1. Ancient Egypt – It is one of six civilizations to arise independently. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh Narmer. In the aftermath of Alexander one of his generals, Ptolemy Soter, established himself as the new ruler of Egypt. This Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra, it became a Roman province. The success of Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported social development and culture. Egypt left a lasting legacy. Its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world. Its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of writers for centuries. The Nile has been the lifeline of its region for much of human history. Nomadic human hunter-gatherers began living in the Nile valley through the end of the Middle Pleistocene some 120,000 years ago. In Predynastic and Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian climate was much less arid than it is today. Large regions of Egypt were traversed by herds of grazing ungulates. The Nile region supported large populations of waterfowl. This is also the period when many animals were first domesticated.Ancient Egypt – The Great Sphinx and the pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt.
2. History of ancient Egypt – The history of Ancient Egypt spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile valley to the Roman conquest in 30 BC. Note For alternative'revisions' to the chronology of Egypt, see Egyptian chronology. Egypt's history is split according to the ruling dynasty of each pharaoh. The dating of events is still a subject of research. The conservative dates are not supported by any absolute date for a span of about three millennia. The following is the list according to Egyptian chronology. Traces of these early people appear along the terraces of the Nile and in the oases. To the Egyptians the Nile meant the desert meant death, though the desert did provide them protection from invaders. Evidence also indicates human habitation and cattle herding before the 8th millennium BC. Continued desiccation forced them to adopt a more sedentary lifestyle. However, the period from 9th to the 6th millennium BC has left very little in the way of archaeological evidence. The Nile valley of Egypt was basically uninhabitable until the work of irrigating the land along the banks was started. However it appears that this irrigation was largely under way by the 6th millennium. By that time, Nile society was already engaged in the construction of large buildings. At this time, Egyptians in the southwestern corner of Egypt were also constructing large buildings.History of ancient Egypt – A Naqada II vase decorated with gazelles, on display at the Louvre.
3. Prehistoric Egypt – This Predynastic era is traditionally equivalent to beginning c. 6000 BC and including the Protodynastic period. The Predynastic period is generally divided into cultural periods, each named after the place where a certain type of Egyptian settlement was first discovered. The Late Paleolithic in Egypt started around 30,000 BC. The Nazlet Khater skeleton was dated in 1982 from nine samples ranging between 35,100 and 30,360 years. This specimen is the only complete human skeleton from the earliest Late Stone Age in Africa. Excavation of the Nile has exposed early stone tools. The earliest of these lithic industries were Chellean, primitive Acheulean and an Egyptian form of the Clactonian. Within the 50-foot terrace was developed Acheulean. Since changed to Levalloisean, other implements were located in the 30-foot terrace. The 15- and 10-foot terraces saw a more developed version of the Levalloisean, also initially reported as an Egyptian version of Mousterian. Finally, tools of an Egyptian version of the Aterian technology were also located. Some of the oldest known buildings were discovered by archaeologist Waldemar Chmielewski along the southern border near Wadi Halfa. They were mobile structures -- easily disassembled, reassembled -- providing hunter-gatherers with semi-permanent habitation. Tool-making reached Egypt c. 40,000 BC. The Khormusan industry in Egypt began between 30,000 BC.Prehistoric Egypt – Predynastic artifacts: clockwise from top left: a Bat figurine, a Naqada jar, an ivory figurine, cosmetic palette, a flint knife, and a diorite vase.
4. Protodynastic Period of Egypt – Naqada III is the last phase of the Naqada culture of ancient Egyptian prehistory, dating approximately from 3200 to 3000 BC. They would more probably have been possibly with each other. In this period, those kings' names were inscribed in the form of serekhs on a variety of surfaces including pottery and tombs. Furthermore, it is during this time that the Egyptian language was first recorded in hieroglyphs. There is also strong archaeological evidence of Egyptian settlements in southern Canaan during the Protodynastic Period, which are regarded as colonies or trading entrepôts. State formation began during this era and perhaps even earlier. Various small city-states arose along the Nile. Centuries of conquest then reduced Upper Egypt to three major states: Thinis, Naqada, Nekhen. Sandwiched between Thinis and Nekhen, Naqada was the first to fall. Thinis then conquered Lower Egypt. Nekhen's relationship with Thinis is uncertain, but these two states may have merged peacefully, with the Thinite royal family ruling all of Egypt. The Thinite kings were buried in the el-Qa ` cemetery. Most Egyptologists consider Narmer to be both the last king of this period and the first king of the First Dynasty. "Southern Canaan as an Egyptian Protodynastic Colony". Cahiers Caribéens d’Égyptologie.Protodynastic Period of Egypt – The Narmer Palette, thought to mark the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt; note the images of the goddess Bat at the top, as well as the serpopards that form the central intertwined image.
5. Early Dynastic Period (Egypt) – The Archaic or Early Dynastic Period of Egypt immediately follows the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt c. 3100 BC. With the First Dynasty, the capital moved from Thinis with a unified Egypt ruled by an Egyptian god-king. Abydos remained the holy land in the south. The hallmarks such as art, architecture and many aspects of religion, took shape during the Early Dynastic period. Before the unification of Egypt, the land was settled with autonomous villages. For much of Egypt's history thereafter, the country came to be known as the Two Lands. The pharaohs established appointed royal governors. The buildings of the central government were typically open-air temples constructed of sandstone. The earliest Egyptian hieroglyphs appear just before this period, though little is known of the spoken language they represent. By about 3600 BC, Egyptian societies along the Nile had based their culture on the raising of crops and the domestication of animals. Shortly after 3600 BC Egyptian society began to advance rapidly toward refined civilization. A distinctive pottery, related to the pottery in the Southern Levant, appeared during this time. Extensive use of copper became common during this time. Architectural building principles -- including the use of the arch and recessed walls for decorative effect -- became popular during this time. Concurrent with these cultural advances, Upper Egypt, occurred.Early Dynastic Period (Egypt) – A plate created during the Early Dynastic period of Ancient Egypt. It depicts a man on a boat alongside a Hippopotamus and a Crocodile
6. Old Kingdom of Egypt – The Old Kingdom is most commonly regarded as the period from the Third Dynasty through to the Sixth Dynasty. Many Egyptologists also include the Memphite Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in the Old Kingdom as a continuation of the administration centralized at Memphis. During the Old Kingdom, the king of Egypt became a living god who ruled absolutely and could demand the services and wealth of his subjects. A new era of building was initiated at Saqqara under his reign. King Djoser's architect, Imhotep is credited with the development of building with the conception of the architectural form -- the Pyramid. Indeed, the Old Kingdom is perhaps best known for the large number of pyramids constructed at this time as pharaonic burial places. For this reason, the Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as "the Age of the Pyramids." The first king of the Old Kingdom was Djoser of the third dynasty, who ordered the construction of a pyramid in Memphis' necropolis, Saqqara. An important person during the reign of Djoser was his vizier, Imhotep. It was in this era that formerly Egyptian states became known under the rule of the pharaoh. The former rulers were forced to assume the role of governors or otherwise work in tax collection. Egyptians in this era worshipped their pharaoh as a god, believing that he ensured the annual flooding of the Nile, necessary for their crops. They also perceived themselves as a specially selected people. The Old Kingdom and its royal power reached a zenith under the Fourth Dynasty, which began with Sneferu. However, the full development of the pyramid style of building was reached not at Saqqara, but during the building of the "great pyramids" at Giza.Old Kingdom of Egypt – The Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara.
7. Middle Kingdom of Egypt – Some scholars also include the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt wholly into this period as well, in which case the Middle Kingdom would finish c. 1650, while others only include it until Merneferre Ay c. 1700 BC, last king of this dynasty to be attested in both Upper and Lower Egypt. During the Middle Kingdom period, Osiris became the most important deity in popular religion. The period comprises the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty onwards, centered on el-Lisht. After the collapse of the Old Kingdom, Egypt entered a period of decentralization called the First Intermediate Period. Towards the end of this period, two rival dynasties, known as the Tenth and Eleventh, fought for power over the entire country. The Theban 11th Dynasty only ruled southern Egypt to the Tenth Nome of Upper Egypt. To the north, Lower Egypt was ruled by the 10th Dynasty from Herakleopolis. The struggle was to be concluded by Mentuhotep II, who ascended the Theban throne in 2055 B.C. During Mentuhotep II's fourteenth he took advantage of a revolt in the Thinite Nome to launch an attack on Herakleopolis, which met little resistance. For this reason, Mentuhotep II is regarded as the founder of the Middle Kingdom. Mentuhotep II commanded military campaigns south far as the Second Cataract in Nubia, which had gained its independence during the First Intermediate Period. He also restored Egyptian hegemony over the Sinai region, lost since the end of the Old Kingdom. Mentuhotep III was succeeded by Mentuhotep IV, whose name significantly is omitted from all Egyptian king lists. The Turin Papyrus claims after Mentuhotep III came "seven kingless years."Middle Kingdom of Egypt – An Osiride statue of the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom, Mentuhotep II
8. Second Intermediate Period of Egypt – It is best known as the period whose reign comprised the Fifteenth dynasty. The Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt came with the death of Queen Sobekneferu. Retaining the seat of the twelfth dynasty, the thirteenth dynasty ruled from Itjtawy near Memphis and Lisht, south of the apex of the Nile Delta. The Thirteenth Dynasty is notable for the accession of the first formally Khendjer. The Fifteenth Dynasty dates approximately from 1650 to 1550 BC. Known rulers of the Fifteenth Dynasty are as follows: c. 1590? BC-1550 BC Khamudi, c. 1550-1540 BC The Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt was the first Hyksos dynasty, ruled from Avaris, without control of the entire land. The Hyksos preferred to stay in northern Egypt since they infiltrated from the north-east. The names and order of kings is uncertain. The Turin King list indicates that there were six Hyksos kings, with an obscure Khamudi listed as the final king of the Fifteenth Dynasty. This is also supported by the fact that this king employed a third prenomen during his reign: Nebkhepeshre. Apepi likely employed different prenomens throughout various periods of his reign. The Sixteenth Dynasty ruled the Theban region for 70 years. Of the two chief versions of Manetho's Aegyptiaca, Dynasty XVI is described by the more reliable Africanus as "shepherd kings", but as Theban.Second Intermediate Period of Egypt – Thebes (Luxor Temple pictured) was the capital of many of the Dynasty XVI pharaohs.
9. New Kingdom of Egypt – Radiocarbon dating places the exact beginning of the New Kingdom between 1570–1544 BC. The New Kingdom was succeeded by the Third Intermediate Period. It marked the peak of its power. The later part of this period, under the Nineteenth and Twentieth Dynasties is also known as the Ramesside period. It is named after the eleven pharaohs that took the name of founder of the 19th Dynasty. Egyptian armies fought Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria. The Eighteenth Dynasty contained some of Egypt's most famous Pharaohs, including Ahmose I, Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Amenhotep III, Tutankhamun. Queen Hatshepsut concentrated on expanding Egypt's external trade by sending a commercial expedition to the land of Punt. Thutmose III wielded it with great success to consolidate the empire created by his predecessors. This resulted during the reign of Amenhotep III. During the reign of Thutmose III, Pharaoh, originally referring to the king's palace, became a form of address for the person, king. Akhenaten's religious fervor is cited as the reason why he was subsequently written out of Egyptian history. Under his reign, in the 14th BC, Egyptian art flourished and attained an unprecedented level of realism. Towards the end of the 18th Dynasty, the situation had changed radically. Ramesses II sought to recover territories in the Levant, held by the 18th Dynasty.New Kingdom of Egypt – New Kingdom at its maximum territorial extent in the 15th century BC.
10. Third Intermediate Period of Egypt – The period was one of decline and political instability, marked by division of the state for much of the period and conquest and rule by foreigners. But many aspects of life for ordinary Egyptians changed relatively little. The period of the Twenty-First Dynasty is characterized by the country's fracturing kingship. After his death, his successor Smendes I ruled from the city of Tanis, but was mostly active only in Lower Egypt which they controlled. Meanwhile, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes effectively ruled Middle and Upper Egypt in all but name. However, this division was less significant than it seems, since both priests and pharaohs came from the same family. The country was firmly reunited by the Twenty-Second Dynasty founded by Shoshenq I in 945 BC, who descended from Meshwesh immigrants, originally from Ancient Libya. These two factions squabbled consistently and the conflict was only resolved in Year 39 of Shoshenq III when Osorkon B comprehensively defeated his enemies. The Nubian kingdom to the south took full advantage of this division and political instability. Piye established the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty and appointed the defeated rulers as his provincial governors. He was succeeded first by his brother, Shabaka, then by his two sons Shebitku and Taharqa respectively. The reunited Nile valley empire of the 25th dynasty was as large as it had been since the New Kingdom. Pharaohs, such as Taharqa, restored monuments throughout the Nile valley, including at Karnak, Kawa, Jebel Barkal, etc.. The 25th dynasty ended with its rulers retreating to their spiritual homeland at Napata. It was there that all 25th dynasty pharaohs are buried under the first pyramids to be constructed in the Nile valley in millennia.Third Intermediate Period of Egypt – 25th Dynasty
11. History of Roman Egypt – The province encompassed most of modern-day Egypt except for the Sinai Peninsula. Aegyptus was bordered by the provinces of Creta et Cyrenaica to the East. The province had a highly developed urban economy. Aegyptus was by far the wealthiest Eastern Roman province. In its capital, it possessed the largest port, the second largest city, of the Roman Empire. As a province, Egypt was ruled by a uniquely style Augustal prefect, instead of the senatorial governor of other Roman provinces. The prefect was appointed by the Emperor. Aelius Gallus, made an unsuccessful expedition to conquer Arabia Petraea and even Arabia Felix. The Red Sea coast of Aegyptus was not brought until the reign of Claudius. Gaius Petronius, cleared the neglected canals for irrigation, stimulating a revival of agriculture. Petronius even led a campaign at Meroe, whose queen Imanarenat had previously attacked Roman Egypt. Failing to acquire permanent gains, in 22 BC he retreated to the north. From the reign of Nero onward, Aegyptus enjoyed an era of prosperity which lasted a century. Under Trajan a Jewish revolt occurred, resulting in the suppression of the loss of all their privileges, although they soon returned. Hadrian, who twice visited Aegyptus, founded Antinoöpolis in memory of his drowned lover Antinous.History of Roman Egypt – Northern Africa under Roman rule
12. History of Arab Egypt – In 1174, Egypt came under the rule of Ayyubids that lasted until 1252. In 639 an army of some 4,000 men were sent under the command of Amr ibn al-As. This army was joined by another 5,000 men in 640 and defeated a Byzantine army at the battle of Heliopolis. Amr next proceeded in the direction of Alexandria, surrendered by a treaty signed on November 641. Alexandria was retaken in 646. In 654 an invasion fleet sent by Constans II was repulsed. From that time no serious effort was made by the Byzantines to regain possession of the country. Following the first surrender of Alexandria, Amr chose a new site to settle his men, near the location of the Byzantine fortress of Babylon. The new settlement received the name of Fustat, after Amr's tent, pitched there when the Arabs besieged the fortress. After the conquest, the country was initially divided in two provinces, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt with the Nile Delta. In 643/4, however, Caliph Uthman appointed a single governor over all of resident at Fustat. The governor would in turn nominate deputies for Upper and Lower Egypt. Alexandria remained a distinct district, reflecting both its role as the naval base. It was considered a frontier fortress under a military governor and was heavily garrisoned, with a quarter of the province's garrison serving there in semi-annual rotation. Next to the wāli, there was also the commander of the police, responsible for internal security and for commanding the jund.History of Arab Egypt – The near East in 1025 AD, showing the Fatimid Caliphate and neighbors.
13. Egyptian language – The language spoken in ancient Egypt was a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Egyptian was spoken until the late century in the form of Coptic. Coptic is still used as the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. It has today. The Egyptian language belongs to the Afroasiatic family. Of the Afroasiatic branches, Egyptian shows its greatest affinities with Semitic, to a lesser extent Cushitic. In Egyptian, the Proto-Afroasiatic voiced consonants * / z ð / developed into pharyngeal ⟨ ꜥ ⟩ / ʕ /, e.g. Eg. ꜥr.t'portal', Sem. *dalt'door'. Original * / k ḳ / palatalize to ⟨ ṯ j ḏ ⟩ in some environments and are preserved as ⟨ k g q ⟩ in others. Egyptian has perhaps monoradical roots, in contrast to the Semitic preference for triradical roots. Egyptian probably is more archaic in this regard, whereas Semitic likely underwent later regularizations converting roots into the triradical pattern. Scholars group the Egyptian language into six major chronological divisions: Archaic Egyptian language Old Egyptian language Middle Egyptian language, characterizing Middle Kingdom. Late Egyptian language. Demotic Coptic The earliest Egyptian glyphs date back to around 3300 BC. These early texts are generally lumped together under the general term "Archaic Egyptian."Egyptian language – Seal impression from the tomb of Seth-Peribsen, containing the oldest known complete sentence in Egyptian
14. Demotic (Egyptian) – The term was first used by the Greek historian Herodotus to distinguish it from hieroglyphic scripts. By convention, the word "Demotic" is capitalized in order to distinguish it from demotic Greek. During that time a number of developmental stages occurred. It is read from right to left, while earlier hieroglyphics could be written from top to bottom, left to right, or right to left. Early Demotic developed during the later part of the 25th dynasty, particularly found on stelae from the Serapeum at Saqqara. During this period, Demotic was used only for administrative, commercial texts, while hieroglyphs and hieratic were reserved for other texts. Middle Demotic is the stage of writing used during the Ptolemaic Period. From the 4th BC onwards, Demotic held a higher status, as may be seen from its increasing use for literary and religious texts. From the beginning of Roman rule of Egypt, Demotic was progressively less used in public life. After that, Demotic was only used to Greek texts, mummy labels, graffiti. Demotic is a development of shares much with the later Coptic phase of the Egyptian language. In the earlier stages such as those texts written in the Early Demotic script, it probably represented the spoken idiom of the time. The Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799. It is inscribed with three scripts: both Demotic and hieroglyphic Egyptian. There are 32 lines of Demotic, the middle of the three scripts on the stone.Demotic (Egyptian) – Demotic
15. Coptic language – Coptic or Coptic Egyptian is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afroasiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century. Coptic and Demotic are grammatically closely related to Late Egyptian, written with Egyptian hieroglyphs. Language revitalization efforts have been underway since the 19th century. The Coptic name for the language is ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ / timetremenˈkʰeːmi / in the Bohairic dialect, ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲣⲙ̄ⲛ̄ⲕⲏⲙⲉ / tmentremenˈkiːme / in the Sahidic dialect. The prefix met - from the verb ⲙⲟⲩϯ mouti forms all abstract nouns in Coptic. Thus, the whole expression literally means simply'Egyptian language'. Another name by which the language has been called is ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲕⲩⲡⲧⲁⲓⲟⲛ / timentkuptaion / from the Copto-Greek ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲁⲓⲅⲩⲡⲧⲓⲟⲛ / timentaiguption /. Logos and aiguptios are both Greek in origin. Coptic is today spoken liturgically in the Coptic Orthodox and Coptic Catholic Church. The language historically has had little influence outside of the territory, except for monasteries located in Nubia. It should be noted, however, that Coptic ⲉⲙⲥⲁϩ hence would have been vocalised pemsaḥ or bemsaḥ. Hence it is unclear why the word should have entered Arabic with an initial t, which would have required the word to be grammatically feminine. Wāḥah واحة "oasis"; Sahidic ⲟⲩⲁϩⲉ waḥe, Bohairic ⲟⲩⲉϩⲓ weḥi. A few words of Coptic origin are found in the Greek language; some of the words were later lent to European languages. However, most words of Egyptian origin that entered into Greek and subsequently into other European languages came directly from Ancient Egyptian, often Demotic).Coptic language – 5th–6th century Coptic liturgic inscription from Upper Egypt.
16. Writing in Ancient Egypt – Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt. It combined logographic, alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters. Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood. Demotic Egyptian scripts are derived from hieroglyphic writing; Meroitic was a late derivation from Demotic. The system continued to be used throughout the Late Period, as well as the Persian and Ptolemaic periods. Late survivals of hieroglyphic use are found well into the Roman period, extending into the 4th AD. The decipherment of hieroglyphs would only be solved in the 1820s with the help of the Rosetta Stone. The hieroglyph comes from the Greek adjective ἱερογλυφικός, a compound of ἱερός and γλύφω, supposedly a calque of an Egyptian phrase mdw · w-nṯr "god's words". The glyphs themselves were called τὰ ἱερογλυφικὰ γράμματα "the sacred engraved letters". The hieroglyph has become a noun in English, standing for an individual hieroglyphic character. Hieroglyphic has also become a noun in English, at least in non-academic usage. Hieroglyphs emerged from the artistic traditions of Egypt. For example, symbols on Gerzean pottery from c. 4000 BC have been argued to resemble hieroglyphic writing. There are around 800 hieroglyphs dating back to the Old Kingdom, New Kingdom Eras. By the Greco-Roman period, there are more than 5,000.Writing in Ancient Egypt – Hieroglyphs from the Black Schist sarcophagus of Ankhnesneferibre. Twenty-Sixth Dynasty, about 530 BC, Thebes.
17. Hieroglyph – A hieroglyph is a character of the ancient Egyptian writing system. Logographic scripts that are pictographic in form in a way reminiscent of ancient Egyptian are also sometimes called hieroglyphs". In Neoplatonism, especially during the Renaissance, a "hieroglyph" was an artistic representation of an esoteric idea, which Neoplatonists believed actual Egyptian hieroglyphs to be. The word hieroglyphics refer to a hieroglyphic script. Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521774833. OCLC 51226851. Brewer, Douglas J.; Teeter, Emily. Egypt and the Egyptians. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521851503. OCLC 433993212. Kamrin, Janice. Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs: A Practical Guide.Hieroglyph – Egyptian hieroglyphs typical of the Graeco-Roman period, sculpted in Relief. Glyphs: viper, owl, 'bread bun', folded cloth
18. Hieratic – It is a cursive writing system used in the provenance of the pharaohs in Egypt and Nubia. Hieratic developed alongside cursive hieroglyphs, from which it is separate yet intimately related. Hieratic was primarily written with a reed brush on papyrus allowing scribes to write quickly without resorting to the time-consuming hieroglyphs. In the 2nd AD, the term hieratic was first used by Saint Clement of Alexandria. It can also be an adjective meaning "f or associated with sacred offices; sacerdotal." In the Proto-Dynastic Period of Egypt, hieratic first developed alongside the more formal hieroglyphic script. Hieratic is an error to view hieratic as a derivative of hieroglyphic writing. Indeed, the earliest texts from Egypt are produced with no indication their signs are descendants of hieroglyphs. Monumental hieroglyphs carved in stone did not appear until the 1st Dynasty, well after hieratic had been established as a scribal practice. The two writing systems, therefore, are parallel developments, rather than a single linear one. It was used into the Graeco-Roman Period. During the Græco-Roman period, when Demotic had become the administrative script, hieratic was limited primarily to religious texts. In general, hieratic was much more important than hieroglyphs throughout Egypt's history, being the script used in daily life. Hieratic was also the system first taught to students, knowledge of hieroglyphs being limited to a small minority who were given additional training. In fact, Hieratic is often possible to detect errors in hieroglyphic texts that came about due to a misunderstanding of an hieratic text.Hieratic – One of four official letters to vizier Khay copied onto fragments of limestone (an ostracon).
19. Ancient Egyptian literature – Ancient Egyptian literature was written in the Egyptian language from ancient Egypt's pharaonic period until the end of Roman domination. It represents the oldest corpus of Egyptian literature. Along with Sumerian literature, it is considered the world's earliest literature. Writing in ancient Egypt -- both hieratic -- first appeared in the late 4th millennium BC during the late phase of predynastic Egypt. It was not until the early Middle Kingdom that a narrative Egyptian literature was created. This was a "media revolution" which, according to Richard B. However, it is possible that the overall literacy rate was less than one percent of the entire population. The creation of literature was thus the royal court of the ruling pharaoh. However, there is no full consensus among modern scholars concerning the dependence of Egyptian literature on the sociopolitical order of the royal courts. Popular tales included the Story of The Eloquent Peasant, while important teaching texts include the Instructions of Amenemhat and The Loyalist Teaching. Egyptian literature has been preserved on a wide variety of media. This includes papyrus scrolls and packets, limestone or ceramic ostraca, wooden writing boards, coffins. Texts preserved and represent a small fraction of ancient Egyptian literary material. The area of the floodplain of the Nile is under-represented because the environment is unsuitable for the preservation of papyri and ink inscriptions. On the other hand, hidden caches of literature, buried for thousands of years, have been discovered in settlements on the dry desert margins of Egyptian civilization.Ancient Egyptian literature – Egyptian hieroglyphs with cartouches for the name " Ramesses II ", from the Luxor Temple, New Kingdom
20. Ancient Egyptian cuisine – The cuisine of ancient Egypt covers a span of over three thousand years, but still retained many consistent traits until well into Greco-Roman times. Depictions of banquets can be found from both the Old Kingdom and New Kingdom. They usually started sometime in the afternoon. Women were separated unless they were married. Professional dancers entertained, accompanied by musicians playing harps, lutes, drums, tambourines, clappers. There were usually abundant quantities of foods; there were whole roast oxen, ducks, geese, pigeons, at times fish. The dishes frequently consisted of stews served with great amounts of bread, fruit. For sweets there were cakes sweetened with honey. The Hathor was often invoked during feasts. Food could be prepared by stewing, baking, boiling, grilling, roasting. Herbs were added for flavor, though the former were expensive imports and therefore confined to the tables of the wealthy. Dates and raisins could be dried for long-term storage. The staples beer were usually prepared in the same locations, as the yeast used for bread was also used for brewing. Any surplus would be sold. Egyptian bread was made exclusively from emmer wheat, more difficult to turn into flour than most other varieties of wheat.Ancient Egyptian cuisine – An early Ramesside Period mural painting from Deir el-Medina tomb depicts an Egyptian couple harvesting crops
21. Ancient egyptian warfare – Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the Northern reaches of the Nile River in Egypt. Its history occurred in a series of stable Kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods. Ancient Egypt reached its pinnacle during the New Kingdom, after which it entered a period of slow decline. For most parts of its long history, ancient Egypt was unified under one government. The military concern for the nation was to keep enemies out. Nevertheless, the great expanses of the desert formed a barrier, almost impossible for massive armies to cross. The Egyptians built fortresses and outposts to the south. If a large force was detected a message was sent for the main army corps. Most Egyptian cities lacked other defenses. The history of ancient Egypt is divided into two intermediate periods. During the three Kingdoms Egypt was unified under one government. During the Intermediate periods control was in the hands of the various nomes and various foreigners. The geography of Egypt allowed it to thrive. This circumstance set the stage for many of Egypt's military conquests. They enfeebled their enemies like bows and arrows.Ancient egyptian warfare – The Hyksos of Ancient Egypt drove chariots
22. Egyptian calendar – The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year, 365 days long. The year consisted of 12 months of five extra days at the end of the year. The months were divided into three weeks of each. However, more recent analysis of the pictorial scene on this tablet has questioned whether it actually refers to Sothis at all. Current knowledge of this period remains than of established fact. The first inundation according to the calendar was observed at the same time as the heliacal rising of Sirius. The Egyptian year was divided into the three seasons of Akhet, Peret and Shemu. The heliacal rising of Sothis returned to the same point in the calendar every 1,460 years. The difference between a civil year was therefore 365 days in 1,460 years, or one day in four years. For much of Egyptian history, the months were rather numbered within the three seasons. As early as the Middle Kingdom, however, each month had its own name. Copernicus constructed his tables for the motion of the planets based on the Egyptian year because of its mathematical regularity. The convention amongst modern Egyptologists is to the months consecutively using Roman numerals. From this it is possible to calculate that the previous occasion on which this occurred was the one before, 2782 BCE. Djer's reign preceded that date.Egyptian calendar – Nut, Egyptian goddess of the sky, with the star chart in the tomb of Ramses VI. Human figures represent stars and constellations
23. Beautiful festival of the valley – The Beautiful Festival of the Valley was an Ancient Egyptian festival, celebrated annually in Thebes, during the Middle Kingdom period and later. The Beautiful Festival of the nefer en inet in Egyptian was a celebration of the dead. The Beautiful Festival of the Valley could be more ancient than the Festival of Opet as it can be traced back to the Middle Kingdom. It was said to be held as a remembrance of the dead, from the beginning of the Middle Kingdom. However, when joined with the Festival of Opet, the holy procession became the main event of the liturgical calendar of Thebes. The annual festival was held at the New Moon of Month Two. This was the 10th month in a calendar of 12. During Hatshepsut's reign she carried out both the Opet and The Beautiful Festival of the Valley to Amun. There was a grand precession at the start of the festival which could go for several days. It was a colourful and joyous occasion for the people of Thebes. This barque would then be placed in a Userhet, covered in gold and precious materials. This Userhet would be followed by boats for Mut and Khonsu to form the Theban Triad. Great quantities of flowers would be presented, as it is believed by the Egyptian culture that the flowers became filled with the essence of the deity. Townspeople then took these flowers to their relatives' tombs to pay their respects and ensure the revival of the deceased's spirit. They would drink and sleep on the deceased's tombs as different levels of consciousness blessed the dead and brought them closer to god.Beautiful festival of the valley – The Beautiful Festival of the Valley at the Tomb of Nakht
24. Ancient Egyptian architecture – The core of the pyramids consisted of locally quarried stone, mudbricks, gravel. For the casing stones were used that had to be transported from upper Egypt. Egyptian houses were made out of mud collected from the Nile river. It was left to dry in the hot sun to harden for use in construction. New buildings having been erected on ancient ones. Fortunately, the hot climate of Egypt preserved some mud brick structures. Examples include the village Deir al-Madinah, the fortresses at Buhen and Mirgissa. Also, many tombs have survived because they were built on high ground unaffected by the Nile flood and were constructed of stone. In a similar manner, the incised and flatly modeled adornment of the stone buildings may have derived from mud wall ornamentation. Interior walls, as well as the columns and piers, were covered with hieroglyphic and pictorial frescoes and carvings painted in brilliant colors. Many motifs of Egyptian ornamentation are symbolic, such as the scarab, or sacred beetle, the vulture. Common motifs include palm leaves, the papyrus plant, the buds and flowers of the lotus. Hieroglyphs spells. In addition, carvings allow us to understand how the Ancient Egyptians lived, statuses, wars that were fought and their beliefs. This was especially true when exploring the tombs of Egyptian officials in recent years.Ancient Egyptian architecture – The well preserved Temple of Horus at Edfu is an example of Egyptian architecture and architectural sculpture.
25. Giza pyramid complex – The Giza pyramid complex is an archaeological site on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. It is by far the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence. The Great Sphinx lies on the east side of the complex. Current consensus among Egyptologists is that the head of the Great Sphinx is that of Khafre. Along with these major monuments are a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as "queens" pyramids, causeways and valley pyramids. The valley temple was connected to a causeway, largely destroyed when the village was constructed. The causeway led to the Mortuary Temple of Khufu. From this temple the basalt pavement is the only thing that remains. The mortuary temple was connected to the king’s pyramid. The king’s pyramid has three smaller queen’s pyramids associated with it and five boat pits. The boat pits contained a ship, the 2 pits on the south side of the pyramid still contained intact ships. One of these ships has been restored and is on display. Khufu's pyramid still has a limited collection of casing stones at its base. These casing stones were made of fine white limestone quarried from the nearby range. Khafre's complex consists of a valley temple, the king's pyramid.Giza pyramid complex – All of the six pyramids of the Giza pyramid complex
26. Great pyramid of Giza – The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the only one to remain largely intact. Initially at 146.5 metres, the Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for more than 3,800 years. Originally, the Great Pyramid was covered by casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface; what is seen today is the underlying core structure. Some of the casing stones that once covered the structure can still be seen around the base. There have been varying scientific and alternative theories about the Great Pyramid's construction techniques. There are three known chambers inside the Great Pyramid. The lowest chamber is cut into the bedrock upon which the pyramid was built and was unfinished. The so-called Queen's Chamber and King's Chamber are higher up within the pyramid structure. It is believed the pyramid was built as a tomb for Fourth Dynasty Egyptian pharaoh Khufu and was constructed over a 20-year period. Khufu's vizier, Hemon, or Hemiunu, is believed by some to be the architect of the Great Pyramid. Each base side was 440 cubits, 230.4 metres long. The mass of the pyramid is estimated at 5.9 million tonnes. The volume, including an internal hillock, is roughly 2,500,000 cubic metres. Based on these estimates, building the pyramid in 20 years would involve installing approximately 800 tonnes of stone every day.Great pyramid of Giza – Great Pyramid of Giza
27. Pyramid of Userkaf – The pyramid complex of Userkaf was built c. 2490 BC for the pharaoh Userkaf, founder of the 5th dynasty of Egypt. It is located in the pyramid field on the north-east of the step pyramid of Djoser. Constructed with a core of rubble, the pyramid is now ruined and resembles a conical hill in the sands of Saqqara. Userkaf's mortuary temple and pyramid are today completely ruined and difficult to recognize. The pyramid of the queen is no more with its funerary chamber exposed by stone robbers. The complex is markedly different from those built during the 4th Dynasty in architecture and location, being at Saqqara rather than Gizah. Some 1500 years after its construction, the complex was restored under Ramses II. During the much later Saite period, it was used as a cemetery. Perring did not know for sure who the owner of the pyramid attributed it to Djedkare Isesi, a late 5th dynasty pharaoh. After his investigations Perring buried the robbers tunnel which remains inaccessible to this day. Since Perring had already buried the robbers tunnel by that time, K. R. Lepsius did not investigate the pyramid any further. The pyramid was then neglected until October 1927 when the architect Jean-Philippe Lauer started excavating there. After Firth's death in 1931 no excavations took place on site until they were resumed in 1948. Lauer worked there until 1955, investigating the eastern side of the pyramid. Research on the west sides of the mortuary complex was conducted starting in 1976 by Ahmed el-Khouli who excavated and restored the pyramid entrance.Pyramid of Userkaf
28. Step pyramid – Step pyramids are structures which characterized several cultures throughout history, throughout the world. These pyramids typically are large and made of several layers of stone. There are near, Mesopotamia. Four of them are in Iran. Ziggurats were built to local religions. The earliest ziggurats probably date from the latter part of the Early Dynastic Period of Sumer. Built in receding tiers upon a oval, or square platform, the ziggurat was a pyramidal structure. Sun-baked bricks made up the core of the ziggurat with facings of fired bricks on the outside. The facings may have had astrological significance. Kings sometimes had their names engraved on these glazed bricks. The number of tiers ranged from two with a shrine or temple at the summit. Access to the shrine was provided by a series of ramps on one side of the ziggurat or by a spiral ramp to summit. It was also called Hill of the gods. The earliest Egyptian pyramids were step pyramids. During the Third Dynasty of Egypt, the Imhotep designed Egypt's first step pyramid as a tomb for the pharaoh, Djoser.Step pyramid – The 4100-year-old Great Ziggurat of Ur in southern Iraq
29. Mastaba – These edifices marked the burial sites of eminent Egyptians during Egypt's Early Dynastic Period and Old Kingdom. Egyptologists call these tombs mastaba, the Arabic word for bench. The afterlife ruled every aspect of the society. This is reflected prominently by the enormous amounts of time, money, manpower involved in the building of their tombs. Ancient Egyptians believed the soul could live only if the body was depredation as well as fed. The Ancient Egyptians initially began by burying their dead in pit graves dug out from the sand. The body of the deceased was buried usually along with some items believed to help them in the afterlife. The first structure that the Egyptians built was the mastaba. Mastabas provided better protection from grave robbers. However, the human remains were not in contact with the dry sand, so natural mummification could not take place. Use of the more secure mastabas required Ancient Egyptians to devise a system of artificial mummification. Until at least First Intermediate Period, only high officials and royalty would be buried in these mastabas. When seen from a distance a mastaba does resemble a bench. Historians speculate that the Egyptians may have borrowed architectural ideas from Mesopotamia since at the time they were both building similar structures. The above-ground structure of a mastaba is rectangular with inward-sloping sides and a flat roof.Mastaba – Example of a mastaba
30. Karnak – The Karnak Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak, comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels, pylons, other buildings. It is part of the monumental city of Thebes. The Karnak complex gives to the nearby, partly surrounded, modern village of El-Karnak, 2.5 kilometres north of Luxor. Also, Karnak was a ancient observatory according to Norman Lockyer. The complex is the second largest ancient religious site in the world, after the Angkor Wat Temple of Cambodia. It is believed to be the second most visited historical site in Egypt; only the Giza Pyramids near Cairo receive more visits. It consists of four main parts, of which only the largest is currently open to the general public. The Karnak often is understood as being the Precinct of Amun-Ra only, because this is the only part most visitors see. The Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Montu, the dismantled Temple of Amenhotep IV, are closed to the public. There also sanctuaries connecting the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Amun-Re, the Luxor Temple. The Precinct of Mut is very ancient, being dedicated to an Earth and deity, but not yet restored. Many portions of it may have been carried away in other buildings. Construction of temples continued through to Ptolemaic times. Approximately thirty pharaohs contributed to the buildings, enabling it to reach a size, diversity not seen elsewhere. The size and number of features are overwhelming.Karnak – Pillars of the Great Hypostyle Hall from the Precinct of Amun-Re
31. Luxor temple – In the Egyptian language it is known as ipet resyt, "the southern sanctuary". In Luxor there are great temples on the east and west banks. Unlike the other temples in Thebes, Luxor temple is not dedicated to a deified version of the king in death. Other parts of the temple were built by Tutankhamun and Ramesses II. During the Roman era, its surroundings were a legionary fortress and the home of the Roman government in the area. Luxor temple was built from the Gebel el-Silsila area, located in south-western Egypt. This sandstone from the Gebel el-Silsila region is referred to as Nubian Sandstone. This sandstone was used for the construction for monuments in Upper Egypt well as in the course of past and current restoration works. Like Egyptian structures a common technique used was symbolism, or illusionism. To the Egyptian, a sanctuary shaped like an Anubis Jackal was really Anubis. They created the illusion that they were. Symbolically, it is a spatial effect to emphasize the heights and distance from the wall, enhancing the already existing pathway. From medieval times the Muslim population of Luxor had settled at the southward end of the mount. The Luxor Temple had begun to be excavated by Professor Gaston Maspero after 1884 after he had been given the order to commence operations. The excavations were carried out sporadically until 1960.Luxor temple – Entrance of Luxor Temple
32. Ramesseum – The Ramesseum is the memorial temple of Pharaoh Ramesses II. It is located in the Theban necropolis across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor. It was originally called the House of millions of years of Usermaatra-setepenra that unites in the domain of Amon. Usermaatra-setepenra was the prenomen of Ramesses II. Surviving records indicate that work on the project continued for 20 years. The design of Ramesses's mortuary temple adheres to the standard canons of New Kingdom architecture. Oriented northwest and southeast, the temple itself comprised two stone pylons, one after the other, each leading into a courtyard. At the centre of the complex, was a covered 48-column hypostyle hall, surrounding the inner sanctuary. Only fragments of the torso remain of the syenite statue of the enthroned pharaoh, 62 feet high and weighing more than 1000 tons. This was alleged to have been transported 170 miles over land. This is the largest colossal statue in the world. However fragments of 4 granite Colossi of Ramses were found in Tanis. Estimated height is 69 to 92 feet. Like four of the six colossi of Amenhotep III there are longer complete remains so it is based partly on unconfirmed estimates. Remains of the second court include part of a portion of the Osiride portico on the right.Ramesseum – Aerial view of Thebes' Ramesseum, showing pylons and secondary buildings
33. Deir el-Bahri – This is a part of the Theban Necropolis. The first monument built at the site was the mortuary temple of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh dynasty. It was constructed during the 15th century BC. During the Eighteenth dynasty, Amenhotep I and Hatshepsut also built extensively at the site. Eleventh Dynasty king who reunited Egypt at the beginning of the Middle Kingdom, built a very unusual complex. His mortuary temple was built on several levels in the great bay at Deir el-Bahari. It was approached by a 16-metre-wide causeway leading from a temple which longer exists. As the temple faces east, the structure is likely to be connected with the sun cult of Rê and the resurrection of the king. On the western side, tamarisk and sycamore trees were planted beside the ramp leading up to the terrace. At the back of the forecourt and terrace are colonnades decorated in relief with boat processions, hunts, scenes showing the king's military achievements. Statues of the Twelfth Dynasty king Senusret III were found here too. The cult of the dead king centred on the small shrine cut into the rear of the Hypostyle Hall. These royal princesses were the priestesses of Hathor, one of the Egyptian funerary deities. Although little remained of the king's own burial, six sarcophagi were retrieved from the tombs of the royal ladies. Each was carved in sunken relief.Deir el-Bahri – Djeser-Djeseru – Hatshepsut's temple, the focal point of the complex.
34. SerdabSerdab – The pharaoh Djoser 's Ka statue peers out through the hole in his serdab, ready to receive the soul of the deceased and any offerings presented to it.
35. Benben – The Benben stone is the top stone of the Egyptian pyramid. It is also related to the Obelisk. In the Pyramid Texts, 600, Atum himself is at times referred to as "mound". It was said to have turned into a small pyramid, located in Heliopolis, within which Atum was said to dwell. Other cities developed their own myths of the primeval mound. The Benben stone, named after the mound, was a sacred stone in the temple of Ra at Heliopolis. It was the location on which the first rays of the sun fell. The capstones of the great pyramids were based on its design. The tip of the pyramid is also called pyramidion. In ancient Egypt, these were probably gilded, so they shone in sunlight. The pyramidion is also called'Benben stone'. Such Benben stones, often carved with images and inscriptions, are found in museums around the world. The bennu bird, was venerated at Heliopolis, where it was said to be living on the Benben or on the holy willow. § 1652 of the Pyramid Texts speaks of Atum as you rose up, as the benben, in the Mansion of the Benu in Heliopolis. The other form was round-topped; this was probably an object of veneration.Benben – Reconstructed capstone from one of the pyramids of the Giza Plateau, symbolizing Benben.
36. Bent Pyramid – A unique example of early development in Egypt, this was the second pyramid built by Sneferu. Archaeologists now believe that the Bent Pyramid represents a transitional form between smooth-sided pyramids. It is also unique amongst the approximately ninety pyramids to be found in Egypt, in that its original polished outer casing remains largely intact. The formal name of the Bent Pyramid is generally translated as - Southern-Shining-Pyramid, or Sneferu -- Shining-in-the-South. The second entrance is high on the west face of the pyramid. A hole in the roof of the northern chamber leads to the passage from the western entrance. The connecting referenced above enters the passage between the two portcullises. On the east side of the temple there are the fragmentary remains of the temple. Like the temple of the Meidum pyramid, there are two stelae behind the temple, though of these only stumps remain. There is no trace of inscription to be seen. It is presumed to be similar to that of the Meidum temple. A pyramid, built to house the Pharaoh's Ka, is located 55 metres south of the Bent Pyramid. The pyramid originally measured 26 metres in height and 52.80 metres in length, with faces inclining 44 ° 30'. The structure is made of limestone blocks, relatively thick, covered with a layer of fine limestone from Tura. The chamber is accessible from a descending corridor with its entrance located 1.10 metres above the ground in the middle of the north face.Bent Pyramid – Bent Pyramid
37. Black Pyramid – The Black Pyramid was built by King Amenemhat III during the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. It is one of the five remaining pyramids at Dahshur in Egypt. Originally named Amenemhet is Mighty, the pyramid earned the name "Black Pyramid" for its dark, decaying appearance as a rubble mound. The Black pyramid was the first to house both his queens. Jacques de Morgan, on a French mission, began the excavation in 1892. The German Archaeological Institute of Cairo completed excavation in 1983. The pyramid was originally an incline of 57 °. Typical for pyramids of the Middle Kingdom, the Black Pyramid, although encased in limestone, is made of mud clay instead of stone. The ground-level structures consist into the courtyard and mortuary temple, surrounded by walls. The pyramidion, the capstone of a pyramid, was covered with religious symbols. Some of these were scratched off, it was defaced during Akhenaten's rule. Below level in the subterranean structure lay a network of complicated passages. The king's section remains mostly intact with a canopic jar; however, the king was not buried there. The section for the queens was looted. There are four other burial chambers in the subterranean structure; to whom they belong, however, is unknown.Black Pyramid – Black Pyramid
38. False door – A false door is an artistic representation of a door which does not function like a real door. They can be painted on it. They are a architectural element in the tombs of Ancient Egypt and Pre-Nuragic Sardinia. Later in the time of Ancient Rome they were used in both the interiors of houses and tombs. In many mastabas, both wife buried within have their own false door. A semi-cylindrical drum, carved directly above the central panel, was used in imitation of the reed-mat, used to close real doors. Sometimes, the owners of the tomb had statues carved in their image placed into the central niche of the false door. The side panels usually are covered in a series of standardized offering formulas. These texts extol the virtues of the deceased and express positive wishes for the afterlife. The lintel reads: "this for him." "it was, the lector priest Medunefer, who acted on his behalf when he was buried in the necropolis. The scribe of the house of the god's documents, Ankhires." After the First Intermediate Period, the popularity of the false doors diminished, being replaced as the primary surfaces for writing funerary inscriptions. In Etruscan tombs the false door is always depicted closed. On some occasions it is carved in relief, like in the Tomb of the Charontes at Tarquinia.False door – A typical false door to an Egyptian tomb - the deceased is shown above the central niche in front of a table of offerings, and inscriptions listing offerings for the deceased are carved along the side panels.
39. Block statue (Egyptian) – The block statue is a type of memorial statue that first emerged in the Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. These statues were used in temples typically as funerary monuments of non-royal yet important individuals. In addition, their simple shape provided flat surfaces for inscriptions of invocations. Block statues consist of a man squatting with his knees drawn up to his chest and his arms folded on top his knees. Often, these men are wearing a "wide cloak" that reduces the body of the figure to a simple block-like shape. Most of the detail is reserved for the head of the individual being depicted. In some instances the modeling of the limbs has been retained by the sculptor. There are two basic types of block statues: ones with the feet completely covered by the cloak and ones with the feet uncovered. In 1903, more than 350 Block statues were discovered by the French archaeologist Georges Legrain as part of the "Karnak cachette". In Egypt, statues of the seated scribe appear ago as the 1st Dynasty. Some also came into the statue presentation. Also the complexities of the statue developed, evolved. Combinational themes became common, likewise abbreviated, also developed. Examples of the statue for Senemut, of Queen Hatshepsut's reign, have extensive stories in hieroglyphs. They also have the added, head of the child upon the top surface.Block statue (Egyptian) – Block-statue of Pa-Ankh-Ra, ship master, bearing a statue of Ptah. Late Period, ca. 650–633 BC, Cabinet des Médailles.
40. Art of Ancient Egypt – Egyptian art reached a high level in painting and sculpture, was both highly stylized and symbolic. Egyptian styles changed remarkably little over more than three thousand years. Egyptian art included paintings, sculpture in wood, stone and ceramics, drawings on papyrus, faience, jewelry, ivories, other art media. It displays an extraordinarily vivid representation of the ancient Egyptian's socioeconomic belief systems. Other conventions make statues of males darker than ones. Egyptian art uses hierarchical proportion, where the size of figures indicates their relative importance. Symbolism can be played an important role in establishing a sense of order. The pharaoh's regalia, for example, represented his power to maintain order. Animals were also highly symbolic figures in Egyptian art. Less prestigious works in tombs, temples and palaces were merely painted on a flat surface. Pigments were mostly mineral, chosen to withstand strong sunlight without fading. The binding medium used in painting remains unclear: various gums and resins have been suggested. It is clear that true fresco, painted into a thin layer of wet plaster, was not used. Instead the paint was applied in what is called "fresco a secco" in Italian. Small objects including wooden statuettes were often painted using similar techniques.Art of Ancient Egypt – Thutmose, Bust of Nefertiti, 1345 BC, Egyptian Museum of Berlin
41. Ankh – The ankh, also known as crux ansata is an ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic ideograph with the meaning "life". The Egyptian gods are often portrayed bearing one in each hand, arms crossed over their chest. The ankh appears in proximity of almost every deity in the Egyptian pantheon. The symbol became popular in New Age mysticism in the 1960s. Unicode has two characters encoding the symbol, U+2625 ☥ in the Miscellaneous Symbols block and U+132F9 in the Egyptian Hieroglyphs block. Alan Gardiner explains the hieroglyph as a depiction of a sandal-strap which could be used for the homophone ꜥnḫ "live". There have been alternative suggestions. Additionally, an ankh was often carried as an amulet, either alone, or in connection with two other hieroglyphs that mean "strength" and "health". A symbol similar to the ankh appears frequently in Minoan and Mycenaean sites. It can be better compared with the Egyptian tyet, similar. This symbol can be recognized on the two famous figurines of the chthonian Snake Goddess discovered in the palace of Knossos. Both snake goddesses have a knot with a projecting cord between their breasts. In the Linear B script, ankh is the phonetic za. The ankh also appeared frequently in coins from ancient Cyprus and Asia Minor. To this day, the ankh is also used to represent the metal copper.Ankh – Merenptah offering an ankh, djed, and was to Ptah
42. Djed – The djed symbol is one of the more ancient and commonly found symbols in Egyptian mythology. It is a pillar-like symbol in hieroglyphics representing stability. It is associated with the Egyptian god of the afterlife, the underworld, the dead. It is commonly understood to represent his spine. In the myth of Osiris and Isis, Osiris was killed by being tricked into a coffin made to fit Osiris exactly. Set then had the coffin with the now deceased Osiris flung into the Nile. The coffin was carried by the Nile in Lebanon. It ran a sacred tree took root and rapidly grew around the coffin, enclosing the coffin within its trunk. Meanwhile, Isis came to know of Osiris's location in Byblos. Isis was granted a boon. She upon being granted it, extracted the coffin from the pillar. She then consecrated the pillar, wrapping it in linen. This pillar came to be known as the pillar of djed. Erich Neumann remarks that the djed pillar is a fetish, significant considering that Egypt was primarily treeless. He indicates that the myth may represent the importance of the import of trees from Syria.Djed – Seal ring featuring the inscription: "Ptah the one with durable favours" Hieroglyphs-(read from right, top): Ptah-(p-t-h)-(gives)-enduring-(Djed)-favors-(i.e.-libation offerings-(3, for plural)).
43. Wadjet – Wadjet, known to the Greek world as Uto among other names, was originally the ancient local goddess of the city of Dep. It was the emblem on the crown of the rulers of Lower Egypt. She was also of women in childbirth. Her oracle gave the city its name. This oracle may have been the source for the tradition that spread to Greece from Egypt. The Going Forth of Wadjet was celebrated with chants and songs. An annual festival held in the city celebrated Wadjet on April 21. Important dates for special worship of her were June 21, the Summer Solstice, March 14. She also was assigned the fifth hour of the fifth day of the moon. Wadjet was closely associated with the Eye of Ra, a powerful protective deity. The hieroglyph for her eye is shown below; sometimes two are shown in the sky of religious images. Per-Wadjet also contained a sanctuary of the child of the sun deity who would be interpreted to represent the pharaoh. Later Wadjet became associated with Isis as well as with many other deities. The Wadjet is derived from the term for the symbol of her domain, Lower Egypt, the papyrus. The et is an indication of her gender.Wadjet – Two images of Wadjet appear on this carved wall in the Hatshepsut Temple at Luxor
44. WasWas – A was sceptre, carried by the god Set, in the tomb of Thutmose III
45. Uraeus – The Uraeus is the stylized, upright form of an Egyptian cobra, used as a symbol of sovereignty, royalty, deity and divine authority in ancient Egypt. The Uraeus is a symbol for the goddess Wadjet. She was one of the earliest Egyptian deities and who often was depicted as a cobra. The center of her cult was in Per-Wadjet, later called Buto by the Greeks. She became the patroness of the Nile Delta and the protector of all of Lower Egypt. In whatever manner that the Uraeus was displayed upon the pharaoh's head, it was, in effect, part of the pharaoh's crown. The pharaoh was recognized only by wearing the Uraeus, which conveyed legitimacy to the ruler. There is evidence for this tradition even in the Old Kingdom during the third millennium BCE. Several goddesses associated with or being considered aspects of Wadjet are depicted wearing the Uraeus also. The importance of their separate cults kept them from becoming merged as with so many Egyptian deities. Together, they were known as The Two Ladies, who became the joint protectors and patrons of the unified Egypt. In some mythological works, the eyes of Ra are said to be uraei. As the Uraeus was seen as a royal symbol, the deities Horus and Set were also depicted wearing the symbol on their crowns. In this version of the mythology, the Uraeus was the instrument with which Isis gained the throne of Egypt for Osiris. Isis is associated with and may be considered an aspect of Wadjet.Uraeus – Mask of Tutankhamun 's mummy featuring a uraeus, from the eighteenth dynasty. The cobra image of Wadjet with the vulture image of Nekhbet representing of the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt
46. Pschent – The Pschent was the name of the Double Crown worn by rulers in Ancient Egypt. The Ancient Egyptians generally referred as sekhemti, the Two Powerful Ones. It combined the White Hedjet Crown of Upper Egypt. The Pschent represented the pharaoh's power over all of unified Egypt. These were referred to as the Two Ladies. Later, the vulture head sometimes was replaced by a second cobra. The Cairo fragment, on the other hand, shows these prehistoric rulers wearing the Pschent. As is the case with the Hedjet Crowns, no Pschent has survived. It is known only from statuary, depictions, ancient tales.Pschent – Ring of Ptolemy VI Philometor wearing the Pschent-Double Crown, 3rd to 2nd Century BC. Ptolemaic rulers wore the Pschent in Egypt only and wore the diadem in the other territories
47. Hedjet – Hedjet is the formal name for the White Crown of pharaonic Upper Egypt. The earliest image of the Hedjet was thought to have been in Nubia. The tutelary goddess of Nekhebet near Hierakonpolis, was depicted as a woman, sometimes with the head of a vulture, wearing the White Crown. The falcon god Horus of Hierakonpolis was generally shown wearing a White Crown. The kings of the united Egypt saw themselves as successors of Horus. Vases from the reign of Khasekhemwy show the king as Horus wearing the White Crown. As with the Deshret, no example of the White Crown has survived. It is unknown what materials were used. This is purely speculative.Hedjet – Small bronze statuary usage with the Hedjet, White crown
48. Deshret – When combined with the Hedjet of Upper Egypt, it forms the Pschent, in ancient Egyptian called the sekhemti. The Red Crown in Egyptian language hieroglyphs eventually was used as the vertical letter "n". The Old Kingdom was the sign depicting ripples of water. In mythology, original ruler of Egypt, invested Horus with the rule over Lower Egypt. The Egyptian pharaohs, who saw themselves as successors of Horus, wore it to symbolize their authority over Lower Egypt. As the Red Land which comprised the deserts and foreign lands surrounding Egypt, Seth was its lord. It was considered a region of chaos, without full of dangers. It is unknown how it was constructed and what materials were used. This is purely speculative. The Red Crown frequently is depicted in reliefs and statues. An early example is the depiction of the victorious pharaoh wearing the deshret on the Narmer Palette. The Deshret crown, is one of the oldest Egyptian hieroglyphs. The first usage of the Red Crown was in iconography as the symbol for Lower Egypt with the Nile Delta. Later it came to be used in the Egyptian language -- as an alphabetic vertical form for letter "n" as a phoneme or preposition. It became functional in running hieroglyphic texts, where either vertical form preposition satisfied space requirements.Deshret – Narmer Palette, front
49. Atef – Atef is the specific feathered white crown of the Egyptian deity Osiris. It combines the crown of Upper Egypt, with curly red ostrich feathers on each side of the crown for the Osiris cult. The feathers are curve at the upper ends, with a slight flare toward the base. They are the same feather as worn by Ma'at. The crown is also worn by Sobek. They may be compared with the falcon tail feathers such as those of Amun which are more narrow and straight without curve. The Atef crown identifies Osiris in Egyptian painting. Osiris wears the Atef crown as a symbol of the ruler of the underworld. The bulbous white piece in the center of the crown is between two ostrich feathers. The feathers represent truth, justice, balance. E.A.Wallace Budge, c 1978, Dover edition, 1978.Atef – v
50. Reserve head – In contrast the reserve heads seem to depict unique individuals, with one early researcher family relationships between the reserve heads he found. With few exceptions they were very probably the product of the royal workshops. Although there are a few exceptions that are heavily plastered, most are intricately carved and have been carefully smoothed. The smooth ones have not, however, been polished. The largest examples are just over 30 cm in height. The first head was discovered in 1894, in Dashur, by the Director General of the French Service of Antiquities in Egypt, Jacques de Morgan. Two additional examples were discovered by the Austrian Egyptologist Hermann Junker during 1914. The vast majority of the reserve heads discovered came at Giza though three examples have been recovered from Abusir, Saqqara and Dahshur. Modern forgeries of reserve heads are known to exist. Another suggestion put forward by Egyptologist Nicholas Millet was that they served for making further statues and reliefs of the deceased. Egyptologist Roland Tefnin suggested that the heads were ritually mutilated to prevent them from harming the living. This type of mutilation is not seen in statues placed in later tombs. There are other Ancient unfinished sculptures where guidelines for the sculptor can be seen, usually painted onto the hard stone. Lacovara believes so the sculptors carved the guidelines instead. These guidelines were then polished away, in the cases where they were not removed completely were covered by plaster which has since fallen away.Reserve head – Two reserve heads displayed side-by-side on a shelf display at the Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
51. Egyptian burial rituals and protocol – The ancient Egyptians had an elaborate set of funerary practices that they believed were necessary to ensure their immortality after death. These rituals and protocols included mummifying the body, casting of magic spells, burial with specific grave goods thought to be needed in the Egyptian afterlife. Though no writing survives from Predynastic Egypt, scholars believe the importance of the physical body and its preservation originated there. This would explain why people of that time did not follow the common practice of cremation, but rather buried the dead. Some also believe they may have feared the bodies would rise again if mistreated after death. Early bodies were buried in simple, shallow oval pits, with a few burial goods. Sometimes multiple people and animals were placed in the same grave. Over time, graves became more complex, with the body placed in a wicker basket, then later in wooden or terracotta coffins. The latest tombs Egyptians made were sarcophaguses. These graves contained burial goods like jewelry, food, games and sharpened splint. This may be because admission required that the deceased must be able to serve a purpose there. The pharaoh was allowed in because of his role in life, others needed to have some role there. Human sacrifices found in early royal tombs reinforce this view. These people were probably meant to serve the pharaoh during his eternal life. Eventually, figurines and wall paintings begin to replace human victims.Egyptian burial rituals and protocol – Professional mourners in an eloquent gesture of mourning.
52. Military history of Ancient Egypt – Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the Northern reaches of the Nile River in Egypt. Its history occurred in a series of stable Kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods. Ancient Egypt reached its pinnacle during the New Kingdom, after which it entered a period of slow decline. For most parts of its long history, ancient Egypt was unified under one government. The military concern for the nation was to keep enemies out. Nevertheless, the great expanses of the desert formed a barrier, almost impossible for massive armies to cross. The Egyptians built fortresses and outposts to the south. If a large force was detected a message was sent for the main army corps. Most Egyptian cities lacked other defenses. The history of ancient Egypt is divided into two intermediate periods. During the three Kingdoms Egypt was unified under one government. During the Intermediate periods control was in the hands of the various nomes and various foreigners. The geography of Egypt allowed it to thrive. This circumstance set the stage for many of Egypt's military conquests. They enfeebled their enemies like bows and arrows.Military history of Ancient Egypt – The Hyksos of Ancient Egypt drove chariots
53. Battle of Kadesh – It was probably the largest battle ever fought, involving perhaps 5,000 -- 6,000 chariots. As a result of the Kadesh inscriptions, it is the best documented battle in all of ancient history. After expelling the Hyksos 15th dynasty around 1550 BC, the Egyptian New Kingdom rulers became more aggressive in reclaiming control of their state's borders. His son and coregent Amenhotep II fought battles from Megiddo north to the Orontes River, including conflict with Kadesh. Many of the Egyptian campaign accounts between c. 1300 BC reflect the general destabilization of the region of the Djahi. The reigns of Amenhotep III were undistinguished, except that Egypt continued to lose territory to Mitanni in northern Syria. During the late 18th dynasty, the Amarna Letters tell the story of the decline of Egyptian influence in the region. The Egyptians showed flagging interest here until almost the end of the dynasty. The last ruler of this dynasty, campaigned in this region, finally beginning to turn Egyptian interest back to this region. This process continued in the 19th Dynasty. Inscriptions on Karnak temple walls record the details of his campaigns into Canaan and Syria. He took reoccupied abandoned Egyptian posts and garrisoned cities. He made an informal peace with the Hittites, continued to campaign in Canaan. A second campaign led to his capture of Kadesh and Amurru. Heir Ramesses II campaigned with him.Battle of Kadesh – Ramesses atop chariot, at the battle of Kadesh. (Relief inside his Abu Simbel temple.)
54. Ancient Egyptian technology – Ancient Egyptian technology describes devices and technologies invented or used in Ancient Egypt. The Egyptians used many simple machines, such as the ramp and the lever, to aid construction processes. They used rope trusses to stiffen the beam of ships. Pottery were mass-produced and exported throughout the Mediterranean basin. Chariots only came into use after the Second Intermediate period. The Egyptians also played an important role in developing Mediterranean technology including ships and lighthouses. Significant advances during the dynastic period include astronomy, mathematics, medicine. Their geometry was a necessary outgrowth of surveying to preserve the ownership of farmland, flooded annually by the Nile river. The 3,4,5 right triangle and other rules of thumb served to represent the post and lintel architecture of Egypt. Egypt also was a center of alchemy research for much of the western world. The paper comes from the Greek term for the ancient Egyptian writing material called papyrus, formed from beaten strips of papyrus plants. Papyrus was sold to ancient Greece and Rome. The establishment of the Library of Alexandria limited the supply of papyrus for others. This however is a myth; parchment had elsewhere long before the rise of Pergamon. A phonetic writing system, served as the basis for the Phoenician alphabet from which later alphabets were derived.Ancient Egyptian technology – Ancient Egyptian depiction of women engaged in mechanical rope making, the first graphic evidence of the craft, shown in the two lower rows of the illustration
55. Ancient Egyptian medicine – The medicine of the ancient Egyptians is some of the oldest documented. Medical thought influenced later traditions, including the Greeks. Until the 19th century, the main sources of information about Egyptian medicine were writings from later in antiquity. The Greek historian Herodotus wrote extensively of his observations of their medicinal practice. Pliny the Elder also wrote favourably of them in historical review. Hippocrates, Herophilos, later Galen studied at the temple of Amenhotep, acknowledged the contribution of ancient Egyptian medicine to Greek medicine. In 1822, the translation of the Rosetta stone finally allowed the translation of papyri, including many related to medical matters. The Edwin Smith Papyrus is a textbook on surgery and details anatomical observations and the "examination, diagnosis, prognosis" of numerous ailments. It is regarded as a copy of several earlier texts. Medical information in it dates from early as 3000 BC. It is thus viewed as a manual. Treatments consisted of ointments made from minerals. The earliest known surgery was performed around 2750 BC. Foul applications meant to turn away disease-causing demons, also includes 877 prescriptions. It may also contain the earliest documented awareness of tumors, if the poorly understood medical terminology has been correctly interpreted.Ancient Egyptian medicine – The Edwin Smith Papyrus documents ancient Egyptian medicine, including the diagnosis and treatment of injuries.
56. Ancient Egyptian units of measurement – Ancient Egyptian units of measure include units for length, area and volume. Units of length date back to at least the Early Dynastic Period. In the Palermo stone, for instance, the level of the Nile river is recorded. During the reign of Pharaoh Djer the height of the Nile was given as measuring 1 palm. This is equivalent to approximately 3.2 m. A third dynasty diagram shows how to construct an elliptical vault using simple measures along an arc. The ostracon depicting this diagram was found in the area of the Step Pyramid in Saqqara. The height of the curve is given in each of the sections. Fourteen such rods, including one cubit rod, were compared by Lepsius in 1865. Two examples are known from the tomb of Maya – the treasurer of Tutankhamun – in Saqqara. Another was found in the tomb of Kha in Thebes. A scene in the tomb of Menna in Thebes shows surveyors measuring a plot of land using rope with knots tied at regular intervals. Similar scenes can be found in the tombs of Amenhotep-Sesi, Khaemhat and Djeserkareseneb. The balls of rope are also shown in New Kingdom statues of officials such as Senenmut, Amenemhet-Surer and Penanhor. The records of areas of land date back to the early dynastic period.Ancient Egyptian units of measurement – Cubit rod from the Turin Museum.
57. Ancient Egyptian royal titulary – The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. It also acts as a sort of mission statement for the reign of a monarch. The Horus name is the oldest form of the pharaoh's name, originating in the Predynastic Period. Many of the Egyptian pharaohs were known only by this title. The Horus name was usually written in a representation of a palace façade. The name of the pharaoh was written in hieroglyphs inside this representation of a palace. Typically an image of the falcon God Horus was perched of or beside it. He was succeeded by Khasekhemwy, who placed the symbols of both Seth and Horus above his name. Thereafter, the image of Horus always appeared alongside the name of the pharaoh. By the time of the New Kingdom the Horus name was often written without the enclosing serekh. The name is first definitively used by the First Dynasty pharaoh Semerkhet, though it only became a fully independent title by the Twelfth Dynasty. The meaning of this particular title has been disputed. Gold also was strongly associated in the Egyptian mind with eternity, so this may have been intended to convey the pharaoh's eternal Horus name. Similar to the Nebty name, this particular name typically was not framed by a serekh. The pharaoh's the first of the two names written inside a cartouche, usually accompanied the title nsw-bity.Ancient Egyptian royal titulary – Serekh containing the name of Djet and an association with Wadjet, on display at the Louvre
58. Egyptian mathematics – Ancient Egyptian mathematics is the mathematics, developed and used in Ancient Egypt c.3000 to c.300 BC. Written evidence of the use of mathematics dates back to at least 3000 BC with the ivory labels found in Tomb U-j at Abydos. These labels appear to have been used as tags for grave goods and some are inscribed with numbers. The lines in the diagram are spaced at a distance of one cubit and show the use of that unit of measurement. The earliest true mathematical documents date to the 12th dynasty. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus which dates to the Second Intermediate Period is said to be based on an older mathematical text from the 12th dynasty. The Moscow Mathematical Papyrus and Rhind Mathematical Papyrus are so-called mathematical problem texts. They consist of a collection of problems with solutions. These texts may have been written by a teacher or a student engaged in solving typical mathematics problems. An interesting feature of Ancient Egyptian mathematics is the use of unit fractions. Scribes used tables to help them work with these fractions. The Egyptian Mathematical Leather Roll for instance is a table of unit fractions which are expressed as sums of other unit fractions. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus and some of the other texts contain 2 n tables. These tables allowed the scribes to rewrite any fraction of the form 1 n as a sum of unit fractions. In the worker's village of Deir el-Medina several ostraca have been found that record volumes of dirt removed while quarrying the tombs.Egyptian mathematics – Slab stela of Old Kingdom princess Neferetiabet (dated 2590–2565 BC) from her tomb at Giza, painting on limestone, now in the Louvre.
59. Pharaoh – The pharaoh ultimately was derived from a compound word represented as pr-3, ꜥꜣ "column". It was used only with specific reference to the buildings of the palace. During the eighteenth dynasty the title pharaoh was employed as a reverential designation of the ruler. From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-ꜥꜣ on its own was used as regularly as hm.f,'Majesty'. Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun. This new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II and the twenty-second dynasty kings. Shoshenq I was the second successor of Siamun. Meanwhile, the old custom of referring to the sovereign as pr-aa continued in Egyptian narratives. By this time, the Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced * par-ʕoʔ whence Herodotus derove the name of the Egyptian kings, Φερων. In the Bible, the title also occurs as פרעה; from then Late Latin pharaō, both - n stem nouns. The Qur'an likewise spells it فرعون fir'awn with "n". English at first spelt it "Pharao", but the King James Bible revived "Pharaoh" with "h" from the Hebrew. Meanwhile in Egypt itself, *par-ʕoʔ evolved into Sahidic Coptic prro ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ and then rro. Scepters and staves were a general sign of authority in ancient Egypt. One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos.Pharaoh – Den
60. Narmer – Narmer was an ancient Egyptian king of the Early Dynastic Period. Since its discovery, it has been debated whether the Narmer Palette was purely symbolic. The mainstream consensus identifying Narmer with Menes is by no means universal. This has ramifications for the agreed history of ancient Egypt. The Qa'a sealing shows all eight kings of the First Dynasty in the correct sequence beginning with Narmer. Until recently, Narmer's wife was thought to have been Neithhotep, whose name means "Neith is satisfied". In this theory, she would have been a princess of Lower Egypt. However, the discovery in 2012 of rock inscriptions in Sinai during an expedition under the authority of Pierre Tallet raise questions about this theory. Narmer's tomb is composed of two joined chambers found in the Umm el-Qa ` ab locality, in Upper Egypt. It is located next to the tomb of Ka, who likely ruled Upper Egypt just before him. Narmer is well attested throughout Egypt, the and southern Canaan, altogether 94 inscriptions at 25 sites. At every site except Coptos, it appears in a serekh. During Narmer's reign, Egypt had an economic presence in southern Canaan. While Egypt's presence in Canaan has been explained as the result of a military invasion, this view is not generally accepted. Fortifications at Tel es-Sakan almost entirely Egyptian in construction suggest a military presence, if not a military invasion.Narmer – Close-up view of Narmer on the Narmer Palette
61. Djoser – Djoser was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty during the Old Kingdom and the founder of this epoch. He is well known under his Hellenized names Tosorthros and Sesorthos. If he also was the direct throne successor is still unclear. The painted statue of Djoser, now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, is the oldest known life-sized Egyptian statue. Today at the site in Saqqara where it was found, a copy of the statue stands in place of the original. The statue was found during the Antiquities Service Excavations of 1924–1925. In contemporary inscriptions, he is called meaning "divine of body." Later sources, which include a New Kingdom reference to his construction, help confirm that Netjerikhet and Djoser are the same person. This supports the view that it was Djoser who buried and, hence, directly succeeded Khasekhemwy, rather than Nebka. This is also suggested by another jar sealing, calling her "Mother of the King of the Two Lands". Her cult seems to have still been active in the later reign of Sneferu. Inetkawes was their only daughter known by name. Her name is destroyed. The date of his death is uncertain. Manetho states Djoser ruled Egypt for twenty-nine years, while the Turin King List states it was only nineteen years.Djoser – Limestone statue of Djoser from his serdab
62. Sneferu – Sneferu, well known under his Hellenized name Soris, was the founder of the 4th dynasty during the Old Kingdom. He built at least three pyramids that introduced major innovations in the design and construction of pyramids in Ancient Egypt. This would mean that Sneferu ruled a minimum of 27 full years. This column must, therefore, be dated after the 6th count of Sneferu. Hence, Sneferu's reign would be a minimum of 28 years. Sneferu was the first king of the fourth dynasty of Ancient Egypt, who according to Manetho reigned for 24 years. Manetho was an Egyptian priest, living in the third BC, who categorized the pharaohs of dynastic Egypt into 31 dynasties. Manetho’s schematic has its flaws; nevertheless, modern scholars conventionally follow his method of grouping. A Middle Kingdom source, supports the fact that King Huni was indeed Sneferu's predecessor. Aside from Sneferu’s succession, we learn from this text that later generations considered him to be a "beneficent" ruler. This idea may stem from the etymology of the king’s name, for it can be interpreted as the infinitive "to make beautiful." It is uncertain whether Huni was Sneferu’s father; however, the Cairo Annals Stone denotes that his mother may have been a woman named Meresankh. Hetepheres I was the mother of Khufu, the builder of the Great Pyramid on the Giza Plateau. Sons of Sneferu: Khufu - son of Sneferu and Hetepheres I, successor to Sneferu. Ankhhaf - King’s Son of his Body, King’s vizier.Sneferu – Limestone statue of Sneferu, Egyptian Museum
63. Khufu – Khufu was the second pharaoh of the 4th dynasty, he followed king Sneferu, on the throne. The only completely preserved portrait of the king is a high ivory figurine found in a temple ruin of later period at Abydos in 1903. Many buildings of Khufu are lost. Everything known about Khufu comes at Giza and later documents. For example, Khufu is the main actor of the famous Papyrus Westcar from the 13th dynasty. Most documents that mention king Khufu were written around 300 BC. An obscure and critical picture of Khufu's personality persists. Khufu's name was dedicated to the earth Khnum, which might point to an increase of Khnum's popularity and religious importance. Khufu may have viewed himself as a role, already given to Khnum, the god of earth, creation and growth. As a consequence, the king connected Khnum's name with his own. Interestingly, the pharaoh officially used two versions of his name: Khnum-khuf and Khufu. The first version clearly exhibits Khufu's religious loyalty to Khnum, the second version does not. It might be possible though, that the short name wasn't meant to be connected to any god at all. Khufu is well less well known under another Hellenized name, Súphis. A rare version of the name of Khufu, used by Josephus, is Sofe.Khufu – Statue of Khufu in the Cairo Museum
64. Khafre – Khafra was an ancient Egyptian king of 4th dynasty during the Old Kingdom. He was the son of Khufu and the throne successor of Djedefre. According to the ancient historian Manetho Khafra was followed by king Bikheris, but according to archaeological evidences he was rather followed by king Menkaure. Khafra was the builder of the second largest pyramid of Giza. The view held by modern Egyptology at large remains that the Great Sphinx was built in approximately 2500 BC for Khafra. Khafra was a son of king Khufu and the brother and successor of Djedefre. Khafra is thought by some to be the son of Queen Meritites I due to an inscription where he is said to honor her memory. Kings-wife, his beloved, devoted to Horus, Mertitytes. King's-wife, his beloved, Mertitytes; beloved of the Favorite ofthe Two Goddesses; she who says anything whatsoever and it is donefor her. Great in the favor of Snefr; great in the favorof Khuf, devoted to Horus, honored under Khafre. Merties. Others argue that the inscription just suggests that this queen died during the reign of Khafre. Khafre may be a son of Queen Henutsen instead. Khafra had several wives and he had at least 12 sons and 3 or 4 daughters. Queen Meresankh III was the daughter of Kawab and Hetepheres II and thus a niece of Khafra.Khafre – Diorite statue of Khafra, now in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo
65. Menkaure – Menkaure, was an ancient Egyptian king of the 4th dynasty during the Old Kingdom, well known under his Hellenized names Mykerinos and Menkheres. According to archaeological evidences he rather was the successor of Khafre. Menkaure was the son of Khafra and the grandson of Khufu. Menkaure is thought to have had at least two wives. Queen Khamerernebty II is the mother of a king's Khuenre. The location of Khuenre's tomb suggests that he was a son of Menkaure, making his mother the wife of this king. Queen Rekhetre is known to have been a daughter of Khafra and as such the most likely identity of her husband is Menkaure. Not many children are attested for Menkaure: Khuenre was the son of queen Khamerernebti II. Menkaure was not succeeded by his eldest son, who predeceased Menkaure, but rather by a younger son of this king. Shepseskaf was the successor to Menkaure and likely his son. Sekhemre is known from a statue and possibly a son of Menkaure. A daughter that died in early adulthood is mentioned by Herodotus. Khentkaus I - possible Menkaure's daughter The royal court included several of Menkaure's half brothers. Nebemakhet, Duaenre, Nikaure and Iunmin served during the reign of their brother. His Sekhemkare became vizier after the death of Menkaure.Menkaure – Greywacke statue of Menkaure, Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
66. Userkaf – Userkaf was the founder of the Fifth dynasty of Egypt and the first pharaoh to start the tradition of building sun temples at Abusir. He constructed the pyramid of Userkaf complex at Saqqara. Userkaf may have been a grandson of Djedefre by Neferhetepes. His father is unknown, while some believe his mother to have been Khentkaus I. Another of Userkaf's wives was the similarly named Queen Neferhetepes, known to be the mother of Sahure. Userkaf may also have been the father of Neferirkare Kakai, a son by Khentkaus I. Thus, Sahure, Userkaf's successor was most likely his son. Userkaf is given a reign of seven years by the Turin Royal Canon while Africanus states that Manetho's Epitome attributes 28 years of reign. In his comparative study of the fragments of the Palermo stone, Georges Daressy concluded that Userkaf reigned about 10 years. This figure is considered more plausible than Manetho's 28 years given the monumental remains dating to his reign. An official during Userkaf's reign, had a royal decree of Userkaf reproduced in his mastaba. By this decree, Userkaf reforms several royal domains in middle Egypt for the maintenance of the cult of Hathor. Apparently, Userkaf also started the temple of Monthu at Tod, where he is the oldest attested pharaoh. Userkaf's most innovative monument is undoubtedly his temple at Abu Gorab. Userkaf's temple covered an area of 44 × 83 m and was called Nḫn Rˁ.w, The fortress of Ra.Userkaf – Head of Userkaf, recovered from his sun temple at Abu Gurob.
67. Unas – Unas /ˈjuːnəs/ or Wenis, also spelled Unis, was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh, the ninth and last ruler of the Fifth Dynasty during the Old Kingdom period. Unas reigned in the mid-24th century BC succeeding Djedkare Isesi, who might have been his father. Little is known during his reign, a time of economic decline. Military action may have taken place in southern Canaan. Unas built a pyramid in the smallest of the royal pyramids completed during the Old Kingdom. Unas had two sons who are believed to have predeceased him. Unas was succeeded after a short crisis. The cult revived during the later Middle Kingdom. This did not Senusret I from partially dismantling the mortuary complex of Unas for its materials. Unas is well attested with three ancient Egyptian king lists dating to the New Kingdom period mentioning him. Unas occupies the 33rd entry of the Abydos King List, written during the reign of Seti I. Unas' name is also present on the Saqqara Tablet and on the Turin canon, both of which were written during the reign of Ramses II. The Turin canon further credits Unas with 30 years of reign. These sources all place Unas as the final ruler of the Fifth Dynasty, succeeding Djedkare Isesi and preceding Teti on the throne. This relative chronology is corroborated for example in the tomb of officials serving under these kings.Unas – Black basalt sarcophagus in the funerary chamber of Unas' pyramid
68. Pepi II – Pepi II was a pharaoh of the Sixth Dynasty in Egypt's Old Kingdom who reigned from c. 2278 BC. Neferkare, means "Beautiful is the Ka of Re". He succeeded to the throne at age six, after the death of Merenre I. Therefore, today, many Egyptologists believe that Pepi II was likely Merenre's own son. Pepi II's reign marked a sharp decline of the Old Kingdom. As the power of the nomarchs grew, the power of the pharaoh declined. His mother Ankhesenpepi II most likely ruled in the early years of his reign. An statuette in the Brooklyn Museum depicts a young Pepi II, in full kingly regalia, sitting on the lap of his mother. Despite his long reign, this piece is one of only three known sculptural representations in existence of this particular king. She may have been helped by her brother Djau, a vizier under the previous pharaoh. Some scholars have taken the relative paucity of royal statuary to suggest that the royal court was losing the ability to retain skilled artisans. Sent to collect ivory, ebony, other precious items, he captured a pygmy. She may be a daughter of Ankhesenpepi I and hence also half-sister. Iput II – A half-sister of Pepi II. Ankhesenpepi III She was the daughter of Merenre Nemtyemsaf I and hence a granddaughter of Pepi I.Pepi II – Base of a headrest inscribed with Pepi II's titulary. Musée du Louvre.
69. Mentuhotep II – Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II was a Pharaoh of the 11th Dynasty who reigned for 51 years. Around his 39th year on the throne he reunited Egypt thus ending the First Intermediate Period. Consequently, he is considered the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom. Mentuhotep II was the son of Intef III and Intef III's Iah who may also have been his sister. As for Iah, she bore the title of "King's mother". The parentage of Mentuhotep II is also indirectly confirmed by a relief at Shatt er-Rigal. She gave two children, one of, certainly Mentuhotep III since Tem was also called mwt-nswt," "King's mother" and mwt-nswt-bitj, "Dual king's mother". Apparently she was buried by her son in Mentuhotep temple. Her tomb was discovered by Lord Duffering and fully excavated in 1968 by D. Arnold. Neferu II was called "King's wife" and hmt-nswt-mryt.f, "King's wife, his beloved". She was buried in the TT319 of Deir el-Bahri. Kawit was one of Mentuhotep II's secondary wives. She bore khkrt-nswt, "King's embellishment". She was a "Priestess of the Hathor". It has been suggested that she was Nubian.Mentuhotep II – Mentuhotep II on a relief from his mortuary temple in Deir el-Bahari
70. Amenemhat I – See Amenemhat, for other individuals with this name. He ruled to 1962 BC. Amenemhat I was buried in el-Lisht. There's some evidence as indicated by the inscriptions of Nehri, a local governor. There were some naval battles where an associate of Amenemhat I by the name of Khnumhotep I was helped to procure victory. Later, he founded a dynasty of local governors there. His grandson was Khnumhotep III. In the inscriptions by Khnumhotep, mention is also made of military campaigns against Asiatics the Nubians. The cult of the king was also promoted during this period, which witnessed a steady return to a more centralized government. The vizier at the beginning of the reign was Ipi, at the end of the reign Intefiqer was in charge. Two treasurers can be placed under this king: Rehuerdjersen. Meketre and Sobeknakht, have also been identified. "The core of the pyramid was made up with a loose fill of sand, debris and mudbrick. Perhaps the most remarkable feature is that it included fragments of relief-decorated blocks from Old Kingdom monuments -- many from pyramid temples, including Khufu's. Granite blocks from Khafre's complex went into the blocking of Amenemhat I's descending passage.Amenemhat I – Relief of Amenemhat I from his mortuary complex at El-Lisht
71. Senusret III – Khakaure Senusret III was a pharaoh of Egypt. He is considered to be perhaps the most powerful Egyptian ruler of the dynasty. Consequently, he is regarded as one of the sources for the legend about Sesostris. Senusret III was one of the few kings who were deified and honored with a cult during their own lifetime. Of Khenemetneferhedjet I also called Khenemetneferhedjet I Weret. Two wives of Senusret III are known for certain. These are Khenemetneferhedjet II and Neferthenut, both mainly known from their burials at Dahshur. Their exact relation to the king is disputable. These include Sithathor, Menet, Senetsenebtysy and Meret. Amenemhat III was most likely a son of the king. Other sons are not known. Senusret III cleared a navigable canal through the first cataract. He relentlessly pushed his kingdom's expansion into Nubia where he erected massive river forts including Buhen, Semna and Toshka at Uronarti. He carried out at least four major campaigns in his Years 8, 10, 16 and 19. Another great stela from Semna dated to the third month of Year 16 of his reign mentions his military activities against both Nubia and Canaan.Senusret III – Heads of Senusret III from the British Museum
72. Amenemhat III – See Amenemhat, for other individuals with this name. Amenemhat III, also spelled Amenemhet III, was a pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt. His reign is regarded as the golden age of the Middle Kingdom. He may have had a long coregency with Senusret III. Sobekneferu, later succeeded Amenemhat IV, as the last ruler of the 12th Dynasty. Nimaatre, means "Belonging to the Justice of Re." There were construction problems and it was abandoned. Around Year 15 of his reign the king decided to build a new pyramid at Hawara, near the Faiyum. The pyramid at Dahshur was used as ground for several royal women. The mortuary temple attached to the Hawara pyramid may have been known as the "Labyrinth". Strabo praised it as a wonder of the world. Nevertheless, the king's burial was robbed in antiquity. Neferuptah, was buried in a separate pyramid 2 km southwest of the king's. There is very little evidence for military expeditions in the reign of the king. There is only one record for a small mission in year nine of the king.Amenemhat III – Statuette head of Amenemhat III, now in the Louvre
73. Kamose – Kamose was the last king of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. He was possibly the full brother of Ahmose I, founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reign fell at the very end of the Second Intermediate Period. Kamose is usually ascribed a reign of three years, although some scholars now favor giving a longer reign of approximately five years. His reign is important for the military initiatives he took against the Hyksos, who had come to rule much of Ancient Egypt. Quite possibly, lost his life in battle with the Hyksos. Kamose was the final king in a succession of Egyptian kings at Thebes. Originally, the Theban Seventeenth dynasty rulers were at peace with the Hyksos kingdom prior to the reign of Seqenenre Tao. They ruled Middle Egypt as far north as Cusae. Kamose sought to extend his rule northward over all of Lower Egypt. This apparently was met by his courtiers. Kamose sought to regain by force what he thought was his by right, namely the kingship of Lower and Upper Egypt. Kamose states his reasons for an attack on the Hyksos was nationalistic pride. He was also likely merely continuing the military policies of his immediate predecessor, Seqenenre. In Kamose's third year, he embarked by sailing north out of Thebes on the Nile.Kamose – Sarcophagus of Kamose, Cairo Egyptian Museum
74. Ahmose I – Ahmose I was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty. During the reign of his grandfather, Thebes rebelled against the Hyksos, the rulers of Lower Egypt. Ahmose I assumed the throne upon coronation became known as Neb-Pehty-Re. The Ahmose is a combination of the divine name'Ah' and the combining form' - mose'. This program culminated in the construction of the last pyramid built by native Egyptian rulers. Ahmose's reign laid the foundations for the New Kingdom, under which Egyptian power reached its peak. His reign is usually dated to the mid-16th BC. Ahmose descended from the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. Senakhtenre Ahmose and Tetisheri, had at least twelve children, including Seqenenre Tao and Ahhotep. The sister, according to the tradition of Egyptian queens, married; their children were Kamose, Ahmose I and several daughters. Ahmose I married several of his sisters, making Ahmose-Nefertari his chief wife. They had several children including daughters Meritamun B, sons Siamun A, Ahmose-ankh, Amenhotep I and Ramose A. They may also have been the parents of Mutnofret, who would become the wife of later successor Thutmose I. Ahmose-ankh was Ahmose's heir apparent, but he preceded his father in death sometime between Ahmose's 17th and 22nd regnal year. Ahmose was succeeded instead by Amenhotep I, with whom he might have shared a short coregency.Ahmose I – Copper axe blade inscribed with the titulary of pharaoh Ahmose I, Ashmolean Museum.
75. Thutmosis I – Thutmose I was the third pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. He received the throne after the death of the previous king, Amenhotep I. During his reign, he campaigned deep into the Levant and Nubia, pushing the borders of Egypt farther than ever before. He was succeeded by his son Thutmose II, who in turn was succeeded by Thutmose II's sister, Hatshepsut. It has been speculated Thutmose's father was Amenhotep I. His mother, Senseneb, was of non-royal parentage and may have been a lesser wife or concubine. Assuming she was related to Amenhotep, it could be thought that she was married to Thutmose in order to guarantee succession. However, this is known not to be the case for two reasons. Firstly, Amenhotep's alabaster bark built at Karnak associates Amenhotep's name with Thutmose's name well before Amenhotep's death. Secondly, Thutmose's first-born son with Ahmose, Amenmose, was apparently born long before Thutmose's coronation. He had two daughters, Nefrubity, by Ahmose. Wadjmose died before his father, Nefrubity died as an infant. Thutmose had one son by another wife, Mutnofret. This son succeeded him as Thutmose II, whom Thutmose I married to his daughter, Hatshepsut. It was later recorded by Hatshepsut that Thutmose willed the kingship to both Thutmose II and Hatshepsut.Thutmosis I – A stone head, most likely depicting Thutmose I, at the British Museum
76. Hatshepsut – Hatshepsut was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. She was the second historically confirmed female pharaoh, the first being Sobekneferu. Hatshepsut came to the throne of Egypt in 1478 BC. Officially, she ruled jointly with Thutmose III, who had ascended to the throne the previous year as a child of about two years old. Hatshepsut was the chief wife of Thutmose II, Thutmose III’s father. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty. According to Egyptologist James Henry Breasted she is also known as "the first great woman in history of whom we are informed." Hatshepsut was the daughter and only child of Thutmose I and his primary wife Ahmose. Hatshepsut and Thutmose II had a daughter named Neferure. Thutmose II fathered Thutmose III with Iset, a secondary wife. Today Egyptologists generally agree that Hatshepsut assumed the position of pharaoh. Hatshepsut was described as having a reign of about 22 years by ancient authors. Josephus and Julius Africanus both quote Manetho's king list, mentioning a woman called Amessis or Amensis, identified as Hatshepsut. In Josephus' work, her reign is described as lasting 21 years and nine months, while Africanus stated it was twenty-two years. Dating the beginning of her reign is more difficult, however.Hatshepsut – Statue of Hatshepsut on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
77. Thutmosis III – Thutmose III was the sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. During the first twenty-two years of Thutmose's reign he was co-regent with his stepmother and aunt, Hatshepsut, named the pharaoh. He served as the head of her armies. During the final two years of his reign, he appointed his son and successor, Amenhotep II, as his junior co-regent. His firstborn son and heir to the throne, Amenemhat, predeceased Thutmose III. When Thutmose III died, he was buried in the Valley of the Kings as were the rest of the kings from this period in Egypt. Thutmose III was the son of Thutmose II by a secondary wife, Iset. His father's great royal wife was Queen Hatshepsut. Her daughter Neferure was Thutmose's half-sister. Thutmosis III had little power over the empire while Hatshepsut exercised the formal titulary of kingship. Her rule was quite prosperous and marked by great advancements. When he reached a suitable age and demonstrated the capability, she appointed him to head her armies. Thutmosis III had several wives: Satiah: She may have been the mother of his firstborn son, Amenemhat. An alternative theory is that the boy was the son of Neferure. Amenemhat predeceased his father.Thutmosis III – Thutmosis III statue in Luxor Museum
78. Amenhotep III – Amenhotep III also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. Amenhotep III was the son of Thutmose by a minor Mutemwiya. His reign was a period of artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of its artistic and international power. A minor wife Mutemwiya, Amenhotep was born around 1388 BC. He was a member of the Thutmosid family that had ruled Egypt for almost 150 years since the reign of Thutmose I. Amenhotep III was the father of two sons with his Great Royal Wife Tiye. Their first son, Crown Prince Thutmose, predeceased his father and their second son, Amenhotep IV, later known as Akhenaten, ultimately succeeded Amenhotep III to the throne. Amenhotep III also may have been the father of a third child -- briefly ruled Egypt as pharaoh. Amenhotep III and Tiye may also have had four daughters: Nebetah. They appear frequently during the reign of their father and also are represented by smaller objects -- with the exception of Nebetah. Nebetah is attested once in the known historical records on a colossal limestone group of statues from Medinet Habu. Amenhotep III elevated two of his four daughters -- Sitamun and Isis -- during the last decade of his reign. Hence, Amenhotep III's marriage to his two daughters should not be considered unlikely based on contemporary views of marriage. Amenhotep III is known to have married several foreign women: the daughter of Shuttarna II of Mitanni, in the tenth year of his reign. Tadukhepa, the daughter of his ally Tushratta of Mitanni, Around Year 36 of his reign.Amenhotep III – Colossal statue of Amenhotep III
79. Akhenaten – Akhenaten tried to bring about a departure from traditional religion, yet in the end it would not be accepted. After his death, his name was not to be included in the king lists. DNA analysis has determined that the man buried in KV55 is the father of King Tutankhamun, but its identification as Akhenaten has been questioned. The future Akhenaten was a younger son of Amenhotep III and Chief Queen Tiye. There is much controversy around whether Amenhotep IV succeeded to the throne on the death of his father Amenhotep III or whether there was a coregency. In February 2014, the Egyptian Ministry for Antiquities announced what it called conclusive evidence that Akhenaten shared power with his father for at least 8 years. The evidence came from the inscriptions found in the Luxor tomb of Vizier Amenhotep-Huy. A team of Spanish archeologists have been working at this tomb. There he started a program. He decorated the southern entrance to the precincts of the temple of Amun-Re with scenes of his worshiping Re-Harakhti. He soon decreed the construction of a temple dedicated to the Aten in Eastern Karnak. This Temple of Amenhotep IV was called the Gempaaten. The Gempaaten consisted of a series including a structure called the Hwt Benben, dedicated to Queen Nefertiti. Aten temples constructed during this time include the Rud-menu and the Teni-menu which may have been constructed near the Ninth Pylon. The king appears as Amenhotep IV in the tombs of some of the nobles in Thebes: the tomb of Parennefer.Akhenaten – Statue of Akhenaten in the early Amarna style.
80. Tutankhamun – Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period. He has since his discovery been colloquially referred to as King Tut. His original name, Tutankhaten, means "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun means "Living Image of Amun". The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon of Tutankhamun's nearly intact tomb received worldwide press coverage. It sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamun's mask, now in the Egyptian Museum, remains the popular symbol. Exhibits of artifacts from his tomb have toured the world. In February 2010, the results of DNA tests confirmed that he was the son of Akhenaten. His mother was Akhenaten's sister and wife, whose name is unknown but whose remains are positively identified as "The Younger Lady" mummy found in KV35. The "mysterious" deaths of a few of those who excavated Tutankhamun's tomb has been popularly attributed to the curse of the pharaohs. Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten and one of Akhenaten's sisters, or possibly one of his cousins. As a prince, he was known as Tutankhaten. He ascended at the age of ten, taking the Nebkheperure. His wet nurse was a woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara. His teacher was most likely Sennedjem. When he became king, he married his half-sister, Ankhesenpaaten, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun.Tutankhamun – Mask of Tutankhamun's mummy, the popular icon for ancient Egypt at The Egyptian Museum.
81. Horemheb – Horemheb was the last pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt. Before he became pharaoh, Horemheb was the commander in chief of the army under the reigns of Tutankhamun and Ay. After his accession to the throne, he reformed the Egyptian state and it was under his reign that official action against the preceding Amarna rulers began. Due to this, he is considered the man who restabilized his country after the troublesome and divisive Amarna Period. Horemheb demolished monuments of Akhenaten, reusing their remains in his own building projects, usurped monuments of Tutankhamun and Ay. Horemheb presumably remained childless since he appointed his vizier Paramesse as his successor, who would assume the throne as Ramesses I. His parentage is unknown but he is believed to have been a commoner. According to the French Egyptologist Nicolas Grimal, Horemheb does not appear to be the same person as Paatenemheb, the commander-in-chief of Akhenaten's army. Grimal notes that Horemheb's political career first began under Tutankhamun where he "is depicted at this king's side in his own tomb chapel at Memphis." This resulted in a reciprocal visit by "the Prince of Miam" to Tutankhamun's court, "an event depicted in the tomb of the Viceroy Huy." Horemheb quickly rose to prominence under Tutankhamun, becoming commander-in-chief of the army and advisor to the pharaoh. This makes it very unlikely from the start that any titles of honours claimed by Horemheb in the inscriptions in the tomb are fictitious. The title iry-pat was used very frequently in Horemheb's Saqqara tomb but not combined with any other words. This means that Horemheb was the openly recognised heir to Tutankhamun's throne and not Ay, Tutankhamun's ultimate successor. This means that it is Ay's, not Horemheb's accession which calls for an explanation.Horemheb – Detail of a statue of Horemheb, at the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
82. Seti I – The name'Seti' means "of Set", which indicates that he was consecrated to the god Set. As with most pharaohs, Seti had several names. Upon his ascension, he took the prenomen "mn-m3‘t-r‘ ", usually vocalized as Menmaatre, in Egyptian, which means "Established is the Justice of Re." Birth name, is transliterated as "sty mry-n-ptḥ" or Sety Merenptah, meaning "Man of Set, beloved of Ptah". Seti, with determination, confronted the Hittites several times in battle. The memory of Seti I's military successes was recorded in some large scenes placed on the front of the temple of Amun, situated in Karnak. His capital was at Memphis. His fame has been overshadowed since ancient times by that of his son, Ramesses II. Seti I's length was either 11 or 15 full years. There are no dates recorded for Seti I after his Year 11 Gebel Barkal stela. Peter J. Brand noted that the king personally opened new rock quarries at Aswan to colossal statues in his Year 9. This event is commemorated on two rock stelas in Aswan. Ships crews to match them for ferrying them from the quarry." However, despite this promise, Brand stresses that The German Egyptologist Jürgen von Beckerath also accepts that Seti I's reign lasted only 11 Years. In 2011, Jacobus van Dijk questioned the "Year 11" stated on the Gebel Barkal stela.Seti I – Image of Seti I from his temple in Abydos
83. Ramesses II – Ramesses II, also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Ramesses is often regarded as the greatest, most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire. Later Egyptians called him the "Great Ancestor". Ramesses II led military expeditions into the Levant, reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan. Ramesses also led expeditions into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali and Gerf Hussein. At age fourteen, he was appointed Prince Regent by his father Seti I. Ramesses is known to have ruled Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC. Estimates of his age at death vary; 91 is considered most likely. Ramesses II celebrated an unprecedented 14 sed festivals during his reign—more than any other pharaoh. The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, monuments. Ramesses established the city of Pi-Ramesses in Syria. Early in his life, Ramesses II embarked on numerous campaigns to secure Egypt's borders. Ramesses was also responsible for carrying out a campaign in Libya. During Ramesses II's reign, the Egyptian army is estimated to have totaled about 100,000 men; a formidable force that he used to strengthen Egyptian influence. The Sherden people probably came from south-west Anatolia or also from the island of Sardinia.Ramesses II – One of the four external seated statues of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel.
84. Ramesses III – His long reign saw the decline of Egyptian economic power, linked to a series of invasions and internal economic problems. Ramesses III was the son of Setnakhte and Queen Tiy-Merenese. He was probably murdered by an assassin in a conspiracy led by one of his secondary wives, her son Pentaweret. Ramesses' two main names transliterate as wsr-mꜢʿt-rʿ–mry-ỉmn rʿ-ms-s–ḥḳꜢ-ỉwnw. They are normally realised as Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesse-hekaiunu, meaning "Beloved of Amun, Born of Ra, Ruler of Heliopolis". Ramses III had haplogroup E1b1a. Ramesses III is believed to have reigned to April 1155 BC. Alternate dates for his reign are 1187 to 1156 BC. In Year 8 of his reign, the Sea Peoples, including Tjekker, invaded Egypt by land and sea. Ramesses III defeated them in two great sea battles. Although the Egyptians had a reputation as poor seamen, they fought tenaciously. Then, the Egyptian navy attacked using grappling hooks to haul in the enemy ships. In the hand-to-hand fighting which ensued, the Sea People were utterly defeated. The Harris Papyrus states: As for those who reached my frontier, their seed is not, their soul are finished forever and ever. Ramesses III was also compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two major campaigns in Egypt's Western Delta in his Year Year 11 respectively.Ramesses III – Relief from the sanctuary of the Temple of Khonsu at Karnak depicting Ramesses III
85. Psusennes I – Psusennes I was the third pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty who ruled from Tanis between 1047 – 1001 BC. He was the son of Ramesses XI's daughter by Tentamun. He married his Mutnedjmet. Professor Pierre Montet discovered pharaoh Psusennes I's intact tomb in Tanis in 1940. It has a maximum height of 38 cm and 48 cm respectively. He was buried with gold sandals on his feet. The finger stalls are the most elaborate ever found, with sculpted fingernails. Each finger wore an elaborate ring of some other semiprecious stone." A cartouche on the outer sarcophagus shows that it had originally been made for Pharaoh Merenptah, the 19th Dynasty successor of Ramesses II. Himself, was interred in an "inner silver coffin", inlaid with gold. Since "silver was considerably rarer in Egypt than gold," Psusennes I's silver "coffin represents a sumptuous burial of great wealth during Egypt's declining years." Psusennes I's precise length is unknown because different copies of Manetho's records credit him with a reign of either 41 or 46 years. Jansen-Winkeln notes that "in the first half of Dyn. Psusennes I's reign has been estimated at 46 years to Ancient Egyptian Chronology. Egyptian Mummies: Unraveling the Secrets of an Ancient Art, William Morrow & Co, pp. 146 -- 147.Psusennes I – Gold burial mask of King Psusennes I, discovered in 1940 by Pierre Montet
86. Taharka – Taharqa, also spelled Taharka or Taharqo, was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty and qore of the Kingdom of Kush. Taharqa was the son of the Nubian king of Napata who had first conquered Egypt. Taharqa was also the successor of Shebitku. The successful campaigns of Piye and Shabaka paved the way by Taharqa. Taharqa's reign can be dated to 664 BC. Evidence for the dates of his reign is derived from catalog number 192. This stela records that an Apis bull born and installed in Year 26 of Taharqa died in Year 20 of Psammetichus I, having lived 21 years. This would give Taharqa a reign of 26 years and a fraction, in 690-664 B.C. Although Taharqa's reign was filled with conflict with the Assyrians, it was also a prosperous renaissance period in Egypt and Kush. When Taharqa was about 20 years old, he participated at Eltekeh. The might of Taharqa's military forces was established at Eltekeh, leading in Egypt. During this period of prosperity, the empire flourished. In the sixth year of Taharqa's reign, prosperity was also aided by a large harvest. Taharqa took full advantage of the lull in abundant harvest. He restored existing temples, built the largest pyramid in the Napatan region.Taharka – Granite sphinx of Taharqa from Kawa in Sudan
87. Psamtik I – Psamtik I, was the first of three kings of that name of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt. Wah-Ib-Re, means "Constant Heart Re." The rise of Psamtik I in power, establishing the Saitic Dynasty, are recorded in Herodotus's Histories, Book II: 151 -- 157. It is also known from cuneiform texts that twenty local princelings were confirmed by Assurbanipal to govern Egypt. After his father's death, Psamtik managed to both free her from Assyrian control within the first ten years of his reign. Psamtik's victory destroyed the last vestiges of the Nubian 25th Dynasty's control over Upper Egypt under Tantamani since Thebes now accepted his authority. Nitocris would hold her office until her death in 585 BCE. Thereafter, Psamtik I campaigned vigorously against those local princes who opposed his reunification of Egypt. One of his victories over Libyan marauders is mentioned in a Year 10 and Year 11 stela from the Dakhla Oasis. Psamtik I proved to be a great pharaoh by restoring Egypt's prosperity through his long 54 Year reign. In particular, he settled some Greeks at Tahpanhes. The Greek historian Herodotus conveyed an anecdote in the second volume of his Histories. During his travel to Egypt, Herodotus heard that Psammetichus sought to discover the origin of language by conducting an experiment with two children. The hypothesis was that the first word would be uttered in the language of all people. Thus, they concluded that Phrygian was the original language of men.Psamtik I – Relief of Psamtik I making an offering to Ra-Horakhty (Tomb of Pabasa)
88. Ptolemy I – He assimilated some aspects of Egyptian culture, however, assuming the traditional pharaoh in 305/4 BC. Like all Macedonian nobles, Ptolemy I Soter claimed descent from the mythical founder of the Argead dynasty that ruled Macedon. Ptolemy was among the seven somatophylakes attached to his person. He had been his intimate friend since childhood. He was succeeded by his son Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Ptolemy played a principal part in the later campaigns in Afghanistan and India. Ptolemy handed over to Alexander for execution. When Alexander died in 323 BC, Ptolemy is said to have instigated the resettlement of the empire made at Babylon. Ptolemy quickly moved, without authorization, to subjugate Cyrenaica. By custom, kings in Macedonia asserted their right by burying their predecessor. Ptolemy then openly joined the coalition against Perdiccas. Perdiccas may have decided that Ptolemy was his most dangerous rival. In 321 BC, Perdiccas attempted to invade Egypt only to fall at the hands of his own men. Ptolemy's decision to defend the Nile against Perdiccas's attempt to force it ended in fiasco with the loss of 2000 men. He was murdered in his tent by two of his subordinates.Ptolemy I – Bust of Ptolemy I in the Louvre Museum
89. Cleopatra VII – Cleopatra VII Philopator, known to history simply as Cleopatra, was the last active pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt, briefly survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion. After her reign, Egypt became a province of the recently established Roman Empire. Cleopatra was a member of a family of Macedonian Greek origin that ruled Egypt after Alexander the Great's death during the Hellenistic period. By contrast, Cleopatra represented herself as the reincarnation of the Egyptian goddess Isis. As pharaoh, she consummated a liaison with Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne. She later elevated her son with Caesar, to co-ruler in name. After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, she aligned to Caesar's legal heir Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. With Antony, she bore son Ptolemy Philadelphus. Cleopatra followed suit. According to tradition, she killed herself on August 12, 30 BC. He was soon killed on Octavian's orders. Egypt then became the Roman province of Aegyptus. Cleopatra's father Auletes was a direct descendant of Alexander the Great's general Ptolemy I Soter, both of Macedon. Ptolemy went with Cleopatra; Cleopatra VI Tryphaena seized the crown but died shortly afterwards in suspicious circumstances. It is believed that Berenice IV poisoned her so that she could assume sole rulership.Cleopatra VII – Bust believed to be of Cleopatra VII, Altes Museum, Berlin
90. Ancient Egyptian religion – Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered with many deities who were believed to be present in, in control of, the forces of nature. Rituals such as offerings were efforts to provide for the gods and gain their favor. Religious practice centered on the pharaoh, the king of Egypt, believed to possess a divine power by virtue of his position. The state dedicated enormous resources to the construction of the temples. Individuals could interact with the gods for their own purposes, compelling them to act through magic. These practices were closely linked with, the formal rituals and institutions. The religious tradition grew more prominent in the course of Egyptian history as the status of the Pharaoh declined. Another important aspect was the belief in the funerary practices. The religion lasted for more than 3,000 years. Their intricate relationships shifted. At various times, certain gods became preeminent including the sun god Ra, the creator god Amun, the mother goddess Isis. For a brief period, in the theology promulgated by the Pharaoh Akhenaten, the Aten, replaced the traditional pantheon. Mythology left behind many writings and monuments, along with significant influences on ancient and modern cultures. The rituals now referred to as "ancient Egyptian religion" were integral within every aspect of Egyptian culture.Ancient Egyptian religion – The gods Osiris, Anubis, and Horus, in order from left to right
91. Ancient Egyptian offering formula – "That he may give a voice-offering of every good and pure thing upon which a god lives." "For the ka of the revered Senwosret, True of Voice." The formula is usually found carved or painted onto funerary stelae, false doors, coffins, sometimes other funerary objects. Each person would, of course, have their own name and titles put into the formula. The formula always begins with the phrase: ḥtp dỉ nsw This phrase comes from Old Egyptian, probably means "an offering given by the king." Because the king was seen as an intermediary between the people of the gods, the offering was made through him. Next the formula names a god of the dead and several of his epithets, usually Geb or another deity. There was apparently no set rule about what epithets were used, however "Lord of Busiris," "Great God," and "Lord of Abydos" were very common. After the list of their titles, the formula proceeds with a list of the ḫrt-prw, or "invocation offerings." The list is always preceded by the phrase: or dỉ = sn prt-ḫrw which means "He give invocation offerings." The last part of the formula lists the name and titles of the recipient of the invocation offerings. For example: kꜣ n ỉmꜣḫy s-n-wsrt, mꜣꜥ-ḫrw which means "for the ka of the revered Senwosret, True of Voice." Egyptian mythology Egyptian soul Ancient Egyptian burial customs Ancient Egyptian funerary texts Bennett, C. John C.. "Growth of the ḤTP-DI-NSW Formula in the Middle Kingdom".Ancient Egyptian offering formula – The offering formula shown on a funerary stela. On this particular stela, the formula begins on the first line and reads from right to left
92. Egyptian pantheon – Ancient Egyptian deities are the gods and goddesses worshipped in ancient Egypt. The rituals surrounding these gods formed the core of ancient Egyptian religion, which emerged sometime in prehistory. Deities' diverse appearances in art -- of different forms -- also alluded, through symbolism, to their essential features. The highest deity was usually often connected with the life-giving power of the sun. Gods were assumed to be present throughout the world, capable of influencing the course of human lives. People interacted with them for personal reasons as well as for larger goals of state rites. Egyptians prayed for divine help, called upon them for advice. Humans' relations with their gods were a fundamental part of Egyptian society. The beings in Egyptian tradition who might be labeled as deities are difficult to count. Egyptian texts list the names of many deities whose nature make vague, indirect references to other gods who are not even named. The Egyptian language's terms for these beings were nṯr, its feminine form nṯrt, "goddess". The hieroglyphs that were used in writing these words show some of the traits that the Egyptians connected with divinity. The most common of these signs is a flag flying from a pole. Similar objects were placed at the entrances of temples, representing the presence of a deity, throughout Egyptian history. Such hieroglyphs include a falcon, reminiscent of several early gods who were depicted as falcons, a seated male or female deity.Egyptian pantheon – The gods Osiris, Anubis, and Horus
93. Osiris – He was also associated with the epithet Khenti-Amentiu, meaning "Foremost of the Westerners", a reference to his kingship in the land of the dead. As ruler of the dead, Osiris was also sometimes called "king of the living": ancient Egyptians considered the blessed dead "the living ones". Osiris was considered the younger. He was described as the "Lord of love", "He Who is Permanently Benign and Youthful" and the "Lord of Silence". Osiris was widely worshipped during the rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire. Osiris is a Latin transliteration of the Greek IPA:, which in turn is the Greek adaptation of the original theonym in the Egyptian language. Several proposals have been made for the meaning of the original Wsjr. John Gwyn Griffiths proposed a derivation from wser signifying "the powerful". Moreover, one of the oldest attestations of the god Osiris appears in the mastaba of the deceased Netjer-wser. David Lorton proposed that Wsjr is composed by the morphemes set-jret signifying "ritual activity", Osiris being the one who receives it. Wolfhart Westendorf proposed an etymology from Waset-jret "she who bears the eye". He also carries the crook and flail. The crook is thought to represent Osiris as a shepherd god. The symbolism of the flail is more uncertain with shepherds association with the god Andjety of the ninth nome of Lower Egypt proposed. He was commonly depicted as a pharaoh with a complexion of either green or black in mummiform.Osiris – Head of the God Osiris, ca. 595-525 B.C.E. Brooklyn Museum
94. Ptah – Phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin is a mix of haematoxylin with phosphotungstic acid, used in histology for staining. It stains some tissue in contrasting colors in a way similar to eosin stain, as phosphotungstic acid binds to tissue proteins. It is used to show gliosis in the central nervous system, fibrin deposits in lesions. PTAH is ideal for demonstrating striated muscle fibers and mitochondria, often without a counterstain. As such, it is used to identify contraction bands, as seen in band necrosis. PTAH stains ependymomas while it does not stain choroid plexus papillomas, providing one means of differentiating these tumors. This technique has been largely replaced by immunohistochemistry techniques. There is much more phosphotungstic acid in the solution than hematein. The phosphotungstic acid binds all of the available hematein to form a blue pigment. This lake stains the muscle cross striations, fibrin, other tissue elements blue. The rest of the phosphotungstic acid stains the red-brown components, such as collagen. Zenker fixative is preferred, although fixed tissue can be used. PTAH solution, 5 % sodium thiosulfate, 0.25 % Potassium Permanganate, 5 % Oxalic Acid solution are needed. After staining, slides should be dehydrated quickly because the red-brown components lose their color when exposed to alcohol.Ptah – Phosphotungstic acid-haematoxylin staining demonstrating contraction band necrosis in an individual that had a myocardial infarction (heart attack).
95. Amun – Amun was a major Ancient Egyptian deity. He was attested together with his wife Amaunet. With the 11th dynasty, he rose by replacing Monthu. Amun-Ra retained chief importance throughout the New Kingdom. His position as King of Gods developed to the point of virtual monotheism where other gods became manifestations of him. With Osiris, Amun-Ra is the most widely recorded of the Egyptian gods. As Zeus Ammon he came to be identified in Greece. Amun and Amaunet are mentioned in the Old Egyptian Pyramid Texts. The Amun meant something like "the hidden one" or "invisible". Amun rose to the position of tutelary deity of Thebes under the 11th dynasty. As the patron of Thebes, his spouse was Mut. In Thebes, Amun as father, Mut as the Moon god Khonsu formed a divine family or "Theban Triad". The city of Thebes does not appear to have been before the 11th dynasty. Major work in the Precinct of Amun-Re took place during the 18th dynasty when Thebes became the capital of the unified ancient Egypt. Construction of the Hypostyle Hall may have also begun during the 18th dynasty, though most building was undertaken under Ramesses II.Amun – Amon-Ra (l'esprit des quatre elements, lame du monde matérial),N372.2., Brooklyn Museum
96. Isis – Isis is a goddess from the polytheistic pantheon of Egypt. Later her worship spread throughout the Roman Empire and the greater Greco-Roman world. Isis was worshipped as the ideal wife as well as the patroness of nature and magic. She also listened to the prayers of the wealthy, maidens, aristocrats and rulers. Isis is often depicted as the mother of the falcon-headed deity associated with king and kingship. Isis is also known as protector of the goddess of children. The Isis means "Throne". Her headdress is a throne. As the personification of the throne, she was an important representation of the pharaoh's power. The pharaoh was depicted as her child, who sat on the throne she provided. She conceived Horus with him. Isis was instrumental in the resurrection of Osiris when he was murdered by Set. Using her magical skills, she restored his body after having gathered the body parts, strewn about the earth by Set. This myth became very important during the Greco-Roman period. For example, it was believed that the Nile River flooded every year because of the tears of sorrow which Isis wept for Osiris.Isis – Isis depicted with outstretched wings (wall painting, c. 1360 BCE)
97. Horus – Horus is one of the most significant ancient Egyptian deities. He was worshipped from at least the prehistoric Egypt until the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Roman Egypt. These are treated as distinct gods by Egyptologists. He was most often depicted as a man with a falcon head. In another tradition Hathor is sometimes as his wife. Horus served many functions, most notably being a god of the sky, hunting. Horus is recorded in Egyptian hieroglyphs as ḥr.w "Falcon"; the pronunciation has been reconstructed as ħaːruw. Additional meanings are thought to have been "the distant one" or "one, above, over". As the language changed over time, it was adopted into ancient Greek as Ὧρος Hōros. It also survives in Coptic theophoric names such as Har-si-ese "Horus, Son of Isis". Nekheny may have been another god worshipped at Nekhen, city of the falcon, with whom Horus was identified from early on. Horus may be shown on the Narmer Palette dating from about the 31st century BC. In early Egypt, Horus was the brother of Isis, Osiris, Set and Nephthys. As different cults formed, he became the son of Isis and Osiris. Isis remained the sister of Osiris, Set and Nephthys.Horus – Horus, (Louvre Museum), Shen rings in his grasp
98. Set (mythology) – Set /sɛt/ or Seth is a god of the desert, storms, disorder, violence and foreigners in ancient Egyptian religion. In Ancient Greek, the god's name is given as Sēth. Set had a vital role as a reconciled combatant. He was lord of the red land where he was the balance to Horus' role as lord of the black land. In Egyptian mythology, Set is portrayed as the usurper who killed and mutilated his own brother Osiris. Osiris' Isis resurrected him long enough to conceive his son and heir Horus. Horus sought revenge upon Set, the myths describe their conflicts. This Osiris myth is a prominent theme in Egyptian mythology. Set's siblings are Osiris, Isis, Nephthys. He fathered Anubis; and in some accounts he had relationships with Astarte. Some early Egyptologists proposed that it was a stylised representation of the giraffe, owing to the large flat-topped "horns" which correspond to a giraffe's ossicones. The Egyptians themselves, however, made a distinction between the giraffe and the Set animal. During the Late Period, Set is depicted as a donkey or as having a donkey's head. If these are ruled out, then the earliest animal appears on a mace head of a ruler of the Protodynastic Period. The head and the forked tail of the Set animal are clearly present.Set (mythology) – Set spearing Apep
99. Ma'at – Maat or Ma'at was the ancient Egyptian concept of truth, balance, order, harmony, law, morality, justice. Her ideological counterpart was Isfet. In other accounts, Thoth was paired off with goddess of writing and measure, a lesser known deity. Her feather was the measure that determined whether the souls of the departed would reach the paradise of afterlife successfully. Pharaohs are often depicted with the emblems of Maat to emphasise their role in upholding the laws of the Creator. Maat represents the moral principle that every Egyptian citizen was expected to follow throughout their daily lives. They were expected to act in manners that involve family, the community, the nation, the environment, god. Maat as a principle was formed to meet the complex needs of the Egyptian state that embraced diverse peoples with conflicting interests. It became the basis of Egyptian law. From an early period the King would describe himself as the "Lord of Maat" who decreed with his mouth the Maat he conceived in his heart. The ancient Egyptians had a deep conviction of an underlying holiness and unity within the universe. Cosmic harmony was achieved by correct public and life. Any disturbance in cosmic harmony could have consequences for the individual well as the state. An impious King could bring to an individual. In opposition to the right order expressed in the concept of Maat is the concept of Isfet: chaos, violence.Ma'at – Winged Maat
100. Sekhmet – In Egyptian mythology, Sekhmet (/ˈsɛkˌmɛt/ or Sachmis is a warrior goddess as well as goddess of healing. She is depicted as a lioness, the fiercest hunter known to the Egyptians. It was said that her breath formed the desert. She was seen as the protector of the pharaohs and led them in warfare. The authority to govern were intrinsically interwoven during its approximately three millennia of existence. Sekhmet also is a Solar deity, sometimes called the daughter of the sun god Ra and often associated with the goddesses Hathor and Bast. She bears the Solar disk and the uraeus which associates her with Wadjet and royalty. Sekhmet's name comes from the Ancient Egyptian word "sekhem" which means "power or might". Sekhmet's name suits her function and means "the powerful". She also was given titles such as the " Before Whom Evil Trembles", "Mistress of Dread", "Lady of Slaughter" and "She Who Mauls". In order to placate Sekhmet's wrath, her priestesses performed a ritual before a different statue of the goddess on each day of the year. This practice resulted in many images of the goddess being preserved. Occasionally, Sekhmet was also portrayed in her statuettes and engravings with minimal clothing or naked. Tame lions were kept in temples dedicated to Sekhmet at Leontopolis. To pacify Sekhmet, festivals were celebrated at the end of battle, so that the destruction would come to an end.Sekhmet – This golden cultic object is called an aegis. It is devoted to Sekhmet, highlighting her solar attributes. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.
101. Nepthys – Nephthys or Nebthet was a goddess in ancient Egyptian religion. A member of the Great Ennead of Heliopolis in Egyptian mythology, she was a daughter of Nut and Geb. This is a pervasive error repeated in many commentaries concerning this deity. Her name means quite specifically, "Lady of the Enclosure" which associates her with the role of priestess. Along with her Isis, Nephthys represented the temple pylon or trapezoidal tower entrance to the temple which also displayed the flagstaff. This way symbolised the akhet. At the time of the Fifth Dynasty Pyramid Texts, Nephthys appears as a goddess of the Heliopolitan Ennead. She is the sister of Isis and companion of the war-like deity, Set. As sister of Isis and especially Osiris, Nephthys is a protective goddess who symbolizes the experience, just as Isis represented the experience. Nephthys was known as the "Excellent Goddess". These Ancient Egyptian temple texts describe a goddess who represented protective guardianship. Nephthys is regarded as the mother of the funerary-deity Anubis in some myths. Alternatively Anubis appears as the son of Bastet or Isis. As the primary "nursing mother" of the incarnate Pharaonic-god, Horus, Nephthys also was considered to be the nurse of the reigning Pharaoh himself. Though other goddesses could assume this role, Nephthys was most usually portrayed in this function.Nepthys – Nephthys - Musée du Louvre, Paris, France
102. Anubis – Like many ancient Egyptian deities, Anubis assumed different roles in various contexts. Depicted as a protector of graves early as the First Dynasty, Anubis was also an embalmer. By the Middle Kingdom he was replaced as lord of the underworld. One of his prominent roles was as a god who ushered souls into the afterlife. Anubis was depicted in a color that symbolized both rebirth and the discoloration of the corpse after embalming. Anubis is associated with Wepwawet, another Egyptian god with grey or white fur. Historians assume that the two figures were eventually combined. Anubis' female counterpart is Anput. His daughter is the serpent Kebechet. "Anubis" is a Greek rendering of this god's Egyptian name. In Egypt's Early Dynastic period, Anubis was portrayed with a "jackal" head and body. A "jackal" god, probably Anubis, is depicted from the reigns of Hor-Aha, Djer, other pharaohs of the First Dynasty. The oldest known textual mention of Anubis is in the Pyramid Texts of the Old Kingdom, where he is associated with the burial of the pharaoh. In the Old Kingdom, Anubis was the most important god of the dead. He was replaced in that role during the Middle Kingdom.Anubis – Anubis attending the mummy of the deceased.
103. Bastet – Bastet was a goddess in ancient Egyptian religion, worshiped as early as the 2nd Dynasty. As Bast, she was the goddess of warfare in the Nile River delta region, before the unification of the cultures of ancient Egypt. Her name is also translated as Baast, Ubaste, Baset. In Greek mythology, she is also known as Ailuros. The uniting Egyptian cultures had deities that shared similar roles and usually the same imagery. In Upper Egypt, Sekhmet was the parallel warrior lioness deity. That did not occur with these deities having such strong roots in their cultures. Instead, these goddesses began to diverge. During the 22nd Dynasty, Bast had transformed into a major protector deity represented as a cat. The name associated with this later identity, is the name commonly used by scholars today to refer to this deity. In early Egyptian, her name appears to have been bꜣstt. By the first millennium, then, bꜣstt would have been something like *Ubaste in Egyptian speech, later becoming Coptic Oubaste. During later dynasties, the deity was assigned a lesser role in the pantheon by bearing the name Bastet. This happened after Thebes became the capital of Ancient Egypt during the 18th Dynasty. By the 22nd Dynasty the transition had occurred in all regions.Bastet – Photograph of an alabaster cosmetic jar topped with a lioness, representing Bast, an 18th dynasty burial artifact from the tomb of Tutankhamun circa 1323 BC - Cairo Museum
104. Shu (Egyptian deity) – Shu was one of the primordial Egyptian gods, a personification of air, one of the Ennead of Heliopolis. In some myths, Shu was the son of Atum and Iusaaset. In other versions, his sister Tefnut were created by Atum alone, via parthenogenesis. With Tefnut, Shu was grandfather of Osiris, Isis, Set and Nephthys. His great-grandsons are Anubis and Horus. As the air, Shu was considered to be cooling, thus calming, pacifier. Due to the association with air, thus Ma'at, Shu was portrayed in art as wearing an ostrich feather. Shu was seen with between four feathers. The ostrich feather was symbolic of emptiness. They were often called his bones. Because of his position between the earth, he was also known as the wind. She changed into a cat that destroyed any man or god that approached. Thoth, disguised, eventually succeeded in convincing her to return. The Greeks associated Shu with the primordial Titan who held up the celestial spheres, as they are both depicted holding the sky. According to the Heliopolitan cosmology, the first pair of cosmic elements, created the sky goddess, Nut, the earth god, Geb.Shu (Egyptian deity) – Shu is shown holding the sky above his head.
105. Tefnut – Tefnut is a goddess of moisture, moist air, dew and rain in Ancient Egyptian religion. She is the sister and consort of the air god Shu and the mother of Geb and Nut. Including her brother, Tefnut has symbol. Her name in hieroglyphics consists of four single phonogram symbols t-f-n-t. Tefnut is a daughter of the solar god Ra-Atum. Married to Shu, she is mother of Nut, Geb, the earth. Tefnut's grandchildren were Osiris, Isis, Set, Nephthys, in some versions, Horus the Elder. She was also a great grandmother of Horus the Younger. Alongside her father, brother, great-grandchild, she is a member of the Ennead of Heliopolis. There are a number of variants to the myth of the creation of her twin Shu. In all versions, Tefnut is the product of parthenogenesis, all involve some variety of bodily fluid. In the Heliopolitan myth, the solar Atum masturbates to produce Tefnut and Shu. Atum was creative in that he proceeded to masturbate himself in Heliopolis. He took his penis in his hand so that he might obtain the pleasure of orgasm thereby. And brother and sister were born -, Shu and Tefnut.Tefnut – The goddess Tefnut with the head of a lioness sitting on her throne.
106. Nun – A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically one living under vows of poverty, chastity, obedience. The term "nun" is applicable to Catholics, some other religious traditions. Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity, lives an active vocation of both prayer and service, often to the needy, poor, uneducated. All Buddhist traditions have nuns, although their status is different among Buddhist countries. Fully ordained Buddhist nuns have more Patimokkha rules than the monks. The important vows are the same, however. As with monks, there is quite a lot of social conventions between Buddhist cultures in Asia. Chinese nuns possess the full ordination, Tibetan nuns do not. In a country which never had a tradition of fully ordained nuns, there developed a separate order of non-ordained female renunciates called mae ji. However, some of them have played an important role in dhamma-practitioners' community. Formerly the successful academic scholar Dr. Chatsumarn Kabilsingh, established a controversial monastery for the training of Buddhist nuns in Thailand. The relatively active roles of Taiwanese nuns were noted by some studies. He adds: "All my informants in the areas of Taipei and Sanhsia considered nuns at least even more so. In contrast, however, Shiu-kuen Tsung found in Taipei county that female clergy were viewed by society. She reports that while outsiders did not necessarily regard their vocation as unworthy of respect, they still tended to view the nuns as social misfits."Nun – Nuns
107. Ammit – A funerary deity, her titles included "Devourer of the Dead", "Great of Death". Ammit lived in Duat, the Egyptian underworld. Once Ammit swallowed the heart, the soul was believed to become restless forever; this was called "to die a second time". Ammit was also sometimes said to stand by a lake of fire. In some traditions, the unworthy hearts were cast into the fiery lake to be destroyed. Some scholars believe the lake represent the same concept of destruction. Ammit has been linked with the Tawaret, who has a similar physical appearance and, as a companion of Bes, also protected others from evil. Other authors have noted that the lake of fire, may be pointers to a connection with the goddess Sekhmet. The relation to afterlife lake of fire location are also shared with the baboon deity Babi. Ammit was made male as a character in the Palladium RPG. A monster of the same name is also a card in Yu-Gi-Oh. In addition, Ammit also intermittenly appears in a trilogy based on Egyptian Myths. In the series, Ammit follows suit as the original myths, being the servant and companion of Anubis. Ammit is also featured in the Lara Croft and the Temple of Osiris video game Book of the Dead Media related to Ammit at Wikimedia CommonsAmmit
108. Bes – Bes is an Ancient Egyptian deity worshipped as a protector of households, in particular, of mothers and children and childbirth. Bes later came to be regarded as the enemy of all, bad. Mentions of Bes can be traced to pre-dynastic Nile Valley cultures; however his cult did not become widespread until the beginning of the New Kingdom. Modern scholars such as James Romano claim that in its earliest inception Bes was a representation of a lion rearing up on its hind legs. After the Third Intermediate Period, Bes is often seen as the face, often worn as amulets. He was depicted quite differently from the other gods. He scared away demons from houses, so his statue was put up as a protector. Since he drove off evil, Bes also came to symbolize the good things in life - sexual pleasure. Many instances of Bes costumes from the New Kingdom and later have been uncovered. In the New Kingdom, tattoos of Bes could be found on the thighs of dancers, servant girls. Like many Egyptian gods, he, in particular, proved popular with the Phoenicians and the ancient Cypriots. In the 500s BC, images of Bes began to spread across the Persian Empire, which Egypt belonged to at the time. Images of Bes have been found at the Persian capital of Susa, far away as central Asia. Over time, the image of Bes became more Persian in style, as he was depicted wearing Persian headdress. The Balearic island of Ibiza derives its actual name from this god, brought along with the first Phoenician settlers 654 BC.Bes – Bes statue from Amanthus (Cyprus) in the Istanbul Archaeological Museums
109. Ba (Egyptian soul) – The ancient Egyptians believed that a human soul was made up of five parts: the Ren, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, the Ib. In addition to these components of the soul there was the human body. The other souls were aakhu, khat. An important part of the Egyptian soul was thought to be heart. The heart was believed to be formed from the child's mother's heart, taken at conception. To ancient Egyptians, the heart was the seat of emotion, thought, intention. This is evidenced by the many expressions in the Egyptian language which incorporate the jb. This word was transcribed by E. A. Wallis Budge as Ab. In Egyptian religion, the heart was the key to the afterlife. It was conceived as surviving death in the world, where it gave evidence for, or against, its possessor. It was thought that the heart was examined during the Weighing of the Heart ceremony. If the heart weighed more than the feather of Maat, it was immediately consumed by the Ammit. Sheut, is always present. Because of this, Egyptians surmised that a shadow contains something of the person it represents. Through this association, statues of deities were sometimes referred to as shadows.Ba (Egyptian soul) – This golden Ba amulet from the Ptolemaic period would have been worn as an apotropaic device. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.
110. Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul – The ancient Egyptians believed that a human soul was made up of five parts: the Ren, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, the Ib. In addition to these components of the soul there was the human body. The other souls were khat. An important part of the Egyptian soul was thought to be the jb, or heart. The heart was believed to be formed from one drop of blood from the child's mother's heart, taken at conception. To ancient Egyptians, the heart was the seat of emotion, intention. This is evidenced by the many expressions in the Egyptian language which incorporate the word jb. This word was transcribed by E. A. Wallis Budge as Ab. In Egyptian religion, the heart was the key to the afterlife. It was conceived as surviving death in the world, where it gave evidence against, its possessor. It was thought that the heart was examined by Anubis and the deities during the Weighing of the Heart ceremony. If the heart weighed more than the feather of Maat, it was immediately consumed by the monster Ammit. A person's shadow or silhouette, Sheut, is always present. Because of this, Egyptians surmised that a shadow contains something of the person it represents. Through this association, statues of people and deities were sometimes referred to as shadows.Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul – This golden Ba amulet from the Ptolemaic period would have been worn as an apotropaic device. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.
111. Akh – The ancient Egyptians believed that a human soul was made up of five parts: the Ren, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, the Ib. In addition to these components of the soul there was the human body. The other souls were aakhu, khat. An important part of the Egyptian soul was thought to be heart. The heart was believed to be formed from the child's mother's heart, taken at conception. To ancient Egyptians, the heart was the seat of emotion, thought, intention. This is evidenced by the many expressions in the Egyptian language which incorporate the jb. This word was transcribed by E. A. Wallis Budge as Ab. In Egyptian religion, the heart was the key to the afterlife. It was conceived as surviving death in the world, where it gave evidence for, or against, its possessor. It was thought that the heart was examined during the Weighing of the Heart ceremony. If the heart weighed more than the feather of Maat, it was immediately consumed by the Ammit. Sheut, is always present. Because of this, Egyptians surmised that a shadow contains something of the person it represents. Through this association, statues of deities were sometimes referred to as shadows.Akh – This golden Ba amulet from the Ptolemaic period would have been worn as an apotropaic device. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.
112. Duat – Duat was the realm of the dead in ancient Egyptian mythology. It was the residence of other gods and supernatural beings. The Duat was the region through which the sun Ra traveled from west to east during the night, where he battled Apep. It was also the place where people's souls went for judgement though, not the full extent of the afterlife. Spirits could use tombs to travel back and forth from the Duat. Different texts could be inconsistent with one another. There likely was never a single uniform interpretation of the Duat. The geography of Duat is similar in outline to the world the Egyptians knew. There are realistic features like rivers, islands, fields, lakes, mounds and caverns, trees of turquoise. In the Book of one of the Coffin Texts, there is even a map-like image of the Duat. The dead person must pass a series of gates guarded by dangerous spirits, depicted with grotesque heads of animals, insects, torches or knives. These beings have equally grotesque names, for instance "Blood-drinker who comes from the Slaughterhouse" or "One who eats the excrement of his hindquarters". Other features emphasised in these texts are caverns, inhabited by gods or supernatural animals, which threatened the spirits of the dead. If the deceased successfully passed these unpleasant demons, she would reach the Weighing of the Heart. In this ritual, the heart of the deceased was weighed by Anubis, representing Ma'at, the goddess of truth and justice.Duat – A section of the Egyptian Book of the Dead written on papyrus showing the Weighing of the Heart in Duat where Anubis can be seen on the far right, the scales are shown with the feather balance, and Ammit awaits hearts that she must devour – the presence of Osiris at the gateway to the paradise of Aaru dates the papyrus to a late tradition of the myth.
113. Atenism – Atenism, or the Amarna heresy, refers to the religious changes associated with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known under his adopted name, Akhenaten. The Aten -- the god of Atenism -- first appears in texts dating in the Story of Sinuhe. Here during the Middle Kingdom, the Aten "as the disk... was merely one aspect of the sun god Re." The Aten, hence, was a relatively obscure god; without the Atenist period, it would barely have figured in Egyptian history. There is no evidence however that Amenhotep III attempted to promote the Aten as an exclusive deity. To emphasise the change, Aten's name was written in the cartouche form normally reserved for an innovation of Atenism. Year 5 is believed to mark the beginning of Amenhotep IV's construction of Akhetaten, at the site known today as Amarna. Evidence of this appears on three of the stelae used to mark the boundaries of this new capital. At this time, Amenhotep IV officially changed his name as evidence of his new worship. The date given for the event has been estimated to fall around January 2 of that year. In shifting his court from the ceremonial centres Akhenaten was signalling a dramatic transformation in the focus of religious and political power. It may also have coincided with the end of the coregency. Aten was addressed in prayers, such as the Great Hymn to the Aten: "O Sole God beside whom there is none". Aten's name is also written differently after Year 9, to emphasise the radicalism of the new regime. Instead it is spelled phonetically.Atenism – Pharaoh Akhenaten and his family adoring the Aten
114. Egyptian soul – The ancient Egyptians believed that a human soul was made up of five parts: the Ren, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, the Ib. In addition to these components of the soul there was the human body. The other souls were aakhu, khat. An important part of the Egyptian soul was thought to be heart. The heart was believed to be formed from the child's mother's heart, taken at conception. To ancient Egyptians, the heart was the seat of emotion, thought, intention. This is evidenced by the many expressions in the Egyptian language which incorporate the jb. This word was transcribed by E. A. Wallis Budge as Ab. In Egyptian religion, the heart was the key to the afterlife. It was conceived as surviving death in the world, where it gave evidence for, or against, its possessor. It was thought that the heart was examined during the Weighing of the Heart ceremony. If the heart weighed more than the feather of Maat, it was immediately consumed by the Ammit. Sheut, is always present. Because of this, Egyptians surmised that a shadow contains something of the person it represents. Through this association, statues of deities were sometimes referred to as shadows.Egyptian soul – This golden Ba amulet from the Ptolemaic period would have been worn as an apotropaic device. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.
115. Ennead – The Ennead was a group of nine deities in Egyptian mythology. Egyptian mythology established such groupings of deities, known as Pesedjets. The Pyramid Texts of the 6th dynasties mention the Great Pesedjet, the Lesser Pesedjet, the Dual Pesedjet, plural Pesedjets, even the Seven Pesedjets. Some pharaohs established pesedjets that incorporated themselves among the deities. Ennead may have represented Pleiades in the prognosis texts of the Calendar of Unlucky Days of papyrus Cairo 86637. Greek became the language of hence Greek terms were used by Greek and Roman authors to describe Egyptian phenomena. These others also made use of parallels between Greek deities to identify the two. Among Egyptian pesedjets, the most important was the Great Pesedjet, also called the Ennead of Heliopolis, after its centre of worship. Heliopolis was thrived from the Old Kingdom until its decline under the Ptolemaic rulers. The development of the Ennead remains uncertain. The most prominent of such deities was god of vegetation and of the netherworld, incorporated into the Ennead as Atum's great-grandson. However, in the 20th century, some Egyptologists question the whole scenario. The account of Heliopolis relates that from the primeval waters represented by Nun, a mound appeared on which the self-begotten deity Atum sat. Alone, Atum spat or, according to other stories, masturbated, producing Shu, representing the air and Tefnut, representing moisture. Some versions however have Atum—identified with Ra—father Shu and Tefnut with Iusaaset, accordingly sometimes described as a "shadow" in this pesedjet.Ennead – The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum.
116. Book of Caverns – The Book of Caverns is an important Ancient Egyptian netherworld book of the New Kingdom. Like all netherworld books, it is also attested on the inside of kings' tombs for the benefit of the deceased. The Book of Caverns is one of the best sources of information about the Egyptian concept of hell. The Book of Caverns originated in the 13th BC in the Ramesside Period. The earliest known version of this work is on the left wall of the Osireion in Abydos. Later it appears in the tomb of Ramesses IV in the Valley of the Kings. This appearance was already recorded from Egypt. During his journey, the god passes over the caverns of Hell, in which the enemies of the world order are being destroyed. The Book of Caverns also gives hints on the imagined topographical structure of the underworld. The Book of Caverns has no ancient title. It is not divided into hours of the night as netherworld books are. Instead, the book contains seven great scene tableaus with altogether approximately 80 different scenes. It is divided into two parts plus a final tableau. The Book of Caverns is much more literary the Book of Gates. It contains much more text.Book of Caverns – Fifth division: A scene from tomb of Ramses V./VI. (KV9, chamber E, right wall)
117. Book of Gates – The Book of Gates is an Ancient Egyptian funerary text dating from the New Kingdom. The soul is required to pass through a series of'gates' at different stages in the journey. Each gate requires that the deceased recognise the particular character of that deity. The text implies that others will suffer torment in a lake of fire. These are depicted in procession entering the next world. Book of the Dead Sacred texts - GateBook of Gates – The four races of the world: a Libyan ("Themehu"), a Nubian ("Nehesu"), an Asiatic ("Aamu"), and an Egyptian ("Reth"). An artistic rendering, based on a mural from the tomb of Seti I.
118. Book of the Dead – The Book of the Dead is an ancient Egyptian funerary text, used from the beginning of the New Kingdom to around 50 BCE. The Egyptian name for the text, transliterated rw nw prt m hrw is translated as Book of Coming Forth by Day. Another translation would be Book of Emerging Forth into the Light. Some of the spells included were drawn to the 3rd millennium BCE. Other spells were composed later in Egyptian history, dating to the Third Intermediate Period. The Book of the Dead was placed in the coffin or chamber of the deceased. There was no canonical Book of the Dead. The surviving papyri vary considerably in their illustration. The Book of the Dead developed from a tradition of funerary manuscripts dating back to the Egyptian Old Kingdom. The funerary texts were the Pyramid Texts, first used in the Pyramid of King Unas of the 5th dynasty, around 2400 BCE. These texts were exclusively for the use of the Pharaoh. In the Middle Kingdom, a new text emerged, the Coffin Texts. The Coffin Texts included illustrations for the first time. The Coffin Texts were most commonly written on the inner surfaces of coffins, though they are occasionally found on papyri. The Book of the Dead first developed in Thebes towards the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period, around 1700 BCE.Book of the Dead
119. Book of the Earth – The central figures in the story are Osiris, Ra and Ba, while the overarching plot is the journey the sun takes through Aker. The scenes were found on all of the walls of the tombs of Ramesses VII. Alexandre Piankoff looked for a meaning behind the illustrations. Bruno H. Stricker provided an explanation of the Book as a divine embryology in 1963. Although it is uncertain, it is believed that the surviving panels of the original composition were each divided into three registers. Scholars believe that the Book consists of two halves with one half containing scenes of punishment. The Book of the Earth uses the disc as a reoccurring theme. This is the opposite of the typical configuration according to Alexandre Piankoff. The Book is divided into five main components; Part E, Part D, Part C, Part B, Part A. Most of the content takes place within Part D and Part A. In this part, there are six gods shown praying at burial mounds. Part E is most likely not the beginning of the Book of the Earth. Part D is probably the beginning of the composition, where most of the setting is introduced. A majority of the content of the Book of the Earth is also located within this section. The realm of the dead is depicted as the primary figure, located within a tomb, guarded by serpents.Book of the Earth – The Book of the Earth in KV9
120. Books of Breathing – The Books of Breathing are several late ancient Egyptian funerary texts, intended to enable deceased people to continue to exist in the afterlife. The earliest known copy dates to about 350 BC. Other copies come from the Ptolemaic and Roman periods of Egyptian history, late as the second century AD. Scholars have often confused them with each other. Their titles use the word "breathing" as a metaphorical term for all the aspects of life that the deceased hoped to experience again in the afterlife. The texts exhort Egyptian gods to accept the deceased into their company. Book of the Dead Book of Abraham Hornung, Erik. The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife. David Lorton. Cornell University Press. Nibley, Hugh. The Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri: an Egyptian Endowment. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book Company. Nibley, Hugh. "What is'The Book of Breathings'?".Books of Breathing – Mythology
122. Abu Gorab – In addition, Abu Gorab is also the site of a First Dynasty cemetery. The cemetery also features the ritual burials of many donkeys in close association with the tombs. It was built to honor the Sun god Ra. The temple was constructed on the orders of Nyuserre Ini, sixth king of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt. Nyuserre also built a complexe in what was then 1 km to the south of Abu Gorab in Abusir. The temple was called Shesepibre, meaning "The Joy of Ra". The complex is built out of mudbrick covered with limestone, is located on the shores of Abusir lake. Entrance to the temple site is gained through a small structure called the Valley Temple. Archeologists have been unable to study the Valley Temple in detail. It is partially submerged and has suffered extensive damage. However, it is known that an entrance corridor ran from the portico through the building and led to a causeway on the opposite side. Per the hypothesis, this causeway led to the entrance to the main temple. The main temple was built on a natural hill, enhanced. Artificial terraces on this hill were created using mudbrick, later covered with limestone. The temple was then built on top of these terraces.Abu Gorab – Reconstructed image of Nyuserre's sun temple
123. Abu Mena – Abu Mena was a town, monastery complex and Christian pilgrimage center in Late Antique Egypt, about 45 km southwest of Alexandria. Its remains were designated a World Heritage Site in 1979. The foundations of most major buildings, such as the great basilica, are easily discernible. The site was added in 2001. Authorities were forced to place sand in the bases of buildings that are most endangered in the site. Menas of Alexandria was martyred in early 4th century. Various later accounts give slightly differing versions of his burial and the subsequent founding of his church. The essential elements are that his body was taken on a camel, led into the desert beyond Lake Mareotis. At some point, the camel refused to continue walking, despite all efforts to goad it. The body's attendants buried it on that spot. Most versions of the story state that the location of the tomb was then forgotten rediscovery by a local shepherd. From the Ethiopian Synaxarium: And God wished to reveal the body of Saint Mînâs. And when the shepherd understood the miracle, he marvelled exceedingly and was astonished. And he healed all the sick who came to him by this means. Word of the shepherd's healing powers spread rapidly.Abu Mena – UNESCO World Heritage Site
124. Abu Rawash – Explanations to why this pyramid is missing its top vary. The second point of interest that this pyramid provides is that it is built on top of a hillock. The builders faced the colossal task of only hauling megalithic stones up a pyramid but also up a hillock. Its location adjacent to a major crossroads made an easy source of stone. The sedimentary succession in Abu Rawash area is punctuated by several unconformity surfaces. Facies hierarchy display that the facies sequence of the basal clastic member indicates a progradational preitidal sequence. The facies sequence of the Acteonella-bearing member reflects two facies associations comprising shoal or bank facies. The latter facies represents the bank that the thick shelled Durania arnaudi with the coralline sponge heads accreted local mounds in restricted areas El-Hassana dome.Abu Rawash – The ruined Pyramid of Djedefre sits atop the plateau of Abu Rawash
125. Abydos, Egypt – It is located about 11 kilometres west of the Nile at latitude 26 ° 10' N, near the Egyptian towns of el - ` Araba el Madfuna and al-Balyana. In the Egyptian language, the city was called Abdju. The English name Abydos comes from the Greek Ἄβυδος, a name borrowed by Greek geographers on the Hellespont. It is a chronological list showing cartouches of most dynastic pharaohs of Egypt from Menes until Seti I's father, Ramesses I. Most of the ancient town are buried under the modern buildings to the north of the Seti temple. Many of the artifacts within them are considered irretrievable and lost; many may have been destroyed by the new construction. Abydos was occupied by the rulers of the Predynastic period, whose town, temple and tombs have been found there. The cemetery was used continuously. The pharaohs of the first dynasty were buried including Narmer, regarded as founder of the first dynasty, his successor, Aha. It was in this period that the Abydos boats were constructed. Some pharaohs of the second dynasty were also buried in Abydos. The temple was enlarged by these pharaohs as well. From the fifth dynasty, foremost of the Westerners, came to be seen as a manifestation of the dead pharaoh in the underworld. Abydos became the centre of the worship of the Isis and Osiris cult. Khentiamentiu's name became an epithet of Osiris.Abydos, Egypt – Façade of the Temple of Seti I in Abydos
126. Alexandria – Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. It is Egypt's largest seaport, serving approximately 80 % of Egypt's exports. Alexandria is an important industrial center from Suez. It is also an important destination. It was founded by Alexander the Great. It was the second most powerful city of the ancient world after Rome. It was founded by Alexander the Great in April 331 BC as Ἀλεξάνδρεια. Alexander's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates. It was intended to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley. It was the cultural center of the ancient world for some time. Its museum attracted many of the greatest scholars, including Greeks, Jews and Syrians. The city was later lost its significance. Just east of Alexandria, there was in ancient times marshland and several islands. As early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Canopus and Heracleion. The latter was recently rediscovered under water.Alexandria – Alexandria Ἀλεξάνδρεια
127. Amarna – The name for the city employed by the ancient Egyptians is written as Akhetaten in English transliteration. Akhetaten means "Horizon of the Aten". The city of Deir Mawas lies west across from the site of Amarna. Amarna, on the east side, includes modern villages, chief of which are el-Till in the north and el-Hagg Qandil in the south. The area was also occupied during early Christian times; excavations to the south of the city have found several structures from this period. The Amarna comes from the Beni Amran tribe that lived in the region and founded a few settlements. The Egyptian name was Akhetaten. It may be that the Royal Wadi's resemblance to the hieroglyph for horizon showed that this was the place to found the city. The city was built as the new capital of the Pharaoh Akhenaten, dedicated to the Aten. Construction was probably completed by Year 9, although it became the capital city two years earlier. To speed up construction of the city white washed. The most important buildings were faced with local stone. Once it was abandoned it remained uninhabited until Roman settlement began along the edge of the Nile. However, due to the unique circumstances of its abandonment, it is questionable how representative of ancient Egyptian cities it actually is. The entire city was encircled with a total of 14 stelae detailing Akhenaten's conditions for the establishment of this new capital city of Egypt.Amarna – Small Temple of the Aten at Akhetaten
128. Aswan – Aswan, formerly spelled Assuan, is a city in the south of Egypt, the capital of the Aswan Governorate. Aswan is a busy market and centre located just north of the Aswan Dams on the east bank of the Nile at the first cataract. The modern city includes the formerly separate community on the island of Elephantine. Aswan is the ancient city of Swenett, which in antiquity was the town of Ancient Egypt facing the south. Swenett is supposed to have derived its name from an Egyptian goddess with the same name. The ancient name of the city also is said to be derived from market. Navigation to the delta was possible from this location without encountering a barrier. The stone quarries of ancient Egypt located here especially for the granitic rock called Syenite. A road, 6.5 km in length, was cut beside them from Syene to Philae. Swenett was equally important as a military station as a place of traffic. Under every dynasty it was a town; and here tolls and customs were levied on all boats passing southwards and northwards. Around 330, the legion stationed here received a bishop from Alexandria; this later became the Coptic Diocese of Syene. It appears on the Antonine Itinerary. It also is mentioned in the Book of Isaiah. The latitude of the city that would become Aswan -- located at ° 5 ′ 23 ″ -- was an object of great interest to the ancient geographers.Aswan – River Nile in Aswan
129. Asyut – The modern city is located at 27°11′00″N 31°10′00″E, while the ancient city is located at 27°10′00″N 31°08′00″E. The name of the city is derived from Egyptian Zawty adopted into the Coptic as Syowt ⲥⲓⲟⲟⲩⲧ. In Graeco-Roman Egypt, it was called Lycopolis or Lykopolis, Lyco. Ancient Asyut was the capital of the Thirteenth Nome of Upper Egypt around 3100 BCE. It was located on the western bank of the Nile. The two most prominent gods of Egyptian Asyut were Anubis and Wepwawet, both funerary deities. During the First Intermediate Period, the rulers of "Zawty" were supporters of the Herakleopolitan kings, of whose domain the Nome formed the southern limits. The shield of a king named Recamai, who reigned in Upper Egypt, has been discovered in Asyut. Osiris was worshipped under the symbol of a wolf at Lycopolis. According to a myth, he had come "from the shades" as a wolf to aid Isis and Horus in their combat with Typhon. In Graeco-Roman times, there was a distinct dialect of Coptic known as "Lycopolitan", after the Greek name for the city. Lesser-used names for this dialect are "Sub-Akhmimic" and "Assiutic". A Byzantine Treasure was discovered near the city in the early twentieth century and is now dispersed amongst a number of museums in the West. The hoard is composed of some of the most elaborate jewellery to survive from late antiquity. Asyut was the end of 40 Day Road that connected the city through the Selima and Kharga Oases.Asyut – Asyut أسيوط
130. Avaris – Avaris was the capital of Egypt under the Hyksos. It was located at modern Tell el-Dab' at the juncture of the 8th, 14th, 19th and 20th Nomes. The name Hawara survives, referring to the site at the entrance to Faiyum. Alternatively, Clement of Alexandria referred as "Athyria". In 1885, the Swiss Édouard Naville started the first excavations around Tell-el-Daba. Between 1942, Labib Habachi, an Egyptian Egyptologist first forwarded the idea that the site could be identified with Avaris. Since 1975, the site has been excavated by the Austrian Archaeological Institute. Artifacts excavated at a temple erected in the Hyksos period have produced goods from all over the Aegean world. The temple even has Minoan-like wall paintings that are similar to those found at the Palace of Knossos. A large tomb has also been excavated to the west of the temple, where grave-goods, such as copper swords, have been found. Avaris was absorbed into the new city of Pi-Ramesses constructed by Ramesses II of the Nineteenth dynasty when he moved the capital back to the Delta. Avaris, along with Tel Kabri in Syria, also has a record of Minoan civilization, otherwise quite rare in the Levant. French archaeologist Yves Duhoux proposed the existence of a Minoan'colony' on an island in the Nile delta. Carl Nicholas Reeves. Ancient Egypt: the great discoveries: a year-by-year chronicle.Avaris – Map of ancient Lower Egypt showing Avaris
131. Bubastis – Bubastis, also known in Arabic as Tell-Basta or in Egyptian as Per-Bast, was an Ancient Egyptian city. It was the capital of its own nome, located in the Delta region of Lower Egypt. Bubastis is often identified with the biblical Phibeseth. The name of Bubastis in Egyptian is Pr-Bȝśt.t, typically transcribed Per-Bast. PR means the second word is the name of the goddess Bast or Bastet. The phrase means "House of Bast". Bubastis served as the capital of the nome of the Bubastite nome, the 18th nome of Lower Egypt. Bubastis was situated southwest of Tanis, upon the eastern side of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile. The city of Bubastis were allotted to the Calasirian division of the Egyptian war-caste. It became a royal residence after the first ruler and founder of the 22nd dynasty, became pharaoh in 943 BC. Bubastis was its height during the 23rd. After Bubastis was taken by the Persians, its walls were dismantled. From this period it gradually declined, although it appears in ecclesiastical annals among the episcopal sees of the province Augustamnica Secunda. Bubastite coins of the age of Hadrian exist. "none so pleasant to behold.Bubastis – View of Bubastis
132. Buhen – Buhen was an ancient Egyptian settlement situated on the West bank of the Nile below the Second Cataract. Across the river, was located an ancient settlement of Wadi Halfa. In the Old Kingdom it was the site of a small post in Nubia, also used for copper working. The settlement may have been established during the reign of Sneferu. Nevertheless, there is evidence of 2nd dynasty, occupation at Buhen. An archaeological investigation in 1962 revealed what was described as an ancient copper'factory'. Buhen is known for its large fortress, probably constructed during the rule of Senusret III in around 1860 BC. Senusret III established a line of forts within signalling distance of one another; Buhen was the northernmost of these. The other forts along the banks were Kumma. The Kushites held it until Ahmose I recaptured it at the beginning of the 18th dynasty. It was recaptured by indigenous forces at the end of Egypt's 20th dynasty. The fortress itself extended more than 150 metres along the west bank of the Nile. It had within its wall a small town laid out in a grid system. At its peak it probably had a population of around 3500 people. The fortress also included the administration for the fortified region of the Second Cataract.Buhen – A view of the fortress from the north.
133. Busiris (Lower Egypt) – See Busiris for namesakes Busiris was an ancient city in Lower Egypt, located at the present-day Abu Sir Bana. In antiquity, Busiris was the chief town of the Ati nome in Egypt. It stood west of Sais, near the Phatnitic mouth on the western bank of the Damietta Branch of the Nile. The city's pharaonic name was Djedu. The nome of Busiris were allotted to the Hermotybian division of the Egyptian militia. It was regarded as perhaps, etymologically, the name itself implies. The festival of Isis at Busiris came next in splendor and importance at Bubastis in the Egyptian calendar. Considerable ruins are still extant. The ruins of the temple are still visible, a little to the north of Abusir, at the hamlet of Bahheyt. It was in the Roman province of Aegyptus secundus. Later, Busiris became a Christian bishopric. From the 8th onward, the name of several of its non-Chalcedonian bishops are also known. No longer a residential bishopric, Busiris is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see of the lowest rank. "name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography.Busiris (Lower Egypt) – Busiris is shown in the central delta, among the ancient settlements of Lower Egypt
134. Dahshur – Dahshur is a royal necropolis located in the desert on the west bank of the Nile approximately 40 kilometres south of Cairo. It is known chiefly for several pyramids, two of which are among the oldest, best preserved in Egypt, built from 2613 -- 2589 BC. Building the Dahshur pyramids was an extremely important experience for the Egyptians before they could build the Great Pyramid of Giza. The Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid, were constructed during the reign of Pharaoh Sneferu. The Bent Pyramid ultimately wasn't successful. This in turn is thought to be the reason the pyramid changes angles about halfway up the sides. Sneferu was not pleased with this pyramid, so he built another called the Red Pyramid. Getting its name from the red hue the pyramid gives off after a nice rain, the Red pyramid was the first smooth-sided pyramid. Standing more than 30 stories tall, it is thought to be the place where he is believed to be buried. Though Khufu's pyramid is larger, he would not have been able to build it without the knowledge that his father discovered before him. The pyramid of the Dynasty king Amenemhat II is now badly damaged. Next to it were found undisturbed tombs of royal women still containing a large amount of jewellery. The pyramid of Sesostris III was part of a huge complex, with several smaller pyramids of royal women, along with another pyramid to the south. In a tomb next to this pyramid were found two treasures of the king's daughters. The polished granite capstone of the Black Pyramid is on display in the main hall of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.Dahshur – Sneferu 's Red Pyramid
135. Edfu – Edfu is an Egyptian city, located on the west bank of the Nile River between Esna and Aswan, with a population of approximately sixty thousand people. For the ancient history of the city, see below. Edfu is the site of Tell Edfu. About 5 km north of Edfu are remains of ancient pyramids. The town is known for the Ptolemaic temple, built into the reign of Cleopatra VII. Of all the temple remains in Egypt, the Temple of Horus at Edfu is the most completely preserved. This settlement is known as Wetjeset-hor and the Latin name was Apollinopolis Magna. According to Notitia Dignitatum, part of Legio II Traiana Fortis was camped in Apollo superior, the Roman name for the town. The settlement at Edfu was the capital of the Second Upper Egypt nome, played an important role within the region. There is evidence that the town flourished during the First Intermediate Period when it expanded extensively to the west. Interestingly, it is one of few settlements in southern Egypt that throve when it seems that the north, especially around the delta, was in economic decline. A central part of the site was explored in Lille in 1921 and 1922. His team identified the remains of a small sanctuary from the Late or Ptolemaic period, possibly the Osiris chapel built by Psamtek I. Henne was followed by Octave Guéraud in 1928 then by Maurice Alliot in 1931 who each explored and excavated different aspects of the settlement remains. Bruyère, J. Manteuffel and Kazimierz Michałowski, three elaborate reports on the archaeology of Tell Edfu were published.Edfu – The front of the Temple of Edfu
136. Deir el-Madinah – During the Christian era, the temple of Hathor was converted into a church from which the Arabic name el-Medina is derived. This work has resulted in one of the most thoroughly documented accounts of life in the ancient world that spans almost four hundred years. There is no comparable site in which social interactions, working and living conditions of a community can be studied in such detail. The site is located across the river from modern-day Luxor. The archaeological site was seriously excavated by Ernesto Schiaparelli between 1905 -- 1909 which uncovered large amounts of ostraca. A French team directed by Bernard Bruyère excavated the entire site, between 1922 -- 1951. Around thousand ostraca of assorted works of commerce and literature were found in a well close to the village. The peak overlooking the village was renamed "Mont Cernabru" in Bruyère's work on the village. The main road through the village may have been covered to shelter the villagers from the intense heat of the sun. The same construction methods were used throughout the village. Walls were made of mudbrick, built on top of stone foundations. A wooden door might have carried the occupants name. Houses consisted of four to five rooms comprising an entrance, main room, two smaller rooms, staircase leading to the roof. The full glare of the sun was avoided by situating the windows up on the walls. The main room contained a platform with steps which may have been used as a shrine or a birthing bed.Deir el-Madinah – Ruins of Deir el-Medina. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
137. El-Lahun – El Lahun is a village in Faiyum, Egypt. Associated with the pyramid of Senusret II, it is often known by the same name. Also nearby is the pyramid itself, known as the Pyramid of Lahun. The ancient name of the site was rꜣ-ḥn.t, literally, "Mouth of the Canal"), realized in the Fayyūmic dialect of Coptic as ⲗⲉϩⲱⲛⲉ Lehoune). This approach was probably intended to ensure the stability of the structure. Unusually, despite a Pyramid Temple on the east side, the entrance to the pyramid is on the south. The archaeologist Flinders Petrie nevertheless spent considerable time searching on the east side. Evidently the original workmen on the tomb had used their legitimate activity as a cover for this tunnel, which enabled them to rob the pyramid. Once he was in the chamber, Petrie was able to work backwards to the entrance. The pyramid stands on an artificial terrace cut from sloping ground. On the side eight rectangular blocks of stone were left to serve as mastabas, probably for the burial of personages associated with the royal court. In front of each mastaba is a narrow shaft leading down to the burial chamber underneath. Also on the north side is the Queen's Pyramid or pyramid. The most remarkable discovery was that of the village of the workers who both then served the funerary cult of the king. The village, conventionally known as Kahun, lies in the desert a short distance from the edge of cultivation.El-Lahun – Pyramid of Senusret II at Lahun.
138. Gerzeh – Gerzeh was a prehistoric Egyptian cemetery located along the west bank of the Nile. The necropolis is named after the present town in Egypt. Gerzeh is situated only several miles due east of the lake of the Faiyum. The Gerzean culture is a material culture identified by archaeologists. It is the second of three phases of the prehistoric Nagada cultures and so is also known as Naqada II. Gerzeh culture was preceded by the Amratian culture and followed by the Naqada III. The Gerzeh culture lasted through a period of time when the desertification of the Sahara had nearly reached its present state. The distinguishing feature between the Gerzeh is the decorative effort exhibited in the pottery of the period. Artwork on Gerzeh ceramics features stylised animals and environment to a greater degree than the earlier Amratian artwork. Further, images of ostriches on the pottery artwork possibly indicate an inclination these early peoples may have felt to explore the Sahara desert. Some symbols on Gerzeh pottery resemble traditional Egyptian hieroglyphs, which were contemporaneous with the proto-cuneiform script of Sumer. Burial sites in Gerzeh have uncovered artifacts, such as cosmetic palettes, several meteoritic iron beads. Technologies at Gerzeh also include fine ripple-flaked knives of exceptional workmanship. The meteoritic iron beads discovered in two Gerzean graves by Egyptologist Wainwright in 1911 are in fact the earliest artifacts of iron known. Lapis lazuli trade, in the form of beads, from its only known prehistoric source – Badakhshan in northeastern Afghanistan – also reached ancient Gerzeh.Gerzeh – Jar with Boat Designs, Naqada II, 3450-3350 BC. Brooklyn Museum
139. Gaza City – Inhabited since at least the 15th century BC, Gaza has been dominated by different peoples and empires throughout its history. The Philistines made a part of their pentapolis after the Ancient Egyptians had ruled it for nearly 350 years. Under later the Byzantines, Gaza experienced relative peace and its port flourished. In 635 AD, it became the first city in Palestine to be quickly developed into a center of Islamic law. However, by the time the Crusaders invaded the city in the 11th century, it was in ruins. During the first half of Ottoman rule, under them the city went through an age of great commerce and peace. The municipality of Gaza was established in 1893. Gaza fell during World War I becoming a part of Mandatory Palestine. As a result of the 1948 Arab -- Israeli War, Egypt administered several improvements were undertaken in the city. In 1993, the city was transferred to the Palestinian National Authority. Egypt and Israel consequently imposed a blockade on the Gaza Strip. Egypt reopened the Rafah border crossing in 2011 to pedestrians. The economic activities of Gaza are small-scale industries and agriculture. However, recurring conflicts has put the economy under severe pressure. The majority of Gaza's inhabitants are Muslim, although there is also a Christian minority.Gaza City – Skyline of Gaza, 2007
140. Gebel el-Silsila – The location is between Edfu in Kom Ombo in the south towards Upper Egypt. The Kheny means "The Place of Rowing". It was used from at least the 18th Dynasty to Greco-Roman times. Silsila is famous for its New Kingdom cenotaphs. During the 18th dynasty the Egyptians switched from limestone to sandstone. At this time the quarries at Gebelein were not yielding as much limestone before. Gebel el-Silsila became a source of sandstone. The use of this stone allowed for the use of larger architraves. Many of the talatats used by Akhenaten were used in buildings at Luxor and Amarna. A stela from the early part of Akhenaten's reign shows the king offering beneath the winged sun-disk. The inscription records that stone was cut in Thebes. Akhenaten's Bek oversaw the opening of a stone quarry here. The site provided numerous stone quarries on both the east sides of the Nile. The site contains many shrines erected by officials who would have been in charge of quarrying the stone. Almost all of Ancient Egypt's great temples derived their sandstone such as Karnak, Luxor, Ramesses III's Medinet Habu, Kom Ombo, the Ramesseum.Gebel el-Silsila – Westward picture of west bank rock temples of Ramses II and Merenptah cut directly into the rocks at the Silsileh quarring site, near Aswan.
141. Beni Hasan – Beni Hasan is an Ancient Egyptian cemetery site. It is located approximately 20 kilometers in the region known as Middle Egypt, the area between Asyut and Memphis. While there are some Old Kingdom burials at the site, it was primarily used during the Middle Kingdom, spanning the 21st to 17th BCE. To the south of the cemetery is a temple constructed by Hatshepsut and Thutmose III, dedicated to the local goddess Pakhet. The temple is subterranean. There is evidence of a re-organization of the system of government during the 12th Dynasty. Provincial governors were appointed or at least confirmed by the king. There are 39 ancient tombs here of Middle Kingdom nomarchs of the Oryx nome, who governed from Hebenu. Due to distance to the cliffs in the west, these tombs were constructed on the east bank. These tombs lie in a row on a north-south axis. There is a slight break in the rock terrace, on to which they open, that divides the thirty-nine high status tombs into two groups. Some of the larger tombs were painted with scenes of daily life and warfare. They are famous for the quality of their paintings. Nowadays, many of these scenes are in poor condition, though in the 19th century copies were made of several of them. Four out of the 39 tombs are accessible to the public.Beni Hasan – The tombs of Khety and Baqet III.
142. Memphis, Egypt – Memphis was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt. Its ruins are located of Giza. According to legend related by Manetho, the city was founded by the pharaoh Menes. Capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom, it remained an important city throughout ancient Mediterranean history. It was home to feverish activity. Peru-nefer, harboured a high density of workshops, factories, warehouses that distributed food and merchandise throughout the ancient kingdom. During its golden age, Memphis thrived for commerce, trade, religion. Memphis was believed to be under the protection of the patron of craftsmen. Hut-ka-Ptah, was one of the most prominent structures in the city. The history of Memphis is closely linked to that of the country itself. Its eventual downfall is believed to be due to the loss of its economic significance following the rise of coastal Alexandria. Its religious significance also diminished after the abandonment of the ancient religion following the Edict of Thessalonica. Today offer fragmented evidence of its past. They have been preserved, along with the complex at Giza, as a World Heritage Site since 1979. The site is open to the public as an open-air museum.Memphis, Egypt – Ruins of the pillared hall of Rameses II at Mit Rahina
143. Thinis – Thinis or This was the capital city of the first dynasties of ancient Egypt. Thinis began a steep decline from Dynasty III when the capital was relocated to Memphis. Thinis eventually lost its position as a regional administrative centre by the Roman period. Due to its ancient heritage, Thinis remained a significant religious centre, mummy of the regional deity. In ancient religious cosmology, as seen in the Book of the Dead, Thinis played a role as a mythical place in heaven. Although the precise location of Thinis is unknown, mainstream consensus places it in the vicinity of ancient Abydos and modern Girga. The name Thinis is derived from Manetho's use of the Thinite to describe the pharaoh Menes. Although the corresponding Thinis does not appear in Greek, it is the more popular name among Egyptologists. This is also suggested. In correcting a passage of Hellanicus, Jörgen Zoega amended όνομα to Θιν δε οι όνομα. Maspero found that this revealed the name Thinis and also, from a key geographic indicator: επιποταμίη. Mainstream Egyptological consensus continues to locate Thinis near to either Girga, or El-Birba. Although the archaeological site of Thinis has never been located, evidence of concentration in the Abydos-Thinis region dates from the fourth millennium BCE. Thinis is also cited as the earliest burial-site in Egypt. Following Ankhtifi's death, Thinis was the northernmost nome to fall under the sway of pharaoh of the Theban Dynasty XI.Thinis – Nearby Abydos (Osireion pictured), after ceding its political rank to Thinis, remained an important religious centre.
144. EgyptologistsEgyptologists – Jan Assmann
145. Auguste Mariette – François Auguste Ferdinand Mariette was a French scholar, archaeologist and Egyptologist, founder of the Egyptian Department of Antiquities. The task of sorting his papers filled Mariette with a passion for Egyptology. Largely self-taught, he devoted himself to the study of Coptic. His analytic catalogue of the Egyptian Gallery of the Boulogne Museum got him a minor appointment at the Louvre Museum in 1849. He also found the virtually intact tomb of Ramesses II's son. In 1860 alone, Mariette set up 35 new dig sites, whilst attempting to conserve already-dug sites. Nor were Mariette's relations with the Khedive always stable. The Khedive, like many potentates, assumed all discoveries ranked as that what went to the museum in Cairo went only at his pleasure. In 1867, he returned to oversee the Egyptian stand at the Exposition Universelle, to a hero's welcome for keeping France pre-eminent in Egyptology. At the request of the Khedive, he wrote a brief plot for an opera. This concept, worked into a scenario by Camille du Locle, was proposed to Giuseppe Verdi, who accepted it as a subject for Aida. For Aida, Mariette and Du Locle oversaw the scenery and costumes, which were inspired by the art of Ancient Egypt. The opera met with great acclaim. European honors and orders were bestowed on him. In 1878, his museum was ravaged by floods, which destroyed most of his drawings.Auguste Mariette – Mariette by Nadar, ca.1861
146. Edward R. Ayrton – Edward Russell Ayrton was an English Egyptologist and archaeologist. He was born in Wuhu, China, on 17 December 1882. He was educated in London. He began his career at the age of 20 assisting the pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology William Matthew Flinders Petrie. He joined Petrie on the Egypt Exploration Fund excavations from 1902 to 1904. Ayrton's independent work was the excavation of the Second Dynasty site of Shunet ez Zebib. Later, he worked with William Leonard Stevenson Loat. Working from 1905 to 1908, he discovered the following tombs: KV47 KV55 KV56 and KV57. Again working with Loat, in 1908-09 he excavated amongst the Sixth Dynasty tombs at Abydos and also the Predynastic cemetery at El Mahasna. In 1911 he accepted a position with the Archaeological Survey of Ceylon. On May 1914 he drowned while on a shooting expedition, in an accident on the Tissa Tank lake, Tissamaharama, in southern Ceylon. The Times Newspaper printed his obituary on the 23 May 1914; and his Probate Administration is during 1915. The Estate of # 18s 1d is left to Florence Margaret Ayrton, Spinster. E. R. Ayrton, "Discovery of the tomb of Si-ptah in the Bibân el Molûk, Thebes", PSBA, 28, 1906. Edward R. Ayrton and W. L. S. Loat, "Pre-dynastic cemetery at El Mahasna", 1911, London.Edward R. Ayrton – Edward Russell Ayrton.
147. Flinders Petrie – Some consider his most famous discovery to be that of an opinion with which Petrie himself concurred. Petrie developed the system of dating layers based on pottery and ceramic findings. William Matthew Flinders Petrie was born in the son of William Petrie and Anne. Anne was the daughter of Captain Matthew Flinders, surveyor of the Australian coastline, was an Egyptologist. He had no formal education. His father taught his son how to survey accurately, laying the foundation for his archaeological career. At the age of eight, he was tutored in French, Latin, Greek, until he was taught at home. I was already by nature." On 26 Petrie married Hilda Urlin in London. They had two children, Ann. They originally lived in Hampstead, where an English Heritage blue plaque now stands on the building they lived in, 5 Cannon Place. Their son was the mathematician, who gave his name to the Petrie polygon. The head was delayed in transit. After being stored in a jar in the college basement, no one knew who the head belonged to. It is now stored, but not displayed, at the Royal College of Surgeons of London.Flinders Petrie – Flinders Petrie, 1903