk Road – Main routes of the Silk Road
16. Human migration – Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently in the new location. The movement is often long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration is also possible, indeed. Migration may be individuals, family units or in large groups, nomadic movements are normally not regarded as migrations as there is no intention to settle in the new place and because the movement is generally seasonal. Only a few people have retained this form of lifestyle in modern times. Many estimates of statistics in worldwide migration patterns exist, the World Bank has published its Migration and Remittances Factbook annually since 2008. The International Organisation for Migration has published a yearly World Migration Report since 1999, the United Nations Statistics Division also keeps a database on worldwide migration. Recent advances in research on migration via the Internet promise better understanding of migration patterns, substantial internal migration can also take place within a country, either seasonal human migration, or shifts of population into cities or out of cities. Studies of worldwide migration patterns, however, tend to limit their scope to international migration, the World Banks Migration and Remittances Factbook of 2011 lists the following estimates for the year 2010, total number of immigrants,215.8 million or 3. 2% of world population. In 2013, the percentage of international migrants worldwide increased by 33% with 59% of migrants targeting developed regions, almost half of these migrants are women, which is one of the most significant migrant-pattern changes in the last half century. Women migrate alone or with their members and community. Even though female migration is largely viewed as rather than independent migration, emerging studies argue complex. The World Banks report estimates that, as of 2010,16.3 million or 7. 6% of migrants qualified as refugees. At the end of 2012, approximately 15.4 million people were refugees, structurally, there is substantial South-South and North-North migration, i. e. most emigrants from high-income O. E. C. D. Countries migrate to other countries, and a substantial part of emigrants from developing countries migrate to other developing countries. Between 2000 and 2013 the average rate of change of the migrant population in the developing regions slightly exceeded that of the developed regions. Remittances, i. e. funds transferred by migrant workers to their home country, the top ten remittance recipients in 2010 were 1. China, Mexico, Philippines, France, Germany, Bangladesh, Belgium, Spain, the Global Commission on International Migration, launched in 2003, published a report in 2005. International migration challenges at the level are addressed through the Global Forum on Migration and DevelopmentHuman migration – Net migration rates for 2011: positive (blue), negative (orange), stable (green), and no data (gray)
17. Geostrategy – Geostrategy, a subfield of geopolitics, is a type of foreign policy guided principally by geographical factors as they inform, constrain, or affect political and military planning. As with all strategies, geostrategy is concerned with matching means to ends—in this case, Strategy is as intertwined with geography as geography is with nationhood, or as Gray and Sloan state it, the mother of strategy. Geostrategists, as distinct from geopoliticians, advocate aggressive strategies, Geostrategy is most closely related to strategic geography. Especially following World War II, some scholars divide geostrategy into two schools, the uniquely German organic state theory, and, the broader Anglo-American geostrategies, academics, theorists, and practitioners of geopolitics have agreed upon no standard definition for geostrategy. Most all definitions, however, emphasize the merger of strategic considerations with geopolitical factors, the term geo-strategy was first used by Frederick L. Schuman in his 1942 article Let Us Learn Our Geopolitics. It was a translation of the German term Wehrgeopolitik as used by German geostrategist Karl Haushofer, previous translations had been attempted, such as defense-geopolitics. Robert Strausz-Hupé had coined and popularized war geopolitics as another alternate translation, eostrategy is about the exercise of power over particularly critical spaces on the Earths surface, about crafting a political presence over the international system. It is aimed at enhancing security and prosperity, about making the international system more prosperous. A geostrategy is about securing access to trade routes, strategic bottlenecks, rivers, islands. It requires an extensive presence, normally coterminous with the opening of overseas military stations. It also requires a network of alliances with other powers who share ones aims or with smaller lynchpin states that are located in the regions one deems important. —Zbigniew Brzezinski, The Grand Chessboard Geostrategy is the direction of a states foreign policy. More precisely, geostrategy describes where a state concentrates its efforts by projecting military power, the underlying assumption is that states have limited resources and are unable, even if they are willing, to conduct a tous asimuths foreign policy. Instead they must focus politically and militarily on specific areas of the world, Geostrategy describes this foreign-policy thrust of a state and does not deal with motivation or decision-making processes. The geostrategy of a state, therefore, is not necessarily motivated by geographic or geopolitical factors, a state may project power to a location because of ideological reasons, interest groups, or simply the whim of its leader. —Jakub J. —Lim Joo-Jock, Geo-Strategy and the South China Sea Basin, a science named geo-strategy would be unimaginable in any other period of history but ours. It is the product of turbulent twentieth-century world politics. -Andrew Gyorgi, The Geopolitics of War, Total War and Geostrategy, jones, The Power Inventory and National Strategy Geostrategy is the geographic direction of a state’s foreign policyGeostrategy – Fr. Edmund A. Walsh, SJ
18. Ahmad Shah Durrani – Ahmad Shāh Durrānī, also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī, was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan. After the death of Nader Shah Afshar in 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani was chosen as King of Afghanistan. Within a few years, he extended his control from Khorasan in the west to Kashmir and North India in the east, Durranis mausoleum is located at Kandahar, Afghanistan, adjacent to the Shrine of the Cloak in the center of the city. Afghans often refer to him as Ahmad Shāh Bābā, Durrani was born in or about 1722 to Mohammad Zaman Khan, chief of the Abdali tribe and Governor of Herat, and Zarghuna Alakozai. There has been debate about Durranis exact place of birth. Most believe that he was born in Herat, Afghanistan and he was born as Ahmed Khan. Abdalis father suffered Persian captivity for years at Kirman before being released from prison in 1715. As a refugee, he made his way to India and joined his kinsmen at Multan, after he raised his family there, he was recognized as the scion of hereditary Sadozai chiefs. It is believed that Zaman Khan returned to Afghanistan to fight the Persians and his Afghan rivals, so other sources believe that, Abdali was born at Multan in 1722, after which she returned to Afghanistan to reunite with her husband. He lost his father during his infancy, Durranis forefathers were Sadozais but his mother was from the Alakozai tribe. In June 1729, the Abdali forces under Zulfiqar had surrendered to Nader Shah Afshar, however, they soon began a rebellion and took over Herat as well as Mashad. In July 1730, he defeated Ibrahim Khan, a commander and brother of Nader Shah. This prompted Nader Shah to retake Mashad and also intervene in the struggle of Harat. By July 1731, Zulfiqar returned to his capital Farah where he had been serving as the governor since 1726, a year later Nadirs brother Ibrahim Khan took control of Farah. During this time Zulfiqar and the young Durrani fled to Kandahar where they took refuge with the Ghiljis and they were later made political prisoners by Hussain Hotak, the Ghilji ruler of the Kandahar region. Nader Shah had been enlisting the Abdalis in his army since around 1729, after conquering Kandahar in 1738, Durrani and his brother Zulfiqar were freed and provided with leading careers in Nader Shahs administration. Zulfiqar was made Governor of Mazandaran while Durrani remained working as Nader Shahs personal attendant, the Ghiljis, who are originally from the territories east of the Kandahar region, were expelled from Kandahar in order to resettle the Abdalis along with some Qizilbash and other Persians. Durrani proved himself in Nader Shahs service and was promoted from an attendant to command the Abdali RegimentAhmad Shah Durrani – Ahmad Shah Durrani
19. Durrani Empire – The Durrani Empire at its maximum extent encompassed present-day Afghanistan, northeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, most of Pakistan, and northwestern India, including the Kashmir region. The Afghan army began their conquests by capturing Ghazni and Kabul from the local rulers, in 1749 the Mughal ruler had ceded sovereignty over what is now Pakistan and northwestern Punjab to the Afghans. Ahmad Shah then set out westward to take possession of Herat and he next sent an army to subdue the areas north of the Hindu Kush and in short order all the different tribes began joining his cause. Ahmad Shah and his forces invaded India four times, taking control of the Kashmir, early in 1757, he sacked Delhi, but permitted the Mughal dynasty to remain in nominal control as long as the ruler acknowledged Ahmad Shahs suzerainty over the Punjab, Sindh, and Kashmir. Additionally, among the Durranis other military conquests, the Pashtun also instigated the Vaḍḍā Ghallūghārā when they killed thousands of Sikhs in the Punjab, the Durrani Empire is considered the foundation of the modern state of Afghanistan, with Ahmad Shah Durrani being credited as Father of the Nation. In 1709 Mir Wais Hotak, chief of the Ghilji tribe of Kandahar Province, from 1722 to 1725, his son Mahmud Hotak briefly ruled large parts of Iran and declared himself as Shah of Persia. However, the Hotak dynasty came to a end in 1738 after being toppled and banished by the Afsharids who were led by Nader Shah Afshar of Persia. The year 1747 marks the appearance of an Afghan political entity independent of both the Persian and Mughal empires. In October 1747 a loya jirga concluded near the city of Kandahar with Ahmad Shah Durrani being selected as the new leader of the Afghans, despite being younger than the other contenders, Ahmad Shah had several overriding factors in his favor. He belonged to a family of political background, especially since his father served as Governor of Herat who died in a battle defending the Afghans. He also had a larger army and possessed a substantial part of Nadir Shahs treasury, including the Koh-i-Noor diamond. One of Ahmad Shahs first military action was the capture Ghazni from the Ghiljis, in 1749, the Mughal ruler was induced to cede Sindh, the Punjab region and the important trans Indus River to Ahmad Shah in order to save his capital from Afghan attack. Having thus gained substantial territories to the east without a fight, Ahmad Shah turned westward to take possession of Herat, Ahmad Shah next sent an army to subdue the areas north of the Hindu Kush mountains. In short order, the army brought under its control the Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Turkmen. Ahmad Shah invaded the remnants of the Mughal Empire a third time and he sacked Delhi in 1757, but permitted the Mughal dynasty to remain in nominal control of the city as long as the ruler acknowledged Ahmad Shahs suzerainty over Punjab, Sindh, and Kashmir. Leaving his second son Timur Shah to safeguard his interests, Ahmad Shah left India to return to Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah halted trade with Qing China and dispatched troops to Kokand. Through this treaty, the Marathas controlled virtually the whole of India from their capital at Pune, Marathas were now straining to expand their area of control towards the Northwest of India. Ahmad Shah sacked the Mughal capital and withdrew with the booty he coveted, to counter the Afghans, Peshwa Balaji Bajirao sent RaghunathraoDurrani Empire – Flag
20. Kandahar – Kandahar or Qandahar is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 491,500 as of 2012. Formerly called Alexandria Arachosia, the city is named after Alexander the Great, Kandahar is the capital of Kandahar Province, located in the south of the country at an altitude of 1,010 m above sea level. The Arghandab River runs along the west of the city, the city of Kandahar has a population of 557,118. It has 15 districts and a land area of 27,337 hectares. The total number of dwellings in Kandahar is 61,902, Kandahar is one of the most culturally significant cities of the Pashtuns and has been their traditional seat of power for more than 200 years. It is a trading center for sheep, wool, cotton, silk, felt, food grains, fresh and dried fruit. The region produces fine fruits, especially pomegranates and grapes, and the city has plants for canning, drying, and packing fruit, the area is believed to be the birthplace of cannabis indica. The region around Kandahar is one of the oldest known human settlements, Alexander the Great had laid-out the foundation of what is now Old Kandahar in the 4th century BC and gave it the Ancient Greek name Αλεξάνδρεια Aραχωσίας. Many empires have long fought over the city due to its location along the trade routes of southern, central. In 1709, Mirwais Hotak made the region an independent kingdom, in 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the last Afghan empire, made it the capital of modern Afghanistan. A temple to the deified Alexander as well as an inscription in Greek and Aramaic by Emperor Ashoka, Ibn Batutta mentions Kandahar in the 14th century by describing it as a large and prosperous town three nights journey from Ghazni. It has been then mentioned extensively by Mughal Emperor Babur and others, an alternative story describes Khandahar as Gandhara in Mahabharata ruled by Suvala and later by Shakuni. The princess of Hastinapur, Gandhari was born in Gandhara, a folk etymology offered is that the word kand or qand in Persian and Pashto means candy. The name Candahar or Kandahar in this form probably translates to candy area and this probably has to do with the location being fertile and historically known for producing fine grapes, pomegranates, apricots, melons and other sweet fruits. Ernst Herzfeld claimed Kandahar perpetuated the name of the Indo-Parthian king Gondophares, excavations of prehistoric sites by archaeologists such as Louis Dupree and others suggest that the region around Kandahar is one of the oldest human settlements known so far. Early peasant farming villages came into existence in Afghanistan ca.5000 B. C. or 7000 years ago, deh Morasi Ghundai, the first prehistoric site to be excavated in Afghanistan, lies 27 km southwest of Kandahar. Another Bronze Age village mound site with multiroomed mud-brick buildings dating from the same period sits nearby at Said Qala, Bronze Age pottery, copper and bronze horse trappings and stone seals were found in the lowermost levels in the nearby cave called Shamshir Ghar. In the Seistan, southwest of these Kandahar sites, two teams of American archaeologists discovered sites relating to the 2nd millennium B. C, while the Diadochi were warring amongst themselves, the Mauryan Empire was developing in the northern part of the Indian subcontinentKandahar
21. The Great Game – This resulted in an atmosphere of distrust and the constant threat of war between the two empires. This would protect India and also key British sea trade routes by stopping Russia from gaining a port on the Persian Gulf or the Indian Ocean, Russia proposed Afghanistan as the neutral zone. Historians consider that the Great Game ended on 10 September 1895 with the signing of the Pamir Boundary Commission protocols, the 1901 novel Kim by Rudyard Kipling, made the term popular and introduced the new implication of great power rivalry. It became even more popular after 1979, the term the Great Game was used well before the 19th century and was associated with games of risk, such as cards and dice. The French equivalent Le grand jeu dates back to at least 1585 and is associated with meanings of risk, chance, the term The Great Game is attributed to Captain Arthur Conolly who had been appointed as a political officer. In July 1840, in correspondence to Major Henry Rawlinson who had recently appointed as the new political agent in Kandahar, Conolly wrote, Youve a great game. The expediency, nay the necessity of them will be seen, One common popular use of the term is related to spies and their military value or political influence on the peoples of a region. It was introduced into mainstream consciousness by the British novelist Rudyard Kipling in his novel Kim and it was first used academically by Professor H. W. C. The use of the term The Great Game to describe Anglo-Russian rivalry in Central Asia became common only after the Second World War and it was rarely used before that period. The start of the 19th Century saw the Indian subcontinent ruled in part by independent princely states, during the 19th Century a political and diplomatic confrontation existed between Britain and Russia over Afghanistan. It later became known as The Great Game and this resulted in an atmosphere of distrust and the constant threat of war between the two empires. If Russia were to control of the Emirate of Afghanistan. Napoleon had proposed a joint Franco-Russian invasion of India to his Imperial Majesty Paul I of Russia. In 1801 Paul, fearing a future action by the British against Russia and her allies in Europe, decided to make the first move towards where he believed the British Empire was weakest. He wrote to the Ataman of the Don Cossacks Troops, Cavalry General Vasily Petrovich Orlov, directing him to march to Orenburg, conquer the Central Asian Khanates, Paul was assassinated in the same year and the invasion was terminated. Napoleon tried to persuade Pauls son, Tsar Alexander I of Russia, to invade India, in 1807, Napoleon dispatched General Claude Matthieu, Count Gardane on a French military mission to Persia, with the intention of persuading Russia to invade India. However, Britain was left with concerns about being able to defend India, in 1810, Lieutenant Henry Pottinger and Captain Charles Christie undertook an expedition from Nushki to Isfahan disguised as Muslims. After the disastrous French invasion of Russia in 1812 and the collapse of the French army, following the Treaty of Turkmenchay 1828 and the Treaty of Adrianople, Britain feared that Persia and Turkey would become protectorates of RussiaThe Great Game – Persia at the beginning of the Great Game in 1814
22. British Indian Empire – The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947. The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India, the resulting political union was also called the Indian Empire and after 1876 issued passports under that name. It lasted until 1947, when the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two sovereign states, the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. The British Raj extended over almost all present-day India, Pakistan and this area is very diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, and the Thar desert. In addition, at times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948, among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798, the kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states. The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861, however. The Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory, British India and the Native States. In general, the term British India had been used to also to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has also used to refer to the British in India. The terms Indian Empire and Empire of India were not used in legislation, the monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was often used in Queen Victorias Queens Speeches and Prorogation Speeches. The passports issued by the British Indian government had the words Indian Empire on the cover, in addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor, during the partition of Bengal the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, and the new provinces in the east became, Assam, Bengal, Bihar, there were 565 princely states when India and Pakistan became independent from Britain in August 1947. The princely states did not form a part of British India, the larger ones had treaties with Britain that specified which rights the princes had, in the smaller ones the princes had few rights. Within the princely states external affairs, defence and most communications were under British control, the British also exercised a general influence over the states internal politics, in part through the granting or withholding of recognition of individual rulers. Although there were nearly 600 princely states, the majority were very smallBritish Indian Empire – An 1909 map of the British Indian Empire
23. Russian Empire – The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917. One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring powers, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia. It played a role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleons ambitions to control Europe. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, with 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, ethnicity, there were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts, they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia. Economically, the empire had an agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways, the land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that later emerged and he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power, Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest, colonization and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Greats policy of modernisation along West European lines, Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and that connection by 1914 led to Russias entry into the First World War on the side of France, Britain, and Serbia, against the German, Austrian and Ottoman empires. The Russian Empire functioned as a monarchy until the Revolution of 1905. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917, largely as a result of failures in its participation in the First World War. Perhaps the latter was done to make Europe recognize Russia as more of a European country, Poland was divided in the 1790-1815 era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system. However, this vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxationRussian Empire – Peter the Great officially renamed the Tsardom of Russia the Russian Empire in 1721, and himself its first emperor. He instituted the sweeping reforms and oversaw the transformation of Russia into a major European power.
24. Third Anglo-Afghan war – The Third Anglo-Afghan War, also referred to as the Third Afghan War, began on 6 May 1919 and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919. The Afghans were able to resume the right to conduct their own affairs as a fully independent state. The root cause of the Third Anglo-Afghan War lies many years before the fighting commenced. For the British in India, Afghanistan was long seen as a source of threat. For a long time the British worried about Russian intentions in the region and this period became known as the Great Game. Ostensibly, the country remained independent, however under the Treaty of Gandamak it accepted that in external matters it would. have no windows looking on the outside world, the death in 1901 of Emir Abdur Rahman Khan led indirectly to the war that began 18 years later. His successor, Habibullah, was a leader who sided with Britain or Russia. Notwithstanding these outbreaks, the frontier generally remained settled at a time when Britain could ill afford trouble, a Turco-German mission left Kabul in 1916. By that time, however, it had successfully convinced Habibullah that Afghanistan was an independent nation, with the end of the First World War, Habibullah sought to gain reward from the British government for his assistance during the war. Looking for British recognition of Afghanistans independence in foreign affairs, he demanded a seat at the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919 and this request was denied by the Viceroy, Frederic Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford, on the grounds that attendance at the conference was confined to the belligerents. Further negotiations were scheduled, but before they could begin Habibullah was assassinated on 19 February 1919 and this resulted in a power struggle as Habibullahs brother Nasrullah Khan proclaimed himself as Habibullahs successor, while in Kabul Amanullah, Habibullahs third son, had also proclaimed himself Amir. However, the Afghan army suspected Amanullahs complicity in the death of his father, needing a way of cementing his power, upon seizing the throne in April 1919 Amanullah posed as a man of democratic ideals, promising reforms in the system of government. He stated that there should be no forced labour, tyranny or oppression, upon seizing the throne, Amanullah had his uncle Nasrullah arrested for Habibullahs murder and had him sentenced to life imprisonment. Nasrullah had been the leader of a conservative element in Afghanistan. By April 1919 he realised that if he could not find a way to placate the conservatives he would be unlikely to maintain his hold on power. In 1919 the Afghan regular army was not a formidable force. These men were organised into 21 cavalry regiments and 75 infantry battalions, with about 280 modern artillery pieces, organised into 70 batteries, in reality, the Afghan regular army was not ready for war. As in past years, the levels of the officer corps were riddled with political intrigueThird Anglo-Afghan war – History of Afghanistan
25. International relations – International relations is an academic and a public policy field, and so can be positive and normative, because it analyzes and formulates the foreign policy of a given State. As political activity, international relations dates from the time of the Greek historian Thucydides, in practice International Relations and International Affairs forms a separate academic program or field from Political Science, and the courses taught therein are highly interdisciplinary. The history of international relations based on sovereign states is often traced back to the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, prior to this the European medieval organization of political authority was based on a vaguely hierarchical religious order. Contrary to popular belief, Westphalia still embodied layered systems of sovereignty, the centuries of roughly 1500 to 1789 saw the rise of the independent, sovereign states, the institutionalization of diplomacy and armies. The French Revolution added to this the new idea that not princes or an oligarchy, such a state in which the nation is sovereign would thence be termed a nation-state. The term republic increasingly became its synonym, the same claim to sovereignty was made for both forms of nation-state. The particular European system supposing the sovereign equality of states was exported to the Americas, Africa, and Asia via colonialism, the contemporary international system was finally established through decolonization during the Cold War. While the nation-state system is considered modern, many states have not incorporated the system and are termed pre-modern, further, a handful of states have moved beyond insistence on full sovereignty, and can be considered post-modern. The ability of contemporary IR discourse to explain the relations of different types of states is disputed. What is explicitly recognized as international relations theory was not developed until after World War I, IR theory, however, has a long tradition of drawing on the work of other social sciences. The use of capitalizations of the I and R in international relations aims to distinguish the academic discipline of international relations from the phenomena of international relations. Similarly, liberalism draws upon the work of Kant and Rousseau, in the 20th century, in addition to contemporary theories of liberal internationalism, Marxism has been a foundation of international relations. International relations as a field of study began in Britain. IR emerged as an academic discipline in 1919 with the founding of the first IR professorship. Georgetown Universitys Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service is the oldest international relations faculty in the United States and this was rapidly followed by establishment of IR at universities in the US and in Geneva, Switzerland. The creation of the posts of Montague Burton Professor of International Relations at LSE, furthermore, the International History department at LSE developed a focus on the history of IR in the early modern, colonial and Cold War periods. The first university dedicated to the study of IR was the Graduate Institute of International Studies. The Committee on International Relations at the University of Chicago was the first to offer a graduate degree, in 2012, Ramon Llull University initiated the first International Relations degree in Barcelona, fully in EnglishInternational relations – The Palace of Nations. In 2012 alone, the Palace of Nations hosted more than 10 000 intergovernmental meetings. Geneva (Switzerland) is the city that hosts the highest number of international organisations in the world.
26. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-governmentUnited Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
27. Partition of India – The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan. The Dominion of India is today the Republic of India and Dominion of Pakistan, the partition involved the division of two provinces, Bengal and the Punjab, based on district-wise Hindu or Muslim majorities. It also involved the division of the British Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service, the railways, and the central treasury, between the two new dominions. The partition was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, the two self-governing countries of India and Pakistan legally came into existence at midnight on 14–15 August 1947. The violent nature of the created an atmosphere of hostility. The term partition of India does not cover the secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, nor the earlier separations of Burma and Ceylon from the administration of British India. It does not cover the incorporation of the enclaves of French India into India during the period 1947–1954, nor the annexation of Goa, other contemporaneous political entities in the region in 1947, Sikkim, Bhutan, Nepal, and The Maldives were unaffected by the partition. The Hindu elite of Bengal, among many who owned land in East Bengal that was leased out to Muslim peasants. The pervasive protests against Curzons decision took the form predominantly of the Swadeshi campaign led by two-time Congress president, Surendranath Banerjee, sporadically—but flagrantly—the protesters also took to political violence that involved attacks on civilians. The violence, however, was not effective, as most planned attacks were either preempted by the British or failed, the unrest spread from Calcutta to the surrounding regions of Bengal when Calcuttas English-educated students returned home to their villages and towns. Since Calcutta was the capital, both the outrage and the slogan soon became nationally known. In conjunction, they demanded proportional legislative representation reflecting both their status as rulers and their record of cooperating with the British. This led, in December 1906, to the founding of the All-India Muslim League in Dacca, although Curzon, by now, had resigned his position over a dispute with his military chief Lord Kitchener and returned to England, the League was in favour of his partition plan. In the three decades since that census, Muslim leaders across northern India, had intermittently experienced public animosity from some of the new Hindu political and social groups. In 1905, when Tilak and Lajpat Rai attempted to rise to positions in the Congress. It was not lost on many Muslims, for example, that the rallying cry, World War I would prove to be a watershed in the imperial relationship between Britain and India. Indias international profile would thereby rise and would continue to rise during the 1920s, back in India, especially among the leaders of the Indian National Congress, it would lead to calls for greater self-government for Indians. Secretary of State for India, Montagu and Viceroy Lord Chelmsford presented a report in July 1918 after a long fact-finding trip through India the previous winterPartition of India – The British Indian Empire, from the 1909 edition of The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Areas directly governed by the British are shaded pink; the princely states under British suzerainty are in yellow.
28. Mujahideen – Mujahideen is the plural form of mujahid, the term for one engaged in Jihad. Jihads literal meaning is to struggle. In its roots, Mujahideen refers to any person performing Jihad, Jihad was the term used for the project of Islamic conquest in the early history of Islam, during the medieval era led by the caliphates. In its post-classical meaning, Jihad refers to an act which is comparable in reward to promoting Islam during the early 600s CE. These acts could be as simple as sharing a considerable amount of income with the poor. Some Islamic sects believe that armed-conflicts cannot be branded as Jihad unless it has ordered by Messiah. Although he died in battle, the sect he had created survived, during the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the Mujahideen were said to accept any fleeing Sepoys and recruit them into their ranks. As time went by the sect grew ever larger until it was raiding and controlling larger areas in Afghanistan, some volunteers committed themselves to hand-to-hand combat and probable death. In Spanish, these rebels were known as juramentados, or oath-takers. At the DRAs request, the Soviet Union brought forces into the country to aid the government from 1979, as warfare became more sophisticated, outside support and regional coordination grew. Eventually, the seven main mujahideen parties allied as the political bloc called Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen, many Muslims from other countries assisted the various mujahideen groups in Afghanistan. Some groups of these veterans became significant players in later conflicts in and these foreign fighters became known as Afghan Arabs and their efforts were coordinated by Abdullah Yusuf Azzam. Mujahideen forces caused serious casualties to the Soviet forces, and made the war very costly for the Soviet Union, in 1989 the Soviet Union withdrew its forces from Afghanistan. Many districts and cities fell to the mujahideen, in 1992 the DRAs last president. However, the mujahideen did not establish a government. After several years of devastating fighting, a village mullah named Mohammed Omar organized a new armed movement with the backing of Pakistan, veteran mujahideen confronted this radical splinter group in 1996. The group also took part in the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Iran–Iraq War, another mujahideen was the Mujahedin-e Islam, an Islamic party led by Ayatollah Abol-Ghasem Kashani. It formed part of the National Front during the time of Mohammed Mosaddeqs oil nationalization, during the late 1950s and early 1960s, the mujahideen lost most of its momentum and support, resulting in most of them surrendering to government forces. In the 1990s, the well-armed Rohingya Solidarity Organisation was the perpetrator of attacks on Burmese authorities near the Myanmar-Bangladesh borderMujahideen – The areas where the different mujahideen forces operated in 1985
29. Soviet war in Afghanistan – The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989. Insurgent groups known as the mujahideen fought against the Soviet Army, between 562, 000–2 million civilians were killed and millions of Afghans fled the country as refugees, mostly to Pakistan and Iran. The war is considered part of the Cold War, prior to the arrival of Soviet troops, the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan took power after a 1978 coup, installing Nur Mohammad Taraki as president. The government vigorously suppressed any opposition and arrested thousands, executing as many as 27,000 political prisoners, anti-government armed groups were formed, and by April 1979 large parts of the country were in open rebellion. The government itself was unstable with in-party rivalry, and in September 1979 the president was deposed by followers of Hafizullah Amin. Deteriorating relations and worsening rebellions led the Soviet government, under leader Leonid Brezhnev, arriving in the capital Kabul, they staged a coup, killing president Amin and installing Soviet loyalist Babrak Karmal from a rival faction. Afghan insurgents began to receive massive amounts of aid and military training in neighboring Pakistan and China, paid for primarily by the United States, CIA covert action worked through Pakistani intelligence services to reach Afghani rebel groups. By the mid-1980s, the Soviet contingent was increased to 108,800 and fighting increased throughout the country, by mid-1987 the Soviet Union, now under reformist leader Mikhail Gorbachev, announced it would start withdrawing its forces. The final troop withdrawal started on May 15,1988, due to its length it has sometimes been referred to as the Soviet Unions Vietnam War or the Bear Trap by the Western media, and thought to be a contributing factor to the fall of the Soviet Union. The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was formed after the Saur Revolution on April 27,1978, the government was one with a pro-poor, pro-farmer and socialist agenda. It had close relations with the Soviet Union, on December 5,1978, a friendship treaty was signed between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan. In 1885, Russian forces seized the oasis at Panjdeh south of the Oxus River from Afghan forces. The border was agreed by the joint Anglo-Russian Afghan Boundary Commission of 1885–87 and this interest in the region continued on through the Soviet era, with billions in economic and military aid sent to Afghanistan between 1955 and 1978. Dubs death led to a deterioration in Afghanistan–United States relations. In Southwestern Asia, drastic changes were taking place concurrent with the upheavals in Afghanistan, in February 1979, the Iranian Revolution ousted the American-backed Shah from Iran, losing the United States as one of its most powerful allies. The United States then deployed twenty ships to the Persian Gulf, March 1979 marked the signing of the U. S. -backed peace agreement between Israel and Egypt. The Soviet leadership saw the agreement as an advantage for the United States. One Soviet newspaper stated that Egypt and Israel were now gendarmes of the Pentagon, the Soviets viewed the treaty not only as a peace agreement between their erstwhile allies in Egypt and the U. S. -supported Israelis but also as a military pactSoviet war in Afghanistan – Mujahideen fighters in the Kunar Province of Afghanistan in 1987
30. Taliban – Until his death in 2013, Mullah Mohammed Omar was the supreme commander and spiritual leader of the Taliban. Mullah Akhtar Mansour was elected as his replacement in 2015, and following Mansours killing in a May 2016 U. S. drone strike, Mawlawi Hibatullah Akhundzada became the groups leader. The Taliban emerged in 1994 as one of the prominent factions in the Afghan Civil War, under the leadership of Mohammed Omar, the movement spread throughout most of Afghanistan, sequestering power from the Mujahideen warlords, whose corruption and despotism Afghans had tired of. The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was established in 1996 and the Afghan capital transferred to Kandahar and it held control of most of the country until being overthrown by the American-led invasion of Afghanistan in December 2001 following the September 11 attacks. At its peak, formal recognition of the Talibans government was acknowledged by only three nations, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The group later regrouped as a movement to fight the American-backed Karzai administration. The Taliban have been condemned internationally for the enforcement of their interpretation of Islamic Sharia law. In its post-9/11 insurgency, the group has accused of using terrorism as a specific tactic to further their ideological and political goals. According to the United Nations, the Taliban and their allies were responsible for 76% of Afghan civilian casualties in 2010, 80% in 2011, Pakistan states that it dropped all support for the group after the September 11 attacks. Al-Qaeda also supported the Taliban with fighters from Arab countries and Central Asia, hundreds of thousands of people were forced to flee to United Front-controlled territory, Pakistan, and Iran. The word Taliban is Pashto, طالبان ṭālibān, meaning students and this is a loanword from Arabic طالب ṭālib, using the Persian plural ending -ān ان. In Arabic طالبان ṭālibān means not students but two students, as it is a form, the Arabic plural being طلاب ṭullāb—occasionally causing some confusion to Arabic speakers. Since becoming a loanword in English, Taliban, besides a plural noun referring to the group, has also used as a singular noun referring to an individual. For example, John Walker Lindh has been referred to as an American Taliban, in the English language newspapers of Pakistan, the word Talibans is often used when referring to more than one Taliban. The spelling Taliban has come to be predominant over Taleban in English, in the meantime, the United States and Saudi Arabia joined the struggle against the Soviet Union by providing all the funds. Zia-ul-Haq aligned himself with Pakistans Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam and later picked General Akhtar Abdur Rahman to lead the insurgency against the Soviet Union inside Afghanistan, about 90,000 Afghans, including Mohammed Omar, were trained by Pakistans ISI during the 1980s. After the fall of the Soviet-backed regime of Mohammad Najibullah in 1992, several Afghan political parties agreed on a peace and power-sharing agreement, the accord created the Islamic State of Afghanistan and appointed an interim government for a transitional period. With the exception of Gulbuddin Hekmatyars Hezb-e Islami, all of the parties, were ostensibly unified under this government in April 1992Taliban – Darul Uloom Deoband, India
31. United Nations Security Council – The Security Council held its first session on 17 January 1946. Like the UN as a whole, the Security Council was created following World War II to address the failings of an international organization. The Security Council consists of fifteen members, the great powers that were the victors of World War II—the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, Republic of China, and the United States—serve as the bodys five permanent members. These permanent members can veto any substantive Security Council resolution, including those on the admission of new member states or candidates for Secretary-General, the Security Council also has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve two-year terms. The bodys presidency rotates monthly among its members, Security Council resolutions are typically enforced by UN peacekeepers, military forces voluntarily provided by member states and funded independently of the main UN budget. As of 2016,103,510 peacekeeping soldiers and 16,471 civilians are deployed on 16 peacekeeping operations and 1 special political mission. Following the catastrophic loss of life in World War I, the Paris Peace Conference established the League of Nations to maintain harmony between the nations, the earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the US State Department in 1939. The term United Nations was first officially used when 26 governments signed this Declaration, by 1 March 1945,21 additional states had signed. The most contentious issue at Dumbarton and in successive talks proved to be the rights of permanent members. At the conference, H. V. Evatt of the Australian delegation pushed to further restrict the power of Security Council permanent members. Due to the fear that rejecting the strong veto would cause the conferences failure, the UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 upon ratification of the Charter by the five then-permanent members of the Security Council and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. On 17 January 1946, the Security Council met for the first time at Church House, Westminster, in London, United Kingdom. The Security Council was largely paralysed in its early decades by the Cold War between the US and USSR and their allies, and the Council generally was only able to intervene in unrelated conflicts. Cold War divisions also paralysed the Security Councils Military Staff Committee, the committee continued to exist on paper but largely abandoned its work in the mid-1950s. By the 1970s, the UN budget for social and economic development was far greater than its budget for peacekeeping. After the Cold War, the UN saw an expansion in its peacekeeping duties. Between 1988 and 2000, the number of adopted Security Council resolutions more than doubled, undersecretary-General Brian Urquhart later described the hopes raised by these successes as a false renaissance for the organization, given the more troubled missions that followed. In 1994, the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda failed to intervene in the Rwandan Genocide in the face of Security Council indecision, in the late 1990s, UN-authorised international interventions took a wider variety of formsUnited Nations Security Council – UN Security Council Chamber in New York City
32. International Security Assistance Force – From 2006 to 2011, ISAF had become increasingly involved in more intensive combat operations in southern and eastern Afghanistan. Troop contributors included the United States, United Kingdom and Canada, other NATO member states, the intensity of the combat faced by contributing nations varied greatly, with the United States sustaining the most casualties overall. In early 2010, there were at least 700 military bases inside Afghanistan, about 400 of these were used by American‑led NATO forces and 300 by ANSF. ISAF ceased combat operations and was disbanded in December 2014, with some troops remaining behind in a role as part of ISAFs successor organization. For almost two years, the ISAF mandate did not go beyond the boundaries of Kabul, according to General Norbert Van Heyst, such a deployment would require at least ten thousand additional soldiers. The responsibility for security throughout the whole of Afghanistan was to be given to the newly reconstituted Afghan National Army, however, on October 13,2003, the Security Council voted unanimously to expand the ISAF mission beyond Kabul with Resolution 1510. Shortly thereafter, Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien said that Canadian soldiers would not deploy outside Kabul, on October 24,2003, the German Bundestag voted to send German troops to the region of Kunduz. Approximately 230 additional soldiers were deployed to that region, marking the first time that ISAF soldiers operated outside of Kabul. On July 31,2006, the NATO‑led International Security Assistance Force assumed command of the south of the country, ISAF Stage 3, and by October 5, also of the east of Afghanistan, ISAF Stage 4. ISAF was mandated by UN Security Council Resolutions 1386,1413,1444,1510,1563,1623,1659,1707,1776, the last of these extended the mandate of ISAF to March 23,2011. The mandates given by the different governments to their forces varied from country to country and this meant that ISAF suffered from a lack of united aims. The initial ISAF headquarters was based on 3rd UK Mechanised Division and this force arrived in December,2001. Until ISAF expanded beyond Kabul, the force consisted of a roughly division-level headquarters and one covering the capital. The brigade was composed of three groups, and was in charge of the tactical command of deployed troops. ISAF headquarters served as the control center of the mission. Eighteen countries were contributors to the force in February,2002, Turkey assumed command of ISAF in June,2002. During this period, the number of Turkish troops increased from about 100 to 1,300, in November,2002, ISAF consisted of 4,650 troops from over 20 countries. Around 1,200 German troops served in the force alongside 250 Dutch soldiers operating as part of a German-led battalion, Turkey relinquished command in February,2003, and assumed command for a second time in February,2005International Security Assistance Force – ISAF's military terminal at Kabul International Airport in September 2010.
33. NATO – The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party, three NATO members are permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and are officially nuclear-weapon states. NATOs headquarters are located in Haren, Brussels, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons. NATO is an Alliance that consists of 28 independent member countries across North America and Europe, an additional 22 countries participate in NATOs Partnership for Peace program, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programmes. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total, Members defence spending is supposed to amount to 2% of GDP. The course of the Cold War led to a rivalry with nations of the Warsaw Pact, politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, several of which joined the alliance in 1999 and 2004. N. The Treaty of Brussels, signed on 17 March 1948 by Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, the treaty and the Soviet Berlin Blockade led to the creation of the Western European Unions Defence Organization in September 1948. However, participation of the United States was thought necessary both to counter the power of the USSR and to prevent the revival of nationalist militarism. He got a hearing, especially considering American anxiety over Italy. In 1948 European leaders met with U. S. defense, military and diplomatic officials at the Pentagon, marshalls orders, exploring a framework for a new and unprecedented association. Talks for a new military alliance resulted in the North Atlantic Treaty and it included the five Treaty of Brussels states plus the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. The first NATO Secretary General, Lord Ismay, stated in 1949 that the goal was to keep the Russians out, the Americans in. Popular support for the Treaty was not unanimous, and some Icelanders participated in a pro-neutrality, the creation of NATO can be seen as the primary institutional consequence of a school of thought called Atlanticism which stressed the importance of trans-Atlantic cooperation. The members agreed that an attack against any one of them in Europe or North America would be considered an attack against them all. The treaty does not require members to respond with military action against an aggressor, although obliged to respond, they maintain the freedom to choose the method by which they do so. This differs from Article IV of the Treaty of Brussels, which states that the response will be military in nature. It is nonetheless assumed that NATO members will aid the attacked member militarily, the treaty was later clarified to include both the members territory and their vessels, forces or aircraft above the Tropic of Cancer, including some Overseas departments of France. The creation of NATO brought about some standardization of allied military terminology, procedures, and technology, the roughly 1300 Standardization Agreements codified many of the common practices that NATO has achievedNATO – The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 April 1949 and was ratified by the United States that August.
34. Hamid Karzai – Hamid Karzai /ˈhæmᵻd ˈkɑːrˌzaɪ/ served as President of Afghanistan for almost ten years, from 7 December 2004 to 29 September 2014. He comes from an active family, Karzais father, uncle and grandfather were all active in Afghan politics. Karzai and his father before him, Abdul Ahad Karzai, were each head of the Popalzai tribe of the Durrani tribal confederation, in the 1980s Karzai was active as a fundraiser for the mujahideen who were fighting to expel Soviet Army troops during the Soviet war in Afghanistan. After the Soviet withdrawal, the Islamic State of Afghanistan was established and then it was replaced in 1996 when the Taliban came to power, in July 1999 Karzais father was assassinated and Karzai succeeded him as head of the Popalzai tribe. In October 2001 the US invasion of Afghanistan began and Karzai became a dominant political figure after the removal of the Taliban regime in late 2001 and he was then chosen for a two-year term as Interim President during the 2002 loya jirga that was held in Kabul, Afghanistan. After the 2004 presidential election, Karzai was declared winner and became President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and he won a second five-year term in the 2009 presidential election, this term ended in September 2014. Karzai was born on 24 December 1957 in the Karz area of Kandahar City in southern Afghanistan and he is an ethnic Pashtun of the Popalzai tribe. His father, Abdul Ahad Karzai, served as the Deputy Speaker of the Parliament during the 1960s and his grandfather, Khair Mohammad Khan, had fought in the 1919 Third Anglo-Afghan War and was the Deputy Speaker of the Senate. Karzais family were supporters of Zahir Shah, the last king of Afghanistan. Hamid Karzai attended Mahmood Hotaki Primary School in Kandahar and Sayed Jamaluddin Afghani School in Kabul and he graduated from Habibia High School in 1976. He obtained his masters degree in 1983, after the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Karzai moved to neighboring Pakistan to work as a fundraiser for the anti-communist mujahideen during the 1980s Soviet war in Afghanistan. The mujahideen were backed by the United States, Pakistan, following the withdrawal of Soviet forces, Hamid Karzai returned to Afghanistan in early October 1988 to assist in the mujahideen victory in Tarinkot. He assisted in rallying Popalzai and other Durrani tribes to oust the regime from the city as well as helped negotiate the defection of five hundred of Mohammad Najibullahs forces, Karzai accompanied the first mujahideen leaders into Kabul after President Najibullah stepped down in 1992. He served as Deputy Foreign Minister in the government of Burhanuddin Rabbani, Karzai was, however, arrested by Mohammad Fahim on charges of spying for Gulbuddin Hekmatyar in what Karzai claimed was an effort to mediate between Hekmatyars forces and Rabbanis government. Karzai fled from Kabul in a provided by Hekmatyar and driven by Gul Rahman. When the Taliban emerged in the mid-1990s, Karzai initially recognized them as a government because he thought that they would stop the violence. He was requested by the Taliban to serve as their ambassador but he refused and he lived in the Pakistani city of Quetta among the Afghan refugees, where he worked to reinstate former Afghan King Zahir Shah. In July 1999, Karzais father, Abdul Ahad Karzai, was gunned down early in the morning while coming home from a mosque in the city of Quetta, reports suggest that the Taliban carried out the assassinationHamid Karzai – Karzai speaking to journalists in Kabul after casting his vote in the 2014 Afghan presidential election
35. Democratic Republic of Afghanistan – The PDPA came to power through a coup known as the Saur Revolution, which ousted the government of Mohammad Daoud Khan. Daoud was succeeded by Nur Muhammad Taraki as head of state, soon after taking power a power struggle began between the Khalqists led by Taraki and Amin and the Parchamites led by Babrak Karmal. The Khalqists won and the Parcham faction was purged from the party, the most prominent Parcham leaders were exiled to the Eastern Bloc and the Soviet Union. After the Khalq–Parcham struggle, a struggle within the Khalq faction began between Taraki and Amin. Amin won the struggle, and Taraki was killed on his orders and his rule proved unpopular within his own country, and in the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union intervened, supported by the Afghan government, in December 1979, Karmal became the leader of Afghanistan in his place. The Karmal era, lasting from 1979 to 1986, is best known for the Soviet war effort in Afghanistan, the war resulted in large numbers of civilian casualties, as well as millions of refugees who fled into Pakistan and Iran. Karmals policies failed to bring peace to the country. Najibullah pursued a policy of National Reconciliation with the opposition, a new Afghan constitution was introduced in 1987, after the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, the government faced increasing resistance. On the military front, the government proved capable of defeating the opposition in open battle. Geographically, the DRA was bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the west, the Soviet Union in the north, Hafizullah Amin, a Khalq, was the coups chief architect. The first conflict between the Khalqists and Parchamites arose when the Khalqists wanted to give PDPA Central Committee membership to military officers who participated in the Saur Revolution. Amin, who opposed the appointment of military officers to the PDPA leadership, altered his position. The PDPA Politburo voted in favour of giving membership to the military officers, to make matters worse for the Parchamites, the term Parcham was, according to Taraki, a word synonymous with factionalism. On 27 June, three months after the revolution, Amin managed to outmaneuver the Parchamites at a Central Committee meeting, the meeting decided that the Khalqists had the exclusive right to formulate and decide policy, which left the Parchamites impotent. Later, a coup planned by the Parchamites, and led by Karmal, was discovered by the Khalqist leadership, the discovery of the coup prompted a swift reaction, a purge of Parchamites began. Parchamite ambassadors were recalled, but few returned, for instance, Karmal, when Taraki realized the degree of popular dissatisfaction with the reform he began to curtail the policy. Afghanistans long history of resistance to any type of strong centralized governmental control further undermined his authority, consequently, much of the land reform was not actually implemented nationwideDemocratic Republic of Afghanistan – Amin ruled Afghanistan for 104 days
36. Persian language – Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan and it is mostly written in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script. Its grammar is similar to that of many contemporary European languages, Persian gets its name from its origin at the capital of the Achaemenid Empire, Persis, hence the name Persian. A Persian-speaking person may be referred to as Persophone, there are approximately 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, with the language holding official status in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan. For centuries, Persian has also been a cultural language in other regions of Western Asia, Central Asia. It also exerted influence on Arabic, particularly Bahrani Arabic. Persian is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-European family, other Western Iranian languages are the Kurdish languages, Gilaki, Mazanderani, Talysh, and Balochi. Persian is classified as a member of the Southwestern subgroup within Western Iranian along with Lari, Kumzari, in Persian, the language is known by several names, Western Persian, Parsi or Farsi has been the name used by all native speakers until the 20th century. Since the latter decades of the 20th century, for reasons, in English. Tajiki is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by the Tajiks, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term Persian as a language name is first attested in English in the mid-16th century. Native Iranian Persian speakers call it Fārsi, Farsi is the Arabicized form of Pārsi, subsequent to Muslim conquest of Persia, due to a lack of the phoneme /p/ in Standard Arabic. The origin of the name Farsi and the place of origin of the language which is Fars Province is the Arabicized form of Pārs, in English, this language has historically been known as Persian, though Farsi has also gained some currency. Farsi is encountered in some literature as a name for the language. In modern English the word Farsi refers to the language while Parsi describes Zoroastrians, some Persian language scholars such as Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, and University of Arizona professor Kamran Talattof, have also rejected the usage of Farsi in their articles. The international language-encoding standard ISO 639-1 uses the code fa, as its system is mostly based on the local names. The more detailed standard ISO 639-3 uses the name Persian for the dialect continuum spoken across Iran and Afghanistan and this consists of the individual languages Dari and Iranian Persian. Currently, Voice of America, BBC World Service, Deutsche Welle, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty also includes a Tajik service and an Afghan service. This is also the case for the American Association of Teachers of Persian, The Centre for Promotion of Persian Language and Literature, Persian is an Iranian language belonging to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family of languagesPersian language – Old Persian
37. Socialist state – A socialist state or socialist republic refers to any state that is constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism. Aside from the Communist states, a number of states have described their orientation as socialist in their constitutions. In such cases, the system and machinery of government is not specifically structured to pursue the development of socialism. The concept of a socialist state is related to state socialism. Specifically, the state would become an entity for production as opposed to a mechanism for political control. According to Friedrich Engels, Saint-Simon foreshadowed the classical Marxist notion of the development of the state in a socialist society, karl Marx understood the state to be an instrument of the class rule, dominated by the interests of the ruling class in any mode of production. This transitional stage would involve working-class interests dominating government policy, in the manner that capitalist-class interests dominate government policy under capitalism. Karl Marx described the Paris Commune as the prototype for a government of the future. Friedrich Engels noted that all officials, high or low, were only the wages received by other workers. In this way an effective barrier to place-hunting and careerism was set up, such a state would be a temporary affair, Engels argued. A new generation, he suggested, brought up in new and free social conditions, the Leninist conception of a socialist state is tied to Vladimir Lenins theory of the revolutionary party and organizational principles of democratic centralism. These ideas were adopted by Vladimir Lenin in 1917 just prior to the October Revolution in Russia and published in The State and Revolution, a central text for many Marxists. Vladimir Lenin argued that as socialism is replaced by communism, the state would wither away as strong centralized control progressively reduces as local communities gain more empowerment, as he put succinctly, So long as the state exists there is no freedom. When there is freedom, there will be no state, states run by Communist parties that adhere to Marxism–Leninism, or some variation thereof, refer to themselves as socialist states. The Soviet Union was the first to proclaim itself a socialist state in its 1936 Constitution, another well-known example is the Peoples Republic of China, which proclaims itself to be a socialist state in its 1982 Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China. In the West, such states are known as communist states. This often includes at least the commanding heights of the economy to be nationalized, usually operated according to a plan of production, at least in the major production and social spheres. These Communist states often dont claim to have achieved socialism in their countries, rather, the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea used to be a Marxist–Leninist stateSocialist state – Symbolics on the banknotes of socialist states (V.I. Lenin in the Soviet note and "a worker with a female co-operative farmer" on the Czechoslovak one).
38. Communist state – A communist state is a state that is usually administered and governed by a single party representing the proletariat, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism. The term Communist state is used by Western historians, political scientists, Communist states can be administered by a single, centralised party apparatus, although countries such as the DPRK have several parties. These parties usually are Marxist–Leninist or some variation thereof, with the aim of achieving socialism. Marx saw that in his time, the new nation states were characterized by increasingly intensified class contradiction between the capitalist class and the working class it ruled over. The state ruled by the class during the transition into classless society is called the dictatorship of the proletariat. Vladimir Lenin created revolutionary vanguard theory in an attempt to expand on the concept, during the 20th century, the worlds first constitutionally socialist state was in Russia in 1917. In 1922, it joined other territories of the empire to become the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. After World War II, the Soviet Army occupied much of Eastern Europe, most Communist states in Eastern Europe were allied with the USSR, except for Yugoslavia which declared itself non-aligned. In 1949, after a war against Japanese occupation and a war resulting in a Communist victory. Communist states were established in Cuba, Vietnam, Laos. A Communist state was established in North Korea, although it withdrew from the Communist movement. In 1989, the Communist states in Eastern Europe collapsed under pressure during a wave of non-violent movements which led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Today, the existing Communist states in the world are in China, Cuba, Laos, Communist states share similar institutions, which are organized on the premise that the Communist party is a vanguard of the proletariat and represents the long-term interests of the people. The doctrine of democratic centralism, which was developed by Vladimir Lenin as a set of principles to be used in the affairs of the communist party, is extended to society at large. When used within a party, democratic centralism is meant to prevent factionalism. When applied to a state, democratic centralism creates a one-party system. The constitutions of most socialist states describe their system as a form of democracy. Thus, they recognize the sovereignty of the people as embodied in a series of parliamentary institutionsCommunist state – Map of countries that declared themselves to be socialist states under the Marxist–Leninist or Maoist definition—that is to say, "Communist states"—between 1979 and 1983. This period marked the greatest territorial extent of Communist states.
39. Middle East – The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia and Egypt. The corresponding adjective is Middle-Eastern and the noun is Middle-Easterner. The term has come into usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Turks, Persians, Kurds, and Azeris constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population. Indigenous minorities of the Middle East include Jews, Assyrians and other Arameans, Baloch, Berbers, Copts, Druze, Lurs, Mandaeans, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, in the Middle East, there is also a Romani community. European ethnic groups form a diaspora in the region include Albanians, Bosniaks, Circassians, Crimean Tatars, Franco-Levantines. Among other migrant populations are Bengalis as well as other Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Indonesians, Pakistanis, the history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, with the importance of the region being recognized for millennia. Most of the countries border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of crude oil. The term Middle East may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office, however, it became more widely known when American naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902 to designate the area between Arabia and India. During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying for influence in Central Asia, Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but also of its center, the Persian Gulf. Mahan first used the term in his article The Persian Gulf and International Relations, published in September 1902 in the National Review, a British journal. The Middle East, if I may adopt a term which I have not seen, will some day need its Malta, as well as its Gibraltar, it does not follow that either will be in the Persian Gulf. The British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden, India, mahans article was reprinted in The Times and followed in October by a 20-article series entitled The Middle Eastern Question, written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. During this series, Sir Ignatius expanded the definition of Middle East to include regions of Asia which extend to the borders of India or command the approaches to India. After the series ended in 1903, The Times removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term, in the late 1930s, the British established the Middle East Command, which was based in Cairo, for its military forces in the region. After that time, the term Middle East gained broader usage in Europe, the description Middle has also led to some confusion over changing definitions. Before the First World War, Near East was used in English to refer to the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, while Middle East referred to Iran, the Caucasus, Afghanistan, Central Asia, and Turkestan. The first official use of the term Middle East by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, the Associated Press Stylebook says that Near East formerly referred to the farther west countries while Middle East referred to the eastern ones, but that now they are synonymousMiddle East – The Temple Mount in Jerusalem
40. People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan – The Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan was a socialist party established on 1 January 1965. While a minority, the party helped former prime minister of Afghanistan, Mohammed Daoud Khan, to overthrow his cousin, King Mohammed Zahir Shah, Daoud would eventually become a strong opponent of the party, firing PDPA politicians from high-ranking jobs in the government. This would lead to uneasy relations with the Soviet Union, in 1978 the PDPA, with help from the Afghan National Army, seized power from Daoud in what is known as the Saur Revolution. Before the civilian government was established, Afghan National Army Air Corps colonel Abdul Qadir was the ruler of Afghanistan for three days, starting from 27 April 1978. Qadir was eventually replaced by Nur Muhammad Taraki, after the Saur Revolution, the PDPA established the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan which would last until 1987. After National Reconciliation talks in 1987 the official name of the country was reverted to Republic of Afghanistan, the republic lasted until 1992 under the leadership of Najibullah and acting president for the last twelve days, Abdul Rahim Hatef. Nur Mohammad Taraki started his career as an Afghan journalist. The Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan was officially formed at the unity congress of the different factions of the Socialist Party of Afghanistan on January 1,1965. Twenty-seven men gathered at Tarakis house in Kabul, elected Taraki as the first party Secretary General and Karmal as Deputy Secretary General, Taraki was later invited to Moscow by the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions International Department later that year. The PDPA was known in Afghan society at that time as having ties with the Soviet Union. Eventually the PDPA was able to get three of its members into parliament, in the first free elections in Afghan history, these three parliamentarians were Karmal, Anahita Ratebzad, Nur Ahmad Nur. Later on, Taraki established the first radical newspaper in Afghan history under the name The Khalq, in 1967 the party had divided into several political sects, the biggest being the Khalqs and the Parchams, as well as the Setami Milli and Grohi Kar. These new divisions started because of ideological and economic reasons, most of Khalqs supporters came from ethnic Pashtuns from the rural areas in the country. The Parchams supporters mostly came from citizens who supported social-economic reforms in the country. Karmal sought, unsuccessfully, to persuade the PDPA Central Committee to censure Tarakis excessive extreme radicalism, the vote, however, was close, and Taraki in turn tried to neutralize Karmal by appointing new members to the committee who were his own supporters. After this incident, Karmal offered his resignation, which was accepted by the Politburo, although the split of the PDPA in 1967 into two groups was never publicly announced, Karmal brought with him less than half the members of the Central Committee. Because of the strife within the party, the party lost most of its incumbent seats in the Afghan parliamentary election in 1969. In 1973 the PDPA assisted Mohammed Daoud Khan to seize power from Zahir Shah in a bloodless military coupPeople's Democratic Party of Afghanistan – Outside the gate of Afghan Defense Ministry in Kabul, the day after Saur revolution on April 28, 1978.
41. Nur Muhammad Taraki – Nur Muhammad Taraki was an Afghan politician and statesman during the Cold War. Taraki was born near Kabul and educated at Kabul University, after which he started his career as a journalist. He later became one of the members of the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan and was elected as the partys general secretary at its first congress. He ran as a candidate in the 1965 Afghan parliamentary election, in 1966 he published the first issue of Khalq, a party newspaper, but it was closed down shortly afterwards by the Afghan Government. The assassination of Mir Akbar Khyber led Taraki, along with Hafizullah Amin and Babrak Karmal, to initiate the Saur Revolution, the presidency of Taraki, albeit short-lived, was always marked by controversies. Taraki launched a reform on 1 January 1979 which proved to be highly unpopular and, along with his governments other reforms. Despite repeated attempts throughout his reign, Taraki proved unable to persuade the Soviet Union to intervene in support of the restoration of civil order. At the beginning of his rule, the government was divided between two PDPA factions, the Khalqists, the majority, and the Parchamites, the minority and his reign was marked by a cult of personality centered on himself that had been cultivated by Amin. His relationship with Amin turned sour during his rule, ultimately resulting in Tarakis overthrow on 14 September 1979 and subsequent murder on 8 or 9 October, Taraki was born on 15 July 1917 to a Ghilzai Pashtun peasant family in Nawa District of Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. He was the oldest of three children and attended a school in Nawa before leaving in 1932, at the age of 15, to work in the port city of Bombay. There he met a Kandahari merchant family who employed him as a clerk for the Pashtun Trading Company, in 1937 Taraki started working for Abdul Majid Zabuli, the Minister of Economics, who introduced him to several Russians. Later Taraki became Deputy Head of the Bakhtar News Agency and became known throughout the country as an author and his best known book, the De Bang Mosaferi, highlights the socio-economic difficulties facing Afghan workers and peasants. His works were translated into Russian language in the Soviet Union and he was hailed by the Soviet Government as Afghanistans Maxim Gorky. Under Mohammad Daoud Khans prime ministership, suppression of radicals was common, however, because of his language skills, Taraki was sent to the Afghan Embassy in the United States in 1952. Within several months Taraki began denouncing the Afghan government under King Zahir Shah and accused it of being autocratic and his denunciation of the Afghan government earned him much publicity in the United States. It also attracted attention from authorities back home, who relieved him of his post. After a short period of unemployment Taraki started working for the United States Overseas Mission in Kabul as an interpreter and he quit that job in 1958 and established his own translation company, the Noor Translation Bureau. Four years later, he started working for the U. S. Embassy in Kabul, but quit in 1963 to focus on the establishment of the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan, a communist political partyNur Muhammad Taraki – Nur Muhammad Taraki نور محمد ترکۍ
42. Saur Revolution – The Saur Revolution was a revolution led by the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan against the rule of self-proclaimed Afghan President Mohammed Daoud Khan on 27–28 April 1978. The government at the time was led by Daoud, who had overthrown his cousin King Mohammed Zahir in 1973. Saur is the Dari name of the month of the Persian calendar. The revolution led to the 1979 intervention by the Soviets and the 1979–1989 Soviet–Afghan War against the Mujahideen, the declaration of the Afghan Republic was the precursor to the Saur coup détat. President Daoud was convinced that closer ties and military support from the Soviet Union would allow him to settle the issues with Pakistan. King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan had ruled since 1933 and his cousin, Mohammed Daoud Khan, who had served as Afghan Prime Minister from 1953 to 1963, was not a supporter of the King. As the 1970s began, Daoud plotted to overthrow his cousin, in 1973, when King Zahir Shah was away in Italy for eye surgery and a treatment for low back pain, Daoud Khan led a coup détat in which eight people were killed. This resulted in the overthrow of the King and abolition of the monarchy, Daoud established a new government, and declared himself the first president of Afghanistan. The Arg palace in Kabul then became the official Presidential residence, under the secular government of Daoud, factionalism and rivalry developed in the ruling PDPA, with two main factions being, Parcham and Khalqi. In 1978 a prominent member of the Parcham, Mir Akbar Khyber, was murdered, PDPA leaders apparently feared that Daoud was planning to eliminate them. During the funeral ceremonies for Khyber a protest against the government occurred and shortly thereafter most of the leaders of PDPA, Hafizullah Amin, however, was put under house arrest. This gave him a chance to order an uprising, one that had been slowly coalescing for more than two years, Amin, without having the authority, instructed the Khalqi army officers to overthrow the government. The coup was planned to begin Thursday 27 April, because it was the day before Friday, the Muslim day of worship. The first shots heard were near the Ministry of Interior in the New City section of Kabul where a company of policemen apparently confronted an advancing tank column, from there the fighting spread to other areas of the city. Later, that afternoon, the first fighter planes, SU-7s, came in low, in early evening, an announcement was broadcast on government-owned Radio Afghanistan that the Khalq were overthrowing the Daoud regime. The use of the word Khalq, and its association with the Communists in Afghanistan. The aerial attacks on the palace intensified about midnight as six SU-7s made repeated rocket attacks, the next morning,28 April, Kabul was mostly quiet, although the sound of gunfire could still be heard on the southern side of the city. A group of soldiers had surrounded the palace and demanded their surrenderSaur Revolution – Outside the presidential palace gate (Arg) in Kabul, the day after the Saur revolution on 28 April 1978
43. Soviet Union – The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost. The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet statesSoviet Union – Vladimir Lenin addressing a crowd with Trotsky, 1920
44. Afghan National Army – The Afghan National Army is the main branch of the Afghan Armed Forces, responsible for ground warfare. It is under the Ministry of Defense in Kabul and is trained by NATO forces, primarily the United States. The ANA is divided into six regional Corps, with the 201st in Kabul followed by the 203rd in Gardez, 205th in Kandahar, 207th in Herat, 209th in Mazar-i-Sharif, the current Chief of Staff of the ANA is General Qadam Shah Shahim. Afghanistans army traces its roots to the early 18th-century when the Hotaki dynasty was established in Kandahar followed by Ahmad Shah Durranis rise to power and it was reorganized in 1880 during Emir Abdur Rahman Khans reign. Afghanistan remained neutral during the First and Second World Wars, from the 1960s to the early 1990s, the Afghan army was equipped by the Soviet Union. After the collapse of Mohammad Najibullahs government in 1992, the army fragmented into militias under various regional warlords, after the removal of the Taliban regime in late 2001, NATO nations revived the Afghan army. In 2010, there were more than 4,000 United States Armed Forces trainers, by 2014, most of Afghanistan became under government control with ISAF playing a training and supporting role. The majority of training of the ANA is to be undertaken in the newly established Afghan National Security University, NATO expanded the Afghan armed forces to 183,000 active personnel by 2016. Historically, Afghans have served in the army of the Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Delhi Sultanate, and the Mughals. The current Afghan army traces its origin to the early 18th century when the Hotaki dynasty rose to power in Kandahar and defeated the Persian Safavid Empire at the Battle of Gulnabad in 1722. When Ahmad Shah Durrani formed the Durrani Empire in 1747, the Afghan army fought a number of battles in the Punjab region of India during the 18th to the 19th century. One of the battles was the 1761 Battle of Panipat in which the Afghan army decisively defeated the Hindu Maratha Empire. The Afghans then fought with the Sikh Empire, until finally, in 1842, The British unsuccessfully tried to conquer Afghanistan, resulting in the massacre of Elphinstones army. In 1880 Amir Abdur Rahman Khan established a newly equipped Afghan Army with help from the British, the Library of Congress Country Study for Afghanistan states, When came to the throne, the army was virtually nonexistent. Further improvements to the army were made by King Amanullah Khan in the early 20th century just before the Third Anglo-Afghan War, King Amanullah fought against the British in 1919, resulting in Afghanistan becoming fully independent after the Treaty of Rawalpindi was signed. The Afghan Army was expanded during King Zahir Shahs reign, starting in 1933, periodic border clashes with Pakistan seem to have taken place between 1950 and 1961. From the 1960s to the early 1990s, the Afghan Army received training, in February - March 1957, the first group of Soviet military specialists was sent to Kabul to train Afghan officers and non-commissioned officers. At the time, there seems to have been significant Turkish influence in the Afghan armed forces, in the early 1970s, Soviet military assistance was increasedAfghan National Army – Soldiers of the Afghan National Army, including Commandos standing in the front
45. Abdul Rashid Dostum – Abdul Rashid Dostum is an Afghan politician who has served as Vice President of Afghanistan since 2014. He also served in the past as Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff of the Afghan National Army, during the Soviet war in Afghanistan, Dostum was a general in the Afghan army. He later became an independent warlord and leader of Afghanistans Uzbek community and he participated in battles against the Mujahideen fighters in the 1980s as well as against the Taliban in the 1990s. After the fall of the Taliban, he resided in Turkey before returning to the country. In 2013 he made an apology for his role in the civil war. He subsequently entered parliament, and later joined Ashraf Ghanis presidential administration as a vice president, Dostum was born in 1954 in Khwaja du koh, Jowzjan Province, Afghanistan. Coming from a family, he received a very basic traditional education as he was forced to drop out of school at a young age. From there, he took up work in the gas fields, Dostum began working in 1970 in a state-owned gas refinery in Sheberghan, participating in union politics, as the new government started to arm the staff of the workers in the oil and gas refineries. The reason for this was to create groups for the defense of the revolution, because of the new communist ideas entering Afghanistan in the 1970s, he enlisted in the army in 1978. Dostum received his military training in Jalalabad. His squadron was deployed in the areas around Sheberghan, under the auspices of the Ministry of National Security. By the mid-1980s he commanded around 20,000 militia men, while the unit recruited throughout Jowzjan and had a relatively broad base, many of its early troops and commanders came from Dostums home village. He left the army after the purge of Parchamis, but returned after the Soviet occupation began, during the Soviet war in Afghanistan, Dostum was commanding a militia battalion to fight and rout mujahideen forces, he had been appointed an officer due to prior military experience. This eventually became a regiment and later incorporated into the defense forces as the 53rd Infantry Division. Dostum and his new division reported directly to President Mohammad Najibullah, later on he became the commander of the military unit 374 in Jowzjan. He defended the Soviet-backed Afghan government against the U. S. Pakistani, while he was only a regional commander, he had largely raised his forces by himself. The Jowzjani militia Dostum controlled was one of the few in the country which was able to be deployed outside its own region and they were deployed in Kandahar in 1988 when Soviet forces were withdrawing from Afghanistan. Dostums men would become an important force in the fall of Kabul in 1992, in April 1992, the opposition forces began their march to Kabul against the government of NajibullahAbdul Rashid Dostum – Abdul Rashid Dostum in 2014
46. Kabul – Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan as well as its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country. According to a 2015 estimate, the population of the city was around 3,678,033 which includes all the ethnic groups. Rapid urbanization had made Kabul the worlds 64th largest city and the fifth fastest-growing city in the world, Kabul is said to be over 3,500 years old, mentioned since at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire. The city is at a location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia. It has been part of the Achaemenids, Seleucids, Mauryans, Kushans, Kabul Shahis, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Later, it was controlled by the Mughal Empire until finally becoming part of the Durrani Empire in 1747. The city is located high up in a valley between the Hindu Kush mountains. Kabul became the capital of Afghanistan during the reign of Timur Shah Durrani, in the early 19th century, the British occupied the city but were compelled to abandon it. Relations between Afghanistan and Great Britain were later established, the city was occupied by the Soviets in 1979 but they too abandoned it after the 1988 Geneva Accords were signed. A civil war in the 1990s between various rebel groups destroyed much of the city, resulting in many casualties, since the removal of the Taliban from power in late 2001, the city gradually began rebuilding itself with assistance by the international community. Despite the many terrorist attacks by elements, the city is growing and developing. The city is divided into about 18 districts, the Kabul International Airport is located in the Wazir Akbar Khan district a few miles from the foreign embassies. The Parliament of Afghanistan, built by India, is located in the Kārte Seh district, Kabul, also spelled Cabool, Caubul, Kabol, or Cabul. The word Kubhā is mentioned in the Rigveda, one of the four sacred texts of Hinduism, and the Avesta. The Rigveda praises it as a city, a vision of paradise set in the mountains. The area in which the Kabul valley sits was ruled by the Medes before falling to the Achaemenids, there is a reference to a settlement called Kabura by the rulers of the Achaemenid Empire, It became a center of Zoroastrianism followed by Buddhism and Hinduism. The region became part of the Seleucid Empire but was given to the Indian Maurya Empire. The Greco-Bactrians captured Kabul from the Mauryans in the early 2nd century BC, indo-Scythians expelled the Indo-Greeks by the mid 1st century BC, but lost the city to the Kushan Empire about 100 years later. Some historians ascribe Kabul the Sanskrit name of Kamboja and it is mentioned as Kophes or Kophene in some classical writingsKabul
47. US troops – The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures. For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was also the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution also allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require. This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the PresidentUS troops – The U.S. Joint Service Color Guard on parade at Fort Myer, Virginia in October 2001.
48. Politics of Afghanistan – The nation is currently led by President Ashraf Ghani who is backed by two vice presidents, Abdul Rashid Dostum and Sarwar Danish. In the last decade the politics of Afghanistan have been influenced by NATO countries, particularly the United States, in 2004, the nations new constitution was adopted and an executive president was elected. The following year an election to choose parliamentarians took place. Hamid Karzai was declared the first ever democratically elected head of state in Afghanistan in 2004, the National Assembly is Afghanistans national legislature. It is a body, composed of the House of the People. The first legislature was elected in 2005 and the current one in 2010, members of the Supreme Court were appointed by the president to form the judiciary. Together, this new system is to provide a new set of checks, Government operation in Afghanistan historically has consisted of power struggles, coups and unstable transfers of power. The country has been governed by various systems of government, including a monarchy, republic, theocracy, dictatorship,1709 - Mirwais Hotak establishes the Hotaki dynasty at Kandahar and declares Afghanistan an independent state. 1747 - Ahmad Shah Durrani establishes the Durrani Empire and adds to it new territories,1838 - British India invades the land during the First Anglo-Afghan War and begins to influence the politics of Afghanistan. 1919 - King Amanullah Khan takes the throne after the Third Anglo-Afghan War,1973 - Mohammed Daoud Khan, Prime Minister and a member of the royal family, seizes power while King Mohammad Zahir Shah is visiting Italy. 1978 – Daoud Khan and his family are assassinated during the Saur Revolution,1979 – President Nur Muhammad Taraki, leader of PDPA, is assassinated and replaced by Hafizullah Amin. Amin is then assassinated and the Soviet Union invades, babrak Karmal is installed as the new president. 1987 - President Mohammad Najibullah replaces Karmal and the country begins to see some stability,1989 – Soviet army withdraws all troops from the country. 1992 – President Najibullah resigns and Kabul falls to mujahideen factions, Burhanuddin Rabbani becomes leader of the new Islamic State of Afghanistan and a civil war starts. 1996 – Mohammed Omar, founder of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, is declared Commander of the Faithful at Kandahar,2001 – United States and coalition forces invade Afghanistan. Hamid Karzai becomes leader of the Afghan Interim Administration at the International Conference on Afghanistan in Germany,2003 - Loya Jirga adopts new constitution, restructuring the government as an Islamic republic. 2004 - Hamid Karzai is elected President of Afghanistan,2014 - Ashraf Ghani is elected President of Afghanistan, Abdullah Abdullah becomes the countrys Chief Executive Officer. Afghanistan is an Islamic republic consisting of three branches of power overseen by checks and balances, the country is led by President Ashraf Ghani, who replaced Hamid Karzai in 2014Politics of Afghanistan – History of Afghanistan
49. Suicide bomber – A suicide attack is a violent attack in which the attacker expects to die in the process. They constituted only 4% of all terrorist attacks around the world over one period, ninety per cent of those attacks occurred in Afghanistan, Iraq, Israel, the Palestinian territories, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Overall, as of mid-2015 about three-quarters of all suicide attacks occurred in just three countries, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iraq, the motivation of suicide attackers varies. Kamikaze acted under orders and were motivated by obedience and nationalism. Before 2003, most attacks targeted forces occupying the attackers homeland, anthropologist Scott Atran states that since 2004 the overwhelming majority of bombers have been motivated by the ideology of Islamist martyrdom. Academic Fred Halliday, has written that assigning the descriptor of terrorist or terrorism to the actions of a group is a used by states to deny legitimacy and rights to protest. The definition of suicide is another issue, Suicide terrorism itself has been defined by one source as violent actions perpetrated by people who are aware that the odds they will return alive are close to zero. It may not always be clear to investigators which type of killing is which, the usage of the term suicide attack goes back a long way but suicide bombing dates back to at least 1940 when a New York Times article mentions the term in relation to German tactics. Less than two years later that newspaper referred to a Japanese kamikaze attempt on an American carrier as a suicide bombing, sometimes, to assign either a more positive or negative connotation to the act, suicide bombing is referred to by different terms. Istishhad Islamist supporters often call a suicide attack Istishhad, and the suicide attacker shahid, the idea being that the attacker died in order to testify his faith in God, for example while waging jihad bis saif. The term suicide is never used because Islam has strong strictures against taking ones own life, the terms Istishhad/martyrdom operation have been embraced by the Palestinian Authority, and by Hamas, Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, Fatah and other Palestinian factions. The first to use the term for an audience was White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer in April 2002. The only major media outlets to use it are Fox News Channel, Fox News producer Dennis Murray argued that a suicidal act should be reserved for a person who does something to kill themselves only. CNN Producer Christa Robinson argued that the term homicide bomber reflects only that you have killed other people, sacrifice bombing In the German-speaking area the term sacrifice bombing was proposed in 2012 by German scholar Arata Takeda. The term is intended to shift the focus away from the suicide of the perpetrators, until the second half of the twentieth century most suicide attacks occurred in a military context. The first recorded suicide attack came from Christian soldiers during the Crusades to free The Holy City of Jerusalem from the control of Muslim armies. During the Crusades, the Knights Templar destroyed one of their own ships with 140 Christians on board in order to kill 10 times as many Muslims in the opposing fleet. The 1st Century AD Jewish Sicarii sect are thought to have out carried suicidal attacks against Hellenized Jews they considered immoral collaboratorsSuicide bomber – USS Bunker Hill (CV-17), after Kamikaze attack by Kiyoshi Ogawa on May 1945
50. Indo-Afghan relations – Bilateral relations between the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the Republic of India have traditionally been strong and friendly. India aided the overthrow of the Taliban and became the largest regional provider of humanitarian, indians are working in various construction projects, as part of Indias rebuilding efforts in Afghanistan. In the aftermath of the 2008 Indian embassy bombing in Kabul, the Afghan Foreign Ministry quoted India as a brother country, relations between Afghanistan and India received a major boost in 2011 with the signing of a strategic partnership agreement, Afghanistans first since the Soviet invasion of 1979. According to a 2010 Gallup poll which interviewed 1000 adults, 50% Afghans approved of the job performance of Indias leadership and it was the highest approval rating of India by another country in Asia. According to the survey, Afghan adults are likely to approve of Indias leadership than Chinese or U. S. leadership. Relations between the people of Afghanistan and India traces to the Indus Valley Civilisation, following Alexander the Greats brief occupation, the successor state of the Seleucid Empire controlled the region known today as Afghanistan. In 305 BCE, they ceded much of it to the Indian Maurya Empire as part of an alliance treaty, the Mauryans brought Buddhism from India and controlled the area south of the Hindu Kush. Their decline began 60 years after Ashokas rule ended, leading to the Hellenistic reconquest of the region by the Greco-Bactrians, much of it soon broke away from the Greco-Bactrians and became part of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. The Indo-Greeks had been defeated and expelled by the Indo-Scythians in the late 2nd century BCE, much of Afghanistan has been influenced by Buddhist, Hindu and Zoroastrian cultures until the arrival of Islam in the 7th century. But despite many Afghans accepting the message of Islam, the Muslims, kábul has a castle celebrated for its strength, accessible only by one road. In it there are Musulmáns, and it has a town, between the 10th century to the mid 18th century, northern India has been invaded by a number of invaders based in what today is Afghanistan. Amongst them were the Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Khiljis, Suris, Mughals, during these eras, especially during the Mughal period, many Afghans began immigrating to India due to political unrest in their regions. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Khan Sahib were prominent leaders of the Indian independence movement, the Indian government continued to support Pashtun leader Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan in lobbying for greater Pashtun freedom in the NWFP. These workers are estimated to be anywhere between 3,000 and 4,000, Indian nationals stationed in Afghanistan have often faced continuous security threats in the country, with kidnappings and many attacks deliberately carried out on them. Following the withdrawal of the Soviet armed forces from Afghanistan in 1989, the Taliban regime was recognised only by Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The destruction of the Bamiyan Buddha monuments by the Taliban led to outrage and angry protests by India, in 1999, the hijacked Indian Airlines Flight 814 landed and stayed in Kandahar in Afghanistan and the Taliban were suspected of supporting them. India became one of the key supporters of the anti-Taliban Northern Alliance, during the U. S. -led invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, India offered intelligence and other forms of support for the Coalition forces. After the overthrow of the Taliban, India established diplomatic relations with the newly established government, provided aidIndo-Afghan relations – Afghan President Ashraf Ghani with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi. November 2014.
51. British Prime Minister – The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of Her Majestys Government in the United Kingdom. The prime minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party, the office is one of the Great Offices of State. The current prime minister, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016. The position of Prime Minister was not created, it evolved slowly and erratically over three hundred years due to acts of Parliament, political developments, and accidents of history. The office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective, the origins of the position are found in constitutional changes that occurred during the Revolutionary Settlement and the resulting shift of political power from the Sovereign to Parliament. The political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of political parties, the introduction of mass communication. By the start of the 20th century the modern premiership had emerged, prior to 1902, the prime minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons. However as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the Prime Minister should always sit in the lower house. As leader of the House of Commons, the Prime Ministers authority was further enhanced by the Parliament Act of 1911 which marginalised the influence of the House of Lords in the law-making process. The Prime Minister is ex officio also First Lord of the Treasury, certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury. As the Head of Her Majestys Government the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet, in addition the Prime Minister leads a major political party and generally commands a majority in the House of Commons. As such the incumbent wields both legislative and executive powers, under the British system there is a unity of powers rather than separation. In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister guides the process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party. The Prime Minister also acts as the face and voice of Her Majestys Government. The British system of government is based on an uncodified constitution, in 1928, Prime Minister H. H. Asquith described this characteristic of the British constitution in his memoirs, In this country we live. Our constitutional practices do not derive their validity and sanction from any Bill which has received the assent of the King, Lords. They rest on usage, custom, convention, often of slow growth in their early stages, not always uniform, the relationships between the Prime Minister and the Sovereign, Parliament and Cabinet are defined largely by these unwritten conventions of the constitution. Many of the Prime Ministers executive and legislative powers are actually royal prerogatives which are still vested in the SovereignBritish Prime Minister – Incumbent David Cameron since 11 May 2010
52. British Airways – British Airways, often shortened to BA, is the flag carrier and the largest airline in the United Kingdom based on fleet size. When measured by passengers carried, it is second-largest in the United Kingdom behind easyJet, the airline is based in Waterside near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. On 31 March 1974, all four companies were merged to form British Airways, after almost 13 years as a state company, British Airways was privatised in February 1987 as part of a wider privatisation plan by the Conservative government. The carrier soon expanded with the acquisition of British Caledonian in 1987, followed by Dan-Air in 1992, British Airways is a founding member of the Oneworld airline alliance, along with American Airlines, Cathay Pacific, Qantas, and the now defunct Canadian Airlines. The alliance has since grown to become the third-largest, after SkyTeam, IAG is listed on the London Stock Exchange and in the FTSE100 Index. A long-time Boeing customer, British Airways ordered 59 Airbus A320 family aircraft in August 1998, in 2007 it purchased 12 Airbus A380s and 24 Boeing 787 Dreamliners, marking the start of its long-haul fleet replacement. The centrepiece of the airlines fleet is the Boeing 777. British Airways is the largest operator of the Boeing 747-400, with 51 registered to the airline, on 1 September 1972 the management service functions of both BOAC and BEA were combined under the newly formed British Airways Group. British Airways was established as an airline on 31 March 1974 by the dissolution of BOAC, British Airways and Air France operated the supersonic airliner Aerospatiale-BAC Concorde, and the worlds first supersonic passenger service flew in January 1976 from London Heathrow to Bahrain. Services to the US began on 24 May 1976 with a flight to Washington Dulles airport, service to Singapore was established in co-operation with Singapore Airlines as a continuation of the flight to Bahrain. The final commercial Concorde flight was BA002 from New York JFK to London Heathrow on 24 October 2003, in 1981 the airline was instructed to prepare for privatisation by the Conservative Thatcher government. Sir John King, later Lord King, was appointed chairman, while many other large airlines struggled, King was credited with transforming British Airways into one of the most profitable air carriers in the world. The flag carrier was privatised and was floated on the London Stock Exchange in February 1987, British Airways effected the takeover of the UKs second airline, British Caledonian, in July of that same year. The formation of Richard Bransons Virgin Atlantic Airways in 1984 created a competitor for BA and this campaign included allegations of poaching Virgin Atlantic customers, tampering with private files belonging to Virgin and undermining Virgins reputation in the City. As a result of the case BA management apologised unreservedly, Lord King stepped down as chairman in 1993 and was replaced by his deputy, Colin Marshall, while Bob Ayling took over as CEO. Virgin filed an action in the US that same year regarding BAs domination of the trans-Atlantic routes. In 1992 British Airways expanded through the acquisition of the financially troubled Dan-Air, British Asia Airways, a subsidiary based in Taiwan, was formed in March 1993 to operate between London and Taipei. That same month BA purchased a 25% stake in the Australian airline Qantas and, with the acquisition of Brymon Airways in May, in September 1998, British Airways, along with American Airlines, Cathay Pacific, Qantas, and Canadian Airlines, formed the Oneworld airline allianceBritish Airways – A Boeing 747-100 in BOAC-British Airways transition livery
53. Districts of Afghanistan – This is a list of districts of Afghanistan, known as wuleswali, which are one level below the provinces. The number of districts has fluctuated over the years, with new districts created by splitting or merging parts of others, prior to 1979, there were 325 districts but a major reorganization in 2004 led to the number increasing to 397. As of June 2005, the Afghan Ministry of the Interior recognised 398 districts and this number is expected to change with further administrative reorganization. Qalat Shah Joy Shamulzayi Shinkay Tarnak Wa Jaldak List of splits and creations of districts in Afghanistan Afghanistan Information Management Service, accessed 2006-07-27Districts of Afghanistan – Districts of Afghanistan.
54. Civil War in Afghanistan (1992-1996) – The 1992 to 1996 phase of the conflict in Afghanistan began after the resignation of the communist President Mohammad Najibullah. Hekmatyar started a bombardment campaign against the capital city Kabul which marked the beginning of new phase in the war. In direct contrast to the Soviet era, the countryside witnessed relative calm during that period while major cities such as Kabul, Herat, Mazar-e Sharif and Kandahar witnessed violent fighting. Following the Soviet withdrawal in 1989 and the collapse of the communist Najibullah regime in 1992, Afghan political parties agreed on a peace and power-sharing agreement, the Peshawar Accord. The Peshawar Accord established the Islamic State of Afghanistan and appointed a government for a transitional period to be followed by general elections. All Afghan parties agreed to the peace- and power-sharing agreement, except for Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, although offered the position of prime minister, Hekmatyar wanted to become the sole ruler of Afghanistan. Tomsen reported that the protest by the other commanders was like a firestorm. Ahmad Zia Massoud, the brother of Ahmad Shah Massoud, said that his faction strongly opposed the plan, Abdul Haq was reportedly so angry about the ISI plan that he was red in the face. Nabi Mohammad, another commander, pointed out that Kabuls 2 million could not escape Hekmatyars rocket bombardment – there would be a massacre, Massouds, Abdul Haqs and Amin Wardaks representatives said that Hekmatyars rocketing of Kabul. The United States finally put pressure on Pakistan to stop the 1990 plan and this militaristic plan aimed to capture Kabul and was in full force when. The rest of the Muhajideen leaders in Pakistan agreed to the UN peace plan, islamabad could not possibly expect the new Islamic government leaders. To subordinate their own nationalist objectives in order to help Pakistan realize its regional ambitions, had it not been for the ISIs logistic support and supply of a large number of rockets, Hekmatyars forces would not have been able to target and destroy half of Kabul. According to a publication with the George Washington University, when Hekmatyar in 1994 had failed to deliver for Pakistan, Pakistan turned towards a new force, the Taliban. Saikal also stated, Yet Hekmatyars failure to achieve what was expected of him prompted the ISI leaders to come up with a new surrogate force, Pakistan was not the only regional power interfering in Afghanistan. The interim government and the International Committee of the Red Cross repeatedly tried to negotiate ceasefires, another militia, the Junbish-i Milli of former communist and ethnic Uzbek general Abdul Rashid Dostum, was backed by Uzbekistan. Uzbek President Islam Karimov was keen to see Dostum controlling as much of Afghanistan as possible, in April 1992, the Russian-backed communist government of Najibullah could no longer sustain itself against the mujahideen. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Najibullahs regime lost its strongest backer, after a Russian agreement to end fuel shipments to Afghanistan, Najibullahs regime began to collapse. Najibullah had lost internal control immediately after he announced his willingness on 18 March to resign in order to make way for an interim governmentCivil War in Afghanistan (1992-1996) – Much of the civil infrastructure was ruined in Kabul due to the war.
55. Ahmad Shah Massoud – Ahmad Shah Massoud was an Afghan political and military leader. Massoud was assassinated on September 9,2001, Massoud came from an ethnic Tajik, Sunni Muslim background in the Panjshir valley of northern Afghanistan. He was part of a Pakistan-backed failed rebellion against Mohammed Daoud Khans government, after the Soviet occupation of 1979, his role as an insurgent leader earned him the nickname of Lion of Panjshir among his followers. He became the military and political leader of the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan and his forces eventually won the two-month long war in December 2001, removing the Taliban from power. Massoud was posthumously named National Hero by the order of President Hamid Karzai after the Taliban were ousted from power, the date of Massoud’s death, September 9, is observed as a national holiday known as Massoud Day. His followers call him Amir Sāhib-e Shahīd, Ahmad Shah Massoud was born in 1953 in Bazarak, Panjshir, to a well-to-do family native to the Panjshir valley. His name at birth was Ahmed Shah, he took the name Massoud as a nom de guerre when he went into the movement in 1974. His father, Dost Mohammad Khan, was a colonel in the Royal Afghan Army, from his native Panjshir, his family moved briefly to Herat and then to Kabul, where Massoud spent most of his childhood. Massoud attended the renowned Franco-Afghan Lycée Esteqlal, regarded as a gifted student, he studied engineering at Kabul University after his graduation from the Lycée. Massoud spoke Dari, Pashto, Urdu and French and had good English reading skills, in 1973, Mohammed Daoud Khan was brought to power in a coup détat backed by the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan, and the Republic of Afghanistan was established. These developments gave rise to an Islamist movement opposed to the increasing communist, Kabul University was a centre for political debate and activism during that time. By 1975, after an uprising by the Muslim Youth. The conflict reached such a point that Hekmatyar reportedly tried to kill Massoud, on April 27,1978, the PDPA and military units loyal to it killed Daoud Khan, his immediate family, and bodyguards in a violent coup, and seized control of the capital Kabul. The new PDPA government, led by a council, did not enjoy the support of the masses. It announced and implemented a doctrine hostile to political dissent, whether inside or outside the party, the PDPA started reforms along Marxist–Leninist and Soviet lines. Between 50,000 and 100,000 people were estimated to have arrested and killed by communist troops in the countryside alone. Due to the repression, large parts of the country, especially the rural areas, by spring 1979 unrest had reached 24 out of 28 Afghan provinces, including major urban areas. Over half of the Afghan army either deserted or joined the insurrection, believing that an uprising against the Soviet-backed communists would be supported by the people, Massoud, on July 6,1979, started an insurrection in the Panjshir, which initially failedAhmad Shah Massoud – Ahmad Shah Massoud
56. Mullah Omar – Mullah Mohammed Omar, or simply Mullah Omar, was an Afghan mujahideen commander who founded the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan in 1996. The Taliban recognized him as Commander of the Faithful or the Supreme Leader of the Muslims until being succeeded by Mullah Akhtar Mansour in 2015, Mullah Omar was also Head of the Supreme Council of Afghanistan. He was believed to be directing the Taliban insurgency against NATO-led forces, in July 2015, the Afghan government reported that Omar had died in 2013 in the Pakistani city of Karachi. These reports were confirmed by Afghanistans National Directorate of Security and the Talibans Quetta Shura, according to most sources, Omar was born sometime between 1950 and 1962 in a village in Kandahar Province, Kingdom of Afghanistan. Some suggest his birth year as 1950 or 1953, or as late as around 1966, according to a surprise biography published by the Taliban in April 2015, he was born in 1960. His exact place of birth is uncertain, one possibility is a village called Nodeh near the city of Kandahar. Matinuddin writes that he was born in 1961 in Nodeh village, Panjwai District, others say Omar was born in a village of the same name in Uruzgan Province. In Omars entry in the UNSCs Taliban Sanctions List, Nodeh village, Deh Rahwod District, other reports say Omar was born in 1960 in Noori village near Kandahar. Noori village, Maiwand District, Kandahar Province is a location suggested in Omars entry in the Sanctions List. According to a biography of Mullah Omar published online by the Taliban in April 2015, he was born in 1960 in the village of Chah-i-Himmat, in Khakrez District and it has also been mentioned that Sangasar was his home village. Better established than Omars place of birth is that his home was in Deh Rahwod District, Uruzgan Province. An ethnic Pashtun, he was born in conservative rural Afghanistan to a poor family of the Hotak tribe. According to Hamid Karzai, Omars father was a religious leader. They were essentially middle class Afghans and were definitely not members of the elite. His father Mawlawi Ghulam Nabi Akhund died when Omar was young, according to Omars own words he was 3 years old when his father died, and thereafter he was raised by his uncles. One of his uncles married Omars mother, and the moved to a village in the poor Deh Rawod District. It is reported that lived in the village of Dehwanawark. After the 1978 Saur Revolution in Afghanistan, Omar went to Karachi, Pakistan, in 1979 to study at the Jamia Uloom-ul-Islamia, after the Soviet invasion, the family moved to Tarinkot in Urozgan provinceMullah Omar – A still from a 1996 video taken secretly by BBC Newsnight. It purports to show Omar (left) presenting the cloak of Muhammad to his troops in Kandahar, before their victorious assault on Kabul.
57. Laura Bush – Laura Lane Welch Bush is the wife of the 43rd President of the United States, George W. Bush, and was the First Lady from 2001 to 2009. Bush graduated from Southern Methodist University in 1968 with a degree in education. After attaining her masters degree in science at the University of Texas at Austin. Bush met her husband, George W. Bush, in 1977. The couple had twin daughters in 1981, Bushs political involvement began during her marriage. She campaigned with her husband during his unsuccessful 1978 run for the United States Congress, as First Lady of Texas, Bush implemented many initiatives focused on health, education, and literacy. She became First Lady after her husband was inaugurated as president on January 20,2001, polled by The Gallup Organization as one of the most popular First Ladies, Bush was involved in national and global concerns during her tenure. She continued to advance her trademark interests of education and literacy by establishing the semi-annual National Book Festival in 2001 and she also advanced womens causes through The Heart Truth and Susan G. Komen for the Cure organizations. She represented the United States during her trips, which tended to focus on HIV/AIDS. Laura Lane Welch was born on November 4,1946 in Midland, Texas, Bush is of English, French, and Swiss ancestry. Her father was a builder and later successful real estate developer. Early on, her parents encouraged her to read, leading to what would become her love of reading and she said, I learned at home from my mother. When I was a girl, my mother would read stories to me. I have loved books and going to the library ever since, in the summer, I liked to spend afternoons reading in the library. I enjoyed the Little House on the Prairie and Little Women books, reading gives you enjoyment throughout your life. Bush has also credited her second grade teacher, Charlene Gnagy, on the night of November 6,1963, Laura Welch ran a stop sign and struck another car, resulting in the death of its driver. The victim was her friend and classmate Michael Dutton Douglas. By some accounts, Douglas had been Bushs boyfriend at one time, Bush and her passenger, both 17, were treated for minor injuriesLaura Bush – Laura Bush
58. Camp David – Camp David is the country retreat of the President of the United States. It is located in wooded hills of Catoctin Mountain Park near Thurmont, Maryland, about 62 miles north-northwest of Washington, D. C. It is officially known as the Naval Support Facility Thurmont, because it is technically a military installation, and staffing is provided by the U. S. Navy. Originally known as Hi-Catoctin, Camp David was built as a camp for federal government agents, construction started in 1935 and was completed in 1938. In 1942, Franklin D. Roosevelt converted it to a presidential retreat, Camp David received its present name from Dwight D. Eisenhower, in honor of his father and grandson, both named David. The Catoctin Mountain Park does not indicate the location of Camp David on park maps due to privacy, since it was built, every president up to and including Barack Obama has made use of the retreat. Roosevelt hosted Sir Winston Churchill in May 1943, Dwight D. Eisenhower held his first cabinet meeting there on November 22,1955 following hospitalization and convalescence required after a heart attack suffered in Denver, Colorado on September 24. John F. Lyndon B. Johnson met with advisors in this setting, richard Nixon was a frequent visitor. He personally directed the construction of a pool and other improvements to Aspen Lodge. Gerald Ford often rode his snowmobile around Camp David and hosted Indonesian President Suharto there, jimmy Carter brokered the Camp David Accords there in September 1978 between Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin. Ronald Reagan visited the more than any other president. In 1984, Reagan hosted British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, george H. W. Bushs daughter, Dorothy Bush Koch, was married there in 1992, in the first ever wedding held at Camp David. Bill Clinton used Camp David more as his tenure in office progressed and hosted the British Prime Minister, Tony Blair, on several occasions in addition to numerous celebrities. George W. Bush hosted dignitaries, including President of Russia, Vladimir Putin, there in 2003, george W. Bush also hosted Danish Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen in June 2006. Barack Obama chose Camp David to host the 38th G8 summit in 2012, President Obama also hosted Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev at Camp David, as well as the GCC Summit there in 2015. Donald Trump thus far has used his Mar-a-Lago resort in Florida as his preferred retreat location, in lieu of Camp David. When asked about Camp David in an interview with the Times of London and you know how long you’d like it. On July 2,2011, an F-15 intercepted a small passenger plane flying near Camp DavidCamp David – Main Lodge at Camp David during the Nixon administration, February 9, 1971
59. Maryland – The states largest city is Baltimore, and its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the state is named after Henrietta Maria of France, the wife of Charles I of England. George Calvert was the first Lord of Baltimore and the first English proprietor of the colonial grant. Maryland was the state to ratify the United States Constitution. Maryland is one of the smallest U. S. states in terms of area, as well as one of the most densely populated, Maryland has an area of 12,406.68 square miles and is comparable in overall area with Belgium. It is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next largest state, its neighbor West Virginia, is almost twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature. The mid-portion of this border is interrupted by Washington, D. C. which sits on land that was part of Montgomery and Prince Georges counties and including the town of Georgetown. This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia, the Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Close to the town of Hancock, in western Maryland, about two-thirds of the way across the state. This geographical curiosity makes Maryland the narrowest state, bordered by the Mason–Dixon line to the north, portions of Maryland are included in various official and unofficial geographic regions. Much of the Baltimore–Washington corridor lies just south of the Piedmont in the Coastal Plain, earthquakes in Maryland are infrequent and small due to the states distance from seismic/earthquake zones. The M5.8 Virginia earthquake in 2011 was felt moderately throughout Maryland, buildings in the state are not well-designed for earthquakes and can suffer damage easily. The lack of any glacial history accounts for the scarcity of Marylands natural lakes, laurel Oxbow Lake is an over one-hundred-year-old 55-acre natural lake two miles north of Maryland City and adjacent to Russett. Chews Lake is a natural lake two miles south-southeast of Upper Marlboro. There are numerous lakes, the largest of them being the Deep Creek Lake. Maryland has shale formations containing natural gas, where fracking is theoretically possible, as is typical of states on the East Coast, Marylands plant life is abundant and healthy. Middle Atlantic coastal forests, typical of the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain, grow around Chesapeake Bay, moving west, a mixture of Northeastern coastal forests and Southeastern mixed forests cover the central part of the stateMaryland – Western Maryland: known for its heavily forested mountains. A panoramic view of Deep Creek Lake and the surrounding Appalachian Mountains in Garrett County.
60. Helmand and Arghandab Valley Authority – The HAVA is overseen by the Afghan Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock. The area of land under irrigation more than halved between 1979 and 2002 to around 1,500,000 hectares, although this has since been increased. It resulted, in the words of historian Arnold J. Toynbee in a piece of America inserted into the Afgan Landscape, the new world they are conjuring up out of the desert at the Helmand Rivers expense is to be an America-in-Asia. Today the irrigation system managed by the HAVA is regarded as one of the countrys most important capital resources, as of March 2012 its director is Haji Khan Agha. The development of the Helmand Valley was initiated by the Government of Afghanistan in 1946 and it resulted in one of the worlds major desert irrigation schemes, with water supplied through the Boghra, Shamalan, and Darweshan canals. The US Government was officially involved in the project from 1949 until the Soviet invasion in 1979, the earliest initiatives to build a modern irrigation system in the region began in 1935, with financial support from the Japanese Government though until World War II. The German Government had also provided assistance, while the development of the Helmand valley resulted in considerable gains in agricultural production and raised average farm incomes tenfold, there have also been problems. In particular, by 1975 over-irrigation and poor drainage had led to waterlogging and salination, work to mitigate this was interrupted by the Soviet invasion. The city had been fresh water for the previous 30 years due to the contamination of the Helmand River. Opium production in Afghanistan Desert greening Wolf, James, English, Richard, Haack, rehabilitation Assessment of the Helmand-Arghandab Valley Irrigation Scheme in Afghanistan. The Helmand Valley Project Institute for Afghan Studies In Afghanistan operation, Marines return to little AmericaHelmand and Arghandab Valley Authority – The Kajakai Dam on the Helmand River, one of the major dams controlled by the HAVA
61. Tennessee Valley Authority – The enterprise was a result of the efforts of Senator George W. Norris of Nebraska. TVA was envisioned not only as a provider, but also as an economic development agency that would use federal experts and electricity to rapidly modernize the regions economy. T. V. A. s service area covers most of Tennessee, portions of Alabama, Mississippi, and Kentucky, and small slices of Georgia, North Carolina and it was the first large regional planning agency of the federal government and remains the largest. Under the leadership of David Lilienthal, T. V. A. became a model for Americas governmental efforts to seek in assisting the modernization of agrarian societies in the developing world, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed the Tennessee Valley Authority Act, creating the TVA. During the 1920s and the Great Depression years, Americans began to support the idea of ownership of utilities. The concept of government-owned generation facilities selling to publicly owned distribution utilities was controversial, many believed privately owned power companies were charging too much for power, did not employ fair operating practices, and were subject to abuse by their owners, at the expense of consumers. By forming utility holding companies, the sector controlled 94 percent of generation by 1921. Many private companies in the Tennessee Valley were bought by the federal government, others shut down, unable to compete with the T. V. A. Government regulations were passed to prevent competition with T. V. A. T. V. A. was one of the first federal hydropower agencies, other attempts to create T. V. A. -like regional agencies have failed, such as a proposed Columbia Valley Authority for the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest. Regional power consumers may benefit from lower-cost electricity supplied from T. V. A. s network of 29 power-producing hydropower facilities, supporters of TVA, though, note that the agencys management of the Tennessee River system without appropriated federal funding saves federal taxpayers millions of dollars annually. Defenders note that TVA is overwhelmingly popular in Tennessee among conservatives and liberals alike, as Barry Goldwater discovered in 1964, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled TVA to be constitutional in Ashwander v. Tennessee Valley Authority,297 U. S.288. The Court noted that regulating commerce among the states regulation of streams. The war powers also authorized the project, the argument before the court was that electricity generation was a by-product of navigation and flood control and therefore could be considered constitutional. In the 1920s a major battle erupted over building a power system in the Tennessee Valley, based on the World War I federal dam at Muscle Shoals. It would generate electricity and produce fertilizer, Senator George Norris of Nebraska blocked a proposal from Henry Ford in 1920 to use the dam to modernize the valley. Norris deeply distrusted privately owned utility companies and he did get Congress to pass the Muscle Shoals Bill, but it was vetoed as socialistic by President Herbert Hoover in 1931. The idea behind the Muscle Shoals Bill in 1933 became a part of the New Deals TVATennessee Valley Authority – TVA Towers, TVA's headquarters in downtown Knoxville, overlooking the Tennessee River
62. List of non-marine molluscs of Afghanistan – The non-marine molluscs of Afghanistan are a part of the wildlife of Afghanistan. Afghanistan is land-locked and has no marine molluscs, only land and freshwater species, including snails, slugs, the molluscan fauna of the country is poorly known and contains over 70 molluscan taxa. The earliest reports on Afghanistan molluscs consists of scattered descriptions of materials gathered on various military expeditions, only the reports of Thomas Hutton, who recorded 21 species, and César Marie Félix Ancey, who listed 27 taxa, are at all comprehensive. Nelson Annandale & Baini Prashad issued a report on freshwater collections from the southwestern deserts. Jaeckel summarized previous work, evaluated records, and concluded there were 37 species known from Afghanistan. Ilya Mikhailovich Likharev & Yaroslav Igorevich Starobogatov had available extensive materials taken from 127 collecting stations between 1957 and 1962 and their report covered 53 species represented by new material, with an additional 14 names carried over from earlier reports, but not verified from their collecting. Alan Solem have reported 10 new taxa that were not known from Afghanistan in 1979. Up to 1979,73 taxa of molluscs have been recorded from Afghanistan and it is obvious that knowledge of the Afghanistan molluscan fauna is in a very preliminary stage. The probability of additional taxa existing is very high, particularly among the Helicoidea, in the 2000s the molluscan fauna is still incompletely known. This Least Concern species endemic to Micronesia, but one specimen was found to be introduced in Afghanistan. There are no species of molluscs listed in the 2010 IUCN Red List for Afghanistan. Land and Freshwater Mollusca of India including south Arabia, Baluchistan, Afghanistan, Kashmir, Nepal, conchologia Indica 2, Pp XI London. Godwin-Austen H. H. Taylor and Francis, London, published in parts, Volume I + plates,1882, pp. I–VI, 1–66, pls. 43–51,1886, pp. 165–206,1887, pls, Volume 2 + plates,1897, pp. 1–46, pls. 133–158, volume 3 + plates,1920, pp. 1–65, plsList of non-marine molluscs of Afghanistan – Corbicula fluminalis
63. Pomegranate production in Afghanistan – Pomegranate production in Afghanistan is a significant contributor to the Afghan agricultural economy. Pomegranates are a fruit crop in many provinces such as Kandahar, Helmand, Wardak, Ghazni, Paktia, Farah, Kapisa and Balkh. Afghanistan is known as the country of the fruit in view of not only its conventional methods of cultivation. Some leading botanists believe that Afghanistan is the cradle of world pomegranate production, Afghanistan has more varieties of pomegranate trees than anywhere else in the world. Since the 1970s, political turmoil and wars have ravaged the country, since the end of the war, there has been a re-emergence in the pomegranate industry in Afghanistan. In 2009, several hundred thousands pomegranate trees were planted and the nation exported some 50,000 tons of the fruit. In October 2010 it was reported fighting in Kandahar province has had a serious effect on farms. Some people have speculated that an increase in Afghan fruit production towards an international market would be the best way to combat opium production in the country. Gradually the international market for Afghan pomegranates is increasing demand from overseas. Carrefour has also placed a demand for Afghan pomegranates in other stores in countries in the Middle East and this company is the source of the livelihoods of some 50,000 Afghan farmers. Pomegranates contain high levels of antioxidants, and protect cells from damage by compounds called free radicals and they are also reported to protect against certain types of cancer and lower blood pressure. Afghan pomegranates in comparison to the fruit from other places are said to be larger, sweeter and redder. These are the best pomegranates youll ever see in your life, they are the biggest, they are the reddest and they are increasingly becoming consumed in Europe and North Africa as a health food and for its juicy, sweet taste. USAID has also described pomegranates grown in the northern Khulm River basin in the north of the country to be the finest in Afghanistan, adam Pritchard, the Chief Executive of Pomegreat has described the Afghan pomegranate as the best in the world and Afghanistan as their spiritual home. Its ranking among fruits grown in the country is reported to be second, the main production area of pomegranates is in the Kandahar Province, where 806 ha of land are under pomegranate cultivation. Its production per ha of land was very high in the Dand. The variety of pomegranate grown in Kandahar is known as the jumbo, ruby-red Kandahari variety, while the variety is known as Badana. Because of its popularity and demand for exports, the World Pomegranate Fair is an event in AfghanistanPomegranate production in Afghanistan – Pomegranates processing in Afghanistan
64. Samangan – Samangan is a provincial town, medieval caravan stop, and the headquarters of the Samangan Province in the district of the same name in the northern part of Afghanistan. The ruins found here establish the citys founding by Eucratides I and it was then known as Eukratidia, the size of the present Khulm city. Historicity of the town is dated to the Kushan Dynasty reign during the 4th and 5th centuries when it was a famous Buddhist centre. Witness to this period is now in the form of ruins at a place called the Takht-e-Rostam. Arabs and Mongols came to place when it was already famous as a Buddhist religious centre. Takt-e Rostam is a place where ruins of Buddhist religious culture could be seen. The Buddhist stupa here in the form of a mound, located on the hilltop, aibak was the name given to this place when during the medieval period, caravans used to stop here. Samangan has one of the archaeological sites in Afghanistan, in the Takth i Rostam. At this location, caves were hewn out of rocks and inhabited by Buddhists, the Buddhist stupa here is in the form of a mound. It represents the earliest link to the evolution of Buddhist architecture in Afghanistan, another heritage site is the Hazar Sumuch District which is about 10 km away from the town. Takht-i Rustam Takht-i Rustam, literal meaning the throne of Rustam, named after Rustam and it is dated to the 4th and 5th centuries of the Kushano-Sassanian period, which is corroborated by archaeological, architectural and numismatic evidence. It is located 3 km to the southwest of Samangan town and it is the location of a stupa-monastery complex which is fully carved into the mountain rock. The monastery of the major Buddhist tradition of Theravada Buddhism, has five chambers, in the adjacent hill is the stupa, which has a harmika, with several caves at its base. Above one of the caves, there is building with two conference halls, one is 22 metres square and the other is circular. In one of these caves, Archaeological excavations have revealed a cache of Ghaznavid coins, the Buddhist temples near the Takht are 10 numbers known locally as Kie Tehe. A hoary legend links Samangan to the epic story of Rostam. Rostam, a valiant hero of Iran, was on a visit to the Samangan area. He took rest at a place near the Samangan area, in the village of Shaihabad, during this time, his horse was stolen under a plan engineered by the local King, who was impressed by the valour of RustamSamangan – Rostam mourns for his son Sohrab whom he has killed in the battlefield
65. Samangan Province – Samangan is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located north of the Hindu Kush mountains in the central part of the country. The province covers 11,218 square kilometres and is surrounded by Sar-e Pol Province in the west, Balkh in the north, Baghlan in the east, the majority of the population here is Uzbek, but there also significant numbers of Pashto and Persian speakers in the province. Samangan province is divided into 7 districts and contains 674 villages and it has a population of about 368,800, which is multi-ethnic and mostly a rural society. The city of Samangan serves as the provincial capital, the ruins found here established the city’s founding by Eukratides, the King of Bactria. It was then known as Edrisi the size of the Khulm city, historicity of the Samangan town dates to the time of the Kushan Empire during the 4th and 5th centuries when it was a famous Buddhist centre. Witness to this period is now in the form of ruins at a place called the Takht-e-Rostam. Arabs and Mongols came to place when it was already famous as a Buddhist religious centre. Aibak was the given to this place when, during the medieval period. Afghanistan has various sites where caves were hewn out of rocks. One of the most spectacular sites is that of Takth i Raustam, near Samangan and it includes a complex of stupa with monastery, hewn out of the rock. Other caves have been found near Jalalabad and at the site of Humay Qala southwest of Ghazni, the Samanids took it and controlled it until the Ghaznavids rose to power in the 10th century, they were replaced by the Ghorids. After the Mongol invasion the Timurids took possession, between the early 16th century and the mid-18th century, the territory was ruled by the Khanate of Bukhara. It was given to Ahmad Shah Durrani by Murad Beg of Bukhara after a treaty of friendship was reached in or about 1750, and became part of the Durrani Empire. It was ruled by the Durranis followed by the Barakzai dynasty and it remained peaceful for about one hundred years until the 1980s Soviet war in Afghanistan. After the Afghan Civil War, the town of Darra Souf in Samangan Province was occupied by Ustad Mohammad Mohaqiq and the Taliban in late 1999. The Taliban forces gained control of the area from January to March 2000 including nearby Sar-e-Pol and Baghlan provinces, after the removal of the Taliban government in late 2001, the Karzai administration took over control of Afghanistan. In the meantime, the International Security Assistance Force established a Provincial Reconstruction Team in the province, after getting training by ISAF, the Afghan National Security Forces are providing security for the population of the province. The province has a good security situation, with the United Nations Department for Safety and Security reporting a calmSamangan Province – Samangan Province
66. Khulm River – The Khulm River is a river of northern-central Afghanistan. In its upper course, it passes through Khulm and Haybak, the Khulm is a tributary to the Oxus basin. Its source is located to the north of the city of Khulm, further downstream, it passes through the city of Samangan and Samangan Province. The Khulm River forms the border of Kunduz Province. The mountains are characterized as rocky aridity as they extend from the Koh-i-Baba to Khulm River, on occasion, the landscape turns into trenched valleys engulfed with vegetation. The river rocks are composed of sandstone and limestone, the Khulm River is one of the tributaries of the Amu Darya River, a major river in Central Asia. It is known as a “blind river” or “natural river” as it dries up due to use within its basin boundary and does not reach the Amu Darya. The Khulm River originates in the Kara-Kotal pass and flows through gorges, the river raising at an elevation of 3,600 m has a total length of about 230 km. It drains a catchment area of 8,400 km² with the annual runoff estimates varying from 58.2 to 67 million m3 by different assessors, the road between Kabul and Mazar-e-Sharif follows the course of the river. At the junction of the Bamian and Badakhshan routes, the Khulm River emerges from the mountains by the town of Kholm, the Khulm is used for irrigation entirely before it can reach the Oxus. In 1896, Keane wrote of the countrysides desert encroachment, causing the Khulm River as it passes from the Kara-koh hills to no longer reach the Oxus. The banks of the Khulm River are rich agricultural areas with rolling hills at the side of the valleys it passes through. Many farmers in this region of Afghanistan are dependent upon the river for agriculture, the Khulm is said to produce the worlds finest Satar Bayee, Khairuddin Bayee and Abdul Wahidi almonds, pistachio nuts and Afghanistan’s finest pomegranates. Near Khulm, there are extensive orchards on the banks of the river, iDEA-NEW has been responsible for implementing a new program to prevent the orchards from flooding in Khulm District, protecting some 500 hectares of orchards from floods. Previously the locals living along the river would attempt to mitigate the river against flooding with sandbanks which failed poorlyKhulm River – Pistachio farmers near the banks of the Khulm
67. Wikimedia Foundation – The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is mostly known for participating in the Wikimedia movement and it owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like Wikipedia. The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, as of 2015, the foundation employs over 280 people, with annual revenues in excess of US$75 million. Christophe Henner is chairman of the board, Katherine Maher is the executive director since March 2016. The Wikimedia Foundation has stated its goal is to develop and maintain open content, wiki-based projects, another main objective of the Wikimedia Foundation is political advocacy. The Wikimedia Foundation was granted section 501 status by the U. S, internal Revenue Code as a public charity in 2005. Its National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities code is B60, the foundations by-laws declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it effectively and globally. In 2001, Jimmy Wales, an Internet entrepreneur, and Larry Sanger, the project was originally funded by Bomis, Wales for-profit business. As Wikipedias popularity skyrocketed, revenues to fund the project stalled, since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis resources, Wales and Sanger thought of a charity model to fund the project. The Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20,2003 and it applied to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Wikipedia on September 17,2004. The mark was granted status on January 10,2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16,2004, there were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs. In April 2005, the U. S. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership rights, the decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously. On September 25,2007, the board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the San Francisco Bay Area. Lila Tretikov was appointed director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014. Former chief communications officer Katherine Maher was appointed the executive director. In addition to Wikipedia, the foundation operates other wikis that follow the free content model with their goal being the dissemination of knowledge. These include, Several additional projects exist to provide infrastructure or coordination of the free knowledge projects, for instance, a wiki helps coordinate work on MediaWiki software and Outreach gives guidelines for best practices on encouraging the use of Wikimedia sitesWikimedia Foundation – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014