1. Afghanistan – Afghanistan /æfˈɡænᵻstæn/, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately million, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. Its territory covers 652,000 km2, making the 41st largest country in the world. The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began in the 18th century. In the 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah unsuccessfully attempted to modernize the country. It remained peaceful during Zahir Shah's forty years of monarchy. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a series of civil wars that continues to this day. The Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul - ` alam. The suffix" - stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more specifically in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan." An important site of many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites. The country sits at a unique point where numerous civilizations have interacted and often fought. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan.Afghanistan – History of Afghanistan
2. Islamic Republic – Pakistan first adopted the title under the constitution of 1956. Mauritania adopted it on 28 November 1958. Iran adopted it after the 1979 Iranian Revolution that overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty. Afghanistan adopted it upon Jamiat-e Islami seizing capital Kabul from the Communists. Despite the similar name the countries differ greatly in their laws. The term "Islamic republic" has come to mean some contradictory to others. They see it as secular nationalism and republicanism. On 12 Farvadin, it was announced that 98.2 percent of the Iranian voters wanted to establish the "Islamic Republic". Before the Islamic Republic referendum, some political groups suggested various names for the ideology such as the Republic or the democratic republic. However, there is an important role for the beliefs of Iranian people. Also those beliefs are of determinate roles in all affairs. Those beliefs considered as guidelines for statesmen. Believing in it. There are, of that, other principles are to the submission in front of Allah and his order. Therefore legislation is limited to god and laws far as correspond to divine legislation are valid.Islamic Republic – Islamic republics shown in green.
3. Pashto language – Pashto, also known in older literature as Afghānī or Paṭhānī, is the South-Central Asian language of the Pashtuns. Its speakers are called Pashtuns or Pukhtuns and sometimes Afghans or Pathans. It is an Eastern Iranian language, belonging to the Indo-European family. Pashto is the main language among the Pashtun diaspora around the world. The total number of Pashto-speakers is estimated to be 45–60 million people worldwide. Pashto belongs to the Northeastern Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian branch, but Ethnologue lists it as Southeastern Iranian. Pashto has two main dialect groups, “soft” and “hard”, the latter known as Pakhto. The exact numbers of speakers are unavailable, but different estimates show that Pashto is the mother tongue of 45–60% of the total population of Afghanistan. Pashto is spoken as a first language by about 15.42% of Pakistan's 170 million people. It is the main language of the Pashtun-majority regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and northern Balochistan. Modern Pashto-speaking communities are found in the cities of Karachi and Hyderabad in Sindh. Other communities of Pashto speakers are found in Tajikistan, further in the Pashtun diaspora. There are also communities of Pashtun descent in the southwestern part of Jammu and Kashmir. Pashto is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan, along with Dari. Since the early 18th century, all the kings of Afghanistan were ethnic Pashtuns except for Habibullah Kalakani.Pashto language – Pashto language on the map of Afghanistan.The brown areas speak Pashto.
4. Dari language – Dari or Dari Persian is the variety of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan. Dari is the term officially recognized and promoted since 1964 by the Afghan government for the Persian language. Hence, it is also known as Afghan Persian in many Western sources. As defined in the Constitution of Afghanistan, it is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan; the other is Pashto. Dari is the most widely spoken language in Afghanistan and the native language of approximately 25–50% of the population, serving as the country's lingua franca. The Iranian and Afghan types of Persian are mutually intelligible, with differences found primarily in the vocabulary and phonology. In historical usage, Dari refers to the Middle Persian court language of the Sassanids. Dari is a name given to the New Persian language since the 10th century, widely used in Arabic and Persian texts. Since 1964, it has been the official name in Afghanistan for the Persian spoken there. In Afghanistan, Dari refers to a modern form of Persian, the standard language used in print media. There are different opinions about the origin of the word Dari. The majority of scholars believes that Dari refers to the Persian word dar or darbār, meaning "Court", as it was the formal language of the Sassanids. The original meaning of the word dari is given in a notice attributed to Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ. According to him, "Pārsī was the language spoken by priests, scholars, the like; it is the language of Fars." It is obvious that this language refers to the Middle Persian.Dari language – Dari in Persian script (Nastaʿlīq style)
5. Landlocked country – A landlocked state or country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas. There are currently 48 such countries, including four partially recognised states. Only two, Bolivia and Paraguay in South America, lie outside Afro-Eurasia. As a rule, being landlocked creates political and economic handicaps that access to the high seas avoids. The economic disadvantages of being landlocked can be alleviated or aggravated depending on degree of development, language barriers, other considerations. Some historically landlocked countries are quite affluent, such as Switzerland, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, all of which frequently employ neutrality to their political advantage. The majority, however, are classified as Landlocked Developing Countries. 9 of the 12 countries with the lowest Human Development Indices are landlocked. Historically, being landlocked has been disadvantageous to a country's development. As such, coastal regions tended to be wealthier and more heavily populated than inland ones. In general, he found that when a neighboring country experiences better growth, it tends to spill over into favorable development for the country itself. For landlocked countries, the effect is particularly strong, as they are limited in their trading activity with the rest of the world. He states, "If you are coastal, you serve the world; if you are landlocked, you serve your neighbors." Others have argued that being landlocked may actually be a blessing as it creates a "natural tariff barrier" which protects the country from cheap imports. In some instances, this has led to more robust local food systems.Landlocked country – Bolivia 's loss of its coast in the War of the Pacific (1879–1884) remains a major political issue
6. Central Asia – It is within the scope of the wider Eurasian continent. Afghanistan is also sometimes included. Not one definition is universally accepted. Despite this uncertainty in defining borders, the region does have some overall characteristics. For one, Central Asia has historically been closely tied to the Silk Road. As a result, it has acted between Europe, Western Asia, South Asia, East Asia. The ancient population played an important role in the history of Central Asia. Central Asia is sometimes referred to as Turkestan. Since the earliest of times, Central Asia has been a crossroads between different civilizations. The Silk Road connected Muslim lands with the people of Europe, India, China. This crossroads position has intensified the conflict between tribalism and modernization. As of 2011, the five" ` stans"' are home to about 7 million Russians and 500,000 Ukrainians. The idea of Central Asia as a distinct region of the world was introduced by the geographer Alexander von Humboldt. The borders of Central Asia are subject to multiple definitions. Historically built geoculture are two significant parameters widely used in the scholarly literature about the definitions of the Central Asia.Central Asia – On the southern shore of Issyk Kul lake, Issyk Kul Region.
7. South Asia – South Asia is bounded by West Asia, Central Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia. The current territories of Sri Lanka form the countries of South Asia. South Asia covers about million km ², 11.51 % of the Asian continent or 3.4 % of the world's land surface area. Overall, it is home to a vast array of peoples. The area of its geographical extent is not clear cut as systemic and foreign policy orientations of its constituents are quite asymmetrical. Modern definitions of South Asia are consistent in including Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and Maldives as the constituent countries. Myanmar is included by some scholars in South Asia, but by others. Some do not include Afghanistan, others question whether Afghanistan should be considered a part of the Middle East, unlike the prevalent publications. The island countries of Sri Lanka and Maldives are generally included as well. The common concept of South Asia is largely inherited with several exceptions. The Aden Colony, Singapore, though administered at various times under the Raj, have not been proposed as any part of South Asia. China and Myanmar have also applied for the status of full members of SAARC. This bloc of countries include two independent countries that were not part of the British Raj - Bhutan. Afghanistan was a British protectorate from 1878 until 1919, after the Afghans lost in the Second Anglo-Afghan war. Population Information Network includes Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burma, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka as part of South Asia.South Asia – While South Asia had never been a coherent geopolitical region, it has a distinct geographical identity
8. Iran – Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world. With million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 17th-most-populous country. It is the only country with both an Indian Ocean coastline. Its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, make it of great geostrategic importance. Tehran is largest city, as well as its leading economic center. Iran is heir to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning in 3200 -- 2800 BC. The area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant political power in the region. The empire reemerged shortly after as the Parthian Empire. Under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Rashidun Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Sunni Islam. Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, thinkers. Through the late 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a constitutional monarchy and the Majles. Following a d'état instigated by the U.K. and the U.S. in 1953, Iran gradually became closely aligned with the West but grew increasingly autocratic.Iran – Cave painting in Doushe cave, Lorestan, Iran, 8th millennium BC
9. Turkmenistan – Turkmenistan has been for centuries. Annexed by the Russian Empire in 1881, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement in Central Asia. Turkmenistan possesses the world's fourth largest reserves of natural gas resources. Most of the country is covered by the Karakum Desert. Since 1993, citizens have received government-provided electricity, natural gas free of charge. Turkmenistan was ruled until his death in 2006. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow was elected president in 2007. According to Human Rights Watch, "Turkmenistan remains one of the world’s most repressive countries. In the 8th AD, Turkic-speaking Oghuz tribes moved from Mongolia into present-day Central Asia. Part of a powerful confederation of these Oghuz formed the ethnic basis of the modern Turkmen population. In the 10th century, the name "Turkmen" was first applied to Oghuz groups that began to occupy present-day Turkmenistan. There they were under the dominion of the Seljuk Empire, composed of Oghuz groups living in present-day Iran and Turkmenistan. In the 12th century, other tribes overthrew the Seljuk Empire. By the 16th century, most of those tribes were under the nominal control of two sedentary Uzbek khanates, Bukhoro. Turkmen soldiers were an important element of the Uzbek militaries of this period.Turkmenistan – Turkmen helmet (15th century).
10. Uzbekistan – Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan, is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia. It is a presidential republic, comprising twelve provinces, one autonomous republic and a capital city. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, it declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991. Uzbekistan is officially a democratic, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Uzbeks constitute 81% of the population, followed by Russians, Tajiks, Kazakhs, others. A majority of Uzbeks are non-denominational Muslims. Uzbekistan is the SCO. While officially a democratic republic, human organizations define Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights". Uzbekistan's economy relies mainly including cotton, gold, natural gas. Despite the declared objective of transition to a market economy, its government continues to maintain economic controls which imports in favour of domestic "import substitution". Uzbekistan has an area of 447,400 square kilometres. It is the 56th largest country in the world by area and the 42nd by population. Among the CIS countries, it is the 4th largest by area and the 2nd largest by population. Uzbekistan longitudes 74 ° E. It stretches 1,425 kilometres from west to east and 930 kilometres from north to south.Uzbekistan – Comparison of the Aral Sea between 1989 and 2014.
11. Tajikistan – It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, China to the east. Pakistan lies to the south, separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. Traditional homelands of Tajik people included present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. As a result of the break-up of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan became an independent nation in 1991. A civil war was fought almost immediately after independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistan's 8 million people belong to the Tajik ethnic group, who speak Tajik. Many Tajiks also speak Russian as their second language. Mountains cover more than 90% of the country. It has a economy, highly dependent on remittances, cotton production. Tajikistan means the "Land of the Tajiks". The suffix "-stan" is Persian for "place of" or "country" and Tajik is, most likely, the name of a pre-Islamic tribe. Tajikistan sometimes appeared in English prior to 1991. This is due to a transliteration from the Russian: "Таджикистан".Tajikistan – The Samanid ruler Mansur I (961 – 976).
12. China – China, officially the People's Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia. With a population of over billion, it is the world's most populous country. The state is governed based in the capital of Beijing. The country's urban areas include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Hong Kong. China has been characterized as a potential superpower. Mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The third and sixth longest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China, South China seas. China emerged in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties. Since 221 BC, when the Qin Dynasty first conquered several states to form a Chinese empire, the state has expanded, reformed numerous times. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing major economies. As of 2014, it is largest by purchasing power parity. China is also second-largest importer of goods. China has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget.China – Yinxu, ruins of an ancient palace dating from the Shang Dynasty (14th century BCE)
13. Origins of the name Afghan – The ethnonym Afghan has been used in the past to refer to members of Pashtun tribes, that usage persists in some places in Afghanistan. Such usage now is rare in English. Since the Afghan Constitution of 1964, "Afghan" officially refers to every citizen of the state of Afghanistan, regardless which ethnic group the individual belongs to. The Encyclopædia Iranica explains: "From a more limited, ethnological point of view, "Afġān" is the term by which the Persian-speakers of Afghanistan designate the Paštūn. The term "Afġān" has probably designated the Paštūn since ancient times. Under the Avagānā, this ethnic group is first mentioned by the Indian astronomer Varāha Mihira in the beginning of the 6th century in his Brhat-samhita." A Chinese Buddhist pilgrim visiting the Afghanistan area several times between 630 and 644 CE, speaks about the native tribes inhabiting the region. According to scholars such as V. Minorsky, W.K. Frazier Tyler and M.C. Gillet, the word Afghan has appeared in the 982 Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam, where a reference is made to a village. "Saul, a pleasant village on a mountain. In it live Afghans". Saul was probably located in the Paktia province of Afghanistan. It should be noted that some of these names were used as geographical terms. Al-Utbi, the Ghaznavid chronicler, in his Tarikh-i Yamini records that many Afghans and Khiljis enlisted in the army of Sabuktigin after Jayapala was defeated.Origins of the name Afghan – Tents of Afghan nomads in Badghis Province of Afghanistan who are known in Pashto language as Kuchans. They are mostly Ghilji and migrate from region to region depending on the season. Early peasant farming villages came into existence in Afghanistan about 7,000 years ago.
14. Indian subcontinent – Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the mass that merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Politically, the Indian subcontinent usually includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Sometimes, the term South Asia is used interchangeably with Indian subcontinent. There is no consensus about which countries should be included in each. It is first attested in 1845 to refer to the North and South Americas, before they were regarded as separate continents. Its use to refer to the Indian subcontinent is seen from the early twentieth century. It was especially convenient for referring to the region comprising both the British India and the princely states under British Paramountcy. The term Indian subcontinent also has a geological significance. It was, like the various continents, a part of the supercontinent of Gondwana. A series of tectonic splits caused formation of various basins, each drifting in various directions. The geological region called the "Greater India" once included the Madagascar, Seychelles, Antartica, Austrolasia along with the Indian subcontinent basin. The Indian subcontinent has been a term particularly common in the British Empire and its successors. Thursby, has also been labelled as India, Greater India, or as South Asia. The BBC and some academic sources refer to the region as the "Asian Subcontinent". Some academics refer to it as "South Asian Subcontinent".Indian subcontinent – Indian subcontinent
15. Silk Road – The Han dynasty expanded Asian sections of the trade routes around 114 BCE, largely through missions and explorations of the Chinese imperial envoy, Zhang Qian. In addition to economic trade, the Silk Road was a route for cultural trade among the civilizations along its network. The main traders during antiquity included the Sogdians. In June 2014 UNESCO designated the Chang ` an-Tianshan corridor as a World Heritage Site. The Silk Road derives its name into an extensive transcontinental network. Seidenstraßen were coined by Ferdinand von Richthofen, who made seven expeditions to China from 1868 to 1872. The term Silk Route is also used. Although the term was coined in the 19th century, it did not gain widespread acceptance in academia or popularity until the 20th century. The first book entitled The Silk Road was by Swedish geographer Sven Hedin in 1938. Use of the term'Silk Road' is not without its detractors. He notes that traditional authors discussing East-West trade such as Edward Gibbon never labelled any route as a silk one in particular. From the 2nd millennium BCE, nephrite jade was being traded to China. Some remnants of what was probably Chinese silk dating from 1070 BCE have been found in Ancient Egypt. The Great Oasis cities of central Asia played a crucial role in the effective functioning of the Silk Road trade. This style is particularly reflected in the rectangular belt plaques made with other versions in jade and steatite.Silk Road – Main routes of the Silk Road
16. Human migration – Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently in the new location. Internal migration is also possible; indeed, this is the dominant form globally. Migration may be individuals, in large groups. Nomadic movements are normally not regarded as migrations because the movement is generally seasonal. Only a few nomadic peoples have retained this form of lifestyle in modern times. Many estimates of statistics in worldwide migration patterns exist. The World Bank has published its Migration and Remittances Factbook annually since 2008. The International Organisation for Migration has published a yearly World Migration Report since 1999. The United Nations Statistics Division also keeps a database on worldwide migration. Recent advances in research on migration via the Internet promise better understanding of migration patterns and migration motives. Internal migration can also take place within a country, either seasonal human migration, or shifts of population into cities or out of cities. Studies of worldwide migration patterns, however, tend to limit their scope to international migration. In 2013, the percentage of international migrants worldwide increased with 59 % of migrants targeting developed regions. Almost half of these migrants are women, one of the most significant migrant-pattern changes in the last century. Women migrate community.Human migration – Net migration rates for 2011: positive (blue), negative (orange), stable (green), and no data (gray)
17. Geostrategy – Geostrategy, a subfield of geopolitics, is a type of foreign policy guided principally by geographical factors as they inform, constrain, or affect political and military planning. As with all strategies, geostrategy is concerned with matching means to ends—in this case, a country's resources with its geopolitical objectives. Strategy is as intertwined with geography as geography is with nationhood, or as Gray and Sloan state it, " the mother of strategy." Geostrategists, as distinct from geopoliticians, advocate aggressive strategies, approach geopolitics from a nationalist point of view. Geostrategy is most closely related to strategic geography. Especially following World War II, some scholars divide geostrategy into two schools: the uniquely German organic state theory; and, the broader Anglo-American geostrategies. Academics, theorists, practitioners of geopolitics have agreed upon no standard definition for "geostrategy." Most all definitions, however, emphasize the merger of strategic considerations with geopolitical factors. The term "geo-strategy" was first used by Frederick L. Schuman in his 1942 article "Let Us Learn Our Geopolitics." It was a translation of the German term "Wehrgeopolitik" as used by German geostrategist Karl Haushofer. Previous translations had been attempted, such as "defense-geopolitics." Robert Strausz-Hupé had coined and popularized "war geopolitics" as another alternate translation. "eostrategy is about the exercise of power over particularly critical spaces on the Earth's surface; about crafting a political presence over the international system. It is aimed at enhancing one's security and prosperity; about making the international system more prosperous; about shaping rather than being shaped. A geostrategy is about securing access to strategic seas.Geostrategy – Fr. Edmund A. Walsh, SJ
18. Ahmad Shah Durrani – After the death of Nader Shah Afshar in 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani was chosen as King of Afghanistan. Durrani's mausoleum is located at Kandahar, Afghanistan, adjacent to the Shrine of the Cloak in the center of the city. Afghans often refer to him as Ahmad Shāh Bābā. Durrani was born to Mohammad Zaman Khan, Zarghuna Alakozai. There has been some debate about Durrani's exact place of birth. Most believe that he was born in Herat, Afghanistan. He was born as Ahmed Khan. Abdali's father suffered "Persian captivity for many years" at Kirman before being released from prison in 1715. As a refugee, he "made his way to India" and joined his kinsmen at Multan. After he raised his family there, he was recognized as the "scion of hereditary Sadozai chiefs". So other sources believe that, Abdali was born at Multan in 1722, after which she returned to Afghanistan to reunite with her husband. He lost his father during his infancy. Durrani's forefathers were Sadozais but his mother was from the Alakozai tribe. In June 1729, the Abdali forces under Zulfiqar had surrendered to Nader Shah Afshar, the rising new ruler of Persia. However, they took over Herat well as Mashad.Ahmad Shah Durrani – Ahmad Shah Durrani
19. Durrani Empire – The Durrani Empire at its maximum extent encompassed present-day Afghanistan, northeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, northwestern India, including the Kashmir region. The Afghan army began their conquests by capturing Ghazni and Kabul from the local rulers. In 1749 the Mughal ruler had ceded sovereignty over what is now Pakistan and northwestern Punjab to the Afghans. He then set out westward to take possession of Herat, ruled by Shahrukh Afshar. In short order all the different tribes began joining his cause. His forces invaded India four times, taking control of the Kashmir and the Punjab region. Additionally, among the Durranis' military conquests, the Pashtun also instigated the Vaḍḍā Ghallūghārā when they killed thousands of Sikhs in the Punjab. The Durrani Empire is considered the foundation of the modern state of Afghanistan, with Ahmad Shah Durrani being credited as "Father of the Nation". In 1709 Mir chief of the Ghilji tribe of Kandahar Province, gained independence from the Safavid Persians. From 1722 to 1725, his son Mahmud Hotak briefly declared himself as Shah of Persia. The year 1747 marks the definitive appearance of an political entity independent of both the Persian and Mughal empires. Despite being younger than the other contenders, he had several overriding factors in his favor. Ahmad Shah belonged to a respectable family of political background, especially since his father served as Governor of Herat who died in a battle defending the Afghans. Ahmad Shah also possessed a substantial part of Nadir Shah's treasury, including the Koh-i-Noor diamond, the world's largest. One of Ahmad Shah's military action was the capture Ghazni from the Ghiljis, then wresting Kabul from the local ruler.Durrani Empire – Flag
20. Kandahar – Kandahar or Qandahar is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 491,500 as of 2012. Formerly called Alexandria Arachosia, the city is named after Alexander the Great, who founded it in 329 BC around a small ancient Arachosian town. Kandahar is the capital of Kandahar Province, located at an altitude of 1,010 m above sea level. The Arghandab River runs along the west of the city. The city of Kandahar has a population of 557,118. It has a total land area of 27,337 hectares. The total number of dwellings in Kandahar is 61,902. Kandahar has been their traditional seat of power for more than 200 years. It is a major trading center for sheep, wool, cotton, silk, felt, tobacco. The area is believed to be the birthplace of indica. The region around Kandahar is one of the oldest known human settlements. Many empires have long fought over the city due to its strategic location along the trade routes of southern, western Asia. In 1709, Mirwais Hotak turned Kandahar into the capital of the Hotak dynasty. In 1747, founder of the last Afghan empire, made it the capital of modern Afghanistan. Ibn Batutta mentions Kandahar in the 14th century by describing it as three nights journey from Ghazni.Kandahar
21. The Great Game – This resulted between the two empires. This would protect India and also British sea trade routes by stopping Russia from gaining a port on the Persian Gulf or the Indian Ocean. Russia proposed Afghanistan as the neutral zone. The 1901 novel Kim by Rudyard Kipling, introduced the new implication of great power rivalry. It became even more popular after 1979. The term "the Great Game" was associated with games of risk, such as cards and dice. The French equivalent Le gros jeu is associated with meanings of risk, chance and deception. The term "The Great Game" is attributed to Captain Arthur Conolly, appointed as a political officer. InshAllah! One popular use of the term is related to spies and their military value or political influence on the peoples of a region. It was introduced by the British novelist Rudyard Kipling in his novel Kim. It was first used academically by Professor H.W.C. The use of the term "The Great Game" to describe Anglo-Russian rivalry in Central Asia became common only after the Second World War. It was rarely used before that period. During the 19th Century a diplomatic confrontation existed between Britain and Russia over Afghanistan.The Great Game – Persia at the beginning of the Great Game in 1814
22. British Indian Empire – The British Raj was the rule of the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947. The rule is also called direct rule in India. The resulting political union was also called the Indian Empire and after 1876 issued passports under that name. It lasted until 1947, when the Indian Empire was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. The British Raj extended over almost Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry. This area containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, the Thar desert. At various times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland, Singapore. Burma was directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948. Among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1798. The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, were recognised by the British as independent states. The Kingdom of Sikkim was established after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; however, the issue of sovereignty was left undefined. The Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965 but not part of British India. India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory: the Native States. The term has also been used to refer to the "British in India".British Indian Empire – An 1909 map of the British Indian Empire
23. Russian Empire – One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. It expanded to the west and south. Its German-descended cadet branch, the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov, ruled from 1762. With million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, religion. There were dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts; they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia. Economically, the empire had a agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized in railways and factories. The land was ruled through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that later emerged. He tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, laid the foundations of the Russian state. The Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power. Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest, diplomacy, continuing Peter the Great's policy of modernisation along West European lines. Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all million serfs in 1861.Russian Empire – Peter the Great officially renamed the Tsardom of Russia the Russian Empire in 1721, and himself its first emperor. He instituted the sweeping reforms and oversaw the transformation of Russia into a major European power.
24. Third Anglo-Afghan war – The Third Anglo-Afghan War, also referred to as the Third Afghan War, began on 6 May 1919 and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919. The Afghans were able to resume the right to conduct their foreign affairs as a fully independent state. The cause of the Third Anglo-Afghan War lies many years before the actual fighting commenced. For the British in India, Afghanistan was long seen as a potential source of threat. This period became known as the Great Game. The death in 1901 of Emir Abdur Rahman Khan led indirectly to the war that began 18 years later. Habibullah, was a pragmatic leader who sided with Britain or Russia, depending on Afghan interests. Notwithstanding these outbreaks, the frontier generally remained settled at a time when Britain could ill afford trouble. A Turco-German mission left Kabul in 1916. By that time, however, it had successfully convinced Habibullah that it should be beholden to no one. With the end of the First World War, Habibullah sought to gain reward during the war. Looking for British recognition of Afghanistan's independence in foreign affairs, he demanded a seat in 1919. This request was denied by the Viceroy, 1st Viscount Chelmsford, on the grounds that attendance at the conference was confined to the belligerents. Before they could begin Habibullah was assassinated on 19 February 1919. However, the Afghan army suspected Amanullah's complicity in the death of his father.Third Anglo-Afghan war – History of Afghanistan
25. International relations – In practice International Relations and International Affairs forms a separate academic program or field from Political Science, the courses taught therein are highly interdisciplinary. Prior to this the European organization of political authority was based on a vaguely religious order. Contrary to popular belief, Westphalia still embodied layered systems of sovereignty, especially within the Holy Roman Empire. The centuries of roughly 1500 to 1789 saw the rise of the independent, sovereign states, the institutionalization of diplomacy and armies. Such a state in which the nation is sovereign would thence be termed a nation-state. The term republic increasingly became its synonym. The same claim to sovereignty was made for both forms of nation-state. The European system supposing the sovereign equality of states was exported to the Americas, Asia via colonialism and the "standards of civilization". The international system was finally established during the Cold War. However, this is somewhat over-simplified. While the nation-state system is considered "modern", many states have not incorporated the system and are termed "pre-modern". Further, a handful of states have moved beyond insistence on full sovereignty, can be considered "post-modern". The ability of contemporary IR discourse to explain the relations of these different types of states is disputed. What is explicitly recognized as international relations theory was not developed until after World War I, is dealt with in more detail below. IR theory, however, has a long tradition of drawing on the work of other social sciences.International relations – The Palace of Nations. In 2012 alone, the Palace of Nations hosted more than 10 000 intergovernmental meetings. Geneva (Switzerland) is the city that hosts the highest number of international organisations in the world.
26. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the UK is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants. Together, this makes it the fourth most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch—since 6 February 1952—is Queen Elizabeth II. Other major urban areas in the UK include the regions of Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow and Liverpool. The UK consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the United Kingdom have changed over time. Wales was annexed in 1542. In 1922, five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories.United Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
27. Partition of India – The Partition of India was the 1947 partitioning of the British Indian Empire into India and Pakistan. It led on August 1947. UNHCR estimates 14 million Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims were displaced during the partition; it was the largest mass migration in human history. Burma, governed until 1937, was directly administered thereafter. Burma was granted independence on 4 January 1948 and Ceylon on 4 February 1948. Bhutan, Nepal and the Maldives, the remaining present-day countries of South Asia, were unaffected by the partition. The Maldives, which had become a protectorate of the British crown in 1887 and gained its independence in 1965, was also unaffected by the partition. The Hindu elite of Bengal, among them many who owned land in East Bengal, leased out to Muslim peasants, protested fervidly. Sporadically—but flagrantly—the protesters also took to political violence that involved attacks on civilians. The violence, however, was not effective, as most planned attacks were either preempted by the British or failed. The unrest spread to the surrounding regions of Bengal when Calcutta's English-educated students returned home to their towns. Since Calcutta was the imperial capital, both the outrage and the slogan soon became nationally known. In conjunction, they demanded legislative representation reflecting both their status as their record of cooperating with the British. This led, to the founding of the Muslim League in Dacca. World War I would prove to be a watershed in the imperial relationship between Britain and India.Partition of India – The British Indian Empire, from the 1909 edition of The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Areas directly governed by the British are shaded pink; the princely states under British suzerainty are in yellow.
28. Mujahideen – Mujahideen is the plural form of mujahid, the term for one engaged in Jihad. In its roots, Mujahideen refers to any person performing Jihad. Jihad was the term used for the project of Islamic conquest in the early history of Islam, during the medieval era led by the caliphates. In its post-classical meaning, Jihad refers to an act, spiritually comparable in reward to promoting Islam during the early 600s CE. These acts could be as simple as sharing a considerable amount of your income with the poor. Some Islamic sects believe that armed-conflicts cannot be branded as Jihad unless it has been ordered by Messiah. Although he died in battle, the sect he had created survived and the Mujahideen gained more power and prominence. During the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the Mujahideen were said to accept any fleeing Sepoys and recruit them into their ranks. As time went by the sect grew ever larger until it was raiding and controlling larger areas in Afghanistan. Some volunteers committed themselves to hand-to-hand combat and probable death. In Spanish, these religious rebels were known as juramentados, or "oath-takers", have been compared with Mujahideen. At the DRA's request, the Soviet Union brought forces into the country to aid the government from 1979. As warfare became more sophisticated, outside support and regional coordination grew. Eventually, the seven main mujahideen parties allied as the political bloc called Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen. Many Muslims from other countries assisted the various mujahideen groups in Afghanistan.Mujahideen – The areas where the different mujahideen forces operated in 1985
29. Soviet war in Afghanistan – The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years from December 1979 to February 1989. Insurgent groups fought against the Soviet Army and allied Afghan forces. Between 850,000–2 million civilians were killed and millions of Afghans fled the country as refugees, mostly to Pakistan and Iran. The war is considered part of the Cold War. Prior to the arrival of Soviet troops, communists took power in a 1978 coup, installing Nur Mohammad Taraki as president. He initiated a series of radical modernization reforms throughout the country that were deeply unpopular, particularly among the more traditional rural population. The regime vigorously suppressed any opposition and arrested thousands, executing as many as 27,000 political prisoners. Anti-government armed groups were formed, by April 1979 large parts of the country were in open rebellion. The government itself was highly unstable with in-party rivalry, the president was assassinated by followers of Hafizullah Amin, who then became president. Worsening rebellions led the Soviet government, under leader Leonid Brezhnev, to deploy the 40th Army on December 1979. Arriving in the capital Kabul, they staged a coup, killing president Amin and installing Soviet loyalist Babrak Karmal from a rival faction. CIA covert action worked through Pakistani intelligence services to reach Afghani rebel groups." By mid-1987 the Soviet Union, now under reformist leader Mikhail Gorbachev, announced it would start withdrawing its forces. The final withdrawal ended on February 15, 1989. The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was formed on April 1978.Soviet war in Afghanistan – Mujahideen fighters in the Kunar Province of Afghanistan in 1987
30. Taliban – The Taliban, alternatively spelled Taleban, is an Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war within that country. Until his death in 2013, Mullah Mohammed Omar was the supreme commander and spiritual leader of the Taliban. The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was established in 1996 and the Afghan capital transferred to Kandahar. It held control of most of the country until being overthrown by the American-led invasion of Afghanistan in December 2001 following the September 11 attacks. At its peak, diplomatic recognition of the Taliban's government was acknowledged by only three nations: Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates. The group later regrouped as an insurgency movement to fight the American-backed Karzai administration and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force. In its / 11 insurgency, the group has been accused of using terrorism as a specific tactic to further their political goals. Pakistan states that it dropped all support for the group after the September 11 attacks. Al-Qaeda also supported the Taliban from Central Asia. Saudi Arabia provided financial support. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced to flee to Iran. The Taliban is Pashto, طالبان ṭālibān, the plural of ṭālib. This is a loanword from Arabic طالب ṭālib, using the Persian plural ending -ān ان. For example, John Walker Lindh has been referred to as "an American Taliban", rather than "an American Talib". In the English language newspapers of Pakistan, the word Talibans is often used when referring to more than one Taliban.Taliban – Darul Uloom Deoband, India
31. United Nations Security Council – The Security Council held its first session on 17 January 1946. The Security Council consists of fifteen members. These permanent members can veto any substantive Security Council resolution, including those on the admission of new member candidates for Secretary-General. The Security Council also has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve two-year terms. The body's presidency rotates monthly among its members. Security Council resolutions are typically enforced by military forces voluntarily provided by member states and funded independently of the main UN budget. As of 2016, 16,471 civilians are deployed on 16 peacekeeping operations and 1 special political mission. Following the catastrophic loss of life in World War I, the Paris Peace Conference established the League of Nations to maintain harmony between the nations. The earliest concrete plan for a new organization began under the aegis of the US State Department in 1939. United Nations was first officially used when 26 governments signed this Declaration. By 1 21 additional states had signed. The most contentious issue in successive talks proved to be the veto rights of permanent members. At the conference, H. V. Evatt of the Australian delegation pushed to further restrict the power of Security Council permanent members. Due to the fear that rejecting the strong veto would cause the conference's failure, his proposal was defeated twenty votes to ten. On 17 the Security Council met for the first time at Church House, Westminster, in London, United Kingdom.United Nations Security Council – UN Security Council Chamber in New York City
32. International Security Assistance Force – From 2006 to 2011, ISAF had become increasingly involved in more intensive combat operations in southern and eastern Afghanistan. Troop contributors included the United States, United Kingdom, a number of other countries. The intensity of the combat faced by contributing nations varied greatly, with the United States sustaining the most casualties overall. In early 2010, there were at least 700 military bases inside Afghanistan. About 400 of these were used by ANSF. For almost two years, the ISAF mandate did not go beyond the boundaries of Kabul. According to General Norbert Van Heyst, such a deployment would require at least thousand additional soldiers. The responsibility for security throughout the whole of Afghanistan was to be given to the newly reconstituted Afghan National Army. However, on October 2003, the Security Council voted unanimously to expand the ISAF mission beyond Kabul with Resolution 1510. Thereafter, Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien said that Canadian soldiers would not deploy outside Kabul. On October 2003, the German Bundestag voted to send German troops to the region of Kunduz. Approximately 230 additional soldiers were deployed to that region, marking the first time that ISAF soldiers operated outside of Kabul. ISAF was mandated by UN Security Council Resolutions 1386, 1413, 1444, 1510, 1563, 1623, 1659, 1707, 1917. The last of these extended the mandate of ISAF to March 2011. The mandates given by the different governments to their forces varied to country.International Security Assistance Force – ISAF's military terminal at Kabul International Airport in September 2010.
33. NATO – The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's headquarters are located in Haren, Brussels, Belgium, where the Supreme Allied Commander also resides. Belgium is one of the 28 member states across North America and Europe, the newest of which, Albania and Croatia, joined in April 2009. An additional 22 countries participate with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programmes. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total. Members' spending is supposed to amount to 2 % of GDP. The course of the Cold War led with nations of the Warsaw Pact, which formed in 1955. Politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, several of which joined the alliance in 2004. The Soviet Berlin Blockade led to the creation of the Western European Union's Defence Organization in September 1948. However, participation of the United States was thought necessary both to prevent the revival of nationalist militarism. He got a receptive hearing, especially considering American anxiety over Italy. Talks for a military alliance resulted in the North Atlantic Treaty, signed in Washington, D.C. on 4 April 1949. It included the five Treaty of Brussels states plus the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. Some Icelanders participated in a pro-neutrality, anti-membership riot in March 1949. The creation of NATO can be seen as the institutional consequence of a school of thought called Atlanticism which stressed the importance of trans-Atlantic cooperation.NATO – The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 April 1949 and was ratified by the United States that August.
34. Hamid Karzai – Hamid Karzai /ˈhæmᵻd ˈkɑːrˌzaɪ/ served as President of Afghanistan for almost ten years, from 7 December 2004 to 29 September 2014. He comes from a politically active family; grandfather were all active in Afghan politics and government. Abdul Ahad Karzai, were each head of the Popalzai tribe of the Durrani confederation. In July 1999 Karzai's father was assassinated and Karzai succeeded his father as head of the Popalzai tribe. In October 2001 Karzai became a dominant political figure in late 2001. Karzai was then chosen during the 2002 jirga, held in Kabul, Afghanistan. After the 2004 presidential election, Karzai was declared winner and became President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. He won a second five-year term in the 2009 presidential election; this term ended in September 2014. Karzai was born on 24 December 1957 in the Karz area of Kandahar City in southern Afghanistan. He is an ethnic Pashtun of the Popalzai tribe. Abdul Ahad Karzai, served during the 1960s. Khair Mohammad Khan, had served as the Deputy Speaker of the Senate. Karzai's family were strong supporters of Zahir Shah, the last king of Afghanistan. Hamid Karzai attended Mahmood Hotaki Primary School in Kandahar and Sayed Jamaluddin Afghani School in Kabul. He graduated from Habibia High School in 1976.Hamid Karzai – Karzai speaking to journalists in Kabul after casting his vote in the 2014 Afghan presidential election
35. Democratic Republic of Afghanistan – The PDPA came through a coup known as the Saur Revolution, which ousted the government of Mohammad Daoud Khan. Daoud was succeeded on 30 April 1978. Soon after taking power the Parchamites led by Babrak Karmal. The Parcham faction was purged from the party. The most prominent Parcham leaders were exiled to the Soviet Union. After the Khalq -- struggle, a power struggle within the Khalq faction began between Taraki and Amin. Taraki was killed on his orders. His rule proved unpopular in the Soviet Union. On 27 December Amin was assassinated by Soviet military forces. Karmal became the leader of Afghanistan in his place. The Karmal era, lasting from 1979 to 1986, is best known for the Soviet effort in Afghanistan. The war resulted in large numbers of civilian casualties, well as millions of refugees who fled into Pakistan and Iran. In 1986 he was succeeded as PDPA General Secretary by Mohammad Najibullah. Najibullah pursued a policy of National Reconciliation with the opposition, democratic elections were held in 1988. After the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, the government faced increasing resistance.Democratic Republic of Afghanistan – Amin ruled Afghanistan for 104 days
36. Persian language – Some other regions which historically were Persianate societies. Its grammar is similar to that of many contemporary European languages. Persian gets its name from its origin at the capital of the Achaemenid Empire, Persis, modern-day Fars Province, hence the name Persian. A Persian-speaking person may be referred to as Persophone. There are approximately million Persian speakers worldwide, with the language holding official status in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan. It also exerted some influence on Arabic, particularly Bahrani Arabic, while borrowing much vocabulary from it after the Muslim conquest of Persia. Persian is one of the Iranian languages within the Indo-European family. Other Iranian languages are the Kurdish languages, Gilaki, Mazanderani, Talysh, Balochi. Persian is classified within Western Iranian along with Lari, Kumzari, Luri. Tajiki is the variety of Persian spoken by the Tajiks. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term Persian as a name is first attested in English in the mid-16th century. Native Persian speakers call it Fārsi. Farsi is the Arabicized form of Pārsi, subsequent to Muslim conquest of Persia, due to a lack of the phoneme /p/ in Standard Arabic. The place of origin of the language, Fars Province is the Arabicized form of Pārs. In English, this language has historically been known as "Persian", though "Farsi" has also gained some currency.Persian language – Old Persian
37. Socialist state – A socialist state or socialist republic refers to any state, constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism. Aside from the "Communist states", a number of other states have described their orientation as "socialist" in their constitutions. In such cases, the political machinery of government is not specifically structured to pursue the development of socialism. Specifically, the state would become a coordinating entity for production as opposed to a mechanism for political control. According to Friedrich Engels, Saint-Simon foreshadowed the Marxist notion of the development of the state in a socialist society. Karl Marx understood the state to be an instrument of the rule, dominated by the interests of the ruling class in any mode of production. This transitional stage would involve working-class interests dominating policy, in the same manner that capitalist-class interests dominate government policy under capitalism. Friedrich Engels noted that "all officials, high or low, were paid only the wages received by other workers... In this way an effective barrier to place-hunting and careerism was set up". Such a state would be a temporary affair, Engels argued. The Leninist conception of a socialist state is tied to organizational principles of democratic centralism. As he put succinctly: "So as the state exists there is no freedom. When there is freedom, there will be no state." States run by Communist parties that adhere to Marxism -- Leninism, or some variation thereof, refer as socialist states. The Soviet Union was the first to proclaim a "socialist state" in its 1936 Constitution and a subsequent 1977 Constitution.Socialist state – Symbolics on the banknotes of socialist states (V.I. Lenin in the Soviet note and "a worker with a female co-operative farmer" on the Czechoslovak one).
38. Communist state – The term "Communist state" is used by Western historians, media to refer to these countries. Communist states can be administered by a centralised party apparatus, although countries such as the DPRK have several parties. These parties usually are Marxism -- some variation thereof, with the official aim of achieving socialism and progressing toward communism. Soviet socialists responded to these criticisms by highlighting the ideological differences in the concept of "freedom". McFarland and Ageyev noted that "Marxist-Leninist norms disparaged laissez-faire individualism, also wide variations in personal wealth as the West has not. Instead, Soviet ideals emphasized equality -- free education and medical care, so forth." The economic development policies of Communist states have been criticised for focusing primarily on the development of heavy industry. The state ruled by the working class into classless society is called the "dictatorship of the proletariat". Vladimir Lenin created revolutionary theory in an attempt to expand on the concept. During the 20th century, the world's first constitutionally socialist state was in Russia in 1917. In 1922, it joined former territories of the empire to become the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. After World War II, the Soviet Army thus helped establish Communist states in these countries. Most Communist states in Eastern Europe were allied except for Yugoslavia which declared itself non-aligned. After a war against Japanese occupation and a civil war resulting in a Communist victory, the People's Republic of China was established. Communist states were also established in Cuba, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia.Communist state – Map of countries that declared themselves to be socialist states under the Marxist–Leninist or Maoist definition—that is to say, "Communist states"—between 1979 and 1983. This period marked the greatest territorial extent of Communist states.
39. Middle East – The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia and Egypt. The derived noun is Middle-Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the 20th century. The history of the Middle East dates back with the importance of the region being recognized for millennia. The term "Middle East" may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office. However, it became more widely known when naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902 to "designate the area between Arabia and India". During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying in Central Asia, a rivalry which would become known as The Great Game. Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but also of the Persian Gulf. Mahan first used the term in his article "The Persian Gulf and International Relations", published in the National Review, a British journal. The British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden, the Persian Gulf. Mahan's article was followed in October by a 20-article series entitled "The Middle Eastern Question," written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. After the series ended in 1903, The Times removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term. In the late 1930s, the British established the Middle East Command, based in Cairo, for its military forces in the region. The Middle has also led to some confusion over changing definitions. The first official use by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, which pertained to the Suez Crisis.Middle East – The Temple Mount in Jerusalem
40. People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan – The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan was a socialist party established on 1 January 1965. Daoud would eventually become a strong opponent of firing PDPA politicians from high-ranking jobs in the government. This would lead with the Soviet Union. In 1978 the PDPA, with help from the Afghan National Army, seized power in what is known as the Saur Revolution. Qadir was eventually replaced by Nur Muhammad Taraki. After the Saur Revolution, the PDPA established the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan which would last until 1987. After National Reconciliation talks in 1987 the official name of the country was reverted to Republic of Afghanistan. The republic lasted under the leadership of Najibullah and acting president for the last twelve days, Abdul Rahim Hatef. Nur Mohammad Taraki started his political career as an Afghan journalist. Taraki was later invited by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's International Department later that year. The PDPA was known as having strong ties with the Soviet Union. These new divisions started because of economic reasons. Most of Khalqs supporters came from the rural areas in the country. The Parchams supporters mostly came from urban citizens who supported social-economic reforms in the country. Karmal sought, unsuccessfully, to persuade the PDPA Central Committee to censure Taraki's extreme radicalism.People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan – Outside the gate of Afghan Defense Ministry in Kabul, the day after Saur revolution on April 28, 1978.
41. Nur Muhammad Taraki – Nur Muhammad Taraki was an Afghan politician and statesman during the Cold War. Taraki was born near Kabul and educated at Kabul University, after which he started his political career as a journalist. He ran as a candidate in the 1965 Afghan parliamentary election but failed to secure himself a seat. In 1966 he published the first issue of Khalq, a party newspaper, but it was closed down shortly afterwards by the Afghan Government. The presidency of Taraki, albeit short-lived, was always marked by controversies. Despite repeated attempts throughout his reign, Taraki proved unable to persuade the Soviet Union to intervene in support of the restoration of civil order. At the beginning of his rule, the government was divided between two PDPA factions: the Khalqists, the majority, the Parchamites, the minority. His reign was marked by a cult of personality centered on himself, cultivated by Amin. His relationship with Amin turned sour during his rule, ultimately resulting in Taraki's murder on 14 September 1979, upon Amin's orders. Taraki was born on 15 July 1917 to a Ghilzai Pashtun peasant family in Nawa District of Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. There he met a Kandahari merchant family who employed him as a clerk for the Pashtun Trading Company. In 1937 Taraki started working for Abdul Majid Zabuli, the Minister of Economics, who introduced him to several Russians. Later Taraki became Deputy Head of the Bakhtrar News Agency and became known throughout the country as an author and poet. His best known book, the De Bang Mosaferi, highlights the socio-economic difficulties facing Afghan workers and peasants. His works were translated into Russian language in the Soviet Union, where his work was viewed as embodying scientific socialist themes.Nur Muhammad Taraki – Nur Muhammad Taraki نور محمد ترکۍ
42. Saur Revolution – The government at the time was led by Daoud, who had previously overthrown his cousin King Mohammed Zahir in 1973. ` Saur' is the Dari name of the second month of the month in which the uprising took place. The revolution led to the 1979 intervention by the Soviets and the 1979–1989 Soviet–Afghan War against the Mujahideen. The declaration of the Afghan Republic was the precursor to the Saur d'état. President Daoud was convinced that military support from the Soviet Union would allow him to settle the border issues with Pakistan. King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan had ruled since 1933. Mohammed Daoud Khan, who had served as Afghan Prime Minister from 1953 to 1963, was not a supporter of the King. In the 1970s, Daoud plotted to overthrow his cousin. This resulted in the overthrow of the abolition of the monarchy. Daoud declared himself the first president of Afghanistan. Zahir Shah lived in exile in Italy. Under the government of Daoud, factionalism and rivalry developed in the ruling PDPA, with two main factions being, Parcham and Khalqi. In 1978 Mir Akbar Khyber, was murdered. PDPA leaders apparently feared that Daoud was planning to eliminate them. Hafizullah Amin, however, was put under arrest.Saur Revolution – Outside the presidential palace gate (Arg) in Kabul, the day after the Saur revolution on 28 April 1978
43. Soviet Union – A union of multiple subnational Soviet republics, economy were highly centralized. The Soviet Union was a one-party federation, governed by the Communist Party as its capital. They established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, beginning a civil war between the counter-revolutionary "Whites." In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian, Byelorussian republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin initiated a centrally planned command economy. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, after which the two countries invaded Poland in September 1939. In June 1941 the Germans invaded, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945. The territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of economic liberalization, known as "de-Stalinization" and "Khrushchev's Thaw", occurred under the leadership of Nikita Khrushchev. The country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took an early lead with the first ever satellite and the first human spaceflight. The war was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters.Soviet Union – Vladimir Lenin addressing a crowd with Trotsky, 1920
44. Afghan National Army – The Afghan National Army is the main branch of the Afghan Armed Forces, responsible for ground warfare. It is being heavily assisted by the United States and NATO. The current Chief of Staff of the Afghan National Army is Lieutenant General Qadam Shah Shahim. Afghanistan's army traces its roots to the early 18th-century when the Hotaki dynasty was established in Kandahar followed to power. It was reorganized during Emir Abdur Rahman Khan's reign. Afghanistan remained neutral during the First and Second World Wars. From the 1960s to the early 1990s, the Afghan army was equipped by the Soviet Union. After the collapse of Mohammad Najibullah's regime in 1992, the army fragmented into militias under regional warlords. This was followed in the mid-1990s. To dissolve illegal armed groups, the Karzai administration began offering cash and vocational training to encourage members to join the army. The majority of training of the ANA is to be undertaken in the newly established Afghan National Security University. As of July 2013, the entire country of Afghanistan is under Afghan control with ISAF supporting role. Historically, Afghans have served in the army of the Ghaznavids, Ghurids, the Mughals. One of the famous battles was the 1761 Battle of Panipat in which the Afghan army decisively defeated the Hindu Maratha Empire. The Afghans then fought with the Sikh Empire, until Sikh conquests stopped.Afghan National Army – Soldiers of the Afghan National Army, including Commandos standing in the front
45. Abdul Rashid Dostum – Abdul Rashid Dostum is an Afghan politician who has served as Vice President of Afghanistan since 2014. He also served in the past as Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff of the Afghan National Army, a role often viewed as ceremonial. During the Soviet war in Afghanistan, Dostum was a general in the Afghan army. He later became an independent warlord and leader of Afghanistan's Uzbek community. Dostum participated in the 1980s well as against the Taliban in the 1990s. After the fall of the Taliban, he mainly resided in Turkey before returning to the country. In 2013 he made a public apology for his role in the civil war. Dostum subsequently later joined Ashraf Ghani's presidential administration as a president. He was born in Jowzjan Province, Afghanistan. Coming from an impoverished family, he received a very basic traditional education as he was forced to drop out of school at a young age. From there, he took up work in the gas fields. The reason for this was to create "groups for the defense of the revolution". Because of the communist ideas entering Afghanistan in the 1970s, Dostum enlisted in 1978. Dostum received his basic military training in Jalalabad. His squadron was deployed under the auspices of the Ministry of National Security.Abdul Rashid Dostum – Abdul Rashid Dostum in 2014
46. Kabul – Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan as well as its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country. According to a 2015 estimate, the population of the city was around 3,678,034 which includes all the ethnic groups. Rapid urbanization had made the fifth fastest-growing city in the world. It has been ruled by the Achaemenids, Seleucids, Mauryans, Kushans, Kabul Shahis, Saffarids, Ghurids. Later it was controlled until finally becoming part of the Durrani Empire with help from the Afsharid dynasty. During the Soviet war in Afghanistan the city was relatively safe. Kabul, also spelled Cabul. The Rigveda praises it as a vision of paradise set in the mountains. The area in which the Kabul valley sits was ruled before falling to the Achaemenids. The region was later given to the Indian Maurya Empire. Indo-Scythians lost the city to the Kushan Empire about 100 years later. Some historians ascribe the Sanskrit name of Kamboja. It is mentioned in some classical writings. It remained Kushan territory until at least the 3rd century AD. The Kushans were Indo-European-speaking Tocharians from the Tarim Basin.Kabul
47. US troops – The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Coast Guard. From the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. So, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force. It played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a large standing army become officially established. The U.S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. As of 2016, the United States spends about $ billion annually to fund its military forces and Overseas Contingency Operations. Put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the world's military expenditures. The United States was also the world's eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U.S. military dates to 1775, even before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States. These forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Marines, respectively. The United States President is the U.S. military's commander-in-chief.US troops – The U.S. Joint Service Color Guard on parade at Fort Myer, Virginia in October 2001.
48. Politics of Afghanistan – The nation is currently led by President Ashraf Ghani, backed by two vice presidents, Sarwar Danish. In 2004, an executive president was elected. A general election to choose parliamentarians took place. Hamid Karzai was declared the first democratically elected head of state in Afghanistan in 2004, winning a second five-year term in 2009. The National Assembly is Afghanistan's national legislature. It is a bicameral body, composed of the House of Elders. The first legislature was elected in 2010. Members of the Supreme Court were appointed by the president to form the judiciary. Together, this new system is to provide a new set of balances, unheard of in the country. Operation in Afghanistan historically has consisted of power struggles, coups and unstable transfers of power. The country has been governed by various systems including a monarchy, republic, theocracy, dictatorship, a pro-communist state. 1709 - Mirwais Hotak establishes the Hotaki dynasty at Kandahar and declares Afghanistan an independent state. 1747 - Ahmad Shah Durrani establishes the Durrani Empire and adds to it new territories. 1838 - British India invades the land during the First Anglo-Afghan War and begins to influence the politics of Afghanistan. 1919 - King Amanullah Khan takes the throne after the Third Anglo-Afghan War, British influence ends.Politics of Afghanistan – History of Afghanistan
49. Suicide bomber – A suicide attack is a violent attack in which the attacker expects to die in the process. They constituted only 4% of all terrorist attacks around the world over one period, but caused 32% of all terrorism-related deaths. Ninety per cent of those attacks occurred in Afghanistan, Iraq, Israel, Sri Lanka. Overall, as of mid-2015 about three-quarters of all suicide attacks occurred in just three countries: Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq. The motivation of suicide attackers varies. Kamikaze were motivated by nationalism. Before 2003, most attacks targeted forces occupying the attackers' homeland, according to analyst Robert Pape. Anthropologist Scott Atran states that since 2004 the overwhelming majority of bombers have been motivated by the ideology of Islamist martyrdom. The definition of "suicide" is another issue. It may not always be clear to investigators which type of killing is which. Less than two years later that newspaper referred as a "bombing." Sometimes, to assign either a more negative connotation to the act, bombing is referred to by different terms. The attacker shahid. The idea being that the attacker died in order to testify his faith for while waging jihad bis saif. The term "suicide" is never used because Islam has strong strictures against taking one's own life.Suicide bomber – USS Bunker Hill (CV-17), after Kamikaze attack by Kiyoshi Ogawa on May 1945
50. Indo-Afghan relations – Bilateral relations between the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the Republic of India have traditionally been strong and friendly. India became the largest regional provider of humanitarian and reconstruction aid to Afghanistan. Indians are working as part of India's rebuilding efforts in Afghanistan. It was the highest rating of India by another country in Asia. According to the survey, Afghan adults are more likely to approve than Chinese or U.S. leadership. Relations between the people of Afghanistan and India traces to the Indus Valley Civilisation. Following the Great's brief occupation, the successor state of the Seleucid Empire controlled the region known today as Afghanistan. In 305 BCE, they ceded much of it as part of an alliance treaty. The Mauryans controlled the area south of the Hindu Kush. Their decline began 60 years after Ashoka's rule ended, leading by the Greco-Bactrians. Much of it soon became part of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. The Indo-Greeks had been expelled by the Indo-Scythians in the late 2nd century BCE. Much of Afghanistan has been influenced by Buddhist, Hindu and Zoroastrian cultures in the 7th century. But despite many Afghans accepting the message of Islam, the Muslims and Hindus lived side by side. "Kábul has a castle celebrated for its strength, accessible only by one road.Indo-Afghan relations – Afghan President Ashraf Ghani with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi. November 2014.
51. British Prime Minister – The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. The office is one of the Great Offices of State. The current prime minister, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016. The office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective. The political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of modern political parties, the introduction of mass communication, photography. Prior to 1902, the prime minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons. However as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the Prime Minister should always sit in the lower house. The Prime Minister is ex officio also First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. Certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury. As the "Head of Her Majesty's Government" the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition the Prime Minister leads a major political party and generally commands a majority in the House of Commons. As such the incumbent wields both legislative and executive powers. Under the British system there is a unity of powers rather than separation. In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister guides the law-making process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party. The Prime Minister also acts as the public "face" and "voice" of Her Majesty's Government, both at home and abroad.British Prime Minister – Incumbent David Cameron since 11 May 2010
52. British Airways – British Airways, often shortened to BA, is the flag carrier and the largest airline in the United Kingdom based on fleet size. When measured by passengers carried, it is second-largest in the United Kingdom behind easyJet. The airline is based at London Heathrow Airport. On 31 all four companies were merged to form British Airways. After almost 13 years as a company, British Airways was privatised in February 1987 as part of a wider privatisation plan by the Conservative government. The carrier soon expanded with the acquisition of British Caledonian followed by Dan-Air in 1992 and British Midland International in 2012. British Airways is a founding member of the Oneworld alliance, along with American Airlines, Cathay Pacific, Qantas, the now defunct Canadian Airlines. The alliance has since grown to become the third-largest, after SkyTeam and Star Alliance. IAG is listed in the FTSE 100 Index. British Airways ordered 59 Airbus A320 family aircraft in August 1998. In 2007 it purchased 12 Airbus A380s and 24 Boeing 787 Dreamliners, marking the start of its long-haul replacement. The centrepiece of the airline's long-haul fleet is the Boeing 777, with 58 in the fleet. British Airways is the largest operator of the Boeing 747-400 in the world, with 51 registered to the airline. On 1 the management service functions of both BOAC and BEA were combined under the newly formed British Airways Group. British Airways was established as an airline on 31 March 1974 by the dissolution of BOAC and BEA.British Airways – A Boeing 747-100 in BOAC-British Airways transition livery
53. Districts of Afghanistan – This is a list of districts of Afghanistan, known as wuleswali, which are one level below the provinces. The number of districts has fluctuated with new districts created by splitting or merging parts of others. Prior to 1979, there were 325 districts but a major reorganization in 2004 led to the number increasing to 397. As of June 2005, the Afghan Ministry of the Interior recognised 398 districts, divided between the 34 provinces. This number is expected to change with administrative reorganization. Qalat Shah Joy Shamulzayi Shinkay Tarnak Wa Jaldak List of districts in Afghanistan Afghanistan Information Management Service accessed 2006-07-27. AIMS District Matching, accessed 2009-01-01.Districts of Afghanistan – Districts of Afghanistan.
54. Civil War in Afghanistan (1992-1996) – The 1992 to 1996 phase of the conflict in Afghanistan began after the resignation of the communist President Mohammad Najibullah. Hekmatyar started a campaign against the capital city Kabul which marked the beginning of this new phase in the war. The Peshawar Accord appointed an interim government for a transitional period to be followed by general elections. All Afghan parties agreed except for Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. Although offered the position of prime minister, Hekmatyar wanted to become the sole ruler of Afghanistan. Tomsen reported that the protest by the other mujahideen commanders was like a "firestorm". Abdul Haq was reportedly so angry about the ISI plan that he was "red in the face". Another commander, pointed out that "Kabul's 2 million could not escape Hekmatyar's rocket bombardment -- there would be a massacre." Massoud's, Amin Wardak's representatives said that "Hekmatyar's rocketing of Kabul... would produce a civilian bloodbath." The United States finally put pressure on Pakistan to stop the 1990 plan, subsequently called off until 1992. ... ... Islamabad could not possibly expect the Islamic government leaders... to subordinate their own nationalist objectives in order to help Pakistan realize its regional ambitions. ... ... Saikal also stated: "Yet Hekmatyar's failure to achieve what was expected of him prompted the ISI leaders to come up with a surrogate force." Pakistan was not the only regional power interfering in Afghanistan.Civil War in Afghanistan (1992-1996) – Much of the civil infrastructure was ruined in Kabul due to the war.
55. Ahmad Shah Massoud – Ahmad Shah Massoud was an Afghan political and military leader. Massoud was assassinated on September 9, 2001. Massoud came from an ethnic Tajik, Sunni Muslim background in the Panjshir valley of northern Afghanistan. He was part of a Pakistan-backed failed rebellion against Mohammed Daoud Khan's government. After the Soviet occupation of 1979, his role as an insurgent leader earned him the nickname of "Lion of Panjshir" among his followers. He became the military and political leader of the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan. Massoud was posthumously named "National Hero" by the order of President Hamid Karzai after the Taliban were ousted from power. The date of Massoud’s death, September 9, is observed as a national holiday known as "Massoud Day". His followers call him Amir Sāhib-e Shahīd. Ahmad Shah Massoud was born in 1953 in Bazarak, Panjshir, to a well-to-do family native to the Panjshir valley. His name at birth was "Ahmed Shah"; he took the name "Massoud" as a nom de guerre when he went into the resistance movement in 1974. His father, Dost Mohammad Khan, was a colonel in the Royal Afghan Army. From his native Panjshir, his family moved briefly to Herat and then to Kabul, where Massoud spent most of his childhood. Massoud attended the renowned Franco-Afghan Lycée Esteqlal. Regarded as a gifted student, he studied engineering at Kabul University after his graduation from the Lycée.Ahmad Shah Massoud – Ahmad Shah Massoud
56. Mullah Omar – Mullah Mohammed Omar, or simply Mullah Omar, was an Afghan mujahideen commander who founded the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan in 1996. The Taliban recognized him as Commander of the Faithful or the Supreme Leader of the Muslims until being succeeded by Mullah Akhtar Mansour in 2015. Mullah Omar was also "Head of the Supreme Council of Afghanistan". He was believed to be directing the Taliban insurgency against NATO-led forces and the government of Afghanistan. In July 2015, the Afghan government reported that Omar had died in 2013 in the Pakistani city of Karachi. These reports were confirmed by Afghanistan's National Directorate of Security and the Taliban's Quetta Shura. According to most sources, Omar was born sometime in a village in Kingdom of Afghanistan. Some suggest his birth year as 1950 or 1953, or as around 1966. According to a "biography" published in April 2015, he was born in 1960. His exact place of birth is also uncertain; one possibility is a village called Nodeh near the city of Kandahar. Matinuddin writes that he was born in Panjwai District, Kandahar Province. Others say Omar was born in a village of the same name in Uruzgan Province. In Omar's entry in the UNSC's Taliban Sanctions List, "Uruzgan Province" is given as a possible birthplace. Other reports say Omar was born in 1960 in Noori village near Kandahar. ` village, Kandahar Province' is a second location suggested in Omar's entry in the Sanctions List.Mullah Omar – A still from a 1996 video taken secretly by BBC Newsnight. It purports to show Omar (left) presenting the cloak of Muhammad to his troops in Kandahar, before their victorious assault on Kabul.
57. Laura Bush – She took a job as a second grade teacher. After attaining her master's degree in library science at Austin, Bush was employed as a librarian. They were married later that year. The couple had twin daughters in 1981. Bush's political involvement began during her marriage. Bush campaigned during his unsuccessful 1978 run for the United States Congress, later for his successful Texas gubernatorial campaign. As First Lady of Texas, she implemented many initiatives focused on health, literacy. She became First Lady after her husband defeated Democrat Al Gore in the 2000 U.S. Presidential Election. Polled as one of the most popular First Ladies, she was involved in national and global concerns during her tenure. Bush also advanced women's causes for the Cure organizations. Bush represented the United States during her foreign trips, which tended to focus on HIV/AIDS and awareness. Laura Lane Welch was born in Midland, Texas, the only child of Harold Welch and Jenna Louise Hawkins Welch. She is of English, Swiss ancestry. Her father was a builder and later successful real estate developer, while her mother worked as the bookkeeper for her father's business.Laura Bush – Laura Bush
58. Camp David – Camp David is the country retreat of the President of the United States. It is located in Catoctin Mountain Park near Thurmont, Maryland. First known as Hi-Catoctin, Camp David was built by the WPA. Construction was completed in 1938. In 1942, Franklin D. Roosevelt renamed it "Shangri-La". Camp David received its present name in honor of his father and grandson, both named David. Catoctin Mountain Park does not indicate the location of Camp David on park maps due to security concerns. Every president since Franklin D. Roosevelt has made use of the retreat now named Camp David. Roosevelt hosted Sir Winston Churchill in May 1943. Lyndon B. Johnson hosted both Australian Prime Minister Harold Holt and Canadian Prime minister Lester B. Pearson there. Richard Nixon did much to add to and modernize the facilities. Gerald Ford often hosted Indonesian President Suharto there. Jimmy Carter brokered the Camp David Accords between Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin. Ronald Reagan visited the retreat more than any other president. In 1984, Reagan hosted British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.Camp David – Main Lodge at Camp David during the Nixon administration, February 9, 1971
59. Maryland – Its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State. The state is named after Henrietta Maria of the wife of Charles I of England. George Calvert was the first English proprietor of the then-Maryland colonial grant. Maryland is one of the smallest states in terms of area, well as one of the most densely populated, with around six million residents. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium. It is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smallest state. Its neighbor West Virginia, is almost twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature. This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia. . The counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Close to the small town of Hancock, in about two-thirds of the way across the state, there are 1.83 miles between its borders. This geographical curiosity makes Maryland the narrowest state, bordered by the Mason -- the northwards-arching Potomac River to the south. Portions of Maryland are included in unofficial geographic regions.Maryland – Western Maryland: known for its heavily forested mountains. A panoramic view of Deep Creek Lake and the surrounding Appalachian Mountains in Garrett County.
60. Helmand and Arghandab Valley Authority – The HAVA is overseen by the Afghan Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock. The area of agricultural land under irrigation more than halved between 1979 and 2002 to around 1,500,000 hectares, although this has since been increased. It resulted, in the words of historian Arnold J. Toynbee in a piece of America inserted into the Afgan Landscape... The new world they are conjuring up out of the desert at the Helmand River's expense is to be an America-in-Asia. As of March 2012 its director is Haji Khan Agha. The development of the Helmand Valley was initiated by the Government of Afghanistan in 1946. It resulted in one of the world's major desert irrigation schemes, with water supplied through the Boghra, Shamalan, Darweshan canals. The German Government had also provided assistance. While the development of the Helmand valley resulted in considerable gains in agricultural production and raised average farm incomes tenfold, there have also been problems. By 1975 poor drainage had led to waterlogging and salination, seriously damaging the soil in some places. Work to mitigate this was interrupted by the Soviet invasion. The city had been without fresh water for the previous 30 years due to the contamination of the Helmand River. Opium production in Afghanistan Desert greening Wolf, James; English, Richard; Haack, Barry. "Rehabilitation Assessment of the Helmand-Arghandab Valley Irrigation Scheme in Afghanistan". Water International.Helmand and Arghandab Valley Authority – The Kajakai Dam on the Helmand River, one of the major dams controlled by the HAVA
61. Tennessee Valley Authority – The enterprise was a result of the efforts of Senator George W. Norris of Nebraska. T.V.A.'s area covers most of Tennessee, small slices of Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia. It was the first large regional planning agency of the federal government and remains the largest. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed the Tennessee Valley Authority Act, creating the TVA. During the 1920s and the Great Depression years, Americans began to support the idea of public ownership of utilities, particularly hydroelectric power facilities. The concept of government-owned generation facilities selling to publicly owned distribution utilities was controversial and remains so today. By forming utility holding companies, the private sector controlled 94 percent of generation by 1921, essentially unregulated. . Many private companies in the Tennessee Valley were bought by the federal government. Others shut down, unable to compete with the T.V.A. Government regulations were also passed to prevent competition with T.V.A. T.V.A. was one of the first federal hydropower agencies, today most of the nation's major hydropower systems are federally managed. Other attempts to create T.V.A.-like regional agencies have failed, such as a proposed Columbia Valley Authority for the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest. Regional power consumers may benefit from lower-cost electricity supplied from T.V.A.'s network of 29 power-producing hydropower facilities. Supporters of TVA, though, note that the agency's management of the Tennessee River system without federal funding saves millions of dollars annually.Tennessee Valley Authority – TVA Towers, TVA's headquarters in downtown Knoxville, overlooking the Tennessee River
62. List of non-marine molluscs of Afghanistan – The non-marine molluscs of Afghanistan are a part of the wildlife of Afghanistan. Afghanistan has no marine molluscs, only land and freshwater species, including snails, slugs, freshwater bivalves. The molluscan fauna of the country contains over 70 molluscan taxa. The earliest reports on Afghanistan molluscs consists of scattered descriptions of materials gathered on military expeditions. Only the reports of Thomas Hutton, who recorded César Marie Félix Ancey, who listed 27 taxa, are at all comprehensive. Jaeckel concluded that there were 37 species known from Afghanistan. Ilya Mikhailovich Likharev & Yaroslav Igorevich Starobogatov had extensive materials taken from 127 collecting stations between 1957 and 1962. Their report covered 53 species represented with an additional 14 names carried over from earlier reports, but not verified from their collecting. Alan Solem have reported 10 new taxa that were previously not known in 1979. Up to 1979, 73 taxa of molluscs have been recorded from Afghanistan. It is obvious that knowledge of the Afghanistan molluscan fauna is in a very preliminary stage. The probability of additional taxa existing is very high, particularly among the Helicoidea and Enidae. In the 2000s the molluscan fauna is still incompletely known. One broken specimen was found to be introduced in Afghanistan. There are no other species of molluscs listed in the 2010 IUCN Red List for Afghanistan.List of non-marine molluscs of Afghanistan – Corbicula fluminalis
63. Pomegranate production in Afghanistan – Pomegranate production in Afghanistan is a significant contributor to the Afghan agricultural economy. Some leading botanists believe that Afghanistan is the cradle of world production. Afghanistan has more varieties of pomegranate trees than else in the world. Since the end of the war, there has been a re-emergence in the industry in Afghanistan. In 2009, the nation exported some 50,000 tons of the fruit. Gradually the international market for Afghan pomegranates is increasing from overseas. Carrefour has also placed a demand for Afghan pomegranates in countries in the Middle East. This company is the source of the livelihoods of some 50,000 Afghan farmers. Pomegranates protect cells from damage by compounds called free radicals. They are also reported to protect against certain types of lower blood pressure. Afghan pomegranates in comparison to the same fruit from other places are said to be larger, redder. "These are the best pomegranates you'll ever see in your life, they are the biggest, they taste great." They are increasingly becoming consumed as a health food and for its juicy, sweet taste. USAID has also described pomegranates grown in the northern Khulm River basin in the north of the country to be "the finest in Afghanistan". The Chief Executive of Pomegreat has described the Afghan pomegranate as "the best in the world" and Afghanistan as their "spiritual home".Pomegranate production in Afghanistan – Pomegranates processing in Afghanistan
64. Samangan – The ruins found here establish the city's founding by the King of Bactria. It was then known as the size of the present Khulm city. Historicity of the town is dated during the 4th and 5th centuries when it was a famous Buddhist centre. Arabs and Mongols came to this place when it was already famous as a Buddhist religious centre. Takt-e Rostam is a historical place where ruins of Buddhist religious culture could be seen. The Buddhist stupa here in the form of a mound, located on the hilltop, represents the earliest link to the evolution of Buddhist architecture. Aibak was the name given to this place when during the medieval period, caravans used to stop here. At this location, caves were inhabited by Buddhists. The Buddhist stupa here is in the form of a mound. It represents the earliest link to the evolution of Buddhist architecture in Afghanistan. Another site is the Hazar Sumuch District, about 10 km away from the town. Takht-i Rustam Takht-i Rustam, literal meaning the throne of Rustam, named after a king in Persian mythology, is a hilltop settlement. It is dated to the 5th centuries of the Kushano-Sassanian period, corroborated by archaeological, architectural and numismatic evidence. It is located 3 km to the southwest of Samangan town. It is the location of a stupa-monastery complex, fully carved into the rock.Samangan – Rostam mourns for his son Sohrab whom he has killed in the battlefield
65. Samangan Province – Samangan is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located north of the Hindu Kush mountains in the central part of the country. The majority of the population here is Uzbek, but there also significant numbers of Pashto and Persian speakers in the province. Province is divided into 7 districts and contains 674 villages. It mostly a rural society. The city of Samangan serves as the provincial capital. The ruins found here established the city's founding by the King of Bactria. It was then known as Edrisi the size of the Khulm city. Historicity of the Samangan town dates during the 4th and 5th centuries when it was a famous Buddhist centre. Arabs and Mongols came to this place when it was already famous as a Buddhist religious centre. Aibak was the name given to this place when, during the medieval period, caravans used to stop here. Afghanistan has archaeological sites where caves were hewn out of rocks and inhabited by Buddhists. "One of the most spectacular sites is that of Takth i Raustam, near Samangan, north of Hindu Kush passes. It includes a complex with monastery hewn out of the rock. Other caves have been found at the site of Humay Qal' a southwest of Ghazni. The Samanids controlled it until the Ghaznavids rose to power in the 10th century, they were replaced by the Ghorids.Samangan Province – Samangan Province
66. Khulm River – The Khulm River is a river of northern-central Afghanistan. In its upper course, it passes through Khulm and Haybak, today in Balkh Province. The Khulm is a tributary to the Oxus basin. Its source is located to the north of the city of Khulm. Further downstream, it passes through the city of Samangan and Samangan Province. The Khulm River forms the western border of Kunduz Province. The mountains are characterized as rocky aridity as they extend to Khulm River. On occasion, the landscape turns into trenched valleys engulfed with vegetation. The river rocks are composed of limestone. The Khulm River is one of the tributaries of a major river in Central Asia. The Khulm River then emerges into a wide valley near the Tashkurgan town. The river raising at an elevation of m has a total length of about 230 km. It drains a catchment area of 8,400 km ² with the annual runoff estimates varying from 58.2 to million m3 by different assessors. The road between Kabul and Mazar-e-Sharif follows the course of the river. At the junction of the Bamian and Badakhshan routes, the Khulm River emerges by the town of Kholm.Khulm River – Pistachio farmers near the banks of the Khulm
67. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. The movement has since expanded to many other projects, including the Wikipedia community with around 70,000 volunteers. Volunteers for other Wikimedia projects such as Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons, volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online Wikipedia. It consists of Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include: The Wikimedia Foundation is an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It operates most of the movement's websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in geographical regions, mostly countries. There are 41 chapters. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a total budget of $ million. WMDE allocates approximately $ million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, $4 million for transfer to the WMF. To have the same procedure, every chapter follows requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. A total of Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations.Wikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014