1. History of ancient Egypt – The history of ancient Egypt spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile valley to the Roman conquest, in 30 BC. The Pharaonic Period is dated from the 32nd century BC, when Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, until the country fell under Macedonian rule, note For alternative revisions to the chronology of Egypt, see Egyptian chronology. Egypts history is split into different periods according to the ruling dynasty of each pharaoh. The dating of events is still a subject of research, the conservative dates are not supported by any reliable absolute date for a span of about three millennia. The following is the list according to conventional Egyptian chronology, traces of these early people appear in the form of artifacts and rock carvings along the terraces of the Nile and in the oases. To the Egyptians the Nile meant life and the desert meant death, evidence also indicates human habitation and cattle herding in the southwestern corner of Egypt near the Sudan border before the 8th millennium BC. Despite this, the idea of an independent bovine domestication event in Africa must be abandoned because subsequent evidence gathered over a period of thirty years has failed to corroborate this, the oldest-known domesticated cattle remains in Africa are from the Faiyum c.4400 BC. Continued desiccation forced the early ancestors of the Egyptians to settle around the Nile more permanently, however, the period from 9th to the 6th millennium BC has left very little in the way of archaeological evidence. The Nile valley of Egypt was basically uninhabitable until the work of clearing and irrigating the land along the banks was started, however it appears that this clearance and irrigation was largely under way by the 6th millennium. By that time, Nile society was already engaged in organized agriculture, at this time, Egyptians in the southwestern corner of Egypt were herding cattle and also constructing large buildings. Mortar was in use by the 4th millennium, the people of the valley and the Nile Delta were self-sufficient and were raising barley and emmer, an early variety of wheat, and stored it in pits lined with reed mats. They raised cattle, goats and pigs and they wove linen, prehistory continues through this time, variously held to begin with the Amratian culture. Between 5500 BC and the 31st century BC, small settlements flourished along the Nile, the Tasian culture was the next to appear, it existed in Upper Egypt starting about 4500 BC. This group is named for the burials found at Deir Tasa, the Tasian culture is notable for producing the earliest blacktop-ware, a type of red and brown pottery painted black on its top and interior. The Badari culture, named for the Badari site near Deir Tasa, followed the Tasian, however, the Badari culture continued to produce the kind of pottery called blacktop-ware, and was assigned the sequence dating numbers between 21 and 29. The Amratian culture is named after the site of el-Amreh, about 120 kilometres south of Badari, el-Amreh was the first site where this culture was found unmingled with the later Gerzeh culture. However, this period is attested at Nagada, and so is also referred to as the Naqada I culture. The Amratian period falls between S. D.30 and 39, newly excavated objects indicate that trade between Upper and Lower Egypt existed at this timeHistory of ancient Egypt – A Naqada II vase decorated with gazelles, on display at the Louvre.
2. Old Kingdom of Egypt – The term itself was coined by eighteenth-century historians and the distinction between the Old Kingdom and the Early Dynastic Period is not one which would have been recognized by Ancient Egyptians. The Old Kingdom is most commonly regarded as the period from the Third Dynasty through to the Sixth Dynasty, many Egyptologists also include the Memphite Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in the Old Kingdom as a continuation of the administration centralized at Memphis. During the Old Kingdom, the king of Egypt became a god who ruled absolutely and could demand the services. Under King Djoser, the first king of the Third Dynasty of the Old Kingdom, the capital of Egypt was moved to Memphis. A new era of building was initiated at Saqqara under his reign, King Djosers architect, Imhotep is credited with the development of building with stone and with the conception of the new architectural form—the Step Pyramid. Indeed, the Old Kingdom is perhaps best known for the number of pyramids constructed at this time as burial places for Egypts kings. For this reason, the Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as the Age of the Pyramids, the first king of the Old Kingdom was Djoser of the third dynasty, who ordered the construction of a pyramid in Memphis necropolis, Saqqara. An important person during the reign of Djoser was his vizier and it was in this era that formerly independent ancient Egyptian states became known as nomes, under the rule of the king. The former rulers were forced to assume the role of governors or otherwise work in tax collection, Egyptians in this era worshipped their king as a god, believing that he ensured the annual flooding of the Nile that was necessary for their crops. Egyptian views on the nature of time during this period held that the worked in cycles. They also perceived themselves as a specially selected people, the Old Kingdom and its royal power reached a zenith under the Fourth Dynasty, which began with Sneferu. Using more stones than any king, he built three pyramids, a now collapsed pyramid in Meidum, the Bent Pyramid at Dahshur. However, the development of the pyramid style of building was reached not at Saqqara. Sneferu was succeeded by his son, Khufu who built the Great Pyramid of Giza, after Khufus death, his sons Djedefra and Khafra may have quarrelled. The latter built the pyramid and the Sphinx in Giza. Recent reexamination of evidence has led Egyptologist Vassil Dobrev to propose that the Sphinx had been built by Djedefra as a monument to his father Khufu, alternatively, the Sphinx has been proposed to be the work of Khafra and Khufu himself. There were military expeditions into Canaan and Nubia, with Egyptian influence reaching up the Nile into what is today the Sudan, the later kings of the Fourth Dynasty were king Menkaure, who built the smallest pyramid in Giza, Shepseskaf and, perhaps, Djedefptah. The Fifth Dynasty began with Userkaf and was marked by the importance of the cult of sun god RaOld Kingdom of Egypt – The Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara.
3. Second Intermediate Period of Egypt – The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as the period when the Hyksos made their appearance in Egypt, the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt came to an end at the end of the 19th century BC with the death of Queen Sobekneferu. Apparently she had no heirs, causing the twelfth dynasty to come to an end, and, with it. Retaining the seat of the dynasty, the thirteenth dynasty ruled from Itjtawy near Memphis and Lisht. The Thirteenth Dynasty is notable for the accession of the first formally recognised Semitic-speaking king, the Fifteenth Dynasty dates approximately from 1650 to 1550 BC. Known rulers of the Fifteenth Dynasty are as follows, Salitis Sakir-Har Khyan Apophis, 1550–1540 BC The Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt was the first Hyksos dynasty, ruled from Avaris, without control of the entire land. The Hyksos preferred to stay in northern Egypt since they infiltrated from the north-east, the names and order of kings is uncertain. The Turin King list indicates that there were six Hyksos kings, the surviving traces on the X figure appears to give the figure 8 which suggests that the summation should be read as 6 kings ruling 108 years. Some scholars argue there were two Apophis kings named Apepi I and Apepi II, but this is due to the fact there are two known prenomens for this king, Awoserre and Aqenenre. However, the Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt maintains in his study of the Second Intermediate Period that these prenomens all refer to one man, Apepi and this is also supported by the fact that this king employed a third prenomen during his reign, Nebkhepeshre. Apepi likely employed several different prenomens throughout various periods of his reign and this scenario is not unprecedented, as later kings, including the famous Ramesses II and Seti II, are known to have used two different prenomens in their own reigns. The Sixteenth Dynasty ruled the Theban region in Upper Egypt for 70 years, of the two chief versions of Manethos Aegyptiaca, Dynasty XVI is described by the more reliable Africanus as shepherd kings, but by Eusebius as Theban. For this reason other scholars do not follow Ryholt and see only insufficient evidence for the interpretation of the Sixteenth Dynasty as Theban, the continuing war against Dynasty XV dominated the short-lived 16th dynasty. The armies of the 15th dynasty, winning town after town from their enemies, continually encroached on the 16th dynasty territory, eventually threatening. Famine, which had plagued Upper Egypt during the late 13th dynasty, from Ryholts reconstruction of the Turin canon,15 kings of the dynasty can now be named, five of whom appear in contemporary sources. While most likely based in Thebes itself, some may have been local rulers from other important Upper Egyptian towns, including Abydos, El Kab. By the reign of Nebiriau I, the controlled by the 16th dynasty extended at least as far north as Hu. Not listed in the Turin canon is Wepwawetemsaf, who left a stele at Abydos and was likely a local kinglet of the Abydos Dynasty, Ryholt gives the list of kings of the 16th dynasty as shown in the table belowSecond Intermediate Period of Egypt – Thebes (Luxor Temple pictured) was the capital of many of the Dynasty XVI pharaohs.
4. New Kingdom of Egypt – Radiocarbon dating places the exact beginning of the New Kingdom between 1570–1544 BC. The New Kingdom followed the Second Intermediate Period and was succeeded by the Third Intermediate Period and it was Egypt’s most prosperous time and marked the peak of its power. The later part of period, under the Nineteenth and Twentieth Dynasties is also known as the Ramesside period. It is named after the pharaohs that took the name of Ramesses I. Egyptian armies fought Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria, the Eighteenth Dynasty contained some of Egypts most famous Pharaohs, including Ahmose I, Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Amenhotep III, Akhenaten and Tutankhamun. Queen Hatshepsut concentrated on expanding Egypts external trade by sending an expedition to the land of Punt. Thutmose III expanded Egypts army and wielded it with success to consolidate the empire created by his predecessors. This resulted in a peak in Egypts power and wealth during the reign of Amenhotep III, during the reign of Thutmose III, Pharaoh, originally referring to the kings palace, became a form of address for the person who was king. Akhenatens religious fervor is cited as the reason why he was written out of Egyptian history. Under his reign, in the 14th century BC, Egyptian art flourished and attained a level of realism. Towards the end of the 18th Dynasty, the situation had changed radically, Ramesses II sought to recover territories in the Levant that had been held by the 18th Dynasty. His campaigns of reconquest culminated in the Battle of Kadesh, where he led Egyptian armies against those of the Hittite king Muwatalli II. Ramesses was caught in historys first recorded military ambush, although he was able to rally his troops, the outcome of the battle was undecided with both sides claiming victory at their home front, ultimately resulting in a peace treaty between the two nations. The last great pharaoh from the New Kingdom is widely considered to be Ramesses III, in the eighth year of his reign the Sea Peoples invaded Egypt by land and sea. Ramesses III defeated them in two great land and sea battles and he incorporated them as subject peoples and settled them in Southern Canaan although there is evidence that they forced their way into Canaan. Their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the formation of new states, such as Philistia and he was also compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two major campaigns in Egypts Western Delta in his sixth year and eleventh year respectively. The heavy cost of this warfare slowly drained Egypts treasury and contributed to the decline of the Egyptian Empire in Asia. Something in the air prevented much sunlight from reaching the ground, one proposed cause is the Hekla 3 eruption of the Hekla volcano in Iceland but the dating of this remains disputedNew Kingdom of Egypt – New Kingdom at its maximum territorial extent in the 15th century BC.
5. History of Arab Egypt – In 1174, Egypt came under the rule of Ayyubids that lasted until 1252. The Ayyubids were overthrown by their bodyguards, known as the Mamluks, who ruled under the suzerainty of Abbasid Caliphs until 1517, when Egypt became part of the Ottoman Empire. In 639 an army of some 4,000 men were sent against Egypt by the caliph, Umar. This army was joined by another 5,000 men in 640, Amr next proceeded in the direction of Alexandria, which was surrendered to him by a treaty signed on November 8,641. Alexandria was regained for the Byzantine Empire in 645 but was retaken by Amr in 646, in 654 an invasion fleet sent by Constans II was repulsed. From that time no serious effort was made by the Byzantines to regain possession of the country, following the first surrender of Alexandria, Amr chose a new site to settle his men, near the location of the Byzantine fortress of Babylon. The new settlement received the name of Fustat, after Amrs tent, after the conquest, the country was initially divided in two provinces, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt with the Nile Delta. In 643/4, however, Caliph Uthman appointed a governor with jurisdiction over all of Egypt. The governor would in turn nominate deputies for Upper and Lower Egypt, Alexandria remained a distinct district, reflecting both its role as the countrys shield against Byzantine attacks, and as the major naval base. It was considered a fortress under a military governor and was heavily garrisoned. Next to the wāli, there was also the commander of the police, responsible for internal security, the main pillar of the early Muslim rule and control in the country was the military force, or jund, staffed by the Arab settlers. These were initially the men who had followed Amr and participated in the conquest, initially, they numbered 15,500, but their numbers grew through emigration in the subsequent decades. By the time of Caliph Muawiya I, the number of men registered in the army list, jealous of their privileges and status, which entitled them to a share of the local revenue, the members of the jund then virtually closed off the register to new entries. It was only after the losses of the Second Fitna that the registers were updated, conversions of Copts to Islam were initially rare, and the old system of taxation was maintained for the greater part of the first Islamic century. During the First Fitna, Caliph Ali appointed Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr as governor of Egypt, Amr then served as governor until his death in 664. From 667/8 until 682, the province was governed by another fervent pro-Umayyad partisan, during the Second Fitna, Ibn al-Zubayr gained the support of the Kharijites in Egypt and sent a governor of his own, Abd al-Rahman ibn Utba al-Fihri, to the province. The Kharijite-backed Zubayrid regime was unpopular with the local Arabs. In December 684, Marwan invaded Egypt and reconquered it with relative ease, Marwan installed his son Abd al-Aziz as governorHistory of Arab Egypt – The near East in 1025 AD, showing the Fatimid Caliphate and neighbors.
6. Egyptian language – The language spoken in ancient Egypt was a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. The earliest known complete sentence in the Egyptian language has been dated to about 2690 BCE, making it one of the oldest recorded languages known. Egyptian was spoken until the seventeenth century in the form of Coptic. The national language of modern Egypt is Egyptian Arabic, which gradually replaced Coptic as the language of life in the centuries after the Muslim conquest of Egypt. Coptic is still used as the language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. It has several hundred fluent speakers today, the Egyptian language belongs to the Afroasiatic language family. Of the other Afroasiatic branches, Egyptian shows its greatest affinities with Semitic, in Egyptian, the Proto-Afroasiatic voiced consonants */d z ð/ developed into pharyngeal ⟨ꜥ⟩ /ʕ/, e. g. Eg. Afroasiatic */l/ merged with Egyptian ⟨n⟩, ⟨r⟩, ⟨ꜣ⟩, and ⟨j⟩ in the dialect on which the language was based. Original */k g ḳ/ palatalize to ⟨ṯ j ḏ⟩ in some environments and are preserved as ⟨k g q⟩ in others, Egyptian has many biradical and perhaps monoradical roots, in contrast to the Semitic preference for triradical roots. Egyptian probably is more archaic in this regard, whereas Semitic likely underwent later regularizations converting roots into the triradical pattern, scholars group the Egyptian language into six major chronological divisions, Archaic Egyptian language Old Egyptian language Middle Egyptian language, characterizing Middle Kingdom. Demotic Coptic The earliest Egyptian glyphs date back to around 3300 BC and these early texts are generally lumped together under the general term Archaic Egyptian. They record names, titles and labels, but a few of them show morphological and syntactic features familiar from later, more complete, Old Egyptian is dated from the oldest known complete sentence, found in the tomb of Seth-Peribsen and dated to around 2690 BCE. It reads, dmḏ. n. f t3wj n z3. f nswt-bjt pr-jb. snj He has united the Two Lands for his son, extensive texts appear from about 2600 BCE. Demotic first appears about 650 BCE and survived as a written language until the fifth century CE and it probably survived in the Egyptian countryside as a spoken language for several centuries after that. Bohairic Coptic is still used by the Coptic Churches, Old, Middle, and Late Egyptian were all written using hieroglyphs and hieratic. Demotic was written using a script derived from hieratic, its appearance is similar to modern Arabic script and is also written from right to left. Coptic is written using the Coptic alphabet, a form of the Greek alphabet with a number of symbols borrowed from Demotic for sounds that did not occur in ancient Greek. Arabic became the language of Egypts political administration soon after the early Muslim conquests in the seventh century, today, Coptic survives as the sacred language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria and the Coptic Catholic ChurchEgyptian language – Seal impression from the tomb of Seth-Peribsen, containing the oldest known complete sentence in Egyptian
7. Demotic (Egyptian) – The term was first used by the Greek historian Herodotus to distinguish it from hieratic and hieroglyphic scripts. By convention, the word Demotic is capitalized in order to distinguish it from demotic Greek, the Demotic script was referred to by the Egyptians as sš n šˤ. The script was used for more than a thousand years, and it is written and read from right to left, while earlier hieroglyphics could be written from top to bottom, left to right, or right to left. Early Demotic developed in Lower Egypt during the part of the 25th dynasty. It is generally dated between 650 and 400 BCE, as most texts written in Early Demotic are dated to the 26th dynasty, during this period, Demotic was used only for administrative, legal, and commercial texts, while hieroglyphs and hieratic were reserved for other texts. Middle Demotic is the stage of writing used during the Ptolemaic Period, from the 4th century BCE onward, Demotic held a higher status, as may be seen from its increasing use for literary and religious texts. From the beginning of Roman rule of Egypt, Demotic was progressively less used in public life. In contrast to the way Latin eliminated minority languages in the part of the Empire. After that, Demotic was only used for a few ostraca, subscriptions to Greek texts, mummy labels, and graffiti. The last dated example of the Demotic script is dated to December 11,452 CE, Demotic is a development of Late Egyptian and shares much with the later Coptic phase of the Egyptian language. In the earlier stages of Demotic, such as those written in the Early Demotic script. The Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799 and it is inscribed with three scripts, classical Greek and both Demotic and hieroglyphic Egyptian. There are 32 lines of Demotic, which is the middle of the three scripts on the stone, the Demotic was deciphered before the hieroglyphs, starting with the efforts of Silvestre de Sacy. Egyptologists, linguists and papyrologists who specialize in the study of the Demotic stage of Egyptian script are known as Demotists, the table below shows some derivative similarities from Hieroglyphic to Demotic to the currently surviving Coptic Egyptian script. Transliteration of Ancient Egyptian Betrò, Maria Carmela, hieroglyphics, The Writings of Ancient Egypt. New York, Milan, Abbeville Press, Arnoldo Mondadori, thus Wrote Onchsheshonqy, An Introductory Grammar of Demotic. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, No.45Demotic (Egyptian) – Demotic
8. Coptic language – Coptic or Coptic Egyptian is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afroasiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century. Several distinct Coptic dialects are identified, the most prominent of which are Sahidic, originating in parts of Upper Egypt, Coptic and Demotic are grammatically closely related to Late Egyptian, which was written with Egyptian hieroglyphs. Coptic flourished as a language from the second to thirteenth centuries. It was supplanted by Egyptian Arabic as a spoken language toward the modern period. The native Coptic name for the language is ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ /timetremenˈkʰeːmi/ in the Bohairic dialect, the particle prefix met- from the verb ⲙⲟⲩϯ mouti forms all abstract nouns in Coptic. Thus, the whole expression literally means language of the people of Egypt, another name by which the language has been called is ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲕⲩⲡⲧⲁⲓⲟⲛ /timentkuptaion/ from the Copto-Greek form ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲁⲓⲅⲩⲡⲧⲓⲟⲛ /timentaiguption/. The term logos ən aiguptios is also attested in Sahidic, in the liturgy of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, the name is more officially ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ti aspi ən rem ən kēmi, the Egyptian language, aspi being the Egyptian word for language. Coptic is today spoken liturgically in the Coptic Orthodox and Coptic Catholic Church, the language is spoken only in Egypt and historically has had little influence outside of the territory, except for monasteries located in Nubia. It should be noted, however, that Coptic ⲉⲙⲥⲁϩ is grammatically masculine, hence it is unclear why the word should have entered Arabic with an initial t, which would have required the word to be grammatically feminine. ṭūbah طوبة brick, Sahidic ⲧⲱⲃⲉ to, be, Bohairic ⲧⲱⲃⲓ to, bi, this subsequently entered Catalan and Spanish as tova and adobe respectively, the latter of which was borrowed by American English. However, most words of Egyptian origin that entered into Greek and subsequently into other European languages came directly from Ancient Egyptian, an example is the Greek ὄασις oasis, which comes directly from Egyptian wḥ3. t or demotic wḥỉ. However, Coptic reborrowed some words of Ancient Egyptian origin into its lexicon, for example, both Sahidic and Bohairic use the word ebenos, which was taken directly from Greek ἔβενος ebony, originally from Egyptian hbny. It was adapted into Arabic as Babnouda, which remains a name among Egyptian Copts to this day. It was also borrowed into Greek as the name Παφνούτιος and that, in turn, is the source of the Russian name Пафнутий, like the mathematician Pafnuty Chebyshev. The Old Nubian language and the modern Nobiin language borrowed many words of Coptic origin, the Egyptian language may have the longest documented history of any language, from Old Egyptian that appeared just before 3200 BC to its final phases as Coptic in the Middle Ages. Coptic belongs to the Later Egyptian phase, which started to be written in the New Kingdom of Egypt, Later Egyptian represented colloquial speech of the later periods. It had analytic features like definite and indefinite articles and periphrastic verb conjugation, Coptic, therefore, is a reference to both the most recent stage of Egyptian after Demotic and the new writing system that was adapted from the Greek alphabet. The earliest attempts to write the Egyptian language using the Greek alphabet are Greek transcriptions of Egyptian proper names, scholars frequently refer to this phase as pre-CopticCoptic language – 5th–6th century Coptic liturgic inscription from Upper Egypt.
9. Writing in Ancient Egypt – Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt. It combined logographic, syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters, cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood. The later hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts are derived from hieroglyphic writing, the writing system continued to be used throughout the Late Period, as well as the Persian and Ptolemaic periods. Late survivals of hieroglyphic use are found well into the Roman period, with the closing of pagan temples in the 5th century, knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was lost, and the script remained undeciphered throughout the medieval and early modern period. The decipherment of hieroglyphs would only be solved in the 1820s by Jean-François Champollion, the word hieroglyph comes from the Greek adjective ἱερογλυφικός, a compound of ἱερός and γλύφω, supposedly a calque of an Egyptian phrase mdw·w-nṯr gods words. The glyphs themselves were called τὰ ἱερογλυφικὰ γράμματα the sacred engraved letters, the word hieroglyph has become a noun in English, standing for an individual hieroglyphic character. As used in the sentence, the word hieroglyphic is an adjective. Hieroglyphs emerged from the artistic traditions of Egypt. For example, symbols on Gerzean pottery from c.4000 BC have been argued to resemble hieroglyphic writing, proto-hieroglyphic symbol systems develop in the second half of the 4th millennium BC, such as the clay labels of a Predynastic ruler called Scorpion I recovered at Abydos in 1998. The first full sentence written in hieroglyphs so far discovered was found on a seal found in the tomb of Seth-Peribsen at Umm el-Qaab. There are around 800 hieroglyphs dating back to the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, by the Greco-Roman period, there are more than 5,000. However, given the lack of evidence, no definitive determination has been made as to the origin of hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt. Since the 1990s, and discoveries such as the Abydos glyphs, as writing developed and became more widespread among the Egyptian people, simplified glyph forms developed, resulting in the hieratic and demotic scripts. These variants were more suited than hieroglyphs for use on papyrus. Hieroglyphic writing was not, however, eclipsed, but existed alongside the other forms, especially in monumental, the Rosetta Stone contains three parallel scripts – hieroglyphic, demotic, and Greek. Hieroglyphs continued to be used under Persian rule, and after Alexander the Greats conquest of Egypt, during the ensuing Ptolemaic and Roman periods. It appears that the quality of comments from Greek and Roman writers about hieroglyphs came about, at least in part. Some believed that hieroglyphs may have functioned as a way to distinguish true Egyptians from some of the foreign conquerors, another reason may be the refusal to tackle a foreign culture on its own terms, which characterized Greco-Roman approaches to Egyptian culture generallyWriting in Ancient Egypt – Hieroglyphs from the Black Schist sarcophagus of Ankhnesneferibre. Twenty-Sixth Dynasty, about 530 BC, Thebes.
10. Hieroglyph – A hieroglyph is a character of the ancient Egyptian writing system. Logographic scripts that are pictographic in form in a way reminiscent of ancient Egyptian are also sometimes called hieroglyphs, in Neoplatonism, especially during the Renaissance, a hieroglyph was an artistic representation of an esoteric idea, which Neoplatonists believed actual Egyptian hieroglyphs to be. The word hieroglyphics refer to a hieroglyphic script, middle Egyptian, An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs, A Practical Guide, the Story of Writing, Alphabets, Hieroglyphs & PictogramsHieroglyph – Egyptian hieroglyphs typical of the Graeco-Roman period, sculpted in Relief. Glyphs: viper, owl, 'bread bun', folded cloth
11. Hieratic – Hieratic is a cursive writing system used in the provenance of the pharaohs in Egypt and Nubia. It developed alongside cursive hieroglyphs, from which it is separate yet intimately related and it was primarily written in ink with a reed brush on papyrus, allowing scribes to write quickly without resorting to the time-consuming hieroglyphs. In the 2nd century AD, the term hieratic was first used by Saint Clement of Alexandria. It derives from the Greek phrase γράμματα ἱερατικά, as at time, hieratic was used only for religious texts, as had been the case for the previous eight. Hieratic can also be an adjective meaning f or associated with sacred persons or offices, in the Proto-Dynastic Period of Egypt, hieratic first appeared and developed alongside the more formal hieroglyphic script. It is an error to view hieratic as a derivative of hieroglyphic writing, indeed, the earliest texts from Egypt are produced with ink and brush, with no indication their signs are descendants of hieroglyphs. True monumental hieroglyphs carved in stone did not appear until the 1st Dynasty, the two writing systems, therefore, are related, parallel developments, rather than a single linear one. Hieratic was used throughout the period and into the Graeco-Roman Period. Around 660 BC, the Demotic script replaced hieratic in most secular writing, through most of its long history, hieratic was used for writing administrative documents, accounts, legal texts, and letters, as well as mathematical, medical, literary, and religious texts. During the Græco-Roman period, when Demotic had become the chief administrative script, in general, hieratic was much more important than hieroglyphs throughout Egypts history, being the script used in daily life. It was also the system first taught to students, knowledge of hieroglyphs being limited to a small minority who were given additional training. In fact, it is possible to detect errors in hieroglyphic texts that came about due to a misunderstanding of an original hieratic text. Most often, hieratic script was written in ink with a brush on papyrus, wood. Thousands of limestone ostraca have been found at the site of Deir al-Madinah, besides papyrus, stone, ceramic shards, and wood, there are hieratic texts on leather rolls, though few have survived. There are also hieratic texts written on cloth, especially on linen used in mummification, there are some hieratic texts inscribed on stone, a variety known as lapidary hieratic, these are particularly common on stelae from the 22nd Dynasty. During the late 6th Dynasty, hieratic was sometimes incised into mud tablets with a stylus, similar to cuneiform. About five hundred of these tablets have been discovered in the palace at Ayn Asil. At the time the tablets were made, Dakhla was located far from centers of papyrus production and these tablets record inventories, name lists, accounts, and approximately fifty lettersHieratic – One of four official letters to vizier Khay copied onto fragments of limestone (an ostracon).
12. Ancient Egyptian literature – Ancient Egyptian literature was written in the Egyptian language from ancient Egypts pharaonic period until the end of Roman domination. It represents the oldest corpus of Egyptian literature, along with Sumerian literature, it is considered the worlds earliest literature. Writing in ancient Egypt—both hieroglyphic and hieratic—first appeared in the late 4th millennium BC during the phase of predynastic Egypt. It was not until the early Middle Kingdom that a narrative Egyptian literature was created and this was a media revolution which, according to Richard B. However, it is possible that the literacy rate was less than one percent of the entire population. The creation of literature was thus an elite exercise, monopolized by a scribal class attached to government offices, However, there is no full consensus among modern scholars concerning the dependence of ancient Egyptian literature on the sociopolitical order of the royal courts. Middle Egyptian, the language of the Middle Kingdom, became a classical language during the New Kingdom. Scribes of the New Kingdom canonized and copied many literary texts written in Middle Egyptian, some genres of Middle Kingdom literature, such as teachings and fictional tales, remained popular in the New Kingdom, although the genre of prophetic texts was not revived until the Ptolemaic period. Popular tales included the Story of Sinuhe and The Eloquent Peasant, while important teaching texts include the Instructions of Amenemhat and The Loyalist Teaching. By the New Kingdom period, the writing of graffiti on sacred temple and tomb walls flourished as a unique genre of literature. The acknowledgment of rightful authorship remained important only in a few genres, while texts of the genre were pseudonymous. Ancient Egyptian literature has been preserved on a variety of media. This includes papyrus scrolls and packets, limestone or ceramic ostraca, wooden writing boards, monumental stone edifices, Texts preserved and unearthed by modern archaeologists represent a small fraction of ancient Egyptian literary material. The area of the floodplain of the Nile is under-represented because the moist environment is unsuitable for the preservation of papyri, on the other hand, hidden caches of literature, buried for thousands of years, have been discovered in settlements on the dry desert margins of Egyptian civilization. By the Early Dynastic Period in the late 4th millennium BC, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Egyptian hieroglyphs are small artistic pictures of natural objects. The Narmer Palette, dated c.3100 BC during the last phase of Predynastic Egypt, combines the hieroglyphs for catfish and chisel to produce the name of King Narmer. The Egyptians called their hieroglyphs words of god and reserved their use for exalted purposes, such as communicating with divinities, each hieroglyphic word represented both, a specific object and embodied the essence of that object, recognizing it as divinely made and belonging within the greater cosmos. Through acts of priestly ritual, like burning incense, the priest allowed spirits, mutilating the hieroglyph of a venomous snake, or other dangerous animal, removed a potential threatAncient Egyptian literature – Egyptian hieroglyphs with cartouches for the name " Ramesses II ", from the Luxor Temple, New Kingdom
13. Ancient Egyptian cuisine – The cuisine of ancient Egypt covers a span of over three thousand years, but still retained many consistent traits until well into Greco-Roman times. The staples of both poor and wealthy Egyptians were bread and beer, often accompanied by green-shooted onions, other vegetables, depictions of banquets can be found in paintings from both the Old Kingdom and New Kingdom. They usually started sometime in the afternoon, men and women were separated unless they were married. Seating varied according to status, with those of the highest status sitting on chairs, those slightly lower sat on stools. Before the food was served, basins were provided along with perfumes and cones of scented fat were lit to spread pleasant smells or to repel insects, depending on the type. Lily flowers and flower collars were handed out and professional dancers entertained, accompanied by musicians playing harps, lutes, drums, tambourines, and clappers. There were usually considerable amounts of alcohol and abundant quantities of foods, there were whole roast oxen, ducks, geese, pigeons, the dishes frequently consisted of stews served with great amounts of bread, fresh vegetables and fruit. For sweets there were cakes baked with dates and sweetened with honey, the goddess Hathor was often invoked during feasts. Food could be prepared by stewing, baking, boiling, grilling, frying, spices and herbs were added for flavor, though the former were expensive imports and therefore confined to the tables of the wealthy. Food such as meats was mostly preserved by salting, and dates, the staples bread and beer were usually prepared in the same locations, as the yeast used for bread was also used for brewing. The two were prepared either in special bakeries or, more often, at home, and any surplus would be sold, Egyptian bread was made almost exclusively from emmer wheat, which was more difficult to turn into flour than most other varieties of wheat. The chaff does not come off through threshing, but comes in spikelets that needed to be removed by moistening and pounding with a pestle to avoid crushing the grains inside. It was then dried in the sun, winnowed and sieved and finally milled on a saddle quern, the baking techniques varied over time. In the Old Kingdom, heavy pottery molds were filled with dough, during the Middle Kingdom tall cones were used on square hearths. In the New Kingdom a new type of a large open-topped clay oven, cylindrical in shape, was used, dough was then slapped on the heated inner wall and peeled off when done, similar to how a tandoor oven is used for flatbreads. Tombs from the New Kingdom show images of bread in many different shapes and sizes, loaves shaped like human figures, fish, various animals and fans, all of varying dough texture. Flavorings used for bread included coriander seeds and dates, but it is not known if this was used by the poor. Other than emmer, barley was grown to make bread and also used for making beer, and so were lily seeds and roots, and tiger nutAncient Egyptian cuisine – An early Ramesside Period mural painting from Deir el-Medina tomb depicts an Egyptian couple harvesting crops
14. Egyptian calendar – The ancient Egyptian calendar was a solar calendar with a 365-day year. The year consisted of three seasons of 120 days each, plus a month of 5 epagomenal days treated as outside of the year proper. Each season was divided into four months of 30 days and these twelve months were initially numbered within each season but came to also be known by the names of their principal festivals. Each month was divided into three 10-day periods known as decans or decades, the last two days of each decan were usually treated as a kind of weekend, with royal artisans and others free from work. Because this calendrical year was nearly a quarter of a day shorter than the solar year and it is therefore sometimes referred to as the wandering year, as its months rotated about a third of the way through the solar year each century. The introduction of a day to the Egyptian calendar made it equivalent to the reformed Julian calendar. This civil calendar ran concurrently with an Egyptian lunar calendar which was used for religious rituals and festivals. Current knowledge of the earliest development of the Egyptian calendar remains speculative, similarly, based on the Palermo Stone, Scharff proposed that the Old Kingdom observed a 320-day year but his theory has not become widely accepted. Some evidence suggests the early civil calendar had 360 days, although it might merely reflect the status of the five epagomenal days as days added on to the proper year. The first lasted from roughly June to September, the second from roughly October to January, as early as the reign of Djer, yearly records were being kept of the floods high-water mark. Until the closing of Egypts pagan temples under the Byzantines, the lunar calendar continued to be used as the year of various cults. The month may have divided into four weeks of 7 or 8 days. The difference between beginning the day at the first light of dawn or at sunrise accounts for an 11–14 year shift in dated observations of the lunar cycle, No evidence for such a month, however, exists in the present historical record. This date places it prior to the Ptolemaic period and within the native Egyptian Dynasty XXX, Egypts 1st Persian occupation, however, seems likely to have been its inspiration. This lunisolar calendars calculations apparently continued to be used without correction into the Roman period, on Psḏntyw, he is born on Ꜣbd, he grows old after Smdt. It was probably based upon observations of Sirius whose reappearance in the sky closely corresponded to the average onset of the Nile flood through the 5th and 4th millennium BC. The regular months were grouped into Egypts three seasons, which gave them their names, and divided into three 10-day periods known as decans or decades. In later sources, these were distinguished as first, middle, the last two days of each decan were usually treated as a kind of weekend, with royal artisans and others free from workEgyptian calendar – Nut, Egyptian goddess of the sky, with the star chart in the tomb of Ramses VI. Human figures represent stars and constellations
15. Beautiful festival of the valley – The Beautiful Festival of the Valley was an Ancient Egyptian festival, celebrated annually in Thebes, during the Middle Kingdom period and later. The Beautiful Festival of the Valley or heb nefer en inet in Egyptian was a celebration of the dead, the Beautiful Festival of the Valley could be more ancient than the Opet Festival as it can be traced back to the Middle Kingdom. It was said to be held as a remembrance of the dead, however, when joined with the Festival of Opet, the holy procession became the main event of the liturgical calendar of Thebes. The annual festival was held at the New Moon of Month Two and this was the summer season, shemu, and the 10th month in a calendar of 12. During Hatshepsuts reign she carried out both the Opet and The Beautiful Festival of the Valley to Amun, there was a grand precession at the start of the festival which could go for several days. It was a colourful and joyous occasion for the people of Thebes and this barque would then be placed in a Userhet, that was covered in gold and precious materials. This Userhet would be followed by boats for Mut and Khonsu to form the Theban Triad, the procession proceeded to the Temple of Million Years of the King where the townspeople would sacrifice food and drink as well as flowers to the flotilla of boats. Great quantities of flowers would be presented, as it is believed by the Egyptian culture that the flowers became filled with the essence of the deity, townspeople then took these flowers to their relatives tombs to pay their respects and ensure the revival of the deceaseds spirit. They would drink and sleep on the tombs as different levels of consciousness blessed the dead. Amuns shrine was brought into the Djoser-djoseru to reaffirm the bond between the king of the gods and the king of the people. Davies, V. & Friedman R. Egypt, British Museum Press,1998 Strudwick N & Strudwick K. Thebes in Egypt, Cornell University Press,1999Beautiful festival of the valley – The Beautiful Festival of the Valley at the Tomb of Nakht
16. Ancient Egyptian architecture – The core of the pyramids consisted of locally quarried stone, mudbricks, sand or gravel. For the casing stones were used that had to be transported from farther away, predominantly white limestone from Tura, Ancient Egyptian houses were made out of mud collected from the Nile river. It was placed in molds and left to dry in the hot sun to harden for use in construction, others are inaccessible, new buildings having been erected on ancient ones. Fortunately, the dry, hot climate of Egypt preserved some mud brick structures, examples include the village Deir al-Madinah, the Middle Kingdom town at Kahun, and the fortresses at Buhen and Mirgissa. Also, many temples and tombs have survived because they were built on high ground unaffected by the Nile flood and were constructed of stone, in a similar manner, the incised and flatly modeled surface adornment of the stone buildings may have derived from mud wall ornamentation. Exterior and interior walls, as well as the columns and piers, were covered with hieroglyphic and pictorial frescoes, many motifs of Egyptian ornamentation are symbolic, such as the scarab, or sacred beetle, the solar disk, and the vulture. Other common motifs include leaves, the papyrus plant. Hieroglyphs were inscribed for decorative purposes as well as to record historic events or spells, in addition, these pictorial frescoes and carvings allow us to understand how the Ancient Egyptians lived, statuses, wars that were fought and their beliefs. This was especially true when exploring the tombs of Ancient Egyptian officials in recent years, Ancient Egyptian temples were aligned with astronomically significant events, such as solstices and equinoxes, requiring precise measurements at the moment of the particular event. Measurements at the most significant temples may have been undertaken by the Pharaoh himself. The Giza Necropolis stands on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo and this complex of ancient monuments is located some 8 kilometers inland into the desert from the old town of Giza on the Nile, some 20 kilometers southwest of Cairo city center. The pyramids, which were built in the Fourth Dynasty, testify to the power of the pharaonic religion and they were built to serve both as grave sites and also as a way to make their names last forever. The size and simple design show the skill level of Egyptian design. The pyramid of Khafre is believed to have been completed around 2532 BC, Khafre ambitiously placed his pyramid next to his fathers. It is not as tall as his fathers pyramid but he was able to give it the impression of appearing taller by building it on a site with a foundation 33 feet higher than his fathers. Along with building his pyramid, Chefren commissioned the building of the giant Sphinx as guardian over his tomb, the face of a human, possibly a depiction of the pharaoh, on a lions body was seen as a symbol of divinity among the Greeks fifteen hundred years later. The Great Sphinx is carved out the bedrock and stands about 65 feet tall. Menkaures pyramid dates to circa 2490 BC and stands 213 feet high making it the smallest of the Great Pyramids, popular culture leads people to believe that Pyramids are highly confusing, with many tunnels within the pyramid to create confusion for grave robbersAncient Egyptian architecture – The well preserved Temple of Horus at Edfu is an example of Egyptian architecture and architectural sculpture.
17. Giza pyramid complex – The Giza pyramid complex is an archaeological site on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. It is located in the Libyan Desert, approximately 9 km west of the Nile river at the old town of Giza and it is by far the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence. The Great Sphinx lies on the east side of the complex, current consensus among Egyptologists is that the head of the Great Sphinx is that of Khafre. Along with these monuments are a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as queens pyramids, causeways. The valley temple was connected to a causeway which was destroyed when the village was constructed. The causeway led to the Mortuary Temple of Khufu, from this temple the basalt pavement is the only thing that remains. The mortuary temple was connected to the king’s pyramid, the king’s pyramid has three smaller queen’s pyramids associated with it and five boat pits. The boat pits contained a ship, and the 2 pits on the side of the pyramid still contained intact ships. One of these ships has been restored and is on display, khufus pyramid still has a limited collection of casing stones at its base. These casing stones were made of white limestone quarried from the nearby range. Khafre’s pyramid complex consists of a temple, the Sphinx temple, a causeway, a mortuary temple. The valley temple yielded several statues of Khafre, several were found in a well in the floor of the temple by Mariette in 1860. Others were found during excavations by Sieglin, Junker, Reisner. Khafre’s complex contained five boat-pits and a pyramid with a serdab. Khafres pyramid retains a prominent display of casing stones at its apex, menkaure’s pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, a causeway, a mortuary temple, and the king’s pyramid. The valley temple once contained several statues of Menkaure, during the 5th dynasty, a smaller ante-temple was added on to the valley temple. The mortuary temple also yielded several statues of Menkaure, the king’s pyramid has three subsidiary or queen’s pyramids. Of the four monuments, only Menkaures pyramid is seen today without any of its original polished limestone casingGiza pyramid complex – All of the six pyramids of the Giza pyramid complex
18. Step pyramid – A step pyramid or stepped pyramid is an architectural structure that uses flat platforms, or steps, receding from the ground up, to achieve a completed shape similar to a geometric pyramid. Step pyramids are structures which characterized several cultures throughout history, in locations throughout the world. These pyramids typically are large and made of layers of stone. The term refers to pyramids of similar design that emerged separately from one another, ziggurats were huge religious monuments built in the ancient Mesopotamian valley and western Iranian plateau, having the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels. There are 32 ziggurats known at, and near, Mesopotamia, twenty-eight of them are in Iraq, and four of them are in Iran. Ziggurats were built by the Sumerians, Babylonians, Elamites and Assyrians as monuments to local religions, the earliest ziggurats probably date from the latter part of the Early Dynastic Period of Sumer. Built in receding tiers upon a rectangular, oval, or square platform, sun-baked bricks made up the core of the ziggurat with facings of fired bricks on the outside. The facings were often glazed in different colors and may have had astrological significance, kings sometimes had their names engraved on these glazed bricks. The number of tiers ranged from two to seven, with a shrine or temple at the summit, access to the shrine was provided by a series of ramps on one side of the ziggurat or by a spiral ramp from base to summit. It was also called Hill of Heaven or Mountain of the gods, the earliest Egyptian pyramids were step pyramids. During the Third Dynasty of Egypt, the architect Imhotep designed Egypts first step pyramid as a tomb for the pharaoh and this structure, the Pyramid of Djoser, was composed of a series of six successively smaller mastabas, one on top of another. Later pharaohs, including Sekhemkhet and Khaba, built structures, known as the Buried Pyramid. In the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt, the Egyptians began to build true pyramids with smooth sides, the earliest of these pyramids, located at Meidum, began as a step pyramid built for Sneferu. Sneferu later made other pyramids, the Bent Pyramid and Red Pyramid at Dahshur, with this innovation, the age of Egyptian stepped pyramids came to an end. One of the structures of Igboland was the Nsude Pyramids, at the Nigerian town of Nsude. Ten pyramidal structures were built of clay/mud, the first base section was 60 ft. in circumference and 3 ft. in height. The next stack was 45 ft. in circumference, circular stacks continued, till it reached the top. The structures were temples for the god Ala/Uto, who was believed to reside at the top, a stick was placed at the top to represent the gods residenceStep pyramid – The 4100-year-old Great Ziggurat of Ur in southern Iraq
19. Mastaba – A mastaba or pr-djt is a type of ancient Egyptian tomb in the form of a flat-roofed, rectangular structure with inward sloping sides, constructed out of mud-bricks or stone. These edifices marked the sites of many eminent Egyptians during Egypts Early Dynastic Period. In the Old Kingdom epoch, local kings began to be buried in pyramids instead of in mastabas, egyptologists call these tombs mastaba, which is the Arabic word for stone bench. The afterlife was a focus of Egyptian civilization and ruled every aspect of the society. This is reflected in their architecture and most prominently by the amounts of time, money. Ancient Egyptians believed the soul could live only if the body was preserved from corruption and depredation as well as fed, starting from the Predynastic era and into the later dynasties, the ancient Egyptians developed increasingly complex and effective methods for preserving and protecting the bodies of the dead. The Ancient Egyptians initially began by burying their dead in pit graves dug out from the sand, the body of the deceased was buried inside the pit on a mat, usually along with some items believed to help them in the afterlife. The first tomb structure that the Egyptians built was the mastaba, mastabas provided better protection from scavenging animals and grave robbers. However, the remains were not in contact with the dry desert sand. Use of the more secure mastabas required Ancient Egyptians to devise a system of artificial mummification, until at least the Old Period or First Intermediate Period, only high officials and royalty would be buried in these mastabas. The word mastaba comes from the Arabic word for a bench of mud, historians speculate that the Egyptians may have borrowed architectural ideas from Mesopotamia since at the time they were both building similar structures. The above-ground structure of a mastaba is rectangular in shape with inward-sloping sides, the exterior building materials were initially bricks made of sun dried mud, which was readily available from the Nile River. Even after more durable materials like stone came into use, all, mastabas were often about four times as long as they were wide, and many rose to at least 30 feet in height. The mastaba was built with an orientation, which the Ancient Egyptians believed was essential for access to the afterlife. This above-ground structure had space for an offering chapel equipped with a false door. Inside the mastaba, a chamber was dug into the ground and lined with stone. The burial chambers were cut deep, until they passed the bedrock, the mastaba housed a statue of the deceased that was hidden within the masonry for its protection. High up the walls of the serdab were small openings that would allow the ba to leave and return to the body, Ancient Egyptians believed the ba had to return to its body or it would dieMastaba – Example of a mastaba
20. Ramesseum – The Ramesseum is the memorial temple of Pharaoh Ramesses II. It is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the city of Luxor. It was originally called the House of millions of years of Usermaatra-setepenra that unites with Thebes-the-city in the domain of Amon, Usermaatra-setepenra was the prenomen of Ramesses II. Surviving records indicate that work on the project shortly after the start of his reign. The design of Ramessess mortuary temple adheres to the canons of New Kingdom temple architecture. Oriented northwest and southeast, the temple itself comprised two stone pylons, one after the other, each leading into a courtyard, beyond the second courtyard, at the centre of the complex, was a covered 48-column hypostyle hall, surrounding the inner sanctuary. An enormous pylon stood before the first court, with the palace at the left. As was customary, the pylons and outer walls were decorated with scenes commemorating pharaohs military victories and leaving due record of his dedication to, and kinship with, the gods. The scenes of the pharaoh and his army triumphing over the Hittite forces fleeing before Kadesh, as portrayed in the canons of the epic poem of Pentaur. Only fragments of the base and torso remain of the statue of the enthroned pharaoh,62 feet high. This was alleged to have been transported 170 miles over land and this is the largest remaining colossal statue in the world. However fragments of 4 granite Colossi of Ramses were found in Tanis, estimated height is 69 to 92 feet. Like four of the six colossi of Amenhotep III there are no longer complete remains so it is based partly on unconfirmed estimates, remains of the second court include part of the internal façade of the pylon and a portion of the Osiride portico on the right. Scenes of war and the rout of the Hittites at Kadesh are repeated on the walls, in the upper registers, feast and honour of the phallic god Min, god of fertility. On the opposite side of the court the few Osiride pillars, scattered remains of the two statues of the seated king can also be seen, one in pink granite and the other in black granite, which once flanked the entrance to the temple. The head of one of these has been removed to the British Museum, thirty-nine out of the forty-eight columns in the great hypostyle hall still stand in the central rows. They are decorated with the scenes of the king before various gods. Part of the ceiling decorated with stars on a blue ground has also been preservedRamesseum – Aerial view of Thebes' Ramesseum, showing pylons and secondary buildings
21. Benben – Benben was the mound that arose from the primordial waters Nu upon which the creator god Atum settled in the creation story of the Heliopolitan form of Ancient Egyptian religion. The Benben stone is the top stone of the Egyptian pyramid and it is also related to the Obelisk. In the Pyramid Texts, e. g. Utterances 587 and 600 and it was said to have turned into a small pyramid, located in Heliopolis, within which Atum was said to dwell. Other cities developed their own myths of the primeval mound, at Memphis the god Tatenen, an earth god and the origin of all things in the shape of food and viands, divine offers, all good things was the personification of the primeval mound. The Benben stone, named after the mound, was a stone in the temple of Ra at Heliopolis. It was the location on which the first rays of the sun fell and it is thought to have been the prototype for later obelisks, and the capstones of the great pyramids were based on its design. The capstone or the tip of the pyramid is also called pyramidion, in ancient Egypt, these were probably gilded, so they shone in sunlight. The pyramidion is also called Benben stone, many such Benben stones, often carved with images and inscriptions, are found in museums around the world. The phoenix, the bird, was venerated at Heliopolis. Utterance 600, §1652 of the Pyramid Texts speaks of Atum as you rose up, as the benben, in the Mansion of the Benu in Heliopolis. From the earliest times, the portrayal of Benben was stylised in two ways, the first was as a pointed, pyramidal form, which was probably the model for pyramids and obelisks. The other form was round-topped, this was probably the origin of Benben as a free standing votive object, during the 5th Dynasty, the portrayal of benben was formalized as a squat obelisk. Later, during the Middle Kingdom, this became a long, in the Amarna period tomb of Panehesy, the benben is seen as a large, round-topped stela standing on a raised platform. 88 Katheryn A. Bard Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, Routledge 1999, p.205 George Hart Egyptian Myths, University of Texas Press 1990, pp.11,12,16Benben – Reconstructed capstone from one of the pyramids of the Giza Plateau, symbolizing Benben.
22. False door – A false door is an artistic representation of a door which does not function like a real door. They can be carved in a wall or painted on it and they are a common architectural element in the tombs of Ancient Egypt and Pre-Nuragic Sardinia. Later they also occur in Etruscan tombs and in the time of Ancient Rome they were used in the interiors of houses and tombs. The Ancient Egyptians believed that the door was a threshold between the worlds of the living and the dead and through which a deity or the spirit of the deceased could enter. The false door was usually the focus of an offering chapel. Most false doors are found on the west wall of a chapel or offering chamber because the Ancient Egyptians associated the west with the land of the dead. In many mastabas, both husband and wife buried within have their own false door, a false door usually is carved from a single block of stone or plank of wood, and it was not meant to function as a normal door. Located in the center of the door is a panel, or niche, around which several pairs of door jambs are arranged—some convey the illusion of depth and a series of frames. A semi-cylindrical drum, carved directly above the panel, was used in imitation of the reed-mat that was used to close real doors. The door is framed with a series of moldings and lintels as well, sometimes, the owners of the tomb had statues carved in their image placed into the central niche of the false door. The side panels usually are covered in inscriptions naming the deceased along with their titles, and these texts extol the virtues of the deceased and express positive wishes for the afterlife. For example, the door of Ankhires reads, The scribe of the house of the gods documents. The lintel reads, His eldest son it was, the lector priest Medunefer, the left and right outer jambs read, An offering which the king and which Anubis, who dwells in the divine tent-shrine, give for burial in the west, having grown old most perfectly. His eldest son it was, the lector priest Medunefer, who acted on his behalf when he was buried in the necropolis, the scribe of the house of the gods documents, Ankhires. The false door was used first in the mastabas of the Third Dynasty of the Old Kingdom, after the First Intermediate Period, the popularity of the false doors diminished, being replaced by stelae as the primary surfaces for writing funerary inscriptions. In Domus de Janas, chamber tombs of the pre-Nuragic Ozieri culture, there are false doors carved in the walls. In Etruscan tombs the false door has a Doric design and is always depicted closed, most often it is painted, but on some occasions it is carved in relief, like in the Tomb of the Charontes at Tarquinia. Unlike the false door in ancient Egyptian tombs, the Etruscan false door has given rise to a diversity of interpretations and it might have been the door the underworld, similar to its use of the ancient EgyptFalse door – A typical false door to an Egyptian tomb - the deceased is shown above the central niche in front of a table of offerings, and inscriptions listing offerings for the deceased are carved along the side panels.
23. Block statue (Egyptian) – The block statue is a type of memorial statue that first emerged in the Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. The block statue grew in popularity in the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period, and by the Late Period and these statues were used in temples typically as funerary monuments of non-royal yet important individuals. According to primary sources from the New Kingdom, the posture of the statue was intended to resemble a guardian seated in the gateway of a temple. In addition, their simple shape provided ample flat surfaces for inscriptions of offerings, Block statues consist of a man squatting with his knees drawn up to his chest and his arms folded on top his knees. Often, these men are wearing a cloak that reduces the body of the figure to a simple block-like shape. Most of the detail is reserved for the head of the individual being depicted, in some instances the modeling of the limbs has been retained by the sculptor. There are two types of block statues, ones with the feet completely covered by the cloak. In 1903, more than 350 Block statues were discovered by the French archaeologist Georges Legrain as part of the Karnak cachette, in Egypt, statues of the seated scribe appear as long ago as the 1st Dynasty. Seated scribe statues evolved over time and some came to incorporate, Thoth, or the baboon. So, also the complexities of the block statue developed, combinational themes became common, and likewise abbreviated, also developed. Examples of the statue for Senemut, of Queen Hatshepsuts reign, have extensive stories in hieroglyphs and they also have the added, head of the child upon the top surface. They are finely executed, in a medium or high finish, as an example of the Block statue, Senemuts is one of the typical types, a story of the honored individual on the front surface, a presentation of the individual, in statue form, a theme. For Senemut, his theme appears to be, His honoring, His personal story, and the lesser individual, since the Egyptian belief system, contained concepts framed in a world of magic and a formal framework of art expression, the block statue had a magical purpose. Obviously ideas evolved, but eventually the idea came for the statue that it was always – seated in place, and at a moments notice, returning as a living-soul, Chapter VII, lines 1-3.5. The deceased individual Egyptian person returns each day, to perform their daily life duties. It is also equivalent to the concept of the false door. The following examples are found in the Ref, section that follows, Block statue for Bakenkhonsu, who was High Priest of Amun, for Ramesses II, who possibly usurped this block statue. Block statue of Satepihu, from Abydos, 18th Dynasty, extensive hieroglyphs, horizontal, front, vertical columns on sidesBlock statue (Egyptian) – Block-statue of Pa-Ankh-Ra, ship master, bearing a statue of Ptah. Late Period, ca. 650–633 BC, Cabinet des Médailles.
24. Art of Ancient Egypt – Ancient Egyptian art is the painting, sculpture, architecture and other arts produced by the civilization of ancient Egypt in the lower Nile Valley from about 3000 BC to 30 AD. Ancient Egyptian art reached a level in painting and sculpture. It was famously conservative, and Egyptian styles changed remarkably little over more than three thousand years, much of the surviving art comes from tombs and monuments and thus there is an emphasis on life after death and the preservation of knowledge of the past. Ancient Egyptian art included paintings, sculpture in wood, stone and ceramics, drawings on papyrus, faience, jewelry, ivories and it displays an extraordinarily vivid representation of the ancient Egyptians socioeconomic status and belief systems. This appears as early as the Narmer Palette from Dynasty I, other conventions make statues of males darker than females ones. Egyptian art uses hierarchical proportion, where the size of figures indicates their relative importance, symbolism can be observed throughout Egyptian art and played an important role in establishing a sense of order. The pharaohs regalia, for example, represented his power to maintain order, animals were also highly symbolic figures in Egyptian art. Not all Egyptian reliefs were painted, and less prestigious works in tombs, Stone surfaces were prepared by whitewash, or if rough, a layer of coarse mud plaster, with a smoother gesso layer above, some finer limestones could take paint directly. Pigments were mostly mineral, chosen to withstand sunlight without fading. The binding medium used in painting remains unclear, egg tempera and various gums and it is clear that true fresco, painted into a thin layer of wet plaster, was not used. Instead the paint was applied to dried plaster, in what is called fresco a secco in Italian, small objects including wooden statuettes were often painted using similar techniques. Many ancient Egyptian paintings have survived in tombs, and sometimes temples, the paintings were often made with the intent of making a pleasant afterlife for the deceased. The themes included journey through the afterworld or protective deities introducing the deceased to the gods of the underworld, some tomb paintings show activities that the deceased were involved in when they were alive and wished to carry on doing for eternity. In the New Kingdom and later, the Book of the Dead was buried with the entombed person and it was considered important for an introduction to the afterlife. Egyptian paintings are painted in such a way to show a profile view, for example, the painting to the right shows the head from a profile view and the body from a frontal view. Their main colors were red, blue, green, gold, black, the monumental sculpture of ancient Egypts temples and tombs is world-famous, but refined and delicate small works exist in much greater numbers. The Egyptians used the technique of sunk relief, which is well suited to very bright sunlight. The distinctive pose of standing statues facing forward with one foot in front of the other was helpful for the balance and it was adopted very early and remained unchanged until the arrival of the GreeksArt of Ancient Egypt – Thutmose, Bust of Nefertiti, 1345 BC, Egyptian Museum of Berlin
25. Ankh – The ankh, also known as crux ansata is an ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic ideograph with the meaning life. The Egyptian gods are often portrayed carrying it by its loop, or bearing one in each hand, the ankh appears in hand or in proximity of almost every deity in the Egyptian pantheon. The ankh symbol was so prevalent that it has found in digs as far as Mesopotamia and Persia. The symbol became popular in New Age mysticism in the 1960s, unicode has two characters encoding the symbol, U+2625 ☥ in the Miscellaneous Symbols block and U+132F9Ankh – Merenptah offering an ankh, djed, and was to Ptah
26. Djed – The djed is one of the more ancient and commonly found symbols in Egyptian mythology. It is a symbol in hieroglyphics representing stability. It is associated with the creator god Ptah and Osiris, the Egyptian god of the afterlife, the underworld, and it is commonly understood to represent his spine. In the myth of Osiris and Isis, Osiris was killed by Set by being tricked into a made to fit Osiris exactly. Set then had the coffin with the now deceased Osiris flung into the Nile, the coffin was carried by the Nile to the ocean and on to the city of Byblos in Lebanon. It ran aground and a sacred tree took root and rapidly grew around the coffin, the king of the land, intrigued by the trees quick growth, ordered the tree cut down and installed as a pillar in his palace, unaware that the tree contained Osiriss body. Meanwhile, Isis searched for Osiris aided by Anubis, and came to know of Osiriss location in Byblos, Isis maneuvered herself into the favor of the king and queen and was granted a boon. She asked for the pillar in the hall, and upon being granted it. She then consecrated the pillar, anointing it with myrrh and wrapping it in linen and this pillar came to be known as the pillar of djed. The djed may originally have been a fertility cult related pillar made from reeds or sheaves or a totem from which sheaves of grain were suspended or grain was piled around. Erich Neumann remarks that the pillar is a tree fetish. He indicates that the myth may represent the importance of the import of trees by Egypt from Syria, the djed came to be associated with Seker, the falcon god of the Memphite necropolis, then with Ptah, the Memphite patron god of craftsmen. Ptah was often referred to as the noble djed, and carried a scepter that was a combination of the symbol and the ankh. Ptah gradually came to be assimilated into Osiris, by the time of the New Kingdom, the djed was firmly associated with Osiris. In their 2004 book The Quick and the Dead, Andrew Hunt Gordon and it was also sometimes used to represent Osiris himself, often combined with a pair of eyes between the crossbars and holding the crook and flail. The djed hieroglyph is found together with the tyet hieroglyph. The djed and the tiet used together may depict the duality of life, the tyet hieroglyph may have become associated with Isis because of its frequent pairing with the djed. The djed pillar was an important part of the ceremony called raising the djed, which was a part of the celebrations of Heb Sed, the act of raising the djed has been explained as representing Osiriss triumph over SetDjed – Seal ring featuring the inscription: "Ptah the one with durable favours" Hieroglyphs-(read from right, top): Ptah-(p-t-h)-(gives)-enduring-(Djed)-favors-(i.e.-libation offerings-(3, for plural)).
27. Wadjet – Wadjet, known to the Greek world as Uto among other names, was originally the ancient local goddess of the city of Dep. She was said to be the patron and protector of Lower Egypt and upon unification with Upper Egypt, the image of Wadjet with the sun disk is called the uraeus, and it was the emblem on the crown of the rulers of Lower Egypt. She was also the protector of kings and of women in childbirth and her oracle was in the renowned temple in Per-Wadjet that was dedicated to her worship and gave the city its name. This oracle may have been the source for the tradition that spread to Greece from Egypt. The Going Forth of Wadjet was celebrated on December 25 with chants, an annual festival held in the city celebrated Wadjet on April 21. Other important dates for special worship of her were June 21, the Summer Solstice and she also was assigned the fifth hour of the fifth day of the moon. Wadjet was closely associated in the Egyptian pantheon with the Eye of Ra, the hieroglyph for her eye is shown below, sometimes two are shown in the sky of religious images. Per-Wadjet also contained a sanctuary of Horus, the child of the sun deity who would be interpreted to represent the pharaoh, much later, Wadjet became associated with Isis as well as with many other deities. The name Wadjet is derived from the term for the symbol of her domain, Lower Egypt and her name means papyrus-colored one, as wadj is the Ancient Egyptian word for the color green and the et is an indication of her gender. Eventually, Wadjet was claimed as the goddess and protector of the whole of Lower Egypt and became associated with Nekhbet, depicted as a white vulture. After the unification the image of Nekhbet joined Wadjet on the crown, the Ancient Egyptian word Wadj signifies blue and green. It is also the name for the well-known Eye of the Moon, indeed, in later times, she was often depicted simply as a woman with a snakes head, or as a woman wearing the uraeus. The uraeus originally had been her body alone, which wrapped around or was coiled upon the head of the pharaoh or another deity, Wadjet was depicted as a cobra. As patron and protector, later Wadjet often was shown coiled upon the head of Ra, in order to act as his protection, this image of her became the uraeus symbol used on the royal crowns as well. This is an image that appeared repeatedly in the later images and myths of cultures surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, called the caduceus. Her image also rears up from the staff of the poles that are used to indicate deities, as seen in the hieroglyph for uraeus above. An interpretation of the Milky Way was that it was the snake, Wadjet. In this interpretation she was associated with Hathor and other early deities among the various aspects of the great mother goddess, including MutWadjet – Two images of Wadjet appear on this carved wall in the Hatshepsut Temple at Luxor
28. Uraeus – The Uraeus is the stylized, upright form of an Egyptian cobra, used as a symbol of sovereignty, royalty, deity and divine authority in ancient Egypt. The Uraeus is a symbol for the goddess Wadjet and she was one of the earliest Egyptian deities and who often was depicted as a cobra. The center of her cult was in Per-Wadjet, later called Buto by the Greeks and she became the patroness of the Nile Delta and the protector of all of Lower Egypt. In whatever manner that the Uraeus was displayed upon the head, it was, in effect. The pharaoh was recognized only by wearing the Uraeus, which conveyed legitimacy to the ruler, there is evidence for this tradition even in the Old Kingdom during the third millennium BCE. Several goddesses associated with or being considered aspects of Wadjet are depicted wearing the Uraeus also, the importance of their separate cults kept them from becoming merged as with so many Egyptian deities. Together, they were known as The Two Ladies, who became the joint protectors and patrons of the unified Egypt. Later, the pharaohs were seen as a manifestation of the sun god Ra, in some mythological works, the eyes of Ra are said to be uraei. As the Uraeus was seen as a symbol, the deities Horus. In early ancient Egyptian mythology, Horus would have been the given to any king as part of the many titles taken. According to the mythology of Re, the first Uraeus was said to have been created by the goddess Isis, who formed it from the dust of the earth. In this version of the mythology, the Uraeus was the instrument with which Isis gained the throne of Egypt for Osiris, Isis is associated with and may be considered an aspect of Wadjet. In 1919, after only a half-hour of excavation, the Qufti worker Hosni Ibrahim held in his hands the solid-gold Golden Uraeus of Senusret II and it had been decided to make a complete clearance of the El-Lahun Pyramids rooms at Saqqara. The start in the offering chamber, leading from the tomb, on the south, immediately revealed in the turnover of the six inches of debris. Prior to the 1922 find of Tutankhamuns tomb, this Golden Uraeus was the only ornament ever known to be worn by an entombed pharaoh, and it was thought that it was passed to the next pharaoh. The Golden Uraeus is of gold,6.7 cm, black eyes of granite, a snake head of deep ultramarine lapis lazuli, the flared cobra hood of dark carnelian inlays. For mounting on the crown, two loops in the rear-supporting tail of the cobra provide the attachment points. Besides the Uraeus being used as an ornament for statuary or as an adornment on the pharaoh, it also was used for jewellery, however, another important use is as the hieroglyphUraeus – Mask of Tutankhamun 's mummy featuring a uraeus, from the eighteenth dynasty. The cobra image of Wadjet with the vulture image of Nekhbet representing of the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt
29. Pschent – The Pschent was the name of the Double Crown worn by rulers in Ancient Egypt. The Ancient Egyptians generally referred to it as sekhemti, the Two Powerful Ones and it combined the Red Deshret Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Hedjet Crown of Upper Egypt. The Pschent represented the power over all of unified Egypt. These were fastened to the front of the Pschent and referred to as the Two Ladies, later, the vulture head sometimes was replaced by a second cobra. The Cairo fragment, on the hand, shows these prehistoric rulers wearing the Pschent. As is the case with the Deshret and the Hedjet Crowns and it is known only from statuary, depictions, inscriptions, and ancient tales. Among the deities sometimes depicted wearing the Double Crown are Horus and Atum or Ra both representing the pharaoh or having a special relationship to the pharaohPschent – Ring of Ptolemy VI Philometor wearing the Pschent-Double Crown, 3rd to 2nd Century BC. Ptolemaic rulers wore the Pschent in Egypt only and wore the diadem in the other territories
30. Battle of Kadesh – The battle is generally dated to 1274 BC in the conventional Egyptian chronology, and is the earliest battle in recorded history for which details of tactics and formations are known. It is believed to have been the largest chariot battle ever fought, as a result of the multiple Kadesh inscriptions, it is the best documented battle in all of ancient history. After expelling the Hyksos 15th dynasty around 1550 BC, the native Egyptian New Kingdom rulers became more aggressive in reclaiming control of their states borders. Thutmose I, Thutmose III and his son and coregent Amenhotep II fought battles from Megiddo north to the Orontes River, many of the Egyptian campaign accounts between c.1400 and 1300 BC reflect the general destabilization of the region of the Djahi. The reigns of Thutmose IV and Amenhotep III were undistinguished, except that Egypt continued to lose territory to Mitanni in northern Syria, during the late Egyptian 18th dynasty, the Amarna Letters tell the story of the decline of Egyptian influence in the region. The Egyptians showed flagging interest here until almost the end of the dynasty, horemheb, the last ruler of this dynasty, campaigned in this region, finally beginning to turn Egyptian interest back to this region. This process continued in the 19th Dynasty, like his father Ramesses I, Seti I was a military commander and set out to restore Egypts empire to the days of the Tuthmosis kings almost a century before. Inscriptions on Karnak temple walls record the details of his campaigns into Canaan and he took 20,000 men and reoccupied abandoned Egyptian posts and garrisoned cities. He made a peace with the Hittites, took control of coastal areas along the Mediterranean. A second campaign led to his capture of Kadesh and Amurru and his son and heir Ramesses II campaigned with him. There are historical records that record a large weapons order by Ramesses II in the prior to the expedition he led to Kadesh in his fifth regnal year. However, at point, both regions may have lapsed back into Hittite control. What exactly happened to Amurru is disputed, the Hittitologist Trevor Bryce suggests that, although it may have fallen once again under Hittite control, it is more likely Amurru remained a Hittite vassal state. The immediate antecedents to the Battle of Kadesh were the campaigns of Ramesses II into Canaan. In the fourth year of his reign, he marched north into Syria, either to recapture Amurru or, as an effort, to confirm his vassals loyalty. The recovery of Amurru was Muwatallis stated motivation for marching south to confront the Egyptians, Ramesses marched north in the fifth year of his reign and encountered the Hittites at Kadesh. Ramesses army crossed the Egyptian border in the spring of year five of his reign and, after a months march, in the spring of the fifth year of his reign, in May 1274 BC, Ramesses II launched his campaign from his capital Pi-Ramesses. The army moved beyond the fortress of Tjel and along the coast leading to Gaza, Ramesses led an army of four divisions, Amun, Re, Seth and the apparently newly formed Ptah divisionBattle of Kadesh – Ramesses atop chariot, at the battle of Kadesh. (Relief inside his Abu Simbel temple.)
31. Ancient Egyptian royal titulary – The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. It symbolises worldly power and holy might and also acts as a sort of mission statement for the reign of a monarch. The full titulary, consisting of five names, did not come into standard usage until the Middle Kingdom, the Horus name is the oldest form of the pharaohs name, originating in the Predynastic Period. Many of the oldest-known Egyptian pharaohs were known only by this title, the Horus name was usually written in a serekh, a representation of a palace façade. The name of the pharaoh was written in hieroglyphs inside this representation of a palace, typically an image of the falcon God Horus was perched on top of or beside it. At least one Egyptian ruler, the 2nd dynasty Seth-Peribsen, used an image of the god Seth instead of Horus and he was succeeded by Khasekhemwy, who placed the symbols of both Seth and Horus above his name. Thereafter, the image of Horus always appeared alongside the name of the pharaoh, by the time of the New Kingdom the Horus name was often written without the enclosing serekh. The name is first definitively used by the First Dynasty pharaoh Semerkhet and this particular name was not typically framed by a cartouche or serekh, but always begins with the hieroglyphs of a vulture and cobra resting upon two baskets, the dual noun nebty. Also known as the Golden Horus Name, this form of the name typically featured the image of a Horus falcon perched above or beside the hieroglyph for gold. The meaning of this title has been disputed. One belief is that it represents the triumph of Horus over his uncle Seth, Gold also was strongly associated in the ancient Egyptian mind with eternity, so this may have been intended to convey the pharaohs eternal Horus name. Similar to the Nebty name, this particular name typically was not framed by a cartouche or serekh, the pharaohs throne name, the first of the two names written inside a cartouche, and usually accompanied the title nsw-bity. The term nsw-bity It has been suggested that the Berber term for strong man, the epithet neb tawy, Lord of the Two Lands, referring to valley and delta regions of Egypt, often occurs as well. This was the name given at birth and it was first introduced to the set of royal titles in the Fourth Dynasty and emphasizes the kings role as a representative of the solar god Ra. For women who became pharaoh, the title was interpreted as daughter also. Modern historians typically refer to the ancient kings of Egypt by this name, Middle Egyptian, An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Cairo, London, and New York, The American University in Cairo Press and Thames and Hudson. The Great Name, Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary, Egyptian Grammar, Being an Introduction to the Study of HieroglyphsAncient Egyptian royal titulary – Serekh containing the name of Djet and an association with Wadjet, on display at the Louvre
32. Egyptian mathematics – Ancient Egyptian mathematics is the mathematics that was developed and used in Ancient Egypt c.3000 to c.300 BC. Written evidence of the use of mathematics dates back to at least 3000 BC with the ivory labels found in Tomb U-j at Abydos and these labels appear to have been used as tags for grave goods and some are inscribed with numbers. Further evidence of the use of the base 10 number system can be found on the Narmer Macehead which depicts offerings of 400,000 oxen,1,422,000 goats and 120,000 prisoners. The evidence of the use of mathematics in the Old Kingdom is scarce, the lines in the diagram are spaced at a distance of one cubit and show the use of that unit of measurement. The earliest true mathematical documents date to the 12th dynasty, the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus which dates to the Second Intermediate Period is said to be based on an older mathematical text from the 12th dynasty. The Moscow Mathematical Papyrus and Rhind Mathematical Papyrus are so-called mathematical problem texts and they consist of a collection of problems with solutions. These texts may have been written by a teacher or a student engaged in solving typical mathematics problems, an interesting feature of Ancient Egyptian mathematics is the use of unit fractions. Scribes used tables to help work with these fractions. The Egyptian Mathematical Leather Roll for instance is a table of unit fractions which are expressed as sums of unit fractions. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus and some of the other texts contain 2 n tables and these tables allowed the scribes to rewrite any fraction of the form 1 n as a sum of unit fractions. During the New Kingdom mathematical problems are mentioned in the literary Papyrus Anastasi I, in the workers village of Deir el-Medina several ostraca have been found that record volumes of dirt removed while quarrying the tombs. Our understanding of ancient Egyptian mathematics is impeded by the paucity of available sources. The Reisner Papyrus dates to the early Twelfth dynasty of Egypt and was found in Nag el-Deir, the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus dates from the Second Intermediate Period, but its author, Ahmes, identifies it as a copy of a now lost Middle Kingdom papyrus. The RMP is the largest mathematical text, from the New Kingdom we have a handful of mathematical texts and inscription related to computations, The Papyrus Anastasi I is a literary text from the New Kingdom. It is written as a written by a scribe named Hori. A segment of the letter describes several mathematical problems, ostracon Senmut 153 is a text written in hieratic. Ostracon Turin 57170 is a written in hieratic. Ostraca from Deir el-Medina contain computations, ostracon IFAO1206 for instance shows the calculations of volumes, presumably related to the quarrying of a tombEgyptian mathematics – Slab stela of Old Kingdom princess Neferetiabet (dated 2590–2565 BC) from her tomb at Giza, painting on limestone, now in the Louvre.
33. Pharaoh – The word pharaoh ultimately derive from the Egyptian compound pr-ˤ3 great house, written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs pr house and ˤ3 column, here meaning great or high. It was used only in larger phrases such as smr pr-ˤ3 Courtier of the High House, with specific reference to the buildings of the court or palace. From the twelfth dynasty onward, the word appears in a wish formula Great House, may it live, prosper, and be in health, but again only with reference to the royal palace and not the person. During the reign of Thutmose III in the New Kingdom, after the rule of the Hyksos during the Second Intermediate Period. During the eighteenth dynasty the title pharaoh was employed as a designation of the ruler. From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-ˤ3 on its own was used as regularly as hm. f, the term, therefore, evolved from a word specifically referring to a building to a respectful designation for the ruler, particularly by the twenty-second dynasty and twenty-third dynasty. For instance, the first dated appearance of the pharaoh being attached to a rulers name occurs in Year 17 of Siamun on a fragment from the Karnak Priestly Annals. Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun and this new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II and the twenty-second dynasty kings. Shoshenq I was the successor of Siamun. Meanwhile, the old custom of referring to the sovereign simply as pr-ˤ3 continued in traditional Egyptian narratives, by this time, the Late Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced *par-ʕoʔ whence Herodotus derived the name of one of the Egyptian kings, Φερων. In the Bible, the title also occurs as פרעה, from that, Septuagint φαραώ pharaō and then Late Latin pharaō, both -n stem nouns. The Quran likewise spells it فرعون firawn with n, interestingly, the Arabic combines the original pharyngeal ayin sound from Egyptian, along with the -n ending from Greek. English at first spelt it Pharao, but the King James Bible revived Pharaoh with h from the Hebrew, meanwhile in Egypt itself, *par-ʕoʔ evolved into Sahidic Coptic ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ prro and then rro. Scepters and staves were a sign of authority in ancient Egypt. One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos, kings were also known to carry a staff, and Pharaoh Anedjib is shown on stone vessels carrying a so-called mks-staff. The scepter with the longest history seems to be the heqa-scepter, the earliest examples of this piece of regalia dates to pre-dynastic times. A scepter was found in a tomb at Abydos that dates to the late Naqada period, another scepter associated with the king is the was-scepter. This is a long staff mounted with an animal head, the earliest known depictions of the was-scepter date to the first dynastyPharaoh – Den
34. Djoser – Djoser was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty during the Old Kingdom and the founder of this epoch. He is well known under his Hellenized names Tosorthros and Sesorthos and he was the son of king Khasekhemwy and queen Nimaathap, but if he also was the direct throne successor is still unclear. The painted limestone statue of Djoser, now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, is the oldest known life-sized Egyptian statue, today at the site in Saqqara where it was found, a plaster copy of the statue stands in place of the original. The statue was found during the Antiquities Service Excavations of 1924–1925, in contemporary inscriptions, he is called Netjerikhet, meaning divine of body. Later sources, which include a New Kingdom reference to his construction, help confirm that Netjerikhet, more significantly, the English Egyptologist Toby Wilkinson has demonstrated that burial seals found at the entrance to Khasekhemwys tomb in Abydos name only Djoser, rather than Nebka. This supports the view that it was Djoser who buried and, hence, directly succeeded Khasekhemwy and this is also suggested by another jar sealing, dating to Djosers reign, calling her Mother of the King of the Two Lands. Her cult seems to have still been active in the reign of Sneferu. Inetkawes was their only known by name. There was also a royal female attested during Djosers reign. The relationship between Djoser and his successor, Sekhemkhet, is not known, and the date of his death is uncertain, manetho states Djoser ruled Egypt for twenty-nine years, while the Turin King List states it was only nineteen years. Because of his many building projects, particularly at Saqqara. Manethos figure appears to be accurate, according to Wilkinsons analysis. Unfortunately, next to all entrances are illegible today, the Year of coronation is preserved, followed by the year events receiving the twin-pillars and stretching the cords for the fortress Qau-Netjerw. Djoser dispatched several military expeditions to the Sinai Peninsula, during which the inhabitants were subdued. He also sent expeditions there to mine for minerals such as turquoise. This is known from inscriptions found in the desert there, sometimes displaying the banner of Seth alongside the symbols of Horus, the Sinai was also strategically important as a buffer between the Nile valley and Asia. His most famous monument was his step pyramid, which entailed the construction of several mastaba tombs one over another and these forms would eventually lead to the standard pyramid tomb in the later Old Kingdom. Some fragmentary reliefs found at Heliopolis and Gebelein mention Djosers name, also, he may have fixed the southern boundary of his kingdom at the First CataractDjoser – Limestone statue of Djoser from his serdab
35. Sneferu – Sneferu, well known under his Hellenized name Soris, was the founder of the 4th dynasty during the Old Kingdom. He built at least three pyramids that survive to this day and introduced innovations in the design and construction of pyramids in Ancient Egypt. Snefru, however, was known to have a minimum of at least three years after the cattle count dates, his years after the 10th, the 13th and this would mean that Sneferu ruled Egypt a minimum of 27 full years. However, in the Palermo Stone, recto 6 at the bottom of the fragment shows the year of the 7th count of Sneferu while recto 7 on the following row shows the year of the 8th count of Sneferu. Significantly, there is a mostly intact column for Sneferu in recto 5 which also mentions events in this kings reign in a specific year. This column must, therefore, be dated to the year after the 6th count of Sneferu, hence, Sneferus reign would be a minimum of 28 years. Sneferu was the first king of the dynasty of Ancient Egypt. Manetho was an Egyptian priest, living in the third century BC, manetho’s schematic has its flaws, nevertheless, modern scholars conventionally follow his method of grouping. The Papyrus Prisse, a Middle Kingdom source, supports the fact that King Huni was indeed Sneferu’s predecessor, aside from Sneferu’s succession, we learn from this text that later generations considered him to be a beneficent ruler. This idea may stem from the etymology of the king’s name and it is uncertain whether Huni was Sneferu’s father, however, the Cairo Annals Stone denotes that his mother may have been a woman named Meresankh. Hetepheres I was Sneferu’s main wife and the mother of Khufu, sons of Sneferu, Khufu - son of Sneferu and Hetepheres I, successor to Sneferu. Ankhhaf - King’s Son of his Body, King’s vizier, a famous bust of Ankhhaf is now in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Ankhhaf was married to the King’s Daughter Hetepheres, kanefer - King’s eldest son and Son of his Body. Buried in tomb 28 in Dashur, second Vizier of Sneferu, who continued to serve under Khufu. Nefermaat I - eldest son of Sneferu and husband of Itet, titles included, Priest of Bastet, Hereditary Prince, Guardian of Nekhen, great one of the five at the house of Thoth. Rahotep - King’s Son of his Body, High Priest of Re in Heliopolis, buried in Meidum with his wife Nofret. Owner of the statues now in the Cairo Museum. Daughters of Sneferu, Hetepheres A, married Ankhhaf and she was named after her mother, Queen HetepheresSneferu – Limestone statue of Sneferu, Egyptian Museum
36. Khufu – Khufu, originally Khnum-Khufu, is the birth name of an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, who ruled during the Fourth Dynasty in the first half of the Old Kingdom period. Khufu was the pharaoh of the 4th dynasty, he followed his possible father, king Sneferu. He is generally accepted as having commissioned the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the only completely preserved portrait of the king is a three-inch high ivory figurine found in a temple ruin of later period at Abydos in 1903. All other reliefs and statues were found in fragments and many buildings of Khufu are lost, everything known about Khufu comes from inscriptions in his necropolis at Giza and later documents. For example, Khufu is the actor of the famous Papyrus Westcar from the 13th dynasty. Most documents that mention king Khufu were written by ancient Egyptian, thanks to these documents, an obscure and critical picture of Khufus personality persists. Khufus name was dedicated to the earth deity Khnum, which point to an increase of Khnums popularity. Khufu may have viewed himself as a creator, a role that was already given to Khnum. As a consequence, the king connected Khnums name with his own, interestingly, the pharaoh officially used two versions of his birth name, Khnum-khuf and Khufu. The first version clearly exhibits Khufus religious loyalty to Khnum, the version does not. It is unknown as to why the king would use a shortened version, since it hides the name of Khnum. It might be possible though, that the name wasnt meant to be connected to any god at all. Khufu is well known under his Hellenized name Khêops or Cheops and less well known under another Hellenized name, a rare version of the name of Khufu, used by Josephus, is Sofe. Arab historians, who wrote stories about Khufu and the Giza pyramids. The royal family of Khufu was quite large and it is uncertain if Khufu was actually the biological son of Sneferu. Mainstream Egyptologists believe Sneferu was Khufus father, but only because it was handed down by historians that the eldest son or a selected descendant would inherit the throne. In 1925 the tomb of queen Hetepheres I, G 7000x, was found east of Khufus pyramid and it contained many precious grave goods, and several inscriptions give her the title Mut-nesut, together with the name of king Sneferu. Therefore, it seemed clear at first that Hetepheres was the wife of Sneferu, more recently, however, some have doubted this theory, because Hetepheres is not known to have borne the title Hemet-nesut, a title indispensable to confirm a queens royal statusKhufu – Statue of Khufu in the Cairo Museum
37. Userkaf – Userkaf was the founder of the Fifth dynasty of Egypt and the first pharaoh to start the tradition of building sun temples at Abusir. He ruled from 2494 to 2487 BC and constructed the pyramid of Userkaf complex at Saqqara, Userkaf may have been a grandson of Djedefre by his daughter, Neferhetepes. His father is unknown, while some believe his mother to have been Khentkaus I, another of Userkafs wives was the similarly named Queen Neferhetepes, known to be the mother of Sahure. Userkaf may also have been the father of Neferirkare Kakai, a son by Khentkaus I, another less common view, in concordance with a story of the Westcar Papyrus, is that the first three rulers of the fifth dynasty were brothers—the sons of a woman named Raddjedet. Thus, Sahure, Userkafs successor was most likely his son, Userkaf is given a reign of seven years by the Turin Royal Canon while Africanus states that Manethos Epitome attributes him 28 years of reign. Analyses of the space available on the Palermo stone between this date and Sahures register indicates that Userkaf did not reign longer than 12 to 14 years, in his comparative study of the fragments of the Palermo stone, Georges Daressy concluded that Userkaf reigned about 10 years. This figure is considered more plausible than Manethos 28 years given the monumental remains dating to his reign, four mentions of the year of the fifth cattle count were also found in Userkafs sun temple, which could indicate that Userkaf reigned for at least 10 years. However, these inscriptions are incomplete, in particular the kings name is lost, nikaankh, an official during Userkafs reign, had a royal decree of Userkaf reproduced in his mastaba. By this decree, Userkaf donates and reforms several royal domains in middle Egypt for the maintenance of the cult of Hathor, apparently, Userkaf also started the temple of Monthu at Tod, where he is the oldest attested pharaoh. Userkafs reign might have witnessed a recrudescence of trade between Egypt and its Mediterranean neighbors thanks to a series of expeditions, which are represented in his mortuary temple. Userkafs most innovative monument is undoubtedly his sun temple at Abu Gorab, first recognized by Richard Lepsius in the mid-19th century, it was studied by Ludwig Borchardt in the early 20th century and thoroughly excavated by Herbert Ricke in 1954. According to the annals, the construction of the temple started in Userkafs 5th year on the throne and, on that occasion. The site of Abusir may have been due to its proximity to Sakhebu. Userkafs sun temple covered an area of 44 ×83 m and was called Nḫn Rˁ. w, The fortress of Ra. It is believed that the construction of the sun temple marks a shift from the cult, so preponderant during the early 4th dynasty. The king was not revered directly as a god anymore but rather as the son of Re and this, in turn, changed the royal mortuary cult. In this context, the sun temple, oriented to the west, was a place of worship for the sun and was thought of as a part of the royal mortuary complex. However, the temple is not oriented to any cardinal pointUserkaf – Head of Userkaf, recovered from his sun temple at Abu Gurob.
38. Pepi II – Pepi II was a pharaoh of the Sixth Dynasty in Egypts Old Kingdom who reigned from c.2278 BC. His throne name, Neferkare, means Beautiful is the Ka of Re and he succeeded to the throne at age six, after the death of Merenre I. He was traditionally thought to be the son of Pepi I and Queen Ankhesenpepi II but the South Saqqara Stone annals record that Merenre had a minimum reign of 11 years. Inscriptions on these blocks give Ankhesenpepi II the royal titles of, Kings Wife of the Pyramid of Pepy I, Kings Wife of the Pyramid of Merenre. Therefore, today, many Egyptologists believe that Pepi II was likely Merenres own son, Pepi II would, therefore, be Pepi Is grandson while Merenre was, most likely, Pepi IIs father since he is known to have married Pepi IIs known mother, Queen Ankhesenpepi II. Pepi IIs reign marked a decline of the Old Kingdom. As the power of the nomarchs grew, the power of the pharaoh declined, with no dominant central power, local nobles began raiding each others territories and the Old Kingdom came to an end within mere decades after the close of Pepi IIs reign. His mother Ankhesenpepi II most likely ruled as regent in the years of his reign. An alabaster statuette in the Brooklyn Museum depicts a young Pepi II, in full kingly regalia, despite his long reign, this piece is one of only three known sculptural representations in existence of this particular king. She may have helped in turn by her brother Djau. Some scholars have taken the relative paucity of royal statuary to suggest that the court was losing the ability to retain skilled artisans. A glimpse of the personality of the pharaoh while he was still a child can be found in a letter he wrote to Harkhuf, a governor of Aswan, sent to trade and collect ivory, ebony, and other precious items, he captured a pygmy. She may be a daughter of Ankhesenpepi I and hence also Pepi IIs cousin, Iput II – A half-sister of Pepi II. Ankhesenpepi III She was the daughter of Merenre Nemtyemsaf I and hence a granddaughter of Pepi I, Ankhesenpepi IV – The mother of King Neferkare according to texts in her tomb. It is not known which Neferkare as there are several kings with that name during the First Intermediate Period and his name may be Neferkare Nebi. Udjebten She was also a daughter of Pepi I, of these queens, Neith, Iput, and Udjebten each had their own minor pyramids and mortuary temples as part of the kings own pyramid complex in Saqqara. Queen Ankhesenpepi III was buried in a pyramid near the pyramid of Pepi I Meryre, two more sons of Pepi II are known, Nebkauhor-Idu and Ptashepses. Pepi II seems to have carried on foreign policy in ways similar to that of his predecessors, copper and turquoise were mined at Wadi Maghareh in the Sinai, and alabaster was quarried from HatnubPepi II – Base of a headrest inscribed with Pepi II's titulary. Musée du Louvre.
39. Mentuhotep II – Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II was a Pharaoh of the 11th Dynasty who reigned for 51 years. Around his 39th year on the throne he reunited Egypt, thus ending the First Intermediate Period, consequently, he is considered the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom. Mentuhotep II was the son of Intef III and Intef IIIs wife Iah who may also have been his sister. This lineage is demonstrated by the stele of Henenu, an official who served under Intef II, Intef III and his son, as for Iah, she bore the title of mwt-nswt, Kings mother. The parentage of Mentuhotep II is also confirmed by a relief at Shatt er-Rigal. f Kings wife, his beloved. She gave Mentuhotep II two children, one of which was certainly Mentuhotep III since Tem was also called mwt-nswt, Kings mother and mwt-nswt-bitj, apparently she died after her husband and was buried by her son in Mentuhotep temple. Her tomb was discovered in 1859 by Lord Duffering and fully excavated in 1968 by D. Arnold, Neferu II was called Kings wife and hmt-nswt-mryt. f, Kings wife, his beloved. She was buried in the tomb TT319 of Deir el-Bahri, kawit was one of Mentuhotep IIs secondary wives. She bore the titles of hmt-nswt mryt. f Kings wife, his beloved and khkrt-nswt and she was a Priestess of the goddess Hathor. It has been suggested that she was Nubian and she was buried under the terrasse of Mentuhotep IIs mortuary temple where E. Naville uncovered her sarcophagus in 1907. Sadeh, Ashayet, Henhenet and Kemsit were all Mentuhotep IIs secondary wives and they bore the title of hmt-nswt mryt. f Kings wife, his beloved and khkrt-nswt-w3tit Unique embellishment of the King. They were priestesses of Hathor and each of them was buried in a pit dug under the terrasse of Mentuhotep IIs temple. Note that an alternative theory holds that Henhenet was one of Intef IIIs secondary wives, Henhenet might have died in childbirth. Mwyt, a girl buried with Mentuhotep IIs secondary wives. It is not clear if she was one of Mentuhoteps wives herself or one of his daughters, Mentuhotep II is considered to be the first ruler of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. The Turin Canon credits him with a reign of 51 years, when he ascended the Theban throne, Mentuhotep II inherited the vast land conquered by his predecessors from the first cataract in the south to Abydos and Tjebu in the north. Mentuhotep IIs first fourteen years of reign seem to have been peaceful in the Theban region as there are no surviving traces of conflict firmly datable to that period, in the 14th year of his reign, an uprising occurred in the north. This uprising is most probably connected with the conflict between Mentuhotep II based in Thebes and the rival 10th Dynasty based at Herakleopolis who threatened to invade Upper EgyptMentuhotep II – Mentuhotep II on a relief from his mortuary temple in Deir el-Bahari
40. Amenemhat I – See Amenemhat, for other individuals with this name. Amenemhat I, also Amenemhet I and the hellenized form Ammenemes, was the first ruler of the Twelfth Dynasty and he ruled from 1991 BC to 1962 BC. Amenemhat I was probably the same as the vizier named Amenemhat who led an expedition to Wadi Hammamat under his predecessor Mentuhotep IV, and possibly overthrew him from power. Scholars differ as to whether Mentuhotep IV was killed by Amenemhat I, Amenemhat I moved the capital from Thebes to Itjtawy and was buried in el-Lisht. Theres some evidence that the reign of Amenemhat I was beset with political turmoil, as indicated by the inscriptions of Nehri. There were some naval battles where an associate of Amenemhat I by the name of Khnumhotep I was involved, later, Khnumhotep was appointed as an important local governor at Beni Hasan, and he founded a dynasty of local governors there. In the inscriptions by Khnumhotep, mention is made of military campaigns against the Asiatics. The cult of the king was also promoted during this period, the vizier at the beginning of the reign was Ipi, at the end of the reign Intefiqer was in charge. Two treasurers can be placed under this king, another Ipi, two high stewards, Meketre and Sobeknakht, have also been identified. His pyramid was made in the fashion as 5th and 6th dynasty pyramids by having a rough core clad with a fine mantle of smooth limestone. The core of the pyramid was made up of rough blocks of limestone with a loose fill of sand, debris. Perhaps the most remarkable feature is that it included fragments of relief-decorated blocks from Old Kingdom monuments – many from pyramid causeways and temples, granite blocks from Khafres complex went into the lining and blocking of Amenemhat Is descending passage. We can only conclude that they were picked up at Saqqara and Giza, when the limestone outer layer was taken, the core slumped. The pyramid and temple have been used as a source of material for lime burners so only a small amount remains today, the Middle Kingdom pyramids were built closer to the Nile and Amenemhet Is burial chamber is now underwater because the River Nile has shifted course. The complex has a wall of limestone and an outer wall of mudbrick. There are a number of mastaba tombs between the walls and 22 burial shafts on the side of the pyramid. Two literary works dating from the end of the give an picture about Amenemhat Is death. The Instructions of Amenemhat were supposedly counsels that the king gave to his son during a dreamAmenemhat I – Relief of Amenemhat I from his mortuary complex at El-Lisht
41. Amenemhat III – See Amenemhat, for other individuals with this name. Amenemhat III, also spelled Amenemhet III, was a pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt. He ruled from c.1860 BC to c.1814 BC and his reign is regarded as the golden age of the Middle Kingdom. He may have had a coregency with his father, Senusret III. His daughter, Sobekneferu, later succeeded Amenemhat IV, as the last ruler of the twelfth dynasty, Amenemhat IIIs throne name, Nimaatre, means Belonging to the Justice of Re. He built his first pyramid at Dahshur, but there were construction problems, around Year 15 of his reign the king decided to build a new pyramid at Hawara, near the Faiyum. The pyramid at Dahshur was used as ground for several royal women. The mortuary temple attached to the Hawara pyramid may have known to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus as the Labyrinth. Strabo praised it as a wonder of the world, nevertheless, the kings burial was robbed in antiquity. His daughter or sister, Neferuptah, was buried in a separate pyramid 2 km southwest of the kings, the pyramidion of Amenemhet IIIs pyramid tomb was found toppled from the peak of its structure and preserved relatively intact, it is today located in the Cairo Egyptian Museum. There is very little evidence for military expeditions in the reign of the king, there is only one record for a small mission in year nine of the king. The evidence for that was found in an inscription in Nubia. The short text reports that a mission was guided by the mouth of Nekhen Zamonth who reports that he went north with a small troop. Many expeditions to mining areas are recorded under the king, there are two expeditions known to the Wadi el-Hudi at the southern border of Egypt, where Amethyst was collected. One of the dates to year 11, of the king. Two further to year 20 and to year 28, there were further mining expeditions to the Wadi Hammamat. These are dated to year 2,3,19,20 and 33 of the kings reign, the inscriptions of year 19 and 20 might be related to the building start of the pyramid complex at Hawara. They report the breaking of stone for statues, at the Red Sea coast, at Mersa was discovered a stela mentioning an expedition to Punt under Amenemhat IIIAmenemhat III – Statuette head of Amenemhat III, now in the Louvre
42. Thutmosis I – Thutmose I was the third pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. He received the throne after the death of the previous king, during his reign, he campaigned deep into the Levant and Nubia, pushing the borders of Egypt farther than ever before. He also built temples in Egypt, and a tomb for himself in the Valley of the Kings. He was succeeded by his son Thutmose II, who in turn was succeeded by Thutmose IIs sister and it has been speculated Thutmoses father was Amenhotep I. His mother, Senseneb, was of non-royal parentage and may have been a wife or concubine. Assuming she was related to Amenhotep, it could be thought that she was married to Thutmose in order to guarantee succession, however, this is known not to be the case for two reasons. Firstly, Amenhoteps alabaster bark built at Karnak associates Amenhoteps name with Thutmoses name well before Amenhoteps death, secondly, Thutmoses first-born son with Ahmose, Amenmose, was apparently born long before Thutmoses coronation. Thutmose had another son, Wadjmose, and two daughters, Hatshepsut and Nefrubity, by Ahmose, Wadjmose died before his father, and Nefrubity died as an infant. Thutmose had one son by another wife, Mutnofret and this son succeeded him as Thutmose II, whom Thutmose I married to his daughter, Hatshepsut. It was later recorded by Hatshepsut that Thutmose willed the kingship to both Thutmose II and Hatshepsut, however, this is considered to be propaganda by Hatshepsuts supporters to legitimise her claim to the throne when she later assumed power. A heliacal rising of Sothis was recorded in the reign of Thutmoses predecessor, Amenhotep I, the year of Amenhoteps death and Thutmoses subsequent coronation can be accordingly derived, and is dated to 1506 BC by most modern scholars. However, if the observation were made at either Heliopolis or Memphis, as a minority of scholars promote, manetho records that Thutmose Is reign lasted 12 Years and 9 Months as a certain Mephres in his Epitome. This data is supported by two dated inscriptions from Years 8 and 9 of his reign bearing his cartouche found inscribed on a block in Karnak. According to the autobiography of Ahmose, son of Ebana, Thutmose traveled up the Nile and fought in the battle. Upon victory, he had the Nubian kings body hung from the prow of his ship and this helped integrate Nubia into the Egyptian empire. His Majesty commanded to dig this canal after he found it stopped up with no, Year 3, first month of the third season. His Majesty sailed this canal in victory and in the power of his return from overthrowing the wretched Kush and this indicates that he already fought a campaign in Syria, hence, his Syrian campaign may be placed at the beginning of his second regnal year. This second campaign was the farthest north any Egyptian ruler had ever campaigned, although it has not been found in modern times, he apparently set up a stele when he crossed the Euphrates RiverThutmosis I – A stone head, most likely depicting Thutmose I, at the British Museum
43. Hatshepsut – Hatshepsut was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. She was the second historically confirmed female pharaoh, the first being Sobekneferu, Hatshepsut came to the throne of Egypt in 1478 BC. Officially, she ruled jointly with Thutmose III, who had ascended to the throne the year as a child of about two years old. Hatshepsut was the wife of Thutmose II, Thutmose III’s father. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, according to Egyptologist James Henry Breasted she is also known as the first great woman in history of whom we are informed. Hatshepsut was the daughter and only child of Thutmose I and his primary wife Ahmose and her husband Thutmose II was the son of Thutmose I and a secondary wife named Mutnofret, who carried the title Kings daughter and was probably a child of Ahmose I. Hatshepsut and Thutmose II had a daughter named Neferure, Thutmose II fathered Thutmose III with Iset, a secondary wife. Today Egyptologists generally agree that Hatshepsut assumed the position of pharaoh, Hatshepsut was described as having a reign of about 22 years by ancient authors. Josephus and Julius Africanus both quote Manethos king list, mentioning a woman called Amessis or Amensis who has identified as Hatshepsut. In Josephus work, her reign is described as lasting 21 years and nine months, dating the beginning of her reign is more difficult, however. Her fathers reign began in either 1526 or 1506 BC according to the high and low estimates of her reign, the length of the reigns of Tuthmosis I and Tuthmosis II, however, cannot be determined with absolute certainty. With short reigns, Hatshepsut would have ascended the throne 14 years after the coronation of Tuthmosis I, longer reigns would put her ascension 25 years after Tuthmosis Is coronation. Thus, Hatshepsut could have assumed power as early as 1512 BC, or, Hatshepsut established the trade networks that had been disrupted during the Hyksos occupation of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, thereby building the wealth of the eighteenth dynasty. She oversaw the preparations and funding for a mission to the Land of Punt and this trading expedition to Punt was roughly during Hatshepsuts ninth year of reign. It set out in her name with five ships, each measuring 70 feet long bearing several sails, many trade goods were bought in Punt, notably frankincense and myrrh. Hatshepsuts delegation returned from Punt bearing 31 live myrrh trees, the roots of which were kept in baskets for the duration of the voyage. This was the first recorded attempt to transplant foreign trees and it is reported that Hatshepsut had these trees planted in the courts of her mortuary temple complex. Egyptians also returned with a number of gifts from PuntHatshepsut – Statue of Hatshepsut on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
44. Thutmosis III – Thutmose III was the sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. During the first 22 years of Thutmoses reign he was co-regent with his stepmother and aunt, Hatshepsut, while he was shown first on surviving monuments, both were assigned the usual royal names and insignia and neither is given any obvious seniority over the other. He served as the head of her armies, during the final 2 years of his reign, he appointed his son and successor, Amenhotep II, as his junior co-regent. His firstborn son and heir to the throne, Amenemhat, predeceased Thutmose III, when Thutmose III died, he was buried in the Valley of the Kings as were the rest of the kings from this period in Egypt. Thutmose III was the son of Thutmose II by a secondary wife and his fathers great royal wife was Queen Hatshepsut. Her daughter Neferure was Thutmoses half-sister, Thutmosis III had little power over the empire while Hatshepsut exercised the formal titulary of kingship. Her rule was quite prosperous and marked by great advancements, when he reached a suitable age and demonstrated the capability, she appointed him to head her armies. Thutmosis III had several wives, Satiah, She may have been the mother of his firstborn son, an alternative theory is that the boy was the son of Neferure. Thutmoses successor, the prince and future king Amenhotep II, was the son of Merytre-Hatshepsut. Additional children include Menkheperre and daughters named Nebetiunet, Meryetamun, Meryetamun, Merytre-Hatshepsut was the daughter of the divine adoratrice Huy. Nebtu, she is depicted on a pillar in Thutmose IIIs tomb, menwi, Merti, Menhet three foreign wives. Neferure, Thutmose III may have married his half-sister, but there is no evidence for this marriage. It has been suggested that Neferure, instead of Satiah, may have been the mother of Amenemhat, Thutmose III reigned from 1479 BC to 1425 BC according to the Low Chronology of Ancient Egypt. This has been the conventional Egyptian chronology in academic circles since the 1960s and this document has no note of the place of observation, but it can safely be assumed that it was taken in either a Delta city such as Memphis or Heliopolis, or in Thebes. These two latitudes give dates 20 years apart, the High and Low chronologies, respectively, the length of Thutmose IIIs reign is known to the day thanks to information found in the tomb of the military commander Amenemheb-Mahu. Amenemheb-Mahu records Thutmose IIIs death to his masters 54th regnal year, widely considered a military genius by historians, Thutmose III made 16 raids in 20 years. He was an active expansionist ruler, sometimes called Egypts greatest conqueror or the Napoleon of Egypt and he is recorded to have captured 350 cities during his rule and conquered much of the Near East from the Euphrates to Nubia during seventeen known military campaigns. He was the first Pharaoh after Thutmose I to cross the Euphrates and his campaign records were transcribed onto the walls of the temple of Amun at Karnak, and are now transcribed into Urkunden IVThutmosis III – Thutmosis III statue in Luxor Museum
45. Amenhotep III – Amenhotep III, also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent, was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. According to different authors, he ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC, or from June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC, Amenhotep III was Thutmoses son by a minor wife, Mutemwiya. His reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when he died in the 38th or 39th year of his reign, his son initially ruled as Amenhotep IV, but then changed his own royal name to Akhenaten. The son of the future Thutmose IV and a minor wife Mutemwiya and he was a member of the Thutmosid family that had ruled Egypt for almost 150 years since the reign of Thutmose I. Amenhotep III was the father of two sons with his Great Royal Wife Tiye and their first son, Crown Prince Thutmose, predeceased his father and their second son, Amenhotep IV, later known as Akhenaten, ultimately succeeded Amenhotep III to the throne. Amenhotep III also may have been the father of a third child—called Smenkhkare, Amenhotep III and Tiye may also have had four daughters, Sitamun, Henuttaneb, Isis or Iset, and Nebetah. They appear frequently on statues and reliefs during the reign of their father, Nebetah is attested only once in the known historical records on a colossal limestone group of statues from Medinet Habu. Amenhotep III elevated two of his four daughters—Sitamun and Isis—to the office of royal wife during the last decade of his reign. Evidence that Sitamun already was promoted to office by Year 30 of his reign, is known from jar-label inscriptions uncovered from the royal palace at Malkata. The goddess Hathor herself was related to Ra as first the mother and later wife, hence, Amenhotep IIIs marriage to his two daughters should not be considered unlikely based on contemporary views of marriage. Amenhotep III is known to have married several women, Gilukhepa. Tadukhepa, the daughter of his ally Tushratta of Mitanni, Around Year 36 of his reign, a daughter of Kurigalzu, king of Babylon. A daughter of Kadashman-Enlil, king of Babylon, a daughter of Tarhundaradu, ruler of Arzawa. A daughter of the ruler of Ammia, Amenhotep III has the distinction of having the most surviving statues of any Egyptian pharaoh, with over 250 of his statues having been discovered and identified. Since these statues span his life, they provide a series of portraits covering the entire length of his reign. Their lengthy inscribed texts extol the accomplishments of the pharaoh, for instance,123 of these commemorative scarabs record the large number of lions that Amenhotep III killed with his own arrows from his first regnal year up to his tenth year. Similarly, five other state that the foreign princess who would become a wife to him, Gilukhepa. She was the first of many such princesses who would enter the pharaohs household, another eleven scarabs record the excavation of an artificial lake he had built for his Great Royal Wife, Queen Tiye, in his eleventh regnal year, Regnal Year 11 under the Majesty ofAmenhotep III – Colossal statue of Amenhotep III
46. Akhenaten – Akhenaten known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV, was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC. An early inscription likens the Aten to the sun as compared to stars, Akhenaten tried to bring about a departure from traditional religion, yet in the end it would not be accepted. After his death, his monuments were dismantled and hidden, his statues were terminated and he was all but lost from history until the discovery during the 19th century of the site of Akhetaten, the city he built and designed for the worship of Aten, at Amarna. DNA analysis has determined that the man buried in KV55 is the father of King Tutankhamun, the future Akhenaten was a younger son of Amenhotep III and Chief Queen Tiye. The eldest son Crown Prince Thutmose was recognized as the heir of Amenhotep III but he died relatively young, there is much controversy around whether Amenhotep IV succeeded to the throne on the death of his father Amenhotep III or whether there was a coregency. Other literature by Donald Redford, William Murnane, Alan Gardiner, in February 2014, the Egyptian Ministry for Antiquities announced what it called conclusive evidence that Akhenaten shared power with his father for at least 8 years. The evidence came from the found in the Luxor tomb of Vizier Amenhotep-Huy. A team of Spanish archeologists have been working at this tomb, Amenhotep IV was crowned in Thebes and there he started a building program. He decorated the entrance to the precincts of the temple of Amun-Re with scenes of his worshiping Re-Harakhti. He soon decreed the construction of a dedicated to the Aten in Eastern Karnak. This Temple of Amenhotep IV was called the Gempaaten, the Gempaaten consisted of a series of buildings, including a palace and a structure called the Hwt Benben which was dedicated to Queen Nefertiti. Other Aten temples constructed at Karnak during this time include the Rud-menu, during this time he did not repress the worship of Amun, and the High Priest of Amun was still active in the fourth year of his reign. The king appears as Amenhotep IV in the tombs of some of the nobles in Thebes, Kheruef, Ramose, in the tomb of Ramose, Amenhotep IV appears on the west wall in the traditional style, seated on a throne with Ramose appearing before the king. On the other side of the doorway, Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti are shown in the window of appearance with the Aten depicted as the sun disc. In the Theban tomb of Parennefer, Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti are seated on a throne with the sun disk depicted over the king, among the latter-known documents referring to Amenhotep IV are two copies of a letter from the Steward Of Memphis Apy to the pharaoh. The documents were found in Gurob and are dated to regnal year 5, third month of the Growing Season, on day 13, Month 8, in the fifth year of his reign, the king arrived at the site of the new city Akhetaten. A month before that Amenhotep IV had officially changed his name to Akhenaten, Amenhotep IV changed most of his 5 fold titulary in year 5 of his reign. The only name he kept was his prenomen or throne name of Neferkheperure, some recent debate has focused on the extent to which Akhenaten forced his religious reforms on his peopleAkhenaten – Statue of Akhenaten in the early Amarna style.
47. Tutankhamun – Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period. He has, since his discovery, been referred to as King Tut. His original name, Tutankhaten, means Living Image of Aten, in hieroglyphs, the name Tutankhamun was typically written Amen-tut-ankh, because of a scribal custom that placed a divine name at the beginning of a phrase to show appropriate reverence. The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon of Tutankhamuns nearly intact tomb received worldwide press coverage and it sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamuns mask, now in the Egyptian Museum, remains the popular symbol. Exhibits of artifacts from his tomb have toured the world, in February 2010, the results of DNA tests confirmed that he was the son of Akhenaten. His mother was Akhenatens sister and wife, whose name is unknown, the mysterious deaths of a few of those who excavated Tutankhamuns tomb has been popularly attributed to the curse of the pharaohs. Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten and one of Akhenatens sisters, as a prince, he was known as Tutankhaten. He ascended to the throne in 1333 BC, at the age of nine or ten and his wet nurse was a woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara. His teacher was most likely Sennedjem, when he became king, he married his half-sister, Ankhesenpaaten, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun. They had two daughters, both stillborn, computed tomography studies released in 2011 revealed that one daughter died at 5–6 months of pregnancy and the other at 9 months of pregnancy. No evidence was found in either mummy of congenital anomalies or an apparent cause of death, given his age, the king probably had very powerful advisers, presumably including General Horemheb and Grand Vizier Ay. Horemheb records that the king appointed him lord of the land as hereditary prince to maintain law and he also noted his ability to calm the young king when his temper flared. In his third year, under the influence of his advisors. He ended the worship of the god Aten and restored the god Amun to supremacy, the ban on the cult of Amun was lifted and traditional privileges were restored to its priesthood. The capital was moved back to Thebes and the city of Akhetaten abandoned and this is when he changed his name to Tutankhamun, Living image of Amun, reinforcing the restoration of Amun. As part of his restoration, the king initiated building projects, in particular at Karnak in Thebes, many monuments were erected, and an inscription on his tomb door declares the king had spent his life in fashioning the images of the gods. The traditional festivals were now celebrated again, including those related to the Apis Bull, Horemakhet and his restoration stela says, The temples of the gods and goddesses. Their shrines were deserted and overgrown and their sanctuaries were as non-existent and their courts were used as roadsTutankhamun – Mask of Tutankhamun's mummy, the popular icon for ancient Egypt at The Egyptian Museum.
48. Ramesses II – Ramesses II, also known as Ramesses the Great and Ozymandias, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He often is regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and his successors and later Egyptians called him the Great Ancestor. Ramesses II led several expeditions into the Levant, reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan. He also led expeditions to the south, into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali, at age fourteen, Ramesses was appointed Prince Regent by his father Seti I. He is believed to have taken the throne in his teens and is known to have ruled Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC. Manetho attributes Ramesses II a reign of 66 years and 2 months, most Egyptologists today believe he assumed the throne on May 31,1279 BC, estimates of his age at death vary,90 or 91 is considered most likely. Ramesses II celebrated an unprecedented 14 sed festivals during his reign—more than any other pharaoh. On his death, he was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings, his later was moved to a royal cache where it was discovered in 1881. The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, temples and he established the city of Pi-Ramesses in the Nile Delta as his new capital and used it as the main base for his campaigns in Syria. He is known as Ozymandias in the Greek sources, from a transliteration into Greek of a part of Ramesses throne name, Usermaatre Setepenre, The justice of Rê is powerful – chosen of Rê. Early in his life, Ramesses II embarked on campaigns to restore possession of previously held territories lost to the Nubians and Hittites. He also was responsible for suppressing some Nubian revolts and carrying out a campaign in Libya, during Ramesses IIs reign, the Egyptian army is estimated to have totaled about 100,000 men, a formidable force that he used to strengthen Egyptian influence. The Sherden people probably came from the coast of Ionia, from southwest Anatolia or perhaps, a stele from Tanis speaks of their having come in their war-ships from the midst of the sea, and none were able to stand before them. In that sea battle, together with the Sherden, the pharaoh also defeated the Lukka, the immediate antecedents to the Battle of Kadesh were the early campaigns of Ramesses II into Canaan. The inscription is almost totally illegible, due to weathering, additional records tell us that he was forced to fight a Canaanite prince who was mortally wounded by an Egyptian archer, and whose army subsequently, was routed. Ramesses carried off the princes of Canaan as live prisoners to Egypt, Ramesses then plundered the chiefs of the Asiatics in their own lands, returning every year to his headquarters at Riblah to exact tribute. In the fourth year of his reign, he captured the Hittite vassal state of Amurru during his campaign in Syria, the Battle of Kadesh in his fifth regnal year was the climactic engagement in a campaign that Ramesses fought in Syria, against the resurgent Hittite forces of Muwatallis. The pharaoh wanted a victory at Kadesh both to expand Egypts frontiers into Syria, and to emulate his father Seti Is triumphal entry into the city just a decade or so earlier and he also constructed his new capital, Pi-RamessesRamesses II – One of the four external seated statues of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel.
49. Psusennes I – Psusennes I was the third pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty who ruled from Tanis between 1047 –1001 BC. He was the son of Pinedjem I and Henuttawy, Ramesses XIs daughter by Tentamun, professor Pierre Montet discovered pharaoh Psusennes Is intact tomb in Tanis in 1940. However, the kings magnificent funerary mask was recovered intact, it proved to be made of gold and lapis lazuli and held inlays of black and white glass for the eyes and eyebrows of the object. Psusennes Is mask is considered to be one of the masterpieces of the treasure of Tanis and is housed in Room 2 of the Cairo Museum. It has a width and height of 38 cm and 48 cm respectively. The pharaohs fingers and toes had been encased in gold stalls, the finger stalls are the most elaborate ever found, with sculpted fingernails. Each finger wore a ring of gold and lapis lazuli or some other semiprecious stone. A cartouche on the red outer sarcophagus shows that it had originally made for Pharaoh Merenptah. Psusennes I, himself, was interred in a silver coffin which was inlaid with gold. Since silver was considerably rarer in Egypt than gold, Psusennes Is silver coffin represents a sumptuous burial of great wealth during Egypts declining years. Dr. Douglass Derry, who worked as the head of Cairo Universitys Anatomy Department, examined the remains in 1940. Psusennes Is precise reign length is unknown because different copies of Manethos records credit him with a reign of either 41 or 46 years. Some Egyptologists have proposed raising the 41 year figure by a decade to 51 years to closely match certain anonymous Year 48. Jansen-Winkeln notes that in the first half of Dyn, hence, two separate Year 49 dates from Thebes and Kom Ombo could be attributed to the ruling High Priest Menkheperre in Thebes instead of Psusennes I but this remains uncertain. Psusennes Is reign has been estimated at 46 years by the editors of the Handbook to Ancient Egyptian Chronology. During his long reign, Psusennes built the walls and the central part of the Great Temple at Tanis which was dedicated to the triad of Amun, Mut. Bob Brier, Egyptian Mummies, Unraveling the Secrets of an Ancient Art, William Morrow & Co, ad Thijs, The Burial of Psusennes I and “The Bad Times” of P. Brooklyn 16.205, ZÄS96, 209–223 Jean Yoyotte, Secrets of the Dead episode, The Silver PharaohPsusennes I – Gold burial mask of King Psusennes I, discovered in 1940 by Pierre Montet
50. Taharka – Taharqa, also spelled Taharka or Taharqo, was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty and qore of the Kingdom of Kush. Taharqa was the son of Piye, the Nubian king of Napata who had first conquered Egypt, Taharqa was also the cousin and successor of Shebitku. The successful campaigns of Piye and Shabaka paved the way for a prosperous reign by Taharqa, Taharqas reign can be dated from 690 BC to 664 BC. Evidence for the dates of his reign is derived from the Serapeum stela and this stela records that an Apis bull born and installed in Year 26 of Taharqa died in Year 20 of Psammetichus I, having lived 21 years. This would give Taharqa a reign of 26 years and a fraction, Taharqa explicitly states in Kawa Stela V, line 15, that he succeeded his predecessor after the latters death with this statement, I received the Crown in Memphis after the Falcon flew to heaven. Although Taharqas reign was filled with conflict with the Assyrians, it was also a prosperous period in Egypt. When Taharqa was about 20 years old, he participated in a battle with the Assyrian emperor Sennacherib at Eltekeh. The might of Taharqas military forces was established at Eltekeh, leading to a period of peace in Egypt, during this period of peace and prosperity, the empire flourished. In the sixth year of Taharqas reign, prosperity was also aided by abundant rainfall, Taharqa took full advantage of the lull in fighting and abundant harvest. He restored existing temples, built new ones, and built the largest pyramid in the Napatan region, particularly impressive were his additions to the Temple at Karnak, new temple at Kawa, and temple at Jebel Barkal. Scholars have identified Taharqa with Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia, who waged war against Sennacherib during the reign of King Hezekiah of Judah, the events in the Biblical account are believed to have taken place in 701 BC, whereas Taharqa came to the throne some ten years later. Herodotus, the Greek historian who wrote his Histories ca.450 BC, speaks of a divinely-appointed disaster destroying an army of Sennacherib, which was defeated by Sethos after praying to the gods. The gods sent a multitude of field-mice, which devoured all the quivers and bowstrings of the enemy, and ate the thongs by which they managed their shields. This is commemorated in a statue of Sethos, with a mouse in his hand, and an inscription to this effect Look on me. While Taharqa was still in the neighbourhood of Pelusium, some unexpected disaster may have befallen the Assyrian host on the borders of Palestine, the two snakes in the crown of pharaoh Taharqa show that he was the king of both the lands of Egypt and Nubia. It was during his reign that Egypts enemy Assyria at last invaded Egypt, Esarhaddon led several campaigns against Taharqa, which he recorded on several monuments. His first attack in 677 BC, aimed at pacifying Arab tribes around the Dead Sea, Esarhaddon then proceeded to invade Egypt proper in Taharqas 17th regnal year, after Esarhaddon had settled a revolt at Ashkelon. Taharqa defeated the Assyrians on that occasion, three years later in 671 BC the Assyrian king captured and sacked Memphis, where he captured numerous members of the royal familyTaharka – Granite sphinx of Taharqa from Kawa in Sudan
51. Psamtik I – Wahibre Psamtik I, known by the Greeks as Psammeticus or Psammetichus, who ruled 664–610 BC, was the first of three kings of that name of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt. From cuneiform texts, it was discovered that twenty local princelings were appointed by Esarhaddon, the labyrinth built by Amenemhat III of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt is ascribed by Herodotus to the Dodecarchy, which must represent this combination of rulers. Necho I died in 664 BC when the Kushite king Tantamani tried unsuccessfully to control of lower Egypt from the Assyrian Empire. After his fathers death, Psamtik both united all of Egypt and freed it from Assyrian control within the first ten years of his reign, psamtiks victory destroyed the last vestiges of the Nubian Twenty-fifth Dynastys control over Upper Egypt under Tantamani since Thebes now accepted his authority. Nitocris would hold her office for 70 years from 656 BC until her death in 585 BC, thereafter, Psamtik campaigned vigorously against those local princes who opposed his reunification of Egypt. One of his victories over certain Libyan marauders is mentioned in a Year 10, Psamtik won Egypts independence from the Assyrian Empire and restored Egypts prosperity during his 54-year reign. The pharaoh proceeded to close relations with archaic Greece and also encouraged many Greek settlers to establish colonies in Egypt. In particular, he settled some Greeks at Tahpanhes, the Greek historian Herodotus conveyed an anecdote about Psamtik in the second volume of his Histories. During his travel to Egypt, Herodotus heard that Psammetichus sought to discover the origin of language by conducting an experiment with two children, the hypothesis was that the first word would be uttered in the root language of all people. When one of the children cried βεκός with outstretched arms, the shepherd concluded that the word was Phrygian because that was the sound of the Phrygian word for bread. Thus, they concluded that the Phrygians were a people than the Egyptians. There are no other extant sources to verify this story, psamtiks chief wife was Mehytenweskhet, the daughter of Harsiese, the vizier of the North and High Priests of Atum at Heliopolis. Psamtik and Mehytenweskhet were the parents of Necho II, Merneith, Harsiese was the son of vizier Harkhebi, and was related to two other Harsieses, both viziers, who were a part of the family of the famous Mayor of Thebes Montuemhat. On 9 March 2017, Egyptian and German archaeologists discovered a colossal statue about 7.9 metres in height at the Heliopolis site in Cairo. Made of quartzite, the statue was found in a state, with the bust, the lower part of the head. It is suggested to be of Psamtik I due to engravings found that one of the pharaohs names on the base of the statue. A spokesperson at the time commented that If it does belong to this king, the head and torso are expected to be moved to the Grand Egyptian Museum. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, HughPsamtik I – Relief of Psamtik I making an offering to Ra-Horakhty (Tomb of Pabasa)
52. Ptolemy I – Ptolemy I Soter I, also known as Ptolemy Lagides, was a Macedonian Greek general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi who succeeded to his empire. Ptolemy became ruler of Egypt and founded a dynasty which ruled it for the three centuries, turning Egypt into a Hellenistic kingdom and Alexandria into a center of Greek culture. He assimilated some aspects of Egyptian culture, however, assuming the title pharaoh in 305/4 BC. The use of the title of pharaoh was often situational, pharaoh was used for an Egyptian audience, like all Macedonian nobles, Ptolemy I Soter claimed descent from Heracles, the mythical founder of the Argead dynasty that ruled Macedon. Ptolemy was one of Alexanders most trusted generals, and was among the seven somatophylakes attached to his person and he was a few years older than Alexander and had been his intimate friend since childhood. He was succeeded by his son Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Ptolemy served with Alexander from his first campaigns, and played a principal part in the later campaigns in Afghanistan and India. Ptolemy had his first independent command during the campaign against the rebel Bessus whom Ptolemy captured and handed over to Alexander for execution. During Alexanders campaign in the Indian subcontinent Ptolemy was in command of the guard at the siege of Aornos. When Alexander died in 323 BC, Ptolemy is said to have instigated the resettlement of the made at Babylon. Ptolemy quickly moved, without authorization, to subjugate Cyrenaica, by custom, kings in Macedonia asserted their right to the throne by burying their predecessor. Ptolemy then openly joined the coalition against Perdiccas, Perdiccas appears to have suspected Ptolemy of aiming for the throne himself, and may have decided that Ptolemy was his most dangerous rival. Ptolemy executed Cleomenes for spying on behalf of Perdiccas — this removed the check on his authority. In 321 BC, Perdiccas attempted to invade Egypt only to fall at the hands of his own men, Ptolemys decision to defend the Nile against Perdiccass attempt to force it ended in fiasco for Perdiccas, with the loss of 2000 men. This failure was a blow to Perdiccas reputation, and he was murdered in his tent by two of his subordinates. Ptolemy immediately crossed the Nile, to provide supplies to what had the day before been an enemy army, Ptolemy was offered the regency in place of Perdiccas, but he declined. Ptolemy was consistent in his policy of securing a power base and his first occupation of Syria was in 318, and he established at the same time a protectorate over the petty kings of Cyprus. When Antigonus One-Eye, master of Asia in 315, showed dangerous ambitions, Ptolemy joined the coalition against him, in Cyprus, he fought the partisans of Antigonus, and re-conquered the island. A revolt in Cyrene was crushed the same year, in 312, Ptolemy and Seleucus, the fugitive satrap of Babylonia, both invaded Syria, and defeated Demetrius Poliorcetes, the son of Antigonus, in the Battle of GazaPtolemy I – Bust of Ptolemy I in the Louvre Museum
53. Cleopatra VII – Cleopatra VII Philopator, known to history simply as Cleopatra, was the last active ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt, briefly survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion. After her reign, Egypt became a province of the recently established Roman Empire, Cleopatra was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, a Greek family of Macedonian origin that ruled Egypt after Alexander the Greats death during the Hellenistic period. By contrast, Cleopatra did learn to speak Egyptian and represented herself as the reincarnation of the Egyptian goddess Isis, as queen, she consummated a liaison with Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne. She later elevated Caesarion, her son with Caesar, to co-ruler in name, after Caesars assassination in 44 BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesars legal heir Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. With Antony, she bore the twins Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios, Antony committed suicide after losing the Battle of Actium to Octavians forces, and Cleopatra followed suit. According to tradition, she killed herself by means of an asp bite on August 12,30 BC and she was outlived by Caesarion, who was declared pharaoh by his supporters, but he was soon killed on Octavians orders. Egypt then became the Roman province of Aegyptus, Cleopatras father Auletes was a direct descendant of Alexander the Greats general Ptolemy I Soter, son of Arsinoe and Lagus, both of Macedon. Centralization of power and corruption led to uprisings in and the losses of Cyprus and Cyrenaica, Ptolemy went to Rome with Cleopatra, Cleopatra VI Tryphaena seized the crown but died shortly afterwards in suspicious circumstances. It is believed that Berenice IV poisoned her so that she could assume sole rulership, regardless of the cause, she ruled until Ptolemy Auletes returned in 55 BC with Roman support, capturing Alexandria aided by Roman general Aulus Gabinius. Berenice was imprisoned and executed afterwards, her head allegedly being sent to the royal court on the decree of her father. Cleopatra now became joint regent and deputy to her father at age 14, Ptolemy XII died in March 51 BC. His will made 18-year-old Cleopatra and her 10-year-old brother Ptolemy XIII joint monarchs, the first three years of their reign were difficult due to economic failures, famine, deficient floods of the Nile, and political conflicts. Cleopatra was married to her brother, but she quickly made it clear that she had no intention of sharing power with him. In August 51 BC, relations broke down between Cleopatra and Ptolemy. Cleopatra dropped Ptolemys name from official documents and her face appeared on coins. The Gabiniani killed the sons of the Roman governor of Syria Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus when they came to ask the Gabiniani to assist their father against the Parthians, Cleopatra handed the murderers over to Bibulus in chains, whereupon the Gabiniani became bitter enemies of the queen. This conflict was one of the causes of Cleopatras fall from power shortly afterward. The sole reign of Cleopatra was finally ended by a cabal of courtiers led by the eunuch Pothinus, in connection with half-Greek general Achillas, circa 48 BC, Cleopatras younger brother Ptolemy XIII became sole rulerCleopatra VII – Bust believed to be of Cleopatra VII, Altes Museum, Berlin
54. Ancient Egyptian offering formula – The Ancient Egyptian offering formula, generally referred to as the ḥtp-dỉ-nsw formula by Egyptologists, was written as an offering for the deceased in the ancient Egyptian religion. All ancient Egyptian offering formulas share the basic structure, but there is a great deal of variety in which deities and offerings are mentioned. That he may give a voice-offering of bread, beer, oxen, birds, alabaster, clothing, for the ka of the revered Senwosret, True of Voice. The offering formula is found carved or painted onto funerary stelae, false doors, coffins. Each person would, of course, have their own name, the offering formula was not a royal prerogative like some of the other religious texts such as the Litany of Re, and was used by anyone who could afford to have one made. The offering formula always begins with the phrase, ḥtp dỉ nsw This phrase comes from Old Egyptian, because the king was seen as an intermediary between the people of Egypt and the gods, the offering was made through him. Next the formula names a god of the dead and several of his epithets, usually Osiris, Anubis, or Geb or another deity. The following phrase is an invocation of Osiris, wsỉr nb ḏdw, nṯr ꜥꜣ, nb ꜣbḏw which means Osiris, the lord of Busiris, the great god. There was apparently no set rule about what epithets were used, however Lord of Busiris, Great God, after the list of deities and their titles, the formula proceeds with a list of the ḫrt-prw, or invocation offerings. The list is always preceded by the phrase, or dỉ=f prt-ḫrw or dỉ=sn prt-ḫrw which means He give invocation offerings, the last part of the offering formula lists the name and titles of the recipient of the invocation offerings. For example, n kꜣ n ỉmꜣḫy s-n-wsrt, mꜣꜥ-ḫrw which means for the ka of the revered Senwosret, Egyptian mythology Egyptian soul Ancient Egyptian burial customs Ancient Egyptian funerary texts Bennett, C. Growth of the ḤTP-DI-NSW Formula in the Middle Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom Offering Formulas—A Challenge. Die Opferformel des Alten Reiches unter Berücksichtigung einiger später Formen, mainz am Rhein, Verlag Philipp von Zabern. The Writing of the ḤTP-DI-NSW Formula in the Middle and New Kingdoms, telford, Mark Patrick, Death And The AfterlifeAncient Egyptian offering formula – The offering formula shown on a funerary stela. On this particular stela, the formula begins on the first line and reads from right to left
55. Horus – Horus is one of the most significant ancient Egyptian deities. He was worshipped from at least the late prehistoric Egypt until the Ptolemaic Kingdom, different forms of Horus are recorded in history and these are treated as distinct gods by Egyptologists. He was most often depicted as a falcon, most likely a falcon or peregrine falcon. In another tradition Hathor is regarded as his mother and sometimes as his wife, Horus served many functions, most notably being a god of the sky, war and hunting. Horus is recorded in Egyptian hieroglyphs as ḥr. w Falcon, additional meanings are thought to have been the distant one or one who is above, over. As the language changed over time, it appeared in Coptic dialects variously as hoːɾ or ħoːɾ and was adopted into ancient Greek as Ὧρος Hōros and it also survives in Late Egyptian and Coptic theophoric names such as Har-si-ese Horus, Son of Isis. Nekheny may have been another falcon god worshipped at Nekhen, city of the falcon, Horus may be shown as a falcon on the Narmer Palette, dating from about the 31st century BC. In early Egypt, Horus was the brother of Isis, Osiris, Set, as different cults formed, he became the son of Isis and Osiris. Isis remained the sister of Osiris, Set and Nephthys, the Pyramid Texts describe the nature of the pharaoh in different characters as both Horus and Osiris. The pharaoh as Horus in life became the pharaoh as Osiris in death, New incarnations of Horus succeeded the deceased pharaoh on earth in the form of new pharaohs. The lineage of Horus, the product of unions between the children of Atum, may have been a means to explain and justify pharaonic power. The gods produced by Atum were all representative of cosmic and terrestrial forces in Egyptian life, the notion of Horus as the pharaoh seems to have been superseded by the concept of the pharaoh as the son of Ra during the Fifth Dynasty. Once Isis knew she was pregnant with Horus, she fled to the Nile Delta marshlands to hide from her brother Set, who jealously killed Osiris, there Isis bore a divine son, Horus. Since Horus was said to be the sky, he was considered to contain the sun. It became said that the sun was his eye and the moon his left, and that they traversed the sky when he. Later, the reason that the moon was not as bright as the sun was explained by a tale, known as the The Contendings of Horus and Seth. As Horus was the victor he became known as ḥr. w wr Horus the Great. In the struggle, Set had lost a testicle, explaining why the desert, Horus left eye had also been gouged out, then a new eye was created by part of Khonsu, the moon god, and was replacedHorus – Horus, (Louvre Museum), Shen rings in his grasp
56. Set (mythology) – Set /sɛt/ or Seth is a god of the desert, storms, disorder, violence, and foreigners in ancient Egyptian religion. In Ancient Greek, the name is given as Sēth. Set is not, however, a god to be ignored or avoided, he has a role where he is employed by Ra on his solar boat to repel Apep. Set had a role as a reconciled combatant. He was lord of the red land where he was the balance to Horus role as lord of the black land, in Egyptian mythology, Set is portrayed as the usurper who killed and mutilated his own brother Osiris. Osiris wife Isis reassembled Osiris corpse and resurrected him long enough to conceive his son, Horus sought revenge upon Set, and the myths describe their conflicts. This Osiris myth is a prominent theme in Egyptian mythology, Sets siblings are Osiris, Isis, and Nephthys. He married Nephthys and fathered Anubis, and in some accounts he had relationships with the foreign goddesses Anat, some early Egyptologists proposed that it was a stylised representation of the giraffe, owing to the large flat-topped horns which correspond to a giraffes ossicones. The Egyptians themselves, however, made a distinction between the giraffe and the Set animal, during the Late Period, Set is depicted as a donkey or as having a donkeys head. The earliest representations of what might be the Set animal comes from a dating to the Naqada I phase of the Predynastic Period. If these are ruled out, then the earliest Set animal appears on a head of the King Scorpion. The head and the tail of the Set animal are clearly present. In the mythology of Heliopolis, Set was born of the sky goddess Nut, Sets sister and wife was Nephthys. Nut and Geb also produced two children who became husband and wife, the divine Osiris and Isis, whose son was Horus. The Chester Beatty Papyrus No.1 contains the known as The Contendings of Horus. Classical authors also recorded the story, notably Plutarchs De Iside et Osiride and these myths generally portray Osiris as a wise lord, king, and bringer of civilization, happily married to his sister, Isis. Set was envious of his brother, and he killed and dismembered Osiris, Isis reassembled Osiris corpse and embalmed him. As the archetypal mummy, Osiris reigned over the afterworld as a king among deserving spirits of the dead, Osiris son Horus was conceived by Isis with Osiris corpseSet (mythology) – Set spearing Apep
57. Sekhmet – In Egyptian mythology, Sekhmet (/ˈsɛkˌmɛt/ or Sachmis is a warrior goddess as well as goddess of healing. She is depicted as a lioness, the fiercest hunter known to the Egyptians and it was said that her breath formed the desert. She was seen as the protector of the pharaohs and led them in warfare. Her cult was so dominant in the culture that when the first pharaoh of the dynasty, Amenemhat I, moved the capital of Egypt to Itjtawy. Religion, the lineage, and the authority to govern were intrinsically interwoven in ancient Egypt during its approximately three millennia of existence. Sekhmet also is a Solar deity, sometimes called the daughter of the sun god Ra and often associated with the goddesses Hathor and she bears the Solar disk and the uraeus which associates her with Wadjet and royalty. With these associations she can be construed as being an arbiter of the goddess Maat in the Judgment Hall of Osiris, associating her with the Wadjet. Sekhmets name comes from the Ancient Egyptian word sekhem which means power or might, Sekhmets name suits her function and means the powerful. She also was given such as the Before Whom Evil Trembles, Mistress of Dread, Lady of Slaughter. In order to placate Sekhmets wrath, her priestesses performed a ritual before a different statue of the goddess on each day of the year and this practice resulted in many images of the goddess being preserved. It is estimated more than seven hundred statues of Sekhmet once stood in one funerary temple alone. She was envisioned as a lioness, and in art, was depicted as such, or as a woman with the head of a lioness, who was dressed in red. Sometimes the dress she wears exhibits a pattern over each breast, an ancient leonine motif. Occasionally, Sekhmet was also portrayed in her statuettes and engravings with minimal clothing or naked, tame lions were kept in temples dedicated to Sekhmet at Leontopolis. To pacify Sekhmet, festivals were celebrated at the end of battle, participation in the festival was great, including the priestesses and the population. Historical records of tens of thousands attending the festival exist and these findings were made in the temple of Mut because when Thebes rose to greater prominence, Mut absorbed some characteristics of Sekhmet. These temple excavations at Luxor discovered a porch of drunkenness built onto the temple by the Pharaoh Hatshepsut, in a myth about the end of Ras rule on the earth, Ra sends Hathor or Sekhmet to destroy mortals who conspired against him. Mistaking the beer for blood, she became so drunk that she gave up the slaughter, Sekhmet later was considered to be the mother of Maahes, a deity who appeared during the New Kingdom periodSekhmet – This golden cultic object is called an aegis. It is devoted to Sekhmet, highlighting her solar attributes. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.
58. Nepthys – Nephthys or Nebthet or Neber-Het was a goddess in ancient Egyptian religion. A member of the Great Ennead of Heliopolis in Egyptian mythology, she was a daughter of Nut, Nephthys was typically paired with her sister Isis in funerary rites because of their role as protectors of the mummy and the god Osiris and as the sister-wife of Set. Nephthys is the Greek form of an epithet and this is a pervasive error repeated in many commentaries concerning this deity. Her name means specifically, Lady of the Enclosure which associates her with the role of priestess. Along with her sister Isis, Nephthys represented the temple pylon or trapezoidal tower gateway entrance to the temple which also displayed the flagstaff and this entrance way symbolised the horizon or akhet. At the time of the Fifth Dynasty Pyramid Texts, Nephthys appears as a goddess of the Heliopolitan Ennead and she is the sister of Isis and companion of the war-like deity, Set. As sister of Isis and especially Osiris, Nephthys is a goddess who symbolizes the death experience. Nephthys was known in some ancient Egyptian temple theologies and cosmologies as the Useful Goddess or the Excellent Goddess and these late Ancient Egyptian temple texts describe a goddess who represented divine assistance and protective guardianship. Nephthys is regarded as the mother of the funerary-deity Anubis in some myths, alternatively Anubis appears as the son of Bastet or Isis. As the primary nursing mother of the incarnate Pharaonic-god, Horus, though other goddesses could assume this role, Nephthys was most usually portrayed in this function. In contrast Nephthys is sometimes featured as a ferocious and dangerous divinity. Nephthys was typically paired with her sister Isis in funerary rites because of their role as protectors of the mummy and the god Osiris and as the sister-wife of Set. Less well understood than her sister Isis, Nephthys was no less important in Egyptian Religion as confirmed by the work of E. Hornung, along with the work of noted scholars. Ascend and descend, descend with Nephthys, sink into darkness with the Night-bark, ascend and descend, ascend with Isis, rise with the Day-bark. Pyramid Text Utterance 222 line 210, in the funerary role, Nephthys often was depicted as a kite, or as a woman with falcon wings, usually outstretched as a symbol of protection. Nephthyss association with the kite or the Egyptian hawk evidently reminded the ancients of the lamentations usually offered for the dead by wailing women, in this capacity, it is easy to see how Nephthys could be associated with death and putrefaction in the Pyramid Texts. Nephthys was clearly viewed as a force of heavenly transition, i. e. the Pharaoh becomes strong for his journey to the afterlife through the intervention of Isis. The same divine power could be applied later to all of the dead and it should here be noted that Nephthys was not necessarily viewed as the polar opposite of Isis, but rather as a different reflection of the same reality, eternal life in transitionNepthys – Nephthys - Musée du Louvre, Paris, France
59. Bastet – Bastet was a goddess in ancient Egyptian religion, worshiped as early as the 2nd Dynasty. As Bast, she was the goddess of warfare in Lower Egypt and her name is also translated as Baast, Ubaste, and Baset. In Greek mythology, she is known as Ailuros. The uniting Egyptian cultures had deities that shared similar roles and usually the same imagery, in Upper Egypt, Sekhmet was the parallel warrior lioness deity. Often similar deities merged into one with the unification, but that did not occur with these deities having such strong roots in their cultures, instead, these goddesses began to diverge. During the 22nd Dynasty, Bast had transformed from a lioness deity into a major protector deity represented as a cat. Bastet, the associated with this later identity, is the name commonly used by scholars today to refer to this deity. Bastet, the form of the name which is most commonly adopted by Egyptologists today because of its use in later dynasties, is a modern convention offering one possible reconstruction, in early Egyptian, her name appears to have been bꜣstt. In Egyptian writing, the second t marks a feminine ending, but was not usually pronounced, by the first millennium, then, bꜣstt would have been something like *Ubaste in Egyptian speech, later becoming Coptic Oubaste. During later dynasties, the deity remained, but was assigned a role in the pantheon by bearing the name Bastet. This happened after Thebes became the capital of Ancient Egypt during the 18th Dynasty, diminishing her status, they began referring to the deity with the added suffix, as Bastet, and their use of the new name was well-documented, becoming very familiar to researchers. By the 22nd Dynasty the transition had occurred in all regions, what the name of the goddess means remains uncertain. One recent suggestion by Stephen Quirke explains it as meaning She of the ointment jar and this ties in with the observation that her name was written with the hieroglyph for ointment jar and that she was associated with protective ointments, among other things. The name of the known as alabaster might, through Greek. Bastet was originally a warrior goddess of the sun throughout most of ancient Egyptian history. Greeks occupying ancient Egypt toward the end of its civilization changed her into a goddess of the moon, as protector of Lower Egypt, she was seen as defender of the pharaoh, and consequently of the later chief male deity, Ra. Along with the lioness goddesses, she would occasionally be depicted as the embodiment of the Eye of Ra. She has been depicted as fighting the evil snake named Apep, images of Bastet were often created from alabasterBastet – Photograph of an alabaster cosmetic jar topped with a lioness, representing Bast, an 18th dynasty burial artifact from the tomb of Tutankhamun circa 1323 BC - Cairo Museum
60. Tefnut – Tefnut is a goddess of moisture, moist air, dew and rain in Ancient Egyptian religion. She is the sister and consort of the air god Shu, like most Egyptian deities, including her brother, Tefnut has no single ideograph or symbol. Her name in hieroglyphics consists of four single phonogram symbols t-f-n-t, although the n phonogram is a representation of waves on the surface of water, it was never used as an ideogram or determinative for the word water, or for anything associated with water. Tefnut is a daughter of the solar god Ra-Atum, married to her brother, Shu, she is mother of Nut, the sky and Geb, the earth. Tefnuts grandchildren were Osiris, Isis, Set, Nephthys, and in some versions and she was also a great grandmother of Horus the Younger. Alongside her father, brother, children, grandchildren, and great-grandchild, there are a number of variants to the myth of the creation of Tefnut and her twin brother Shu. In all versions, Tefnut is the product of parthenogenesis, in the Heliopolitan creation myth, the solar god Atum masturbates to produce Tefnut and Shu. Atum was creative in that he proceeded to himself in Heliopolis. He took his penis in his hand so that he obtain the pleasure of orgasm thereby. And brother and sister were born - that is Shu and Tefnut, Pyramid Text 527 In some versions of this myth, Atum also swallows his semen, and spits it out to form the twins, or else the spitting of his saliva forms the act of procreation. Both of these contain a play on words, the tef sound which forms the first syllable of the name Tefnut also constitutes a word meaning to spit or to expectorate. The Coffin Texts contain references to Shu being sneezed out by Atum from his nose, the Bremner-Rind Papyrus and the Memphite Theology describe Atum masturbating into his mouth, before spitting out his semen to form the twins. Tefnut is a deity, and appears as human with a lioness head when depicted as part of the Great Ennead of Heliopolis. The other frequent depiction is as a lioness, but Tefnut can also be depicted as fully human. In her fully or semi anthropomorphic form, she is depicted wearing a wig, topped either with a serpent, or a uraeus and solar disk. Her face is used in a double headed form with that of her brother Shu on collar counterpoises. During the 18th and 19th Dynasties, particularly during the Amarna period, Tefnut was depicted in human form wearing a low flat headdress, akhenatens mother, Tiye was depicted wearing a similar headdress, and identifying with Hathor-Tefnut. The iconic blue crown of Nefertiti is thought by archaeologist Joyce Tyldesley to be derived from Tiyes headdress, Heliopolis and Leontopolis were the primary cult centresTefnut – The goddess Tefnut with the head of a lioness sitting on her throne.
61. Ammit – Ammit was a female demon in ancient Egyptian religion with a body that was part lion, hippopotamus and crocodile—the three largest man-eating animals known to ancient Egyptians. A funerary deity, her titles included Devourer of the Dead, Eater of Hearts, Ammit lived near the scales of justice in Duat, the Egyptian underworld. In the Hall of Two Truths, Anubis weighed the heart of a person against the feather of Maat, the goddess of truth, which was depicted as an ostrich feather. If the heart was judged to be not pure, Ammit would devour it, once Ammit swallowed the heart, the soul was believed to become restless forever, this was called to die a second time. Ammit was also said to stand by a lake of fire. In some traditions, the hearts were cast into the fiery lake to be destroyed. Some scholars believe Ammit and the lake represent the concept of destruction. Ammit was not worshipped, instead she embodied all that the Egyptians feared, Ammit has been linked with the goddess Tawaret, who has a similar physical appearance and, as a companion of Bes, also protected others from evil. Other authors have noted that Ammits lion characteristics, and the lake of fire, the relation to afterlife punishment and lake of fire location are also shared with the baboon deity Babi. Ammit was made male as a character in the Palladium RPG, a monster of the same name is also a card in Yu-Gi-Oh. In addition, Ammit also intermittenly appears in The Kane Chronicles, in the book series, Ammit follows suit as the original myths, being the servant and companion of Anubis. Ammit is also featured in the Lara Croft and the Temple of Osiris video game, Ammit Cryearth is a Grimoire in form of a hand mirror that reflects the true form of the holder, it appears in BlazBlue, Remix Heart manga. Book of the Dead Media related to Ammit at Wikimedia CommonsAmmit
62. Bes – Bes and its feminine counterpart Beset are an Ancient Egyptian deity worshipped as a protector of households, and in particular, of mothers and children and childbirth. Bes later came to be regarded as the defender of everything good, while past studies identified Bes as a Middle Kingdom import from Nubia, more recent research indicates that he was present in Egypt since the start of Old Kingdom. Mentions of Bes can be traced to pre-dynastic Nile Valley cultures, modern scholars such as James Romano claim that in its earliest inception Bes was a representation of a lion rearing up on its hind legs. After the Third Intermediate Period, Bes is often seen as just the head or the face, images of the deity were kept in homes and he was depicted quite differently from the other gods. Normally Egyptian gods were shown in profile, but instead Bes appeared in portrait, ithyphallic and he scared away demons from houses, so his statue was put up as a protector. Since he drove off evil, Bes also came to symbolize the good things in life - music, dance, many instances of Bes masks and costumes from the New Kingdom and later have been uncovered. These show considerable wear, thought to be too great for occasional use at festivals, in the New Kingdom, tattoos of Bes could be found on the thighs of dancers, musicians and servant girls. In the late 500s BC, images of Bes began to spread across the Persian Empire, images of Bes have been found at the Persian capital of Susa, and as far away as central Asia. Over time, the image of Bes became more Persian in style, as he was depicted wearing Persian clothes, the Balearic island of Ibiza derives its actual name from this god, brought along with the first Phoenician settlers 654 BC. These settlers, amazed at the lack of any sort of creatures on the island thought it to be the island of Bes. Bes is an important character in the books of the saga The Kane Chronicles by Rick Riordan, Bes appears, as part of the delegation of Egyptian gods, in The Sandman, Season of Mists, by Neil Gaiman. Bes is a friend and helper to the heroes in Pyramid Scheme by Eric Flint and Dave Freer Statue of official Bes The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, ISBN 0-500-05120-8 The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Ian Shaw. Dwarfs in Ancient Egypt and GreeceBes – Bes statue from Amanthus (Cyprus) in the Istanbul Archaeological Museums
63. Duat – Duat was the realm of the dead in ancient Egyptian mythology. It was the realm of the deity Osiris and the residence of other gods, the Duat was the region through which the sun god Ra traveled from west to east during the night, and where he battled Apep. It was also the place where peoples souls went after death for judgement, burial chambers formed touching-points between the mundane world and the Duat, and spirits could use tombs to travel back and forth from the Duat. What is known of the Duat derives principally from funerary texts such as the Book of Gates, the Book of Caverns, the Coffin Texts, the Amduat, and the Book of the Dead. Each of these fulfilled a different purpose and gave a different perspective on the Duat. Surviving texts differ in age and origin, and there likely was never a single interpretation of the Duat. The geography of Duat is similar in outline to the world the Egyptians knew, there are realistic features like rivers, islands, fields, lakes, mounds and caverns, along with fantastic lakes of fire, walls of iron and trees of turquoise. In the Book of Two Ways, one of the Coffin Texts, the Book of the Dead and Coffin Texts were intended to guide people who had recently died through the Duats dangerous landscape and to a life as an akh or blessed spirit amongst the gods. The dead person must pass a series of gates guarded by dangerous spirits, depicted as human bodies with heads of animals, insects. These beings have equally grotesque names, for instance Blood-drinker who comes from the Slaughterhouse or One who eats the excrement of his hindquarters, other features emphasised in these texts are mounds and caverns, inhabited by gods or supernatural animals, which threatened the spirits of the dead. The purpose of the books is not to lay out a geography, if the deceased successfully passed these unpleasant demons, he or she would reach the Weighing of the Heart. In this ritual, the heart of the deceased was weighed by Anubis, using a feather, representing Maat, any hearts heavier than her feather were rejected and eaten by the Ammit, the Devourer of Souls. Those souls that were lighter than a feather passed the test would be allowed to travel toward the paradise of Aaru, in spite of the unpleasant inhabitants of the Duat, this was no Hell to which souls were condemned, the nature of Duat is more complex than that. The grotesque spirits of the underworld were not evil, but under the control of the Gods. The Duat was also a residence of gods themselves, as well as Osiris, Anubis, Thoth, Horus, Hathor and Maat all appear as a dead soul makes its way toward judgement. It was also in the underworld that the sun, Ra, travelled under the Earth upon his Atet barge from west to east and was transformed from its aged Atum form into Khepri, the new dawning Sun. Just as a person faced many challenges in the Duat. The Egyptian Book of the Dead, The Book of Going Forth by Day, chronicle Books,2000 Pinch, G. Magic in Ancient EgyptDuat – A section of the Egyptian Book of the Dead written on papyrus showing the Weighing of the Heart in Duat where Anubis can be seen on the far right, the scales are shown with the feather balance, and Ammit awaits hearts that she must devour – the presence of Osiris at the gateway to the paradise of Aaru dates the papyrus to a late tradition of the myth.
64. Atenism – Atenism, or the Amarna heresy, refers to the religious changes associated with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known under his adopted name, Akhenaten. Aten, the god of Atenism, first appears in texts dating to the 12th dynasty, during the Middle Kingdom, Aten as the sun disk. was merely one aspect of the sun god Re. It was a relatively obscure sun god, without the Atenist period, during the reign of Thutmosis IV, it was identified as a distinct solar god, and his son Amenhotep III established and promoted a separate cult for the Aten. There is no evidence that Amenhotep III neglected the other gods or attempted to promote the Aten as an exclusive deity. Amenhotep initially introduced Atenism in the year of his reign, raising Aten to the status of supreme god. To emphasise the change, Atens name was written in the form normally reserved for Pharaohs. The religious reformation appears to coincide with the proclamation of a Sed festival, traditionally held in the thirtieth year of the Pharaohs reign, it possibly was a festival in honour of Amenhotep III. Some Egyptologists think that he had a coregency with Amenhotep IV of 2-12 years, the fifth year is believed to mark the beginning of Amenhotep IVs construction of a new capital, Akhetaten, at the site known today as Amarna. Evidence appears on three of the boundary stelae used to mark the boundaries of new capital. Then, Amenhotep IV officially changed his name to Akhenaten as evidence of his new worship, the date given for the event has been estimated to fall around January 2 of that year. In the seventh year of his reign, the capital was moved from Thebes to Akhetaten, in shifting his court from the traditional ceremonial centres, he was signalling a dramatic transformation in the focus of religious and political power. The move separated the Pharaoh and his court from the influence of the priesthood and from the centres of worship. Taken in conjunction with his change, it is possible that the move to Amarna was also meant as a signal of Akhenatens symbolic death and rebirth. It may also have coincided with the death of his father, key features of Atenism included a ban on idols and other images of the Aten, with the exception of a rayed solar disc in which the rays appear to represent the unseen spirit of Aten. Aten was addressed by Akhenaten in prayers, such as the Great Hymn to the Aten, Atens name is also written differently after the ninth year of the Pharaohs rule to emphasise the radicalism of the new regime. Aten, instead of being written with the symbol of a solar disc. The details of Atenist theology are still unclear and he simply refrained from worshiping any but Aten. It is known that Atenism did not attribute divinity only to Aten, Akhenaten continued the cult of the Pharaoh, proclaiming himself the son of Aten and encouraging the Egyptian people to worship himAtenism – Pharaoh Akhenaten and his family adoring the Aten
65. Ennead – The Great Ennead was only one of several such groupings of nine deities in ancient Egypt and its claims to preëminence by its Heliopolitan priests were not respected throughout Egypt. As close as Memphis, the priests of Ptah celebrated him as superior to the Nine, Ennead is borrowing via Latin of the Greek name Enneás, meaning the Nine. The term was a calque of the Egyptian name, written Psḏt and its original pronunciation is uncertain, since hieroglyphs do not record vowels, but Egyptologists conventionally transcribe it as Pesedjet. The ancient Egyptians created several enneads as their unification under Dynasty I brought numerous local cults into contact with one another, the Pyramid Texts of Dynasties V and VI mention the Great Ennead, the Lesser Ennead, the Dual Ennead, and the Seven Enneads. Some pharaohs established enneads that incorporated themselves as gods, the most notable case is Seti I of Dynasty XIX, whose temple at Redesiyah celebrated an ennead of six major gods and three deified forms of himself. In the Calendar of Lucky and Unlucky Days, the ennead mentioned may reference the Pleiades, the most important was the Great or Heliopolitan Ennead of Awanu, known under the Greeks and Romans as Heliopolis. It celebrated the family of the sun god Atum and thrived from the Old Kingdom to the Ptolemaic period and its development remains uncertain, although it appears to have first appeared when Ras cult—supreme under Dynasty V—declined in importance under Dynasty VI. The most prominent of such deities was Osiris, god of vegetation and the afterlife, however, in the 20th century, some Egyptologists question the whole scenario. After the Great Ennead was well established, the cult of Ra—identified with Atum—recovered much of its importance until superseded by the cult of Horus, the two were then combined as Ra–Horus of the Horizons. According to the story of the Heliopolitan priests, the world originally consisted of the primeval waters personified as Nun. From it arose a mound, separately identified by the Memphite priests as Ptah, upon the mound sat the self-begotten god Atum, who was equated with the sun god Ra. Bored and alone, Atum either spat or masturbated, producing air personified as Shu, the siblings Shu and Tefnut mated to produce the earth personified as Geb and the nighttime sky personified as Nut. These siblings engaged in continuous copulation until separated by their father Shu, Geb and Nut were the parents of Osiris and Isis and of Set and Nephthys, who became respective couples in turn. Shifting Milestones of Natural Sciences, The Ancient Egyptian Discovery of Algols Period Confirmed, PLOS One, Vol.10, NoEnnead – The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum.
66. Book of Caverns – The Book of Caverns is an important Ancient Egyptian netherworld book of the New Kingdom. Like all other books, it is also attested on the inside of kings’ tombs for the benefit of the deceased. The Book of Caverns is one of the best sources of information about the Egyptian concept of hell, the Book of Caverns originated in the 13th century BC in the Ramesside Period. The earliest known version of work is on the left hand wall of the Osireion in Abydos. Later it appears in the tomb of Ramesses IV in the Valley of the Kings and this appearance was already recorded by the founding father of Egyptology Jean François Champollion in his letters from Egypt. During his journey, the sun god passes over the caverns of Hell, the Book of Caverns also gives some hints on the imagined topographical structure of the underworld. The Book of Caverns has no ancient title and it is not divided into hours of the night as other netherworld books are. Instead, the book contains seven great scene tableaus with altogether approximately 80 different scenes and it is divided into two parts with three tableaus each, plus a final tableau. The Book of Caverns is much more literary that other books from the New Kingdom. It does not have as many pictures as the other books, today we know of 13 text witnesses of the Book of Caverns, The first known almost complete version of The Book of Caverns that only has its upper register damaged was located in the Osireion. It was discovered by archaeologists Flinders Petrie and Margaret Murray who were excavating the site in 1902 through 1903, the Book of Caverns was found directly across from the Book of Gates within the entrance passage on the left wall. Ramesses IV was the first to use Book of Caverns in his tomb, the first almost complete copy in the Valley of the Kings is the version in the tomb of Ramesses VI. Here it appears opposite the Book of Gates in the front of the tomb, the passages of the book were written all over the walls of the tomb completely covering it in text. The first translation of sentences of the Book of Caverns from the tomb of Ramesses VI were given by Ippolito Rosellini in 1836. Not much later, Jean François Champollion wrote about the Book of Caverns from this tomb providing some translations, scholars, however, were not greatly interested in the book until about a century later when the second complete version of the text was discovered in the Osireion. In 1933 Henri Frankfort published the first complete translation of the book with the help of Adriaan de Buck based on this version, between 1942 and 1945, Alexandre Piankoff published a French translation of the book, followed by a translation into German by Erik Hornung in 1972. A second English translation is a translation of Hornung’s book from German into English, the latest translation was published by the German scholar Daniel Werning, based on a new text critical edition. The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife, cS1 maint, Unrecognized language Werning, Daniel A. Das Höhlenbuch, Textkritische Edition und Textgrammatik, I, Überlieferungsgeschichte und Textgrammatik, II, Textkritische Edition und ÜbersetzungBook of Caverns – Fifth division: A scene from tomb of Ramses V./VI. (KV9, chamber E, right wall)
67. Book of Gates – The Book of Gates is an Ancient Egyptian funerary text dating from the New Kingdom. It narrates the passage of a deceased soul into the next world. The soul is required to pass through a series of gates at different stages in the journey, each gate is associated with a different goddess, and requires that the deceased recognise the particular character of that deity. The text implies that people will pass through unharmed. These are depicted in procession entering the next world, the text and images associated with the Book of Gates appear in many tombs of the New Kingdom, including all the pharaonic tombs between Horemheb and Ramesses VII. They also appear in the tomb of Sennedjem, a worker in the village of Deir el-Medina, the ancient village of artists and craftsmen who built pharaonic tombs in the New Kingdom. The goddesses listed in the Book of Gates each have different titles, and wear different coloured clothes, Book of the Dead Sacred texts - GateBook of Gates – The four races of the world: a Libyan ("Themehu"), a Nubian ("Nehesu"), an Asiatic ("Aamu"), and an Egyptian ("Reth"). An artistic rendering, based on a mural from the tomb of Seti I.
68. Abu Rawash – Abu Rawash,8 km to the North of Giza, is the site of Egypts most northerly pyramid, also known as the lost pyramid — the mostly ruined Pyramid of Djedefre, the son and successor of Khufu. One notable fact about the pyramid at Abu Roash is that the upper most part of the pyramid has seemingly disappeared, explanations to why this pyramid is missing its top vary. The second point of interest that this provides is that it is built on top of a hillock. The builders faced the task of not only hauling megalithic stones up a pyramid. Its location adjacent to a major crossroads made it a source of stone. Quarrying — which began in Roman times — has left little apart from a few courses of stone superimposed upon the hillock that formed part of the pyramids core. The sedimentary succession in Abu Rawash area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to Quaternary but is punctuated by several unconformity surfaces, vertical sequence or facies hierarchy display that the facies sequence of the basal clastic member indicates a progradational preitidal sequence. While those of the member and limestone member represent a cyclic progradtion of high energetic/storm facies above an open marine low energetic fore shoal subtidal facies. The facies sequence of the Acteonella-bearing member reflects two facies associations comprising open marine subtidal assemblage and shoal or bank facies, the latter facies represents the bank that the robust thick shelled Durania arnaudi with the coralline sponge heads accreted local mounds in restricted areas El-Hassana dome. The stacking of the sedimentary facies in the Plicatula-bearing member indicates an accumulation in a shallow sea with intermittent supply of fine terrigenous clasticsAbu Rawash – The ruined Pyramid of Djedefre sits atop the plateau of Abu Rawash
69. Abydos, Egypt – Abydos /əˈbaɪdɒs/ is one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, and also of the eighth nome in Upper Egypt, of which it was the capital city. It is located about 11 kilometres west of the Nile at latitude 26°10 N, in the ancient Egyptian language, the city was called Abdju. The English name Abydos comes from the Greek Ἄβυδος, a name borrowed by Greek geographers from the city of Abydos on the Hellespont. These tombs began to be seen as extremely significant burials and in times it became desirable to be buried in the area. Today, Abydos is notable for the temple of Seti I. It is a chronological list showing cartouches of most dynastic pharaohs of Egypt from Menes until Seti Is father, the Great Temple and most of the ancient town are buried under the modern buildings to the north of the Seti temple. Many of the structures and the artifacts within them are considered irretrievable and lost. Abydos was occupied by the rulers of the Predynastic period, whose town, temple, the temple and town continued to be rebuilt at intervals down to the times of the thirtieth dynasty, and the cemetery was used continuously. The pharaohs of the first dynasty were buried in Abydos, including Narmer, who is regarded as founder of the first dynasty and it was in this time period that the Abydos boats were constructed. Some pharaohs of the dynasty were also buried in Abydos. The temple was renewed and enlarged by these pharaohs as well, funerary enclosures, misinterpreted in modern times as great forts, were built on the desert behind the town by three kings of the second dynasty, the most complete is that of Khasekhemwy. From the fifth dynasty, the deity Khentiamentiu, foremost of the Westerners, Pepi I constructed a funerary chapel which evolved over the years into the Great Temple of Osiris, the ruins of which still exist within the town enclosure. Abydos became the centre of the worship of the Isis and Osiris cult, during the First Intermediate Period, the principal deity of the area, Khentiamentiu, began to be seen as an aspect of Osiris, and the deities gradually merged and came to be regarded as one. Khentiamentius name became an epithet of Osiris, King Mentuhotep II was the first one building a royal chapel. In the twelfth dynasty a gigantic tomb was cut into the rock by Senusret III, associated with this tomb was a cenotaph, a cult temple and a small town known as Wah-Sut, that was used by the workers for these structures. Next to that cenotaph were buried kings of the Thirteenth Dynasty, the building during the eighteenth dynasty began with a large chapel of Ahmose I. The Pyramid of Ahmose I was also constructed at Abydos—the only pyramid in the area, thutmose III built a far larger temple, about 130 ft ×200 ft. He also made a way leading past the side of the temple to the cemetery beyondAbydos, Egypt – Façade of the Temple of Seti I in Abydos
70. Alexandria – Alexandria is the second largest city and a major economic centre in Egypt, extending about 32 km along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria is Egypts largest seaport, serving approximately 80% of Egypts imports and exports and it is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria is also an important tourist destination, Alexandria was founded around a small Ancient Egyptian town c.331 BC by Alexander the Great. Alexandria was the second most powerful city of the ancient world after Rome, Alexandria is believed to have been founded by Alexander the Great in April 331 BC as Ἀλεξάνδρεια. Alexanders chief architect for the project was Dinocrates, Alexandria was intended to supersede Naucratis as a Hellenistic center in Egypt, and to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley. The city and its museum attracted many of the greatest scholars, including Greeks, Jews, the city was later plundered and lost its significance. Just east of Alexandria, there was in ancient times marshland, as early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Canopus and Heracleion. The latter was rediscovered under water. An Egyptian city, Rhakotis, already existed on the shore also and it continued to exist as the Egyptian quarter of the city. A few months after the foundation, Alexander left Egypt and never returned to his city, after Alexanders departure, his viceroy, Cleomenes, continued the expansion. Although Cleomenes was mainly in charge of overseeing Alexandrias continuous development, the Heptastadion, inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than Carthage. In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world and and it became Egypts main Greek city, with Greek people from diverse backgrounds. Alexandria was not only a center of Hellenism, but was home to the largest urban Jewish community in the world. The Septuagint, a Greek version of the Tanakh, was produced there, in AD115, large parts of Alexandria were destroyed during the Kitos War, which gave Hadrian and his architect, Decriannus, an opportunity to rebuild it. On 21 July 365, Alexandria was devastated by a tsunami, the Islamic prophet, Muhammads first interaction with the people of Egypt occurred in 628, during the Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha. He sent Hatib bin Abi Baltaeh with a letter to the king of Egypt and Alexandria called Muqawqis In the letter Muhammad said, I invite you to accept Islam, Allah the sublime, shall reward you doubly. But if you refuse to do so, you bear the burden of the transgression of all the CoptsAlexandria – Alexandria Ἀλεξάνδρεια
71. Amarna – The name for the city employed by the ancient Egyptians is written as Akhetaten in English transliteration. Akhetaten means Horizon of the Aten, the city of Deir Mawas lies directly west across from the site of Amarna. Amarna, on the east side, includes several villages, chief of which are el-Till in the north. The area was occupied during later Roman and early Christian times. The name Amarna comes from the Beni Amran tribe that lived in the region, the ancient Egyptian name was Akhetaten. It may be that the Royal Wadis resemblance to the hieroglyph for horizon showed that this was the place to found the city, the city was built as the new capital of the Pharaoh Akhenaten, dedicated to his new religion of worship to the Aten. Construction started in or around Year 5 of his reign and was completed by Year 9. To speed up construction of the city most of the buildings were constructed out of mud-brick, the most important buildings were faced with local stone. Once it was abandoned it remained uninhabited until Roman settlement began along the edge of the Nile, however, due to the unique circumstances of its creation and abandonment, it is questionable how representative of ancient Egyptian cities it actually is. The entire city was encircled with a total of 14 boundary stelae detailing Akhenatens conditions for the establishment of new capital city of Egypt. The earliest dated stele from Akhenatens new city is known to be Boundary stele K which is dated to Year 5, IV Peret and it preserves an account of Akhenatens foundation of this city. Located on the east bank of the Nile, the ruins of the city are laid out north to south along a Royal Road. The Royal residences are generally to the north, in what is known as the North City, with an administration and religious area. If one approached the city of Amarna from the north by river the first buildings past the boundary stele would be the North Riverside Palace. This building ran all the way up to the waterfront and was likely the residence of the Royal Family. Located within the North City area is the Northern Palace, the residence of the Royal Family. Between this and the city, the Northern Suburb was initially a prosperous area with large houses. Most of the important ceremonial and administrative buildings were located in the central city, located behind the Royal Residence was the Bureau of Correspondence of Pharaoh, where the Amarna Letters were foundAmarna – Small Temple of the Aten at Akhetaten
72. Avaris – Avaris was the capital of Egypt under the Hyksos. It was located at modern Tell el-Daba in the region of the Nile Delta. As the main course of the Nile migrated eastward, its position at the hub of Egypts delta emporia made it an administrative capital of the Hyksos. The name in the Egyptian language of the 2nd millennium BC was probably pronounced *Ḥaʔat-Wūrat Great House, today, the name Hawara survives, referring to the site at the entrance to Faiyum. Alternatively, Clement of Alexandria referred to the name of city as Athyria. In 1885, the Swiss Édouard Naville started the first excavations in the area around Tell-el-Daba, between 1941 and 1942, Labib Habachi, an Egyptian Egyptologist first forwarded the idea that the site could be identified with Avaris. Between 1966 and 1969 and since 1975, the site has been excavated by the Austrian Archaeological Institute. Using radar imaging technology, its scientists could identify in 2010 the outline of the city including streets, houses, a port, artifacts excavated at a temple erected in the Hyksos period have produced goods from all over the Aegean world. The temple even has Minoan-like wall paintings that are similar to found on Crete at the Palace of Knossos. A large mudbrick tomb has also excavated to the west of the temple. Avaris was absorbed into the new city of Pi-Ramesses constructed by Ramesses II of the Nineteenth dynasty when he moved the back to the Delta. Avaris, along with Tel Kabri in Israel and Alalakh in Syria, also has a record of Minoan civilization, french archaeologist Yves Duhoux proposed the existence of a Minoan colony on an island in the Nile delta. Ancient Egypt, the discoveries, a year-by-year chronicle. Entry on Rameses in Geoffrey W. Bromiley, the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Q-Z. Avaris, the capital of the Hyksos, recent excavations at Tell el-Dabʻa, British Museum Press for the Trustees of the British Museum. Tell el-Dabʿa Homepage - available in German and EnglishAvaris – Map of ancient Lower Egypt showing Avaris
73. Bubastis – Bubastis, also known in Arabic as Tell-Basta or in Egyptian as Per-Bast, was an Ancient Egyptian city. It was the capital of its own nome, located along the River Nile in the Delta region of Lower Egypt, Bubastis is often identified with the biblical Phibeseth. The name of Bubastis in Egyptian is Pr-Bȝśt. t, typically transcribed Per-Bast, PR means house and the second word is the name of the goddess Bast or Bastet. The phrase means House of Bast, Bubastis served as the capital of the nome of Am-Khent, the Bubastite nome, the 18th nome of Lower Egypt. Bubastis was situated southwest of Tanis, upon the side of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile. The nome and city of Bubastis were allotted to the Calasirian division of the Egyptian war-caste and it became a royal residence after Shoshenq I, the first ruler and founder of the 22nd dynasty, became pharaoh in 943 BC. Bubastis was its height during this dynasty and the 23rd and it declined after the Persian conquest by Cambyses II in 525 BC, which heralded the end of the Saite 26th dynasty and the start of the Achaemenid dynasty. After Bubastis was taken by the Persians, its walls were dismantled, from this period it gradually declined, although it appears in ecclesiastical annals among the episcopal sees of the province Augustamnica Secunda. Bubastite coins of the age of Hadrian exist, temples there are more spacious and costlier than that of Bubastis, but none so pleasant to behold. It is after the following fashion, each canal is a hundred feet wide, and its banks are lined with trees. The propylaea are sixty feet in height, and are adorned with nine feet high. Quite round the temple there goes a wall, adorned with sculptures, within the inclosure is a grove of fair tall trees, planted around a large building in which is the effigy. The form of temple is square, each side being a stadium in length. In a line with the entrance is a built of stone about three stadia long, leading eastwards through the public market. The road is about 400 feet broad, and is flanked by exceeding tall trees and it leads to the temple of Hermes. Bubastis was a center of worship for the feline goddess Bast, the cat was the sacred and peculiar animal of Bast, who is represented with the head of a cat or a lioness and frequently accompanies the deity Ptah in monumental inscriptions. The tombs at Bubastis were accordingly the principal depository in Egypt of the mummies of the cat, the most distinguished features of the city and nome of Bubastis were its oracle of Bast, the splendid temple of that goddess and the annual procession in honor of her. The men played on pipes of lotus, the women on cymbals and tambourines, and such as had no instruments accompanied the music with clapping of hands and dances, and other joyous gesturesBubastis – View of Bubastis
74. Dahshur – Dahshur is a royal necropolis located in the desert on the west bank of the Nile approximately 40 kilometres south of Cairo. It is known chiefly for several pyramids, two of which are among the oldest, largest and best preserved in Egypt, built from 2613–2589 BC, building the Dahshur pyramids was an extremely important learning experience for the Egyptians before they could build the Great Pyramid of Giza. Two of the Dahshur Pyramids, The Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid, were constructed during the reign of Pharaoh Sneferu, the Bent Pyramid was the first attempt at a smooth-sided pyramid but ultimately wasnt successful. One design flaw was that there was a very unstable base for it made of desert gravel and this in turn is thought to be the reason the pyramid is bent and changes angles about halfway up the sides. Sneferu was not pleased with this pyramid, so he built called the Red Pyramid. Getting its name from the red hue the pyramid gives off after a nice rain, standing more than 30 stories tall, it is thought to be Sneferus pride and glory and the place where he is believed to be buried. The Red pyramid was the largest smooth-sided pyramid standing until Sneferus son, Khufu, outdid his father by building the Great Pyramid of Giza, though Khufus pyramid is larger, he would not have been able to build it without the knowledge that his father discovered before him. The pyramid of the 12th Dynasty king Amenemhat II is now badly damaged, next to it were found several undisturbed tombs of royal women still containing a large amount of jewellery. The pyramid of Sesostris III was part of a complex, with several smaller pyramids of royal women. In a gallery next to this pyramid were found two treasures of the kings daughters. The Black Pyramid dates from the reign of Amenemhat III and, although badly eroded. The polished granite pyramidion or capstone of the Black Pyramid is on display in the hall of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Next to the pyramid was found the partly disturbed tomb of 13th Dynasty king Hor, several other pyramids of the 13th Dynasty were built at Dahshur. Only the one of the reign of Ameny Qemau has been excavated so far, ahmad Fakhri was an archaeologist who worked at this site. Extensive cemeteries of officials of the Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom have been found around Dahshurs pyramids, Dahshur was Egypts royal necropolis during the reign of the 12th Dynasty king Amenemhat II. In July 2012, Dahshurs entire Christian community, which some estimate to be as many as 100 families, the violence began in a dispute over a badly ironed shirt, which in turn escalated into a fight in which a Christian burned a Muslim to death. This, in turn, sparked a rampage by angry Muslims, at least 16 homes and properties of Christians were pillaged, some were torched, and a church was damaged during the violence. Dahshur has a hot desert climate according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, List of Egyptian pyramids List of megalithic sites Acanthus, an old village in Dahsur mentioned in Ancient Greek literatureDahshur – Sneferu 's Red Pyramid
75. Deir el-Madinah – During the Christian era, the temple of Hathor was converted into a church from which the Arabic name Deir el-Medina is derived. At the time when the press was concentrating on Howard Carters discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun in 1922. This work has resulted in one of the most thoroughly documented accounts of community life in the ancient world that spans almost four hundred years. There is no site in which the organisation, social interactions. The site is located on the west bank of the Nile, the village may have been built apart from the wider population in order to preserve secrecy in view of sensitive nature of the work carried out in the tombs. A significant find of papyri was made in the 1840s in the vicinity of the village, the archaeological site was first seriously excavated by Ernesto Schiaparelli between 1905–1909 which uncovered large amounts of ostraca. A French team directed by Bernard Bruyère excavated the site, including village, dump and cemetery. Unfortunately through lack of control it is now thought that half of the papyri recovered was removed without the knowledge or authorization of the team director. Around five thousand ostraca of assorted works of commerce and literature were found in a close to the village. Jaroslav Černý, who was part of Bruyères team, went on to study the village for almost fifty years until his death in 1970 and was able to name, the peak overlooking the village was renamed Mont Cernabru in recognition of Černý and Bruyères work on the village. The main road through the village may have been covered to shelter the villagers from the intense glare, the size of the habitations varied, with an average floor space of 70 m2, but the same construction methods were used throughout the village. Walls were made of mudbrick, built on top of stone foundations, mud was applied to the walls which were then painted white on the external surfaces with some of the inner surfaces whitewashed up to a height of around one metre. A wooden front door might have carried the occupants name, houses consisted of four to five rooms comprising an entrance, main room, two smaller rooms, kitchen with cellar and staircase leading to the roof. The full glare of the sun was avoided by situating the windows high up on the walls, the main room contained a mudbrick platform with steps which may have been used as a shrine or a birthing bed. Nearly all houses contained niches for statues and small altars, the tombs built by the community for their own use include small rock-cut chapels and substructures adorned with small pyramids. 1110–1080 BCE during the reign of Ramesses XI due to increasing threats of Libyan raids, the Ptolemies later built a temple to Hathor on the site of an ancient shrine dedicated to her. The surviving texts record the events of life rather than major historical incidents. Personal letters reveal much about the relations and family life of the villagersDeir el-Madinah – Ruins of Deir el-Medina. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
76. El-Lahun – El Lahun is a village in Faiyum, Egypt. Associated with the pyramid of Senusret II, it is located near the modern village, also nearby is the pyramid itself, known as the Pyramid of Lahun. The ancient name of the site was rꜣ-ḥn. t, literally, Mouth of the Canal) and this approach was probably intended to ensure the stability of the brick structure. Unusually, despite a Pyramid Temple on the east side, the entrance to the pyramid is on the south, the archaeologist Flinders Petrie nevertheless spent considerable time searching for it on the east side. He discovered the entrance only when workmen clearing the nearby tombs of the nobles discovered a tunnel at the bottom of a 40-foot shaft. Evidently the original workmen on the tomb had used their legitimate activity as a cover for digging this tunnel, once he was in the burial chamber, Petrie was able to work backwards to the entrance. The pyramid stands on an artificial terrace cut from sloping ground, on the north side eight rectangular blocks of stone were left to serve as mastabas, probably for the burial of personages associated with the royal court. In front of each mastaba is a shaft leading down to the burial chamber underneath. Also on the side is the Queens Pyramid or subsidiary pyramid. The most remarkable discovery was that of the village of the workers who constructed the pyramid and then served the funerary cult of the king. The village, conventionally known as Kahun, is about 800 meters from the pyramid, when found, many of the buildings were extant up to roof height, and Petrie confirmed that the true arch was known and used by the workmen in the village. However, all the buildings found were demolished in the process of excavation, when the first strip had been cleared, mapped and drawn, the next strip was excavated and the spoil dumped in the previous strip. As a result, there is little to be seen on the site today. The village was excavated by Petrie in 1888-90 and again in 1914, the excavation was remarkable for the number, range, and quality of objects of everyday life that were found in the houses. Among the curiosities found there were wooden boxes buried beneath the floors of many of the houses, when opened they were found to contain the skeletons of infants, sometimes two or three in a box, and aged only a few months at death. Petrie reburied these human remains in the desert, also found in the town were the Kahun papyri, comprising about 1000 fragments, covering legal and medical matters. Re-excavation of the area in 2009 by Egyptian archaeologists revealed a cache of mummies in brightly painted wooden coffins in the sand-covered desert rock surrounding the pyramid. The site was occupied into the late Thirteenth Dynasty, and then again in the New Kingdom, the town was laid out in a regular plan, with mud-brick town walls on 3 sidesEl-Lahun – Pyramid of Senusret II at Lahun.
77. Edward R. Ayrton – Edward Russell Ayrton was an English Egyptologist and archaeologist. He was the son of William Scrope Ayrton, 1849-1904 and his wife Ellen Louisa McClatchie and he was educated at St Pauls School, in London. He began his career in Egyptology at the age of 20 and he joined Petrie on the Egypt Exploration Fund excavations at Abydos from 1902 to 1904. Ayrtons first independent work was the excavation of the Second Dynasty site of Shunet ez Zebib, later, he worked near Ghurab with William Leonard Stevenson Loat. Working for Theodore M. Davis in Egypts Valley of the Kings from 1905 to 1908, he discovered the tombs, KV47 KV55 KV56. He also led or participated in the excavation of the tombs, KV2, KV10, KV46, KV47, KV48, KV49, KV50, KV51, KV52, KV53, KV54, KV56, KV57, KV59. Again working with Loat, in 1908-09 he excavated amongst the Sixth Dynasty tombs at Abydos, in 1911 he accepted a position with the Archaeological Survey of Ceylon. On the 18 May 1914 he drowned while on an expedition, in an accident on the Tissa Tank lake, Tissamaharama. The Times Newspaper printed his obituary on the 23 May 1914, the Estate of £457 18s 1d is left to Florence Margaret Ayrton, Spinster. E. R. Ayrton, Discovery of the tomb of Si-ptah in the Bibân el Molûk, Thebes, edward R. Ayrton and W. L. S. Loat, Pre-dynastic cemetery at El Mahasna,1911, London. Edward R. Ayrton, The Date of Buddhadasa of Ceylon from a Chinese Source, journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland,1911. Edward R. Ayrton, The Excavation of the Tomb of Queen Tîyi, The Tomb of Queen Tîyi, ed. Nicholas Reeves, San Francisco, KMT Communications,1990Edward R. Ayrton – Edward Russell Ayrton.