1. Ancient Rome – Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. In its approximately 12 centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through assimilation, it came to dominate Southern and Western Europe, Asia Minor, parts of Northern and Eastern Europe. Rome was preponderant throughout the Mediterranean region and was one of the most powerful entities of the ancient world. Societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Roman society has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, society. The Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would have lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe. King Numitor was deposed by Amulius, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins.Ancient Rome – Senātus Populus que Rōmānus
2. Civilization – Historically, a civilization was a so-called "advanced" culture in contrast to more supposedly primitive cultures. As an uncountable noun, civilization also refers to the process of a society developing into a centralized, stratified structure. Civilization concentrates power, extending human control including over other human beings. Similar "neolithic revolutions" also began independently from 7,000 BCE in such places as northwestern South America and Mesoamerica. These were among the six civilizations worldwide that arose independently. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around BCE, with civilizations developing from 6,500 years ago. Towards the end of the Neolithic period, various Chalcolithic civilizations began to rise in various "cradles" from around 3300 BCE. The English civilization comes from the 16th-century French civilisé, from Latin civilis, related to civis and civitas. The fundamental treatise is Norbert Elias's The Civilizing Process, which traces social mores to the Early Modern period. In The Philosophy of Civilization, Albert Schweitzer outlines the other material and ethical. Adjectives like civility developed in the mid-16th century. The abstract civilization, meaning "civilized condition," came in the 1760s, again from French. The word was therefore opposed in the active pursuit of progress characteristic of the Age of Enlightenment. This is still the case in French. Only in this generalized sense does it become possible to speak of a "medieval civilization," which in Elias's sense would have been an oxymoron.Civilization – Ancient Egypt is a canonical example of an early culture considered a civilization.
3. Italian Peninsula – The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula is the central and the smallest of the three large peninsulas of Southern Europe. It extends 1,000 km from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. The peninsula's shape gives the nickname lo Stivale. Three smaller peninsulas contribute to this characteristic shape, namely Calabria, Salento and Gargano. Geographically, the Italian peninsula consists of the south of a line extending from the Magra to the Rubicon rivers, north of the Tuscan -- Emilian Apennines. It excludes the southern slopes of the Alps. All of the peninsula lies except for the microstates of San Marino and Vatican City. The peninsula lies between the Tyrrhenian Sea on the west, the Adriatic Sea on the east. The backbone of the Italian peninsula consists of the Apennine Mountains, from which it takes one of its names. Most of its coast is lined with cliffs. The Italian Peninsula's location between the centre of the Mediterranean Sea made it the target of many conquests. The peninsula has mainly a Mediterranean climate, though in the mountainous parts the climate is much cooler. Its natural vegetation includes macchia along the mixed deciduous coniferous forests in the interior. Political divisions of the peninsula sorted by area: Apennine Mountains Roman Republic Roman Italy Insular Italy Media related to Italian Peninsula at Wikimedia CommonsItalian Peninsula – Satellite view of the peninsula in March 2003.
4. Empire – The term "empire" is associated with other words such as imperialism, globalization. Empire is often used to describe a displeasure to overpowering situations. The former method limits further expansion because it absorbs military forces to fixed garrisons. The latter method avails military forces for further expansion. Territorial empires tend to be contiguous areas. The term, on occasion, has been applied to maritime thalassocracies, with looser structures and more scattered territories. Empires are usually larger than kingdoms. This aspiration to universality resulted by converting ` outsiders' or ` inferiors' into the colonialized religion. This association of race became complex and has had a more intense drive for expansion. This is to a federation, an extensive state voluntarily composed of autonomous states and peoples. An empire is a political party who rules over territories outside of its original borders. Definitions of what politically constitute an empire vary. It might be a state affecting a particular political structure. Empires are typically formed from diverse ethnic, cultural, religious components. Empire and colonialism are used to refer to relationships versus a less powerful one.Empire – Maurya Empire of India at its greatest extent under Ashoka the Great
5. Mediterranean Sea – The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning "inland" or "in the middle of land". Its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east in the south by Africa. It is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is approximately 4,000 km. The sea's north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has a area of approximately 2,510,000 square km. The sea was an important route for travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region. The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of modern societies. In addition, the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, "between" + γη, "land, earth"). It can be compared with meaning "between rivers".Mediterranean Sea – Circa the 6th century BCE: In ancient times the Mediterranean provided sources of food and local commerce and direct routes for trade and communications, colonisation, and war. Numerous cities and colonies were situated at its shores or within the basin: Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity; and other cities (grey), including the provincial "Rom".
6. Monarchy – The actual power of the monarch may vary to completely autocratic. Occasionally this might create a situation of rival claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election. Thus there are widely divergent traditions defining monarchy. It is no longer prevalent. The monarchs of Cambodia, Japan, Malaysia "do not rule" although there is considerable variation in the degree of authority they wield. The word "monarch" comes from monárkhēs which referred to a single, at least nominally absolute ruler. In current usage the monarchy usually refers to a traditional system of hereditary rule, as elective monarchies are rare nowadays. Depending on the title held by the monarch, a monarchy may be known as a kingdom, principality, duchy, grand duchy, empire, tsardom, emirate, khaganate, etc.. The forms of societal hierarchy known as chiefdom or kingship is prehistoric. The Greek monarchia is classical, used by Herodotus. The monarch in classical antiquity is often identified as "king". The Chinese, Nepalese monarchs continued to be considered living Gods into the modern period. Since antiquity, monarchy has contrasted with forms of democracy, where executive power is wielded by assemblies of free citizens. In antiquity, monarchies were abolished in favour of Athens. Much of 19th century politics was characterised by the division between anti-monarchist Radicalism and monarchist Conservativism.Monarchy – Richard I of England being anointed during his coronation in Westminster Abbey, from a 13th-century chronicle.
7. Roman Republic – It was during this period that Rome's control expanded to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. By the following century, it included Spain, what is now southern France. Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st century BC, it included much of the eastern Mediterranean. The exact date of transition can be a matter of interpretation. Roman government was headed by two consuls, advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. Many of Rome's legislative structures can still be observed throughout Europe and much of the world in modern nation states and international organizations. The exact causes and motivations during the republic are subject to wide debate. While they can be seen as motivated by outright imperialism, historians typically take a much more nuanced view. They argue that Rome's expansion was driven by the new contingencies that these decisions created. It was also less able to defend itself against its non-Roman enemies, which made attack by these enemies more likely. It was, therefore, more likely to seek an alliance of protection with Rome. This growing coalition moved Rome closer to confrontation with major powers. The result was more alliance-seeking, on the part of both the Roman confederacy and city-states seeking membership within that confederacy. This shift mainly took place in parts such as the southern Italian towns that sided with Hannibal. In contrast, Roman expansion into Spain and Gaul occurred as a mix of military occupation.Roman Republic – Route of Pyrrhus of Epirus
8. Democracy – Democracy is sometimes referred to as "rule of the majority". Democracy was originally conceived in Classical Greece, where political representatives were chosen by a jury from amongst the male citizens: rich and poor. While theoretically these definitions are in opposition, in practice the distinction has been blurred historically. The political system for example, excluded women from political participation. The English word dates to the 16th century, from the older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents. Nevertheless, these oppositions, inherited from Greek philosophy, are now ambiguous because contemporary governments have mixed democratic, oligarchic, monarchic elements. Political rule of law have been identified as important characteristics. These principles are reflected in all eligible citizens being equal before the law and having equal access to legislative processes. Other uses of "democracy" include that of direct democracy. Roger Scruton argues that democracy alone cannot provide personal and political freedom unless the institutions of civil society are also present. In some countries, notably in the United Kingdom which originated the Westminster system, the dominant principle is that of parliamentary sovereignty, while maintaining judicial independence. In the United States, separation of powers is often cited as a central attribute. In India, parliamentary sovereignty is subject to the Constitution of India which includes judicial review. Though the term "democracy" is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles also are applicable to private organisations. Majority rule is often listed as a characteristic of democracy.Democracy – A woman casts her vote in the second round of the 2007 French presidential election.
9. Invasion – Due to the large scale of the operations associated with invasions, they are usually strategic in execution. Archaeological evidence indicates that invasions have been frequent occurrences since prehistory. Before radio communications and fast transportation, the only way to ensure adequate reinforcements was to move armies as one massive force. This, by its very nature, led to the strategy of invasion. With invasion came cultural exchanges in government, religion, philosophy, technology that shaped the development of much of the ancient world. States with potentially hostile neighbors typically adopt defensive measures to forestall an invasion. In addition to utilizing geographical barriers such as rivers, rugged terrain, these measures have historically included fortifications. Such barriers have also included trench lines and, in more modern times, minefields, motion-sensitive sensors. Some of those same techniques can also be turned against defenders, used to keep them from resupply. During Operation Starvation, Allied forces used airdropped mines to severely disrupt logistical operations within their own borders. Alternatively, the fortifications can be built up at a series such as castles or forts placed near a border. Forts can be positioned so that the garrisons can interdict the supply lines of the invaders. The theory behind these spaced forts is so must lay siege to the structures. In modern times, the notion of constructing static defenses to combat land-based threats has largely become obsolete. The use of large-scale mechanization have made lighter, more mobile defenses desirable to military planners.Invasion – A defensive wall, the Great Wall of China.
10. Cultural assimilation – Cultural assimilation is the process by which a person or a group's language and/or culture come to resemble those of another group. Cultural assimilation may involve either a gradual change depending on circumstances of the group. Full assimilation occurs when new members of a society become indistinguishable from members of the other group. A place can spontaneously adopt a different culture due to its perceived superiority. The first is the case of the Latin culture, that were gradually adopted by most of the subjugated people. Cultural assimilation can happen either spontaneously or forcibly. A culture can spontaneously adopt older and richer cultures forcibly integrate other weak cultures. The assimilation is often used with regard to immigrants and various ethnic groups who have settled in a new land. New attitudes toward the origin culture are obtained through contact and communication. Cultural changing is not simply a one-way process. Assimilation assumes that relatively tenuous culture gets to be united to one unified culture. This process happens through accommodation between each culture. For example, a shared language gives the chance to study and work internationally, not just being limited to the same cultural group. People from different countries contribute to form the "global culture" which means the culture combined by the elements from different countries. This "global culture" can be seen as a part of assimilation that causes cultures from different areas to affect each other.Cultural assimilation – Sociology
11. Western Europe – Western Europe, also West Europe, is the region comprising the western part of the European continent. There may be differences between the purely geographic definitions of the term. Prior to the Roman conquest, a large part of Western Europe had adopted the newly developed La Tène culture. This linguistic division was eventually reinforced by the later political east-west division of the Roman Empire. The division between these two was enhanced by a number of events. The Western Roman Empire collapsed, starting the Early Middle Ages. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire, mostly known as the Byzantine Empire, survived and even thrived for another 1000 years. In East Asia, Western Europe was historically known in Japan, which literally translates as the "Far West". The term Far West became synonymous with Western Europe in China during the Ming dynasty. In his writings, Ricci referred as "Matteo of the Far West". The term was still in use in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Post-war Europe would be divided into two major spheres: the West, influenced by the Eastern Bloc, influenced by the Soviet Union. With the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Although some countries were officially neutral, they were classified according to the nature of their economic systems.Western Europe – The Great Schism in Christianity, the predominant religion in Western Europe at the time.
12. Mediterranean Basin – As a rule of thumb, the Mediterranean Basin is the Old World region where olive trees grow. The Mediterranean basin covers portions of three continents Africa, Asia, Europe. It has a varied and contrasting topography. Contrary to the sandy beach images portrayed in most tourist brochures, the Mediterranean is surprisingly hilly. Mountains can be seen from anywhere. The Mediterranean Basin extends into Western Asia, covering the western and southern portions excluding the temperate-climate mountains of central Turkey. It includes the Mediterranean Levant at the eastern end of the Mediterranean, bounded on the east and south by the Syrian and Negev deserts. Three large Southern European peninsulas, the Iberian Peninsula, Italian Peninsula, the Balkan Peninsula, extend into the Mediterranean-climate zone. The Mediterranean Basin was shaped by the ancient collision of the African-Arabian continent with the stable Eurasian continent. As Africa-Arabia moved north, it closed the former Tethys Sea, which formerly separated Eurasia from the super continent of Gondwana, of which Africa was part. The collision pushed up a vast system of mountains, extending to the Zagros Mountains in Iran. This episode of building, known as the Alpine orogeny, occurred mostly during the Oligocene and Miocene epochs. The Neotethys became larger during associated folding and subduction. About 6 mya during the late Miocene, the Mediterranean was closed by drifting Africa, which caused the entire sea to evaporate. Recent studies, however, show that repeated re-flooding is unlikely from a geodynamic point of view.Mediterranean Basin – Potential distribution over the Mediterranean Basin of the olive tree—one of the best biological indicators of the Mediterranean Region (Oteros, 2014)
13. Near East – Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia. Despite having varying definitions within academic circles, the term was originally applied to the maximum extent of the Ottoman Empire. The term has been replaced by the terms Middle East and West Asia. Up until 1912 the Ottomans retained a band of territory including Albania, Macedonia and Southern Thrace, which were lost in the two Balkan Wars of 1912–13. The Ottoman Empire, believed to be about to collapse, was portrayed in the press as the "sick man of Europe". The Balkan states, with the partial exception of Bosnia and Albania, were primarily Christian. The Hamidian Massacres aroused the indignation of the Christian world. It now became relevant to define the east of the eastern question. In about the middle of the 19th century "Near East" came into use to describe that part of the east closest to Europe. The term "Far East" appeared contemporaneously meaning Japan, China, Korea, Indonesia and Viet Nam; in the East Indies. "Near East" applied to what had been mainly known as the Levant, in the jurisdiction of the Ottoman Porte, or government. Those who used the term had little choice about its meaning. Some regions beyond the Ottoman Porte were included. One was North Africa west of Egypt. It was occupied by piratical kingdoms of the Barbary Coast, facto independent since the 18th century.Near East – The Near East as defined as the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of " the eastern question ".
14. North Africa – North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of Africa. The United Nations definition of "North Africa" includes territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, Western Sahara. The countries of Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya are often collectively referred to as the Maghreb, the Arabic word for "sunset". Egypt lies to the encompasses part of West Asia, while Sudan is situated on the edge of the Sahel, to the south of Egypt. Egypt is a transcontinental country because of the Sinai Peninsula, which geographically lies in Western Asia. North Africa also includes a number of Spanish possessions. Madeira in the North Atlantic Ocean northwest of the African mainland are included in considerations of the region. North Africa is a major part of the Muslim world. They recede to the east, becoming a steppe landscape before meeting the Sahara desert, which covers more than 75 percent of the region. The sediments of the Sahara overlie an ancient plateau of crystalline rock, some of, more than billion years old. The Mediterranean coast are the main sources of fertile farming land. Woods such as cedar and cork, are grown. Typical Mediterranean crops, such as olives, figs, dates and fruits, also thrive in these areas. Most of the population in Egypt and Sudan live close to the river. Elsewhere, irrigation is essential to improve crop yields on the desert margins.North Africa – Market of Biskra in Algeria, 1899
15. Balkans – The Balkan Peninsula, or the Balkans, is a peninsula and a cultural area in Southeast Europe with different and disputed borders. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch to the Black Sea. The highest point of the Balkans is Mount Musala 2,925 metres in the Rila range. From Antiquity through the Middle Ages, the Balkan Mountains had been called by the local Thracian name Haemus. According to Greek mythology, the Thracian king Haemus was turned by Zeus as a punishment and the mountain has remained with his name. A reverse scheme has also been suggested. D. Dechev considers that Haemus is derived from ` mountain ridge'. A third possibility is that "Haemus" derives from the Greek word "haema" meaning'blood'. The myth relates to a fight between the monster/titan Typhon. Typhon's blood fell on the mountains from which they got their name. The earliest mention of the name appears in an early Arab map, in which the Haemus mountains are referred to as Balkan. The Ottomans first mention it in a document dated from 1565. There exists also a claim about an earlier Bulgar Turkic origin of the word popular in Bulgaria, however it is only an unscholary assertion. In Turkish Balkan means "a chain of wooded mountains", while in Bulgarian language the word balkan means "mountain". Another possibility to its etymology is related to i.e. swampy forest.Balkans – The Balkan Peninsula, as defined by the Danube - Sava - Kupa line
16. Black Sea – The Black Sea is a body of water between Eastern Europe and Western Asia, bounded by Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine. It is supplied by a number such as the Danube, Dnieper, Rioni, Southern Bug, Dniester. The Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2, a volume of 547,000 km3. It features a wide shelf to the northwest. The longest extent is about 1,175 km. Mediterranean water flows as part of a two-way hydrological exchange. The Black Sea drains via the Aegean Sea and various straits. These waters separate Western Asia. The Black Sea is also connected by the Strait of Kerch. The level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the level in the basin, the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been land. At critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established. It is through the most active of the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean. Currently the Black Sea level is relatively high, thus water is being exchanged with the Mediterranean. The Turkish Straits comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles.Black Sea – The Black Sea in Batumi, Georgia
17. Roman empire – The imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empire's existence were "Roman Peace". Following Octavian's victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, but the Praetorian Guard proclaimed Claudius emperor instead. Under Claudius, the empire invaded its major expansion since Augustus. His short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors. The empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. Commodus' assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, renamed "Constantinople" in his honour. It remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the official state religion of the empire. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time.Roman empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
18. Decline of the Roman Empire – Increasing pressure from "barbarians" outside Roman culture also contributed greatly to the collapse. They inform much modern discourse on state failure. Relevant dates include the accession of Diocletian in 284. Irreversible territorial loss, however, began in 376 with a large-scale irruption of Goths and others. Invading "barbarians" had established their own power in most of the area of the Western Empire. While its cultural influence remains today, the Western Empire never had the strength to rise again. The Fall of the Western Roman Empire was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule. For Dio Cassius, the accession of the emperor Commodus in 180 CE marked the descent to one of rust and iron". Arnold J. Toynbee and James Burke argue that the entire Imperial era was one of steady decay of institutions founded in republican times. Gibbon gave a classic formulation of reasons why the Fall happened. New ideas have emerged since. Historians still try to analyze the reasons for loss of political control over a vast territory. Comparison has also been made in China, which re-established its Great Unity while the Mediterranean world remained politically disunited. At least from the time of Henri Pirenne, scholars have of political legitimacy, long after 476. Pirenne postponed the demise of classical civilization to the 8th century.Decline of the Roman Empire – Romulus Augustus was deposed as Western Roman Emperor in 476 while still young. However, Julius Nepos continued to claim the title of Western Emperor after his deposition.
19. Migration period – The Migration Period was a time of widespread migrations within or into Europe in the middle of the first millennium AD. From the Roman and South European perspective the Barbarian Invasions. This period was that of the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages, marked both within the Roman Empire and beyond. Later invasions also had significant effects; however, they are outside the scope of the Migration Period. Germanic peoples moved out of southern Scandinavia and Germany after 1000 BC. It is this western group, described by the Roman historian Tacitus and Julius Caesar. The Barbarian Invasions may be divided into two phases. Difficult to verify archaeologically. It puts Germanic peoples in control of most areas of what was then the Western Roman Empire. The Tervingi entered Roman territory in 376. Some time thereafter in Marcianopolis, the escort to Fritigern was killed with Lupicinus. Fending off challenges from the Allemanni, Visigoths, the Frankish kingdom became the nucleus of what would later become France and Germany. The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain occurred during the fifth century, when Roman control of Britain had come to an end. The Burgundians settled in the fifth century. The second phase saw Slavic tribes settling in central and eastern Europe, gradually making it predominantly Slavic.Migration period – Detailed map of invasion routes
20. Western Roman Empire – Theodosius I divided the Empire upon his death between his two sons. As the Roman Republic expanded, it reached a point where the central government in Rome could not effectively rule the distant provinces. Communications and transportation were especially problematic given the vast extent of the Empire. For this reason, provincial governors had de facto rule in the name of the Roman Republic. Antony received the provinces in the East: Achaea, Macedonia and Epirus, Cyrenaica. These lands had previously been conquered by Alexander the Great; thus, much of the aristocracy was of Greek origin. Especially the major cities, had been largely assimilated into Greek often serving as the franca. Octavian obtained the Roman provinces of the West: Hispania. These lands also included Greek and Carthaginian colonies in the coastal areas, though Celtic tribes such as Gauls and Celtiberians were culturally dominant. Lepidus received the minor province of Africa. Octavian soon took Africa from Lepidus, while adding Sicilia to his holdings. Upon the defeat of Mark Antony, a victorious Octavian controlled a united Roman Empire. While the Roman Empire featured many distinct cultures, all were often said to experience gradual Romanization. Minor rebellions and uprisings were fairly common events throughout the Empire. Conquered tribes or cities would revolt, the legions would be detached to crush the rebellion.Western Roman Empire – Tremissis depicting Flavius Julius Nepos (474-480), the de jure last Emperor of the Western Court
21. Hispania – Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula. Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova, later renamed Callaecia. The name, Hispania, was also used in the period of Visigothic rule. The modern placenames Spain and Hispaniola are both derived from Hispania. One theory holds it to be of Punic derivation, from the Phoenician language of colonizing Carthage. Specifically, it may derive from a Punic cognate of Hebrew אי-שפניא meaning "Island of the rabbit". Others "far-distant land". Isidore of Sevilla considered Hispania derived from Hispalis. Another theory holds that the name derives from the Basque word for "border" or "edge", thus meaning place. The Iberian peninsula has long been inhabited, first by early hominids such as Homo antecessor. In the Paleolithic period, the Neanderthals entered Iberia and eventually took refuge from the advancing migrations of modern humans. During the last ice age, the first large settlement of Europe by modern humans occurred. These were nomadic hunter-gatherers originating on the steppes of Central Asia.Hispania – Archaeological Roman Ensemble of Mérida (Emerita Augusta), Extremadura, Spain.
22. Gaul – It covered an area of 494,169 km ². According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul was divided into three parts: Gallia Celtica, Aquitania. During the 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule: Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC, who were in turn defeated by the Romans by 103 BC. Gallia remains a name of France in modern modern Latin. Hellenistic folk etymology connected the name of the Galatians to the supposedly "milk-white" skin of the Gauls. Modern researchers say it is related to Welsh "gallu", "capacity, power", thus meaning "powerful people". The English Gaul is unrelated to Latin Gallia, despite superficial similarity. As adjectives, English has Gaulish and Gallic. The Germanic w- is regularly rendered as gu- / g- in French, the diphthong au is the regular outcome of al before a following consonant. Also unrelated in spite of superficial similarity is the Gael. The dichotomic words gall are sometimes used together for contrast, for instance in the 12th-century book Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib. By 500 BC, there is strong influence throughout most of France. By the 5th century BC, La Tène influence spreads rapidly across the entire territory of Gaul. The La Tène culture flourished during the late Iron Age in France, Switzerland, Italy, Austria, southwest Germany, Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia and Hungary.Gaul – Map of Roman Gaul (Droysens Allgemeiner historischer Handatlas, 1886)
23. Eastern Roman Empire – During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, military force in Europe. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin. The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the north stabilised. In a matter of years the Empire lost Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle as a homeland. The Empire recovered again during such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire. The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in poetic contexts. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came in the Western world.Eastern Roman Empire – Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great (r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
24. Constantinople – Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire, also of the brief Latin, the later Ottoman empires. Constantinople was famed for its massive and complex defences. The first wall of the city was surrounded the city on both sea fronts. Constantinople never truly recovered from the devastation of the Fourth Crusade and the decades of misrule by the Latins. The founding myth of the city has it told that the settlement was named after the leader of the Megarian colonists, Byzas. During this time, the city was also called Roma Constantinopolitana. In the language of other peoples, Constantinople was referred to just as reverently. The medieval Vikings, who had contacts with the empire through their expansion in eastern Europe used the Old Norse name Miklagarðr, later Miklagard and Miklagarth. In Arabic, the city was sometimes called Rūmiyyat al-kubra and in Persian as Takht-e Rum. This was presumably a calque on a Greek phrase such as Βασιλέως Πόλις,'the city of the emperor'. The Turkish name for İstanbul, derives from the Greek phrase eis tin polin, meaning "into the city" or "to the city". In 1928, the Turkish alphabet was changed from Arabic script to Latin script. In time the city came to be known as Istanbul and its variations in most world languages. In Greece today, the city is still called Konstantinoúpolis/Konstantinoúpoli or simply just "the City". Apart from this, little is known about this initial settlement, except that it was abandoned by the time the Megarian colonists settled the site anew.Constantinople – Constantinople in the Byzantine era
25. Ottoman Empire – After 1354, with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire by Mehmed the Conqueror. At the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. The empire continued to military throughout the seventeenth and much of the eighteenth century. The empire allied with Germany with the imperial ambition of recovering its lost territories, joining in World War I. The word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman. Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti. The Rūmī was also used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In the West, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were often used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being increasingly favored both in informal situations. This dichotomy was officially ended in 1920 -- 23, when the newly established Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character. Osman's early followers not all converts to Islam.Ottoman Empire – Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. Painting from 1523.
26. Middle Ages – In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It merged into the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into Late Middle Ages. Counterurbanisation, movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements including Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The Byzantine Empire remained a major power. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during 9th century. The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by a philosophy that emphasised joining faith by the founding of universities. Controversy, the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms.Middle Ages – The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The body of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
27. Byzantine Empire – During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, military force in Europe. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin. The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the north stabilised. In a matter of years the Empire lost Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle as a homeland. The Empire recovered again during such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire. The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in poetic contexts. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came in the Western world.Byzantine Empire – Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great (r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
28. Classical antiquity – It is the period in which Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa and Southwestern Asia. It ends at the close of Late Antiquity blending into the Early Middle Ages. Such a wide sampling of territory covers many disparate cultures and periods. The earliest period of classical antiquity takes place before the background of gradual re-appearance of historical sources following the Bronze collapse. The 7th centuries BC are still largely proto-historical, with the earliest Greek alphabetic inscriptions appearing in the first half of the 8th century. In the same period falls the traditional date for the establishment of the Ancient Olympic Games, in 776 BC. The Phoenicians originally expanded by the 8th century dominating trade in the Mediterranean. The Etruscans had established political control in the region by the 7th century BC, forming the aristocratic and monarchial elite. According to legend, Rome was founded BC by twin descendants of the Trojan prince Aeneas, Romulus and Remus. The final king of Rome was Tarquinius Superbus. As the son-in-law of Servius Tullius, Superbus was of Etruscan birth. It was during his reign that the Etruscans reached their apex of power. Superbus destroyed all the Sabine shrines and altars from the Tarpeian Rock, enraging the people of Rome. Lucius Junius Brutus, summoned the Senate and had Superbus and the monarchy expelled from Rome in 510 BC. After Superbus' expulsion, the Senate voted to never again allow the rule of a king and reformed Rome in 509 BC.Classical antiquity – The Parthenon is one of the most iconic symbols of the classical era, exemplifying ancient Greek culture
29. Ancient Greece – Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages to c. 5th century BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Byzantine era. Included in ancient Greece is the period of Classical Greece, which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Classical Greece began with the era of the Persian Wars. Because of conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Hellenistic civilization flourished to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. Classical Antiquity in the Mediterranean region is commonly considered to have ended in the 6th century AD. Classical Antiquity in Greece is preceded by the Dark Ages, archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery. The end of the Dark Ages is also frequently dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The earliest of these is the Archaic period, in which artists made larger free-standing sculptures with the dreamlike "archaic smile". The Archaic period is often taken to end in 508 BC. This period saw Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon. Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East. This period ends with the Roman conquest. Herodotus is widely known as the "father of history": his Histories are eponymous of the entire field. Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Xenophon, Demosthenes, Plato and Aristotle.Ancient Greece – The Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena, located on the Acropolis in Athens, is one of the most representative symbols of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks.
30. Culture of ancient Rome – The culture of ancient Rome existed throughout the almost 1200-year history of the civilization of Ancient Rome. The city also had several theaters, gymnasia, many taverns, brothels. The vast majority of the population lived in the center, packed into insulae. Most Roman cities had a forum, temples and the same type of buildings, on a smaller scale, as found in Rome. Fish and meat were luxuries. Wine and oil were imported from Hispania, Gaul and Africa. There was a very large amount of commerce between the provinces of the Roman Empire, since its technology was very efficient. The average costs of the technology were comparable with 18th-century Europe. The later city of Rome did not fill the space within its ancient Aurelian walls until after 1870. The majority of the population under the jurisdiction of ancient Rome lived with less than 10 thousand inhabitants. Landlords generally resided in their estates were left in the care of farm managers. The plight of rural slaves was generally worse than their counterparts working in aristocratic households. Rural poverty stimulated the migration of population until the early 2nd century when the urban population stopped growing and started to decline. By the time of Augustus, Greek household slaves taught the Roman young; chefs, decorators, secretaries, doctors, hairdressers all came from the Greek East. Greek sculptures were imitated in Roman sculpture yards by Greek slaves.Culture of ancient Rome – Wall painting (1st century AD) from Pompeii depicting a multigenerational banquet
31. War – War is a state of armed conflict between societies. It is generally characterized by extreme aggression, mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. An absence of war is usually called "peace". Warfare refers of wars in general. Total war is warfare that can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant casualties. While some scholars see war as a ancestral aspect of human nature, others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances. As concerns a belligerent's losses in proportion to its population, the most destructive war in modern history may have been the Paraguayan War. In 2013 war resulted in 31,000 deaths, down from 72,000 deaths in 1990. In 2003, Richard Smalley identified war as the sixth biggest problem facing humanity for the fifty years. Another byproduct of some wars is the prevalence of propaganda by some or increased revenues by weapons manufacturers. In German, the equivalent is Krieg; Italian term for "war" is guerra, derived like the Old French term from the Germanic word. The scholarly study of war is sometimes called polemology, from the Greek polemos, meaning "war", -logy, meaning "the study of". Studies of war by military theorists throughout military history have sought to reduce it to a military science. Asymmetric warfare is a conflict between two populations of drastically different levels of military size. Germ warfare, is the use of weaponized biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, fungi.War – The War by Tadeusz Cyprian (1949), a photograph in the collection of the National Museum in Warsaw showing ruins of Warsaw's Napoleon Square in the aftermath of World War II.
32. Art – Until the 17th century, art was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. Art may be characterized in terms of mimesis, expression, other qualities. During the Romantic period, art came to be seen as "a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with science". Related concepts such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics. English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artificial, artifice, military arts. However, there are many colloquial uses of the word, all with some relation to its etymology. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is not rational. In Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer that he expresses in the Republic. For example, music imitates with language. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation -- through narrative or character, through drama or no drama. Aristotle constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals. The more recent, sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. Art is something that stimulates an individual's thoughts, ideas through the senses.Art – Clockwise from upper left: a self-portrait by Vincent van Gogh; a female ancestor figure by a Chokwe artist; detail from the Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli; and an Okinawan Shisa lion.
33. Literature – Literature, in its broadest sense, is any single body of written works. Its Latin root literatura/litteratura was used to refer to all written accounts, though contemporary definitions extend the term to include texts that are spoken or sung. Developments in print technology have allowed an evergrowing distribution and proliferation of written works, culminating in electronic literature. There have been various attempts to define "literature". Most attempted definitions are broad and vague, they inevitably change over time. In fact, the only thing, certain about defining literature is that the definition will change. Concepts of what is literature change over time as well. Definitions of literature have varied over time; it is a "culturally relative definition". In Western Europe prior to the eighteenth century, literature as a term indicated all books and writing. A more restricted sense of the term emerged during the Romantic period, in which it began to demarcate "imaginative" literature. Contemporary debates over what constitutes literature can be seen as returning to the older, more inclusive notion of what constitutes literature. Cultural studies, for instance, takes as its subject of analysis both popular and minority genres, in addition to canonical works. The definition of literature considers it to cover exclusively those writings that possess high distinction, forming part of the so-called belles-lettres tradition. Etymologically, the term derives from Latin literatura/litteratura "learning, a writing, grammar," originally "writing formed with letters," from litera/littera "letter". In spite of this, the term has also been applied to spoken or sung texts.Literature – The Classic of Rites (Chinese: 禮 記; pinyin: Lǐjì), an ancient Chinese text. Certain definitions of literature have taken it to include all written work.
34. Architecture – Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the form of buildings, are often perceived as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. "Architecture" can mean: A general term to describe physical structures. The art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. Knowledge of art, science, technology, humanity. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments. The design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. Architecture has to reflect functional, technical, environmental, aesthetic considerations. It requires the creative coordination of materials and technology, of shadow. Often, conflicting requirements must be resolved. The practice of architecture also encompasses the pragmatic aspects of realizing structures, including scheduling, construction administration. The word "architecture" has also been adopted to describe other designed systems, especially in information technology. The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the 1st AD.Architecture – Brunelleschi, in the building of the dome of Florence Cathedral in the early 15th-century, not only transformed the building and the city, but also the role and status of the architect.
35. Technology – The human species' use of technology began into simple tools. The steady progress of military technology has brought weapons of destructive power, from clubs to nuclear weapons. Technology has many effects. It has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the challenges of bioethics. Philosophical debates have arisen with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. The use of the term "technology" has changed significantly over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term usually referred to the description or study of the useful arts. The term was often connected to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The term "technology" rose to prominence with the Second Industrial Revolution. In other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie, absent in English, which usually translates both terms as "technology." By the 1930s, "technology" referred not only to the industrial arts themselves. Scholars have offered a variety of definitions.Technology – A steam turbine with the case opened. Most electricity is produced by thermal power stations with turbines like this one. Electricity consumption and living standards are highly correlated. Electrification was voted the most important engineering achievement of the 20th century.
36. Language – The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated in Ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of languages in the world vary between 7,000. However, any precise estimate depends on a partly arbitrary distinction between dialects. This is because human language is modality-independent. All languages rely on the process of semiosis to relate signs to particular meanings. Human language relies entirely on social convention and learning. Its complex structure affords a much wider range of expressions than any known system of communication. Language is processed in different locations in the human brain, but especially in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Children generally speak fluently when they are approximately three years old. The use of language is deeply entrenched in human culture. A group of languages that descend from a common ancestor is known as a family.Language – A mural in Teotihuacan, Mexico (c. 2nd century) depicting a person emitting a speech scroll from his mouth, symbolizing speech
37. Western world – The Western world or the West is a term usually referring to different nations, depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe. There are accepted definitions about what they all have in common. The Western world is also known as the Occident. The concept of the Western part of the earth has the advent of Christianity. Before the Cold War era, the Western viewpoint identified Western Civilization with the Western Christian countries and culture. Its political usage was temporarily changed during the Cold War in the mid-to-late 20th Century. The term originally had a geographic meaning. Western culture was influenced by many older great civilizations of the ancient Near East, such as Phoenicia, Minoan Crete, Sumer, also Ancient Egypt. It originated in its vicinity; Greece and Rome are often cited as its originators. Over time, their associated empires grew first to the west to include the rest of Mediterranean and Black Sea coastal areas, conquering and absorbing. Later, they expanded to the north of the Mediterranean Sea to include Western, Southeastern Europe. This expansion was accompanied by Christian missionaries, who attempted to proselytize Christianity. There is debate among some as to whether Latin America is in a category of its own. The Russian culture is classified as a part of the Western culture. Specifically, Western culture may imply: a Biblical cultural influence in spiritual thinking, customs and either ethic or moral traditions, around the Post-Classical Era and after.Western world – The Parthenon (Athens).
38. History of Rome – The city of Rome originated as a village of the Latini in the 9th century BC. The Roman Republic was established in 509 BC. During the 5th BC, Rome gained regional dominance in Latium, eventually the entire Italian peninsula by the 3rd century BC. The population of the city at this point is estimated at about 310,000 people. With the Punic Wars, Rome gained dominance as the dominant regional power. The Roman Empire was established under Octavian after Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul, followed by a period of civil war. The city of Rome now surpassed a population of million, likely the first city in history to reach this size. Following the transfer of the imperial capital to Constantinople in AD 330, Rome entered a period of gradual decline. With the final loss of imperial control in Italy, Rome became the capital of the Papal States in medieval Italy. Rome began to recover some importance in 16th century. The Sistine Chapel was decorated by Michelangelo in 1508 -- 1512. Construction of the Apostolic Palace began in 1589. Construction of St. Peter's Basilica was begun in the most renowned work of Renaissance architecture. Rome was was technically part of France during 1798 -- 1814. During the Italian unification in the 19th century, the Roman Question referred under the temporal power of the popes.History of Rome – Rome: Ruins of the Forum, Looking towards the Capitol (1742) by Canaletto
39. Julius Caesar – Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, general, notable author of Latin prose. Caesar played a critical role in the events that led to the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus, Pompey formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Caesar's victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the Rhine. He became the first Roman general to cross both when he conducted the first invasion of Britain. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to return to Rome. Caesar's victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence. After assuming control of government, he began a programme of governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity", giving him additional authority. The constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesar's adopted Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. The era of the Roman Empire began. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. He is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor, born by Caesarean section.Julius Caesar – The Tusculum portrait, perhaps the only surviving statue created during Caesar's lifetime.
40. Roman censor – The censor was an officer in ancient Rome, responsible for maintaining the census, supervising public morality, overseeing certain aspects of the government's finances. The censors' regulation of public morality is the origin of the modern meaning of the words "censor" and "censorship". The census was first instituted by sixth king of Rome. After the founding of the Republic, the consuls had responsibility for the census until 443 BC. It would not be uncommon for the patrician consulars of the early republic to intersperse public office with agricultural labour. In Cicero’s words: in agris erant tum senatores, id est senes: ‘In those days senators—, seniors—would live on their farms’. This practice was obsolete by the second century. The magistracy continued to be controlled until 351 BC, when Gaius Marcius Rutilus was appointed the first plebeian censor. Twelve years later, in 339 BC, one of the Publilian laws required that one censor had to be a plebeian. Despite this, no plebeian censor performed the purification of the people until 280 BC. For the first time, both censors were plebeians. The reason for having two censors was that the two consuls had previously taken the census together. If one of the censors died during his term of office, another was chosen to replace him, as with consuls. This happened once in 393 BC. However, the Romans thereafter regarded such replacement as "an offense against religion".Roman censor – Ancient Rome
41. Census – A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly with national population and housing censuses; other common censuses include agriculture, business, traffic censuses. United Nations recommendations also cover census topics to be collected, official definitions, other useful information to co-ordinate international practice. The word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in polling. Similarly, stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions. In many cases, a carefully chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a census. A census is often construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population. The use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the size is already known. However, a census is also used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register. Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household.Census – Census taker visits a Romani family living in a caravan, Netherlands 1925
42. Roman Kingdom – The Roman Kingdom was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories. The site of the founding of Empire had a ford where the Tiber could be crossed. Hills surrounding it presented easily defensible positions in the wide fertile plain surrounding them. All of these features contributed to the success of the city. With no contemporary records of the kingdom existing, all accounts of the kings must be carefully questioned. Of all these insignia, the most important was the purple toga. The imperium of the king was protected him from ever being brought to trial for his actions. Also, the laws that kept citizens safe from magistrates' misuse of imperium did not exist during the monarchical period. Another power of the king was the power to either nominate all officials to offices. The tribune left office upon the king's death. The tribune also possessed the power to convene the Curiate Assembly and lay legislation before it. Another officer appointed by the king was the praefectus urbi, who acted as the warden of the city. The king even received the right to be the only person to appoint patricians to the Senate. The people knew the king as a mediator between them and the gods and thus viewed the king with religious awe. This made the head of its chief executive.Roman Kingdom – Capitoline Wolf
43. Centuriate Assembly – The Centuriate Assembly of the Roman Republic was one of the three voting assemblies in the Roman constitution. It was named the Centuriate Assembly as it originally divided Roman citizens by classes. The Centuries originally later reflected the wealth of their members. The Centuries gathered for legislative, electoral, judicial purposes. The majority of votes in any Century decided how that Century voted. Each Century received one vote, regardless of how many each Century held. The matter was decided. Only the Centuriate Assembly could declare war or elect the highest-ranking Roman Magistrates: "'Consuls", "Praetors" and "Censors". The Centuriate Assembly could also pass a law that granted constitutional command authority, or "Imperium", to Censors. In addition, the Centuriate Assembly ratified the results of a Census. Since the Romans used a form of direct democracy, not elected representatives, voted before each assembly. As such, the citizen-electors had no power, other than the power to cast a vote. Ultimately, the presiding magistrate's power over the assembly was nearly absolute. The only check on that power came in the form of vetoes handed down by other magistrates. Any decision made by a presiding magistrate could be vetoed by a magistrate known as a "Plebeian Tribune".Centuriate Assembly – Roman Dictator Sulla, who attempted to increase the power of the Centuriate Assembly at the expense of the Tribal Assembly
44. Lictor – A lictor was a Roman civil servant, a bodyguard to magistrates who held imperium. According to Roman historian Livy, the custom may have originated earlier, in the Etruscan civilization. According to Livy, lictors were introduced by Romulus, who appointed 12 lictors to attend him. Livy refers to two competing traditions for the reason that Romulus chose that number of lictors. The first version is that 12 was the number of birds that appeared in the augury, which had portended the kingdom to Romulus. Through most of Roman history, they seemed to have been freedmen. Centurions from the legions were also automatically eligible to become lictors on retirement from the army. They were, however, definitely Roman citizens, since they wore togas inside Rome. A lictor had to be a strongly built man, capable of physical work. Lictors were exempted from military service, were organized in a corporation. It is also possible that they were drawn by lots. Probably, one was originally selected from each curia, since there were originally 30 curiae and 30 lictors. The lictor's main task was to attend to magistrates who held imperium. They carried rods decorated with fasces and, outside the pomerium, with axes that symbolized the power to carry out punishment. Dictatorial lictors had axes even within the pomerium.Lictor – Gold coin from Dacia, minted by Coson, depicting a consul and two lictors
45. Roman Emperor – The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period. The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of Caesar. Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific. Early Emperors also used the title princeps. Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably Princeps Senatus, Consul and Pontifex Maximus. The first emperors reigned alone; later emperors divide administration of the Empire between them. The Romans considered the office of emperor to be distinct from that of a king. Augustus, resolutely refused recognition as a monarch. Although Augustus could claim that his power was authentically republican, Tiberius, could not convincingly make the same claim. Elements of the institutional framework were preserved until the very end of the Western Empire. Other kings were then referred to as rēgas. In addition to their pontifical office, some emperors were given divine status after death. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century. Constantine XI was the Byzantine Roman emperor in Constantinople, dying in the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453.Roman Emperor – Augustus
46. Trajan's Column – Trajan's Column is a Roman triumphal column in Rome, Italy, that commemorates Roman emperor Trajan's victory in the Dacian Wars. It was probably constructed at the order of the Roman Senate. It is located in Trajan's Forum, built near the Quirinal Hill, north of the Roman Forum. Completed in AD 113, the freestanding column is most famous for its spiral relief, which artistically describes the epic wars between the Romans and Dacians. Its design has inspired numerous victory columns, modern. The structure is about 30 metres in 35 metres including its large pedestal. The shaft is made from a series of each weighing about 32 tons, with a diameter of 3.7 metres. The 190-metre frieze winds around the shaft 23 times. Inside the shaft, a staircase of 185 steps provides access to a viewing platform at the top. The block of Trajan's Column weighs 53.3 tons, which had to be lifted to a height of c. 34 metres. On December 1587, the top was crowned by Pope Sixtus V with a bronze figure of St. Peter, which remains to this day. The helical frieze winds twenty-three times from base to capital, was in its time an architectural innovation. The design was adopted by later emperors such as Marcus Aurelius. The band expands from about 1 metre at the base of the column to 1.2 metres at the top. The scenes unfold continuously.Trajan's Column – Trajan's Column
47. Italian language – Italian is a Romance language. It is the second-closest to Latin in terms of vocabulary after Sardinian. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Istria. Italian is spoken by small minorities in places such as Crimea, France, Belgium, Montenegro and Tunisia. Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and regional languages. Including Italian speakers on other continents, the total number of speakers is around 85 million. Italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical opera. Its influence is also widespread in the luxury goods market. Italian has been reported as the fifth most frequently taught foreign language in the world. Its development was also influenced by the Germanic languages of the post-Roman invaders. Unlike most Romance languages, Italian retains Latin's contrast between short and long consonants. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive. However, some surrounding regions has a longer history. Italian was also one of the many recognised languages in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Italy has always had a distinctive dialect for each city, because the cities, until recently, were thought of as city-states.Italian language – Dante Alighieri (above) and Petrarch (below) were influential in establishing their Tuscan dialect as the most prominent literary language in all of Italy in the Late Middle Ages
48. Roman Empire – The imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empire's existence were "Roman Peace". Following Octavian's victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, but the Praetorian Guard proclaimed Claudius emperor instead. Under Claudius, the empire invaded its major expansion since Augustus. His short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors. The empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. Commodus' assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, renamed "Constantinople" in his honour. It remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the official state religion of the empire. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time.Roman Empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
49. Trajan – Trajan was Roman emperor from 98 to 117 AD. Born in the province of Hispania Baetica, Trajan's non-patrician family was of Italian and perhaps Iberian origin. Trajan rose during the reign of emperor Domitian. Serving as a legatus legionis in 89 Trajan supported Domitian against a revolt on the Rhine led by Antonius Saturninus. In September 96, Domitian was succeeded by an old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army. He was succeeded by his adopted son without incident. Early in his reign, he annexed the Nabataean Kingdom, creating the province of Arabia Petraea. His conquest of Dacia enriched the empire greatly, as the new province possessed valuable gold mines. However, it was later abandoned by Emperor Aurelian. Trajan's war against the Parthian Empire ended with the annexation of Armenia and Mesopotamia. His campaigns expanded the Roman Empire to its greatest territorial extent. In late 117, while sailing back to Rome, Trajan died of a stroke in the city of Selinus. His ashes were laid to rest under Trajan's Column. He was succeeded by his adopted Hadrian. As an emperor, Trajan's reputation has endured – he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived nineteen centuries.Trajan – Marble bust of Trajan.
50. Trajan's Dacian Wars – The Dacian Wars were two military campaigns fought between the Roman Empire and Dacia during Roman Emperor Trajan's rule. In AD 85, the Dacians initially defeated the army that Emperor Domitian sent against them. A truce was established. Emperor Trajan recommenced hostilities against Dacia and, following an uncertain number of battles, defeated the Dacian King Decebalus in 101. With Trajan's troops pressing towards the Dacian capital Sarmizegetusa Regia, Decebalus once more sought terms. Decebalus attacked Roman garrisons again in 105. In response Trajan again marched into Dacia, razing it. With Dacia quelled, Trajan subsequently invaded the Parthian empire to his conquests expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. Caesar himself had drawn up a plan to launch a campaign against Dacia. The threat was reduced when dynastic struggles in Dacia led into four separately governed tribal states after Burebista's death in 44 BC. Augustus rejected Dacia gave their support to Antony. Although Dacian raids into Pannonia and Moesia continued despite the defeat, the threat of Dacia had effectively ended. The next year, with the arrival of fresh legions in 87 AD, Domitian began what became the First Dacian War. General Diurpaneus sent an envoy to Domitian peace. The praetorian prefect Cornelius Fuscus crossed the Danube into Dacia with 5 or 6 legions on a bridge built on boats.Trajan's Dacian Wars – Roman soldiers defending a fort against attack by the Dacians. (detail from Trajan's Column)
51. Quirinus – In Roman mythology and religion, Quirinus is an early god of the Roman state. In Augustan Rome, Quirinus was also an epithet of Janus, as Janus Quirinus. His name may be derived from the Sabine word quiris "spear." Quirinus is probably an adjective meaning "wielder of the spear". A. B. Cook explains Quirinus as the oak-god, Quirites as the men of the oaken spear. Quirinus was most likely a Sabine god of war. When the Romans settled in the area, the cult of Quirinus became part of their early system. This occurred from the classical Greek culture. He claimed that the king had instructed him to tell his countrymen that he, Romulus was Quirinus. By the end of the first BC, Quirinus would be considered to be the deified legendary king. The last day of the festival is called corresponds with the traditional day of Romulus' death. On that day, the Romans would toast spelt as an offering to the Fornax. The association of Quirinus and Romulus is further supported by a connection with the third god in the triad of the Grabovian gods of Iguvium. Vofionos would be the equivalent of Liber or Teutates, among the Celts respectively.Quirinus – Denarius picturing Quirinus on the obverse, and Ceres enthroned on the reverse, a commemoration by a moneyer in 56 BC of a Cerialia presented by an earlier Gaius Memmius as aedile
52. Augustus – Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an wealthy branch of the plebeian Octavii family. Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, those of tribune and censor. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He instead called Princeps Civitatis. The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, Raetia; expanding possessions in Africa; expanding into Germania; and completing the conquest of Hispania. Beyond the frontiers, he made peace through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD 14 at the age of 75. He probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.Augustus – The statue known as the Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century
53. Capitoline Hill – The Capitoline Hill, between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the Seven Hills of Rome. It was the citadel of the earliest Romans. The name capitol seems to have meant "dominant height", although ancient tradition places its origin in caput. By the 16th century, Capitolinus had become Capitolino with the alternative Campidoglio stemming from one of the three major spurs of the Capitolinus. The English word capitol derives from Capitoline. Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C. is widely assumed to be named after the Capitoline Hill, but the causation is not crystal clear. At this hill, the Sabines, creeping to the Citadel, were let in by the Roman maiden Tarpeia. For this treachery, Tarpeia was the first to be punished by being flung from a steep cliff overlooking the Roman Forum. This cliff became a frequent site. The Sabines, who immigrated to Rome following the Rape of the Sabine Women, settled on the Capitoline. It was considered one of the largest and the most beautiful temples in the city. The legend starts with the recovery of a human skull when foundation trenches were being dug at Tarquin's order. Recent excavations on the Capitoline uncovered an early cemetery under the Temple of Jupiter. There are several important temples built on Capitoline hill: the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus. The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus is the most important of the temples.Capitoline Hill – The Capitoline Hill cordonata (centre of picture) leading from Via del Teatro di Marcello to Piazza del Campidoglio.
54. Ovid – Publius Ovidius Naso, known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a contemporary of Horace with whom he is often ranked as one of the three canonical poets of Latin literature. The Imperial scholar Quintilian considered the last of the Latin love elegists. His poetry was much imitated during the Middle Ages, greatly influenced Western art and literature. The Metamorphoses remains one of the most important sources of classical mythology. Ovid talks more about his own life than most Roman poets. Information about his biography is drawn primarily from his poetry, especially Tristia 4.10, which gives account of his life. Other sources include the Elder and Quintilian. Ovid was born in an Apennine valley east of Rome, to an important equestrian family, on March 20, 43 BC. That was a significant year in Roman politics. He was educated under the teachers Arellius Fuscus and Porcius Latro with his brother who excelled at oratory. His father wanted him to study rhetoric toward the practice of law. According to Seneca the Elder, Ovid tended to not the argumentative pole of rhetoric. After the death of his brother at 20 years of age, Ovid began travelling to Athens, Asia Minor, Sicily. Ovid's first recitation has been dated to around 25 BC, when he was eighteen.Ovid – Statue (1887) by Ettore Ferrari commemorating Ovid's exile in Tomis (present-day Constanța, Romania)
55. Metamorphoses – The Metamorphoses is a Latin narrative poem by the Roman poet Ovid, considered his magnum opus. Although meeting the criteria for an epic, the poem defies simple classification by its use of varying themes and tones. One of the most influential works in Western culture, the Metamorphoses has inspired such authors as Dante, Boccaccio, Chaucer, Shakespeare. Numerous episodes from the poem have been depicted in acclaimed works of sculpture, music. The work has been the subject of numerous translations into the first by William Caxton in 1480. Ovid's decision to make myth the dominant subject of the Metamorphoses was influenced by the predisposition of Alexandrian poetry. However, whereas it served as the cause for moral reflection or insight, he made it instead the "object of play and artful manipulation". Little is known of their contents. However, in a way, typical for writers of the period, Ovid diverged significantly from his models. The Metamorphoses positioned itself within a historical framework. Some of the Metamorphoses derives of the same myths. Scholars have found it difficult to place the Metamorphoses in a genre. However, the poem "employs the tone of virtually every species of literature", ranging from epic and elegy to tragedy and pastoral. Commenting on the genre debate, G. Karl Galinsky has opined that "... it would be misguided to pin the label of any genre on the Metamorphoses." It makes use of traditional epithets and circumlocutions.Metamorphoses – Title page of 1556 edition published by Joannes Gryphius (decorative border added subsequently). Hayden White Rare Book Collection, University of California, Santa Cruz.
56. Antoninus Pius – Antoninus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was one of the Five Good Emperors in the Nerva -- the Aurelii. He was succeeded by his adopted sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus as co-emperors. He was born as the only child of consul in 89 whose family came from Nemausus. The Aurelii Fulvii were therefore a relatively senatorial family from Gallia Narbonensis whose rise to prominence was supported by the Flavians. The link between their home province explains the increasing importance of the post of Proconsul of Gallia Narbonensis during the late Second Century. His mother was Arria Fadilla. The Arrii Antoninii were an older senatorial family from Italy, very influential during Nerva's reign. Some time between 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina the Elder. They are believed to have enjoyed a happy marriage. Faustina was the daughter of consul Marcus Annius Verus and Rupilia Faustina. Despite rumours about her character, it is clear that Antoninus cared for her deeply. Faustina bore Antoninus four children, two daughters. They were: Marcus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus; his sepulchral inscription has been found in Rome. Marcus Galerius Aurelius Antoninus; his sepulchral inscription has been found at the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome.Antoninus Pius – Bust of Antoninus Pius, at Glyptothek, Munich.
57. Faustina the Elder – Annia Galeria Faustina, sometimes referred to as Faustina I, was a Roman empress and wife of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius. Faustina was the only known daughter of consul and prefect Marcus Annius Verus and Rupilia Faustina. Her brothers were consul Marcus Annius Libo and praetor Marcus Annius Verus. Her maternal aunts were Roman Empress Vibia Sabina and Matidia Minor. Faustina was born and raised in Rome. As a private citizen, she married Antoninus Pius between 110 and 115 CE. Faustina and Antoninus had a very happy marriage. Faustina bore Antoninus four children, two sons and two daughters. These were: Marcus Aurelius Fulvius Antoninus; his sepulchral inscription has been found at the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome. Marcus Galerius Aurelius Antoninus; his sepulchral inscription has been found at the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome. He is commemorated by a high-quality series of bronze coins, possibly struck at Rome, though their language is Greek. Aurelia Fadilla; she married Aelius Lamia Silvanus or Syllanus. She appears to have had no children with her husband and her sepulchral inscription has been found in Italy. Annia Galeria Faustina Minor or Faustina the Younger, a future Roman Empress; she married her maternal cousin, future Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. She was the only child who survived to see Antoninus and Faustina elevated to the imperial rank.Faustina the Elder – Bust of Faustina Major in the Altes Museum (Berlin).
58. Marcus Aurelius – Marcus Aurelius was Roman Emperor from 161 to 180. He ruled with Lucius Verus as co-emperor from 161 until Verus' death in 169. Marcus Aurelius was the last of the so-called Five Good Emperors. During his reign, the Empire defeated a revitalized Parthian Empire in the East: Aurelius' general Avidius Cassius sacked the capital Ctesiphon in 164. A revolt in the East led by Avidius Cassius failed to gain momentum and was suppressed immediately. The major sources for the life and rule of Marcus Aurelius are patchy and frequently unreliable. Marcus' own Meditations offer a window on his inner life, but are largely undateable, make few specific references to worldly affairs. Dio is vital for the military history of the period, but his senatorial prejudices and strong opposition to imperial expansion obscure his perspective. Inscriptions and coin finds supplement the literary sources. Marcus' family originated in Ucubi, a small town southeast of Córdoba in Iberian Baetica. Verus' elder son—Marcus Aurelius' father—Marcus Annius Verus married Domitia Lucilla. Lucilla was the daughter of the patrician P. Calvisius Tullus Ruso and the elder Domitia Lucilla. The elder Domitia Lucilla had inherited a great fortune from her maternal grandfather and her paternal grandfather by adoption. Lucilla and Verus had two children: a son, Marcus, born on 26 April 121, a daughter, Annia Cornificia Faustina, probably born in 122 or 123. Verus probably died in 124, during his praetorship, when Marcus was only three years old.Marcus Aurelius – Bust of Marcus Aurelius in the Musée Saint-Raymond, Toulouse.
59. Rome – Rome is a city and special comune in Italy. Rome is the capital of Italy and of the Lazio region. The Metropolitan City of Rome has a population of million residents. The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, along the shores of Tiber river. Rome's history spans a half thousand years. The city's early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and Sabines. Rome is also called the "Caput Mundi". Due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, then the birthplace of both Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters, architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city. In 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed as a World Heritage Site. Rome is the seat of United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself.Rome
60. Hadrian – It was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. Hadrian is known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Britannia. He also constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. It was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus into a Hispano-Roman family. Although Italica near Santiponce is often considered his birthplace, his actual place of birth remains uncertain. However, Hadrian is generally accepted that he came in Hispania. Trajan, was a maternal cousin of Hadrian's father. According to his wife Pompeia Plotina, Trajan named Hadrian emperor immediately before his death. He may well have owed his succession to them. During his reign, it travelled to nearly every province of the Empire. He spent extensive amounts of time with the military; he even dined and slept amongst the soldiers. He ordered military drilling to be more rigorous and even made use of false reports of attack to keep the army alert. Upon his accession to the throne, it withdrew in Mesopotamia and Armenia, even considered abandoning Dacia. Late in his reign he suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea, renaming Syria Palaestina. The latter died suddenly two years later.Hadrian – Marble bust of Hadrian at the Palazzo dei Conservatori, Capitoline Museums.
61. Lucius Verus – Lucius Verus was the Roman Emperor from 161 to 169. When he was adopted by Caesar Antoninus Pius in February 138, his name was changed to L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus. His name changed again following his ascension in 161. He ruled together with his adoptive brother Marcus Aurelius until his own death in 169. During his reign, the Roman Empire defeated a revitalized Parthia in the east: Avidius Cassius, sacked their capital, Ctesiphon, in 164. He was deified as the Divine Verus. Lucius Verus was the first-born son of Roman Emperor Hadrian. He was raised in Rome. Verus had another brother, two sisters, Ceionia Fabia and Ceionia Plautia. His maternal grandparents were the Roman senator, the unattested noblewoman Ignota Plautia. Although his paternal grandparent was the Roman Emperor Hadrian, his biological paternal grandparents were the consul Lucius Ceionius Commodus and noblewoman Aelia or Fundania Plautia. When his father died in early 138, Hadrian chose Antoninus Pius as his successor. Antoninus was adopted on the condition that Verus and Hadrian's great-nephew Marcus Aurelius be adopted by Antoninus as his sons and heirs. By this scheme, Verus, already Hadrian's adoptive grandson through his natural father, remained Hadrian's adoptive grandson through Antoninus. The adoption of Marcus Aurelius was probably a suggestion of Antoninus himself, since the Marcus was the nephew of the Antoninus' wife.Lucius Verus – Bust of Lucius Verus
62. Faustina the Younger – Annia Galeria Faustina Minor, Faustina Minor or Faustina the Younger was a daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius and Roman Empress Faustina the Elder. She was a Roman Empress and wife to her maternal cousin Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Faustina, named after her mother, was her parents' fourth and youngest child and their second daughter; she was also their only child to survive to adulthood. She was born and raised in Rome. Her great uncle, the emperor Hadrian, had arranged with her father for Faustina to marry Lucius Verus. On 25 February 138, she and Verus were betrothed. In April or May 145, Faustina and Marcus Aurelius were married, as had been planned since 138. Little is specifically known of the ceremony, but it is said to have been "noteworthy". Coins were issued with the heads of the couple, Antoninus, as Pontifex Maximus, would have officiated. Marcus makes no apparent reference to the marriage in his surviving letters, only sparing references to Faustina. Faustina was given the title of Augusta on 1 December 147 after the birth of her first child, Domitia Faustina. When Antoninus died on 7 March 161, Marcus and Lucius Verus ascended to the throne and became co-rulers. Faustina then became empress. Unfortunately, not much has survived from the Roman sources regarding Faustina's life, but what is available does not give a good report. The Augustan History mentions adultery with men of rank; however, Faustina and Aurelius seem to have been mutually devoted.Faustina the Younger – Faustina the Younger
63. Roman legion – Until the middle of the first century, 10 cohorts made up a Roman Legion. This was later changed to one cohort, the first cohort, of double strength. Sources on this period are few and unreliable. Legions also included a small ala or unit. By the third century AD, there were more of them. In the fourth AD, East Roman border guard legions may have become even smaller.. . The Roman army, for most of the Imperial period, consisted mostly of auxiliaries rather than legions. To date, about 50 have been identified. Toward the end of the 2nd Century BC, Rome started to experience manpower shortages brought by property and financial qualifications to join the army. A legion consisted of several cohorts of heavy infantry known as legionaries. These centuries were grouped together as answered to the leader who had hired or raised them. The roles of second in command and standard bearer are referenced in this early period. It is believed that during the reign of Servius Tullius, the census was introduced. These individuals would have had the most to lose should the state have fallen.Roman legion – A re-enactor as a Roman centurion, c. 70.
64. Outline of ancient Rome – Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world. Hannibal – Punic Carthaginian military commander, generally considered one of the greatest military commanders in history. A Roman army led by Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus defeated a Carthaginian force led by the legendary Hannibal. Third Punic War – involved an extended siege of Carthage, ending in the city's thorough destruction. During the Principate, the constitution of the Roman Republic was never formally abolished. It was amended in such a way as to maintain a politically correct façade of Republican government. This ended during the reign of Diocletian. Julio-Claudian dynasty – the first five Roman Emperors, including Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero. The dynasty ended when Nero committed suicide. Augustus – Tiberius – stepson of Augustus. He was one of Rome's greatest generals, conquering Pannonia, Dalmatia, Raetia, temporarily Germania; laying the foundations for the northern frontier. Caligula – Claudius – Nero – Year of the Four Emperors – these four emperors were Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian. Vespasian's rule marked the beginning of the Flavian dynasty. These Emperors were Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Commodus. Barracks emperor – any Roman Emperor who seized power by virtue of his command of the army.Outline of ancient Rome – Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus. Yellow shows the extent of the Republic in 31 BC, shades of green represent territories gradually conquered by Augustus, and pink shows client states.
65. Founding of Rome – The Aeneid of Virgil, tells the story of how Trojan prince Aeneas came to Italy. The Aeneid was written under Augustus, who claimed ancestry from the hero and his mother Venus. This started a series of armed conflicts over the marriage of Lavinia. Before the arrival of Aeneas, Turnus was engaged to Lavinia, who then married Aeneas, starting the war. Aeneas killed Turnus. The Trojans won the right to assimilate with the local peoples. Toward the end of this line, King Procas was the father of Numitor and Amulius. For many years, Amulius was the king. They were purported to be sons of Rhea Silvia and either Mars, the demi-god hero Hercules. They were abandoned by servants who took pity on the infants, despite their orders. The twins were nurtured by a she-wolf until a shepherd named Faustulus took them as his sons. His wife Acca Larentia raised the children. When Remus and Romulus became adults, they killed restored Numitor. They decided to establish a city; Romulus killed his brother. Thus, Rome bloodshed.Founding of Rome – The she-wolf feeding the twins Romulus and Remus, the most famous image associated with the founding of Rome
66. Overthrow of the Roman monarchy – The Roman histories tell that while the king was away on campaign, his son Sextus Tarquinius raped a Lucretia. Afterwards, she revealed the then committed suicide. The king went into exile. Roman history held that seven kings of Rome reigned from the establishment of the city in 753 BC up to the reign of Tarquinius. Tarquinius was the son of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus. In around 535 BC Tarquinius, Tarquinius became king in his place. Despite military victories, Tarquinius became an unpopular king. He refused to bury his predecessor, then put to death a number of the leading senators whom he suspected of remaining loyal to Servius. By not replacing the slain senators, not consulting the Senate on all matters of government, he diminished both the authority of the Senate. In another break with tradition, he judged criminal cases without advice of counsellors, thereby creating fear among those who might think to oppose him. He also engaged with the Latin allies. In about 510 BC, Tarquinius went with the Rutuli. Tarquinius unsuccessfully subsequently began an extensive siege of the city. The king's son, was sent on a military errand to Collatia. She was weaving with her maids.Overthrow of the Roman monarchy – A 16th century painting by Sandro Botticelli, depicting the rape of Lucretia and the subsequent uprising.
67. Pax Romana – Since it was established by Augustus, it is sometimes called Pax Augusta. Its span was approximately 206 years according to Encyclopedia Britannica. The first known record of the term Pax Romana appears in a writing by Seneca the Younger in 55 AD. The concept was highly influential, the subject of theories and attempts to copy it in subsequent ages. Arnaldo Momigliano noted that "Pax Romana is a simple formula for propaganda, but a difficult subject for research." The Pax Romana started after Octavian defeated Marc Antony in the Battle of Actium on 2 September 31 BC. He became princeps, or first citizen. Lacking a good precedent of successful one-man rule, Augustus created a junta of the greatest military magnates and stood as the front man. By binding together these leading magnates in a coalition, he eliminated the prospect of civil war. The Pax Romana was not immediate, despite the end of the civil wars, because fighting continued in Hispania and in the Alps. Nevertheless, Augustus closed the Gates of Janus three times, first in 29 BC and again in 25 BC. The third closure is undocumented, but Inez Scott Ryberg and Gaius Stern have persuasively dated the third closure to 13 BC with the Ara Pacis ceremony. The Ara Pacis ceremony was no doubt part of this announcement. Augustus succeeded by means of skillful propaganda. Such times have been credited to the British Empire during the 19th century.Pax Romana – Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus. Yellow represents the extent of the Republic in 31 BC, while green represents gradually conquered territories under the reign of Augustus, and pink areas represent client states.
68. Principate – This reflects the principate emperors' assertion that they were merely "first among equals" among the citizens of Rome. Although dynastic pretences crept in from the start, formalizing this in a monarchic style remained politically unthinkable. Afterwards, Imperial rule in the Empire is designated as the dominate, subjectively more like an monarchy while the earlier Principate is still more'Republican'. Initially, the theory implied the ` first citizen' had to earn his extraordinary position in the style that Augustus himself had gained the position of auctoritas. With the fall of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, the principate was redefined under the Emperor Vespasian. The position of princeps became a distinct entity within the broader – formally still republican – Roman constitution. Under the Antonine dynasty, it was the norm for the Emperor to appoint a politically promising individual as his successor. This first phase was to be followed by, or rather evolved into, the so-called dominate. The reality is gradual development. Richard Alston: Aspects of Roman History. AD 14–117. London / New York 1998. Henning Börm, Wolfgang Havener: Octavians Rechtsstellung im Januar 27 v. Chr. und das Problem der „Übertragung“ der res publica. In: Historia 61, pp. 202–220. Jochen Bleicken: Prinzipat und Dominat.Principate – Ancient Rome
69. Dominate – In form, the Dominate is considered to be more bureaucratic than the Principate from which it emerged. The Dominate is derived from the Latin dominus, which translates as lord or master. Augustus actively discouraged the practice, Tiberius in particular is said to have reviled it as sycophancy. The Dominate system of government emerged as a response to the 50 years of chaos, referred to as the Crisis of the Third Century. These bureaucratic machines worked moderately well, their success might have been extraordinary if the monarchs who directed them had always been men of superior ability. Blots of course and defects there were, especially in the fields of economy and finance. The political creation of the Illyrian Emperors was not unworthy of the genius of Rome." Under the Principate, the position of emperor saw the concentration of military offices within a single magistry. Under the Dominate, the burden of the imperial position was increasingly shared between colleagues, referred to as the Consortium imperii. This original model lasted from AD 289 through to AD 324, being undone during the Civil wars of the Tetrarchy. With Constantine I’s death in AD 337, the empire was again shared between multiple augusti, lasting until AD 350. During the Roman Republic, the office of Consul was the highest elected magistry in the Roman state, with two consuls elected annually. If they were especially skilled or valued, they may even have achieved a second consulate. The process began with the reforms of Gallienus, who removed senators from military commands, placing them in the hands of the Equites. Under Diocletian, the military transformation was taken a stage further, with the removal of hereditary senators from most administrative, well as military, posts.Dominate – Ancient Rome
70. Fall of the Western Roman Empire – Increasing pressure from "barbarians" outside Roman culture also contributed greatly to the collapse. They inform much modern discourse on state failure. Relevant dates include the accession of Diocletian in 284. Irreversible territorial loss, however, began in 376 with a large-scale irruption of Goths and others. Invading "barbarians" had established their own power in most of the area of the Western Empire. While its cultural influence remains today, the Western Empire never had the strength to rise again. The Fall of the Western Roman Empire was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule. For Dio Cassius, the accession of the emperor Commodus in 180 CE marked the descent to one of rust and iron". Arnold J. Toynbee and James Burke argue that the entire Imperial era was one of steady decay of institutions founded in republican times. Gibbon gave a classic formulation of reasons why the Fall happened. New ideas have emerged since. Historians still try to analyze the reasons for loss of political control over a vast territory. Comparison has also been made in China, which re-established its Great Unity while the Mediterranean world remained politically disunited. At least from the time of Henri Pirenne, scholars have of political legitimacy, long after 476. Pirenne postponed the demise of classical civilization to the 8th century.Fall of the Western Roman Empire – Map of the Roman Empire under the Tetrarchy, showing the dioceses and the four Tetrarchs' zones of responsibility
71. Decline of the Byzantine Empire – But under pressure from the Seljuk Empire, it entered a period of continuous decline. The process from when its decline can be traced, is a matter of scholarly debate. In some cases, the entire history of the Byzantine Empire has been portrayed as a protracted period of decline of the Roman Empire. Early-21st-century historians have instead emphasized the empire's remarkable resiliency and adaptability to change. Byzantine-Arab Wars and the Battle of Manzikert have traditionally been considered the most significant. The death of Michael VIII in 1282 marks the last period of Byzantine success on anything more than a minor scale. From this date onwards, the empire entered its final decline. In the 5th -- century, the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire was a continuation of the Roman Empire. The loss of the Western territories in the 5th century led to the loss of some important cities such as Rome. The loss of the western territories led to the Patriarch of Rome achieving greater independence from Byzantium, which longer provided adequate protection to the Pope. Consequently, Byzantium would have disagreements, culminating in the schism of 1054 and the disaster of the Fourth Crusade in the 13th century. In the 7th -- century, Islam gave the Arabs a newfound zeal and desire to conquer. They expanded in the Levant and Egypt. The Arab invasions led to the loss of Egypt, Syria, for a short period of time, Crete, Sicily, Cyprus and Asia Minor. As back as the invasion of Africa by Belisarius, foreign soldiers were used in war.Decline of the Byzantine Empire – Map showing the partition of the empire following the Fourth Crusade, c. 1204. The overall outcome of the Crusades left the Empire permanently weakened.
72. Fall of Constantinople – The Fall of Constantinople was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading army of the Ottoman Empire on 29 May 1453. The conquest of Constantinople followed a 53-day siege that had begun on 6 April 1453. The capture of Constantinople marked the end of the Roman Empire, an imperial state that had lasted for nearly 1,500 years. After the conquest, Sultan Mehmed II transferred the capital of the Ottoman Empire from Edirne to Constantinople. Constantinople had been an imperial capital since its consecration in 330 under Roman Emperor, Constantine the Great. In the following eleven centuries, the city was captured once: during the Fourth Crusade in 1204. They also fought to the Byzantine throne. The Nicaeans eventually reconquered Constantinople from the Latins in 1261. The Black Plague between 1346 and 1349 killed almost half of the inhabitants of Constantinople. The Empire of an independent state that formed in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, also survived on the coast of the Black Sea. This optimism was reinforced by friendly assurances made by Mehmed to envoys sent to his new court. But Mehmed's actions spoke far louder than his mild words. Since the mutual excommunications of 1054, the Pope in Rome was committed to establishing authority over the eastern church. Nominal union had been negotiated in 1274, at the Second Council of Lyon, indeed, some Palaiologoi emperors had since been received into the Latin church. Emperor John VIII Palaiologos had also recently negotiated union with Pope Eugene IV, with the Council of Florence of 1439 proclaiming a Bull of Union.Fall of Constantinople – The last siege of Constantinople, contemporary 15th century French miniature
73. Roman Constitution – The Roman Constitution was an uncodified set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent. The Roman constitution was largely unwritten and constantly evolving. Concepts that originated in the Roman constitution live to this day. Examples include the separation of powers, vetoes, filibusters, quorum requirements, term limits, impeachments, the powers of the purse, regularly scheduled elections. Over the years, the Roman constitution continuously evolved. By 573 BC, the Constitution of the Roman Kingdom had given way to the Constitution of the Roman Republic. By 27 BC, the Constitution of the Roman Republic had given way to the Constitution of the Roman Empire. By 300 AD, the Constitution of the Roman Empire had given way to the Constitution of the Late Roman Empire. The actual changes, however, were quite gradual. Together, these four constitutions formed four epochs in the continuous evolution of one constitution. The Roman senate was the most permanent of all of Rome's political institutions. It was probably founded before the first king of Rome ascended the throne. It was, to many modern institutions named ` Senate', not a legislative body. The power of the senate waned throughout its history. During the days of the kingdom, it was little more than an advisory council to the king.Roman Constitution – Ancient Rome
74. History of the Roman Constitution – The constitution of the Roman Kingdom vested the sovereign power in the King of Rome. The king did have two rudimentary checks on his authority, which took the form of a board of a popular assembly. The arrangement was similar to the constitutional arrangements found in Greek city-states. These constitutional principles probably came to Rome through the Greek colonies of Magna Graecia in southern Italy. In its place the Roman Republic was founded. The constitutional history of the Roman Republic can be divided into five phases. Throughout the history of the republic, the constitutional evolution was driven by the struggle between the ordinary citizens. The Plebeians attained, in theory at least, equality with the Patricians. In practice, however, the plight of the average Plebeian remained unchanged. This set the stage into a formal empire. The general who won the civil war of the Roman Republic, Gaius Octavian, became the master of the state. In the years after 30 BC, Octavian set out to found the Principate. The ultimate consequence of these reforms was the founding of the Roman Empire. Octavian became known to history by this name, as the first Roman Emperor. Octavian's reforms did not, at the time, seem drastic, since they did nothing more than reorganize the constitution.History of the Roman Constitution – Aeneas, whom the Romans believed Romulus and Remus descended from, fleeing from the burning city of Troy
75. Constitution of the Roman Kingdom – The Constitution of the Roman Kingdom was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles originating mainly through precedent. The Roman Senate, dominated by the aristocracy, served to the king. He was free to ignore any advice they gave him. The king could also request a vote on various matters by the popular assembly, which he was also free to ignore. The popular assembly functioned as a vehicle through which the People of Rome could express their opinions. In it, the people were organized according to their respective curiae. However, the popular assembly did have other functions. For example, it was a forum used by citizens to hear announcements. It could also serve as a court for both civil and criminal matters. The period of the kingdom can be divided into two epochs based on the legends. While the specific legends were probably not true, they were likely based on historical fact. It is likely that, before the founding of the republic, Rome had actually been ruled by a succession of kings. The legendary epoch spans the reigns of the first four legendary kings. The city fought several wars of conquest, the Tiber River was bridged. The early Romans were divided into three ethnic groups: the Ramnes, Luceres.Constitution of the Roman Kingdom – Aeneas, whom the Romans believed Romulus and Remus descended from and is depicted in the Aeneid, fleeing from the burning city of Troy
76. Constitution of the Roman Republic – The constitution of the Roman Republic was a set of guidelines and principles by which the Roman Republic was governed. The constitution was largely unwritten and uncodified, being passed down mainly through precedent. Nevertheless, the constitution was also shaped by the body of written Roman law. The aristocratic element took the form of the Senate. The monarchical element took the form of the term-limited consuls. The ultimate source of sovereignty in this ancient republic, as in modern republics, was the people of Rome. The Roman people gathered into legislative assemblies to elect executive magistrates, such as consuls. The Senate managed the day-to-day affairs in Rome, while magistrates presided over the courts. Executive magistrates presided over the Senate and the legislative assemblies. A constitutional crisis began as a result of the Conflict of the Orders, a prolonged struggle between the aristocracy and the common people. Many years later this led into a much more autocratic form of government, the Roman Empire. The constitution evolved gradually over time, largely shaped by the Conflict of the Orders between the patricians and the plebs. This lack of evidence poses problems for the reliability of the traditional account of the republic's origins. According to this traditional account, Rome had been ruled by a succession of kings. The Romans believed that that of the Roman Kingdom, began in 753 BC and ended in 510 BC.Constitution of the Roman Republic – Representation of a sitting of the Roman Senate: Cicero accuses Catiline. From a 19th-century fresco
77. Constitution of the Roman Empire – The Constitution of the Roman Empire was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent. After the fall of the Roman Republic, the constitutional balance of power shifted to the Roman Emperor. Beginning with the first emperor, Augustus, the senate were technically two co-equal branches of government. In practice, however the actual authority of the imperial senate was negligible, as the emperor held the true power of the state. During the reign of the second Roman Emperor, the powers, held by the Roman assemblies were transferred to the senate. The powers of an emperor existed by virtue of his legal standing. The two most significant components to an emperor's power were the "proconsular powers". The tribunician powers gave the authority over Rome's civil government, while the proconsular powers gave him authority over the Roman army. The emperor's powers became less constitutional and more monarchical. The traditional magistracies that survived the fall of the republic were the Consulship, Praetorship, Plebeian Tribunate, Aedileship, Military Tribunate. Any individual of the senatorial class could run for one of these offices. In the year 88 BC, Lucius Cornelius Sulla began a civil war. While it ended within a decade, it was the first in a series of civil wars that wouldn't end until the year 30 BC. The general who won the civil war of the Roman Republic, Gaius Octavian, became the master of the state. Octavian was the adopted heir of Julius Caesar.Constitution of the Roman Empire – The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum, the seat of the imperial Senate.
78. Constitution of the Late Roman Empire – The Constitution of the Late Roman Empire was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent. The constitution of the Roman Principate, established by the emperor Augustus in the 1st BC, had governed the "Roman Empire" for three centuries. His reign marked the end of the Principate and the beginning of the "Dominate". After Diocletian had reorganized the superstructure of the constitution, he then reorganized the administrative apparatus of the government. When Diocletian abdicated the throne in 305, the Empire quickly descended back into chaos. After the chaos had subsided, however, much of Diocletian's constitution remained in effect. His division with each half under the command of a separate emperor, remained with brief interruptions of political unity. Later emperors, especially Justinian modified Diocletian's constitution. Under Diocletian's new constitution, power was shared between two emperors called Augusti. The other Augustus was to rule the eastern half of the Empire. Diocletian gave him the Western Empire, while Diocletian took the Eastern Empire. Maximian made Milan his capital. To make the two halves symbolically appear to be one, Diocletian called his territory Orientis, while Maximian called his territory patres Occidentis. The Augusti were legally distinct from the old Princeps, because under the Principate, the Princeps took the place of the old republican magistrates. Such an act could only be invalidated by a future Emperor.Constitution of the Late Roman Empire – Roman Emperor Diocletian, who framed the constitution of the Dominate
79. Roman Senate – The Roman Senate was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being established in the first days of the city. During the days of the kingdom, it was little more than an advisory council to the king. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, was overthrown following a coup d'état led by Lucius Junius Brutus, who founded the Republic. During the early Republic, the Senate was politically weak, while the executive magistrates were quite powerful. By the middle Republic, the Senate had reached the apex of its power. The late Republic saw a decline in the Senate's power, which began following the reforms of the tribunes Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus. After the transition of the Republic into the Principate, the Senate lost much of its political power well as its prestige. Following the constitutional reforms of the Emperor Diocletian, the Senate never regained the power that it had once held. When the seat of government was transferred out of Rome, the Senate was reduced to a municipal body. This decline in status was reinforced when the emperor Constantine the Great created an additional senate in Constantinople. The Senate in Rome ultimately disappeared at some point between 630. However, the Eastern Senate survived until the ancient institution finally vanished there circa 14th century. The senate was a political institution in the ancient Roman kingdom. The senate derives from the Latin word senex, which means "old man"; the word thus means "assembly of elders".Roman Senate
80. Roman assemblies – The Roman Assemblies were institutions in ancient Rome. They thus passed all legislation. Since the assemblies operated on the basis of direct democracy, not elected representatives, would cast all ballots. The assemblies were subject to strong checks on their power by the Roman Senate. Laws were passed by Curia, Tribes, Centuries. When the city of Rome was founded, the Curiate Assembly, were both created. The Curiate Assembly was the legislative assembly during the era of the Roman Kingdom. While its primary purpose was to elect new kings, it also possessed legislative powers. Shortly after the founding of the Roman Republic, the legislative authority shifted to two new assemblies, the Tribal Assembly and the Centuriate Assembly. Eventually, most legislative powers were transferred to the Plebeian Council. Ultimately, it was the Plebeian Council that disrupted the balance between the senate, the executive branch. This led in 27 BC. Under the empire, the powers, held by the assemblies were transferred to the senate. While the assemblies eventually lost their last semblance of political power, citizens continued to gather for organizational purposes. However, the assemblies were ultimately abandoned.Roman assemblies – Growth of the city region during the kingdom
81. Curiate Assembly – The Curiate Assembly was the principal assembly during the first two decades of the Roman Republic. During these first decades, the People of Rome were organized into thirty units called "Curiae". The Curiae formed an assembly for legislative, judicial purposes. The Curiate Assembly passed laws, tried judicial cases. Consuls always presided over the assembly. While Plebeians could participate in this assembly, only the Patricians could vote. Since the Romans used a form of Direct Democracy, not elected representatives, voted before each assembly. As such, the citizen-electors had no power, other than the power to cast a vote. Ultimately, the presiding magistrate's power over the assembly was nearly absolute. In the Roman system of direct democracy, primary types of gatherings were used to vote on legislative, judicial matters. The first was the Assembly. The Curiate Assembly was a comitia. Acts of an Assembly applied to all Roman citizens. The second type of gathering was the Council, a forum where a specific class of citizen met. In contrast, the Convention was an unofficial forum for communication.Curiate Assembly – Chart Showing the Checks and Balances of the Constitution of the Roman Republic
82. Tribal Assembly – The Tribal Assembly or Assembly of the People of the Roman Republic was a democratic assembly consisting of all Roman citizens. The tribes gathered for legislative, electoral, judicial purposes. In any tribe, decisions were made by vote. Each tribe received one vote, regardless of how many electors each tribe held. The matter was decided. The president of the Tribal Assembly was usually either a "praetor". The Tribal Assembly elected three different magistrates: "quaestors", "consular tribunes". The Tribal Assembly also had the power to try judicial cases. However, after the reforms in 82 BC, the power to try cases was reassigned to special jury courts. Because the Romans used a form of direct democracy, not elected representatives, voted before each assembly. As such, the citizen-electors had no power, other than the power to cast a vote. Ultimately, the presiding magistrate's power over the assembly was nearly absolute. The only check on that power came in the form of vetoes handed down by other magistrates. Any decision made by a presiding magistrate could be vetoed by a magistrate known as a "plebeian tribune". In addition, decisions made by presiding magistrates could also be vetoed by higher-ranking magistrates.Tribal Assembly – Ancient Rome
83. Plebeian Council – The Concilium Plebis was the principal popular assembly of the ancient Roman Republic. It functioned as a legislative assembly, through which the plebeians could try judicial cases. The Plebeian Council was originally organized on the basis of the Curia. Thus, it was originally a "Plebeian Curiate Assembly". The Plebeian Council usually met in the well of the comitium and could only be convoked by the Tribune of the Plebs. The assembly elected the Tribunes of the Plebs and the plebeian aediles, only the plebeians were allowed to vote. When the Roman Republic was founded in 509 BC, the Roman people were divided into a total of thirty curiae. The curiae were organized on the basis of the family, thus the ethnic structure of early Rome. Each curia even had religious rites. The thirty curiae gathered into a legislative assembly known as the Comitia Curiata or Curiate Assembly. This assembly was created shortly after the legendary founding of the city in 753 BC, it formally elected new Roman kings. During this time, plebeians had no political rights. Each family was dependent on a particular family. Thus, each family belonged to the same curia as did its patron. While the plebeians each belonged to a particular curia, only patricians could actually vote in the Curiate Assembly.Plebeian Council – Ancient Rome
84. Roman magistrate – The Roman magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome. During the period of the Roman Kingdom, the King of Rome was the principal magistrate. His power, in practice, was absolute. He was the chief priest, lawgiver, the sole commander of the army. When the king died, his power reverted to the Roman Senate, which then chose an Interrex to facilitate the election of a new king. During the transition from monarchy to republic, the constitutional balance of power shifted to the Roman Senate. Magistrates of the republic were each vested with a degree of power called "major powers". Any magistrate could obstruct an action, being taken by a magistrate with an equal or lower degree of magisterial powers. During the transition from republic to empire, the constitutional balance of power shifted to the executive. The powers of an emperor existed, by virtue of his legal standing. The two most significant components to an emperor's imperium were the "proconsular powers". In theory at least, the tribunician powers gave the authority over Rome's civil government, while the proconsular powers gave him authority over the Roman army. The emperor's powers became less constitutional and more monarchical. The traditional magistracies that survived the fall of the republic were the consulship, praetorship, plebeian tribunate, aedileship, military tribunate. The executive magistrates of the Roman Kingdom were elected officials of the ancient Roman Kingdom.Roman magistrate – Gaius Gracchus, tribune of the people, presiding over the Plebeian Council
85. SPQR – The phrase commonly appears in Roman political, legal and historical literature, including the speeches of Cicero and Ab Urbe Condita Libri of Livy. SPQR: Senātus Populusque Rōmānus. In Latin, Senātus is a nominative noun meaning "Senate". Populusque is compounded from the nominative noun Populus, "the People", -que, an enclitic particle meaning "and" which connects the two nominative nouns. The last word, Rōmānus is an adjective modifying the whole of Senātus Populusque: People", taken as a whole. Thus, the sentence is translated more freely as "The Senate and People of Rome". It first appears in inscriptions of the Late Republic, from c. 80 BC onwards. Previously, the official name of the Roman state, as evidenced on coins, was simply ROMA. The abbreviation last appears on coins of the first Christian Roman emperor. Senātus and the Populus Rōmānus, are sovereign when combined. However, where populus is sovereign alone, Senātus is not. Under the Roman Kingdom neither entity was sovereign. The phrase, therefore, can be dated to no earlier than the foundation of the Republic. This signature continued under the Roman Empire. Populus Rōmānus in Roman literature is a phrase meaning the government of the People.SPQR – Modern manhole cover in Rome with SPQR inscription.
87. Curia – A curia, plural curiae, is an assembly, council, or court, in which public, official, or religious issues are discussed and decided. Lesser curiae existed for other purposes. The curia also came to denote the places of assembly, especially the senate. Similar institutions existed in other cities of Italy. In medieval times, a king's council was often referred to as a curia. The most famous curia is the Curia of the Roman Catholic Church which assists the Roman Pontiff in the hierarchical government of the Church. The curia is thought to derive from Old Latin coviria, meaning "a gathering of men". In this sense, any assembly, private, could be called a curia. In addition to the Roman curiae, similar institutions existed in other parts of Italy. During the republic, local curiae were established in Italian and provincial coloniae. In imperial times, local magistrates were often elected by municipal senates, which also came to be known as curiae. By extension, the curia came to mean not just a gathering, but also the place where an assembly would gather, such as a meeting house. The most important curiae at Rome were the 30 that together made up the curiata. Traditionally ascribed to the kings, each of the three tribes established by Romulus, the Ramnes, Luceres, was divided into ten curiae. In theory, each gens belonged to a particular curia, although whether this was strictly observed throughout Roman history is uncertain.Curia – The Curia Julia, as restored from 1935 to 1937
88. Forum (Roman) – In that case it supplemented the function of a conciliabulum. Every municipium had a forum. Forums were the first of any civitas synoecized whether some other. The first forums were sited in the period, known only through archaeology. The Theatre included a massive forum behind the theatre arcades known as the Porticus Pompei. The structure was the forebearer to the rest to follow. While similar to forums, most were created in the Middle Ages and are often not a part of the original city footprint.Forum (Roman) – The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. The columns mark the location of a stoa, or covered walkway, where the stalls of open-air vendors might be located in bad weather. Note the semi-circular shape and traces of a central podium, similar in function to a theatre.
89. Cursus honorum – The cursus honorum was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire. It was designed for men of senatorial rank. The cursus honorum comprised a mixture of military and political administration posts. Each office had a minimum age for election. There were minimum intervals between holding successive offices and laws forbade repeating an office. These rules were altered and flagrantly ignored in the course of the last century of the Republic. For example, Gaius Marius held consulships in a row between 100 BC. Officially presented as opportunities for public service, the offices often became mere opportunities for self-aggrandizement. The reforms of Lucius Cornelius Sulla required a ten-year period between holding another term in the same office. A more prestigious position was that of a military tribune. Tribunes could also be appointed by the consuls or by military commanders in the field as necessary. The following steps of the cursus honorum were achieved by direct election every year. The first official post was that of quaestor. Candidates had to be at least 30 years old. However, men of rank could subtract two years from other minimum age requirements.Cursus honorum – Ancient Rome
90. Collegiality – Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues. Colleagues are those explicitly united in a common purpose and respecting each other's abilities to work toward that purpose. A colleague is an associate in a ecclesiastical office. Thus, the word collegiality can connote respect for another's commitment to the common purpose and ability to work toward it. In a narrower sense, members of the faculty of a college are each other's colleagues; often the word is taken to mean that. Sometimes colleague is taken to mean a fellow member of the same profession. Sociologists of organizations use the word collegiality in a technical sense, to create a contrast with the concept of bureaucracy. More recently, authors such as Emmanuel Lazega have shown that collegiality can now be understood as a full-fledged organizational form. This view of collegiality is obviously very different from the ideology of collegiality stressing mainly trust and sharing in the collegium. Reasons were among several people both to ensure more productive magistrates. Examples of Roman collegiality include the two censors; six praetors; eight quaestors; four aediles; etc.. This had been the practice of the early Church and was revitalized by the Second Vatican Council. One of the major changes during the Second Vatican Council was the Council's encouragement of bishops' conferences and the Pope's establishment of the Synod of Bishops. There has traditionally been a strong element of collegiality in the governance of universities and other higher education institutions. These are environments where individual independence of thought and mutual respect are necessary, particularly in institutions with a strong research base.Collegiality – Ancient Rome
91. Roman emperor – The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period. The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of Caesar. Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific. Early Emperors also used the title princeps. Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably Princeps Senatus, Consul and Pontifex Maximus. The first emperors reigned alone; later emperors divide administration of the Empire between them. The Romans considered the office of emperor to be distinct from that of a king. Augustus, resolutely refused recognition as a monarch. Although Augustus could claim that his power was authentically republican, Tiberius, could not convincingly make the same claim. Elements of the institutional framework were preserved until the very end of the Western Empire. Other kings were then referred to as rēgas. In addition to their pontifical office, some emperors were given divine status after death. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century. Constantine XI was the Byzantine Roman emperor in Constantinople, dying in the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453.Roman emperor – Augustus
92. Legatus – A legatus was a general in the Roman army, equivalent to a modern general officer. He outranked all military tribunes. The men who filled the office of legate were drawn among the senatorial class of Rome. Due to his senatorial status, a legatus was entitled to five fasces and five lictors. This rank was also the overall commander. This post was generally appointed by the emperor. The legatus could be distinguished in the field by his elaborate helmet and armour, as well as his scarlet paludamentum and cincticulus. The latter was a scarlet waist-band tied around his waist in a bow. This is the sense of the word that survives in the phrase legate. Military of ancient Rome portal List of Roman army unit typesLegatus – Ancient Rome
93. Officium (Ancient Rome) – Officium is a Latin word with various meanings in Ancient Rome, including "service", " duty", "courtesy", "ceremony" and the like. It also was used in later Latin to render more modern offices. AD 400. They are only referred to collectively, by various terms such as cohortalini. Magister officiorum Pauly-Wissowa Notitia dignitatumOfficium (Ancient Rome) – Ancient Rome
94. Prefect – Prefect is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which, basically, refers to the leader of an administrative area. The words "prefect" and "prefecture" are also used, less conventionally, to render analogous words in other languages, especially Romance languages. They did have some authority in civil administration. From the Emperor Diocletian's tetrarchy they became the administrators of the government level above the dioceses and provinces. Praefectus urbi, or praefectus urbanus: city prefect, in charge of the administration of Rome. Praefectus vigilum: commander of the Vigiles. Praefectus aerarii: nobles appointed guardians of the state treasury. Praefectus aerarii militaris: prefect of the military treasury Praefectus annonae: official charged with the supervision of the grain supply to the city of Rome. Praefectus alae: commander of a cavalry unit. Praefectus castrorum: camp commandant. Praefectus cohortis: commander of a cohort. Praefectus classis: fleet commander. Praefectus equitatus: cavalry commander. Praefectus equitum: cavalry commander. Praefectus fabrum: officer in charge of fabri, i.e. well-trained engineers and artisans.Prefect – Prefect of the Bouches-du-Rhône departement (France) during Bastille Day ceremony.
95. Vicarius – For the twelfth-century juris, see Vacarius. Vicarius is a Latin word, meaning substitute or deputy. It is the root of the English word "vicar". Originally, in ancient Rome, this office was equivalent to the English "-", used as part of the title of various officials. Each vicarius was assigned to a specific superior official, after whom his full title was generally completed by a genitive. At a low level of society, the slave of a slave, possibly hired out to raise money to buy manumission, was a servus vicarius. Later, in the 290s, the Emperor Diocletian carried out a series of administrative reforms, ushering in the period of the Dominate. These reforms also saw the creation of the diocese. The dioceses, initially twelve, grouped several provinces, each with its own governor. , more properly, by a agens praefecti praetorio. An exception was the Diocese of the East, headed by a comes. In 381 Egypt and Cyrenaica were made a diocese under an official called the Augustal Prefect. A cornicularius. Two numerarii. A commentariensis.Vicarius – Ancient Rome
96. Vigintisexviri – The Vigintisexviri was a college of minor magistrates in the Roman Republic; the name literally means "Twenty-Six Men". The singular of tresviri is triumvir; triumviri is considered to be less correct. In AD 13, however, the Senate passed a senatus consultum restricting the reduced Vigintivirate to the Equestrians. During the Principate, Caesar Augustus abolished the duoviri viis the four praefecti Capuam Cumas, thereby changing the vigintisexviri into the vigintiviri. Melville Jones, John R.. A Dictionary of Seaby, republished by Spink. ISBN 1-85264-026-X Hornblower, Simon & Spaworth, Antony. The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Third Edition. ISBN 0-19-866172-X Smith, William. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, John Murray, London. Smith, 1985:VigintisexviriVigintisexviri – Ancient Rome
97. Magister militum – Magister militum was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. Used alone, the term referred to the military officer of the Empire. In Greek sources, the term is translated either as stratelates. The title of militum was created in the 4th century, when Emperor Constantine the Great deprived the praetorian prefects of their military functions. The latter title had existed since Republican times, as the second-in-command to a Roman dictator. On occasion, the offices would be combined under a single person, magister utriusquae militiae. Other magistri were termed in praesenti. By the 4th century, the regional commanders were termed simply magister militum. In the Western Roman Empire, a "commander-in-chief" was sometimes appointed with the title of magister militiae. This powerful office was held by Stilicho, Ricimer and others. In the East, there were two senior generals, who were appointed to the office of militum praesentalis. In the establishment of the exarchates in 584, this practice found its first permanent expression. Indeed, after the loss of the eastern provinces to the Muslim conquest in the 640s, their commanders formed the first themata. – 419: Flavius Gaudentius 425–433: Flavius Aetius 435-439: Litorius 452–456: Agrippinus 456–461: Aegidius 461/462: Agrippinus? Alaric I 448/9 Agintheus.Magister militum – The original command structure of the Late Roman army, with a separate magister equitum and a magister peditum in place of the later overall magister militum in the command structure of the army of the Western Roman Empire.
98. Imperator – The Latin word imperator was originally a title roughly equivalent to commander under the Roman Republic. Later it became a part of the titulature of the Roman Emperors as part of their cognomen. The English emperor derives from imperator via Old French Empereür. The Roman emperors themselves generally based their authority rather than preferring any single title. Nevertheless, imperator was used relatively consistently throughout the principate and the dominate. In Latin, the feminine form of imperator is imperatrix, denoting a ruling female. When Rome was ruled by kings, to be able to rule, the king had to be invested with power. So, after the curiata, held to elect the king, the king also had to be conferred the imperium. In epigraphy, an imperator was a magistrate with imperium. But also, during the late Republican civil wars, imperator was the honorific title assumed by certain military commanders. In 15 AD Germanicus was also imperator during the empire of his adoptive father Tiberius. As a permanent title, imperator was taken on accession. After the reign of Tiberius, the act of being proclaimed imperator was transformed into the act of imperial accession. In fact, if a general was acclaimed as imperator, it would be tantamount to a declaration of rebellion against the ruling emperor. The title followed the emperor's name along with the number of times he was acclaimed as such, for example IMP V.Imperator – German East African Roupie, 1890. Coins of European Colonial Empires were sometimes inscribed in Latin, such as this colonial coin featuring Wilhelm II of Germany.
99. Princeps senatus – The princeps senatus was the first member by precedence of the Roman Senate. Although owning no imperium, this office brought enormous prestige to the senator holding it. The princeps senatus was not a appointment. He was chosen by every new pair of censors. Censors could, however, confirm a princeps senatus for a period of another 5 years. He was selected with consular rank, usually former censors. The successful candidate had to be a patrician with an political record, respected by his fellow senators. The office was established around the year 275 BC. Originally, the position of the princeps was one of honor: he had the privilege of speaking first on the topic presented by the presiding magistrate. This gave great dignitas as it allowed the princeps to set the tone of the debate in the Senate. By 80 BC, it is believed that the function of the office was changed by the Constitutional reforms of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. The same source also makes the same claim about Tacitus when the Senate acclaimed emperor in AD 275. Manius Valerius Maximus. Marcus Fabius Ambustus. C.Princeps senatus – Ancient Rome
100. Pontifex Maximus – The Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the College of Pontiffs in ancient Rome. This was the most important position in the ancient Roman religion, open only to patricians until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. A distinctly religious office under the early Roman Republic, it gradually became politicized until, beginning with Augustus, it was subsumed into the Imperial office. Its last use with reference to the emperors is in inscriptions of Gratian who, however, then decided to omit the words "pontifex maximus" from his title. It appears on buildings, monuments and coins of popes of Renaissance and modern times. According to the usual interpretation, the pontifex literally means "bridge-builder"; "maximus" literally means "greatest". However, it was always understood in its symbolic sense well: the pontifices were the ones who smoothed the "bridge" between gods and men. It was the view of Pontifex Maximus Quintus Scaevola. Others have held that the word was originally pompifex. The word pons originally meant pontifex would thus mean "maker of roads and bridges". Another opinion is that the word is a corruption of a etymologically unrelated Etruscan word for priest. The pontifex would thence be a member of a sacrificial college known as pomperia. The term" ἀρχιερεύς" is used in the New Testament to refer to the Jewish high priest. The Collegium Pontificum was the most important priesthood of ancient Rome. The foundation of the office of Pontifex Maximus is attributed to the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius.Pontifex Maximus – Augustus as Pontifex Maximus (Via Labicana Augustus)
101. Augustus (honorific) – On his death, it became an official title of his successor, was so used by Roman emperors thereafter. The feminine Augusta was used for other females of the Imperial family. The feminine forms originated in connection with things considered divine or sacred in traditional Roman religion. In Rome's Greek-speaking provinces, "Augustus" was translated as sebastos, or hellenised as augoustos. It remains a given name for males. Some thirty years before its first association with Caesar's heir, Augustus was an obscure honorific with religious associations. One early context, associates it with provincial Lares. In prose it was the "elevation" or "augmentation" of what is already religious. Some Roman sources connected it to augury, Rome was said to have been founded with the "august augury" of Romulus. The first true Roman Emperor known as "augustus" was Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. He was the adopted heir of Julius Caesar, officially deified. Octavian studiously avoided any association with Caesar's claims, other than acknowledging his position and duties as Divi filius, "son of the deified one". Nevertheless, his position was unique, extraordinary. He had ended Rome's prolonged and bloody civil war with his victory at Actium, established a lasting peace; he was self-evidently favoured by the gods. As princeps senatus he presided at senatorial meetings.Augustus (honorific) – A Roman coin featuring the emperor Diocletian and the title Augustus on the right
102. Caesar (title) – Caesar is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of the Roman dictator. The precedent was set: the Emperor designated his successor by giving him the name "Caesar." Galba helped solidify "Caesar" by giving it to his own adopted heir, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus. He was soon deposed by Marcus Otho. Otho did not at first use the title "Caesar" and later adopted the title "Caesar" as well. Otho was then defeated by Aulus Vitellius who acceded with the name "Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Imperator Augustus." Vitellius may have intended to replace it with "Germanicus". Titus Flavius Vespasianus became "Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus". On March 293, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus established the Tetrarchy, a system of rule by two senior Emperors and two junior sub-Emperors. The two senior emperors were styled identically to previous Emperors, as Imperator Caesar NN. Pius Felix Invictus were called the Augusti, while the two junior sub-Emperors were styled identically to previous Emperors-designate, as Nobilissimus Caesar. Likewise, the junior sub-Emperors retained the title "Caesar" to the senior position. The title was awarded in 1081. The title remained through the last centuries of the Empire.Caesar (title) – Bust of Julius Caesar from the Naples National Archaeological Museum.
103. Tetrarchy – This tetrarchy lasted until c. Although the term "tetrarch" was current in antiquity, it was never used of the imperial college under Diocletian. Instead, the term was used to describe independent portions of a kingdom that were ruled under separate leaders. The tetrarchy of Judaea, established after the death of Herod the Great, is the most famous example of the antique tetrarchy. As used by the ancients, the term describes not only different governments, but also a different system of government from the Diocletianic arrangements. A deep ideological opponent of the Diocletianic state, referred to the tetrarchs as a simple multiplicity of rulers. Much modern scholarship was written without the term. Although Edward Gibbon pioneered the description of the Diocletianic government as a "New Empire", he never used the term "tetrarchy"; neither did Theodor Mommsen. Even so, the term did not catch on in the literature until Otto Seeck used it in 1897. Diocletian took care of matters in the eastern regions of the empire while Maximian similarly took charge of the western regions. In 305, the senior emperors jointly retired, allowing Constantius and Galerius to be elevated to Augustus. These centres are known as the tetrarchic capitals. Sirmium was the capital of the eastern Caesar; this was to become the Balkans-Danube Illyricum. Mediolanum was the capital of the western Augustus; his domain became "Italia et Africa", with only a short border. Augusta Treverorum was the capital of Constantius Chlorus, the western Caesar, near the strategic Rhine border; it had been the capital of Gallic emperor Tetricus I.Tetrarchy – Map of the Roman Empire under the Tetrarchy, showing the dioceses and the four Tetrarchs' zones of influence.
104. Roman province – In Ancient Rome, a province was the basic, and, until the Tetrarchy, largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside of Italy. The province in modern English has its origins in the term used by the Romans. Provinces were generally governed by politicians of senatorial rank, former praetors. This exception was not contrary to Roman law, as Egypt was considered Augustus' personal property, following the tradition of earlier, Hellenistic kings. The territory of a people who were defeated in war might be brought in some cases entailing complete subjection. The formal annexation of a territory created a "province" in the modern sense of an administrative unit geographically defined. Republican provinces were administered by the consuls and praetors who had held office the previous year and who were invested with imperium. Rome started expanding during the First Punic War. The permanent provinces to be annexed were Sicily in 241 BC and Sardinia in 237 BC. Militarized expansionism kept increasing the number of these administrative provinces, until there were longer enough qualified individuals to fill the posts. 241 BC – Sicilia taken over from the Carthaginians and annexed at the end of the First Punic War. 197 BC – Hispania Citerior; along the east coast of the; part of the territories taken over from the Carthaginians. 197 BC - Hispania Ulterior; along the southern coast of the; part of the territories taken over from the Carthaginians in the Second Punic War. 147 BC – Macedonia; mainland Greece. It was annexed by the Achaean League.Roman province – Roman Empire under Augustus (31 BC – AD 14). Yellow: 31BC. Dark Green 31–19 BC, Light Green 19–9 BC, Pale Green 9–6 BC. Mauve: Client states
105. Tribune – Tribunus, in English tribune, was the title of various elected officials in Ancient Rome. The two most important were the tribunes of the military tribunes. Various officers within the Roman army were also known as tribunes. The title was also used for other positions and classes in the course of Roman history. The word "tribune" is derived from the Roman tribes. Subsequently, each of the Servian tribes was also represented by a tribune. This official had the authority to pass law, known as lex tribunicia, to preside over the comitia curiata. Unless the king himself elected to lead the cavalry into battle, this responsibility fell to the tribune of the celeres. In theory he could deprive the king of authority to command, with the agreement of the comitia curiata. It was Brutus who asked that they revoke the king's imperium. Originally five in the college of tribunes was expanded to ten in 457, remained at this number throughout Roman history. They were assisted by plebeian aediles. Only plebeians were eligible for these offices, although there were at least two exceptions. The tribunes of the plebs had the power to propose legislation before it. Only one of the tribunes could preside over this assembly, which plebiscites.Tribune – Ancient Rome
106. Quaestor – A quaestor was a public official in Ancient Rome. The position served different functions depending on the period. In the Roman Kingdom, parricidii were appointed by the king to handle murders. In the Roman Republic, quaestors were elected officials that supervised the state treasury and conducted audits. It was the lowest ranking position in the cursus honorum. In modern usage in Italy and Romania, a quaestor is a ranking officer on the force. In some organizations, a quaestor is the officer that oversees its finances, similar to a treasurer in other organizations. The earliest quaestors were quaestores parricidii, an office dating back to the Kingdom of Rome. Quaestores parricidii were chosen to investigate capital crimes, may have been appointed as needed rather than holding a permanent position. In the Roman Republic, quaestors were elected officials who supervised financial affairs of the state, its officers. The quaestors tasked with financial supervision were also called quaestores aerarii, because they oversaw the aerarium in the Temple of Saturn. The earliest origins of the office is obscure, but by about 420 BCE there were four quaestors elected each year by the Comitia Tributa. After 267 BCE, the number was expanded to ten. Once elected as quaestor, a Roman man earned the right to sit in the Senate and began progressing through the cursus honorum. Quaestors were also given a fasces and were entitled to one lictor.Quaestor – Ancient Rome
107. Aedile – Aedile was an office of the Roman Republic. Based in Rome, the aediles were responsible for regulation of public festivals. They also had powers to enforce public order. An aedilis curulis was classified as a magister curulis. The plebeian aediles were created in the same year as the Tribunes of the People. Originally intended as assistants to the tribunes, they guarded the rights of the plebs to their headquarters, the Temple of Ceres. Subsequently, they assumed responsibility as a whole. Their duties at first were simply ministerial. Around 446 BC, they were given the authority to care for the decrees of the senate. When a senatus consultum was passed, it deposited in the public treasury, the Aerarium. They were given this power because the Roman Consuls, who had held this power before, arbitrarily altered the documents. They also maintained the acts of the "plebiscites". Plebiscites, once passed, were also transcribed into a physical document for storage. While their powers grew over time, it is not always easy to distinguish those of the Roman Censors. Occasionally, if a Censor was unable to carry out one of his tasks, an Aedile would perform the task instead.Aedile – Ancient Rome
108. Praetor – The prae is a good indication that the title-holder was prior, in some way, in society. Livy mentions that the Latini were led and governed in warfare by one. A dictator was called the praetor maximus. The use of the adjectives in a large number of circumstances testify to a general sense. The leadership functions of any corporate body at Rome might be termed praetorial. The praetoria potestas in Republican Rome was at first held by the consuls. These two officials, elected on a yearly basis, inherited the power of the king. Very likely, himself was the first praetor. Militiae summum ius habento... Let there be two with the authority of the king, let them be called praetors, judges and consuls from their going before, judging and consulting. Let them have the supreme right of command of the military... This etymology of praetor became and remains the standard. Cicero considers the word to contain the elemental parts as the verb praeire. In exactly what way he goes before did not survive. Livy explains that in the year 366 BC the praetura was created to relieve the consuls of their judicial duties.Praetor – Ancient Rome
109. Roman consul – A consul was the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, the consulship was considered the highest level of the cursus honorum. Two consuls were elected together, to serve for a one-year term. A consul's imperium extended over Rome, Italy, the provinces. Originally, consuls were called praetors, referring as the chief military commanders. By at least 300 BC the title of Consul was being used. In Greek, the title was originally rendered as ὕπατος. The consulship was reintroduced. Consuls in wartime often held the highest military command. Religious duties included certain rites which, as a sign of their formal importance, could only be carried out by the highest state officials. Consuls also read an essential step before leading armies into the field. Two consuls were elected each year, serving together, each with a normal principle for magistracies. It is thought that originally only patricians were eligible for the consulship. Consuls were elected by the Comitia Centuriata, which had an aristocratic bias in its structure which only increased over the years from its foundation. Lucius Sextius, was elected the following year. Another possible explanation is that during the 5th century social struggles, the office of consul was gradually monopolized by a elite.Roman consul – Flavius Anastasius Paulus Probus Sabinianus Pompeius Anastasius (consul 517 AD) in consular garb, holding a sceptre and the mappa, a piece of cloth used to signal the start of chariot races at the Hippodrome. Ivory panel from his consular diptych.
110. Promagistrate – They were called proconsuls and propraetors. This was an innovation created during the Roman Republic. Initially it was intended to provide military commanders to lead an additional army. With the acquisitions of territories outside Italy which were annexed as provinces, propraetors became provincial administrators. A third type of promagistrate were the proquaestors. The first type of promagistrate was the proconsul. In the early days of the Roman Republic, when Roman territory was small, Rome had only two legions, each commanded by one of the two consuls. Rome was continually under attack by neighboring peoples. Dionysius of Halicarnassus recorded five instances when a proconsul was appointed between 480 BC and 464 BC. In 478 BC two proconsuls are mentioned. One served under the consul who went to fight the Etruscans in the north. Another one commanded a third legion. An extra legion was deployed so that two enemies in the south could be confronted individually with two armies. Dionysius did not specify the role of the proconsuls on the other occasion. It was a temporary measure adopted to deal with an immediate military emergency.Promagistrate – Ancient Rome
111. Roman governor – A Roman governor is also known as a proconsul. By the time of the early empire, several types of governor would emerge. Only propraetors fell under the classification of promagistrate. Aside from these financial duties, the governor was the province's chief judge. Capital cases were normally tried before him. An appeal was unlikely to succeed anyway, as a governor wouldn't generally take the chance of convicting contrary to the Emperor's wishes. The governor was also supposed to travel across his province to administer justice in the major towns where his attention was required. Most importantly, he commanded the military forces within the province. Elsewhere, there were only auxiliaries. These comites would serve with each supervising a different aspect of the province, assisting the governor in decision making. In other provinces, governors themselves appointed non-magistrate procurators to govern a small part of the province and act as their second-in-command. During the era of the Roman Republic, the council was in charge of appointing governors to Rome's provinces. The governor's level of authority was determined by what type of imperium he possessed. Most provinces were governed by propraetors who had served an annual term in the year before. They were given the authority rather than just using the militia.Roman governor – Ancient Rome
112. Roman dictator – The office was formally abolished after the death of Caesar, not revived under the Empire. In time they would come to be known until the creation of a third, junior praetor in 367 BC. The decisions of one could be appealed to the other. According to most authorities, the first dictator was Titus Lartius, who appointed Spurius Cassius his equitum. The magister equitum, was the "master of the horse". However, the use of dictator to refer to the populi seems to have been widespread from a very early period. A senatus consultum was advisory, did not have the force of law, but in practice it was nearly always followed. Next, if both consuls were available, either could nominate a dictator, either by agreement, or if they could not agree, by drawing lots. A dictator could be nominated for causa. These reasons could be combined, but must instead be inferred. However, from 360 BC onward, the dictators were usually consulares. Normally there was only one dictator at a time, although a new dictator could be appointed following the resignation of another. Like other curule magistrates, the dictator was entitled to the sella curulis. Symbolizing their power over death, the axes of a dictator's lictors set him apart from all other magistrates. In an extraordinary sign of deference, the lictors of other magistrates could not bear fasces at all when appearing before the dictator.Roman dictator – Roman Dictator Fabius Maximus
113. Master of the Horse – The Master of the Horse was a position of varying importance in several European nations. The Magister Equitum served as the Dictator's main lieutenant. In the Dictator's absence, the Magister Equitum exercised the same powers as the Dictator. It was usually but not always necessary for the man nominated as Magister Equitum to have already held the office of Praetor. Accordingly, the Magister Equitum had the insignia of a praetor: an escort of six lictors. The most famous Master of the Horse is Mark Antony, who served during Julius Caesar's first dictatorship. After the constitutional reforms of Augustus, the office of Dictator fell into disuse, along with that of the Magister Equitum. The title equitum was revived in the late Empire, when Constantine I established it as one of the supreme military ranks, alongside the Magister Peditum. Eventually, the two offices would be amalgamated into that of the Magister Militum. The Constable, from the Latin comes stabuli or count of the stables, has a similar history. The Master of the Horse in the United Kingdom was once an important official of the sovereign's household, though the role is largely ceremonial today. The master of the horse was always a member of the ministry, a peer and a privy councillor. Each of them was on duty for about the same time as the lords and grooms in waiting. They are youths aged to sixteen selected by the sovereign in person, to attend on him at state ceremonies. At the Coronation they assisted the groom of the stole in carrying the royal train.Master of the Horse – Lord Vestey, Master of the Horse (UK), riding to the Queen's Birthday Parade, 2009
114. Decemviri – Decemviri is a Latin term meaning ten men. The ancient Romans used it to designate any ten-man commission during the period of the Roman Republic. In English it is rendered as decemvirate. Different types of decemvirates included decemviri legibus scribundis consulari imperio, decemviri litibus iudicandis decemviri sacris faciundis and the distribution of public lands. The singular, decemvir, is used to indicate a member of a decemvirate both in Latin and in English. In English decemvirs is used as a plural for this. The setting up of this decemvirate occurred between the order. They were also large landowners. The form of exploitation during this archaic period was the nexum, what historians call debt slavery. The debtor pledged his labour services as collateral for debt. Defaulting debtors were liable to have their labour bonded for life. This also led to an increase in the problem of the abuse of defaulting debtors. Because of the absence of clearly defined laws and judicial procedures, the creditors could imprison and torture the debtors and, sometimes, sell them as slaves. This led to the First Plebeian Secession, the start of the Conflict of the Orders. The plebeians demanded the state to protect small farmers from the abuse of defaulting debtors by the creditors, who were the wealthy patrician landowners.Decemviri – Ancient Rome
115. Tribuni militum consulari potestate – Modern scholars now believe, however, that the creation of the consular tribunes was due to administrative requirements of the expanding Roman state. Originally office holders, they were referred to as "military tribunes", were responsible for leading the armies into battle. Presented by Varronian chronology. For more information on deciphering early Roman names, see Roman names. 444 BC A. Sempronius Atratinus T. Atilius Luscus T. Cloelius Siculus 438 BC Mam. Aemilius Mamercinus L. Quinctius Cincinnatus L. Julius Iulus 434 BC Ser. Cornelius Cossus M. Manlius Capitolinus Q. Sulpicius Camerinus Praetextatus 433 BC M. Fabius Vibulanus M. Folius Flaccinator L. Sergius Fidenas 432 BC L. Pinarius Mamercinus L. Furius Medullinus Sp. Postumius Albus Regillensis 426 BC T. Quinctius Poenus Cincinnatus C. Claudius Crassus Sp. Nautius Rutilus L. Sergius Fidenas Sex. Julius Iulus 422 BC L. Manlius Capitolinus Q. Nautius Rutilus C. Servilius Axilla 418 BC L. Sergius Fidenas M. Papirius Mugillanus C. Servilius Axilla 417 BC P. Lucretius Tricipitinus Agrippa Menenius Lanatus C.Tribuni militum consulari potestate – Ancient Rome
116. Triumvirate – A triumvirate is a political regime dominated by three powerful individuals, each a triumvir. The arrangement can be formal or informal, though the three are usually equal on paper, in reality this is rarely the case. The term can also be used to describe a state with three different military leaders who all claim to be the sole leader. In the context of the Soviet Union and Russia, the term troika is used for "triumvirate", directly borrowed from Russian language. Eventually the word "troika" came into usage in other contexts. Originally, triumviri were special commissions of three men appointed for specific administrative tasks apart from the regular duties of Roman magistrates. The capitales were first established around 290–287 BCE. They were supervised by the praetor urbanus. These triumviri, or the tresviri nocturni, may also have taken some responsibility for fire control. The triumviri or argento feriundo supervised the issuing of Roman coins. Three-man commissions were also appointed for purposes such as establishing colonies or distributing land. Another form of three-man commission was the tresviri epulones, who were in charge of organizing public feasts on holidays. This commission was created in 196 BCE by a tribunician law on behalf of the people, their number was later increased to seven. The arrangement had no legal status, its purpose was to consolidate the political power of the three and their supporters against the senatorial elite. The Second Triumvirate was recognized as a triumvirate at the time.Triumvirate
117. King of Rome – The King of Rome was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom. According to legend, the first king of Rome was Romulus, who founded the city upon the Palatine Hill. Seven legendary kings are said to have ruled Rome until 509 BC, when the last king was overthrown. These kings ruled for an average of 35 years. No reference is made to the hereditary principle until after the fifth king Tarquinius Priscus. Early Rome was ruled by the king. The king possessed absolute power over the people. The senate's main function was to administer the wishes of the king. Candidates for the throne could be chosen from any source. For one such candidate, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus was originally a citizen and migrant from a neighboring Etruscan city-state. The people of Rome, sitting as the Curiate Assembly, could then either reject the nominated candidate-king. Only the king could wear a purple toga. The people thus viewed the king with religious awe. This made the head of the national religion and its chief executive. Having the power to control the Roman calendar, he conducted appointed lower religious offices and officers.King of Rome – Capitoline Wolf
118. Roman law – The historical importance of Roman law is reflected in many legal systems influenced by it. After the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire, the Roman law remained in the Eastern Roman Empire. From the 7th onward, the legal language in the East was Greek. Roman law also denotes the legal system applied until the end of the 18th century. In Germany, Roman practice remained in place longer under the Holy Roman Empire. North American common law were influenced also by Roman law, notably in their Latinate legal glossary. Also, Eastern European law was influenced by the "Farmer's Law" of the medieval legal system. It is believed that Roman Law is rooted in the Etruscan religion, emphasising ritual. The legal text is the Law of the Twelve Tables, dating from the mid-5th century BC. The plebeian tribune, C. Terentilius Arsa, proposed that the law should be written, in order to prevent magistrates from applying the law arbitrarily. According to the traditional story, ten Roman citizens were chosen to record the laws. While they were performing this task, they were given political power, whereas the power of the magistrates was restricted. These laws were regarded as unsatisfactory by the plebeians. A second decemvirate is said to have added two further tablets in 449 BC.Roman law – Cicero, author of the classic book The Laws, attacks Catiline for attempting a coup in the Roman Senate.
119. Twelve Tables – According to Roman tradition, the Law of the Twelve Tables was the legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. The Tables consolidated earlier traditions into an enduring set of laws. The Twelve Tables are sufficiently comprehensive that their substance has been described as a'code', although modern scholars consider this characterization exaggerated. The Tables were a sequence of definitions of procedures. They generally took for granted such things as the institutions of various rituals for formal transactions. The provisions lack an intelligible system or order. After the expulsion of the last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, the Republic was governed by a hierarchy of magistrates. Initially, this, among other plebeian complaints, was a source of discontent for plebeians. In the context of this unequal status, plebeians would take action to secure concessions for themselves using the threat of secession. They would threaten to leave the city with the consequence that it would grind to a halt, as the plebeians were Rome's force. Around 450 BC, the first decemviri were appointed to draw up the first ten tables. In 450 BC, the second decemviri started to work on the last two tables. The first decemvirate completed the first ten codes in 450 BC. According to Livy the Twelve Tables posted publicly, so all Romans could read and know them. The Twelve Tables are no longer extant: although they remained an important source through the Republic, they gradually became obsolete, eventually being only of historical interest.Twelve Tables – Ancient Rome
120. Mos maiorum – The mos maiorum is the unwritten code from which the ancient Romans derived their social norms. It is the core concept of Roman traditionalism, distinguished from but in dynamic complement to written law. The maiorum was collectively the time-honoured principles, behavioural models, social practices that affected private, political, military life in ancient Rome. The Roman family was hierarchical, as was Roman society. These hierarchies were self-perpetuating, they supported and were supported by the mos maiorum. The pressure of social censure if he failed to live up to expectations was also a form of mos. The social relationship of ancient Rome was that between patron and client. Although the obligations of this relationship were mutual, they were also hierarchical. If the familia was the discrete unit underlying society, these interlocking networks created the bonds that made a complex society possible. In this sense, mos becomes than precedent. But because the maiorum was a matter of custom, not written law, the complex norms it embodied evolved over time. The ability to preserve a strongly centralized sense of identity while adapting to changing circumstances permitted the expansionism that took Rome to world power. The preservation of the maiorum depended on consensus and moderation among the ruling elite, whose competition for power and status threatened it. Democratic politics driven to the Roman people potentially undermined the conservative principle of the mos. Written law replaced consensus.Mos maiorum – The Roman family was one of the ways that the mos maiorum was passed along through the generations
121. Roman citizenship – Citizenship in ancient Rome was a privileged political and legal status afforded to free individuals with respect to laws, property, governance. A citizen could, under certain exceptional circumstances, be deprived of his citizenship. Roman women had a limited form of citizenship. Though held in high regard they were not allowed to vote or stand for civil or public office. The rich might participate by sponsoring other events. Women had the right to own property, to engage in business, to obtain a divorce, but their legal rights varied over time. Marriages were an important form of political alliance during the Republic. Client state citizens and allies of Rome could receive a limited form of Roman citizenship such as the Latin Right. Such citizens could not vote or be elected in Roman elections. Slaves were considered property and lacked legal personhood. Over time, they acquired a few protections under Roman law. Some slaves were freed by manumission for services rendered, or through a testamentary provision when their master died. Once free, they faced few barriers, beyond normal social snobbery, to participating in Roman society. Freedmen were former slaves who had gained their freedom. They were not automatically given citizenship and lacked some privileges such as running for executive magistracies.Roman citizenship – The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman male citizen, and statues of emperors (here Antoninus Pius) frequently depict them togate (togatus).
122. Auctoritas – Auctoritas is a Latin word and is the origin of English "authority". Auctoritas was not merely political, however; it symbolized the mysterious "power of command" of heroic Roman figures. Noble women could also achieve a degree of Auctoritas. For example, the wives, mothers of the Julio-Claudians had immense influence on society, the masses, the political apparatus. They were powerful nonetheless. According to French linguist Emile Benveniste, auctor is derived from Latin augeō. The auctor is "is the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. One might say, "planter-cultivator". This auctoritas would, for example, persist through an usucapio of ill-gotten or abandoned property. Politically, auctoritas was connected to the Roman Senate's authority, not to be confused with potestas or imperium, which were held by the people. In this context, Auctoritas could be defined as the juridical power to authorize some other act. The 19th-century classicist Theodor Mommsen describes the "force" of auctoritas as "less than command, an advice which one may not safely ignore." Cicero says of authority, "Cum potestas in populo auctoritas in senatu sit." In the private domain, those such as women and minors, were similarly obliged to seek the sanction of their tutors for certain actions. Thus, auctoritas characterizes the auctor: The pater familias authorizes --, legitimates -- his son's wedding in prostate.Auctoritas – Representation of a sitting of the Roman Senate: Cicero attacks Catilina, from a 19th-century fresco
123. Status in Roman legal system – In Roman law, status describes a person's legal status. According to Roman civil law, only Roman citizens had the full civil and political rights. In the Roman state, there were cives, Latini and peregrini, foreigners. Outside the Roman state, there were externi, hostes. Status familiae is the legal status of an individual in the family. Everyone was subjected to him based on adgnatio. This had an impact in private law. There is a distinction between alieni iuris and sui iuris. In the area of private law he was restricted because of patria potestas. The legal status of slaves in the Roman state was different in different epochs. In the time of civil law slavery had a patriarchal shape. From that time on, a slave became only a thing - pro nullis habentur. The legal state of slaves was based on the fact that the slave was not a subject but an object of law. A master had the right of ownership over the slave. He could sell him, certainly could not harm or kill him.Status in Roman legal system – Ancient Rome
124. Military history of ancient Rome – The military history of ancient Rome is inseparable from its political system, based from an early date upon competition within the ruling elite. Following is a list of topics on the military history of ancient Rome. Structural history of the Roman military The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman navy. Within these branches the actual structure was subject to substantial change throughout its history. History of the Roman military The history of Rome is inseparable from its military history over the roughly thirteen centuries that the Roman state existed. Naval battles were largely less important, although there are notable exceptions during, for instance, others. Technological history of the Roman military From stones to ballistae and quinqueremes. Political history of the Roman military From subjects of the state to subjects of the general.Military history of ancient Rome
125. Borders of the Roman Empire – A limes was a border system of the Roman Empire. Hence it was utilized by Latin writers to denote fortified frontiers. The name given to proper Walls was vallum, which might have represented a border. In Britannia the Empire built two walls for Mauretania there was a single wall with forts on both sides of it. So far the traditional use of the term. It is now more common to accept that this is an anachronistic terminology, reflecting the views of modern scholars more than Roman reality. Limes was in fact not used to indicate a fortified border. After the third century it was an administrative term, indicating a military district, commanded by a dux limitis. In continental Europe, the borders were generally well defined, usually following the courses of major rivers such as the Danube. In Great Britain both Hadrian and Antoninus Pius built defences to protect the province of Britannia from the Caledonians. The Parthians were a group of Iranian peoples that ruled most of Greater Iran, in modern-day Iran, western Iraq, the Caucasus. In 118 Hadrian decided that it was in Rome's interest to re-establish the Euphrates as the limit of its direct control. The Empire controlled the mountain ranges further inland. The Romans finally used Siwa as a place of banishment. However Romans controlled the Nile many miles up to the modern border between Egypt and Sudan.Borders of the Roman Empire – The limes that protected the Empire from German raids.
126. Military establishment of the Roman Republic – Inspired by the idea of new constitutions arising there, the Roman populace established a republic. The army could only respond through change. This article covers the military establishment of the Roman Republic. In the Roman army see military establishment of the Roman kingdom. The historian Polybius gives a clear picture of the republican army at what is arguably its height in 160 BC. Serving in the army was part of Roman civic duty. Soldiers were sorted into different classes according to wealth. Velites made up the lower class soldiers; it was this class which made up the majority of the heavy infantry legions characteristic to Rome. His changes were so critical to the success of Roman legions that the army is characterized in history as "pre-Marian" and "post-Marian" or just "Marian". The highest officers of the military were the two consuls for that year, who were also the leaders of the senate at Rome. Each of them ordinarily commanded an group of two legions: they also had responsibility for raising these troops. In militaristic Rome, the highest civilian officers were also the commanding generals in battle. They answered only to the Roman Senate. Raising the legions was an annual affair. The term of service was year although many candidates no doubt were picked year after year.Military establishment of the Roman Republic
127. Structural history of the Roman military – Within the top levels of both navy, structural changes occurred as a result of both positive military reform and organic structural evolution. These changes can be divided into four distinct phases. I The army was derived from obligatory annual military service levied on the citizenry, as part of their duty to the state. During this period, the Roman army would wage seasonal campaigns against largely local adversaries. Phase II As the size of the forces increased, the soldiery gradually became salaried professionals. As a consequence, military service at the lower levels became progressively longer-term. Military units of the period were largely homogeneous and highly regulated. The army consisted of units of infantry known as legions as well as non-legionary allied troops known as auxilia. The latter were most commonly called upon to provide light infantry, cavalry support. Emphasis was placed on preserving gained territory. The army became more dependent on fixed garrisons than on march-camps and continuous field operations. Phase IV As Rome began to struggle to keep control over its sprawling territories, military service continued to be professional for Rome's regular troops. At the same time, the uniformity of structure found in Rome's earlier military disappeared. Soldiery of the era ranged from lightly armed mounted archers in regiments of varying size and quality. In this period there was more focus on smaller units of independently-operating troops, engaging less more in low-intensity, guerilla actions.Structural history of the Roman military – Ancient Greek sculpture of a hoplite (c. 5th century BC, Archæological Museum of Sparti), on which Rome's first class of infantry was based.
128. Campaign history of the Roman military – These accounts were written throughout and after the history of the Empire. From the outset, the majority of Rome's campaigns were characterised by one of two types. The second is the civil war, which plagued Rome to its eventual demise. Roman armies were not invincible, despite their formidable host of victories, Romans "produced their share of incompetents" who led Roman armies into catastrophic defeats. Nevertheless, it was generally the fate of even the greatest such as Pyrrhus and Hannibal, to win the battle but lose the war. The history of Rome's campaigning is, if nothing else, a history of obstinate persistence overcoming appalling losses. Knowledge of Roman history stands apart from other civilizations in the ancient world. Its chronicles, military and otherwise, document the city's very foundation to its eventual demise. Rome's earliest history, to the downfall of its kings, is the least well preserved. A number of points of view have been proposed. The first of the campaigns fought in this legendary account are the wars with various Latin cities and the Sabines. Those of Crustumerium were defeated next in a similar fashion. There was a further war in the 8th BC against Fidenae and Veii. In the 7th BC there was a war with Alba Longa, a second war with Fidenae and Veii and a second Sabine War. Ancus Marcius led Rome against the Latins and, according to the Fasti Triumphales, over the Veientes and Sabines also.Campaign history of the Roman military – Rape of the Sabine Women, by Nicolas Poussin, Rome, 1637–38 (Louvre Museum)
129. Political history of the Roman military – Rome's military was always tightly keyed to its political system. In the Roman kingdom the social standing of a person impacted both military roles. The political system was from an early date based within the ruling elite. Senators in the Republic competed fiercely for public office, the most coveted of, the post of Consul. Two would be assigned a consular army and an area in which to campaign. The Senate ordered Gaius Marius, as Consul for that year, to put down the revolt. Marius, although he was generally allied with the radicals, put down the revolt in the interest of public order. The choice before the Senate was to put either Consul Marius or Consul Sulla in command of an army. Marius had already enjoyed widespread popularity. Sulla traveled to reach the army waiting in Nola, the army the Senate had asked him to lead against Mithridates. Sulla urged his legions to accept him as their rightful leader. The legions stoned the representatives from the Assembly when they arrived, defying the state's orders. Sulla then commanded six legions to march to Rome. It was a pattern to be repeated more famously later by Caesar. During the First Triumvirate of Julius Caesar, Pompey and Crassus, each of the triumvires used military success to enhance their own public status.Political history of the Roman military
130. Strategy of the Roman military – The strategy of the Roman military contains its grand strategy, operational strategy and, on a small scale, its military tactics. Whereas the purest form of tactics or engagement are those free of political imperative, the purest form of political policy does not involve military engagement. Strategy as a whole is the use of force to achieve it. It is not an end in itself. Early Rome did raise and arm troops, they tended to raise them annually in response to the specific demands of the state during that year. The contribution of military force to strategy was largely reduced to operational strategy - the planning and control of large military units. Rome's grand strategy pressure another nation into compliance, as well as the management of the post-war peace. Vegetius wrote that "every plan... is to be considered, every expedient tried and every method taken before matters are brought to this last extremity... However, Vegetius was writing late in the fourth century AD, in the latter years of the Empire. However, the preponderance of Roman campaigns exhibit a preference for direct engagement in open battle and, where necessary, the overcoming of fortified positions via military engineering. Once the legion had deployed on an operation, they would generally march to their objective. The approach to the battlefield was made in several columns, enhancing maneuver. Typically a strong vanguard included scouts, cavalry and light troops. A other officer often accompanied the vanguard to survey the terrain for possible camp locations. Recon elements were also deployed to provide the usual covering security.Strategy of the Roman military
131. Roman military engineering – The military engineering of Ancient Rome's armed forces were of a scale and frequency far beyond that of any of its contemporaries'. Each Roman legion had a military fort as its permanent base. These engineers would requisition manual labor from the soldiers at as required. A legion could throw up a camp under attack in as little as a few hours. The engineers also built bridges depending on required permanence, time available etc.. Some Roman stone bridges survive to this day. Stone bridges were made possible by the innovative use of the keystone to allow an arch construction. One of the most notable examples of military bridge-building in the Roman Empire was Julius Caesar's Bridge over the Rhine River. This bridge is conservatively estimated to have been more than 100 m long. Caesar was able to explore the area uncontested, before crossing back over and dismantling the bridge. The bridge was intended to show otherwise. The 1st century BC engineer Vitruvius describes in detail many of the Roman siege machines in his manuscript De Architectura. Road-making skills are such that some Roman roads survive to this day. Michael Grant credits the Roman building of the Via Appia with winning the Second Samnite War. The Roman army also took part for civilian use.Roman military engineering – The remains of Vercovicium on Hadrian's Wall near Housesteads, England
132. Roman military frontiers and fortifications – Roman military borders and fortifications were part of a grand strategy of territorial defense in the Roman Empire, although this is a matter of debate. In particular, Goldsworthy argues that the cavalry-based warfare of the Parthians, Sarmatians and Persians presented a major challenge to the expansion of Rome's infantry-based armies. However, systematic construction of fortifications around the periphery of the empire on a strategic scale began around 40 AD under Emperor Caligula. However, it was under Hadrian's rule, which began in 117, that the Roman frontier was systematically fortified. The coherent construction of these fortifications on a strategic scale are known as the limes, continued until around 270. However, it is not correct to interpret other limes in the same way or to view the limes as an impenetrable barrier. Other limes would not have had a continuous man-made fortification for the entirety of their length. In places, a river, desert or natural outcropping of rock could provide the same effect for zero outlay. Additionally, a large army would have been able to force a crossing of the limes using siege equipment. This called throughout its depth. In the very late Empire the frontiers became even more elastic, with little effort expended in maintaining frontier defense. This left them with a border shared with a people who made repeated raids and insurrections against them. Although the border was not a continuous wall, a series of fortifications known as Gask Ridge in mid-Scotland may well be Rome's earliest fortified land frontier. Although records are scarce, there are indications that the border fluctuated between the various fortifications depending on the local strength of the military. These northern fortifications are sometimes styled the Limes Britannicus.Roman military frontiers and fortifications – Hadrian's Wall viewed from Vercovicium
133. Castra – In the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp. Castrum was the term used for different sizes of camps including a large legionary fortress, smaller auxiliary forts, "marching" forts. The diminutive castellum was used for fortlets, typically occupied by a detachment of a cohort or a century. In the terms "Roman fortress", "Roman fort" and "Roman camp" are commonly used for castrum. However, scholastic convention tends toward the use of the word "camp", "marching camp" and "fortress" as a translation of castrum. For a list of known castra see List of castra. This term appears in three Italic languages: Oscan, Umbrian and Latin. Castrorum Filius was one of names used then also by other emperors. The terms phrourion were used by Greek language authors to translate castrum and castellum, respectively. A castrum was designed to protect the soldiers, their equipment and supplies when they were not fighting or marching. Regulations required a major unit in the field to retire to a properly constructed camp every day. They could throw up a camp under attack in as little as a few hours. More permanent camps were stativa, "standing camps". The least permanent of these were castra aestivalia, "summer camps", in which the soldiers were housed sub pellibus or sub tentoriis, "under tents". Summer was the season.Castra – Reconstructed gateway of a Castra Stativa. Note the battlements, the Roman arches, the turres.
134. Technological history of the Roman military – The rise of the Roman Republic are generally seen as signalling the end of the Iron Age in the Mediterranean. Roman iron-working was enhanced by a process known as carburization. The 1,300 years of Roman military technology saw radical changes in technology. The Roman armies of the early empire were much better equipped than early republican armies. Metals used for arms and armour primarily included iron, brass. For construction, the army used wood, stone. The later use of concrete in architecture was widely mirrored in Roman military technology, especially to civilian construction projects. The Etruscans used it in bridges as well as buildings. Some later Roman technologies were taken directly from Greek civilization. This included the military advances that the Greeks had made, well as all the scientific, mathematical, political and artistic developments. However, the Romans made many technological advances, such as the invention of hydraulic cement and concrete. Their methods were recorded as Vitruvius and Frontinus for example, who wrote handbooks to advise fellow engineers and architects. That tradition continued as the empire absorbed new ideas. Romans thought as practical, so small-scale innovation was common. However, this view is being challenged on a wide scale.Technological history of the Roman military – Pont du Gard
135. Roman army – The Early Roman army of the Roman Kingdom and of the early Republic. The early Roman army was based on an annual levy. The infantry ranks were filled with the lower classes while the cavalry were left to the patricians, because the wealthier could afford horses. Moreover, the commanding authority during the regal period was the high king. Until the establishment of the Republic and the office of consul, the king assumed the role of commander-in-chief. However, from about 508 BC Rome no longer had a king. The legion is derived from the Latin legio; which ultimately means draft or levy. At first there were only four legions. These legions were numbered "I" to "IIII", with the fourth being written as such and not "IV". The first legion was seen as the most prestigious. The latter being a recurring theme in many elements of the Roman army. The bulk of the army was made up of citizens. These citizens could not choose the legion to which they were allocated. Any man "from ages 16-46 were selected by ballot" and assigned to a legion. Until the Roman military disaster of 390 BC at the Battle of the Allia, Rome's army was organised similarly to the Greek Phalanx.Roman army – Recreation of a Roman soldier wearing plate armour, National Military Museum, Romania.
136. Roman infantry tactics – The article first presents a short overview of Roman training. Roman performance against different types of enemies is then analyzed. It does not attempt detailed coverage of things like army equipment. Various battles are summarized to illustrate Roman methods to detailed articles on individual encounters. For in background on the historical structure of the infantry relevant to this article, see Structure of the Roman military. For a history of Rome's military campaigns see history of the Roman military. For detail on equipment, specific Legions see Roman Legion and Roman military personal equipment. Roman military tactics and strategy evolved to massive operations encompassing a world empire. They form a distinct basis underlying Rome's rise. This included the reversal of status of infantry in the Eastern Empire. This bounty of military resources enabled Rome to stay in the field and replace losses, even after suffering setbacks. Rome not only did in fact field large armies in the opening stages of the war. Against these mighty resources Hannibal led from Spain an army of approximately 50,000 infantry and 9,000 cavalry... Rome’s manpower reserves allowed it to absorb staggering losses yet still continue to field large armies. This load consisted of armour, a sword called a gladius, a shield, 15 days' food rations.Roman infantry tactics – Roman re-enactors demonstrate a variant of the Roman testudo formation
137. Roman military personal equipment – Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns, it was used in an established way. These standard patterns and uses were called the res militaris or disciplina. Its regular practice during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire led to military excellence and victory. Roman equipment gave them "a very distinct advantage over their barbarian enemies." This did not imply that every Roman soldier had better equipment than the richer men among his opponents. According to Edward Luttwak, Roman equipment was not of a better quality than that used by the majority of its adversaries. Initially, they used weapons based on Greek and Etruscan models. On encountering the Celts, they based new varieties on Celtic equipment. To defeat the Carthaginians, they constructed an entire fleet de novo based on the Carthaginian model. Once a weapon was adopted, it became standard. The standard weapons varied somewhat during Rome's long history, but the equipment and its use were never individual. Vegetius, 4th-century author of De Re Militari, describes the equipment he believed had been used by heavy and light infantry earlier in the empire. The other smaller had five ounces of iron and a stock of three and one-half feet, was called a vericulum but now is a verutum. The first line, of hastati, the second, of principes, were composed of such arms. There were likewise bowmen with helmet, coat of mail, sword, arrows and bow.Roman military personal equipment – Reenactment of a Roman legion attack.
138. Roman siege engines – Roman siege engines were, for the most part, adapted from Hellenistic siege technology. Relatively small efforts were made to develop the technology; however, the Romans brought an unrelentingly aggressive style to siege warfare that brought them repeated success. Ballistae were used sparingly. Julius Caesar took great interest in the integration of advanced siege engines, organizing their use for optimal battlefield efficiency. To facilitate the army's self-sufficiency, an corps was developed. There were legion architects who were responsible for the construction of war machines who would also assure that all artillery constructions in the field were level. Ensuring that constructions were level was the job of the libratores, who would also launch missiles and other projectiles during battle. The corps was in charge of massive production, frequently prefabricating artillery and equipment to facilitate its transportation. It would also provide fire for troops building those in siege towers. There were machines called tormenta, which would launch projectiles such as javelins, beams. These devices were on wheeled platforms to follow the line’s advance. It was later stated that sinew, instead of twisted hair, provided a better “spring.” It is somewhat difficult to clearly define and describe Roman artillery, as names are easily confused and historians still do not agree on all definitions. Perhaps best known are the ballista, the onager, the scorpio. This included the hugely advantageous military advances the Greeks had made, well as all the scientific, mathematical, artistic developments.Roman siege engines – One talent ballista (26 kg weight projectile). The heaviest versions could shoot up to three talents (78 kg), possibly much more.
139. Roman navy – The Roman navy comprised the naval forces of the Ancient Roman state. The navy was instrumental in the Roman conquest of the Mediterranean basin, but it never enjoyed the prestige of the Roman legions. Partly because of that, the navy was never wholly embraced by the Roman state, deemed somewhat "un-Roman". In Antiquity, navies and trading fleets did not have the logistical autonomy that modern ships and fleets possess. Unlike naval forces, the Roman navy operated as an adjunct to the Roman army. During the Imperial period, the Mediterranean became largely a peaceful "Roman lake". In the absence of a maritime enemy, the navy was reduced mostly to transport duties. The navy also maintained craft for supplying the army. On the fringes of the Empire, in new conquests or, increasingly, in defense against barbarian invasions, the Roman fleets were still engaged in open warfare. As successive waves of the Völkerwanderung crashed on the land frontiers of the battered Empire, the navy could only play a secondary role. In the 5th century, barbarian kingdoms appeared on the shores of the western Mediterranean. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the late 5th century. The navy of the surviving eastern Roman Empire is known as the Byzantine navy. The exact origins of the Roman fleet are obscure. The Romans rarely ventured out unlike their Etruscan neighbours.Roman navy – Three-banked ("trireme") Roman quinquereme with the corvus boarding bridge. The use of the corvus negated the superior Carthaginian naval expertise, and allowed the Romans to establish their naval superiority in the western Mediterranean.
140. Auxilia – The Auxilia constituted the standing non-citizen corps of the Imperial Roman army during the Principate era, alongside the citizen legions. The auxilia thus represented three-fifths of Rome's regular land forces at that time. Like their legionary counterparts, auxiliary recruits were mostly volunteers, not conscripts. In contrast to the legions, which only admitted Roman citizens, members of the Auxilia could be recruited from territories outside of Roman control. The Julio-Claudian period saw the transformation of the Auxilia to a standing corps with standardised structure, equipment and conditions of service. By the end of the period, there were no significant differences between auxiliaries in terms of training, thus, combat capability. Despite its formidable strength, the legion had a number of especially a lack of cavalry. Around 200 BC, a legion of 4,200 infantry had a cavalry arm of only 300 horse. In addition the legion lacked missile forces such as archers. This was Rome's system until the Social War of 91 -- 88 BC. The Italian forces were organised into alae. Since a pre-Social War army always contained an equal number of legions and alae, 75 % of its cavalry was provided by the Latin allies. The Roman/Latin cavalry was sufficient while Rome was with other states in the mountainous Italian peninsula, which also disposed of limited cavalry resources. From then, Roman armies were always accompanied by large numbers of non-Italian cavalry: light cavalry and, later, Gallic heavy cavalry. For example, Caesar relied heavily on Gallic and German cavalry for his Conquest of Gaul.Auxilia – Roman auxiliary infantry crossing a river, probably the Danube, on a pontoon bridge during the emperor Trajan 's Dacian Wars (101–106 AD). They can be distinguished by the oval shield (clipeus) they were equipped with, in contrast to the rectangular scutum carried by legionaries. Panel from Trajan's Column, Rome
141. Roman military decorations and punishments – Grass crown -, was the highest and rarest of all military decorations. It was presented only to a general, officer whose actions saved the legion or the entire army. Civic crown -, was a chaplet of common oak leaves woven to form a crown. During the subsequent Principate, it was regarded as the second highest military decoration a citizen could aspire to. Naval crown -, was a gold crown awarded to the first man who boarded an ship during a naval engagement. In style, the crown was surmounted with the beaks of ships. Battlement crowns - These were made of gold and decorated with the uprights of an entrenchment or turrets of a city. Camp crown -, A golden crown, ornamented with the palisades used in forming an entrenchment. The use of this decoration is not clear. A small silver replica of a standard or flag. The sacramentum stated that he would fulfill his conditions of service on inclusive of death. The general had the power to summarily execute any soldier under his command. Soldiers under sentence of fustuarium who escaped lived under sentence of banishment from Rome. Pecunaria multa - fines or deductions from the pay allowance. Flogging in front of the century, legion.Roman military decorations and punishments
142. Hippika gymnasia – The hippika gymnasia were ritual displays or tournaments performed by the cavalry of the Roman Empire to display their skill and expertise. The their mounts wore highly elaborate armour and helmets specially made for display purposes, decorated with images from classical mythology. Such tournaments served several purposes, improving the riders' skills, impressing dignitaries and conquered peoples. The Romans maintained substantial cavalry forces to support their legions. The elite of the alae, were expected to perform complex manoeuvres that required extensive training. The riders practised complex manoeuvres with dummy weapons, alternately attacking and defending, displaying their horsemanship and courage to onlookers. . . From the helmets hang yellow plumes, a matter of décor as much as utility. As the horses move forward, the slightest breeze adds to the beauty of these plumes. Instead of breastplates the horsemen wear close-fitting Cimmerian tunics embroidered with scarlet, red or other colours. On their legs they wear tight trousers, not loosely fitting like those of the Parthians and Armenians. The horses have frontlets carefully made to also have side armour. Archaeological evidence has been found of such "sports equipment", as it has been dubbed. A hoard of cavalry armour dating to the 3rd century AD was discovered at Straubing in Bavaria in 1950.Hippika gymnasia – A reenactor and horse wearing pieces of display armour typical of the hippika gymnasia
143. Roman economy – The early Empire was monetized to a near-universal extent, in the sense of using money as a way to express prices and debts. The smallest coin commonly circulated was the bronze as, one-fourth sestertius. Bullion and ingots seem not to have counted as pecunia, "money," and were used only for transacting business or buying property. This tendency toward money led eventually to the debasement of Roman coinage, with consequences in the later Empire. The standardization of money throughout the Empire promoted trade and integration. The high amount of coinage in circulation increased the money supply for trading or saving. Regulation of the banking system was minimal. Banks of classical antiquity typically kept less than the full total of customers' deposits. A typical bank had fairly limited capital, often only one principal, though a bank might have as many as six to fifteen principals. Seneca assumes that anyone involved in commerce needs access to credit. A professional banker received and held deposits for a fixed or indefinite term, lent money to third parties. The senatorial elite were involved heavily in both as creditors and borrowers, making loans from their personal fortunes on the basis of social connections. The holder of a debt could use it as a means of payment without cash changing hands. Generally, available capital exceeded the amount needed by borrowers. The central government itself did not borrow money, without public debt had to fund deficits from cash reserves.Roman economy – Solidus issued under Constantine II, and on the reverse Victoria, one of the last deities to appear on Roman coins, gradually transforming into an angel under Christian rule
144. Roman agriculture – Agriculture in ancient Rome was not only a necessity, but it was idealized among the social elite as a way of life. Cicero considered farming the best of all Roman occupations. Cato, Columella, Varro and Palladius wrote handbooks on practice. Bread was the mainstay of every Roman table. "The people living in the city of Rome constituted a huge market for the purchase of food produced on Italian farms." Soldiers were often rewarded from the commander they served. Though farms depended on labor, free men and citizens were hired at farms to oversee the slaves and ensure that the farms ran smoothly. In the 5th BC, farms in Rome were small and family-owned. The Greeks of this period, however, had large estates. The Hellenistic East in the 3rd and 2nd centuries improved Rome's agricultural methods. Roman agriculture reached its height during the late Republic and early Empire. Farm sizes in Rome can be divided into three categories. Small farms were from 18–108 iugera. . Medium-sized farms were from 80–500 iugera.Roman agriculture – Relief depicting a Gallo-Roman harvester
145. Roman commerce – The commerce of the Roman Empire was a major sector of the Roman economy during the early Republic and throughout most of the imperial period. The legions were supported by trade while being at the same time part of its backbone. The longevity of their empire was due to their commercial trade. Freedmen held shop or manned stalls at markets while vast quantities of slaves did most of the hard work. The slaves were themselves also the subject of commercial transactions. The intricate, extensive accounting of Roman trade was conducted with counting boards and the Roman abacus. The abacus, using Roman numerals, was ideally suited to the counting of Roman tallying of Roman measures. The Romans knew two types of businessmen, the mercatores. The negotiatores were in part bankers because they lent money on interest. They also did commerce in wholesale quantities of goods. In some instances the argentarii are considered in others as a group apart. The argentarii acted as agents in public or private auctions, kept deposits of money for individuals, served as moneychangers. They kept tabulae, which were considered as legal proof by the courts. The argentarii sometimes did the same kind of work as the mensarii, who were public bankers appointed by the state. The mercatores were usually freedmen.Roman commerce – Roman 4-wheeled wagon
146. Roman currency – Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, silver, bronze, orichalcum and copper coinage. During the third century BC, well into Imperial times, Roman currency saw many changes in form, denomination, composition. A persistent feature was the inflationary replacement of coins over the centuries. Notable examples of this followed the reforms of Diocletian. This trend continued into Byzantine times. The manufacture of coins in the Roman culture, dating from about the 4th BC, significantly influenced later development of coin minting in Europe. The origin of the word "mint" is ascribed to the manufacture of silver coin in 269 BC at the temple of Juno Moneta. Her name was applied both to money and to its place of manufacture. Roman mints were sometimes used for propaganda purposes. The populace often learned of a new Roman Emperor when coins appeared with the new Emperor's portrait. Roman adoption of metallic money was a late development in monetary history. Coinage proper was only introduced by the Roman Republican c. 300 BC. For these reasons, the Romans would have certainly known about coinage systems long before their government actually introduced them. The reason behind Rome's adoption of coinage was likely cultural. However, Roman coinage initially saw very limited use.Roman currency – Denarius of Marcus Aurelius.
147. Roman Republican currency – The currency of central Italy was influenced with bronze being abundant and silver ore being scarce. During the Second Punic war a flexible system of coins in bronze, gold was created. This system was dominated by a denomination which remained in circulation for 450 years. The coins of the republic are of particular interest because they were produced by junior officials who choose the designs and legends. This resulted in the production of coins advertising the officials' families for political purposes; most of the messages on these coins can still be understood today. Julius Caesar briefly raised their number to four. According to Suidas, the mint was located in the temple of Juno Moneta on the Capitoline Hill. Rome had conquered a large portion of central Italy, giving large quantities of bronze, but little silver. A system of heavy cast leaded coinage was introduced; these issues are known as aes grave by numismatists. The "uncia" was thus also a coin of the weight. In addition to its fractions, multiples of the as were also produced. Fractions were much more common than their multiples during the period of aes grave. By the time of the semi-libral standard, the smaller denominations such as semuncia were struck rather than cast. A variety of less common denominations were minted over time; those found in Crawford are listed here. Greek-style struck bronze coins were produced with the inscription ΡΩΜΑΙΩΝ around 300 BC; only a handful of examples exist today.Roman Republican currency – O: Bearded head of Mars with Corinthian helmet left.
148. Roman Imperial currency – Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, silver, bronze, orichalcum and copper coinage. During the third century BC, well into Imperial times, Roman currency saw many changes in form, denomination, composition. A persistent feature was the inflationary replacement of coins over the centuries. Notable examples of this followed the reforms of Diocletian. This trend continued into Byzantine times. The manufacture of coins in the Roman culture, dating from about the 4th BC, significantly influenced later development of coin minting in Europe. The origin of the word "mint" is ascribed to the manufacture of silver coin in 269 BC at the temple of Juno Moneta. Her name was applied both to money and to its place of manufacture. Roman mints were sometimes used for propaganda purposes. The populace often learned of a new Roman Emperor when coins appeared with the new Emperor's portrait. Roman adoption of metallic money was a late development in monetary history. Coinage proper was only introduced by the Roman Republican c. 300 BC. For these reasons, the Romans would have certainly known about coinage systems long before their government actually introduced them. The reason behind Rome's adoption of coinage was likely cultural. However, Roman coinage initially saw very limited use.Roman Imperial currency – Denarius of Marcus Aurelius.
149. Roman technology – Roman technology is the engineering practice which supported Roman civilization and made the expansion of Roman commerce and Roman military possible for over a millennium. All technology uses some form of mechanics combined with another form to make something better. The cheaper energy is, the class of technologies that are considered economic. This is why technological history can be seen as a succession of ages defined by human, animal, water, peat, coal, oil. Watermills were common throughout the Empire, especially to the end of the 1st century AD. They were used for cereals milling, crushing ore. They exploited coal for heating. They were all in the wrong place. Wood could be floated down rivers to the urban centres but otherwise it was a very poor fuel, being heavy for its caloric value. If this was improved by being processed into charcoal, it was bulky. Nor was wood ever available in any concentration. Diocletian's Price Edict can give a glimpse of the economics of transporting wood. The maximum price of a load of 1,200 lbs of wood was 150 d.. The maximum charge per mile for the same wagon load was 20 d. per mile. Room heating was normally better done by charcoal braziers than hypocausts.Roman technology – The Pont du Gard in France is a Roman aqueduct built in c. 19 BC.
150. Roman abacus – The Ancient Romans developed the Roman hand abacus, a portable, but less capable, base-10 version of the previous Babylonian abacus. It was the portable calculating device for engineers, merchants and presumably tax collectors. It greatly reduced the time needed to perform the basic operations of arithmetic using Roman numerals. But the most reliable and conservative guardian of a past culture, has come to our rescue once more. What the Greeks called psephoi, the Romans called calculi. The Latin calx means ` pebble' or ` gravel stone'; calculi are thus little stones." Both the Chinese suanpan have been used since ancient times. The rightmost two grooves were for fractional counting. The abacus was made of a plate where the beads ran in slots. The size was such that it could fit in a modern pocket. The beads in the upper shorter grooves denote fives—five units, five tens, etc. essentially in a bi-quinary coded decimal place value system. Computations are made by means of beads which would probably have been slid down the grooves to indicate the value of each column. These latter two slots are for a development unique to the Roman hand abacus described in following sections. 3 slots with one, one and two beads respectively top to bottom. In either case, three symbols were included beside one symbol per slot for the three slot version.Roman abacus – A reconstruction of a Roman hand abacus, made by the RGZ Museum in Mainz, 1977. The original is bronze and is held by the Bibliothèque nationale de France, in Paris.
151. Roman numerals – Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols: The use of Roman numerals continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire. The numbers 1 to 10 are usually expressed in Roman numerals as follows: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X. Numbers are formed by combining symbols and adding the values, so II is two and XIII is thirteen. Symbols are placed from left to right in order of value, starting with the largest. Usage in ancient Rome varied greatly and remained inconsistent in medieval and modern times. Both methods appear in documents from the Roman era, even within the same document. "Double subtractives" also occur, such as XIIX or even IIXX instead of XVIII. Sometimes V and L are not used, with instances such as IIIIII and XXXXXX rather than VI or LX. Such variation and inconsistency continued through the medieval period and into modern times, even becoming conventional. However, this is far from universal: for example, the clock on the Palace of Westminster in London uses IV. Similarly, at the beginning of the 20th century, different representations of 900 appeared in several inscribed dates. Although Roman numerals came to be written with letters of the Roman alphabet, they were originally independent symbols. Thus, ⟨I⟩ descends not from the letter ⟨I⟩ but from a notch scored across the stick. Every fifth notch was double cut i.e. ⋀, ⋁, ⋋, ⋌, etc.), every tenth was cross cut, IIIIΛIIIIXIIIIΛIIIIXII...), much like European tally marks today.Roman numerals – Entrance to section LII (52) of the Colosseum, with numerals still visible
152. Roman engineering – Romans are famous for their advanced engineering accomplishments, although some of their own inventions were improvements on older ideas, concepts and inventions. Technology for bringing running water into cities transformed by the Romans into a technology inconceivable in Greece. The architecture used in Rome was strongly influenced by Etruscan sources. 1,000 cubic metres of water were brought by 14 different aqueducts each day. Per capita usage in ancient Rome matched that of modern-day cities like New York City or modern Rome. Most water was for public use, such as sewers. De aquaeductu is the definitive two volume treatise of Rome written by Frontinus. Roman engineers used inverted siphons to move water across a valley if they judged it impractical to build a raised aqueduct. The Roman legions were largely responsible for building the aqueducts. Maintenance was often done by slaves. The Romans were among the first civilizations to harness the power of water. They spread the technology for constructing watermills throughout the Mediterranean region. It is known that they were also capable of operating mining equipment such as crushing mills and dewatering machines. Large diameter vertical wheels for raising water, have been excavated from the Rio Tinto mines in Southwestern Spain. Roman bridges were among the first lasting bridges ever built.Roman engineering – Reconstruction of a 420.4m high Roman Polyspastos in Germany
153. Roman aqueduct – The Romans constructed numerous aqueducts in order to bring water from often distant sources into cities and towns, supplying public baths, latrines, fountains and private households. Aqueducts also provided water for mining operations, milling, gardens. Aqueducts moved water through gravity alone, along a downward gradient within conduits of stone, brick or concrete. Most conduits followed the contours of the terrain; obstructing peaks were circumvented or, less often, tunneled through. Its contents fed into high-pressure lead, ceramic or stone pipes and siphoned across. Most aqueduct systems included sedimentation tanks, which helped reduce any water-borne debris. Castella aquae regulated the supply to individual destinations. The run-off water from aqueducts scoured the drains and sewers. Rome's first aqueduct supplied a fountain sited at the city's cattle market. Most Roman aqueducts proved durable; some were maintained into the early modern era, a few are still partly in use. Methods of aqueduct construction are noted by Vitruvius in his work De Architectura. The general Frontinus gives more detail in his official report on the problems, abuses of Imperial Rome's public water supply. Notable examples of aqueduct architecture include the aqueduct-fed cisterns of Constantinople. The reliance of ancient communities upon such water resources restricted their potential growth. The run-off of aqueduct water scoured the sewers of towns.Roman aqueduct – The multiple arches of the Pont du Gard in Roman Gaul (modern-day southern France). The upper tier encloses an aqueduct that carried water to Nimes in Roman times; its lower tier was expanded in the 1740s to carry a wide road across the river.
154. Roman bridge – Roman bridges, built by ancient Romans, were the first large and lasting bridges built. Roman bridges had the arch as the basic structure. Most utilized concrete well, which the Romans were the first to use for bridges. As with the dome the Romans were the first to fully realize the potential of arches for bridge construction. A more complete survey by the Italian scholar Vittorio Galliazzo found 931 Roman bridges, mostly of stone, in as many as 26 different countries. Roman arch bridges were usually semicircular, although a few were segmental. A segmental arch is an arch, less than a semicircle. Generally, Roman bridges featured primary arch stones of the same in size and shape. The Romans built both single spans and lengthy multiple arch aqueducts, such as the Pont du Gard and Segovia Aqueduct. Roman engineers were the first and until the industrial revolution the only ones to construct bridges with concrete, which they called Opus caementicium. The outside was usually covered with ashlar, as in the Alcántara bridge. The Romans also introduced segmental arch bridges into construction. Trajan's bridge over the Danube featured segmental arches made of wood. The late Roman Karamagara Bridge in Cappadocia may represent the earliest surviving bridge featuring a pointed arch. A typical example is the Pons Fabricius in Rome.Roman bridge – The Alcántara Bridge, Spain, a masterpiece of ancient bridge building
155. Circus (building) – The Roman circus was a large open-air venue used for public events in the ancient Roman Empire. The circuses were similar to the Greek hippodromes, although circuses served varying purposes and differed in design and construction. Along with amphitheatres, Circuses were one of the main entertainment sites of the time. Circuses were venues for chariot races, performances that commemorated important events of the empire were performed there. For events that involved re-enactments of naval battles, the circus was flooded with water. The Circus of Maxentius epitomises the design. The median strip was called the spina and usually featured ornate columns, commemorative obelisks. The turning points on either end of the spina were usually marked by conical poles, called the metae. This appears to be an exception. The great majority of circuses fit the description above. These latter circuses should probably be considered stadiums. There are similar buildings, called stadia, which were used for Greek style athletics. These buildings were typically smaller than circuses; however, the distinction is not always clear. An example of this type is the Stadium of Domitian. The comparative dimensions of a circus may be measured in 2 basic ways: by the seating capacity.Circus (building) – The site of the former Circus Maximus in modern-day Rome
156. Roman concrete – Roman concrete, also called opus caementicium, was a material used in construction during the late Roman Republic until the fading of the Roman Empire. Roman concrete was based on a hydraulic-setting cement. Recently, it has been found that it materially differs from modern concrete, based on Portland cement. Roman concrete is due to its incorporation of volcanic ash, which prevents cracks from spreading. By the middle of the 1st century, the material was used often brick-faced, although variations in aggregate allowed different arrangements of materials. Interiors might be further decorated by stucco, fresco paintings, or thin slabs of fancy colored marbles. Some Roman concretes were able to be set underwater, useful for other waterside construction. Vitruvius, writing on Architecture, distinguished types of aggregate appropriate for the preparation of lime mortars. For structural mortars, he recommended pozzolana, which are volcanic sands in color near Naples and reddish-brown at Rome. By the middle of the 1st century, the principles of underwater construction in concrete were well known to Roman builders. The city of Caesarea was the earliest known example to have made use of Roman concrete technology on such a large scale. Rebuilding Rome after the fire in 64 AD, which destroyed large portions of the city, the new code by Nero consisted of largely brick-faced concrete. This appears to have encouraged the development of concrete industries. Roman concrete, like any concrete, consists of an hydraulic mortar -- a binder mixed with water that hardens over time. The aggregate included pieces of rock, ceramic tile, brick rubble from the remains of previously demolished buildings.Roman concrete – The Pantheon in Rome, Italy, is an example of Roman concrete construction.
157. History of Roman and Byzantine domes – The History of Roman and Byzantine domes traces the architecture of domes throughout the ancient Roman Empire and its medieval continuation, today called the Byzantine Empire. They developed in form, use, structure over the centuries. Early examples featured a central oculus for ventilation and light. Pendentives became common in the Byzantine period, provided support for domes over square spaces. Nero introduced the dome in the 1st century and such rooms served as state banqueting halls, audience rooms, or throne rooms. Imperial mausolea, such as the Mausoleum of Diocletian, were domed beginning in the 3rd century. Constantine's octagonal church in Antioch may have been the precedent for similar buildings for centuries afterward. Church of the Holy Apostles inspired copies in later centuries. Domes over windowed drums of polygonal shape were standard after the 9th century. In the empire's later period, smaller churches were built after the 10th century. Exceptions include the 11th century domed-octagons of the 12th century Chora Church, among others. Rounded arches, domes distinguish Roman architecture from that of Ancient Greece and were facilitated by the use of concrete and brick. Formwork for brick domes could be more easily reused. Roman domes were used in baths, villas, tombs. Oculi were common features.History of Roman and Byzantine domes – The circular oculus of the Pantheon, at the center of the domed ceiling
158. Roman metallurgy – Metals and metal working had been known to the people of modern Italy since the Bronze Age. By 53 BCE, Rome had already expanded to control an immense expanse of the Mediterranean. As the empire grew, so did its need for metals. Central Italy itself was not rich in metal ores, leading to necessary trade networks in order to meet the demand for metal from the Republic. Britannia, Iberia, Dacia, Noricum were of special significance, as they became major sites of resource exploitation. There is evidence that after the middle years of the Empire there was a steep decline in mineral extraction. This was mirrored in other industries. Several books of his encyclopedia cover metals and metal ores, their occurrence, development. Many of the first metal artifacts that archaeologists have identified have been weapons, as well as objects used as ornaments such as jewellery. Alloys are mixtures of different metals created either by forging. It is important to note that an ore does not necessarily constitute an alloy; ore is a collection of alloyed metals. As metallurgical technology developed, more metals were intentionally included in the metallurgical repertoire. By the height of the Roman Empire, metals in use included: Silver, Copper, Tin, Lead, Zinc, Iron, Mercury, Arsenic, Antimony. As in the Age, metals were used based on many physical properties: aesthetics, hardness, colour, taste/smell, timbre, aversion to corrosion, weight, countless other factors. Containing deposits of the metals, it was very rich in resources.Roman metallurgy – Las Médulas, remains of the most important gold mine in the Roman Empire. The spectacular landscape resulted from the Ruina Montium mining technique
159. Roman roads – They provided efficient means for the overland movement of armies, officials, civilians, the inland carriage of official communications and trade goods. Roman roads were of several kinds, ranging to long-distance highways built to connect cities, major towns and military bases. These major roads were flanked by footpaths, bridleways and drainage ditches. Some were conducted over rivers and ravines on bridgework. Sections could be supported over marshy ground on rafted or piled foundations. The whole comprised more than 400,000 kilometres of roads, of which over 80,500 kilometres were stone-paved. In Gaul alone, no less than 21,000 kilometres of roadways are said to have been improved, in Britain at least 4,000 kilometres. The courses of many Roman roads survived for millennia. Some are overlaid by modern roads. Livy mentions some of the most familiar roads near the milestones on them, at times long before the paved road -- the Appian Way. Unless these allusions are just simple anachronisms, the roads referred to were probably at the time little more than levelled earthen tracks. A road map of the empire reveals that it was generally laced with a dense network of prepared viae. Beyond its borders there were no paved roads; however, it can be supposed that footpaths and dirt roads allowed some transport. There were, for instance, some ancient trackways such as the Ridgeway and the Icknield Way. For specific roads, see Roman road locations below.Roman roads – A Roman street in Pompeii
160. Sanitation in ancient Rome – Sanitation in ancient Rome was a complex system similar in many ways to modern sanitation systems. During the Dark Ages, the technical knowledge of the Roman system has subsequently been investigated by modern-era historians and archeologists. The latrines are the best-preserved feature at Housesteads Roman Fort on Hadrian's Wall. The soldiers sat with holes, which covered one big trench. Water ran at the soldiers' feet. A system of eleven Roman aqueducts provided the inhabitants of Rome with water of the best being reserved for potable supplies. Poorer-quality water was used in latrines. The practice is only attested to once. The Romans had a complex system of sewers covered by stones, much like modern sewers. Waste flushed from the latrines flowed into the main sewage system and thence into a nearby river or stream. However, it was not uncommon for Romans to throw waste out of windows into the streets, at least according to Roman satirists. Despite this, Roman management is admired for its innovation. It is estimated that the first sewers of ancient Rome were built between 735 BC. Drainage systems began primarily as a means to drain marshes and storm runoff. The sewers were mainly for the removal of underground water.Sanitation in ancient Rome – Remains of aqueducts Aqua Claudia and Anio Novus, integrated into the Aurelian Wall
161. Thermae – In ancient Rome, thermae and balneae were facilities for bathing. Thermae usually refers to the imperial bath complexes, while balneae were smaller-scale facilities, public or private, that existed in great numbers throughout Rome. Most Roman cities socializing. Roman bath-houses were also provided for private villas, forts. They were supplied with water by an aqueduct. The water would be heated before being channelled into the hot bathing rooms. The design of baths is discussed in De Architectura. Thermae, balneae, balineae, balineum may all be translated as "bath" or "baths", though Latin sources distinguish among these terms. Thus Cicero terms the baths at the villa of his brother Quintus balnearia. Balineae, which according to Varro have no singular number, were the public baths. Also in the same sentence, makes use of the neuter plural balnea for public, of balneum for a private bath. Writers, however, use these terms without distinction. Thus the baths erected by the freedman of the Emperor Claudius, are styled by Statius balnea, by Martial Etrusci thermulae. In an epigram by Martial -- subice balneum thermis -- the terms are not applied to two different chambers in the same edifice. A public bath was built around three principal rooms: the caldarium, the frigidarium.Thermae – Roman public baths in Bath, England. The entire structure above the level of the pillar bases is a later reconstruction.
162. Ancient Roman architecture – The two styles are often considered one body of classical architecture. Roman architecture flourished in the Roman Republic and even more so under the Empire, when the great majority of surviving buildings were constructed. It used new materials, particularly concrete, newer technologies such as the dome to make buildings that were typically strong and well-engineered. Large numbers remain in some form across the empire, sometimes complete and still in use. The classical orders now became largely decorative rather than structural, except in colonnades. However, they treated the orders with considerable freedom. More daring buildings soon followed, with great pillars supporting broad domes. The freedom of concrete also inspired a row of purely decorative columns in front of a load-bearing wall. In smaller-scale architecture, concrete's strength freed the floor plan to a more free-flowing environment. Factors such as wealth and high population densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to discover architectural solutions of their own. Examples include the aqueducts of Rome, the Baths of Caracalla, the basilicas and Colosseum. These were reproduced at a smaller scale in most important cities in the Empire. Some surviving structures are almost complete, such as the town walls of Lugo in Hispania Tarraconensis, now northern Spain. Especially under the empire, architecture often served a political function, demonstrating the power of the Roman state of specific individuals responsible for building. Roman builders employed Greeks in the early Empire; some were slaves originating with the conquest.Ancient Roman architecture – The Colosseum in Rome, Italy
163. Roman art – Roman art refers to the visual arts made in Ancient Rome and in the territories of the Roman Empire. Roman art includes architecture, painting, mosaic work. Figure painting was also very highly regarded. Roman coins have survived in enormous numbers. Other perishable forms of art have not survived at all. Practical application are the hallmarks of much Roman art. Though very little remains of portraiture, certainly Greek sculpture and vase painting bears this out. These forms were not likely surpassed by Roman artists in fineness of execution. As another example of the lost "Golden Age", he singled out Peiraikos, "whose artistry is surpassed by only a very few... The adjective "vulgar" is used here in its original meaning, which means "common". The Greek antecedents of Roman art were legendary. In the mid-5th BC, the most famous Greek artists were Polygnotos, noted for his wall murals, Apollodoros, the originator of chiaroscuro. In Skopas, Praxiteles, Phidias, Lysippos were the foremost sculptors. Greek treatises on the arts are known to have existed in Roman times though are now lost. Many Roman artists came from Greek colonies and provinces...Roman art – Fresco from the Villa of the Mysteries. Pompeii, 80 BC
164. Ancient Roman bathing – Bathing played a major part in ancient Roman culture and society. Bathing was practiced across a wide variety of social classes. Though contemporary cultures see bathing as a very private activity conducted in the home, bathing in Rome was a communal activity. While the extremely wealthy could afford bathing facilities in their homes, most people bathed in the communal baths thermae. In some ways, these resembled modern-day spas. The Romans raised bathing to a high art as they socialized in these communal baths. Communal baths were also available in temples such as The Imperial Fora. Courtship was conducted, well as sealing business deals, as they built lavish baths on natural hot springs. They were public in the sense that they were open to the populace for a fee. Larger baths called thermae were often covered several city blocks. The Baths of Diocletian, could hold up to 3,000 bathers. Fees for both types of baths were quite reasonable, within the budget of most free Roman males. Some of the earliest descriptions of western bathing practices came from Greece. The Greeks began bathing regimens that formed the foundation for modern spa procedures. These Aegean people utilized small bathtubs, foot baths for personal cleanliness.Ancient Roman bathing – Some remains of the Baths of Trajan
165. Roman calendar – The Roman calendar changed its form several times between the founding of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. From at least the period of Augustus on, calendars were often displayed publicly. Such calendars are called fasti. The original Roman calendar is believed to have been a calendar, which may have been based on one of the Greek lunar calendars. As the time between new averages 29.5 days its months were constructed to be either hollow or full. The origins of the names agreed upon by modern scholars. Further reforms were attributed, again without evidence, to Numa Pompilius, the second of the seven traditional kings of Rome. These he made into January and February, which he prefixed to the previous 10 months. January was given 29 days, while February had the unlucky number of 28 days, suitable for the month of purification. This made a regular year 355 days long in place of the Romulus calendar. In 304 a pontifical secretary, introduced a series of reforms. Julius Caesar, as Pontifex Maximus, reformed the calendar in 46 BC. The new calendar became known as the Julian calendar. Quintilis was renamed Iulius in honour of Julius Caesar in 44 BC by Mark Antony. The Roman solution to this problem was to periodically lengthen the calendar by adding extra days to February.Roman calendar – A fragment of the Fasti Praenestini for the month of April (Aprilis), showing the nundinal letters on the left edge
166. Clothing in ancient Rome – Clothing in ancient Rome generally comprised a short-sleeved or sleeveless, knee-length tunic for men and boys, a longer, usually sleeved tunic for women and girls. Magistrates, the military had their own distinctive and privileged forms of dress. It was usually made of linen; most overgarments were woolen. Tunics were augmented by underwear, or with various kinds of cold-or-wet weather wear, such as knee-breeches for men, cloaks, coats and hats. In colder parts of the empire, full length trousers were worn. Most urban Romans wore shoes, slippers, sandals of various types; in the countryside, some wore clogs. Relative to the basic cost of living, even simple clothing was expensive, was recycled many times down the social scale. Spinning and weaving were thought virtuous, frugal occupations for all Roman women. Rome's governing elite produced laws designed to limit public displays of personal luxury. None were particularly successful; the wealthy elite had an appetite for luxurious clothing. The fastenings and brooches such as fibulae, used to secure garments such as cloaks, provided further opportunity for embellishment and display. Most clothing was colourful. Bright clothing was a mark of respectability and status among all social classes. The basic garment for all classes was the tunica, often worn beneath one or more additional layers. In its simplest form, the tunic was a single rectangle of woven fabric, originally woolen, but from the mid-republic onward, increasingly made from more comfortable linen.Clothing in ancient Rome – Statue of the Emperor Tiberius showing the draped toga of the 1st century AD.
167. Cosmetics in Ancient Rome – Cosmetics, first used in Ancient Rome for ritual purposes, were part of daily life for women, especially prostitutes and the wealthy. These “designer brands” spawned cheap knock-offs that were sold to poorer women. Cosmetics were applied in private, usually in a small room where men did not enter. Female slaves that adorned their mistresses, were especially praised for their skills. They would beautify their mistresses with the Latin word encompassing makeup, perfume and jewelry. Scent was also an important factor of beauty. Women who smelled good were presumed to be healthy. Due to the stench of many of the ingredients used in cosmetics at the time, women often drenched themselves in copious amounts of perfume. Christian women tended to avoid cosmetics with the belief that they should praise what God gave them. Some men, especially cross-dressers, did use cosmetics, although it was viewed as improper. All cosmetic ingredients were also used as medicines to treat various ailments. Lead, although known to be poisonous, was still widely used. Roman attitudes towards cosmetics evolved with the expansion of the empire. The assortment of cosmetics available increased as the resulting influx of wealth granted women additional slaves and time to spend on beauty. Ideas of beauty from conquered peoples, especially the Greeks and Egyptians, greatly influenced the Roman paradigm of beauty.Cosmetics in Ancient Rome – Cosmetae applying cosmetics to a wealthy Roman woman.
168. Ancient Roman cuisine – Ancient Roman cuisine changed over the long duration of the ancient Roman civilization. Disparities developed with the empire's growth. Traditionally, a breakfast called ientaculum was served at dawn. In the late morning, in the evening they ate cena, the main meal of the day. With the increased importation of foreign foods, the cena included a wider range of foods. It gradually shifted to the afternoon, while a light supper eaten in the evening was abandoned completely. A second breakfast, was introduced around noon. Among the lower classes of society, these changes were less pronounced as the traditional routines corresponded closely to the daily rhythms of manual labor. Among the upper classes, who did not engage in manual labor, it became customary to schedule all business obligations in the morning. After the prandium, a visit would be made to the baths. Around 2 p.m. the cena would begin. This meal would often be followed by comissatio, a round of alcoholic beverages. In the period of the early Republic, but also in later periods, the cena essentially consisted of a kind of porridge, the puls. The simplest kind would be made from emmer, water, fat. The more sophisticated kind was made with an accompaniment of assorted vegetables when available.Ancient Roman cuisine – Mosaic depicting a banquet during a hunting trip from the Late Roman Villa Romana del Casale in Sicily
169. Roman hairstyles – Hairstyle fashion in Rome was ever changing, particularly in the Roman Imperial Period there were a number of different ways to style hair. As with clothes, there were several hairstyles that were limited to certain people in ancient society. Hair for the Romans was as much an expression of personal identity as clothes. Hairstyles were determined by a number of factors, namely gender, age, social status, profession. A woman's hairstyle expressed her individuality in the Ancient Roman World. How one dressed one's hair was an indication of what your role in society was. Attractiveness of a woman was tied to the presentation of her hair. As a result, it was seen as appropriate for a woman to spend time on her hair in order to create a flattering appearance. Mirror gazing, were seen as distinctly feminine activities. For more than just attractiveness, hairstyling was the pursuit of the cultured, elegant female. Hair was seen much as an indication of wealth and social status as it was of taste and fashion. But unlike modern-day hairstyles, naturalism for the Romans took a back-seat to hairstyles that displayed the wearer's wealth to a maximum. For women to have a fashionable hairstyle showed they were part of the elegant Roman culture. A'natural' style was associated with barbarians, who the Romans believed had neither the culture to create these styles. Grooming of the hair went hand-in-hand with being part of a sophisticated civilization.Roman hairstyles – Marble bust 'Matidia 1' c.119CE
170. Education in ancient Rome – The Roman system was based on the Greek system -- and many of the private tutors in the Roman system were Greek slaves or freedmen. There are few primary sources or accounts of the Roman educational process until the 2nd century AD. At the height of later the Roman Empire, the Roman educational system gradually found its final form. Formal schools were established, which served paying students; little that could be described as free public education existed. Both girls were educated, though not necessarily together. In a system much like the one that predominates in the modern world, the Roman system that developed arranged schools in tiers. A Roman student would progress through schools just as a today might go from primary school to secondary school and then to college. It was becoming a educational system. The absence of a literary method of education from Roman life was due to the fact that Rome was bereft of any national literature. The military arts were all that Rome could afford to spend time studying. When not waging war, the Romans devoted what time remained to agriculture. The concern of Rome was that of survival, whether through dominion. It was not until the appearance of the father of Roman poetry, that any sort of national literature surfaced. While the Romans adopted many aspects of Greek education, two areas in particular were viewed as trifle: athletics. Music to the Greeks tied directly to the Greek paideia.Education in ancient Rome – Bronze statuette of a girl reading (1st century)
171. Latin literature – Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, other writings written in the Latin language. Latin literature was in many ways a continuation of Greek literature, using many of the same forms. Latin literature began in 240 BC, when a Roman audience saw a Latin version of a Greek play. The adaptor was a Greek, brought to Rome as a prisoner of war in 272 BC. Andronicus also translated Homer's Greek epic the Odyssey into an old type of Latin verse called Saturnian. The Latin poet to write on a Roman theme was Gnaeus Naevius during the 3rd century BC. He composed an poem about the first Punic War, in which he had fought. He also created tragedies based on Roman myths and history. Other epic poets followed Naevius. Quintus Ennius wrote the Annals, describing Roman history from the founding of Rome to his own time. He adopted dactylic hexameter, which became the standard verse form for Roman epics. He also became famous for his tragic dramas. In this field, his most distinguished successors were Marcus Pacuvius and Lucius Accius. These three writers rarely used episodes from Roman history. Instead, they wrote Latin versions of tragic themes that the Greeks had already handled.Latin literature – Cicero
172. Music of ancient Rome – The music of ancient Rome was a part of Roman culture from earliest times. The tibia, a woodwind instrument, was played at sacrifices to ward off ill influences. Song was an integral part of almost every social occasion. The Secular Ode for instance, was commissioned by Augustus and performed by a mixed children's choir at the Secular Games in 17 BC. Under the influence of Greek theory, music was thought to reflect the orderliness of the cosmos, was associated particularly with mathematics and knowledge. Music had an early influence on that of the Romans. During the Imperial period, Romans carried their music to the provinces, while traditions of Asia Minor, Gaul became a part of Roman culture. The Romans may have borrowed the Greek method of'enchiriadic notation' to record their music, if they used any notation at all. Four letters indicated a series of four succeeding tones. Rhythm signs, written above the letters, indicated the duration of each note. The Romans may have tuned their instruments to Greek modes. Roman art depicts various woodwinds, "brass", stringed instruments. The Roman tuba was a straight bronze trumpet with a detachable, conical mouthpiece like that of the modern French horn. In the military, it was used for "bugle calls". The tuba is also depicted in art such as spectacle events.Music of ancient Rome – Trio of musicians playing an aulos, cymbala, and tympanum (mosaic from Pompeii)
173. Roman mythology – The Romans usually treated their traditional narratives as historical, even when these have miraculous or supernatural elements. Heroism is an important theme. When the stories illuminate religious practices, they are more concerned with institutions than with theology or cosmogony. Rome's early myths and legends also have a dynamic relationship with Etruscan religion, less documented than that of the Greeks. In particular, the versions of Greek myths in Ovid's Metamorphoses, written during the reign of Augustus, came to be regarded as canonical. This perception is a product of Romanticism and the classical scholarship of the 19th century, which valued Greek civilization as more "authentically creative." From the Renaissance to the 18th century, however, Roman myths were an inspiration particularly for European painting. The Roman tradition is rich in historical myths, or legends, concerning the foundation and rise of the city. These narratives focus on human actors, with only occasional intervention from deities but a pervasive sense of divinely ordered destiny. In Rome's earliest period, history and myth have a mutual and complementary relationship. What does it take to be a free citizen? Can a superpower still be a republic? How does well-meaning authority turn into murderous tyranny? Major sources for Roman myth include the few books of Livy's history well as Dionysius' s Roman Antiquities. Important sources are the Fasti of the fourth book of elegies by Propertius.Roman mythology – Romulus and Remus, the Lupercal, Father Tiber, and the Palatine on a relief from a pedestal dating to the reign of Trajan (AD 98–117)
174. Religion in ancient Rome – This archaic religion was the foundation of the maiorum, "the way of the ancestors" or simply "tradition", viewed as central to Roman identity. This and imported mystery religions were generally practiced alongside the official religion. Ultimately, Roman polytheism was brought as the official religion of the empire. The priesthoods of public religion were held by members of the elite classes. There was no principle analogous to separation of state in ancient Rome. During the Roman Republic, the same men who were elected public officials might also serve as pontiffs. Priests married, led politically active lives. Julius Caesar became pontifex maximus before he was elected consul. Roman religion was thus contractual, based on the principle of do ut des, "I give that you might give." Even the most skeptical among Rome's intellectual elite such as Cicero, an augur, saw religion as a source of social order. For ordinary Romans, religion was a part of daily life. Each home had a shrine at which prayers and libations to the family's domestic deities were offered. Sacred places such as springs and groves dotted the city. The Roman calendar was structured around religious observances. Women, children all participated in a range of religious activities.Religion in ancient Rome – Marcus Aurelius (head covered) sacrificing at the Temple of Jupiter
175. Romanization (cultural) – Romanization may also refer to linguistics see Romanization. Ancient Roman Italian historiography until the fascist period used to call these various processes the "civilizing of barbarians". The acculturation proceeded from the top down, the old ways lingering longest in outlying districts among peasants. Hostages played an important part in this process, as elite children, from Mauretania to Gaul, were taken to be educated in Rome. Traditional Italian historiography confidently identified the different processes involved with a "civilization of barbarians". Modern historians take a more nuanced view: by making their peace with Rome, local elites could reinforce their prestige. New themes include the construction of identity, the personal aspect of ethnogenesis. These transitions operated differently in different provinces; as Blagg and Millett point out even a Roman province may be too broad a canvas for generalizations. One characteristic of cultural Romanization was the creation of many hundreds of Roman coloniae in the territory of the subsequent Roman Empire. Until Trajan, colonies were created using retired veteran soldiers, mainly from the Italian peninsula, who promoted Roman laws, with the use of Latin. About 400 towns are known to have possessed the rank of colonia. During the empire, colonies were showcases of Roman culture and examples of the Roman way of life. The native population of the provinces could see how they were expected to live. The very existence is a source of contention among modern archaeologists. One of the first approaches, which can be regarded as the "traditional" approach today, was taken by Francis Haverfield.Romanization (cultural) – Map showing the "roman coloniae" in the Roman Empire
176. Theatre of ancient Rome – The important works of Roman literature were the tragedies and comedies written by Livius Andronicus beginning in 240 BC. Five years later, a younger contemporary of Andronicus, also began to write drama, composing in both genres as well. No plays from either writer have survived. By the beginning of the 2nd century BC, a guild of writers had been formed. No early Roman tragedy survives, though it was highly regarded in its day; historians know of three early tragedians -- Quintus Ennius, Lucius Accius. From the time of the empire, however, the work of two tragedians survives—one is an unknown author, while the other is the Stoic philosopher Seneca. Nine of Seneca's tragedies survive, all of which are crepidata; his Phaedra, for example, was based on Euripides' Hippolytus. Seneca is well known for composing works which feature a heavy presence of horror. However, though historians have since confirmed that the play was not one of Seneca's works, the true author remains unknown. All Roman comedies that have survived were written by two dramatists: Titus Maccius Plautus and Publius Terentius Afer. In adapting Greek plays to be performed for Roman audiences, the comic dramatists made several changes to the structure of the productions. Most notable is the removal of the previously prominent role of the chorus as a means of separating the action into distinct episodes. Additionally, musical accompaniment was added to the plays' dialogue. Plautus wrote twenty of his comedies survive to present day, of which his farces are best known. He was admired for his varied use of poetic meters.Theatre of ancient Rome – Roman mosaic depicting actors and an aulos player (House of the Tragic Poet, Pompeii)
177. Ancient Rome and wine – Ancient Rome played a pivotal role in the history of wine. The earliest influences on the viticulture of the Italian peninsula can be traced to ancient Greeks and the Etruscans. The rise of the Roman Empire saw both technological advances in and burgeoning awareness of winemaking, which spread to all parts of the empire. Rome's influence has had a profound effect on the histories of today's major winemaking regions in France, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain. The Roman belief that wine was a daily necessity ubiquitous: wine was available to slaves, peasants, aristocrats alike. To ensure the steady supply of wine to Roman colonists, wine production spread to every part of the empire. Many of the techniques and principles first developed in ancient Roman times can be found in modern winemaking. Though wild grapevines have grown on the Italian peninsula since prehistory, historians are unable to determine precisely when domestic viticulture and winemaking first occurred. Viticulture was widely entrenched in Etruscan civilization, centered around the modern winemaking region of Tuscany. Southern Italy's abundance of indigenous vines provided an ideal opportunity for wine production, giving rise to the Greek name for the region: Oenotria. The Greek settlements of southern Italy were completely under Roman control by 270 BC. The Etruscans, who had already established trade routes into Gaul, were completely conquered by the 1st century BC. The Punic Wars with Carthage had a particularly marked effect on Roman viticulture. In addition to broadening the cultural horizons of the Roman citizenry, Carthaginians also introduced them to advanced viticultural techniques, in particular the work of Mago. For most of Rome's winemaking history, Greek wine was the most highly prized, with domestic Roman wine commanding lower prices.Ancient Rome and wine – Ancient Roman statue of Dionysus (also known as Bacchus), god of wine (c. 150 AD, Prado, Madrid).
178. Social class in ancient Rome – There were also classes of non-citizens such as peregrini. Under Roman law, slaves had no rights as such. However, some laws offered slaves protections not extended to other forms of property such as animals. Slaves, manumitted were freedmen, for the most part enjoyed the legal rights and protections as free-born citizens. A patron could be the client of a more powerful patron; a client could have multiple patrons. Adult males who were not Roman citizens, whether slave, fall outside this division. From the Late Republic era onwards many members including an increasing proportion of senators, came from plebeian families. Augustus, was of plebeian origin, as were many of his successors. By the Late Empire, few members of the Senate were from the original patrician families, most of which had died out. It was no longer dominated by the distinction between patricians and plebeians. Originally, the classes could not intermarry. Patricians were always at odds due to the fact that Plebeians wanted to increase their power. A series of social struggles saw the plebs secede from the city on the last in 297 BC, until their demands were met. They won the right to stand for office, the creation of office of tribune of the plebs. The tribunes originally had the power to protect any plebeian from a magistrate.Social class in ancient Rome – The toga, shown here on a statue restored with the head of Nerva, was the distinctive garb of Roman male citizens
179. Plebs – In ancient Rome, the plebs was the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census. From earlier, they were known as commoners. In the very earliest days of Rome, plebeians were any tribe without advisers to the King. In time, the word --, related to the Greek word for plethos -- came to mean the common people. Its genitive is plebis. At the outset of the Roman Republic, the patricians had a near monopoly on political and social institutions. They were not permitted to know the laws by which they were governed. Plebeians rarely became military leaders. From the mid-4th century to the 3rd century BC, several plebeian -- patrician "tickets" for the consulship repeated joint terms, suggesting a deliberate political strategy of cooperation. His sons and descendants were nobiles. Perhaps many noble plebeians, including Cicero and Lucullus, aligned their political interests with the faction of optimates, conservatives who sought to preserve senatorial prerogatives. In the U.S. military, Plebes are freshmen at the U.S. Military Academy, U.S. Naval Academy, Valley Forge Military Academy, the Marine Military Academy, the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, Georgia Military College, California Maritime Academy. The term is also used at the Philippine Military Academy.Plebs – Plebes (first year students) marching in front of Bancroft Hall, United States Naval Academy
180. Conflict of the Orders – It played a major role in the development of the Constitution of the Roman Republic. Shortly after the founding of the Republic, this conflict led to the Sacred Mount at a time of war. This development occurred at the same time that the Plebeian legislative assembly, the Plebeian Council, was acquiring additional power. At first, its acts applied only to Plebeians, although after 339 BC, with the institution of laws by the first Plebeian dictator Q. Publilius Philo, these acts began to apply to both Plebeians and Patricians, with a senatorial veto of all measures approved by the council. It was not until 287 BC that the Patrician senators lost their last check over the Plebeian Council. A small number of aristocratic Plebeian families had emerged, most Plebeian politicians came from one of these families. Since this new Patricio-Plebeian aristocracy was based on the structure of society, it could only be overthrown through a revolution. A settlement was negotiated and the patricians agreed that the plebs be given the right to elect their own officials. The Plebeians named these new officials Plebeian Tribunes. During the 5th century BC there were a number of unsuccessful attempts to reform Roman agrarian laws to distribute newly-conquered territories amongst the plebs. In a number of instances these reforms were advocated by the plebeian tribunes. During the early years of the republic, the Plebeians were not allowed to hold magisterial office. Neither Tribunes nor Aediles were technically magistrates, since they were both elected solely by the Plebeians, rather than by both the Plebeians and the Patricians. The Roman senate refused to grant this right.Conflict of the Orders – Ancient Rome
181. Secessio plebis – Secessio plebis was an informal exercise of power by Rome's plebeian citizens, similar to a general strike taken to the extreme. During a secessio plebis, the plebs would simply leave the patrician order to themselves. Therefore, commercial transactions would largely cease. Authors report different numbers for how many secessions there were. Cary & Scullard state there were five between 287 BC. This office was the first position held by the plebs, since at this time the office of consul was held by patricians solely. Plebeian Tribunes were made personally sacrosanct during their period in office. In 450 BC Rome decided to appoint the commission of the decemviri, tasked with compiling a code. The commission was given a term of one year, during which the offices of state were suspended. The decemviri were also exempted from appeal. In 450 BC they issued a set of laws, but became abusive. They killed a soldier who criticised them. One of Appius Claudius Crassus, tried to force a woman, Verginia, to marry him. To prevent this, her father cursed Appius Claudius Crassus. This sparked riots which started with the crowd which spread to the army, encamped outside the city.Secessio plebis – The Secession of the People to the Mons Sacer, engraving by B. Barloccini, 1849.
182. Equites – A member of the equestrian order was known as an eques. Around 400 BC, these included non-patricians. Legionary cavalry started to recruit wealthier citizens from outside the 18 centuriae. These new recruits were not granted the same privileges. By the time of the Second Punic War, all the members of the First Class of commoners were required to serve as cavalrymen. After c. 88 BC, equites were longer drafted into the legionary cavalry, although they remained technically liable to such service throughout the Principate era. They continued to supply the senior officers of the army throughout the Principate. With the exception of the purely hereditary patricians, the equites were originally defined by a threshold. In the later Republican period, their offspring became an unofficial elite within the equestrian order. As senators' ability to engage in commerce was strictly limited by law, the bulk of non-agricultural activities were in the hands of non-senatorial equites. As as holding large landed estates, equites came to dominate mining, shipping and manufacturing industry. In particular, farming companies were almost all in the hands of equites. Under Augustus, the senatorial elite was given formal status to ordinary equites. During the Principate, equites filled the senior military posts of the imperial government. There was a clear division between jobs reserved for those reserved for non-senatorial equites.Equites – A recreation of equites
183. Roman naming conventions – The distinguishing feature of Roman nomenclature was the use of both personal names and regular surnames. Throughout Europe and the Mediterranean, other ancient civilizations distinguished individuals through the use of single personal names, usually dithematic in nature. Consisting of two distinct elements, or "themes," these names allowed for hundreds or even thousands of possible combinations. But a markedly different system of nomenclature arose in Italy, where the personal name was joined by a hereditary surname. Over time, this binomial system expanded to include additional names and designations. This was preceded by the praenomen, or "forename," a personal name that served to distinguish between the different members of a family. The origin of this binomial system is lost in prehistory, but it appears to have been established in Latium and Etruria by at least 650 BC. Toward the end of the Roman Republic, this was followed by the name of a citizen's voting tribe. Lastly, these elements could be followed by additional surnames, or cognomina, which could be either personal or hereditary, or a combination of both. The Roman grammarians came to regard the combination of praenomen, nomen, cognomen as a defining characteristic of Roman citizenship, known as the tria nomina. Even then, not all Roman citizens bore cognomina, until the end of the Republic the cognomen was regarded as somewhat less than an official name. Naming conventions for women also varied from the classical concept of the tria nomina. By the end of the Republic, the majority of Roman women either did not have or did not use praenomina. Most women were called by their nomen alone, or by a combination of nomen and cognomen. For a variety of reasons, the Roman nomenclature system broke down in the centuries following the collapse of imperial authority in the west.Roman naming conventions – An Etruscan musician, fresco from the Tomb of the Triclinium, near Tarquinii, c. 470 BC
184. Demography of the Roman Empire – Demographically, the Roman Empire was an ordinary premodern state. It had high infant mortality, high fertility within marriage. Perhaps half of Roman subjects died by the age of 5. Of those still alive at age 10, half would die by the age of 50. Roman women could expect to bear on average 6 to 9 children. In contrast to the European societies of the medieval periods, Rome had unusually high urbanization rates. During the 2nd CE, the city of Rome had more than one million inhabitants. No Western city would have as many again until the 19th century. By comparison, what is now the territory of China experienced 0.1 per cent annual growth from 1 CE to 1800 CE. There are no reliable surviving records for the general demography of the Roman Empire. There are no local records, such as underlie the demographic study of early modern Europe, either. Large numbers of impressionistic, anecdotal observations on demography survive from the literary sources. They are of little use in the study of Roman demography, which tends to rely instead on comparison, rather than records and observations. When the high infant rate is factored in inhabitants of the Roman Empire had a life expectancy at birth of about 25 years. However, when mortality is factored out, life expectancy is doubled to the late-50s.Demography of the Roman Empire – Strabo
185. Women in ancient Rome – Freeborn women in ancient Rome were citizens, but could not vote or hold political office. Because of their public role, women are named less frequently than men by Roman historians. But while Roman women held no political power, those from wealthy or powerful families could and did exert influence through private negotiations. As is the case with male members of society, their politically significant deeds eclipse those of lower status in the historical record. Especially epitaphs document the names of a wide range of women throughout the Roman Empire, but often tell little else about them. The one major role reserved solely for women was in the sphere of religion: the priestly office of the Vestals. Their toys are known from archaeology and literary sources. Girls are depicted as playing many of the same games as boys, such as ball, hoop-rolling, knucklebones. Dolls are sometimes found in the tombs of those who died before adulthood. The figures are typically 15 -- 16 cm tall, with jointed limbs, made of materials such as wood, especially bone and ivory. Girls coming of age dedicated their dolls to Diana, the goddess most concerned to Venus when they were preparing for marriage. Perhaps many girls went to a public primary school. Children of the elite were taught Greek well as Latin from an early age. Children of both genders learned to behave socially by attending other events. Among the upper classes, women seem some highly so, were sometimes praised by the male historians for their learning and cultivation.Women in ancient Rome – The educated and well-traveled Vibia Sabina (ca. 136 AD) was a grand-niece of the emperor Trajan and became the wife of his successor Hadrian; unlike some empresses, she played little role in court politics and remained independent in private life, having no children and seeking emotional gratification in love affairs
186. Marriage in ancient Rome – Marriage in ancient Rome was a strictly monogamous institution: a Roman citizen by law could have only one spouse at a time. The practice of monogamy distinguished the Greeks and Romans from ancient civilizations, in which elite males typically had multiple wives. Greco-Roman monogamy may have arisen from the egalitarianism of the republican political systems of the city-states. It is one aspect of Roman culture, embraced by early Christianity, which in turn perpetuated it as an ideal in later Western culture. Marriage had mythical precedents, starting with the abduction of the Sabine Women, which may reflect the archaic custom of abduction. His band of male immigrants were rejected conubium, the legal right to intermarriage, from the Sabines. These three benefits seem to define the purpose of marriage in ancient Rome. The word matrimonium, the root for the English word "matrimony," defines the institution's main function. Involving the mater, it carries with it the implication of the man taking a woman in marriage to have children. It is the idea conventionally shared as to the purpose of marriage, which would be to produce legitimate children; citizens producing new citizens. Such usage was commonly seen in Christian writings. However, the sharing of fire was symbolically more important. It refers to the sharing of natural resources. Worldly possessions transferred automatically to the husband in archaic times whereas the classical marriage kept the wife's property separate. In order for the union of a woman to be legitimate, there needed to be consent legally and morally.Marriage in ancient Rome – Roman couple joining hands; the bride's belt may show the knot symbolizing that the husband was "belted and bound" to her, which he was to untie in their bed (4th century sarcophagus)
187. Adoption in ancient Rome – In ancient Rome, adoption of boys was a fairly common procedure, particularly in the upper senatorial class. The obvious solution, also served to cement ties between families, thus fostering and reinforcing alliances. Adoption of girls, however, was much less common. In the Imperial period, the system also acted for ensuring a smooth succession, the emperor taking his chosen successor as his adopted son. However, a large family was an expensive luxury. Sons had to be pushed through the political stages of the cursus honorum. The higher the political status of the higher was the cost. Roman families typically restricted their families to three children. The six children of Appius Claudius Pulcher were considered unusual. Sometimes, the lack of male births was always a risk. For the ones with no boys at all, adoption was the only solution. In Roman law, the power to give children in adoption was one of the recognised powers of the paterfamilias. The adopted boy would usually be the one with proven health and abilities. Quality had to be ensured. Adoption was agreed by the mother giving the boy they wanted to adopt equal status, often political allies and/or with blood connections.Adoption in ancient Rome – Possibly the most famous Roman adoptee, Augustus first Emperor of the Roman Empire
188. Slavery in ancient Rome – Slavery in ancient Rome played an important role in society and the economy. Besides manual labor, slaves might be employed at highly skilled jobs and professions. Physicians were often slaves. Greek slaves in particular might be highly educated. Those sentenced to slavery as punishment, worked on farms, in mines, at mills. Their lives short. Slaves had no legal personhood. Unlike Roman citizens, they could be subjected to corporal punishment, sexual exploitation, summary execution. Over time, however, slaves gained increased legal protection, including the right to file complaints against their masters. Attitudes changed among the educated elite of the Stoics, whose egalitarian views of humanity extended to slaves. Roman slaves could hold property which, despite the fact that it belonged to their masters, they were allowed to use as if it were their own. Skilled or educated slaves might hope to save enough to buy their freedom. Such slaves were often freed for services rendered. A notable example of a high-status slave was the secretary of Cicero. Tiro was successful enough to retire on his own country estate, where he died at the age of 99.Slavery in ancient Rome – Roman mosaic from Dougga, Tunisia (2nd century CE): the two slaves carrying wine jars wear typical slave clothing and an amulet against the evil eye on a necklace; the slave boy to the left carries water and towels, and the one on the right a bough and a basket of flowers
189. Latin – Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from Greek alphabets. Latin was originally spoken in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin developed such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Romanian. Latin, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language. Ancient Greek roots are used in theology, biology, medicine. By the late Roman Republic, Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin. Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence. Later, Early Modern Latin and Modern Latin evolved. Latin was used until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Many students, scholars and members of the Catholic clergy speak Latin fluently. It is taught around the world. The language has been passed down through various forms.Latin – Latin inscription, in the Colosseum
190. History of Latin – Latin is a member of the broad family of Italic languages. The Latin alphabet, emerged from the Old Italic alphabets, which in turn were derived from the Greek and Phoenician scripts. Historical Latin came from the prehistoric language of the Latium region, specifically around the River Tiber, where Roman civilization first developed. When Latin came to be spoken by the Romans are questions that have long been debated. Surviving Latin literature consists entirely of Classical Latin in its broadest definition. In the eastern half of the Roman Empire, which became the Byzantine Empire, the Greek Koine of Hellenism was never replaced by Latin. The Latin derives from the Italic tribal group named Latini that settled around 10th Century BC in Latium, the dialect spoken by these people. The Italic languages form a subfamily of the Indo-European language family. These include a number of extinct ones. Broadly speaking, in initial syllables the Indo-European simple vowels —, *e, *i, *o, *u; short and long — are usually retained in Latin. The schwa indogermanicum appears in Latin as a. Diphthongs are also preserved in Old Latin, but in Classical Latin some tend to become monophthongs. In non-initial syllables, there was more reduction. In final syllables, o are usually raised to i and u, respectively. Consonants are generally more stable.History of Latin – One of the seven ceiling frescoes painted by Bartolomeo Altomonte in his 80th year for the library of Admont Abbey. An allegory of the Enlightenment, it shows Aurora, goddess of dawn, with the geniuses of language in her train awakening Morpheus, god of dreaming, a symbol of man. The geniuses are Grammar, Didactic, Greek, Hebrew and Latin.
191. Latin alphabet – The classical Latin alphabet, also known as the Roman alphabet, is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language. These Latin alphabets may discard letters, add new letters, like the Danish and Norwegian alphabets. Letter shapes have evolved including the creation for Medieval Latin of lower-case forms which did not exist in the Classical period alphabet. The Greek alphabet was in turn based upon the Phoenician abjad. From on, ⟨ G ⟩ represented the voiced plosive / ɡ /, while ⟨ C ⟩ was generally reserved for the voiceless plosive / k /. The letter ⟨ K ⟩ was used rarely in a small number of words such as Kalendae, often interchangeably with ⟨ C ⟩. An attempt by the emperor Claudius to introduce three additional letters did not last. Thus it was during the Latin period that the Latin alphabet contained 23 letters: The Latin names of some of these letters are disputed. ⟨ Z ⟩ was given zeta. This scheme has continued to be used by most modern European languages that have adopted the Latin alphabet. For the Latin sounds represented by the various letters see Latin spelling and pronunciation; for the names of the letters in English see English alphabet. However, in place of taking an apex, the i was written taller: ⟨ á é ꟾ ó v́ ⟩. For example, what is transcribed lūciī a filiī was written ⟨ lv́ciꟾ · a · filiꟾ ⟩ in the inscription at right. The primary mark of punctuation was the interpunct, used as a divider, though it fell out of use after 200 AD. Cursive was used for quicker, informal writing.Latin alphabet – The Duenos inscription, dated to the 6th century BC, shows the earliest known forms of the Old Latin alphabet.
192. Old Latin – The use of "old", "early" and "archaic" has been standard in publications of Old Latin writings since at least the 18th century. This article presents some of the major differences. The concept of Old Latin is as old as the concept of Classical Latin, both dating to at least early as the late Roman Republic. Viri prisci, "old-time men," were the population of Latium before the founding of Rome. In the Late Latin period, when Classical Latin was behind them, the Latin - and Greek-speaking grammarians were faced within the language. Isidore of Seville reports a scheme that had come into existence in or before his time: "the four Latins". The scheme persisted after Isidore. Although the differences can be easily identified by Latin readers, they are not such as to cause a language barrier. Thus, the Carmen Saliare, probably written under Numa Pompilius, was not entirely. The end of the republic was too late a termination for compilers after Wordsworth; Charles Edwin Bennett said, "'Early Latin' is necessarily a somewhat vague term... Bell, De locativi in prisca Latinitate vi et usu, Breslau, 1889, sets the later limit at 75 BC. A definite date is really impossible, since archaic Latin continues even down to imperial times." Over the 377 years from 452 to 75 BC, Old Latin evolved from being partially comprehensible by classicists with study to being easily read by scholars. Old Latin authored works began in the 3rd BC. These are nearly complete works under their own name surviving as manuscripts copied from other manuscripts in whatever script was current at the time.Old Latin – The playwright Titus Maccius Plautus wrote using Old Latin.
193. Classical Latin – In some later periods, it was regarded with later versions being viewed as debased or corrupt. The Latin is now taken by default as meaning "Classical Latin", so that, for example, modern Latin textbooks describe classical Latin. Latinitas was spoken well as written. Moreover, it was the language taught by the schools. Where a special subject was concerned, such as poetry or rhetoric, additional rules applied. No authors are noted for the type of rigidity evidenced except possibly the repetitious abbreviations and stock phrases of inscriptions. Good Latin in philology is "classical" Latin literature. The term classicus was devised by the Romans themselves to "select", referring to authors who wrote in Greek that were considered model. The word is a transliteration of Greek κλῆσις "calling", used to rank army draftees from first to fifth class. Classicus is "first class", such as the authors of the polished works of Latinitas, or sermo urbanus. It had nuances of the authentic: testis classicus, "reliable witness." This possibly innovated at this time, to classical applied to authors by virtue of the authentic language of their works. Aulus Gellius includes many authors, such as Plautus, who are currently considered writers of Old Latin and not strictly in the period of classical Latin. The classical Romans distinguished Old Latin as not sermo vulgaris. The lists of classical authors were far as the Roman grammarians went in developing a philology.Classical Latin – Latin inscription in the Colosseum
194. Vulgar Latin – Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris is a generic term for the nonstandard sociolects of the Latin language from which the Romance languages developed. Works written during classical times used Classical Latin rather than Vulgar Latin, with very few exceptions. Because of its nonstandard nature, Vulgar Latin had no official orthography. Vulgar Latin is sometimes also called Latin, or Common Romance. In Renaissance Latin, Vulgar Latin was called vulgare Latinum or Latinum vulgare. The term "speech", which later became "Vulgar Latin", was used by inhabitants of the Roman Empire. Traces of their language appear in some inscriptions, such as advertisements. The educated population mainly responsible for Classical Latin might also have spoken Vulgar Latin in certain contexts depending on their socioeconomic background. The term was first used improperly by the pioneers of Romance-language philology: François Juste Marie Raynouard and Friedrich Christian Diez. These names in turn are at the end of a tradition extending to the Roman republic. In addition was a variety known as sermo vulgaris, sermo vulgi, sermo plebeius and sermo quotidianus. These modifiers inform post-classical readers that a conversational Latin existed, perceived as lower-class. These vocabulary items manifest no opposition to the written language. Family Latin in sermo familiaris and very rarely literature might be termed sermo nobilis. The supposed "sermo classicus" is a scholarly fiction unattested in the dictionary.Vulgar Latin – Extract of the Oaths of Strasbourg, the earliest French text.
195. Late Latin – Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity. This somewhat ambiguously defined period fits between Medieval Latin. Being a written language, Late Latin is not identical with Vulgar Latin. The latter during those centuries served as a reconstructed ancestor of the Romance languages. Some are more classical, some more inclined to the vernacular. Nor is Late Latin identical to Christian or patristic Latin, the theological writings of the early Christian fathers. While Christian writings are considered a subset of Late Latin, pagans wrote especially in the early part of the period. "Serving as some sort of lingua franca to a large empire, Latin tended to become simpler, to keep above all what it had of the ordinary...." Neither Late Latin nor Late Antiquity are modern terms or concepts; their origin remains obscure. Instances of English use of the term may also be found from the 18th century. Pre-medieval had currency in English well before then. Imperial Latin went on into English literature; Fowler's History of Roman Literature mentions it in 1903. There are, however, insoluble problems with the end of Imperial Latin. Yet the style can not be bundled with either the Silver Age or with Late Latin. Moreover, in 6th century Italy, the Roman Empire longer existed; the rule of Gothic kings prevailed.Late Latin – Augustine of Hippo (354 – 430), Late Latin author
196. Medieval Latin – Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors, medieval Latin should not be confused with Ecclesiastical Latin. There is no real consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin medieval Latin begins. Medieval Latin had an enlarged vocabulary, which freely borrowed from other sources. Greek provided much of the technical vocabulary of Christianity. The Germanic languages spoken by the Germanic tribes, who invaded southern Europe, were also major sources of new words. Other more ordinary words were replaced by coinages from Vulgar Latin or Germanic sources because the classical words had fallen into disuse. Latin was also spread to areas such as Ireland and Germany, where Romance languages had never known Roman rule. English words like their cognates in other European languages generally have the meanings given to them in medieval Latin. On the other hand, strictly speaking there was no single form of "medieval Latin". The infinitive construction in classical Latin was often replaced by a subordinate clause introduced by quod or quia. This is almost identical in similar constructions in French. However the use of quod to introduce subordinate clauses is found at all levels. That resulted compared with Classical Latin. First, many authors attempted to "show off" their knowledge of Classical Latin by using archaic constructions, sometimes anachronistically. Second, many lesser scholars were increasingly influenced by Vulgar Latin, mutating into the Romance languages.Medieval Latin – Carmina Cantabrigiensia, Medieval Latin manuscript
197. Renaissance Latin – They looked as the arbiters of Latin style. Some 16th-century Ciceronian humanists also sought to purge written Latin of medieval developments in its orthography. They insisted, for example, that ae be written out in full wherever it occurred in classical Latin; medieval scribes often wrote e instead of ae. Therefore, the first generations of humanists did not dedicate much care till the late sixteenth and seventeenth century. The humanist plan to remake Latin was largely successful, at least in education. Schools encouraged the study of the texts selected by the humanists, to the large exclusion of later Latin literature. 1359. Epistolæ familiares by Petrarch 1360. Genealogia deorum gentilium by Giovanni Boccaccio 1425. Hermaphroditus by Antonio Beccadelli 1441. De elegantiis Latinæ linguæ by Lorenzo Valla 1442. Historia Florentini populi by Leonardo Bruni 1444. Historia de duobus amantibus by Pope Pius II 1452. De re ædificatoria by Leone Battista Alberti 1471. Contra amores by Bartolomeo Platina 1479.Renaissance Latin – Mural of Dante in the Uffizi Gallery, by Andrea del Castagno, c. 1450.
198. New Latin – New Latin was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900. Modern technical nomenclature, such as in zoological and botanical taxonomy and international scientific vocabulary, draws extensively from New Latin vocabulary. In such use, New Latin is often viewed as subject to new word formation. As a language for full expression in poetry, however, it is often distinguished from Contemporary Latin as a predecessor. Neo-Latin also describes the use of the Latin language for any purpose, literary, during and after the Renaissance. The term "New Latin" came among linguists and scientists. Russia's acquisition of Kiev in the later 17th century introduced the study of Latin to Russia. Though Latin and New Latin are considered extinct, large parts of their vocabulary have seeped into several Germanic languages. New Latin was inaugurated by the triumph of the humanist reform of Latin education, led as Erasmus, More, Colet. Medieval Latin had been the practical working language of the Roman Catholic Church, refined in the medieval universities. It was a flexible language, full of neologisms and often composed to the grammar or style of classical authors. Attempts at reforming Latin use occurred sporadically throughout the period, becoming most successful in the 19th century. The Protestant Reformation, though it removed Latin from the liturgies of the churches of Northern Europe, may have advanced the cause of the new secular Latin. Classic works such as Newton's Principia Mathematica were written in the language.New Latin – Linnaeus, 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a famous New Latin text.
199. Contemporary Latin – Contemporary Latin is the form of the Latin language used from the end of the 19th century through to the present. Various kinds of contemporary Latin can be distinguished. This is normally found in the form of mere phrases used in the general context of other languages. On the other hand, there is the use of Latin as a language in its own right as full-fledged means of expression. Spoken Latin, being the most specific development of Latin in the contemporary context, is the primary subject of this article. Similarly current sterling coins are minted with the Latin inscription ELIZABETH · II · D · G · REG · F · D. The official motto of the European Union, adopted recently as 2000, is the Latin In varietate concordia. Similarly to the multi-lingual European Union, the motto on the Canadian Victoria Cross is in Latin due to Canada's bilingual status. Some common phrases that are still in use in many languages have remained fixed like the well-known dramatis personæ or habeas corpus. However, modern astronomers are not easily convinced to use such a system. Latin continues to be used to form classical compounds. In fact, more than 56% of the vocabulary still used in English today derives ultimately from Latin, either directly or through French. The Catholic Church has continued to use Latin, as in preceding centuries. Two main areas can be distinguished. One is its use for the official version of all documents issued by Vatican City, which has remained intact to the present.Contemporary Latin – A contemporary Latin inscription at Salamanca University commemorating the visit of the then-Prince Akihito and Princess Michiko of Japan in, as the inscription states, 1985 (MCMLXXXV).
200. Ecclesiastical Latin – Ecclesiastical Latin is the form of the Latin language used in the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church for liturgical and other purposes. It is distinguished from Classical Latin by some lexical variations, Italianate pronunciation. Ecclesiastical Latin is the only surviving sociolect of spoken Latin. During the Late Republic and Early Empire periods, educated Roman citizens were generally fluent in Greek, although business was conducted in Latin. The Holy See, in theory, could change its practice. As Latin is longer in common use, the meaning of words is less likely to change radically from century to century. Since Latin is spoken by no modern community, the language is considered a universal, internally consistent means of communication without regional bias. As early as 1913, the Catholic Encyclopedia commented that Latin was starting to be replaced by vernacular languages. However, the Church still produces its liturgical texts in Latin, which provide a single clear point of reference for translations into all other languages. For example, it appeared first in that language in 1992. But five years later, when the Latin text appeared in 1997, the French text underwent correction to stay with the Latin version. The Latin department of the Vatican Secretariat of State is charged with the preparation in Latin of papal and curial documents. The written Latin of today, as used for Church purposes, does not differ radically from classical Latin. Study of the language of Cicero and Virgil suffices adequately for understanding Church Latin. Before these letters and the letter "I", the letters "C" and "G" are pronounced / t͡ʃ / and / d͡ʒ /, respectively.Ecclesiastical Latin – The spread of Christianity to 600 AD — the dark pockets represent initial enclaves
201. Romance languages – Around million people are native speakers worldwide, mainly in Europe and the Americas, but also elsewhere. Additionally, the major Romance languages have many non-native speakers and are in widespread use as lingua francas. This is especially the case for French, throughout Central and West Africa, Madagascar, the Maghreb. The five most widely spoken Romance languages of native speakers are Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Romanian. Despite other influences, the lexicon of all Romance languages consist mainly of evolved forms of Vulgar Latin. However, some notable differences occur between today's Romance languages and their Roman ancestor. From this adverb the romance originated, which applied initially "in the Roman vernacular". The word ` romance' with the modern sense of affair has the same origin. For example, the Portuguese word fresta is descended from Latin fenestra "window", but now means "skylight" and "slit". Cognates may exist but have become rare, such as finiestra in Spanish, or dropped out of use entirely. Galician has the less frequently used xanela. As an alternative to lei, Italian has the pronoun ella, a cognate of the other words for "she", but it is hardly ever used in speaking. The literature is often hard to generalize. Many of its speakers were soldiers, forced resettlers, more likely to be natives of conquered lands than natives of Rome. Other scholars argue that the distinctions are more rightly viewed as indicative of sociolinguistic and register differences normally found within any language.Romance languages
202. Apuleius – Apuleius was a Latin-language prose writer. He was a Numidian, from Madauros. He studied Platonism in Athens, was an initiate in several cults or mysteries. The most famous incident in his life was when he was accused of using magic to gain the attentions of a wealthy widow. This is known as the Apologia. His most famous work is the Metamorphoses, otherwise known as The Golden Ass. It is the only Latin novel that has survived in its entirety. It relates the ludicrous adventures of one Lucius, accidentally turned into a donkey. He described himself as "half-Numidian half-Gaetulian." Details regarding his life come mostly from his defense speech and his work Florida, which consists of snippets taken from some of his best speeches. His father was a provincial magistrate who bequeathed at his death the sum of nearly million sesterces to his two sons. Apuleius studied at Athens where he studied Platonist philosophy among other subjects. He also travelled extensively in Asia Minor and Egypt, burning up his inheritance while doing so. Apuleius was an initiate including the Dionysian Mysteries. According to Augustine, sacerdos provinciae Africae.Apuleius – Depiction of Apuleius
203. Catullus – Not to be confused with Romans named "Catulus", see Catulus. His surviving works are still read widely, continue to influence poetry and other forms of art. Catullus' poems were widely appreciated by other poets. He greatly influenced poets such as Ovid, Horace, Virgil. After his rediscovery in the late Middle Ages, Catullus again found admirers. His explicit writing style has shocked many readers. Indeed, Catullus' work was never canonical in schools, although his body of work is still frequently read from secondary school to graduate programs across the world. Gaius Valerius Catullus was born to a leading equestrian family of Verona, in Cisalpine Gaul. The social prominence of the Catullus family allowed the father of Gaius Valerius to entertain Julius Caesar when he was the Promagistrate of both Gallic provinces. Catullus was raised primarily by his mother, Blandus, who exposed him to poetry and the works of Sappho and Callimachus at a young age. Catullus appears to have spent most of his young adult years in Rome. He appears to have been acquainted with the poet Marcus Furius Bibaculus. A number of prominent contemporaries appear in his poetry, including Cicero, Caesar and Pompey. In his poems Catullus describes several stages of their relationship: initial euphoria, doubts, separation, his wrenching feelings of loss. Clodia had several other partners; “From the poems one can adduce no fewer than five lovers in addition to Catullus: Egnatius, Gellius, Quintius, Rufus, Lesbius.”Catullus – Modern bust of Catullus on the Piazza Carducci, Sirmione.
204. Cicero – Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, political theorist, consul, constitutionalist. Cicero is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists. He created a Latin philosophical vocabulary distinguishing himself as a translator and philosopher. Though he was an accomplished successful lawyer, he believed his political career was his most important achievement. Following Julius Caesar's death, he became an enemy of Mark Antony in the ensuing struggle, attacking him in a series of speeches. His severed hands and head were then, as a final revenge of Mark Antony, displayed in the Roman Forum. Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance in public affairs, classical Roman culture. He was born in 106 BC in a hill town 100 kilometers southeast of Rome. His father possessed good connections in Rome. However, being a semi-invalid, Cicero studied extensively to compensate. Cicero's brother Quintus wrote in a letter that she was a thrifty housewife. Personal surname, comes from the Latin for chickpea, cicer. Plutarch explains that the name was originally given to one of Cicero's ancestors who had a cleft in the tip of his nose resembling a chickpea. However, it is more likely that Cicero's ancestors prospered through the sale of chickpeas. Romans often chose personal surnames: the famous family names of Fabius, Lentulus, Piso come from the Latin names of beans, lentils, peas.Cicero – A first century AD bust of Cicero in the Capitoline Museums, Rome
205. Ennius – Quintus Ennius was a writer during the period of the Roman Republic, is often considered the father of Roman poetry. He was an Oscan from Calabria. Although only fragments of his works survive, his influence in Latin literature was significant, particularly in his use of literary models. Ennius was born at Rudiae, a predominantly Oscan town historically founded by the Messapians. Ennius continued the literary tradition by writing praetextae, tragedies, palliatae, as well as his most famous work, a historic epic called the Annales. Minor works include the Epicharmus, the Euhemerus, the Hedyphagetica, Saturae. The Epicharmus presented the physical operations of the universe. In it, the poet dreamed he had been transported to some place of heavenly enlightenment. The Hedyphagetica took much of its substance from the gastronomical epic of Archestratus of Gela. The extant hexameters have prosodical features avoided in the more serious Annales. The remains of six books of Saturae show a considerable variety of metres. There are signs that Ennius varied the metre even within a composition. A frequent theme was the social life of his upper-class Roman friends and their intellectual conversation. The Annals became a text for Roman schoolchildren, eventually supplanted by Virgil's Aeneid. About 600 lines survive.Ennius – Ny Carlsberg Glyptothek Copenhagen. Double herm with the portrait of the Roman poets Virgil or Ennius
206. Horace – Quintus Horatius Flaccus, known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. Horace also crafted caustic iambic poetry. His career coincided to an empire. Some of the biographical writings contained in his writings can be supplemented from the valuable "Life of Horace" by Suetonius. He was born on December 65 BC in the Samnite south of Italy. Venusia, lay on a trade route in the border region between Apulia and Lucania. This perhaps enriched his feeling for language. Literary Latin must have sounded like a semi-foreign language, heard only at school. School was made particularly irksome by a number of his fellow pupils, the overgrown sons of beefy centurions. The army veterans could have been settled there at the expense of local families uprooted as punishment for their part in the Social War. State-sponsored migration must have added still more linguistic variety to the area. Horace was no different. References to it are found throughout his poems. He was a slave for at least part of his life. He was managed to gain his freedom and improve his social position.Horace – Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner
207. Livy – Livy and Augustus's wife, Livia, were from the same clan in different locations, although not related by blood. Livy was born in northern Italy, now modern Padua. There is a debate about the year of Titus Livius' birth, more likely 59 BC. At the time of his birth, his city of Patavium was the second wealthiest on the Italian peninsula. Patavium was a part of the province of Cisalpine Gaul at the time. Livy's teen years were during a time that coincided with the civil wars that were occurring throughout the Roman world. The wealthier citizens of Patavium went into hiding. Therefore, the other residents of Patavium did not end up supporting Marcus Antonius in his campaign for control over Rome. On, Asinius Pollio made a jibe at Livy's "patavinity", saying that Livy's Latin showed certain "provincialisms" frowned on at Rome. During his time in Rome, he held any other governmental position. His elementary mistakes in military matters show that he was never a soldier. However, he was educated in rhetoric. It seems that Livy means to live an independent life. He devoted a large part of his life to his writings, which he was able to do because of his financial freedom. He was not heard of to engage in declamation, a common pastime.Livy – Bust of Caesar Augustus from the Musei Capitolini, Rome
208. Lucan – Marcus Annaeus Lucanus, better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, born in Corduba, in the Hispania Baetica. Despite his short life, he is regarded as one of the outstanding figures of the Imperial Latin period. His speed of composition set him apart from other poets. Lucan was grandson of Seneca the Elder; he grew up under the tutelage of his uncle Seneca the Younger. Born into a wealthy family, he was probably provided with a philosophical and Stoic education by his uncle. He found success under Nero, was rewarded with a quaestorship in advance of the legal age. At some point, a feud began between Nero and Lucan. Two very different accounts of the events have survived that both trivialize the feud. According to Tacitus, Nero forbade him to publish his poems. According to Suetonius, Nero lost interest in Lucan and Lucan responded by writing insulting poems about Nero that Nero continued to ignore. Other works, though, point to a more serious basis to the feud. Works by the poet Statius may support the claim that Lucan wrote insulting poems about Nero. Vacca mentions that one of Lucan's works was entitled De Incendio Urbis. Statius's ode to Lucan mentions that Lucan described how the "unspeakable flames of the criminal tyrant roamed the heights of Remus." Additionally, the later books of Pharsalia are pro-Republic.Lucan – Bust of the Roman poet Lucan, Córdoba, Spain.
209. Lucretius – Titus Lucretius Carus was a Roman poet and philosopher. Lucretius has been credited with originating the concept of the three-age system, formalised by C. J. Thomsen. De natura was a considerable influence on the Augustan poets, particularly Virgil and Horace. Virtually nothing is known about the life of Lucretius. His work shows an intimate knowledge of the luxurious lifestyle in Rome. By this time, his brother had read De rerum natura, so might have many other Romans. A literary evaluation of Lucretius's work, however, reveals a sudden end to Book 6 during a description of the plague at Athens. The poem appears to have been published without a final revision, possibly due to its author's death. If this is true, Lucretius must have been dead by 54 BC. A biographical note is found in Aelius Donatus's Life of Virgil, which seems to be derived from an earlier work by Suetonius. The two consuls of Pompey and Crassus, stood together as consuls again in 55, not 53. There is insufficient basis for a confident assertion of the date of Lucretius's death in other sources. Another yet briefer note is found in the Chronicon of Jerome. Writing four centuries after Lucretius's death, he enters under the 171st Olympiad the following line: "the poet is born. In some accounts the administration of the toxic aphrodisiac is attributed to his Lucilia.Lucretius – Modern bust of Lucretius
210. Martial – In these witty poems Martial cheerfully satirises city life and the scandalous activities of his acquaintances, romanticises his provincial upbringing. Martial wrote a total of 1,561, of which 1,235 are in elegiac couplets. Martial is considered to be the creator of the modern epigram. His place of birth was Augusta Bilbilis in Hispania Tarraconensis. Fronto and Flaccilla, appear to have died in his youth. He professes to be of the school of Catullus, Pedo, Marsus. The epigram bears to this day the form impressed by his unrivalled skill in wordsmithing. The success of his countrymen may have been what motivated Martial to move from Hispania, once he had completed his education. Not much is known of the details of his life for the first twenty years or so after he came to Rome. He had neither youthful enthusiasm to precociously mold him a poet. Martial secured the favor of both Titus and Domitian. From them Martial obtained various privileges, among the semestris tribunatus, which conferred on him equestrian rank. The earliest of his extant works, known as Liber spectaculorum, was first published in the reign of Titus. In 86 Martial bore for the world the first two of the twelve books on which his pendulous and reputation rests. Till his return to Hispania in 98 Martial published a volume almost every year.Martial – Martial
211. Petronius – Gaius Petronius Arbiter was a Roman courtier during the reign of Nero. He is generally believed to be the author of the Satyricon, a satirical novel believed to have been written during the Neronian era. Tacitus, Pliny the Elder describe Petronius as the elegantiae arbiter, "judge of elegance" in the court of the emperor Nero. He served in 62. Later, he became a member of the senatorial class who devoted themselves to a life of pleasure. His relationship to Nero was apparently akin to that of a advisor. His reckless freedom of speech, being regarded as frankness, procured popularity. Yet during his provincial government, later when he held the office of consul, he had shown capacity for affairs. None of the ancient sources mention that he was a writer. However, a medieval manuscript written around 1450 of the Satyricon credited a "Titus Petronius" as the author of the original work. Traditionally, this reference is linked with Petronius Arbiter, since the novel appears to have been at least set during his lifetime. The link, however, remains speculative and disputed. Petronius' development of his characters in the Satyricon, namely Trimalchio, transcends the traditional style of writing of ancient literature. In the literature written during Petronius' lifetime the emphasis was always on the typical considerations of plot, laid down by classical rules. The character, hardly known in ancient literature, was secondary.Petronius – Petronius
212. Plautus – Titus Maccius Plautus, commonly known as Plautus, was a Roman playwright of the Old Latin period. His comedies are the earliest Latin literary works to have survived in their entirety. He wrote Palliata comoedia, the genre devised by the innovator of Latin literature, Livius Andronicus. The word Plautine /ˈplɔːtaɪn/ refers to both Plautus's own works and works similar to or influenced by his. Not much is known about Titus Maccius Plautus' early life. It is believed that he was born in Sarsina, a small town in Emilia Romagna in northern Italy, in around 254 BC. According to Morris Marples, Plautus worked as a stage-carpenter or scene-shifter in his early years. It is from this work, perhaps, that his love of the theater originated. His acting talent was eventually discovered; and he adopted the names "Maccius" and "Plautus". Tradition holds that he made enough money to go into the nautical business, but that the venture collapsed. He is then said to have worked as a manual laborer and to have studied Greek drama—particularly the New Comedy of Menander—in his leisure. His studies allowed him to produce his plays, which were released between c. 205 and 184 BC. Plautus attained such a popularity that his name alone became a hallmark of theatrical success. Plautus's comedies are mostly adapted from Greek models for a Roman audience, are often based directly on the works of the Greek playwrights. He reworked the Greek texts to give them a flavour that would appeal to the local Roman audiences.Plautus – Bust of Plautus
213. Pliny the Elder – In the latter number will be my uncle, of your compositions. He is referring to the fact that Tacitus relied on his uncle's now missing work on the History of the German Wars. He was the son of an equestrian, his wife, Marcella. Neither the elder Pliny mention the names. Their ultimate source is a fragmentary inscription recorded by the 16th-century Augustinian monk Onofrio Panvinio at Verona. In all cases the names come through. Whether he was an augur and whether she was named Grania Marcella are less certain. Hardouin also cites the conterraneity of Catullus. Additional efforts to connect Celer and Marcella with other gentes are highly speculative. Hardouin is the only scholar to use his unknown source. Pliny kept statues of his ancestors there. A statue of Pliny on the facade of the Duomo of Como celebrates him as a native son. In one of his letters to Tacitus, Pliny the Younger details how his uncle's breakfasts would be simple following the customs of our forefathers. This statement would have pleased Tacitus. Two inscriptions identifying the hometown of Pliny the Younger as Como take precedence over the Verona theory.Pliny the Elder – One of the Xanten Horse-Phalerae located in the British Museum, measuring 10.5 cm (4.1 in). It bears an inscription formed from punched dots: PLINIO PRAEF EQ; i.e., Plinio praefecto equitum, "Pliny prefect of cavalry". It was perhaps issued to every man in Pliny's unit. The figure is the bust of the emperor.
214. Pliny the Younger – Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo, better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, magistrate of Ancient Rome. Pliny the Elder, helped educate him. Both Pliny the Elder and the Younger were witnesses to the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD, in which the former died. Pliny the Younger wrote hundreds of historical value. Some are addressed to reigning emperors or to notables such as the historian Tacitus. Pliny rose through a series of civil and military offices, the cursus honorum. He was a friend of the historian Tacitus and might have employed the biographer Suetonius on his staff. Pliny also came into contact during his time in Syria. Cilo died at an early age, when Pliny was still young. As a result, the boy probably lived with his mother. His guardian and preceptor in charge of his education was Lucius Verginius Rufus, famed for quelling a revolt against Nero in 68 AD. After being first tutored at home, Pliny went to Rome for further education. There he was taught rhetoric by Nicetes Sacerdos of Smyrna. It was at this time that Pliny became closer to his uncle Pliny the Elder. In the same document the younger Pliny was adopted by his uncle.Pliny the Younger – Statue of Pliny the Younger on the façade of Cathedral of S. Maria Maggiore in Como.
215. Propertius – Sextus Propertius was a Latin elegiac poet of the Augustan age. He was born around 50 -- 45 died shortly after 15 BC. Propertius' surviving work comprises four books of Elegies. He was a friend of the poets Gallus and Virgil and, with them, had as his patron Maecenas and, through Maecenas, the emperor Augustus. Very little information is known about Propertius outside of his own writing. His praenomen "Sextus" is mentioned by Aelius Donatus, the rest of his name is unknown. From numerous references in his poetry it is clear he was raised in Umbria; modern Assisi claims for itself the honor of his birthplace. Combining this with cryptic references in Ovid implying he was younger than his contemporary Tibullus, a birthdate after 55 BC seems appropriate. It was during this time that he met the older woman who would inspire him to express his poetic genius. The Monobiblos must have attracted the attention of a patron of the arts who took Propertius into his circle of court poets. A second, larger book of elegies was published perhaps a year later, one that includes poems praises for Augustus. Though some editors have previously numbered the poems accordingly, the idea has fallen out in more recent times. The publication of a third book came sometime after 23 BC. Its content shows the poet beginning to move beyond simple love themes, as some poems use Amor merely as a starting point for other topics. The book also implies a bitter end to their torrid love affair.Propertius – Auguste Jean Baptiste Vinchon, Propertius and Cynthia at Tivoli
216. Quintilian – Marcus Fabius Quintilianus was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance writing. In English translation, he is usually referred to as Quintilian, although the alternate spellings of Quintillian and Quinctilian are occasionally seen, the latter in older texts. Quintilian was born c. 35 in Calagurris in Hispania. A well-educated man, sent him to Rome to study rhetoric early in the reign of Nero. While there, he cultivated a relationship with Domitius Afer, who died in 59. Quintilian evidently adopted Afer as his model and speak and plead cases in the law courts. Sometime after Afer's death, Quintilian returned to Hispania, possibly to practice law in the courts of his own province. However, in 68, he returned as part of the retinue of Emperor Galba, Nero's short-lived successor. Quintilian does not appear to have been a close advisor of the Emperor, which probably ensured his survival in 69. During the chaotic Year of the Four Emperors which followed, Quintilian opened a public school of rhetoric. Among his students were Pliny the Younger, perhaps Tacitus. The Emperor Vespasian made a consul. This subsidy enabled Quintilian to devote more time to the school, since it freed him of pressing monetary concerns. In addition, he appeared in the courts of law, arguing on behalf of clients. Of his personal life, little is known.Quintilian – Quintilian's statue in Calahorra, La Rioja, Spain
217. Quintus Curtius Rufus – Much of it is missing. Apart from his name on the manuscripts, nothing else certain is known of him. A few theories exist. They are treated with varying degrees of credibility by various authors. Meanwhile, the identity of Quintus Curtius Rufus, historian, is maintained separately. Curtius' work is uniquely isolated. No ancient work refers to it, or as as is known, to him. The emperors intended to publish it posthumously but did not find a political opportunity. They had adopted the identity of Alexander for themselves. The provinces fashioned from the Macedonian Empire were difficult to govern, always on the point of rebellion. The work of Curtius, Pratt conjectures, was not politically appropriate because it would have encouraged independence. The emperor attempted to build national pride among the former Macedonian states. Commandant of returning veterans, was promoted to Consul. He claimed descent from the Seleucids of Macedonia. New medals were issued on Alexandrian themes.Quintus Curtius Rufus – Qui. Curse En La Vie Alexand. Le Grand, illumination from manuscript located at the Laurentian Library of Florence.
218. Sallust – Gaius Sallustius Crispus, usually anglicised as Sallust, was a Roman historian, politician, novus homo from an Italian plebeian family. Sallust is the earliest known Roman historian with surviving works to his name, of which the Histories are still extant. Sallust was primarily amassed great wealth from his governorship of Africa. Sallust was probably born in Amiternum in Central Italy, though Eduard Schwartz takes the view that Sallust's birthplace was Rome. His date is calculated from the report of Jerome's Chronicon. However, the Kleine Pauly Encyclopedia takes 1 October 86 BC as the birthdate. Michael Grant cautiously offers 80s BC. There is no information about family, except for Tacitus' mention of his sister. The Sallustii were a noble family of Sabine origin. They had full Roman citizenship. During the Social War Gaius' parents hid in Rome, because Amiternum was by rebelling Italic tribes. Because of this Sallust could have been raised in Rome He received a very good education. After an ill-spent youth, Sallust may have won election as quaestor in 55 BC. He became a Tribune of the Plebs in 52 BC, the year in which the followers of Milo killed Clodius in a brawl. Sallust then supported the prosecution of Milo.Sallust – Statue of Sallust in L'Aquila
219. Seneca the Younger – Lucius Annaeus Seneca was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature. He was a tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero. While he was forced to commit suicide for alleged complicity in the Pisonian conspiracy to assassinate Nero, some sources state that he may have been innocent. His nephew was the poet Lucan. He was raised in Rome, where he was trained in rhetoric and philosophy. Griffin also infers from the ancient sources that Seneca was born in either 8, 1 BC. She was a resident in Rome by AD 5. Seneca says that he was carried in the arms of his mother's stepsister. Griffin says that, allowing for rhetorical exaggeration, means "it is fair to conclude that Seneca was in Rome as a very small boy." Be as it may, it is clear that he was in Rome at a relatively early stage in his life. Caligula and Fabius were Columella, Pliny, Tacitus and Dio proponents. From AD 54 to 62, Seneca acted as Nero's advisor, together with the prefect Sextus Afranius Burrus. One byproduct of his influence was that Seneca was appointed suffect consul in 56. Seneca's influence was said to have been especially strong in the first year. Tacitus and Dio suggest that Nero's early rule, during which time he listened to Seneca and Burrus, was quite competent.Seneca the Younger – Ancient bust of Seneca, part of the Double Herm of Socrates and Seneca (Antikensammlung Berlin)
220. Statius – Publius Papinius Statius was a Roman poet of the 1st century AD. His surviving Latin poetry includes an epic in the Thebaid; a collection of occasional poetry, the Silvae; and an unfinished epic, the Achilleid. He is also known as a guide in the Purgatory section of Dante's epic poem The Divine Comedy. Information about Statius' life is entirely drawn from his Silvae and a mention by the satirist Juvenal. The poet's father was a native of Velia but spent time in Rome where he taught with marked success. Statius declares in his lament for his father that his father was in his time equal to any literary task, whether in verse. He may have spent time there, or been impressed by the confrontation of Vitellius and Vespasian in 69. Statius' father may have lost his status because of money troubles. At Naples, he was a teacher of Roman literature who attracted many pupils who were destined for religious offices in Rome. He died in 79 AD. From Pliny the Younger's Letters, it has recently been deduced that Statius also wrote under the pseudonym of Propertius. Less is known of the events of Statius' life. He was born c. 45 AD. For the Alban Festival, Statius composed a poem on the German and Dacian campaigns of Domitian which Juvenal lampoons in his seventh satire. Statius is thought to have moved to Rome c. 90 after his father's death where he published his acclaimed epic poem the Thebaid c.Statius – The Thebaid describes the siege of Thebes by the seven Argive champions.
221. Suetonius – His most important surviving work is a set of biographies of twelve successive Roman rulers, from Julius Caesar to Domitian, entitled De Vita Caesarum. He recorded the earliest accounts of Julius Caesar's epileptic seizures. Other works by Suetonius concern the lives of famous writers, including poets, historians, grammarians. A few of these books have partially survived, but many have been lost. Suetonius was the Younger. Pliny describes him as "quiet and studious, a man dedicated to writing." Through Pliny, Suetonius came into favour with Trajan and Hadrian. Suetonius may have served on Pliny’s staff when Pliny was Proconsul of Bithynia Pontus between 110 and 112. Under Trajan he served as secretary of studies and director of Imperial archives. Under Hadrian, he became the Emperor's secretary. But, in 119, Hadrian dismissed Suetonius for the latter's allegedly excessive intimacy with the empress Sabina. The book was dedicated to a friend Gaius Septicius Clarus, a prefect of the Praetorian Guard in 119. They apparently survive in part in the form of extracts in later Greek glossaries. The below listed lost works of Suetonius are from the Foreword written by Robert Graves in his translation of the Twelve Caesars. J.C. Rolfe, Lives of the Caesars, Volume I.Suetonius – A bust of Gaius Julius Caesar.
222. Tacitus – Publius Cornelius Tacitus was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. There are substantial lacunae in the surviving texts, including a gap in the Annals, four books long. He is considered to be one of the greatest Roman historians. Tacitus lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature. Tacitus is known into the psychology of power politics. Details about his personal life are scarce. One scholar's suggestion of Sextus has gained no approval. It is possible that this refers to a brother -- if Cornelius was indeed his father. The friendship between Tacitus leads some scholars to conclude that they were both the offspring of wealthy provincial families. The province of his birth remains unknown, though various conjectures suggest Gallia Belgica, northern Italy. His marriage to the daughter of Narbonensian senator Gnaeus Julius Agricola implies that he came from Gallia Narbonensis. His friendship with Pliny suggests origins in northern Italy. No evidence exists, however, that Pliny's friends from northern Italy do Pliny's letters hint that the two men had a common background. Since Pliny was from Italy, some infer that Tacitus was from the provinces, probably Gallia Narbonensis. His ancestry, his skill in oratory, his sympathetic depiction of barbarians who resisted Roman rule have led some to suggest that he was a Celt.Tacitus – Modern statue representing Tacitus outside the Austrian Parliament Building
223. Terence – Publius Terentius Afer, better known in English as Terence, was a Roman playwright during the Roman Republic, of Berber descent. His comedies were performed for the first time around 170–160 BC. A Roman senator, brought Terence to Rome as a slave, educated him and later on, impressed by his abilities, freed him. Terence apparently died young, probably on his way back to Rome. All of the six plays Terence wrote have survived. This appeared in his Heauton Timorumenos. He may have been in Greek Italy to a woman taken to Carthage as a slave. Later, after the destruction of Carthage in 146 BC, it was used to refer from the land of the Afri. It is therefore most likely that Terence was of Libyan descent, considered ancestors to the modern-day Berber peoples. In any case, he was sold to P. Terentius Lucanus, a Roman senator, who educated him and later on, freed him. Terence then took "Terentius,", the origin of the present form. He was a member of the so-called Scipionic Circle. When he was 25, Terence travelled to Greece and never returned. This can not be confirmed. Before his disappearance he exhibited six comedies which are still in existence.Terence – Alleged portrait of Terence, from Codex Vaticanus Latinus 3868. Possibly copied from 3rd-century original.
224. Tibullus – Albius Tibullus was a Latin poet and writer of elegies. Little is known about his life. His second books of poetry are extant; many other texts attributed to Tibullus are of questionable origins. There are only a few references in later writers and a short Life of doubtful authority. His gentile name has been questioned. His status was probably that of a Roman knight; and he had inherited a considerable estate. But, like Virgil, Horace and Propertius, he seems to have lost most of it amongst the confiscations of Mark Antony and Octavian. Tibullus's chief patron was Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus, himself an orator and poet as well as a statesman and a commander. Messalla, like Gaius Maecenas, was at the centre of a literary circle in Rome. The name of Augustus is found nowhere in the writings of Tibullus. The loss of Tibullus's landed property is attested by himself, "nunc pauperis agri". Its cause is only an inference, though a very probable one. That he was allowed to retain a portion of his estate with the mansion is clear from ii. 4, 53. Tibullus may have received militaria dona.Tibullus – Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Tibullus at Delia's
225. Marcus Terentius Varro – Marcus Terentius Varro was an ancient Roman scholar and writer. He is sometimes called Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his younger contemporary Varro Atacinus. Politically, he supported Pompey, reaching the office of praetor, after having been tribune of the people, curule aedile. He was one of the commission of twenty that carried out the great scheme of Caesar for the resettlement of Capua and Campania. During the civil war he commanded one of Pompey's armies in the Ilerda campaign. Varro studied under the Academic philosopher Antiochus of Ascalon. Varro turned out more than 74 Latin works on a variety of topics. Among his many works, two stand out for his compilation of the Varronian chronology. His Nine Books of Disciplines became a model for later encyclopedists, especially Pliny the Elder. The most noteworthy portion of the Nine Books of Disciplines is its use of the liberal arts as organizing principles. Varro decided to focus on identifying nine of these arts: architecture. Using Varro's list, subsequent writers defined the seven classical "liberal arts of the medieval schools". The compilation of the Varronian chronology was an attempt to determine an year-by-year timeline of Roman history up to his time. It is based on the traditional sequence of the consuls of the Roman Republic — supplemented, where necessary, by inserting "dictatorial" and "anarchic" years. One noteworthy aspect of the work is his anticipation of epidemiology.Marcus Terentius Varro – Plan of the birdhouse at Casinum designed and built by Varro
226. Virgil – Publius Vergilius Maro, usually called Virgil or Vergil /ˈvɜːrdʒᵻl/ in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He is known for three major works of Latin literature, the Eclogues, the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, are sometimes attributed to him. Virgil is traditionally ranked as one of Rome's greatest poets. His Aeneid has been considered the national epic of ancient Rome to the present day. The tradition holds that Virgil was born in Cisalpine Gaul. Analysis of his name has led to beliefs that he descended from earlier Roman colonists. Modern speculation ultimately is not supported either from his own writings or his later biographers. He attended schools in Cremona, Mediolanum, Rome and Naples. After considering briefly a career in law, the young Virgil turned his talents to poetry. From Virgil's admiring references to the neoteric writers Pollio and Cinna, it has been inferred that he was, for a time, associated with Catullus' neoteric circle. He was nicknamed "Parthenias" or "maiden" because of his social aloofness. Virgil seems to have suffered bad health in some ways lived the life of an invalid. According to the Catalepton, while in the Epicurean school of Siro the Epicurean at Naples, he began to write poetry. The Eclogues are a group of ten poems roughly modeled on the bucolic poetry of the Hellenistic poet Theocritus.Virgil – Depiction of Virgil, 3rd century AD ("Monnus-Mosaic", Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Trier)
227. Vitruvius – By his own description Vitruvius served as an artilleryman, the third class of arms in the military offices. He probably served as a senior officer of artillery in charge of doctores ballistarum and libratores who actually operated the machines. Little is known about Vitruvius' life. Most inferences about him are extracted from his only surviving work De Architectura. Even his first name Marcus and his cognomen Pollio are uncertain. Cetius Faventinus writes of "Vitruvius Polio aliique auctores"; this can be read as "others" or, less likely, as "others". Neither association, however, is borne out by De Architectura, nor by the little, known of Mamurra. A praefect architectus armamentarius of the group. He is mentioned in Pliny the Elder's table of contents for Naturalis Historia, in the heading for mosaic techniques. Frontinus refers to "Vitruvius the architect" in his late 1st-century work De aquaeductu. These names vary depending on the edition of De architectura. Publius Minidius is also written as Publius Numidicus and Publius Numidius, speculated as the same Publius Numisius inscribed on the Roman Theatre at Heraclea. As an army engineer he specialized in the construction of ballista and scorpio artillery war machines for sieges. It is speculated that Vitruvius served with Caesar's chief engineer Lucius Cornelius Balbus. The locations where he served can be reconstructed from, for example, descriptions of the building methods of various "foreign tribes".Vitruvius – A 1684 depiction of Vitruvius (right) presenting De Architectura to Augustus
228. Alexandria – Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. It is Egypt's largest seaport, serving approximately 80 % of Egypt's exports. Alexandria is an important industrial center from Suez. It is also an important destination. It was founded by Alexander the Great. It was the second most powerful city of the ancient world after Rome. It was founded by Alexander the Great in April 331 BC as Ἀλεξάνδρεια. Alexander's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates. It was intended to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley. It was the cultural center of the ancient world for some time. Its museum attracted many of the greatest scholars, including Greeks, Jews and Syrians. The city was later lost its significance. Just east of Alexandria, there was in ancient times marshland and several islands. As early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Canopus and Heracleion. The latter was recently rediscovered under water.Alexandria – Alexandria Ἀλεξάνδρεια
229. Antioch – Antioch on the Orontes was an ancient Greco-Roman city on the eastern side of the Orontes River. Its ruins lends the modern city its name. Antioch was founded near the end of the 4th century BC by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals. The city's geographical, economic location benefited its occupants, particularly such features as the spice trade, the Silk Road, the Persian Royal Road. It eventually rivaled Alexandria as the chief city of the Near East. It was also the main center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the Second Temple period. The Christian New Testament asserts that the name "Christian" first emerged in Antioch. Its residents were known as Antiochenes. A single route proceeds south in the Orontes valley. The settlement of Meroe pre-dated Antioch. A shrine of the Semitic goddess Anat, called by the "Persian Artemis," was located here. This site was included in the eastern suburbs of Antioch. There was a village on the spur of Mount Silpius named Iopolis. Io may have been a early colony of trading Greeks. John Malalas also mentions Bottia, in the plain by the river.Antioch – Ancient Roman road located in Syria which connected Antioch and Chalcis.
230. Aquileia – In fact, the site chosen for Aquileia was about km from where an estimated 12,000 Celtic Taurisci nomads had attempted to settle in 183 BC. It is, therefore, not unlikely that Aquileia had been a Gallic oppidum even before the coming of the Romans. However, Celtic artifacts have been discovered from 500 BC to the Roman arrival. Each of the men had first knowledge of Cisalpine Gaul. Nasica had conquered the Boii in 191. Flaminius had overseen the construction of the road named after him to Arezzo. Acidinus had conquered the Taurisci in 183. The triumvirate led 3,000 families to settle the area meaning Aquileia probably had a population of 20,000 soon after it birth. Among these colonists, pedites received 50 iugera of land each, equites received 140 iugera each. Either at the founding or not afterward, colonists from the nearby Veneti supplemented these families. Roads soon connected Aquileia probably in 173 BC. The construction of the Via Popilia from the Roman colony of Ariminium to Ad Portum near Altinum in 132 BC improved communications further. It also had, in later times at least, considerable brickfields. In 90 BC, the original Latin colony became its citizens were ascribed to the Roman tribe Velina. The customs boundary of Italy was close by in Cicero's day.Aquileia – The Basilica of Aquileia.
231. Berytus – Berytus was a Roman colonia, the center of Roman presence in the eastern Mediterranean shores south of Anatolia. Roman Berytus was the capital of Phoenicia during Roman times. Later it was soon renamed Laodicea in Phoenicia or Laodicea in Canaan in honor of a Seleucid Laodice. The city was assimilated into the Roman Empire, veteran soldiers were sent there, large building projects were undertaken. ... was made a Roman colony about 14 B.C. Herod the Great, Agrippa I and II, Queen Berenice built exedras, porticos, temples, a forum, a theater, amphitheater, baths here. In the 3d c. The new Roman city spread farther S and W, near the Place de l'Etoile. On its N side was a civic basilica 99 m long with a Corinthian portico of polychrome materials... dating from the 1st c. A.D. Some villas in a S suburb facing the sea had mosaic floors.Some 12 km upstream on the Beirut river are the ruined arches of an aqueduct. Berytus was considered the most Roman city in the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire. It was one of the only one with full Ius Italicum. During the reign of Herod the Great, Berytus became an important Roman colonia. The city was named Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus in honor of the only daughter of Augustus.Berytus – Roman ruins of Berytus, in front of St. George's Cathedral in actual Beirut
232. Bologna – It is the largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy. Bologna is the seventh most populous city in Italy, located in the heart of a metropolitan area of about million. The first settlements date back to at least 1000 BC. It is also an important transportation crossroad for the trains of Northern Italy, where many important mechanical, electronic and nutritional industries have their headquarters. It is home to numerous prestigious cultural, political institutions as well as one of the most impressive trade fair districts in Europe. In 2000 Bologna was declared European capital in 2006, a UNESCO "city of music". The city of Bologna was selected to participate in the Universal Exposition of Shanghai 2010 from around the world. After a long decline, it was reborn under Bishop Petronius. According to legend, St. Petronius built the church of S. Stefano. In 728, the city was captured by the Lombard Liutprand, becoming part of the Lombard Kingdom. The Germanic conquerors formed a district called "longobarda" near the complex of S. Stefano. Charlemagne stayed in 786. Traditionally said to be founded in 1088, the University of Bologna is widely considered to be the first university. The university originated as an international centre of study of medieval Roman law including Irnerius. Bologna numbered Dante, Boccaccio and Petrarca among its students.Bologna – A collage of the city, showing Fountain of Neptune, Piazza Maggiore, Basilica of San Petronio, Two towers (Due Torri), Tagliatelle al ragù bolognese (dish of Bologna origin), and endless city arcades typical for Bologna
233. Carthage – The city developed from a Phoenician colony into the capital of an empire dominating the Mediterranean Sea during the first millennium BC. The Roman city was again occupied by the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, in 698. The archaeological site was first surveyed by Danish consul Christian Tuxen Falbe. Excavations were performed by Charles Ernest Beulé and by Alfred Louis Delattre. The Carthage National Museum was founded by Cardinal Charles Lavigerie. The open-air Carthage Paleo-Christian Museum has exhibits excavated under the auspices of UNESCO from 1975 to 1984. The Latin Carthāgō, Carthāginis is an n-stem, as reflected in the English adjective Carthaginian. The Latin adjective pūnicus, a variant of the word "Phoenician", is reflected in English in some borrowings from Latin—notably the Punic Wars and the Punic language. The Modern Standard Arabic قرطاج is an adoption of French Carthage, replacing an older local toponym reported as Cartagenna that directly continued the Latin name. Carthage was built to the north and the south. The city's location made master of the Mediterranean's maritime trade. All ships crossing the sea had affording it great power and influence. Two large, artificial harbors were built within one for harboring the city's massive navy of 220 warships and the other for mercantile trade. A walled tower overlooked both harbors. The city had 37 km in length, longer than the walls of comparable cities.Carthage – Thermes of Antoninus Pius at Carthage
234. Eboracum – Eboracum was a fort and city in the Roman province of Britannia. In its prime it was the largest town in a provincial capital. Two Roman emperors died in 306 AD. The first recorded mention of Eboracum by name is dated c. During the Roman period, the name was also written in Eburacum. The etymology of Eboracum is uncertain as the language of the indigenous population of the area was never recorded. However, the generally accepted view of British history, is that the inhabitants of Britain at this time spoke a Celtic language related to modern Welsh. This language has been reconstructed from modern Celtic languages, has been called by scholars Common Brythonic. The name "Eboracum" is thought to have derived from the Common Brythonic Iburakon which probably means "place of the yew trees". The word for "yew" was probably something like *ibura in Celtic, combined with the suffix *-āko "place" meaning "place of the yew trees". The name is then thought to have been Latinized by replacing -acon with -acum, according to a common use noted in Gaul and Lusitania. Ivry, Ivrey, Ivory in France would all come from * Eboracum / * Eboriacum; for example: Ivry-la-Bataille, Ivry-le-Temple Évry, etc.. Advance beyond the Humber did not take place until the early 70s AD. This was because the people in the area known by the Romans became a Roman client state. When their leadership changed becoming more hostile to Rome, Roman General Quintus Petillius Cerialis led the Ninth Legion north across the Humber.Eboracum – Modern statue of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great outside York Minster
235. Leptis Magna – Leptis Magna was a prominent city in Roman Libya. Originally a Punic foundation, it was greatly expanded under emperor Septimius Severus, a native of the city. The city grew again in prosperity until it fell to the Vandals in 439. It was re-incorporated into the Eastern Empire in 533, but never recovered its former importance. It was abandoned. The ruins of Leptis Magna are located in Khoms, Libya, on the coast where the Wadi Lebda meets the sea. The site is one of best preserved Roman ruins in the Mediterranean. The Latin name was Lepcis Magna The Greek name was Νεάπολις Neapolis. The city was called "Greater" in contrast with Leptis Parva in modern-day Tunisia. The Neo-Punic name is recorded as lpqy. The Arabic name is لَبْدَة Labdah. The Punic city was founded in the second half of the 7th BC. A 4th to 3rd century BC necropolis was found under the Roman theatre. As such Leptis retain its two suphetes with the mhzm, similar to the Roman aediles, as minor magistrates. In addition there were sacred officials as the'addir ` ararim or praefectus sacrorum, the nēquim ēlīm, probably a sacred college of fifteen members.Leptis Magna – The Arch of Septimius Severus
236. Londinium – Londinium was a settlement established on the current site of the City of London around AD 43. In the year 60 or 61, the rebellion of the Iceni under Boudica forced the garrison to abandon the settlement, then razed. Following the Iceni's defeat at the Battle of Watling Street, the city was rebuilt as a planned Roman town and recovered within about a decade. During the later decades of the 1st century, Londinium expanded rapidly, becoming Great Britain's largest city. Its forum and basilica were one of the largest structures north of the Alps, when the Emperor Hadrian visited Londinium in 122. Excavations have discovered evidence of a major fire that destroyed most of the city shortly thereafter, but the city was again rebuilt. By the second half of the 2nd century, Londinium appears to have shrunk in both size and population. Although Londinium remained important for the rest of the Roman period, no further expansion resulted. Sometime between 190 and 225, the Romans built a defensive wall around the landward side of the city. Along with the network, this wall was one of the largest construction projects carried out in Roman Britain. The London Wall survived for another 1,600 years and broadly defined the perimeter of the old City of London. The etymology of the name Londinium is unknown. Following Geoffrey of Monmouth's pseudohistorical History of the Kings of Britain, it was long derived from an eponymous founder named Lud, son of Heli. There is no evidence such a figure ever existed. Instead, the Latin name was probably based on a native Brittonic placename reconstructed as *Londinion.Londinium – A map of the known Roman road network, highlighting the routes included in the Antonine Itinerary
237. Lutetia – The Gallo-Roman city of Lutetia was the predecessor of present-day Paris. The city was referred to as" Λουκοτοκία" by "Lutetia" by Julius Caesar. The origin of this name is uncertain. As such, it would be related in Europe including Lutudarum; Lodève and Ludesse; and Lutitia. The oppidum of the Gallic tribe of the Parisii was originally believed to be from Caesar's Gallic Wars. In 52 BC, so before the end of the Gallic Wars, the Parisii destroyed the bridges to the Ile de la Cité. The Romans took control of Lutetia. The low-lying plain was easily flooded. Under Roman rule, Lutetia was thoroughly Romanised with a population estimated at around 8,000. It did not have a great deal of political importance - the capital of Lugdunensis Senona, was Agedincum. The regular grid-plan of Lutetia marked it as a Roman city. The north-south axis was dictated by the need to cross the marshy riverbanks in the shortest possible distance; several routes converged at the bridgehead. On the Left Bank, on the Right Bank, the Rue St-Martin still follow the Roman main axis. To bridge the Bièvre valley at Arcueil-Cachan, a bridge was required, whose ruined arches, still discernible, gave rise to the toponym Arcueil. It was Christianised in the 3rd century, traditionally when St Denis became the city's first bishop.Lutetia – Arènes de Lutèce (magnification)
238. Mediolanum – Mediolanum, the ancient Milan, was originally an Insubrian city, but afterwards became an important Roman city in northern Italy. Mediolanum appears to have been founded around 600 BC by the Celtic Insubres, after whom this region of northern Italy was called Insubria. Mediolanum was important for its location as a hub in the road network of northern Italy. Polybius describes the country as abounding in wine, every kind of grain, in fine wool. Herds of swine, both for public and private supply, were bred in its forests, the people were well known for their generosity. During the Augustan age Mediolanum was famous for its schools; it possessed a theater and an amphitheatre. A large wall later was expanded in the late third century AD, by Maximian. Mediolanum was made the seat of the prefect of Liguria by Hadrian and Constantine made it the seat of the vicar of Italy. In the third century Mediolanum possessed imperial mausoleum. In 259, Roman legions under the command of Emperor Gallienus soundly defeated the Alemanni in the Battle of Mediolanum. In 286 Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. He chose leaving his Maximian at Milan. Maximian increased the area surrounded by a new, larger wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers. The monumental area had twin towers; one, included in the convent of San Maurizio Maggiore remains 16,60m high. Constantine was in Milan to celebrate the wedding of his sister to the Eastern Emperor, Licinius.Mediolanum – A section of Roman wall (11 m high) with a 24-sided tower.
239. Pompeii – It was an ancient Roman town-city near modern Naples, in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. Researchers believe that the town was founded in the sixth century BC by the Osci or Oscans. The eruption destroyed the city, burying it under tons of ash. The objects that lay beneath the city have been preserved for centuries because of the lack of moisture. These artefacts provide an extraordinarily detailed insight into the life of a city during the Pax Romana. During the excavation, plaster was used to fill in the voids in the ash layers that once held human bodies. This allowed archaeologists to see the exact position the person was in when she died. It has been a destination for over 250 years. It has UNESCO World Heritage Site status and is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Italy, with approximately 2.5 million visitors every year. Pompeii in Latin is a second plural. The ruins of Pompeii are located near the suburban town of Pompei. Pompeii stands on a spur formed to the north of the mouth of the Sarno River. It is some distance inland, but in ancient times was nearer to the coast. It is about 8 km away from Mount Vesuvius. Pompeii was home to approximately 11,000 to 11,500 people on the basis of household counts.Pompeii – View into a street of Pompeii
240. Ravenna – Ravenna is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. It was the city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476. It then served as the capital of the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths until it was re-conquered by the Eastern Roman Empire. Although an inland city, Ravenna is connected by the Candiano Canal. It has eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The origin of the Ravenna is unclear, although it is believed the name is Etruscan. There is no agreement on this point. The origins of Ravenna are uncertain. Ravenna consisted of houses built in a marshy lagoon -- a situation similar to Venice several centuries later. In 49 BC, it was the location where Julius Caesar gathered his forces before crossing the Rubicon. Later, after his battle against Mark Antony in 31 BC, Emperor Augustus founded the military harbor of Classe. This harbor, protected by its own walls, was an important station of the Roman Imperial Fleet. Ravenna remained an important seaport on the Adriatic until the early Middle Ages. During the German campaigns, widow of Arminius, Marbod, King of the Marcomanni, were confined at Ravenna. Ravenna greatly prospered under Roman rule.Ravenna – Collage of Ravenna
241. Smyrna – Smyrna was an Ancient Greek city located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. This place is known today as İzmir, Turkey. Due to its advantageous port conditions, its good inland connections, Smyrna rose to prominence. Two sites of the ancient city are today within the boundaries of İzmir. The first site, probably founded by indigenous peoples, rose during the Archaic Period as one of the principal ancient Greek settlements in western Anatolia. The second, whose foundation is associated with Alexander the Great, reached metropolitan proportions during the period of the Roman Empire. Most of the present-day remains of the ancient city date from after a 2nd-century AD earthquake. In practical terms, a distinction is often made between these. Smyrna proper was the new city which residents moved to as of the 4th BC and whose foundation was inspired by Alexander the Great. This Anatolian settlement commanded the gulf. The archeological site, named Bayraklı Höyüğü, is approximately 700 metres inland, in the Tepekule neighbourhood of Bayraklı at 38 ° 27 ′ 51 ″ N 27 ° 10 ′ 13 ″ E. The core of early Roman Smyrna is preserved in the large area of İzmir Agora Open Air Museum at this site. Research is being pursued at the sites of both the new cities. For further information on etymology of the city's name, see İzmir etymology. Several explanations have been offered for its name.Smyrna – The Agora of Smyrna (columns of the western stoa)
242. Vindobona – Vindobona was a Celtic settlement and later a Roman military camp on the site of the modern city of Vienna in Austria. The area took on a new name in the 13th-century, being changed to Berghof, or now simply known as Alter Berghof. Around 15 BC, the kingdom of Noricum was included in the Roman Empire. There is a Marc-Aurelstraße near the Hoher Markt in Vienna. Vindobona was part of the Roman Pannonia, of which the regional administrative centre was Carnuntum. Vindobona was a military camp with an civilian city. The military complex covered an area of some 20 hectares, housing about 6000 men where Vienna’s first district now stands. Vindobona was part of a defensive network including the camps of Carnuntum, Brigetio and Aquincum. Under Emperor Trajan, four legions were stationed in Pannonia. Vindobona was provisioned by the surrounding Roman estates. A centre of trade with a developed infrastructure well as agriculture and forestry developed around Vindobona. Civic communities developed outside the fortifications, well another community, independent of the military authorities in today's third district. It has also been proven that a Germanic settlement with a large marketplace existed from the second century onwards. The name “Graben” is believed to hark back to the defensive ditches of the military camp. The Berghof was later erected in one corner of the camp.Vindobona – Head of a genius found during excavations of Vindobona
243. Volubilis – It grew rapidly from the 1st century AD onward and expanded to cover about 42 hectares with a 2.6 km circuit of walls. The city gained a number of major public buildings including a basilica, temple and triumphal arch. Its prosperity, derived principally from olive growing, prompted the construction of many fine town-houses with mosaic floors. It continued to be inhabited for at least another 700 years, first as a Latinised Christian community, then as an Islamic settlement. In the 8th century it became the seat of Idris ibn Abdallah, the founder of the Idrisid dynasty and the state of Morocco. By the 11th century Volubilis had been abandoned after the seat of power was relocated to Fes. Much of the local population was transferred from Volubilis. It was not until the latter part of the 19th century that the site was definitively identified as that of the ancient city of Volubilis. Built below the Zerhoun mountain, Volubilis stands on a ridge above the Wadi Khoumane. It overlooks a rolling plain north of the modern city of Meknes. The city lay within the kingdom of Mauretania, which became a Roman state following the fall of Carthage in 146 BC. The Punic influence lasted for a considerable time afterwards, as the city's magistrates retained the Carthaginian title of suffete long after the end of Punic rule. Juba II of Numidia was turned his attention to building a royal capital at Volubilis. The 2nd century Antonine Itinerary refers to its location and names it as Volubilis Colonia. Its population was dominated by Romanised Berbers.Volubilis – Volubilis ruins
244. List of Roman legions – When Augustus became sole ruler in 31 BC, he disbanded about half of the over 50 legions then in existence. The remaining 28 legions became the core of the early Imperial army of the Principate, most lasting over three centuries. His immediate successors transformed legions into permanent units, staffed by entirely career soldiers on standard 25-year terms. During the Dominate period, legions are little understood due to scarcity of evidence compared to the Principate. What is clear is that late legions were radically different in size, structure, tactical role despite several retaining early period names. This was of further developments during the 4th century. The legions were identified by Roman numerals, though the spelling sometimes differed from the modern "standard". In addition to the spellings "IV", "IX", "XIV", "XVIII" and "XIX", the respective spellings "IIII", "VIIII", "XIIII", "XIIX" and "XVIIII" were commonly used. Until the Marian reforms of 107 BC, the Republican legions were raised whenever it was necessary. Usually they were later disbanded. Gaius Marius' reforms transformed legions into standing units, which could remain in being for several years, or even decades. This became necessary to garrison the Republic's now far-flung territories. Legionaries started large-scale recruiting of volunteer soldiers enlisted for a minimum term of a fixed salary, although conscription was still practiced. In the last century of the Republic, proconsuls governing frontier provinces became increasingly powerful. Their command of standing legions in distant and military campaigns resulted in the allegiance of those units transferring from the Roman state to themselves.List of Roman legions – Nero, Sestertius with countermark "X" of Legio X Gemina. Obv: Laureate bust right. Rev: Nero riding horse right, holding spear, DECVRSIO in exergue; S C across fields.
245. List of Roman emperors – Roman Emperors were rulers of the Roman Empire, wielding power over its citizens and military. The empire was developed as the Roman Republic occupied most of Europe and portions of northern Africa and western Asia. Under the republic, regions of the empire were authorised by the "Senate and People of Rome". Its senate were ruled by a variety of magistrates -- of whom the consuls were the most powerful. The emperors were created, when these magistrates became legally and practically subservient to one citizen with power over all other magistrates. This style of government is thus called the Principate era. This was characterised in the person of the Emperor, the use of the style'Dominus Noster'. For nearly two centuries thereafter there was often more than one emperor at a time, frequently dividing the administration of the vast territories between them. As Henry Moss warned, "Yet it is important to indivisible. The chain of emperors continued until the death of Constantine XI and the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire in 1453. The emperors listed in this article are those generally agreed to have been'legitimate' emperors, who appear in published regnal lists. The word ` legitimate' is used by most authors, but usually without clear definition, perhaps not surprisingly, since the emperorship was itself vaguely defined legally. The coercion that frequently resulted was implied in this formulation. By the medieval period, the very definition of the Senate became vague well, adding to the complication. Lists of legitimate emperors are therefore partly influenced by the subjective views of those compiling them, also partly by historical convention.List of Roman emperors – Augustus (Octavian), the first Roman Emperor of the Principate Era whose ascension ended republic rule at Rome.
247. List of Roman consuls – If a consul died during his year of office, another was elected to replace him. Of this method of dating events, it was important to keep records of each year's eponymous magistrates. Many no doubt arose as simple copying errors, especially those that involved the substitution of a familiar name for a less common one. Occasionally, the authority of the consuls was temporarily superseded by the appointment of a dictator, who held greater imperium than that of the consuls. Modern scholarship is skeptical of these years, which might represent one example of later editing to the lists of magistrates in order to fill a gap. All known dictators have been included in this table. Two other types of magistrates are listed during the period of the Republic. Among the disputes which the decemvirs failed to resolve was the relationship between the patricians, Rome's hereditary aristocracy, the plebeians, or common citizens. As a means of preventing open hostility between the two orders, the office of military tribune with "consular tribune", was established. In place of patrician consuls, the people could elect a number of military tribunes, who might be either plebeian. The consulship was often bestowed as a reward for faithful service. The exact time can not be firmly established. This becomes AUC. The Republic was established in 509 BC. Despite the efforts of generations of scholars, gaps in coverage remain.List of Roman consuls – Ancient Rome
248. Climate of Ancient Rome – The climate of Ancient Rome varied throughout the existence of that civilization. The northern regions were situated in the temperate zone, while the rest of Italy was in the subtropics, having a warm and mild climate. During the annual melt of the snow even small rivers would overflow, swamping the terrain. The existence of Roman civilization spanned three climatological periods: Early Subatlantic, Mid-Subatlantic and Late Subatlantic. The Empire's greatest extent under Trajan coincided with the Roman climatic optimum. The change occurred at different rates, from apparent near stasis during the early Empire to rapid fluctuations during the late Empire. Still, there is some controversy in the notion of a generally moister period in the eastern Mediterranean in c. 1 AD–600 AD due to conflicting publications. Throughout the Republic there has been the so-called Subatlantic period, in which the Greek and Etruscan city-states also developed. It was characterized by mild, rainy winters. In subsequent centuries the reports of harsh winters became associated with flooding rather than ice on the Tiber. During the reign of Augustus the climate became the aridity in North Africa persisted. The typical northwest winds which regularly blew in July are presently non-existent. The breeze began a month earlier, in April. Vitruvius mentioned moisture-carrying winds blowing from the west which could damage books. During the Second Punic War, the Mediterranean coast saw powerful storms, that the Roman fleet was destroyed twice.Climate of Ancient Rome – Leopards on the Magerius Mosaic from modern Tunisia. Numerous Roman mosaics from North African sites depict fauna now found only in tropical Africa, although it's unclear whether climate change or overhunting caused that.
249. Legacy of the Roman Empire – The city of Rome was the civitas, from which came the word "civilization" and consequently the western civilization on, centered the contemporary world. Koine Greek, which served in the Eastern Empire, is still used today as a sacred language in some Eastern Orthodox churches. Romance languages are either official, co-official, or significantly used in 72 countries around the Globe. Additionally, Latin had the lexicon of West Germanic languages. Romance words make respectively 59 %, 14 % of English, German and Dutch vocabularies. Those figures can rise dramatically when only non-derived words are included. Accordingly, Romance words make roughly 35% of the vocabulary of Dutch. All three official scripts of the modern European Union -- Latin, Cyrillic -- descend from writing systems of the Roman Empire. Spread by various colonies, political powers, the script has continued to grow in influence. Cicero, in a limited number of his works, remained a model of good style, mined for quotations. Ovid was read with a allegorical interpretation. Seneca was reimagined as the correspondent of Saint Paul. The Western calendar is a refinement of the Julian calendar, introduced by Julius Caesar. The calendar of the Roman Empire began with the months Ianuarius, Februarius, Martius. The Romance languages preserve the Latin names of each day of the week, except for Sunday, which came to be called dies dominicus under Christianity.Legacy of the Roman Empire
250. List of Roman Emperors – Roman Emperors were rulers of the Roman Empire, wielding power over its citizens and military. The empire was developed as the Roman Republic occupied most of Europe and portions of northern Africa and western Asia. Under the republic, regions of the empire were authorised by the "Senate and People of Rome". Its senate were ruled by a variety of magistrates -- of whom the consuls were the most powerful. The emperors were created, when these magistrates became legally and practically subservient to one citizen with power over all other magistrates. This style of government is thus called the Principate era. This was characterised in the person of the Emperor, the use of the style'Dominus Noster'. For nearly two centuries thereafter there was often more than one emperor at a time, frequently dividing the administration of the vast territories between them. As Henry Moss warned, "Yet it is important to indivisible. The chain of emperors continued until the death of Constantine XI and the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire in 1453. The emperors listed in this article are those generally agreed to have been'legitimate' emperors, who appear in published regnal lists. The word ` legitimate' is used by most authors, but usually without clear definition, perhaps not surprisingly, since the emperorship was itself vaguely defined legally. The coercion that frequently resulted was implied in this formulation. By the medieval period, the very definition of the Senate became vague well, adding to the complication. Lists of legitimate emperors are therefore partly influenced by the subjective views of those compiling them, also partly by historical convention.List of Roman Emperors – Augustus (Octavian), the first Roman Emperor of the Principate Era whose ascension ended republic rule at Rome.
251. List of Roman Consuls – If a consul died during his year of office, another was elected to replace him. Of this method of dating events, it was important to keep records of each year's eponymous magistrates. Many no doubt arose as simple copying errors, especially those that involved the substitution of a familiar name for a less common one. Occasionally, the authority of the consuls was temporarily superseded by the appointment of a dictator, who held greater imperium than that of the consuls. Modern scholarship is skeptical of these years, which might represent one example of later editing to the lists of magistrates in order to fill a gap. All known dictators have been included in this table. Two other types of magistrates are listed during the period of the Republic. Among the disputes which the decemvirs failed to resolve was the relationship between the patricians, Rome's hereditary aristocracy, the plebeians, or common citizens. As a means of preventing open hostility between the two orders, the office of military tribune with "consular tribune", was established. In place of patrician consuls, the people could elect a number of military tribunes, who might be either plebeian. The consulship was often bestowed as a reward for faithful service. The exact time can not be firmly established. This becomes AUC. The Republic was established in 509 BC. Despite the efforts of generations of scholars, gaps in coverage remain.List of Roman Consuls – Ancient Rome
252. List of topics related to ancient Rome – Centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world. Hannibal – Punic Carthaginian military commander, generally considered one of the greatest military commanders in history. A Roman army led by Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus defeated a Carthaginian force led by the legendary Hannibal. Third Punic War – involved an extended siege of Carthage, ending in the city's thorough destruction. During the Principate, the constitution of the Roman Republic was never formally abolished. It was amended in such a way as to maintain a politically correct façade of Republican government. This ended during the reign of Diocletian. Julio-Claudian dynasty – the first five Roman Emperors, including Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero. The dynasty ended when Nero committed suicide. Augustus – Tiberius – stepson of Augustus. He was one of Rome's greatest generals, conquering Pannonia, Dalmatia, Raetia, temporarily Germania; laying the foundations for the northern frontier. Caligula – Claudius – Nero – Year of the Four Emperors – these four emperors were Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian. Vespasian's rule marked the beginning of the Flavian dynasty. These Emperors were Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Commodus. Barracks emperor – any Roman Emperor who seized power by virtue of his command of the army.List of topics related to ancient Rome – Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus. Yellow shows the extent of the Republic in 31 BC, shades of green represent territories gradually conquered by Augustus, and pink shows client states.
253. List of Roman place names in Britain – A partial list of Roman place names in Great Britain. This list includes only names documented from Roman times. For a more complete list including later Latin names, see List of Latin place names in Britain. The early sources for Roman names show numerous variants and misspellings of the Latin names. A.L.F. Rivet and Colin Smith, The place-names of Roman Britain. London, 1979. Dr. J. G. Th.List of Roman place names in Britain – Roman Britain. Map from 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
254. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. The movement has since expanded to many other projects, including the Wikipedia community with around 70,000 volunteers. Volunteers for other Wikimedia projects such as Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons, volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online Wikipedia. It consists of Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include: The Wikimedia Foundation is an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It operates most of the movement's websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in geographical regions, mostly countries. There are 41 chapters. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a total budget of $ million. WMDE allocates approximately $ million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, $4 million for transfer to the WMF. To have the same procedure, every chapter follows requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. A total of Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations.Wikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014