1. Cultural icon – A cultural icon is an artifact that is recognised by members of a culture or sub-culture as representing some aspect of cultural identity. Icons are judged by their ability to be an authentic proxy, when individuals perceives a cultural icon, they compare it with their perceptions of the culture identity it attempts to mimic. Cultural Icons can also be identified as a representation of the practices of one culture by another. In the media, many items of culture have been called iconic despite their lack of durability. Some commentators believe that the word is overused or misused, a subset of cultural icons are national icons. Some examples are, Big Ben, Cup of tea, Red telephone box, Red AEC Routemaster London double decker bus, Spitfire, matryoshka dolls are seen internationally as cultural icons of Russia. Thus an apple pie is an icon of the United States. Religious icons can become cultural icons in societies where religion and culture are deeply entwined. Describing something as iconic or as an icon has become common in the popular media. This has drawn criticism from some, a writer in Liverpool Daily Post calls iconic a word that makes my flesh creep, category, Lists of cultural icons Pop icon Popular culture Biedermann, Hans. Dictionary of Symbolism, Cultural Icons and the Meanings Behind Them, batman Unmasked, Analysing a Cultural Icon. Edwards, Peter, Karl Enenkel, and Elspeth Graham, the Horse as Cultural Icon, The Real and the Symbolic Horse in the Early Modern World. CS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Foudy, Julie, Leslie Heywood, built to Win, The Female Athlete as Cultural Icon. Titanic Century, Media, Myth, and the Making of a Cultural Icon, titanic Century, Media, Myth, and the Making of a Cultural Icon. Cles Pour la France en 80 Icones Culturelles, the DNA Mystique, The Gene as a Cultural Icon. Reydams-Schils, Gretchen J. Platos Timaeus as Cultural Icon and our New Icons by The Daily Telegraph Nothing and no one are Off Limits in an Age of Iconomania by The Age British Postal Museum & Archive, Icons of England Culture24, Icons of EnglandCultural icon – Apple pie, baseball, and the flag grouped together are a cliché of American cultural icons
2. Biography – A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a persons life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, relationships, biographical works are usually non-fiction, but fiction can also be used to portray a persons life. One in-depth form of biographical coverage is called legacy writing, works in diverse media, from literature to film, form the genre known as biography. An authorized biography is written with the permission, cooperation, and at times, an autobiography is written by the person himself or herself, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter. At first, biographical writings were regarded merely as a subsection of history with a focus on an individual of historical importance. The independent genre of biography as distinct from general history writing, began to emerge in the 18th century, one of the earliest of the biographers was Plutarch, and his Parallel Lives, published about 80 A. D. covers prominent figures in the classical world. Cornelius Nepos published a work, his Excellentium Imperatorum Vitae. Perhaps the earliest extant biography that does not contain mythological material is The Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius, in the early Middle Ages, there was a decline in awareness of the classical culture in Europe. During this time, the only repositories of knowledge and records of the history in Europe were those of the Roman Catholic Church. Hermits, monks, and priests used this period to write biographies. Their subjects were usually restricted to the fathers, martyrs, popes. Their works were meant to be inspirational to the people and vehicles for conversion to Christianity, one significant secular example of a biography from this period is the life of Charlemagne by his courtier Einhard. Early biographical dictionaries were published as compendia of famous Islamic personalities from the 9th century onwards and they contained more social data for a large segment of the population than other works of that period. And then began the documentation of the lives of other historical figures who lived in the medieval Islamic world. By the late Middle Ages, biographies became less church-oriented in Europe as biographies of kings, knights, the most famous of such biographies was Le Morte dArthur by Sir Thomas Malory. The book was an account of the life of the fabled King Arthur, following Malory, the new emphasis on humanism during the Renaissance promoted a focus on secular subjects, such as artists and poets, and encouraged writing in the vernacular. Giorgio Vasaris Lives of the Artists was the landmark biography focusing on secular lives, vasari made celebrities of his subjects, as the Lives became an early bestseller. Two other developments are noteworthy, the development of the press in the 15th centuryBiography – Third Volume of a 1727 edition of Plutarch 's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans printed by Jacob Tonson.
3. Genre – Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time. Genres form by conventions that change over time as new genres are invented, often, works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Stand alone texts, works, or pieces of communication may have individual styles, some genres may be rigid with strictly adhered to guidelines while others may be very flexible. Genre began as a classification system for ancient Greek literature. Poetry, prose, and performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story. Speech patterns for comedy would not be appropriate for tragedy, in later periods genres proliferated and developed in response to changes in audiences and creators. Genre became a tool to help the public make sense out of unpredictable art. Because art is often a response to a state, in that people write/paint/sing/dance about what they know about. Genre suffers from the ills of any classification system. Genre is to be reassessed and scrutinized, and to works on their unique merit. While the genre of storytelling has been relegated as lesser form of art because of the heavily borrowed nature of the conventions, proponents argue that the genius of an effective genre piece is in the variation, recombination, and evolution of the codes. The term genre is used in the history and criticism of visual art. These are distinguished from staffage, incidental figures in what is primarily a landscape or architectural painting, Genre painting may also be used as a wider term covering genre painting proper, and other specialized types of paintings such as still-life, landscapes, marine paintings and animal paintings. The concept of the hierarchy of genres was a one in artistic theory. It was strongest in France, where it was associated with the Académie française which held a role in academic art. Genres may be determined by technique, tone, content. Genre should not be confused with age category, by which literature may be classified as adult, young adult. They also must not be confused with format, such as novel or picture bookGenre – A genre painting (Peasant Dance, c. 1568, by Pieter Brueghel the Elder)
4. Autobiography – An autobiography is a self-written account of the life of a person. The word autobiography was first used deprecatingly by William Taylor in 1797 in the English periodical The Monthly Review, when he suggested the word as a hybrid, however, its next recorded use was in its present sense, by Robert Southey in 1809. Despite only being named early in the century, first-person autobiographical writing originates in antiquity. Autobiography thus takes stock of the life from the moment of composition. While biographers generally rely on a variety of documents and viewpoints. The memoir form is associated with autobiography but it tends, as Pascal claims, to focus less on the self. See also, List of autobiographies and Category, Autobiographies for examples, in a classic essay on American autobiography James M. Autobiographical works are by nature subjective. The inability—or unwillingness—of the author to accurately recall memories has in certain cases resulted in misleading or incorrect information, some sociologists and psychologists have noted that autobiography offers the author the ability to recreate history. Spiritual autobiography is an account of a struggle or journey towards God, followed by conversion a religious conversion. The author re-frames his or her life as a demonstration of divine intention through encounters with the Divine, the spiritual autobiography works as an endorsement of his or her religion. A memoir is slightly different in character from an autobiography, while an autobiography typically focuses on the life and times of the writer, a memoir has a narrower, more intimate focus on his or her own memories, feelings and emotions. Memoirs have often written by politicians or military leaders as a way to record. One early example is that of Julius Caesars Commentarii de Bello Gallico, in the work, Caesar describes the battles that took place during the nine years that he spent fighting local armies in the Gallic Wars. His second memoir, Commentarii de Bello Civili is an account of the events took place between 49 and 48 BC in the civil war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate. Leonor López de Córdoba wrote what is supposed to be the first autobiography in Spanish, the English Civil War provoked a number of examples of this genre, including works by Sir Edmund Ludlow and Sir John Reresby. French examples from the period include the memoirs of Cardinal de Retz. Daniel Defoes Moll Flanders is an early example, charles Dickens David Copperfield is another such classic, and J. D. Salingers The Catcher in the Rye is a well-known modern example of fictional autobiography. Charlotte Brontës Jane Eyre is yet another example of fictional autobiography, the term may also apply to works of fiction purporting to be autobiographies of real characters, e. g. Robert Nyes Memoirs of Lord ByronAutobiography – Cover of the first English edition of Clayton Baggett Born on Feb.28,1982
5. Harriet Tubman – Harriet Tubman was an American abolitionist, humanitarian, and an armed scout and spy for the United States Army during the American Civil War. She later helped abolitionist John Brown recruit men for his raid on Harpers Ferry, born a slave in Dorchester County, Maryland, Tubman was beaten and whipped by her various masters as a child. Early in life, she suffered a head wound when an irate slave owner threw a heavy metal weight intending to hit another slave. The injury caused dizziness, pain, and spells of hypersomnia and she was a devout Christian and experienced strange visions and vivid dreams, which she ascribed to premonitions from God. In 1849, Tubman escaped to Philadelphia, then returned to Maryland to rescue her family. Slowly, one group at a time, she brought relatives with her out of the state, traveling by night and in extreme secrecy, Tubman never lost a passenger. After the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was passed, she helped guide fugitives farther north into British North America, when the Civil War began, Tubman worked for the Union Army, first as a cook and nurse, and then as an armed scout and spy. The first woman to lead an expedition in the war, she guided the raid at Combahee Ferry. After the war, she retired to the home on property she had purchased in 1859 in Auburn, New York. She was active in the suffrage movement until illness overtook her. After she died in 1913, she became an icon of American courage, on April 20,2016, the U. S. Treasury Department announced a plan for Tubman to replace Andrew Jackson as the portrait gracing the $20 bill. Tubman was born Araminta Minty Ross to slave parents, Harriet Green and Ben Ross, Rit was owned by Mary Pattison Brodess. Ben was held by Anthony Thompson, who became Marys second husband, as with many slaves in the United States, neither the exact year nor place of Aramintas birth is known, and historians differ as to the best estimate. Catherine Clinton notes that Tubman reported the year of her birth as 1825, while her death certificate lists 1815 and her gravestone lists 1820. In her Civil War widows pension records, Tubman claimed she was born in 1820,1822, and 1825, an indication, perhaps, that she had only a general idea of when she was born. Modesty, Tubmans maternal grandmother, arrived in the United States on a ship from Africa. As a child, Tubman was told that she was of Ashanti lineage and her mother Rit was a cook for the Brodess family. Her father Ben was a woodsman who managed the timber work on Thompsons plantationHarriet Tubman – Harriet Tubman circa 1885
6. African-American – African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the Black racial groups of Africa. The term may also be used to only those individuals who are descended from enslaved Africans. As a compound adjective the term is usually hyphenated as African-American, Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are of West and Central African descent and are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of 73. 2–80. 9% West African, 18–24% European, according to US Census Bureau data, African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities, immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not also self-identify with the term. After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, believed to be inferior to white people, they were treated as second-class citizens. The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, in 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States. The first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, the ill-fated colony was almost immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic, the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence they had come. The first recorded Africans in British North America were 20 and odd negroes who came to Jamestown, as English settlers died from harsh conditions, more and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. Typically, young men or women would sign a contract of indenture in exchange for transportation to the New World, the landowner received 50 acres of land from the state for each servant purchased from a ships captain. An indentured servant would work for years without wages. The status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery, servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Africans could legally raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom and they raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of slavery when they sentenced John Punch. One of Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black slaves, John CasorAfrican-American
7. Abolitionism in the United States – Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States. In the Americas and western Europe, abolitionism was a movement to end the Atlantic slave trade, in the 17th century, English Quakers and Evangelicals condemned slavery as un-Christian. At that time, most slaves were Africans, but thousands of Native Americans were also enslaved, in the 18th century, as many as six million Africans were transported to the Americas as slaves, at least a third of them on British ships to North America. Abolition was part of the message of the First Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s in the Thirteen Colonies, in the same period, rationalist thinkers of the Enlightenment criticized slavery for violating human rights. A member of the British Parliament, James Edward Oglethorpe, was among the first to articulate the Enlightenment case against slavery, founder of the Province of Georgia, Oglethorpe banned slavery on humanistic grounds. He argued against it in Parliament and eventually encouraged his friends Granville Sharp, soon after his death in 1785, Sharp and More joined with William Wilberforce and others in forming the Clapham Sect. Although anti-slavery sentiments were widespread by the late 18th century, colonies and emerging nations, notably in the southern United States, continued to use and uphold traditions of slavery. Massachusetts ratified a constitution that declared all men equal, freedom suits challenging slavery based on this principle brought an end to slavery in the state, in other states, such as Virginia, similar declarations of rights were interpreted by the courts as not applicable to Africans. During the ensuing decades, the abolitionist movement grew in Northern states, britain banned the importation of African slaves in its colonies in 1807 and abolished slavery in the British Empire in 1833. The United States criminalized the international trade in 1808 and made slavery unconstitutional in 1865 as a result of the American Civil War. Historian James M. McPherson defines an abolitionist as one who before the Civil War had agitated for the immediate, unconditional and total abolition of slavery in the United States. He does not include antislavery activists such as Abraham Lincoln, U. S. President during the Civil War, or the Republican Party, the first Americans who made a public protest against slavery were the Mennonites of Germantown, Pennsylvania. Soon after, in April 1688, Quakers in the town wrote a two-page condemnation of the practice and sent it to the governing bodies of their Quaker church. The Quaker establishment never took action, the Quaker Quarterly Meeting of Chester, Pennsylvania, made its first protest in 1711. Within a few decades the entire slave trade was under attack, being opposed by leaders as William Burling, Benjamin Lay, Ralph Sandiford, William Southby. Slavery was banned in the Province of Georgia soon after its founding in 1733, the colonys founder, James Edward Oglethorpe, fended off repeated attempts by South Carolina merchants and land speculators to introduce slavery to the colony. In 1739, he wrote to the Georgia Trustees urging them to hold firm, If we allow slaves we act against the principles by which we associated together. Whereas, now we should occasion the misery of thousands in Africa, by setting men upon using arts to buy, the struggle between Georgia and South Carolina led to the first debates in Parliament over the issue of slavery, occurring between 1740 and 1742Abolitionism in the United States – Collection box for Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. Circa 1850.
8. Humanitarian – Humanitarianism is a moral of kindness, benevolence, and sympathy extended to all human beings. Humanitarianism has been an evolving concept historically, but universality is a theme in its evolution. No distinction is to be made on the grounds of gender, sexual orientation, race, caste, age, religion, ability, the historian G. M. Trevelyan viewed humanitarianism as the product of rationalism upon Puritanism. The idea that mankind could be improved by deliberate social change distinct from the conferring of charity was relatively new, reform distinguished the humanitarian movement from philanthropy. Christian philanthropy tended to reform as political. In contrast, the movement thought reform essential to remove abuses. European individualism can be traced to the Greeks and it was the stoics, who like Aristotle, attributed significance to the human soul, but who, unlike Aristotle, considered all human beings equal in that significance. Natural law, as the stoics conceived it, was based upon this principle of spiritual equality, positive law was subject to the law of nature and, hence, uniquely to the ancient world, the stoics opposed slavery. In 18th century Enlightenment Europe, the idea of the equal moral significance of the individual in this world re-emerged grounded upon reason. Prevention of cruelty to animals involved extension of the principle to non-humans, the stoics had grounded moral significance on capacity to reason. In the 18th century, conflicting religious belief became tolerated to a degree unthinkable a century earlier, in England, pressure on Parliament led to regulation of working hours and amelioration of working conditions. An international dimension was added to humanitarian reform with the founding of the International Red Cross, finally, cruelty to animals became punishable. In contrast, social action in the 19th century was influenced by feeling and, in some instances. The initiative remained with small groups of reformers, which set about influencing public opinion, one reason for the change was the advent of democracy - limited though it was until well into the 19th century. The industrial proletariat crowding into cities made it feasible to hold mass meetings, Political pamphlets had first circulated in England during the civil war. In fiction, novels like Uncle Toms Cabin and those of Charles Dickens drew attention to social wrongs and this led to a change in approach which became less philosophical and more emotive, fastening on the inhumanity to which social action was directed. In 1503, the Spanish Governor in the Indies, Nicolás de Ovando, las Casas, who accompanied him, observed the toll of the work, and suggested the Indians be replaced by Negroes, thus beginning the transatlantic slave trade. Some 900,000 slaves were landed in the Americas by 1600, from the 17th century, demand for African labour expanded greatly with the increased importation of sugar into EuropeHumanitarian – Volunteers from AmeriCorps in Louisiana
9. Union (American Civil War) – The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States, or the Confederacy. All of the Unions states provided soldiers for the U. S. Army, the Border states played a major role as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy. The Northeast provided the resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies. The Midwest provided soldiers, food, horses, financial support, Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican governors who energetically supported the war effort, the Democratic Party strongly supported the war in 1861 but in 1862 was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the Copperheads. The Democrats made major gains in 1862 in state elections. They lost ground in 1863, especially in Ohio, in 1864 the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket. The war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border, prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an entirely new national banking system. The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers wives, widows, orphans, and for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered to escape the draft, Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities, especially New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as the North, both then and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, which was the South. The Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacys secession and maintained at all times that it remained entirely a part of the United States of America, in foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which officially recognized the Confederate government. The term Union occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union. Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV. Even before the war started, the preserve the Union was commonplace. Using the term Union to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the political entity. In comparison to the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, additionally, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war. Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources, meanwhile, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military forceUnion (American Civil War) – Charleston Mercury Secession Broadside, 1860 - "The Union" had been a way to refer to the American Republic
10. American Civil War – The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, then much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864American Civil War – New Orleans the largest cotton exporting port for New England and Great Britain textile mills, shipping Mississippi River Valley goods from North, South and Border states.
11. Underground Railroad – The term is also applied to the abolitionists, both black and white, free and enslaved, who aided the fugitives. Various other routes led to Mexico or overseas, an earlier escape route running south toward Florida, then a Spanish possession, existed from the late 17th century until shortly after the American Revolution. However, the now generally known as the Underground Railroad was formed in the late 1700s. One estimate suggests that by 1850,100,000 slaves had escaped via the Railroad, British North America, where slavery was prohibited, was a popular destination, as its long border gave many points of access. Most former slaves settled in Ontario, more than 30,000 people were said to have escaped there via the network during its 20-year peak period, although U. S. Census figures account for only 6,000. Numerous fugitives stories are documented in the 1872 book The Underground Railroad Records by William Still, the resulting economic impact was minuscule, but the psychological influence on slaveholders was immense. With heavy lobbying by Southern politicians, the Compromise of 1850 was passed by Congress after the Mexican–American War, because the law required sparse documentation to claim a person was a fugitive, slave catchers also kidnapped free blacks, especially children, and sold them into slavery. Southern politicians often exaggerated the number of escaped slaves and often blamed escapes on Northerners interfering with Southern property rights. The law deprived suspected slaves of the right to themselves in court. In a de facto bribe, judges were paid a fee for a decision that confirmed a suspect as a slave than for one ruling that the suspect was free. Many Northerners who might have ignored slave issues in the South were confronted by local challenges that bound them to support slavery. This was a primary grievance cited by the Union during the American Civil War, the escape network was not literally underground nor a railroad. It was figuratively underground in the sense of being an underground resistance and it was known as a railroad by way of the use of rail terminology in the code. The Underground Railroad consisted of meeting points, secret routes, transportation, and safe houses, escaped slaves would move north along the route from one way station to the next. Conductors on the railroad came from various backgrounds and included blacks, white abolitionists, former slaves. Without the presence and support of black residents, there would have been almost no chance for fugitive slaves to pass into freedom unmolested. To reduce the risk of infiltration, many associated with the Underground Railroad knew only their part of the operation. Conductors led or transported the fugitives from station to station, a conductor sometimes pretended to be a slave in order to enter a plantationUnderground Railroad – Map of various Underground Railroad routes
12. John Brown (abolitionist) – John Brown was an American abolitionist who believed armed insurrection was the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States. Brown first gained attention when he led groups of volunteers during the Bleeding Kansas crisis of 1856. Dissatisfied with the pacifism of the organized abolitionist movement, he said, during the Kansas campaign, Brown commanded forces at the Battle of Black Jack and the Battle of Osawatomie. He and his supporters killed five pro-slavery supporters in the Pottawatomie massacre of May 1856 in response to the sacking of Lawrence by pro-slavery forces, in 1859, Brown led a raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry, to start a liberation movement among the slaves there. During the raid, he seized the armory, seven people were killed and he intended to arm slaves with weapons from the arsenal, but the attack failed. Within 36 hours, Browns men had fled or been killed or captured by local farmers, militiamen. Marines led by Robert E. Lee and he was tried for treason against the Commonwealth of Virginia, the murder of five men and inciting a slave insurrection. He was found guilty on all counts and was hanged, Historians agree that the Harpers Ferry raid escalated tensions that, a year later, led to the Souths secession and Civil War. David Potter has said the effect of Browns raid was greater than the philosophical effect of the Lincoln–Douglas debates. Some writers, including Bruce Olds, describe him as a zealot, others. Oates, regard him as one of the most perceptive human beings of his generation, David S. John Browns Body was a popular Union marching song during the Civil War and made him a martyr. Browns actions prior to the Civil War as an abolitionist, and he is sometimes memorialized as a heroic martyr and a visionary, and sometimes vilified as a madman and a terrorist. John Brown was born May 9,1800, in Torrington and he was the fourth of the eight children of Owen Brown and Ruth Mills and grandson of Capt. Brown could trace his ancestry back to 17th-century English Puritans, in 1805, the family moved to Hudson, Ohio, where Owen Brown opened a tannery. Browns personal religion is well documented in the papers of the Rev Clarence Gee. Browns father had as an apprentice Jesse R. Grant, father of Ulysses S. Grant, at 16, Brown left his family and went to Plainfield, Massachusetts, where he enrolled in a preparatory program. Shortly afterward, he transferred to the Morris Academy in Litchfield and he hoped to become a Congregationalist minister, but money ran out and he suffered from eye inflammations, which forced him to give up the academy and return to Ohio. In Hudson, he worked briefly at his fathers tannery before opening a successful tannery of his own outside of town with his adopted brother, in 1820, Brown married Dianthe LuskJohn Brown (abolitionist) – An 1846 daguerreotype of Brown.
13. Harpers Ferry – Harpers Ferry is a historic town in Jefferson County, West Virginia, United States. It was formerly spelled Harpers Ferry with an apostrophe and that continues to appear in some references. It is situated at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers where the U. S. states of Maryland, Virginia and it is the easternmost town in West Virginia. The towns original, lower section is on a plain created by the two rivers and surrounded by higher ground. Historically, Harpers Ferry is best known for John Browns raid on the Armory in 1859, the population was 286 at the 2010 census. The lower part of Harpers Ferry is within Harpers Ferry National Historical Park, most of the remainder, which includes the more highly populated area, is included in the separate Harpers Ferry Historic District. Two other National Register of Historic Places properties adjoin the town, the Appalachian Trail Conservancy headquarters is in Harpers Ferry and the town is one of only a few through which the Appalachian Trail passes directly. Other popular outdoor activities include white water rafting, fishing, mountain biking, tubing, canoeing, hiking, zip lining, and rock climbing. In 1733, Peter Stephens, a squatter, had settled on land near The Point, fourteen years later, while traveling from Maryland to Virginia, Robert Harper passed through the area which was named The Hole. Harper recognized the potential for industry, given the power the two rivers could generate, and the traffic he could ferry across the Potomac River, Harper paid Stephens 30 British guinea for what was essentially Stephens squatting rights, since the land actually belonged to Lord Fairfax. In April 1751, Harper purchased 126 acres of land from Lord Fairfax, in 1761, the Virginia General Assembly granted Harper the right to establish and maintain a ferry across the Potomac River. In 1763, the Virginia General Assembly established the town of Shenandoah Falls at Mr. Harpers Ferry, on October 25,1783, Thomas Jefferson visited Harpers Ferry. He viewed the passage of the Potomac through the Blue Ridge from a rock that is now named for him and this stop took place as Jefferson was traveling to Philadelphia and passed through Harpers Ferry with his daughter Patsy. Jefferson called the site one of the most stupendous scenes in nature. George Washington, as president of the Patowmack Company, traveled to Harpers Ferry during the summer of 1785 to determine the need for bypass canals, in 1794, Washingtons familiarity with the area led him to propose the site for a new United States armory and arsenal. In 1796, the government purchased a 125-acre parcel of land from the heirs of Robert Harper. Construction began on the United States Armory and Arsenal at Harpers Ferry in 1799 and this was one of only two such facilities in the U. S. the other being Springfield, Massachusetts. Together they produced most of the arms for the U. S. ArmyHarpers Ferry – Panoramic view of Harpers Ferry from Maryland Heights, with the Shenandoah (left) and Potomac (right) rivers.
14. Nadar (photographer) – Nadar was the pseudonym of Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, a French photographer, caricaturist, journalist, novelist, and balloonist. Photographic portraits by Nadar are held by many of the national collections of photographs. Nadar was born in April 1820 in Paris and his father, Victor Tournachon, was a printer and bookseller. After his fathers death, Nadar decided to quit his studies for economic reasons. Nadar started working as a caricaturist and novelist for various newspapers and he fell in with the Parisian bohemian group of Gérard de Nerval, Charles Baudelaire and Théodore de Banville. His friends picked a nickname for him, Tournadar, which later became Nadar and his work was published in Le Charivari for the first time in 1848. In 1849, he founded the Revue comique and the Petit journal pour rire, from work as a caricaturist, he moved on to photography, particularly portraits. He opened his studio in rue Saint Lazare in 1854. Nadar photographed a wide range of personalities, politicians, stage actors, writers, painters, portrait photography was going through a period of native industrialization and Nadar refused to use the traditional sumptuous decors, preferred natural daylight and despised useless accessories. In 1886, with his son Paul, he did what may be the first photo-report and it was published in Le Journal Illustré. He took his first photographs in 1853 and in 1855 opened a studio at 25 Boulevard des Capucines. He also pioneered the use of lighting in photography, working in the catacombs of Paris. He was the first person to photograph above ground with his balloons, as well as the first to photograph below ground, Le Géant was badly damaged at the end of its second flight, leading Nadar to the conviction that heavier-than-air machines would be more successful. Later, The Society for the Encouragement of Aerial Locomotion by Means of Heavier than Air Machines was established, with Nadar as president, Nadar was the inspiration for the character of Michael Ardan in Vernes From the Earth to the Moon. On his visit to Brussels with Le Géant, on 26 September 1864, crowd control barriers are still known in Belgium as Nadar barriers. In April 1874, he lent his studio to a group of painters to present the first exhibition of the Impressionists. He photographed Victor Hugo on his death-bed in 1885 and he is credited with having published the first photo-interview, and also took erotic photographs. From 1895 until his return to Paris in 1909, the Nadar photo studio was in Marseilles, Nadar died in 1910, aged 89Nadar (photographer) – Self-portrait circa 1860
15. Louis Pasteur – Louis Pasteur was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. He is remembered for his breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of diseases. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and created the first vaccines for rabies and his medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known to the public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination. He is regarded as one of the three founders of bacteriology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch, and is popularly known as the father of microbiology. Pasteur was responsible for disproving the doctrine of spontaneous generation and he performed experiments that showed that without contamination, microorganisms could not develop. Under the auspices of the French Academy of Sciences, he demonstrated that in sterilized and sealed flasks nothing ever developed, although Pasteur was not the first to propose the germ theory, his experiments indicated its correctness and convinced most of Europe that it was true. Today, he is regarded as one of the fathers of germ theory. Pasteur also made significant discoveries in chemistry, most notably on the basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals. Early in his career, his investigation of tartaric acid resulted in the first resolution of what is now called optical isomers and his work led the way to the current understanding of a fundamental principle in the structure of organic compounds. He was the director of the Pasteur Institute, established in 1887, till his death, although Pasteur made groundbreaking experiments, his reputation became associated with various controversies. Historical reassessment of his notebook revealed that he practiced deception to overcome his rivals, Louis Pasteur was born on December 27,1822, in Dole, Jura, France, to a Catholic family of a poor tanner. He was the child of Jean-Joseph Pasteur and Jeanne-Etiennette Roqui. The family moved to Marnoz in 1826 and then to Arbois in 1827, Pasteur entered primary school in 1831. He was a student in his early years, and not particularly academic. He drew many pastels and portraits of his parents, friends, Pasteur attended secondary school at the Collège dArbois. In October 1838, he left for Paris to join the Pension Barbet, in 1839, he entered the Collège Royal de Besançon to study philosophy and earned his Bachelor of Letters degree in 1840. He was appointed a tutor at the Besançon college while continuing a degree course with special mathematicsLouis Pasteur – Photograph by Nadar
16. Chemist – A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of matter and its properties, chemists carefully describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms. Chemists carefully measure substance proportions, reaction rates, and other chemical properties, the word chemist is also used to address Pharmacists in Commonwealth English. Chemists may specialize in any number of subdisciplines of chemistry, materials scientists and metallurgists share much of the same education and skills with chemists. The roots of chemistry can be traced to the phenomenon of burning, fire was a mystical force that transformed one substance into another and thus was of primary interest to mankind. It was fire that led to the discovery of iron and glasses, after gold was discovered and became a precious metal, many people were interested to find a method that could convert other substances into gold. This led to the protoscience called alchemy, the word chemist is derived from the New Latin noun chimista, an abbreviation of alchimista. Alchemists discovered many chemical processes that led to the development of modern chemistry, Chemistry as we know it today, was invented by Antoine Lavoisier with his law of conservation of mass in 1783. The discoveries of the elements has a long history culminating in the creation of the periodic table by Dmitri Mendeleev. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry created in 1901 gives an excellent overview of chemical discovery since the start of the 20th century. Jobs for chemists usually require at least a degree, but many positions, especially those in research. At the Masters level and higher, students tend to specialize in a particular field, postdoctoral experience may be required for certain positions. Workers whose work involves chemistry, but not at a complexity requiring an education with a degree, are commonly referred to as chemical technicians. Such technicians commonly do such work as simpler, routine analyses for quality control or in clinical laboratories, there are also degrees specific to become a Chemical Technologist, which are somewhat distinct from those required when a student is interested in becoming a professional Chemist. A Chemical technologist is more involved in the management and operation of the equipment and they are part of the team of a chemical laboratory in which the quality of the raw material, intermediate products and finished products is analyzed. They also perform functions in the areas of quality control. The higher the level achieved in the field of Chemistry, the higher the responsibility given to that chemist. Chemistry, as a field, have so many applications that different tasks/objectives can be given to workers/scientists with these different levels of education and/or experienceChemist – The Apothecary or The Chemist by Gabriël Metsu (c. 1651–67)
17. Microbiologist – The term microbiologist comes from the Greek mīkros meaning small βίος, and bios, meaning life -λογία, combined with -logia meaning one who studies. A microbiologist is a biological scientist who studies microscopic life forms, microbiologists investigate the growth, interactions and characteristics of microscopic organisms such as bacteria, algae, fungi, and some types of parasites and their vectors. They contribute much to the field by trying to understand and learn about the interaction between these microbes and the environment and also among themselves and other organisms, most microbiologists are qualified to work in offices and/or research facilities, such as a laboratory as well as in the academia. There, they conduct experiments that help them analyze microbes and their importance, a microbiologists work is often repeated or improved in order to establish accurate research. Most microbiologists specialize in environmental, food, agricultural, industrial or medical aspects of microbiology including, virology, immunology, bioinformatics, many microbiologists use biotechnology to advance the understanding of cell reproduction and human disease. Some microbiologists have contributed to knowledge of pathogens and disease-causing microbes, while others, study their interaction with the environment and their use as potential environmental pollution cleaners. Microbiology is a subset of science that often overlaps with other subjects surrounding biology. Nonetheless, the spectrum of fields, a microbiologists can work on is immense, there were 16,900 microbiologists employed in the United States in 2008, this number was projected to increase by over 12 percent in the next decadeMicrobiologist – Microbiologists examining cultures on a Petri dish.
18. Vaccination – Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material to stimulate an individuals immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate morbidity from infection, when a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, this results in herd immunity. The effectiveness of vaccination has been studied and verified, for example, the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine. The World Health Organization reports that licensed vaccines are available to prevent or contribute to the prevention. The active agent of a vaccine may be intact but inactivated or attenuated forms of the causative pathogens, toxoids are produced for immunization against toxin-based diseases, such as the modification of tetanospasmin toxin of tetanus to remove its toxic effect but retain its immunogenic effect. Smallpox was most likely the first disease people tried to prevent by inoculating themselves and was the first disease for which a vaccine was produced, Louis Pasteur furthered the concept through his work in microbiology. The immunization was called vaccination because it was derived from a virus affecting cows, smallpox was a contagious and deadly disease, causing the deaths of 20–60% of infected adults and over 80% of infected children. When smallpox was finally eradicated in 1979, it had killed an estimated 300–500 million people in the 20th century. In common speech, vaccination and immunization have a similar meaning and this distinguishes it from inoculation, which uses unweakened live pathogens, although in common usage either can refer to an immunization. Vaccination efforts have met with some controversy on scientific, ethical, political, medical safety. In rare cases, vaccinations can injure people and, in the United States, early success and compulsion brought widespread acceptance, and mass vaccination campaigns have greatly reduced the incidence of many diseases in numerous geographic regions. Generically, the process of induction of immunity, in an effort to protect against infectious disease. Stimulating immune responses with an agent is known as immunization. Vaccination includes various ways of administering immunogens, some vaccines are administered after the patient already has contracted a disease. The first rabies immunization was given by Louis Pasteur to a child after he was bitten by a rabid dog, other examples include experimental AIDS, cancer and Alzheimers disease vaccines. Such immunizations aim to trigger a response more rapidly and with less harm than natural infection. Most vaccines are given by injection as they are not absorbed reliably through the intestines. Live attenuated polio, some typhoid, and some cholera vaccines are given orally to produce immunity in the bowel, while vaccination provides a lasting effect, it usually takes several weeks to develop, while passive immunity has immediate effectVaccination – Child receiving an oral polio vaccine
19. Fermentation – Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases, or alcohol. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, and also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, Fermentation is also used more broadly to refer to the bulk growth of microorganisms on a growth medium, often with the goal of producing a specific chemical product. French microbiologist Louis Pasteur is often remembered for his insights into fermentation, the science of fermentation is known as zymology. Fermentation takes place when the transport chain is unusable. In this case it becomes the primary means of ATP production. Fermentation turns NADH and pyruvate produced in glycolysis into NAD+. In the presence of O2, NADH and pyruvate are used to generate ATP in respiration and this is called oxidative phosphorylation, and it generates much more ATP than glycolysis alone. For that reason, cells generally benefit from avoiding fermentation when oxygen is available, the exception being obligate anaerobes which cannot tolerate oxygen. The first step, glycolysis, is common to all fermentation pathways, two ADP molecules and two Pi are converted to two ATP and two water molecules via substrate-level phosphorylation. Two molecules of NAD+ are also reduced to NADH, in oxidative phosphorylation the energy for ATP formation is derived from an electrochemical proton gradient generated across the inner mitochondrial membrane via the electron transport chain. Humans have used fermentation to produce drinks and beverages since the Neolithic age, Fermentation can even occur within the stomachs of animals, such as humans. To many people, fermentation simply means the production of alcohol, grains and fruits are fermented to produce beer, if a food soured, one might say it was off or fermented. Here are some definitions of fermentation and they range from informal, general usage to more scientific definitions. Preservation methods for food via microorganisms, any process that produces alcoholic beverages or acidic dairy products. Any large-scale microbial process occurring with or without air, any energy-releasing metabolic process that takes place only under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation does not necessarily have to be carried out in an anaerobic environment, for example, even in the presence of abundant oxygen, yeast cells greatly prefer fermentation to aerobic respiration, as long as sugars are readily available for consumption. The antibiotic activity of hops also inhibits aerobic metabolism in yeast, Fermentation reacts NADH with an endogenous, organic electron acceptor. Usually this is formed from the sugar during the glycolysis step. Sugars are the most common substrate of fermentation, and typical examples of products are ethanol, lactic acid, carbon dioxideFermentation – Fermentation in progress: Bubbles of CO2 form a froth on top of the fermentation mixture.
20. Pasteurization – Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process that kills microbes in food and drink, such as milk, juice, canned food, and others. It was invented by French scientist Louis Pasteur during the nineteenth century, in 1864 Pasteur discovered that heating beer and wine was enough to kill most of the bacteria that caused spoilage, preventing these beverages from turning sour. The process achieves this by eliminating pathogenic microbes and lowering microbial numbers to prolong the quality of the beverage, today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. Unlike sterilization, pasteurization is not intended to kill all microorganisms in the food, instead, it aims to reduce the number of viable pathogens so they are unlikely to cause disease. Commercial-scale sterilization of food is not common because it affects the taste. Certain foods, such as products, may be superheated to ensure pathogenic microbes are destroyed. The process of heating wine for preservation purposes has been known in China since 1117, much later, in 1768, an Italian priest and scientist Lazzaro Spallanzani proved experimentally that heat killed bacteria, and that they do not reappear if the product is hermetically sealed. He placed the food in glass jars, sealed them with cork and sealing wax, in that same year, the French military offered a cash prize of 12,000 francs for a new method to preserve food. After some 14 or 15 years of experimenting, Appert submitted his invention and won the prize in January 1810, later that year, Appert published LArt de conserver les substances animales et végétales. This was the first cookbook of its kind on modern food preservation methods, la Maison Appert, in the town of Massy, near Paris, became the first food-bottling factory in the world, preserving a variety of food in sealed bottles. Apperts method was to fill thick, large-mouthed glass bottles with produce of every description, ranging from beef and fowl to eggs, milk and his greatest success for publicity was an entire sheep. He left air space at the top of the bottle, the bottle was then wrapped in canvas to protect it, while it was dunked into boiling water and then boiled for as much time as Appert deemed appropriate for cooking the contents thoroughly. Appert patented his method, sometimes called appertisation, in his honor, Apperts method was so simple and workable that it quickly became widespread. In 1810, British inventor and merchant Peter Durand, also of French origin, patented his own method, in 1812, Englishmen Bryan Donkin and John Hall purchased both patents and began producing preserves. Just a decade later, Apperts method of canning had made its way to America, Apperts preservation by boiling involved heating the food to an unnecessarily high temperature, and for an unnecessarily long time, which could destroy some of the flavor of the preserved food. A less aggressive method was developed by the French chemist Louis Pasteur during an 1864 summer holiday in Arbois, in honour of Pasteur, the process became known as pasteurization. Pasteurization was originally used as a way of preventing wine and beer from souring, in the United States in the 1870s, it was common for milk to contain substances intended to mask spoilage before milk was regulated. Milk is an excellent medium for growth, and when stored at ambient temperature bacteriaPasteurization – Cream pasteurizing and cooling coils at Murgon Butter Factory, 1939
21. Diseases – A disease is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function, that affects part or all of an organism. The study of disease is called pathology which includes the study of cause, Disease is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. When caused by pathogens, even in the literature, the term disease is often misleadingly used in the place of its causal agent. This language habitat can cause confusion in the communication of the principle in epidemiology. Diseases can affect not only physically, but also emotionally. Death due to disease is called death by natural causes, there are four main types of disease, infectious diseases, deficiency diseases, genetic diseases, and physiological diseases. Diseases can also be classified as communicable and non-communicable, the deadliest diseases in humans are coronary artery disease, followed by cerebrovascular disease and lower respiratory infections. In many cases, terms such as disease, disorder, morbidity, there are situations, however, when specific terms are considered preferable. Disease The term disease broadly refers to any condition that impairs the normal functioning of the body, for this reason, diseases are associated with dysfunctioning of the bodys normal homeostatic processes. The term disease has both a count sense and a noncount sense, by contrast, an infection that is asymptomatic during its incubation period, but expected to produce symptoms later, is usually considered a disease. Non-infectious diseases are all other diseases, including most forms of cancer, heart disease, acquired disease disease that began at some point during ones lifetime, as opposed to disease that was already present at birth, which is congenital disease. Acquired sounds like it could mean caught via contagion, but it simply means acquired sometime after birth and it also sounds like it could imply secondary disease, but acquired disease can be primary disease. It is often, genetic and can be inherited and it can also be the result of a vertically transmitted infection from the mother such as HIV/AIDS. Genetic disease disease that is caused by genetic mutation and it is often inherited, but some mutations are random and de novo. Hereditary or inherited disease a type of disease caused by mutation that is hereditary Iatrogenic disease A disease condition caused by medical intervention. Idiopathic disease disease whose cause is unknown, as medical science has advanced, many diseases whose causes were formerly complete mysteries have been somewhat explained or even extensively explained. Bacterial infections can be primary or secondary to a viral infection or burn. Terminal disease disease with death as an inevitable result Illness Illness is generally used as a synonym for disease, however, this term is occasionally used to refer specifically to the patients personal experience of his or her diseaseDiseases – Scanning electron micrograph of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a bacterium that causes tuberculosis.
22. 1750 – As of the start of 1750, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. Various sources, including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, use the year 1750 as a year for the end of the pre-industrial era. January – A fire in Istanbul destroys 10,000 homes, april – A second fire devastates Istanbul. A third fire later in the year destroys a further 10,000 homes, april 4 – A small earthquake hits Warrington, England. March 20 – First number of Samuel Johnsons The Rambler appears, may – Riots break out in Paris, France fueled by rumors of police abducting children. July 9 – Traveller Jonas Hanway leaves St. Petersburg to return home via Germany, later the same year, Hanway reputedly becomes the first Englishman to use an umbrella. July 11 – Halifax, Nova Scotia is almost completely destroyed by fire, august 23 – A small earthquake hits Spalding, Lincolnshire, England. September 30 – A small earthquake hits Northampton, England, november 11 – A riot breaks out in Lhasa, Tibet, after the murder of the regent of Tibet. November 18 – Westminster Bridge is officially opened in London, hannah Snell reveals her sex to her Royal Marines compatriots. The King of Dahomey has income of 250,000 pounds from the export of slaves. Maruyama Okyo paints The Ghost of Oyuki, britain produces c. 2% of the entire worlds output of industrial goods and the Industrial Revolution begins. Galley slavery is abolished in Europe, London, H. G. Bohn – via Hathi Trust1750 – London: Umbrella used
23. Antonio Salieri – Antonio Salieri was an Italian classical composer, conductor, and teacher. He was born in Legnago, south of Verona, in the Republic of Venice, Salieri was a pivotal figure in the development of late 18th-century opera. As a student of Florian Leopold Gassmann, and a protégé of Gluck, Salieri helped to develop and shape many of the features of operatic compositional vocabulary, and his music was a powerful influence on contemporary composers. Appointed the director of the Italian opera by the Habsburg court, during his career he also spent time writing works for opera houses in Paris, Rome, and Venice, and his dramatic works were widely performed throughout Europe during his lifetime. As the Austrian imperial Kapellmeister from 1788 to 1824, he was responsible for music at the court chapel, Franz Liszt, Franz Schubert, and Ludwig van Beethoven were among the most famous of his pupils. Salieris music slowly disappeared from the repertoire between 1800 and 1868 and was heard after that period until the revival of his fame in the late 20th century. This revival was due to the dramatic and highly fictionalized depiction of Salieri in Peter Shaffers play Amadeus and his music today has regained some modest popularity via recordings. He is popularly remembered as a bitter rival of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. This includes rumours that Salieri murdered Mozart out of jealousy, when in reality, Salieri would recall little from his childhood in later years except passions for sugar, reading, and music. Salieri responded to the reprimand by saying the priests organ playing displeased him because it was in a theatrical style. It is possible that Antonios father and Giovanni were friends or business associates, Salieri and Gassmann arrived in Vienna on 15 June 1766. Gassmanns first act was to take Salieri to the Italian Church to consecrate his teaching and service to God, Salieris education included instruction in Latin and Italian poetry by Fr. Don Pietro Tommasi, instruction in the German language, and European literature and his music studies revolved around vocal composition, and thoroughbass. His musical theory training in harmony and counterpoint was rooted in Johann Fuxs Gradus ad Parnassum, as a result, Salieri continued to live with Gassmann even after Gassmanns marriage, an arrangement that lasted until the year of Gassmanns death and Salieris own marriage in 1774. Few of Salieris compositions have survived from this early period, in his old age Salieri hinted that these works were either purposely destroyed, or had been lost with the exception of a few works for the church. Among these sacred works there survives a Mass in C major written without a Gloria and in the antique a cappella style, a complete opera composed in 1769 La vestale has also been lost. Beginning in 1766 Gassmann introduced Salieri to the chamber music performances held during Emperor Joseph IIs evening meal. Salieri quickly impressed the Emperor, and Gassmann was instructed to bring his pupil as often as he wished and this was the beginning of a relationship between monarch and musician that would last until Josephs death in 1790Antonio Salieri – Portrait of Salieri by Joseph Willibrord Mähler
24. 1825 – As of the start of 1825, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 4 – King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies is succeeded by his son Francis I of the Two Sicilies, february 3 – Vendsyssel-Thy, once part of the Jutland peninsula that formed westernmost Denmark, becomes an island after a flood drowns its 1 km wide isthmus. February 9 – After no presidential candidate receives a majority of electoral votes, february 10 – Simón Bolívar gives up his title of dictator of Peru and takes the alternative title of El Libertador. February 12 – Second Treaty of Indian Springs, The Creek cede the last of their lands in Georgia to the United States government, and migrate west. March 1 – The outbound British East Indiaman Kent is destroyed by fire in the Bay of Biscay with the loss of more than 80 lives, but over 550 are saved by passing ships. March 2 – Capture of the Anne, Roberto Cofresí, one of the last successful pirates in the Caribbean, is defeated by a naval force. March 4 – John Quincy Adams is sworn in as President of the United States, march 17 – Founding of insurance company The Norfolk & Dedham Group. July – Volcanic eruption of Mount Guntur in West Java, july 6 – The Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck gains possession of Glücksburg and changes his title to Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. The line of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg later becomes the royal house of Greece, Denmark, july 18 – Uruguay secedes from Brazil. July 30 – Malden Island is discovered by George Byron, 7th Baron Byron, august 6 – Bolivia gains its independence from Spain as a republic with the instigation of Simón Bolívar. August 18 – Scottish adventurer Gregor MacGregor issues a £300,000 loan with 2. 5% interest through the London bank of Thomas Jenkins & Company for the fictitious Central American republic of Poyais. His actions lead to the Panic of 1825, the first modern stock market crash, august 25 – Uruguay is declared independent of the Empire of Brazil by the Thirty-Three Orientals, a militant revolutionary group led by Juan Antonio Lavalleja. September – The Lady Margaret Boat Club is founded by 12 members of St Johns College, Cambridge, september 25 – General Hendrik Merkus de Kock lifts the siege of Jogjakarta, the first major action of the Java War. September 27 – The worlds first modern railway, the Stockton and Darlington Railway, october 7 – The Miramichi Fire, a forest fire, breaks out in New Brunswick. October 21 – PS Comet II sinks off Gourock with the loss of 62 lives, october 26 – The Erie Canal opens, providing passage from Albany, New York to Buffalo and Lake Erie. December 1 – Nicholas I of Russia succeeds his older brother Alexander I, december 26 – Some Imperial Russian Army officers stage the Decembrist Revolt against Nicholass accession in Saint Petersburg, but it is thoroughly suppressed by the government. The first horse-drawn omnibuses established in London, hans Christian Ørsted reduces aluminium chloride to produce metallic aluminium. History of Brisbane, The Australian city of Brisbane is founded, a new Combination Act in the United Kingdom makes trade unions legal according to narrowly defined principles1825 – Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway
25. 1774 – As of the start of 1774, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 21 – Mustafa III, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his brother Abdul Hamid I. January 27 – An angry crowd in Boston, Massachusetts seizes, tars and feathers British customs collector and Loyalist John Malcolm for striking a boy and a shoemaker, George Hewes, with his cane. March 31 – Intolerable Acts, The British Parliament passes the Boston Port Act, closing the port of Boston, april 17 – The first avowedly Unitarian congregation, Essex Street Chapel, is founded in London by Theophilus Lindsey. May 10 – Louis XVI becomes King of France following the death of his grandfather, may 19 – Shakers Ann Lee and eight followers sail from Liverpool in England for colonial America. June 2 – Intolerable Acts, A new Quartering Act, requiring American colonists to provide housing for British soldiers upon demand, is passed. June 16/17 – English explorer James Cook becomes the first European to sight Palmerston Island in the Pacific Ocean, june 20 – Russo-Turkish War, Battle of Kozludzha – The Imperial Russian Army led by Alexander Suvorov routs numerically superior Ottoman Empire forces. July 21 – Russia and the Ottoman Empire sign the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca with Russian victory, the treaty gives Russia the right to intervene in Ottoman politics to protect its Christian subjects. September 4 – English explorer James Cook becomes the first European to sight the island of New Caledonia in Melanesia, september 5 – The First Continental Congress assembles in Philadelphia. September 21 – George Mason and George Washington found the Fairfax County Militia Association, october 10 Dunmores War – Battle of Point Pleasant, Cornstalk is forced to make peace with Dunmore at the Treaty of Camp Charlotte, ceding Shawnee land claims south of the Ohio to Virginia. English explorer James Cook becomes the first European to sight Norfolk Island in the Pacific Ocean, october 21 – The word Liberty is first displayed on a flag raised by colonists in Taunton, Massachusetts, in defiance of British rule in Colonial America. October 25 – Edenton Tea Party takes place in North Carolina, to avoid severe flooding, Martinsborough, North Carolina is moved to higher ground 3 miles west. The North Carolina General Assembly incorporates Martinsborough as the new county seat of Pitt County,3 years after its founding, german cobbler Johann Birkenstock creates the first Birkenstock sandals. A revision of the laws of cricket introduces a leg before wicket rule, London, H. G. Bohn – via Hathi Trust. ^ Historical Events for Year 1774 | OnThisDay. com, ^ What Happened in 1774, History-Page. com1774 – Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War.
26. Meriwether Lewis – They also collected scientific data, and information on indigenous nations. President Thomas Jefferson appointed him Governor of Upper Louisiana in 1806 and he died of gunshot wounds in what was either a murder or suicide, in 1809. Meriwether Lewis was born in Albemarle County, Colony of Virginia and he was the son of Lt. William Lewis of Locust Hill, who was of Welsh ancestry, and Lucy Meriwether, daughter of Thomas Meriwether and Elizabeth Thornton, who were both of English ancestry. After his father died of pneumonia, he moved with his mother and stepfather Captain John Marks to Georgia in May 1780 and they settled along the Broad River in the Goosepond Community within the Broad River Valley in Wilkes County. Lewis had no formal education until he was 13 years of age and he would often venture out in the middle of the night in the dead of winter with only his dog to go hunting. Even at an age, he was interested in natural history. His mother taught him how to gather wild herbs for medicinal purposes, in the Broad River Valley, Lewis first dealt with American Indians. This was the territory of the Cherokee, who resented encroachment by the colonists. Lewis seems to have been a champion for them among his own people, while in Georgia, he met Eric Parker, who encouraged him to travel. At thirteen, Lewis was sent back to Virginia for education by private tutors and his fathers older brother Nicholas Lewis became his guardian. One of his tutors was Parson Matthew Maury, an uncle of Matthew Fontaine Maury, in 1793, Lewis graduated from Liberty Hall. That year he joined the Virginia militia, and in 1794 he was sent as part of a detachment involved in putting down the Whiskey Rebellion, in 1795 Lewis joined the U. S. Army, commissioned as an Ensign. By 1800 he rose to Captain, and ended his service there in 1801, among his commanding officers was William Clark, who would later become his companion in the Corps of Discovery. On April 1,1801, Lewis was appointed as an aide by President Thomas Jefferson, Lewis resided in the presidential mansion, and frequently conversed with various prominent figures in politics, the arts and other circles. When Jefferson began to plan for an expedition across the continent, Meriwether Lewis recruited Clark, then age 33, to share command of the expedition. After the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, Thomas Jefferson wanted to get a sense of the new land. The President also hoped to find a direct and practicable water communication across this continent, in addition, Jefferson placed special importance on declaring U. S. sovereignty over the Native Americans along the Missouri River. When they left Fort Mandan in April 1805 they were accompanied by the sixteen-year-old Shoshone Indian woman, Sacagawea, the Corps of Discovery made contact with many Native Americans in the trans-Mississippi West and found them accustomed to dealing with European traders and already connected to global marketsMeriwether Lewis – Meriwether Lewis
27. 1809 – As of the start of 1809, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 5 – The Treaty of the Dardanelles between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Ottoman Empire is concluded, january 10 – Peninsular War, French Marshal Jean Lannes begins the Siege of Zaragoza. January 16 – Peninsular War, Battle of Corunna in Galicia, February 3 – The Illinois Territory is created. February 8 – Franz I of Austria declares war on France, February 11 – Robert Fulton patents the steamboat in the United States. February 17 – Miami University is established on the township of land required to be set aside for it under the conditions of the Miami Purchase in 1794. February 20 A decision by the Supreme Court of the United States states that the power of the government is greater than any individual state. The Siege of Zaragoza grinds to a halt as Jose Palafox surrenders, over 60,000 have been killed on both sides in 41 days of street fighting. February 25 – Battle of Valls, Spanish forces are defeated in Catalonia by Marshal Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr. February 27 – Action of 27 February 1809, Captain Bernard Dubourdieu captures HMS Proserpine March 1 – Embargo Act of 1807 is repealed in the United States, March 4 – James Madison is sworn in as President of the United States. March 13 – A military coup ousts Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden, March 29 At the Diet of Porvoo, Finlands four Estates pledge allegiance to Alexander I of Russia, commencing the secession of the future Grand Principality of Finland from Sweden. The Emperor in return, promises to retain and uphold former laws and his pledge is later interpreted by the Finns as a confirmation of constitutional laws, which had, effectively, established Finland as a separate state in real union with the Russia. King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden abdicates after the Coup of 1809 and is later exiled, Peninsular War First Battle of Porto,18,000 Portuguese soldiers are drowned in a rout after defeat by the French under Marshal Soult. Battle of Medellín at Extremadura, massive Spanish casualties in a rout by French cavalry under Marshal Victor, april 9 – Tiroleans rise under the command of Andreas Hofer against French and Bavarian occupation. April 10 – Napoleonic Wars, The War of the Fifth Coalition begins when forces of the Austrian Empire invade Bavaria, april 14 – Battle of Abensberg, Bavaria, Napoleon defeats Austria. April 18 – The 2,000 Guineas Stakes horse race is first run in England, april 19 – War of the Fifth Coalition, Battle of Raszyn, The armies of the Austrian Empire are defeated by the Duchy of Warsaw. Battle of Teugen-Hausen, The armies of the Austrian Empire are defeated by the French, april 22 – Battle of Eckmühl, French troops under Napoleon I and Marshal Davout defeat the Austrians under Archduke Charles. May 5 Mary Kies is the first American woman to be awarded a patent, the Swiss canton of Aargau denies Jews citizenship. May 10 – Gustav IV Adolf is officially deposed from the Swedish throne by the Riksdag of the Estates, may 10–11 – Peninsular War, Battle of Grijó, the Anglo-Portuguese Army commanded by Sir Arthur Wellesley defeats the French army commanded by Marshal Soult in Portugal1809 – Jan. 16: Battle of Corunna
28. 1904 – As of the start of 1904, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 7 – The distress signal CQD is established, only to be replaced 2 years later by SOS, january 12 – Henry Ford sets a new automobile land speed record of 91.37 mph. January 16 – The first large-scale bodybuilding competition in America takes place at Madison Square Garden in New York City, january 18 – The Herero Rebellion in German South-West Africa begins. January 23 – The Ålesund Fire destroys most buildings in the town of Ålesund, Norway, february 7 – The Great Baltimore Fire in Baltimore, Maryland, destroys over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours. February 8–9 – Battle of Port Arthur, A surprise Japanese naval attack on Port Arthur in Manchuria starts the Russo-Japanese War, february 10 – Roger Casement publishes his account of Belgian atrocities in the Congo. February 17 – Puccinis opera Madama Butterfly, with a theme of Japan–United States relations. On May 28 a revised version opens in Brescia to huge success, february 23 – For $10 million, the United States gains control of the Panama Canal Zone. February 28 – Sport Lisboa e Benfica is founded in Portugal, march 3 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany becomes the first person to make a political recording of a document, using Thomas Edisons cylinder. March 4 – Russo-Japanese War, Russian troops in Korea retreat toward Manchuria, march 26 –80,000 demonstrators gather in Hyde Park, London, to protest against the importation of Chinese labourers to South Africa by the British government. March 31 – British expedition to Tibet – Battle of Guru, April 8 The Entente Cordiale is signed between the UK and France. Longacre Square in Midtown Manhattan is renamed Times Square after The New York Times, aleister Crowley begins writing Liber Al vel Legis, better known as The Book of the Law, a text central to Thelema. He completes this task on April 10, April 19 – The Great Toronto Fire destroys much of that citys downtown, but there are no fatalities. April 27 – The Australian Labor Party becomes the first such party to gain national government, April 30 – The Louisiana Purchase Exposition Worlds Fair opens in St. Louis, Missouri. May 4 United States Army engineers begin work on the Panama Canal, German football club FC Schalke 04 is established. May 5 Pitching against the Philadelphia Athletics, Cy Young of the Boston Americans throws the first perfect game in the era of baseball. British expedition to Tibet, Hundreds of Tibetans attack the British camp at Changlo and, for a while, hold the advantage before being defeated by superior weapons and losing at least 200 men. May 9 – Great Western Railway of England 3700 Class 3440 City of Truro becomes the first railway locomotive to exceed 100 mph. May 15– The Russian minelayer Amur lays a minefield about 15 miles off Port Arthur and sinks Japans battleships Hatsuse,15,000 tons, with 496 crew, may 21 – The International Federation of Association Football, FIFA, is established1904 – February 7: Aftermath of the Great Baltimore Fire.
29. 1996 – January 3 – Motorola introduces the Motorola StarTAC Wearable Cellular Telephone, the worlds smallest and lightest mobile phone to date. January 4 – Hosni Mubarak, the president of Egypt, appoints a new government in response to accusations of corruption in the elections in late 1995. January 5 – Hamas operative Yahya Ayyash is assassinated by an Israeli Shabak-planted, january 7 – One of the worst blizzards in American history hits the eastern states, killing more than 150 people. Philadelphia receives a record 30.7 inches of snowfall, New York Citys public schools close for the first time in 18 years, january 8 – A Zairean cargo plane crashes into a crowded market in the center of the capital Kinshasa, killing 300. January 9–January 20 – Serious fighting breaks out between Russian soldiers and rebel fighters in Chechnya, january 11 – Ryutaro Hashimoto, leader of the Liberal Democratic Party, becomes Prime Minister of Japan. January 13 – Italys prime minister, Lamberto Dini, resigns after the failure of all-party talks to confirm him, New talks are initiated by president Oscar Luigi Scalfaro to form a new government. January 14 – Jorge Sampaio is elected president of Portugal, january 16 – President of Sierra Leone Valentine Strasser is deposed by the chief of defence, Julius Maada Bio. Bio promises to power following elections scheduled for February. The North Cape Barge is pulled along with it and leaks 820,000 gallons of heating oil. An Indonesian ferry sinks off the tip of Sumatra, drowning more than 100 people. January 20 – Yasser Arafat is re-elected president of the Palestinian Authority, january 21 – France undertakes its last nuclear weapon test. January 22 – Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece, resigns due to health problems, january 24 – Polish Premier Józef Oleksy resigns amid charges that he spied for Moscow. He is replaced by Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz, january 26 – Whitewater scandal, U. S. First Lady Hillary Clinton testifies before a grand jury, january 27 – Colonel Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara deposes the first democratically elected president of Niger, Mahamane Ousmane, in a military coup. January 29 President Jacques Chirac announces an end to French nuclear testing. Fire destroys La Fenice, Venices opera house, january 30 – Irish National Liberation Army leader Gino Gallagher is killed in an internal feud. January 30–February 5 – Sarah Balabagan is caned in the United Arab Emirates, january 31 Colombo Central Bank bombing, an explosives-filled truck rams into the gates of the Central Bank in Colombo, Sri Lanka, killing at least 86 and injuring 1,400. An explosion in Shaoyang, China kills 122 and injures over 400 when 10 short tons of dynamite in an explosives warehouse underneath an apartment building detonate1996 – Yasser Arafat
30. 1920 – As of the start of 1920, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January –4,025 suspected communists and anarchists arrested and held without trial in the United States following raids in several cities, January 1 Babe Ruth is traded by the Red Sox for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. Bolsheviks increase troops from four divisions to twenty along the Polish border January 7 The forces of Russian White Admiral Alexander Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk, the Great Siberian Ice March ensues. The New York State Assembly refuses to seat five duly elected Socialist assemblymen, January 9 – Thousands of onlookers watch as The Human Fly George Polley climbs the Woolworth Building in New York City. He reaches the 30th floor before being arrested, January 10 – League of Nations Covenant enters into force. On January 16 the organization holds its first council meeting, in Paris, January 11 – The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic is recognised de facto by European powers in Versailles. January 13 – The New York Times ridicules the American rocket scientist Robert H. Goddard, the newspaper has to recant publicly on July 17,1969 when the Apollo crew is on its mission to the Moon. January 16 Prohibition in the United States begins with the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution coming into effect, the Allies of World War I demand that the Netherlands extradite the German Kaiser Wilhelm II, who fled there in 1918. Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Incorporated, is founded on the campus of Howard University in Washington, January 19 – The United States Senate votes against joining the League of Nations. January 22 – The Australian Country Party is officially formed, led by Nelson Pollard, January 23 – The Netherlands refuses to extradite the German Kaiser. January 28 – El Tercio de Extranjeros, the Regiment of Foreigners, January 30 – The oldest surviving pro wrestling match on film takes place, with Joe Stecher defeating Earl Caddock. February 1 – The South African Air Force is established, the second autonomous Air Force in the world after the Royal Air Force, february 2 Estonian War of Independence, The Tartu Peace Treaty is signed, ending the war and recognizing Estonian independence. Sayyid Muhammad, Khan of Khiva abdicates, february 7 – Admiral Kolchak and Viktor Pepelyayev are executed by firing squad near Irkutsk. February 10 – General Józef Haller first performs Polands Wedding to the Sea, february 12–24 – Conference of London, Leaders of the United Kingdom, France and Italy meet to discuss the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. February 13 – Switzerland rejoins the League of Nations, february 14 – The League of Women Voters is founded in Chicago. February 17 – A woman named Anna Anderson tries to suicide in Berlin and is taken to a mental hospital. February 19 – The United States Senate refuses to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, february 20 –1920 Gori earthquake, An earthquake hits Gori in the Democratic Republic of Georgia, killing 114. February 21 – The island province of Marinduque in the Philippines archipelago is founded, february 22 – In Emeryville, California, the first dog racing track to employ an imitation rabbit opens1920 – 1920 Summer Olympics
31. Shelley Winters – Shelley Winters was an American actress who appeared in dozens of films, as well as on stage and television, her career spanned over 50 years until her death in 2006. Winters won Academy Awards for The Diary of Anne Frank and A Patch of Blue and she also appeared in such films as The Big Knife, A Double Life, Lolita, The Night of the Hunter, Alfie, Next Stop, Greenwich Village, and Petes Dragon. Shelley Winters was born Shirley Schrift in St. Louis, Missouri, the daughter of Rose, a singer with the Muny, and Jonas Schrift and her parents were Jewish, her father emigrated from Austria, and her mother was born in St. Louis to Austrian immigrants. Her family moved to Brooklyn, New York when she was three years old and her sister Blanche Schrift later married George Boroff, who ran the Circle Theatre in Los Angeles. Winters studied at the New School in New York City, as the New York Times obituary noted, A major movie presence for more than five decades, Shelley Winters turned herself into a widely respected actress who won two Oscars. Winters originally broke into Hollywood films as a Blonde Bombshell type, but quickly tired of the roles limitations. She claims to have washed off her makeup to audition for the role of Alice Tripp, the girl, in A Place in the Sun, directed by George Stevens. As the Associated Press reported, the public was unaware of how serious a craftswoman Winters was. Although she was in demand as an actress, Winters continued to study her craft. She attended Charles Laughtons Shakespeare classes and worked at the Actors Studio and she studied in the Hollywood Studio Club, and in the late 1940s, she shared an apartment with another newcomer, Marilyn Monroe. Her first movie was What a Woman, working in films through the 1940s, Winters first achieved stardom with her breakout performance as the victim of insane actor Ronald Colman in George Cukors A Double Life, in 1947. She quickly ascended in Hollywood with leading roles in The Great Gatsby with Alan Ladd and she also returned to the stage on various occasions during this time, including a Broadway run in A Hatful of Rain, in 1955–1956, opposite future husband Anthony Franciosa. She won an Oscar as Best Supporting Actress for The Diary of Anne Frank in 1960 and she donated her Oscar for The Diary of Anne Frank to the Anne Frank House in Amsterdam. In The Poseidon Adventure, she was the ill-fated Belle Rosen and she returned to the stage during the 1960s and 1970s, most notably in Tennessee Williams Night of the Iguana. She appeared in cult films as 1968s Wild in the Streets. She also starred in the 1970 Broadway musical Minnies Boys as Minnie Marx, the mother of Groucho, Harpo, Chico, Zeppo, as the Associated Press reported, During her 50 years as a widely known personality, Winters was rarely out of the news. Her stormy marriages, her romances with famous stars, her forays into politics and she delighted in giving provocative interviews and seemed to have an opinion on everything. That led to a career as a writerShelley Winters – Winters in a studio publicity photo (1951)
32. 2006 – 2006 was designated as, International Year of Deserts and Desertification International Aspergers Year January 1 – Russia cuts the shipment of natural gas to Ukraine over a price dispute. January 12 – A stampede during the Stoning of the Devil ritual on the last day at the Hajj in Mina, Saudi Arabia, January 15 – NASAs Stardust mission successfully ends, the first to return dust from a comet. January 19 – NASA launches the first space mission to Pluto as a rocket hurls the New Horizons spacecraft on a nine-year journey. February 3 – Egyptian passenger ferry, MS al-Salam Boccaccio 98, sinks in the Red Sea off the coast of Saudi Arabia, february 10–26 – The 2006 Winter Olympics are held in Turin, Italy. February 17 – A massive mudslide occurs in Southern Leyte, Philippines killing an estimated 1,126 people, march 9 – NASAs Cassini–Huygens spacecraft discovers geysers of a liquid substance shooting from Saturns moon Enceladus, signaling a possible presence of water. March 10 – NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter enters orbit around Mars, march 16 – The United Nations General Assembly votes overwhelmingly to establish the United Nations Human Rights Council. March 28 – A scramjet jet engine, HyShot III, designed to fly at seven times the speed of sound, is tested at Woomera. April 11 The European Space Agencys Venus Express spaceprobe enters Venus orbit, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad confirms that Iran has successfully produced a few grams of low-grade enriched uranium. May – The Human Genome Project publishes the last chromosome sequence, may 27 – The 6.4 Mw Yogyakarta earthquake shakes central Java with an MSK intensity of IX, leaving more than 5,700 dead and 37,000 injured. June 3 – Montenegro declares independence after a May 21 referendum, the state union of Serbia and Montenegro is dissolved on June 5, leaving Serbia as the successor state. June 9 – July 9 – The 2006 FIFA World Cup begins in Germany, June 28 Israel launches an offensive in the Gaza Strip in response to rocketfire by Hamas into Israeli territory. The United States Armed Forces withdraws its forces in Iceland, thereby disbanding the Iceland Defense Force, July 1 – The Qinghai–Tibet Railway launches a trial operation, making Tibet the last province-level entity of China to have a conventional railway. July 6 – The Nathu La pass between India and China, sealed during the Sino-Indian War, re-opens for trade after 44 years, July 12 – Israeli troops invade Lebanon in response to Hezbollah kidnapping two Israeli soldiers and killing three others. Hezbollah declares open war against Israel two days later, august 22 – Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise Flight 612 crashes near the Russian border in Ukraine, killing all 171 people on board. August 24 – The International Astronomical Union defines planet at its 26th General Assembly, september 19 – The Royal Thai Army overthrows the government of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra in a coup détat. September 29 – Gol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907 collides with a jet over the Amazon rainforest. October 9 – North Korea claims to have conducted its nuclear test. October 13 – South Korean Ban Ki-moon is elected as the new Secretary-General of the United Nations,5,1948 by Jackson Pollock becomes the most expensive painting after it is sold privately for $140 million2006 – 2006 FIFA World Cup opening ceremony in Germany.
33. 1933 – January 5 – Construction of the Golden Gate Bridge begins in San Francisco Bay. January 11 – Sir Charles Kingsford Smith makes the first commercial flight between Australia and New Zealand, January 15 – Political violence causes almost 100 deaths in Spain. January 17 – The United States Congress votes favorably for Philippines independence, January 23 – The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, changing Inauguration Day from March 4 to January 20 starting in 1937. January 28 – Pakistan Declaration, Choudhry Rahmat Ali publishes a pamphlet entitled Now or Never, in which he calls for the creation of a Muslim state in northwest India that he calls Pakstan which is influential on the Pakistan Movement. January 30 Édouard Daladier forms a government in France, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler is appointed Chancellor of Germany by President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg. The Lone Ranger debuts on American radio, January – The London Underground diagram designed by Harry Beck is introduced to the public. February 1 – Adolf Hitler gives his Proclamation to the German People in Berlin, February 2 – A second international conference on disarmament ends without results. It tries to limit the sizes of the major powers, while Germany is entitled to 200,000. February 5 – A mutiny starts on the Royal Netherlands Navy coastal defence ship De Zeven Provinciën in the Dutch East Indies, after 6 days, it is bombed by a Dutch aircraft, killing 23 men, and the remaining mutineers surrender. February 6 – The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution goes into effect, February 6–7 – Officers on the USS Ramapo record a 34-meter high sea-wave in the Pacific Ocean. February 9 – The King and Country debate, The Oxford Union student debating society in England passes a resolution stating, That this House will in no circumstances fight for its King, February 10 – The New York City-based Postal Telegraph Company introduces the first singing telegram. February 15 – In Miami, Giuseppe Zangara attempts to assassinate President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt, February 17 Newsweek magazine is published for the first time in the United States. The Blaine Act passes the United States Senate, submitting the proposed Twenty-first Amendment to the Constitution to the states for ratification, the amendment is ratified on December 5, ending prohibition in the United States. February 27 – Reichstag fire, Germanys parliament building in Berlin, February 28 – The Reichstag Fire Decree is passed in response to the Reichstag fire, nullifying many German civil liberties. March 2 – The original film version of King Kong, starring Fay Wray, premieres at Radio City Music Hall, March 3 Ching Yun University is established. Mount Rushmore National Memorial is dedicated, a powerful earthquake and tsunami hit Honshū, Japan, killing approximately 3,000 people. It is the last time Inauguration Day in the United States occurs on March 4, frances Perkins becomes United States Secretary of Labor, and the first female member of the United States Cabinet. The Parliament of Austria is suspended because of a quibble over procedure, March 5 The Great Depression, President Franklin D. Roosevelt declares a Bank holiday, closing all United States banks and freezing all financial transactions1933 – January 5: Golden Gate Bridge begun.
34. Roman Polanski – Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański is a French-Polish film director, producer, writer, and actor. Born in Paris, his Polish-Jewish parents moved the back to Poland in 1937. Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany a few later, in 1939. Polanskis first feature-length film, Knife in the Water, made in Poland, was nominated for a United States Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. He has since received five more Oscar nominations, along with two BAFTAs, four Césars, a Golden Globe Award and the Palme dOr of the Cannes Film Festival in France, in the United Kingdom he directed three films, beginning with Repulsion. In 1968 he moved to the United States and cemented his status by directing the horror film Rosemarys Baby. A turning point in his life took place in 1969, when his pregnant wife, Sharon Tate, following her death, Polanski returned to Europe and eventually continued directing. He made Macbeth in England and back in Hollywood, Chinatown, in 1977, Polanski was arrested and charged with the rape of a 13-year-old model during a photo session. He subsequently pled guilty to the charge of statutory rape and he was released from prison after serving 42 days, and as part of an apparent plea bargain, was to be put on probation. When he learned that the judge changed his mind and planned to reject the plea bargain, in Europe, Polanski continued to make films, including Tess, starring aspiring actress, Nastassja Kinski. It won Frances César Awards for Best Picture and Best Director and he later produced and directed The Pianist, starring Adrien Brody, in a World War II true story drama about a Jewish-Polish musician. The film won three Academy Awards including Best Director, along with numerous international awards and he also directed Oliver Twist, a story which parallels his own life as a young boy attempting to triumph over adversity. Polanski was born in Paris, the son of Bula and Ryszard Polański, a painter and manufacturer of sculptures and his mother had a daughter, Annette, by her previous husband. Annette managed to survive Auschwitz, where her mother died, Polańskis father was Jewish and originally from Poland, Polańskis mother, born in Russia, had been raised Roman Catholic and was of half-Jewish ancestry. Polański, influenced by his education in the Peoples Republic of Poland, said Im an atheist in an interview about his film, Rosemarys Baby. The Polański family moved back to the Polish city of Kraków in 1936, Kraków was soon occupied by the German forces, and Nazi racial purity laws made the Polańskis targets of persecution, forcing them into the Kraków Ghetto, along with thousands of the citys Jews. Around the age of six, he attended school for only a few weeks, until all the Jewish children were abruptly expelled. That initiative was followed by requiring all Jewish children over the age of twelve to wear white armbands with a blue Star of David imprinted for visual identificationRoman Polanski – Polanski at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival
35. 1943 – Below, events of World War II have the WWII prefix. January 1 – WWII, The Soviet Union announces that 22 German divisions have been encircled at Stalingrad, january 4 WWII, Greek-Polish athlete and saboteur Jerzy Iwanow-Szajnowicz is executed by the Germans at Kaisariani. Culbert Olson, 29th Governor of California, is succeeded by Earl Warren, january 11 – The United States and United Kingdom give up territorial rights in China. January 13 –36 people are executed and 200 arrested in protests in Sofia. January 14–24 – WWII, Casablanca Conference, Franklin D, january 15 WWII, Guadalcanal Campaign – Operation Ke, Japanese forces begin to withdraw from Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. The worlds largest office building, The Pentagon, is dedicated in Arlington, january 16 – Iraq declares war on the Axis powers. January 18 WWII, Soviet officials announce that the Red Army has broken the Wehrmachts siege of Leningrad as part of Operation Iskra, georgy Zhukov is promoted to Marshal of the Soviet Union. The first Warsaw Ghetto Uprising begins, january 21–23 – Legionnaires rebellion and Bucharest pogrom in the Kingdom of Romania. January 22 WWII, Battle of Buna–Gona ends with American and Australian forces securing control of the territory of Papua, the Holocaust, Over 4,000 Jews are detained in Nazi-occupied Marseille as part of Action Tiger before being transported to extermination camps in Poland. January 23 WWII, British forces capture Tripoli from the Italians, duke Ellington plays at New York Citys Carnegie Hall for the first time. American critic and commentator Alexander Woollcott suffers a fatal heart attack during a regular broadcast of the CBS Radio round-table program Peoples Platform. January 27 – WWII,50 bombers mount the first all American air raid against Germany, january 29 Nazi German police arrest alleged necrophiliac and serial killer Bruno Lüdke. United States Marine Corps Womens Reserve created, january 29–31 – WWII, Battle of Wau – Australian forces with United States support resist a Japanese advance in the New Guinea campaign. February 2 – WWII, In Russia, the Battle of Stalingrad comes to an end with the surrender of the German 6th Army. February 3 – WWII, The Four Chaplains of the U. S. Army are among those drowned when their ship, February 7 – WWII, North Atlantic convoy SC118 is attacked by U-boats, sinking eight ships. In the United States, it is announced that shoe rationing will go into effect in 2 days, massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army begin with the Parośla I massacre within the Reichskommissariat Ukraine. February 10–March 3 – Mohandas Gandhi keeps a hunger strike to protest at his imprisonment, February 14 – WWII, Rostov-on-Don in Russia is liberated. February 14–17 – WWII, Battle of Sidi Bou Zid, In the Tunisia Campaign, February 16 – WWII, The Soviet Union reconquers Kharkov, but is later driven out in the Third Battle of Kharkov1943 – A low level attack on a Japanese ship during the Battle of the Bismarck Sea
36. Gianni Rivera – Giovanni Gianni Rivera is an Italian former football midfielder, who was mostly utilised as an attacking midfielder. Dubbed Italys Golden Boy by the media, he played the majority of his career with Italian side A. C. Milan. At international level, he represented Italy 60 times between 1962 and 1974, scoring 14 goals, and took part at four World Cups. He is widely considered to be one of the most talented offensive playmakers of all time, due to his passing accuracy, in 2015 he became the first Italian footballer out of 100 athletes to be inducted into Italys sports Walk of Fame. In 2004, Pelè chose Rivera as part of the FIFA100 greatest living footballers, after retiring from football in 1979, Rivera became Milans vice-president, and later went into politics in 1986, he is currently a Member of the European Parliament for the Uniti nellUlivo party. Rivera was born in Alessandria, Piedmont, to Edera and Teresio and he is the third youngest player in history to debut in Serie A, behind only Amedeo Amadei and Pietro Pellegri, and the second youngest goalscorer in Serie A, behind only Amadei. A year later, he was bought by A. C. Riveras final appearance with Alessandria came on 19 June 1960, in a 2–0 home defeat against FC La Chaux-de-Fonds in the first ever edition of the Coppa delle Alpi. Due to his performances throughout the season, on 13 May 1962, aged just eighteen, Riveras 1962 scudetto victory with Milan under Nereo Rocco enabled the team to qualify for the European Cup in 1962. Milan suffered a defeat in the Intercontinental Cup, however, in a match against Santos following a 6–6 draw on aggregate. For his performances, Rivera was awarded second place in the prestigious Ballon dOr award that year, Rivera also suffered a 6–1 defeat on aggregate against Ajax in the 1973 European Supercup final with Milan. Following Roccos second departure from the club in 1973, the management attempted to persuade Rivera to leave Milan. During this period, Milan also reached the Coppa Italia final during the 1974–75 season and his final career appearance came in a 1–1 away draw with Lazio in the league, on 13 May, he officially announced his retirement on 10 June. In total, Rivera played for Milan in 501 Serie A matches and scored 122 league goals, with 128 goals in 527 Serie A appearances across 20 seasons, he is the 11th most capped player in Serie A history and the highest scoring midfielder in the leagues history. In total, Rivera scored 170 goals in all competitions in 684 appearances. Rivera was a part of the Italian national side between 1962 and 1974, Rivera made his international debut with the under-21 side on 9 March 1960, scoring 2 goals in a 4–1 pre-Olympic friendly win over Switzerland, alongside Giacomo Bulgarelli. With the Italian senior side, Rivera made his debut on 13 May 1962 in a 3–1 away win against Belgium, despite playing the entire game with a muscle strain, Rivera put in a strong performance during the semi-final. Rivera subsequently played with the Squadra Azzurra in the 1970 FIFA World Cup hosted by Mexico, due to Riveras frequent arguments with the Italian coaching staff over his limited playing time, his mentor Rocco had to be flown in to prevent him from leaving the squad. By the second round of the tournament, however, the Italian offence failed to sparkleGianni Rivera – Gianni Rivera MEP
37. 1952 – January 8 – West Germany has 8 million refugees inside its borders. January 12 – The University of Tennessee admits its first black student, january 26 – Black Saturday in Egypt, rioters burn Cairos central business district, targeting British and upper-class Egyptian businesses. February 2 – A tropical storm forms just north of Cuba moving northeast, the storm makes landfall in southern Florida the next day. It is the earliest reported landfall from a storm. February 6 George VI dies aged 56 after a long illness and he is succeeded by his daughter The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, who is on a visit to Kenya. She is proclaimed Queen of Canada at Rideau Hall, Ottawa, in the United States, a mechanical heart is used for the first time in a human patient. February 7 – Elizabeth II is proclaimed Queen of the United Kingdom at St Jamess Palace, London, February 14 – February 25 – The Winter Olympics held in Oslo, Norway. February 15 – The funeral of George VI takes place at St Georges Chapel, February 18 – Greece and Turkey join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The SS Pendleton, a T2 Tanker, breaks in half during a noreaster off the east coast near Massachusetts, bernard Webber and a crew of four volunteer to rescue the 32 survivors aboard. This was the one of the most courageous rescues in the history of the US Coast Guard, February 20 Emmett Ashford becomes the first African-American umpire in organized baseball, by being authorized to be a substitute umpire in the Southwestern International League. Winston Churchill scraps UK compulsory national identity cards, the day is later declared International Mother Language Day by UNESCO. February 25 – The Parícutin active volcano in Michoacán, west central Mexico, ceases its discontinuous eruption after spewing forth a gigaton of lava, February 26 United Kingdom Prime Minister Winston Churchill announces that the United Kingdom has an atomic bomb. Vincent Massey is sworn in as the first Canada-born Governor General of Canada, March 10 – General Fulgencio Batista re-takes power in Cuba in a coup. March 15–16 –73 inches of rain falls in Cilaos, Réunion, March 20 – The United States Senate ratifies a peace treaty with Japan. March 21 The last two executions in the Netherlands take place, Dr. Kwame Nkrumah is elected Prime Minister of the Gold Coast. Tornadoes ravage the lower Mississippi River Valley, leaving 208 dead, March 22 – Wernher von Braun publishes the first in his series of articles titled Man Will Conquer Space Soon. Including ideas for manned flights to Mars and the Moon, March 27 Konrad Adenauer survives an assassination attempt. Legislative Assembly election held in Coorg, March 29 – U. S. President Harry S. Truman announces that he will not seek reelection1952 – The explosion of the first hydrogen bomb.
38. Patrick Swayze – Patrick Wayne Swayze was an American actor, dancer, and singer-songwriter. During his career he received three Golden Globe Award nominations and was named by People magazine as its Sexiest Man Alive in 1991. Patrick Wayne Swayze was born on August 18,1952, in Houston, Texas, the child of Patsy Swayze, a choreographer, dance instructor, and dancer, and Jesse Wayne Swayze. He had two brothers, actor Don and Sean Kyle, and two sisters, Vickie Lynn and Bambi. Swayze and his siblings were raised in their mothers Roman Catholic faith, during this time, he pursued multiple artistic and athletic skills, such as ice skating, classical ballet, and acting in school plays. He played football for his school and was hoping to receive a football scholarship for college until a knee injury ended his career. He studied gymnastics at Coastal Carolina University for two years, in 1972, he moved to New York City to complete his formal dance training at the Harkness Ballet and Joffrey Ballet schools. Swayze had a role in the television series M*A*S*H, in season 9 episode 18 Blood Brothers. His first professional appearance was as a dancer for Disney on Parade and he then starred as a replacement playing the role of Danny Zuko in the long-running Broadway production of Grease before his debut film role as Ace in Skatetown, U. S. A. Swayze became known to the industry after appearing in The Outsiders as the older brother of C. Thomas Howell. Also in 1983, Swayze played a U. S. M. C, trainer in Vietnam rescue film Uncommon Valor with Gene Hackman. The following year, Swayze, Howell, and Howells friend Darren Dalton reunited in Red Dawn, then in 1986, Lowe and his first major success was in the 1985 television miniseries North and South, which was set during the American Civil War. Swayzes breakthrough role came with his performance as dance instructor Johnny Castle in the film Dirty Dancing, alongside his Red Dawn co-star, the song became a top-10 hit and has been covered by other artists. After Dirty Dancing, Swayze found himself in great acting demand and appeared in several films and his biggest role came when he starred in Ghost with Demi Moore and Whoopi Goldberg. In 1991, he starred alongside Youngblood castmate Keanu Reeves in another major hit, Point Break. For his contributions to the industry, he was given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1997. Swayze was seriously injured in 1998 while filming HBOs Letters from a Killer near Ione, California, both of his legs were broken, and he suffered four detached tendons in his shoulder. Filming was suspended for two months, and the aired in 1999Patrick Swayze – Swayze greeting fans after Guys and Dolls, September 27, 2006
39. 1957 – January 1 The Saarland joins West Germany. An Irish Republican Army attack on the Brookeborough police barracks in Northern Ireland leads to the deaths of Seán South, italian conductor Arturo Toscanini suffers the stroke that leads to his death a little over two weeks later in the United States. January 2 – The San Francisco and Los Angeles stock exchanges merge to form the Pacific Coast Stock Exchange, January 3 – Hamilton Watch Company introduces the first electric watch. January 4 – After 69 years the last issue of Colliers Weekly magazine is published in the United States, January 5 – Russell Endean becomes the first batsman to be dismissed for having handled the ball in Test cricket. January 6 – Elvis Presley appears on The Ed Sullivan Show for the 3rd and he is shown only from the waist up, even during the gospel segment, singing Peace In The Valley. Ed Sullivan describes Elvis thus, This is a real decent, weve never had a pleasanter experience on our show with a big name than weve had with you. January 9 – British Prime Minister Anthony Eden resigns, January 10 – Harold Macmillan becomes the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. January 11 – The African Convention is founded in Dakar, January 13 – Wham-O Company produces the first Frisbee. January 14 Kripalu Maharaj is named fifth Jagadguru after giving seven days of speeches before 500 Hindu scholars, American screen actor Humphrey Bogart dies aged 57 in California after a long battle with cancer. January 15 – Release, in Japan, of the film Throne of Blood, January 16 – The Cavern Club opens in Liverpool as a jazz club. January 20 Dwight D. Eisenhower is privately sworn in for a term as President of the United States. Israel withdraws from the Sinai Peninsula, the New York City Mad Bomber, George P. Metesky, is arrested in Waterbury, Connecticut, and charged with planting more than 30 bombs. January 21 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower is publicly sworn in, January 23 – Ku Klux Klan members force truck driver Willie Edwards to jump off a bridge into the Alabama River, he drowns as a result. January 26 – The Ibirapuera Planetarium is inaugurated in the city of São Paulo, february 2 – President Iskander Mirza of Pakistan lays the foundation-stone of the Guddu Barrage across the Indus River near Sukkur. February 4 France prohibits U. N. involvement in Algeria and it is decommissioned on March 3,1980. A coal gas explosion at the giant Bishop coal mine in Bishop, Virginia, february 6 – The Soviet Union announces that Swedish envoy Raoul Wallenberg had died in a Soviet prison possibly of a heart attack on July 17,1947. February 10 – The Confederation of African Football is founded at a meeting in Khartoum, february 15 – Andrei Gromyko becomes foreign minister of the Soviet Union. February 16 The Toddlers Truce, a controversial television closedown between 6.00 p. m. and 7.00 p. m. is abolished in the United Kingdom, ingmar Bergmans film The Seventh Seal opens at cinema in Sweden1957 – E. M. S. Namboodiripad, head of the first democratically elected communist government in the world
40. Denis Leary – Denis Colin Leary is an American actor, writer, producer, singer and comedian. Leary was the star and co-creator of Rescue Me, which ended its seventh, from 2015 to 2016, Leary wrote and starred in the comedy series, Sex&Drugs&Rock&Roll on FX. Denis Colin Leary was born on August 18,1957, in Worcester, Massachusetts and his mother, Nora, was a maid, and his father, John Leary, was an auto mechanic. Being the son of Irish parents, Leary is a citizen of both the United States and Ireland, through marriage, Leary is a third cousin of talk show host, Conan OBrien. He attended Saint Peters High School, in Worcester and graduated from Emerson College, at Emerson, he met fellow comic Mario Cantone, whom to this day Leary considers his closest friend. At the school, he founded the Emerson Comedy Workshop, a troupe that continues on-campus today, after graduating with the Emerson Class of 1981, he took a job at the school teaching comedy writing classes and maintained the job for five years. He wrote and appeared on a comedy series, The Late, Late Show, hosted by his friend, Lenny Clarke. He appeared in skits on the MTV game show Remote Control, playing characters as Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones, the brother of co-host Colin Quinn. Leary earned fame when he ranted about R. E. M. in an early 1990s MTV sketch, several other commercials for MTV quickly followed, in which Leary would rant at high speeds about a variety of topics, playing off the then-popular and growing alternative scene. One of these serves as an introduction to the video of Shamrocks. He released two records of his comedy, No Cure for Cancer and Lock n Load. In late 2004, he released the EP Merry F#%$in Christmas, which included a mix of new music, previously unreleased recordings and it was voted #1 in an Australian youth radio poll. The song was used as part of the Holsten Pils series of ads in the UK, in which Leary was participating, the single was a minor hit there, peaking at No.58 in the UK Singles Chart in January 1996. Leary has appeared in more than 40 films, including, The Sandlot as Scotts stepfather Bill, the Matchmaker, The Ref, Draft Day, Suicide Kings, Dawg, Wag the Dog, Demolition Man, Judgment Night, The Thomas Crown Affair, and Operation Dumbo Drop. He had a part in Oliver Stones Natural Born Killers that was eventually cut. Leary was offered the role of Dignam in The Departed but turned it down due to scheduling conflicts with Rescue Me, as a Boston Red Sox fan, he narrated the official 2004 World Series film. As an ice hockey fan, Leary hosted the National Hockey League video NHLs Greatest Goals, in 2003, he was the subject of the Comedy Central Roast of Denis Leary. Leary did the TV voiceover for MLB 2K8 advertisements, where he used his trademark rant style in baseball terms and he has also appeared in commercials for Hulu and DirecTVs NFL Sunday Ticket packageDenis Leary – Leary at the 2015 ATX TV Festival
41. 1978 – January 1 The Copyright Act of 1976 takes effect, making sweeping changes to United States copyright law. Air India Flight 855, a Boeing 747 passenger jet, crashes into the ocean near Bombay, Edward M. Davis retires from the Los Angeles Police Department after 30 years on the force and more than 8 years as its police chief. January 4 – A referendum in Chile supports the policies of dictator Augusto Pinochet, January 5 – Bülent Ecevit, of CHP forms the new government of Turkey. January 6 – The Holy Crown of Hungary is returned to Hungary from the United States, January 10 – Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal, a critic of the Nicaraguan government, is assassinated, riots erupt against Somozas government. January 14 – January 15 – The body of former U. S, vice President Hubert Humphrey lies in state in the Capitol Rotunda, following his death from cancer. Rock succeeds Edward M. Davis as LAPDs interim chief, January 18 – The European Court of Human Rights finds the British government guilty of mistreating prisoners in Northern Ireland, but not guilty of torture. January 19 – Federal Appeals Court Judge William H. Webster is appointed FBI Director, January 22 – Ethiopia declares the ambassador of West Germany persona non grata. January 24 Soviet satellite Kosmos 954 burns up in Earths atmosphere, Rose Dugdale and Eddie Gallagher become the first convicted prisoners to marry in prison in the history of the Republic of Ireland. January 25 – January 27 – The Great Blizzard of 1978 strikes the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes, January 28 – Richard Chase, the Vampire of Sacramento, is arrested. February 1 – film director Roman Polanski skips bail and flees to France, February 5 – February 7 – The Northeastern United States blizzard of 1978 hits the New England region and the New York metropolitan area, killing about 100 and causing over US$520 million in damage. February 6 – King Dragon operation in Arakan, Burmese General Ne Win targets Muslim minorities in the village of Sakkipara, February 8 – United States Senate proceedings are broadcast on radio for the first time. February 8 – Project SHAWN begins in Connecticut, February 9 – The Budd Company unveils its first SPV-2000 self-propelled railcar in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. February 11 Pacific Western Airlines Flight 314, a Boeing 737-200, crashes in Cranbrook, British Columbia, sixteen Unification Church couples wed in New York City. Somalia mobilizes its troops, due to an apparent Ethiopian attack, the Peoples Republic of China lifts a ban on works by Aristotle, William Shakespeare and Charles Dickens. February 13 – Sydney Hilton Hotel bombing, A bomb explodes outside the Hilton Hotel in Sydney, Australia, killing 2 garbagemen, February 15 Rhodesia, one of only two remaining white-ruled African nations, announces that it will accept multiracial democracy within 2 years. Serial killer Ted Bundy is captured in Pensacola, Florida, February 16 The Hillside Strangler, a serial killer prowling Los Angeles, claims a tenth and final victim. The first computer bulletin board system is created in Chicago, February 19 – Egyptian raid on Larnaca International Airport February 21 – Electrical workers in Mexico City find the remains of the Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in the middle of the city. February 25 – The first Legislative Assembly election is held in Arunachal Pradesh, March 1 – Charlie Chaplins remains are stolen from Cosier-sur-Vevey, Switzerland1978 – Afghanistan President Daoud Khan was assassinated by the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan on April 25
42. Andy Samberg – Andrew David Andy Samberg is an American actor, filmmaker, musician and comedian. He is a member of the comedy group The Lonely Island and was a cast member on Saturday Night Live and he occasionally goes by the stage name Young Sandwich. He currently stars in the police sitcom Brooklyn Nine-Nine, for which he won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Television Series Musical or Comedy in 2014. Samberg was born in Berkeley, California, as David A. J. Samberg and his mother, Marjorie Margi, is an elementary school teacher, and his father, Joe, is a photographer. He has two sisters, Johanna and Darrow and he is Jewish, his maternal grandfather, industrial psychologist and philanthropist Alfred J. Marrow, served as the executive chair of the American Jewish Congress. Samberg has described himself as not particularly religious and he is a third cousin of U. S. Senator Tammy Baldwin, as their grandfathers were first cousins. Samberg discovered Saturday Night Live as a child, while sneaking past his parents to watch professional wrestling on television and he was obsessed with the show and his devotion to comedy was frustrating to teachers who felt he was distracted from his schoolwork. Samberg graduated from Berkeley High School in 1996, where he interested in creative writing and has stated that were the ones that I put all my effort into. Thats what I cared about and thats what I ended up doing and he attended college at University of California, Santa Cruz for two years before transferring to New York Universitys Tisch School of the Arts, where he graduated in 2000. Samberg majored in film, including the music video for James Kochalkas song Monkey vs. Robot as Monkey. He became a YouTube and internet star and made his own comedy videos with his two friends Akiva Schaffer and Jorma Taccone, when YouTube was created in 2005, the streaming of their videos became much more widespread over the internet. Samberg became a player on SNL in part because of the work he had done on their sketch comedy website TheLonelyIsland. com. Prior to joining its cast, Samberg was a member of the comedy troupe The Lonely Island, the trio began writing for Saturday Night Live in 2005 and released their debut album, Incredibad in 2009. Samberg appeared in theatrical films, commercials, music videos and hosted special events. In 2012, Samberg delivered the Class Day speech at Harvard University, and U. S. presidential candidate Bernie Sanders as having an unkempt appearance, Is it just me or does Bernie Sanders always seem like his flight is delayed. Samberg starred in Sleater-Kinneys No Cities to Love video along with celebrities such as Fred Armisen, Ellen Page. On May 16,2016, Samberg and the Lonely Island performed their 2009 hit Im on a Boat with classroom instruments on The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy FallonAndy Samberg – Samberg in May 2010
43. Genghis Khan – Genghis Khan, born Temüjin, was the founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire and being proclaimed Genghis Khan, he started the Mongol invasions that conquered most of Eurasia, campaigns initiated in his lifetime include those against the Qara Khitai, Caucasus, and Khwarazmian, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. These campaigns were accompanied by large-scale massacres of the civilian populations – especially in the Khwarazmian. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a portion of Central Asia. Before Genghis Khan died, he assigned Ögedei Khan as his successor and he died in 1227 after defeating the Western Xia. He was buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in Mongolia, many of these invasions repeated the earlier large-scale slaughters of local populations. As a result, Genghis Khan and his empire have a reputation in local histories. Beyond his military accomplishments, Genghis Khan also advanced the Mongol Empire in other ways and he decreed the adoption of the Uyghur script as the Mongol Empires writing system. He also practiced meritocracy and encouraged religious tolerance in the Mongol Empire, present-day Mongolians regard him as the founding father of Mongolia. This brought communication and trade from Northeast Asia into Muslim Southwest Asia and Christian Europe, Temüjin was related on his fathers side to Khabul Khan, Ambaghai, and Hotula Khan, who had headed the Khamag Mongol confederation and were descendants of Bodonchar Munkhag. When the Jurchen Jin dynasty switched support from the Mongols to the Tatars in 1161, Temüjins father, Yesügei, emerged as the head of the ruling Mongol clan. This position was contested by the rival Tayichiud clan, who descended directly from Ambaghai, when the Tatars grew too powerful after 1161, the Jin switched their support from the Tatars to the Keraites. Little is known about Temüjins early life, due to the lack of written records. The few sources that give insight into this period often contradict, Temüjins name was derived from the Mongol word temür meaning of iron, while jin denotes agency thus temüjin means blacksmith. Temüjin was probably born in 1162 in Delüün Boldog, near the mountain Burkhan Khaldun, the Secret History of the Mongols reports that Temüjin was born grasping a blood clot in his fist, a traditional sign that he was destined to become a great leader. He was the son of his father Yesügei who was a Kiyad chief prominent in the Khamag Mongol confederation. Temüjin was the first son of his mother Hoelun, according to the Secret History, Temüjin was named after the Tatar chief Temüjin-üge whom his father had just capturedGenghis Khan – Genghis Khan as portrayed in a 14th-century Yuan era album.
44. 1503 – Year 1503 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. January 20 – Seville in Castile is awarded exclusive right to trade with the New World, january 24 – Construction of the Henry VII Chapel at Westminster Abbey begins in the perpendicular style, the final stage of English gothic art. February 11– Queen Elizabeth of York, wife of Henry VII of England, dies on her 37th birthday, more than a week after giving birth to her daughter Katherine Tudor, february 13 – Challenge of Barletta, Thirteen Italian knights defeat thirteen French knights near Barletta. February 23 – French–Spanish Wars in Italy – Battle of Ruvo, april 21 – Battle of Seminara, Spanish forces under Fernando de Andrade de las Mariñas defeats the French under Bernard Stewart, 4th Lord of Aubigny. April 28 – Battle of Cerignola, Spanish forces under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba defeat the French under Louis dArmagnac, Duke of Nemours, may 10 – Christopher Columbus discovers the Cayman Islands, which he names Las Tortugas after the numerous sea turtles there. May 13 – Naples is captured by the Spanish, may 20 – Ascension Island is first definitely sighted, by Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque. May 28 James IV of Scotland and Margaret Tudor are married by Pope Alexander VI according to Papal bull, the Treaty of Everlasting Peace between Scotland and England is signed, it actually lasts for ten years. July 23 – Orbital calculations suggest that on this day, Pluto moves outside Neptunes orbit, july 30 – Saint Helena is first definitely sighted, by ships of Portuguese navigator Estêvão da Gama returning from the East. August 8 – King James IV of Scotland marries Margaret Tudor, daughter of King Henry VII of England at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh, Scotland. August 20 – Stephen III of Moldavia concludes a treaty with Sultan Bayezid II preserving Moldavias self-rule at the cost of a tribute to the Ottoman Empire. September 22 – Pope Pius III succeeds Alexander VI as the 215th pope, October 30 – Queen Isabella I of Spain prohibits violence against native tribes. October 31 – Pope Julius II succeeds Pius III as the 216th pope, december 29 – Battle of Garigliano, near Gaeta, Italy, Spanish forces under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba defeat a French–Italian mercenary army under Ludovico II, Marquess of Saluzzo. The French forces withdraw to Gaeta, vasco da Gama establishes Indias first Portuguese fortress at Cochin. The Canterbury Cathedral is finished in England after 433 years of construction, mariotto Albertinelli paints his work, The Visitation of the Virgin. Hieronymus Bosch works on the triptych The Garden of Earthly Delights, leonardo da Vinci starts work on the Mona Lisa. The book The Imitation of Christ by Thomas à Kempis is re-published in an English translation, the pocket handkerchief comes into general use in polite European society. From this year until 1650, sixteen million kilograms of silver and 185,000 kilograms of gold will enter the port of Seville1503 – August 8: James IV.
45. Pope Alexander VI – Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo de Borja, was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, therefore his Italianized Valencian surname, Borgia, became a byword for libertinism and nepotism, which are traditionally considered as characterizing his pontificate. However, two of Alexanders successors, the also controversial pontiffs Sixtus V and Urban VIII, described him as one of the most outstanding popes since St. Peter. Rodrigo de Borja was born on 1 January 1431, in the town of Xativa near Valencia, one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon and his parents were Jofré Llançol i Escrivà, and his Aragonese wife and distant cousin Isabel de Borja y Cavanilles. His family name is written Llançol in Valencian and Lanzol in Castillian, Rodrigo adopted his mothers family name of Borja in 1455 following the elevation to the papacy of maternal uncle Alonso de Borja as Calixtus III. Alternatively, it has argued that Rodrigos father was Jofré de Borja y Escrivà, making Rodrigo a Borja from his mother. However, his children were known to be of Llançol paternal lineage, some revisionists suggest that the confusion is attributed by attempts to connect Rodrigo as the father of Giovanni, Cesare and Lucrezia, who were surnamed Llançol i Borja. Rodrigo Borgia studied law at Bologna where he graduated, not simply as Doctor of Law, after the election of his uncle as Pope Callixtus III, he was ordained deacon and created Cardinal-Deacon of San Nicola in Carcere at the age of twenty-five in 1456. The following year, he was appointed vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, both nepotistic appointments were characteristic of the age. Each pope during this period inevitably found himself surrounded by the servants, in 1468, he was ordained to the priesthood and, in 1471, he was consecrated bishop and appointed Cardinal-Bishop of Albano. Contemporary accounts suggest that Rodrigo was handsome, with a cheerful countenance. He was gifted with the quality of being a smooth talker, beautiful women were attracted to him and excited by him in quite a remarkable way, more strongly than how iron is drawn to a magnet. Rodrigo Borgia was also an intelligent man with an appreciation for the arts and sciences and he was capable and cautious, considered a political priest by some. He was a speaker and great at conversation. Additionally, he was so familiar with Holy Writ, that his speeches were fairly sparkling with well-chosen texts of the Sacred Books, when his uncle Alonso de Borja was elected Pope Callixtus III, he inherited the post of bishop of Valencia. Sixteen days before the death of Pope Innocent VIII, he proposed Valencia as a metropolitan see and became the first archbishop of Valencia. When Rodrigo de Borgia was elected pope as Alexander VI following the death of Innocent VIII, the third and the fourth archbishops of Valencia were Juan de Borja and Pedro Luis de Borja, grand-nephews of Alexander VI. The connection began in 1470, and she had four children whom he acknowledged as his own, Cesare, Giovanni, afterwards duke of Gandia, LucreziaPope Alexander VI – Pope Alexander VI
46. 1850 – As of the start of 1850, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 18 – British foreign secretary Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, sends ships to blockade the port of Piraeus, January 20 – The ships of the McClure Arctic Expedition set sail from Plymouth. January 29 – Henry Clay introduces the Compromise of 1850 to the U. S. Congress, february 28 – The University of Utah opens in Salt Lake City, Utah. March 5 – Opening of the Britannia Bridge over the Menai Strait, March 7 – United States Senator Daniel Webster gives his Seventh of March speech in which he endorses the Compromise of 1850 in order to prevent a possible civil war. March 16 – Nathaniel Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter is published, March 19 – American Express is founded by Henry Wells & William Fargo. March 31 – The paddle steamer RMS Royal Adelaide, bound from Cork to London, april Pope Pius IX returns from exile to Rome. May the Red Rose Live Alway is published in the United States, april 4 – Los Angeles is incorporated as a city. April 15 – San Francisco is incorporated as a city, april 19 – Clayton–Bulwer Treaty is signed by the United States and Great Britain, allowing both countries to share Nicaragua and not claim complete control over the proposed Nicaragua Canal. May 23 – The USS Advance puts to sea from New York to search for John Franklins Arctic expedition, may 25 – The hippopotamus Obaysch arrives at London Zoo from Egypt, the first seen in Europe since Roman times. June 1 The postage stamp issues of Austria begin with a series of imperforate typographed stamps featuring the coat of arms, the 1850 United States Census shows that 11. 2% of the population classed as Negro are of mixed race. June 3 – The traditional date of Kansas City, Missouris founding and this is the date on which it is incorporated by Jackson County, Missouri as the Town of Kansas. July – Taiping Rebellion, Hong Xiuquan orders the mobilisation of rebel forces. July 1 – St. Marys School for Boys, the future University of Dayton, opens its doors in Dayton, july 9 Mírzá Alí-Muhammad, known as the Báb, is executed by a firing squad in Tabriz, Persia for claiming to be a prophet. Vice President Millard Fillmore becomes President of the United States upon the death of President Zachary Taylor, july 10 – President Millard Fillmore is sworn in. August 28 – Richard Wagners romantic opera Lohengrin premieres under the direction of Franz Liszt in Weimar, september 9 California is admitted as the 31st U. S. state. The New Mexico Territory is organized by order of the United States Congress, september 13 – First ascent of Piz Bernina, the highest summit of the eastern Alps. September 18 – The Fugitive Slave Law is passed by the United States Congress, september 29 – Papal bull Universalis Ecclesiae, Catholic hierarchy is re-established in England and Wales by Pope Pius IX and future Pope Pius X. October 1 – The University of Sydney is founded. October 19 – Phi Kappa Sigma international fraternity was founded at the University of Pennsylvania, October 28 – Delegate Edward Ralph May delivers a speech on behalf of African American suffrage to the Indiana Constitutional Convention1850 – Hans von Pechmann
47. 1799 – As of the start of 1799, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 9 – British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger introduces an income tax of two shillings to the pound to raise funds for Great Britains war effort in the Napoleonic Wars. February 28 – Action of 28 February 1799 British Royal Navy frigate HMS Sybille defeats the French frigate Forte off the mouth of the Hooghly River in the Bay of Bengal, march 1 – Federalist James Ross becomes President pro tempore of the United States Senate. March 3 – The Russo-Ottoman siege of Corfu ends with the surrender of the French garrison, march 7 – Napoleon captures Jaffa in Palestine and his troops proceed to kill more than 2,000 Albanian captives. March 29 – New York passes a law aimed at gradually abolishing slavery in the state, may 4 – Battle of Seringapatam, Tipu Sultan is defeated and killed by the British, captivity of Mangalorean Catholics at Seringapatam ends. May 21 – Siege of Acre ends after two months, Napoleons attempt to widen his Middle Eastern campaign into Syria is frustrated by Ottoman forces, may 27 – Battle of Winterthur, Habsburg forces secure control of north-east Switzerland from the French Army of the Danube. June 18 – Action of 18 June 1799, a French frigate squadron under Rear-admiral Perrée is captured by the British fleet under Lord Keith off Toulon, july 7 – Ranjit Singhs men take their positions outside Lahore. July 12 – Ranjit Singh captures Lahore from the Bhangi Misl, july 15 – In the Egyptian port city of Rosetta, French Captain Pierre Bouchard finds the Rosetta Stone. July 25 – At Aboukir in Egypt, Napoleon defeats 10,000 Ottoman Mamluk troops under Mustafa Pasha, august 27 – War of the Second Coalition, Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland – Britain and Russia send an expedition to the Batavian Republic. October 6 – Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland, Battle of Castricum – Franco-Dutch forces defeat the Russo-British expedition force, October 9 – HMS Lutine is sunk in the West Frisian Islands. October 12 – Jeanne Geneviève Labrosse becomes the first woman to jump from a balloon with a parachute, October 16 – Action of 16 October 1799, A Spanish treasure convoy worth more than £54,000,000 is captured by the British Royal Navy off Vigo. October 18 – Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland, Anglo-Russian expedition forces surrender in North Holland, november 9 – Napoleon overthrows the French Directory in a coup détat. December 14 – George Washington, the first President of the United States, dies at Mount Vernon, december 31 – The Dutch East India Companys charter is allowed to expire by the Batavian Republic. The Place Royale in Paris is renamed Place des Vosges when the Department of Vosges becomes the first to pay new Revolutionary taxes. 12-year-old Conrad John Reed finds what he describes as a yellow rock along Little Meadow Creek in Cabarrus County, North Carolina. Conrads father John Reed learns that the rock is actually gold in 1802, the assassination of the 14th Tui Kanokupolu, Tukuʻaho, plunges Tonga into half a century of civil war. The Nawab of Oudh in northern India sends to George III of England the Padshah Nama, William Cockerill begins building cotton-spinning equipment in Belgium. The small town of Tignish, Prince Edward Island, Canada is founded and she was the central character of the Petticoat affair1799 – The Rosetta Stone
48. 1990 – Also in this year, Nelson Mandela was released from prison, and Margaret Thatcher resigned as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom after over 11 years. 1990 was an important year in the Internets early history, in the fall of 1990, Tim Berners-Lee created the first web server and the foundation for the World Wide Web. Test operations began around December 20 and it was released outside of CERN the following year,1990 also saw the official decommissioning of the ARPANET, a forerunner of the Internet system and the introduction of the first content search engine, Archie on September 10. September 14,1990 saw the first case of successful somatic gene therapy on a patient, in most western countries the Echo Boom peaked in 1990, fertility rates declined thereafter. Encyclopædia Britannica, which ceased printing in 2012, saw its highest all time sales in 1990,120,000 volumes were sold that year, the number of librarians in the United States also peaked around 1990. January 1 Poland becomes the first country in Eastern Europe to begin abolishing its state socialist economy, Poland also withdraws from the Warsaw Pact. The first Internet companies catering to users, PSInet and EUnet begin selling Internet access to commercial customers in the United States. Glasgow begins its year as European Capital of Culture, rowan Atkinsons Mr. Bean debuts in a Thames Television special. January 3 – United States invasion of Panama, General Manuel Noriega is deposed as leader of Panama, January 4 – Two trains collide in Sangi, Pakistan, killing between 200 and 300 people and injuring an estimated 700 others. January 7 – The Leaning Tower of Pisa is closed to the public because of safety concerns, January 9 – Ugandan Lt. Gen. Bazilio Olara-Okello, who led a coup against Dr. Apolo Milton Obotes government, dies in Ormduruman Hospital in Khartoum, Sudan. January 11 – Singing Revolution, In the Lithuania SSR,300,000 demonstrate for independence, January 12-January 19 - Most of the remaining 50,000 Armenians are driven out of Baku in the Azerbaijan SSR during the Baku pogrom. January 15 The National Assembly of Bulgaria votes to end one party rule by the Bulgarian Communist Party, thousands storm the Stasi headquarters in East Berlin in an attempt to view their government records. Martin Luther King Day Crash – Telephone service in Atlanta, St. Louis, January 17 – Smith & Wesson introduce the.40 S&W cartridge. Clashes break out between Indian troops and Muslim separatists in Kashmir, the government of Haiti declares a state of emergency, under which it suspends civil liberties, imposes censorship, and arrests political opponents. The state of siege is lifted on January 29, January 22 The League of Communists of Yugoslavia votes to give up its monopoly on power. Robert Tappan Morris is convicted of releasing the Morris worm, January 25 Avianca Flight 52 crashes into Cove Neck, Long Island, New York after a miscommunication between the flight crew and JFK Airport officials, killing 73 people on board. Prime Minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto gives birth to a girl, Pope John Paul II begins an eight-day tour of Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Chad. January 25–26 – The Burns Day storm kills 97 in northwestern Europe, January 27 – The city of Tiraspol in the Moldavian SSR briefly declares independence1990 – January 7: The Pisa tower closed.
49. Burrhus Frederic Skinner – Burrhus Frederic Skinner, commonly known as B. F. Skinner, was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher. He was the Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology at Harvard University from 1958 until his retirement in 1974, Skinner considered free will an illusion and human action dependent on consequences of previous actions. If the consequences are bad, there is a chance the action will not be repeated, if the consequences are good. Skinner called this the principle of reinforcement, to strengthen behavior, Skinner used operant conditioning, and he considered the rate of response to be the most effective measure of response strength. To study operant conditioning he invented the operant conditioning chamber, also known as the Skinner Box, using these tools, he and C. B. Ferster produced his most influential work, which appeared in the book Schedules of Reinforcement. Skinner developed a philosophy of science that he called radical behaviorism and he imagined the application of his ideas to the design of a human community in his utopian novel, Walden Two, and his analysis of human behavior culminated in his work, Verbal Behavior. Skinner was an author who published 21 books and 180 articles. Contemporary academia considers Skinner a pioneer of modern behaviorism, along with John B, a June 2002 survey listed Skinner as the most influential psychologist of the 20th century. Skinner was born in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania, to Grace and William Skinner and he became an atheist after a Christian teacher tried to assuage his fear of the hell that his grandmother described. His brother Edward, two and a half years younger, died at age sixteen of a cerebral hemorrhage and he attended Hamilton College in New York with the intention of becoming a writer. He found himself at a disadvantage at Hamilton College because of his intellectual attitude. While attending, he joined Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity and he wrote for the school paper, but, as an atheist, he was critical of the religious school he attended. After receiving his Bachelor of Arts in English literature in 1926, he attended Harvard University, where he would later research, teach, and eventually become a prestigious board member. While he was at Harvard, a student, Fred Keller. This led Skinner to invent his prototype for the Skinner Box, after graduation, he unsuccessfully tried to write a great novel while he lived with his parents, a period that he later called the Dark Years. Watsons Behaviorism led him into graduate study in psychology and to the development of his own version of behaviorism, Skinner received a Ph. D. from Harvard in 1931, and remained there as a researcher until 1936. He remained at Harvard for the rest of his life, in 1973, Skinner was one of the signers of the Humanist Manifesto IIBurrhus Frederic Skinner – Skinner at the Harvard Psychology Department, c. 1950
50. 1983 – The year 1983 saw both the official beginning of the Internet and the first mobile cellular telephone call. January 1 – The migration of the ARPANET to TCP/IP is officially completed, January 3 – Kīlauea begins slowly erupting on the Big Island of Hawaii and is still flowing as of 2016. January 10 – Canada and the United States launch Jim Hensons Fraggle Rock, January 19 – High-ranking Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie is arrested in Bolivia. January 24 – Twenty-five members of the Red Brigades are sentenced to imprisonment for the 1978 murder of Aldo Moro. January 25 – IRAS is launched from Vandenberg AFB, to conduct the worlds first all-sky infrared survey from space, January 26 – Lotus 1-2-3 is released for IBM PC compatible computers. January 30 – Washington Redskins beat the Miami Dolphins in Super Bowl XVII January 31 – Seatbelt use for drivers, February 2 – Giovanni Vigliotto goes on trial for multiple counts of bigamy involving 105 women. February 3 Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser is granted a dissolution of both houses of parliament, for elections the next day. Bob Hawke replaces Bill Hayden as leader of the Australian Labor Party, February 5 and 6 The team of A. J. Foyt Preston Henn Bob Wollek and Claude Ballot-Lena won the 24 hours of Daytona in a Porshche 935 February 6 – Klaus Barbie is officially charged with war crimes, February 12 –100 women protest in Lahore, Pakistan, against military dictator Zia-ul-Haqs proposed Law of Evidence. The women were tear-gassed, baton-charged and thrown into lock-up, the women were successful in repealing the law. February 13 – A cinema fire in Turin, Italy, kills 64 people, February 13 – Two US Marshals are killed and three lawmen are wounded in a shootout with Gordon Kahl in Medina, North Dakota. February 16 – The Ash Wednesday bushfires in Victoria and South Australia claim the lives of 75 people, February 18 The Venezuelan bolívar is devaluated and exchange controls are established in an event now referred to as Black Friday by many Venezuelans. Nellie massacre, Over 2,000 people, mostly Bangladeshi Muslims, are massacred in Assam, India, wah Mee massacre,13 people are killed in an attempted robbery in Seattle, Washington. The automatic shut-down fails at Salem Nuclear Power Plant, New Jersey, February 24 A special commission of the Congress of the United States releases a report critical of the practice of Japanese internment during World War II. Bermondsey by-election,1983, Simon Hughess defeat of Peter Tatchell is criticised for alleged homophobia, February 28 – The final episode of M*A*S*H airs, setting a record for most watched television episode and reaching a total audience estimated at 125 million. March 1 – The Balearic Islands and Madrid become Autonomous communities of Spain, march 5 – Bob Hawke is elected Prime Minister of Australia, ending over 7 years of Conservative rule under Malcolm Fraser. March 8 – IBM releases the IBM PC XT, march 9 Anne Burford resigns as head of the United States Environmental Protection Agency amid scandal. The 3D printer is invented by Chuck Hull, march 11 – Australias First Hawke Ministry is sworn in, Andrew Peacock becomes Federal Opposition leader1983 – Kate Bosworth
51. Nikolaus Pevsner – Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner CBE FBA was a German, later British scholar of history of art and, especially, of history of architecture. He is best known for his 46-volume series of county-by-county guides, The Buildings of England, the son of a Russian-Jewish fur haulier, Nikolaus Pevsner was born in Leipzig, Saxony. He attended the Thomas School and went on to art history at the Universities of Leipzig, Munich, Berlin. In 1923, he married Carola Kurlbaum, the daughter of distinguished Leipzig lawyer Alfred Kurlbaum and he worked as an assistant keeper at the Dresden Gallery. In 1928 he contributed the volume on Italian baroque painting to the Handbuch der Kunstwissenschaft and he taught at the University of Göttingen, offering a specialist course on English art and architecture. According to biographer Stephen Games, Pevsner welcomed many of the economic, however, due to Nazi race laws he was forced to resign his lectureship in 1933. Later that year he moved to England and his first post was an 18-month research fellowship at the University of Birmingham, found for him by friends in Birmingham and partly funded by the Academic Assistance Council. He was subsequently employed as a buyer of modern textiles, glass, since its first publication by Faber & Faber in 1936, it has gone through several editions and been translated into many languages. The English-language edition has also been renamed Pioneers of Modern Design, Pevsner was more German than the Germans to the extent that he supported Goebbels in his drive for pure non-decadent German art. He was reported as saying of the Nazis I want this movement to succeed, there is no alternative but chaos. There are things worse than Hitlerism, nonetheless he was included in the Nazi Black Book as hostile to the Hitler regime. In 1940, Pevsner was interned as an alien in Huyton. He was released three months on the intervention of, among others, Frank Pick, then Director-General of the Ministry of Information. He also completed for Penguin Books the Pelican paperback An Outline of European Architecture, Outline would eventually go into seven editions, be translated into 16 languages, and sell more than half a million copies. In 1942, Pevsner finally secured two regular positions, from 1936 onwards he had been a frequent contributor to the Architectural Review and from 1943 to 1945 he stood in as its acting editor while the regular editor J. M. Richards was on active service. Under the ARs influence, Pevsners approach to modern architecture became more complex and he was also closely involved with the Reviews proprietor, Hubert de Cronin Hastings, in evolving the magazines theories on Picturesque planning. In 1942, Pevsner was also appointed a lecturer at Birkbeck, University of London. He lectured at Cambridge for almost 30 years, having been Slade professor there for a six years from 1949 to 1955Nikolaus Pevsner – Sir Nikolaus Pevsner CBE FBA
52. 1902 – As of the start of 1902, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 The first college bowl game, the Rose Bowl between Michigan and Stanford, is held in Pasadena, California. Nurses Registration Act 1901 comes into effect in New Zealand, making it the first country in the world to require registration of nurses. On January 10, Ellen Dougherty becomes the worlds first registered nurse, January 12 – Uddevalla Suffrage Association is officially dissolved. January 23 – A snowstorm at Mount Hakkoda, northern Honshu, Japan, January 28 – The Carnegie Institution is founded in Washington, D. C. with a $10 million gift from Andrew Carnegie. February 9 – Fire levels 26 city blocks of Jersey City, february 11 – Police and universal suffrage demonstrators are involved in a physical altercation in Brussels. February 15 – The Berlin U-Bahn underground is opened, february 18 – U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt prosecutes the Northern Securities Company for violation of the Sherman Act. February 27 American writer John Steinbeck is born, australian officers Breaker Morant and Peter Handcock are executed for the murder of Boer prisoners of war near Louis Trichardt. March 6 – Real Madrid C. F. is founded as Madrid Football Club, march 7 – Second Boer War, South African Boers win their last battle over the British Army, with the capture of a British general and 200 of his men. March 8 – Jean Sibeliuss Second Symphony is premiered in Helsinki, march 10 – A Circuit Court prevents Thomas Edison from having a monopoly on motion picture technology. April 2 – Electric Theatre, the first movie theater in the United States, april 13 – A new car speed record of 74 mph is set in Nice, France, by Léon Serpollet. April 19 – The 7.5 Mw Guatemala earthquake shakes Guatemala with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII, may 5 – The Commonwealth Public Service Act creates Australias Public Service. May 13 – Alfonso XIII of Spain begins his reign, may 20 – Cuba gains independence from the United States. May 22 – The White Star Liner, SS Ionic, is launched, may 29 – Lord Rosebery opens London School of Economics. May 31 – The Treaty of Vereeniging ends the Second Boer War, june 2 – The Anthracite Coal Strike begins in the United States. June 15 – The New York Central Railroad inaugurates the 20th Century Limited passenger train between Chicago and New York City, june 16 – Australia, Female British subjects win the vote with the Uniform Franchise Act. June 17 – Norwich City Football Club is formed, june 26 – Edward VII institutes the Order of Merit. July 5 – Erik Gustaf Boström returns as Prime Minister of Sweden, july 8 – Service of Reclamation within U. S. Geological Survey1902 – January 1: first Rose Bowl college American football game.
53. Combat medic – Combat medics or Field medics are military personnel who have been trained to at least an EMT level, and are responsible for providing first aid and frontline trauma care on the battlefield. They are also responsible for providing continuing medical care in the absence of a readily available physician, including care for disease, combat medics are normally co-located with the combat troops they serve in order to easily move with the troops and monitor ongoing health. In 1864, sixteen European states adopted the first-ever Geneva Convention to save lives and alleviate the suffering of wounded, as well as to protect trained medical personnel as non-combatants, in the act of rendering aid. According to the Geneva Convention, knowingly firing at a medic wearing clear insignia is a war crime, in modern times, most combat medics carry a personal weapon, to be used to protect themselves and the wounded or sick in their care. When and if they use their arms offensively, they sacrifice their protection under the Geneva Conventions. Before Larreys initiative in the 1790s, wounded soldiers were either left amid the fighting until the combat ended or their comrades would carry them to the rear line. It was during the American Civil War that Surgeon Jonathan Letterman, Medical Director of the Army of the Potomac, realized a need for a medical treatment. He saw the need to equip this system with its own dedicated vehicles, organizations, facilities, the Letterman plan was first implemented in September 1862 at the Battle of Antietam, Maryland. They were dedicated members of the team that enabled American generals to concentrate on enemy threats rather than epidemic threats. On August 4,1947, Congress created the Navy Medical Service Corps, in the United States, a report entitled Accidental Death and Disability, The Neglected Disease of Modern Society, was published by National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council. The International Committee of the Red Cross, a humanitarian institution based in Switzerland. This symbol was meant to signify to enemy combatants that the medic qualifies as a non-combatant, islamic countries use a Red Crescent instead. Although these symbols were officially sponsored by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, israeli medics still wear the Magen David. To enable MDA to become a recognized and participating member of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. For indicative use on foreign territory, any national society can incorporate its unique symbol into the Red Crystal, under Protocol III, the MDA will continue to employ the red Magen David for domestic use, and will employ the red crystal on international relief missions. Medical personnel from most western nations carry weapons for protection of themselves and their patients but remain designated non combatants, wearing the red cross, traditionally, most United States medical personnel also wore a distinguishing red cross, to denote their protection as non-combatants under the Geneva Convention. This practice continued into World War II, as their non combatant status is not respected, many US medics no longer wear non combatant markings. This can enable medics to be used as medically trained soldiers, combat Medics in the United States Army and United States Navy Hospital Corpsmen are virtually indistinguishable from regular combat troops, except for the extra medical equipment they carryCombat medic – Medical team at work during the Battle of Normandy.
54. David B. Bleak – David Bruce Bleak was a soldier of the United States Army during the Korean War. Bleak rose to the rank of Staff Sergeant and was awarded the Medal of Honor, born in Idaho, Bleak dropped out of school to become a combat medic, and was deployed to Korea with the 40th Infantry Division. During a mission north into Chinese territory, Bleaks patrol came under attack by fortified Chinese positions. Bleak is credited with saving the wounded and ensuring that all of its members returned to allied lines. For these actions, he was awarded the Medal of Honor and he died in 2006 from emphysema, Parkinsons Disease, and complications from a hip fracture. David Bruce Bleak was born on 27 February 1932 to William Bleak and Tamar Bleak in Idaho Falls, Idaho, a remote farming community. The seventh of nine children, he dropped out of school and worked for a time as a farmer and a rancher and also for railroads. He eventually decided to enlist in the US Army, hoping to see the world, Bleak grew to a height of 6.5 feet tall and weighed 250 pounds. He was described as humble and quiet throughout his life, Bleak was a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Bleak entered the Army on 1 November 1950, and attended basic training at Fort Riley. Here, he was selected for medical duty, after the completion of his training, Bleak was assigned to a medical company attached to the 223rd Infantry Regiment, 40th Infantry Division of the California Army National Guard. Shortly after Bleak was assigned to the unit, it was selected for deployment to the Korean War and he was moved to Camp Cooke in Lompoc, California for advanced medical training in preparation for his deployment. The 40th Infantry Division shipped out to Korea in January 1952 and his unit was assigned to a mountainous area near Minari-gol, South Korea, along the 38th Parallel. Bleak served as a medic, assisting troops on the front lines instead of in Mobile Army Surgical Hospital units. On 14 June 1952, Bleak was part of a patrol of the 2nd Battalion, 223rd Infantry, sent north to probe Chinese forward positions, the patrol left United Nations lines at 04,30 Korea Standard Time on 14 June, under cover of darkness. It was preceded by an attack by F Company, 223rd Infantry, however, as the patrol ascended the hill, it came under heavy Chinese automatic weapons fire which struck the lead elements, injuring several soldiers. Bleak, at the rear of the formation, rushed forward and treated and stabilized several soldiers hit in the initial volley, as they attempted to continue up the hill, several Chinese soldiers from a nearby trench opened fire, injuring another soldier. According to witness reports, Bleak rushed the trench and dove into it, tackling one Chinese soldier and, with only his hands, broke the soldiers neck, Bleak was then confronted by a second soldier, whom he reportedly grabbed by the neck, fatally crushing his windpipeDavid B. Bleak – David Bruce Bleak
55. Medal of Honor – The medal is normally awarded by the President of the United States in the name of the U. S. Congress. There are three versions of the medal, one for the Army, one for the Navy, personnel of the Marine Corps and Coast Guard receive the Navy version. U. S. awards including the Medal of Honor do not have titles and while there is no official abbreviation. The Medal of Honor is the oldest continuously issued combat decoration of the United States armed forces, because the medal is presented in the name of Congress, it is often referred to as the Congressional Medal of Honor. However, the name is Medal of Honor, which began with the U. S. Armys version. Within United States Code the medal is referred to as the Medal of Honor, in 1990, Congress designated March 25 annually as National Medal of Honor Day. The capture saved the fort of West Point from the British Army, although the Badge of Military Merit fell into disuse after the American Revolutionary War, the concept of a military award for individual gallantry by members of the U. S. 539 Certificates were approved for this period and this medal was later replaced by the Army Distinguished Service Medal which was established on January 2,1918. Those Army members who held the Distinguished Service Medal in place of the Certificate of Merit could apply for the Army Distinguished Service Cross effective March 5,1934. There were no awards or medals at the beginning of the Civil War except for the Certificate of Merit which was awarded for the Mexican-American War. Scott however, was strictly against medals being awarded which was the European tradition, after Scott retired in October 1861, the Secretary of the Navy, Gideon Welles, adopted the idea of a decoration to recognize and honor distinguished naval service. Senator James W. Secretary Wells directed the Philadelphia Mint to design the new military decoration, on May 15,1862, the United States Navy Department ordered 175 medals with the words Personal Valor on the back from the U. S. Mint in Philadelphia. Senator Henry Wilson, the chairman of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs, the resolution was approved by Congress and signed into law on July 12,1862. During the war, Townsend would have some medals delivered to recipients with a letter requesting acknowledgement of the Medal of Honor. By mid-November the War Department contracted with Philadelphia silversmith William Wilson and Son, the Army version had The Congress to written on the back of the medal. Both versions were made of copper and coated with bronze, which gave them a reddish tint,1863, Congress made the Medal of Honor a permanent decoration. On March 3, Medals of Honor were authorized for officers of the Army, the Secretary of War first presented the Medal of Honor to six Union Army volunteers on March 25,1863 in his office. 1890, On April 23, the Medal of Honor Legion is established in Washington,1896, The ribbon of the Army version Medal of Honor was redesigned with all stripes being verticalMedal of Honor – Army, Navy, and Air Force versions of the Medal of Honor
56. Korean War – The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal force, China came to the aid of North Korea, and the Soviet Union gave some assistance. Korea was ruled by Japan from 1910 until the days of World War II. In August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, as a result of an agreement with the United States, U. S. forces subsequently moved into the south. By 1948, as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea was split into two regions, with separate governments, both governments claimed to be the legitimate government of all of Korea, and neither side accepted the border as permanent. The conflict escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces—supported by the Soviet Union, on that day, the United Nations Security Council recognized this North Korean act as invasion and called for an immediate ceasefire. On 27 June, the Security Council adopted S/RES/83, Complaint of aggression upon the Republic of Korea and decided the formation, twenty-one countries of the United Nations eventually contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing 88% of the UNs military personnel. After the first two months of war, South Korean forces were on the point of defeat, forced back to the Pusan Perimeter, in September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Inchon, and cut off many North Korean troops. Those who escaped envelopment and capture were rapidly forced back north all the way to the border with China at the Yalu River, at this point, in October 1950, Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war. Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951, after these reversals of fortune, which saw Seoul change hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel. The war in the air, however, was never a stalemate, North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in combat for the first time in history. The fighting ended on 27 July 1953, when an armistice was signed, the agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, and allowed the return of prisoners. However, no treaty has been signed, and the two Koreas are technically still at war. Periodic clashes, many of which are deadly, continue to the present, in the U. S. the war was initially described by President Harry S. Truman as a police action as it was an undeclared military action, conducted under the auspices of the United Nations. In South Korea, the war is referred to as 625 or the 6–2–5 Upheaval. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the Fatherland Liberation War or alternatively the Chosǒn War. In China, the war is called the War to Resist U. SKorean War – Clockwise from top: A column of the U.S. 1st Marine Division 's infantry and armor moves through Chinese lines during their breakout from the Chosin Reservoir; UN landing at Incheon harbor, starting point of the Battle of Incheon; Korean refugees in front of an American M26 Pershing tank; U.S. Marines, led by First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, landing at Incheon; F-86 Sabre fighter aircraft
57. The Adventures of Tintin – The Adventures of Tintin is a series of 24 comic albums created by Belgian cartoonist Georges Remi, who wrote under the pen name Hergé. The series was one of the most popular European comics of the 20th century, by 2007, a century after Hergés birth in 1907, Tintin had been published in more than 70 languages with sales of more than 200 million copies. The series first appeared in French on 10 January 1929 in Le Petit Vingtième, the success of the series saw the serialised strips published in Belgiums leading newspaper Le Soir and spun into a successful Tintin magazine. In 1950, Hergé created Studios Hergé, which produced the canonical versions of ten Tintin albums, the Adventures of Tintin have been adapted for radio, television, theatre, and film. The series is set during a largely realistic 20th century and its hero is Tintin, a young Belgian reporter and adventurer. He is aided by his faithful dog Snowy, the series has been admired for its clean, expressive drawings in Hergés signature ligne claire style. Its well-researched plots straddle a variety of genres, swashbuckling adventures with elements of fantasy, mysteries, political thrillers, the stories feature slapstick humour, offset by dashes of sophisticated satire and political or cultural commentary. Georges Remi, best known under the pen name Hergé, was employed as an illustrator at Le Vingtième Siècle, run by the Abbé Norbert Wallez, the paper described itself as a Catholic Newspaper for Doctrine and Information and disseminated a far-right, fascist viewpoint. Wallez appointed Hergé editor of a new Thursday youth supplement, titled Le Petit Vingtième, propagating Wallezs socio-political views to its young readership, it contained explicitly pro-fascist and anti-Semitic sentiment. In addition to editing the supplement, Hergé illustrated Lextraordinaire aventure de Flup, Nénesse, Poussette et Cochonnet, dissatisfied with this, Hergé wanted to write and draw his own cartoon strip. He already had experience creating comic strips, from July 1926 he had written a strip about a Boy Scout patrol leader titled Les Aventures de Totor C. P. des Hannetons for the Scouting newspaper Le Boy Scout Belge. Totor was an influence on Tintin, with Hergé describing the latter as being like Totors younger brother. Although Hergé wanted to send Tintin to the United States, Wallez ordered him to set his adventure in the Soviet Union, the result, Tintin in the Land of the Soviets, was serialised in Le Petit Vingtième from January 1929 to May 1930. Popular in Francophone Belgium, Wallez organised a publicity stunt at the Gare du Nord station, the storys popularity led to an increase in sales, so Wallez granted Hergé two assistants. At Wallezs direction, in June he began serialisation of the story, Tintin in the Congo. The Adventures of Tintin had been syndicated to French Catholic magazine Cœurs Vaillants since 1930, and Hergé was soon receiving syndication requests from Swiss and Portuguese newspapers too. Hergé went on to pen a string of Adventures of Tintin, sending his character to real locations such as the Belgian Congo, the United States, Egypt, India, China, in May 1940, Nazi Germany invaded Belgium as World War II broke out across Europe. Although Hergé briefly fled to France and considered a self-imposed exile, for political reasons, the Nazi authorities closed down Le Vingtième Siècle, leaving Hergé unemployedThe Adventures of Tintin – The front page of the 1 May 1930 edition of Le Petit Vingtième, declaring " Tintin revient! " ("Tintin Returns!") from his adventure in the Soviet Union.
58. Elmer Stricklett – Elmer Griffin Stricklett was an American professional baseball pitcher. He pitched in Major League Baseball for the Chicago White Sox, including his time in minor league baseball, Stricklett pitched professionally from 1897 through 1912. Stricklett is considered one of the pioneers of the spitball and he learned the pitch while playing in the minor leagues. He later taught the spitball to Ed Walsh and Jack Chesbro, Stricklett attended Santa Clara University, where he played college baseball for the Santa Clara Broncos baseball team. He began his career in minor league baseball with the Topeka Colts of the Kansas State League in 1897. In 1898, he pitched for the Salina Blues and Atchison Huskers of the Kansas State League and he pitched for the Rock Island–Moline Islanders of the Class-B Western Association and Kansas City Blues of the Class-A Western League in 1899. Despite pitching to a 14–1 win–loss record in 1899, Kansas City released Stricklett to the Wheeling Stogies of the Class-B Interstate League in 1900, Stricklett split the 1900 season with Wheeling and the Toledo Mud Hens, also of the Interstate League, pitching to a 13-8 record. In 1901, Stricklett pitched for the Toledo Swamp Angels of the Western Association and Sacramento Senators of the California League, compiling a 27-22 record. In 1902, he pitched for the Newark Sailors of the Class-A Eastern League, while pitching for Sacramento, Stricklett mastered the spitball. In 1903, Stricklett pitched for Los Angeles and the Seattle Chinooks of the Pacific National League, the Chicago White Sox of the American League invited Stricklett to spring training in 1904, where he roomed with Ed Walsh. The Boston Americans of the AL purchased the rights to Stricklett in August 1904, the Brooklyn Superbas of the National League chose Stricklett from Milwaukee after the 1904 season in the Rule 5 draft. He debuted with the Superbas in the 1905 season, pitching to a 9–18 record and his 18 losses were ninth most in the league. Among NL pitchers, only Stricklett and Deacon Phillippe allowed no home runs that season, in 1906, Stricklett went 14–18 with a 2.72 ERA in 291 2⁄3 IP, the ninth most losses and IP in the NL that season. He appeared in 41 games, tied for fifth in the NL with Vic Willis and Jake Weimer, however, he also allowed 88 earned runs, sixth most in the league. Stricklett pitched on Opening Day for the Superbas in 1907, a game the Superbas lost and that year, Stricklett had a 12–14 record and a 2.27 ERA in 229 2⁄3 IP. His 25 complete games were eighth best in the NL, while his four shutouts tied for tenth, in four MLB seasons, Stricklett went 35–51 with a 2.84 ERA and 10 shutouts. As the California League was not recognized in organized baseball at this time, though he applied for reinstatement, his banishment was upheld. Stricklett continued to pitch for San Jose through 1910, pitching to a 23-12 record in 1909, after the 1910 season, Stricklett he retired from baseballElmer Stricklett – Elmer Stricklett
59. Pitcher – In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the pitcher is assigned the number 1. The pitcher is often considered the most important defensive player, there are many different types of pitchers, such as the starting pitcher, relief pitcher, middle reliever, lefty specialist, setup man, and closer. The National League in Major League Baseball and the Japanese Central League are among the leagues that have not adopted the designated hitter position. In most cases, the objective of the pitcher is to deliver the pitch to the catcher without allowing the batter to hit the ball with the bat. A successful pitch is delivered in such a way that the batter either allows the pitch to pass through the zone, swings the bat at the ball and misses it. If the batter elects not to swing at the pitch, it is called a strike if any part of the passes through the strike zone. A check swing is when the batter begins to swing, If the batter successfully checks the swing and the pitch is out of the strike zone, it is called a ball. There are two legal pitching positions, the windup and the set position or stretch, either position may be used at any time, typically, the windup is used when the bases are empty, while the set position is used when at least one runner is on base. Each position has certain procedures that must be followed, a balk can be called on a pitcher from either position. A power pitcher is one who relies on the velocity of his pitches to succeed, generally, power pitchers record a high percentage of strikeouts. A control pitcher succeeds by throwing accurate pitches and thus records few walks, nearly all action during a game is centered on the pitcher for the defensive team. A pitchers particular style, time taken between pitches, and skill heavily influence the dynamics of the game and can determine the victor. Meanwhile, a batter stands in the box at one side of the plate. The type and sequence of pitches chosen depend upon the situation in a game. The relationship between pitcher and catcher is so important that some teams select the starting catcher for a game based on the starting pitcher. Together, the pitcher and catcher are known as the battery, although the object and mechanics of pitching remain the same, pitchers may be classified according to their roles and effectiveness. The starting pitcher begins the game, and he may be followed by relief pitchers, such as the long reliever, the left-handed specialist, the middle reliever. In Major League Baseball, every team uses Baseball Rubbing Mud to rub game balls in before their pitchers use them in games, a skilled pitcher often throws a variety of different pitches to prevent the batter from hitting the ball wellPitcher – Brandon Claussen, pitching for the Cincinnati Reds, delivers the ball to home plate
60. J. Murray Mitchell – J. Murray Mitchell was an American climatologist. As a United States Air Force weather officer in Alaska from 1952 to 1955, the Mitchell Glacier was named after him. John Murray Mitchell Jr. was born on September 17,1928 and he grew up in Tuxedo Park, New York, and as an adolescent became interested in weather and climate. His studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology achieved a degree in 1951. He then served as a United States Air Force weather officer in Alaska for three years, during this time, he observed a Spring haze, at times as dense as smog, which he called Arctic haze. His investigation into the forming the haze indicated that it had come from industrial areas of Europe. In 1955 he became a research meteorologist with the United States Weather Bureau, in that organization he became a senior climatologist in 1974, and senior research climatologist from 1983 until his retirement in 1986. He continued to serve as a consultant to the government after his retirement. Mitchell was a pioneer in investigation and understanding of climate change, in 1976 he described the conjecture of global cooling as irresponsible, and around that time supported other scientists in warning of the damaging effects of increasing CO2 in the atmosphere. In 1978 he became editor of Weatherwise magazine. He was a member of the Polar Research Board of the National Academy of Sciences from 1978 to 1982 and he was also a member of the Advisory Committee to the Division of Polar Programs of the National Science Foundation from 1988 to 1990. Mitchells investigation of Arctic haze in the 1950s found aerosol particles which apparently originated from areas of Europe. Average temperatures had fallen since 1940 despite a lack of eruptions, in a seminal 1963 paper he analysed data from nearly 200 weather stations to show increasing temperatures from the start of the data in 1880 up to about 1940, followed by multidecadal cooling. Calculations were too basic at this time to be trusted to give reliable results, in his later years he lived in McLean, Virginia. He suffered an illness, and died at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington on October 5,1990. In 1992 the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names named the Mitchell Glacier after himJ. Murray Mitchell – 1950s emblem of the 58th Weather Reconnaissance Squadron in Alaska.
61. Arctic haze – Arctic haze is the phenomenon of a visible reddish-brown springtime haze in the atmosphere at high latitudes in the Arctic due to anthropogenic air pollution. A major distinguishing factor of Arctic haze is the ability of its ingredients to persist in the atmosphere for an extended period of time compared to other pollutants. Due to limited amounts of snow, rain, or turbulent air to displace pollutants from the air mass in spring. Arctic haze was first noticed in 1750 when the Industrial Revolution began, explorers and whalers could not figure out where the foggy layer was coming from. Poo-jok was the term the Inuit used for it, another hint towards clarifying this issue was relayed in notes approximately a century ago by Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen. After trekking through the Arctic he found dark stains on the ice, from his investigations, Mitchell thought the haze had come from industrial areas in Europe and China. He went on to become an eminent climatologist, the haze is seasonal, reaching a peak in late winter and spring. When an aircraft is within a layer of Arctic haze, pilots report that horizontal visibility can drop to one tenth that of normally clear sky, at this time it was unknown whether the haze was natural or was formed by pollutants. Further research continues with the aim of understanding the impact of pollution on global warming. The pollutants are commonly thought to originate from coal-burning in northern mid-latitudes, the aerosols contain about 90% sulfur and the rest is carbon, which makes the haze reddish in color. This pollution is helping the Arctic warm up faster than any other region, during the Arctic winter, however, there is no sunlight to reflect. In the absence of cooling effect, the dominant effect of changes to Arctic clouds is an increased trapping of infrared radiation from the surface. Some of those pollutants figure among environmental effects of coal burning, due to low deposition rates, these pollutants are not yet having adverse effects on people or animals. Different pollutants actually represent different colors of haze, dr. Shaw discovered in 1976 that the yellowish haze is from dust storms in China and Mongolia. The particles were carried polwards by unusual air currents, the trapped particles were dark gray the next year he took a sample. That was caused by an amount of industrial pollutants. Home fires in India also contribute, european climatologists predicted in 2009 that by the end of the 21st century, the temperature of the Arctic region is expected to rise 3° Celsius on an average day. Pictures of Arctic are Hard to Argue With, Arctic Haze, An Uninvited Spring GuestArctic haze – Long-range pollution pathways to the Arctic
62. Alexis Bachelot – Alexis Bachelot, SS. CC. was a Roman Catholic priest best known for his tenure as the first Prefect Apostolic of the Sandwich Islands. In that role, he led the first permanent Catholic mission to the Kingdom of Hawaii, Bachelot was raised in France, where he attended the Irish College in Paris, and was ordained a priest in 1820. He led the first Catholic mission to Hawaii, arriving in 1827, Bachelot, however, was able to convert a small group of Hawaiians and quietly minister to them for four years before being deported in 1831 on the orders of Kaʻahumanu, the Kuhina Nui of Hawaii. Bachelot then traveled to California, where he served as an assistant minister while pastoring and teaching, however, by Bachelots arrival, Kamehameha III had again changed his mind and Bachelot was removed from the island and confined to a ship for several months. He was freed only after the French and British navies imposed a blockade on the Honolulu harbor. Although he was able to secure passage on a ship to Micronesia. Bachelot was born in Saint-Cyr-la-Rosière, Orne, France on February 22,1796, in 1806, he left home for Paris, where he enrolled in the Preparatory Seminary of Picpus to pursue priesthood. In 1813, he professed at the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary and he studied at the Irish College in Paris before being ordained as a priest in 1820. As a priest, he served as the Colleges rector. In the early 1820s, Jean Baptiste Rives, a French adviser to the Hawaiian king Kamehameha II, members of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary were receptive to his idea, and in 1825, Pope Leo XII assigned them the task of evangelizing Hawaii. Bachelot was appointed the Prefect Apostolic of the Sandwich Islands, the expedition was organized by the influential Monneron family and funded by the government of France. Bachelot was assisted in his new position by fellow priests Patrick Short and Abraham Armand, the mission sailed from Bordeaux on La Comète in November 1826. The missionaries were initially accompanied by a group planned to explore commercial trading opportunities. Unbeknownst to Bachelot, political changes occurred in Hawaii prior to the missions arrival, King Kamehameha II died in 1824 and his younger brother Kamehameha III became king. Because Kamehameha III was young at the time of his ascension, on the advice of Hiram Bingham I—a Protestant missionary who had converted the Hawaiian royalty four years previously—Queen Kaʻahumanu took a hard stance against Catholicism. Rives influence on the Hawaiian government had faded, and he never returned to Hawaii, La Comète arrived in Honolulu on July 7,1827. The priests were faced with a situation of dire poverty owing to the absence of Rives patronage, furthermore, they had promised La Comètes captain that Rives would pay for their passage after they arrived in Hawaii, but by the time of their arrival, Rives had already left. Queen Kaʻahumanu refused to allow the missionaries to stay, suspecting them to be agents of the government of FranceAlexis Bachelot – The Reverend Alexis Bachelot SS.CC.
63. Mission (station) – A religious mission or mission station is a location for missionary work. Historically, missions have been religious communities used to preach the Gospel of Jesus Christ to local populations, missions often provided the logistics and supplies needed to support that work. Catholicisms support for the Spanish missions in the Americas played a key role in the Spanish colonization of the Americas, catholic mission communities commonly consisted of churches, gardens, fields, barns, workrooms, dormitories, and schools. They were often located based on the availability of a water supply to support the local populationMission (station) – The Mission San Gabriel Arcángel in San Gabriel, California.
64. Bourbon Restoration – The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830. The brothers of executed Louis XVI of France reigned in highly conservative fashion, and they were nonetheless unable to reverse most of the changes made by the French Revolution and Napoleon. At the Congress of Vienna they were treated respectfully, but had to give up all the gains made since 1789. King Louis XVI of the House of Bourbon had been overthrown and executed during the French Revolution, a coalition of European powers defeated Napoleon in the War of the Sixth Coalition, ended the First Empire in 1814, and restored the monarchy to the brothers of Louis XVI. The Bourbon Restoration lasted from 6 April 1814 until the uprisings of the July Revolution of 1830. There was an interlude in spring 1815—the Hundred Days—when the return of Napoleon forced the Bourbons to flee France, when Napoleon was again defeated by the Seventh Coalition they returned to power in July. During the Restoration, the new Bourbon regime was a monarchy, unlike the absolutist Ancien Régime. The period was characterized by a conservative reaction, and consequent minor but consistent occurrences of civil unrest. It also saw the reestablishment of the Catholic Church as a power in French politics. The eras of the French Revolution and Napoleon brought a series of changes to France which the Bourbon Restoration did not reverse. First of all, France became highly centralized, with all decisions made in Paris, the political geography was completely reorganized and made uniform. France was divided more than 80 departments, which have endured into the 21st century. Each department had an administrative structure, and was tightly controlled by a prefect appointed by Paris. The Catholic Church lost all its lands and buildings during the Revolution, the bishop still ruled his diocese, and communicated with the pope through the government in Paris. Bishops, priests, nuns and other people were paid salaries by the state. All the old rites and ceremonies were retained, and the government maintained the religious buildings. The Church was allowed to operate its own seminaries and to some extent local schools as well, bishops were much less powerful than before, and had no political voice. However, the Catholic Church reinvented itself and put a new emphasis on personal religiosity that gave it a hold on the psychology of the faithful, education was centralized, with the Grand Master of the University of France controlling every element of the entire educational system from ParisBourbon Restoration – Louis XVIII makes a return at the Hôtel de Ville de Paris on August 29th, 1814
65. 1960 Summer Olympics – The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held from August 25 to September 11,1960, in Rome, Italy. Rome had been awarded the organization of the 1908 Summer Olympics, on June 15,1955, at the 50th IOC Session in Paris, France, Rome beat out Lausanne, Detroit, Budapest, Brussels, Mexico City and Tokyo for the rights to host the Games. Tokyo and Mexico City would eventually host the following 1964 and 1968 Summer Olympics, Toronto was initially interested in the bidding, but appears to have been dropped during the final bid process. This is the first of five attempts by Toronto from 1960 to 2001, swedish sprint canoeist Gert Fredriksson won his sixth Olympic title. Fencer Aladár Gerevich of Hungary won his sixth gold medal in the team sabre event The Japanese mens gymnastics team won the first of five successive golds. The United States mens national basketball team—led by future Basketball Hall of Famers Walt Bellamy, Jerry Lucas, Oscar Robertson, danish sailor Paul Elvstrøm won his fourth straight gold medal in the Finn class.2 seconds. Wilma Rudolph, US, a polio patient, won three gold medals in sprint events on the track. She was acclaimed as the fastest woman in the world, jeff Farrell, US, won two gold medals in swimming. He underwent an emergency appendectomy six days before the Olympic Trials, abebe Bikila of Ethiopia won the marathon bare-footed to become the first black African Olympic champion. Cassius Clay, US, later known as Muhammad Ali, won boxings light-heavyweight gold medal, ramon Buddy Carr was one of the coaches that led this team to winning gold. Herb Elliott, AUS, won the mens 1500 meters in one of the most dominating performances in Olympic history, rafer Johnson, US, defeated his rival and friend C. K. Yang in one of the greatest Decathlon events in Olympic history. The future Constantine II, last King of Greece won his country a gold in sailing, the Pakistani Mens Field Hockey team broke a run of Indian teams victories since 1928, defeating India in the final and winning Pakistans first Olympic gold medal. Singapore competed for the first time under its own flag, which was to become its national flag after independence, coincidentally, it was the first time an athlete from Singapore won an Olympic medal when Tan Howe Liang won silver in the Weightlifting lightweight category. Wrestlers Shelby Wilson, and Doug Blubaugh, US, won medals in their respective weight classes. South Africa appeared in the Olympic arena for the last time under its apartheid regime and it would not be allowed to return until 1992, after which apartheid in sport had been abolished. Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen collapsed during his race under the influence of Roniacol and it was the second time an athlete died in competition at the Olympics, after the death of Portuguese marathon runner Francisco Lázaro at the 1912 Summer Olympics. Finnish Vilho Ylönen, a shooter, shot a bullseye to a wrong target. Peter Camejo, a 2004 American vice-presidential candidate for the Green Party, the future Queen Sofía of Spain represented her native Greece in sailing events1960 Summer Olympics – Opening Ceremony in 1960 Summer Olympics in Stadio Olimpico in Rome, Italy
66. Arthur Keily – Arthur Patrick Keily was a British marathon runner. Originally an amateur footballer, Keily served during the Second World War and, upon his return to England, was placed on the reserve list of his former team and never again made it to the field. He took up running at the age of 28 and ran in twenty-seven marathons during his career, finishing first in eleven of them. Keily was born on 18 March 1921 in Derby, England and he got his first job at the age of 14 as an apprentice blacksmith with British Rail and also held a position at Derbys Grand Theatre to help provide for the family. As a youth his first athletic interest was football, where he helped lead local team Osmaston Rangers to six league and his father, a sergeant with the British Army, was killed at the Battle of Dunkirk. Keily did not take an interest in competitive running until he was 28, after one of his brothers joined the Derby and County Athletic Club. In 1949 Arthur joined the club as well, but did not participate in his first marathon until 1953, finishing 12th in an event that spanned from Doncaster to Sheffield. One year later, however, it was in this race that he recorded his first victory, completing the course in 2,30,45 and he was soon chosen as club captain and helped them become national champions in 1960 after instituting a more difficult training routine. He was stricter still with himself and, in his prime, ran more than 130 miles a week as part of his training regimen. He had set nine world records during his career, the marathon, the track marathon,15,30, and 45 miles,45,50, and 60 km. Following two decades with British Rail, Keily found a job with Rolls-Royce Limited in 1957 and worked there until 1962 and his final position was that of a greyhound racing adviser with the Derby Telegraph. Following his retirement he wrote books on health and fitness. In 1991 he set a record for his age class in the event at 3,24,22. He died 2 March 2016 at the age of 94Arthur Keily – Arthur Keily's England tracksuits
67. Christopher Reeve – Christopher DOlier Reeve was an American actor, film director, producer, screenwriter, author, activist and former sportsman. He achieved stardom for his achievements, in particular. He is best known for his motion picture portrayal of the classic DC comic book superhero Superman, Reeve appeared in other critically acclaimed films such as Street Smart and The Remains of the Day. He received a Golden Globe nomination for his performance in the remake of Rear Window. On May 27,1995, Reeve became a quadriplegic after being thrown from a horse during a competition in Culpeper. He was confined to a wheelchair and required a ventilator for the rest of his life. He lobbied on behalf of people with spinal injuries and for human embryonic stem cell research, founding the Christopher Reeve Foundation. Christopher Reeve was born on September 25,1952, in New York City, the son of Barbara Pitney, a journalist, and Franklin DOlier Reeve, a teacher, novelist, poet, and scholar. Reeve was of almost entirely English ancestry, with family lines that had been in America since the early 1600s. Reeves mother was the granddaughter of Mahlon Pitney, a U. S. Supreme Court Justice, and a descendant of William Bradford, Reeves father was a Princeton University graduate studying for a masters degree in Russian at Columbia University prior to the birth of his son, Christopher. Despite being born wealthy, Franklin Reeve spent summers working at the docks with longshoremen, Reeves mother had been a student at Vassar College but transferred to Barnard College to be closer to Franklin, whom she had met through a family connection. They had another son, Benjamin, born on October 6,1953, Franklin and Barbara divorced in 1956, and she moved with her two sons to Princeton, New Jersey, where they attended Nassau Street School. Later that year, Franklin Reeve married Helen Schmidinger, a Columbia University graduate student, Barbara Pitney Lamb married Tristam B. Johnson enrolled Christopher and his brother, Benjamin, in Princeton Country Day School, Reeve excelled academically, athletically, and onstage, he was on the honor roll and played soccer, baseball, tennis, and hockey. The sportsmanship award at Princeton Day Schools invitational hockey tournament was named in Reeves honor, Reeve admitted that he put pressure on himself to act older than he actually was in order to gain his fathers approval. Reeve found his passion in 1962 at age nine when he was cast in a version of the play The Yeomen of the Guard. In mid-1968, at age fifteen, Reeve was accepted as an apprentice at the Williamstown Theatre Festival in Williamstown, the other apprentices were mostly college students, but Reeves older appearance and maturity helped him fit in with the others. In a workshop, he played a scene from A View from the Bridge that was chosen to be presented in front of an audience, after the performance, actress Olympia Dukakis said to him, Im surprisedChristopher Reeve – Reeve after the opening night of The Marriage of Figaro at the Circle in the Square Theatre, New York City, 1985.
68. Democratic National Convention – The Democratic National Convention is a series of presidential nominating conventions held every four years since 1832 by the United States Democratic Party. They have been administered by the Democratic National Committee since the 1852 national convention, the primary goal of the Democratic National Convention is to nominate and confirm a candidate for president and vice president, adopt a comprehensive party platform and unify the party. Pledged delegates from all fifty U. S, like the Republican National Convention, the Democratic National Convention marks the formal end of the primary election period and the start of the general election season. The partys presidential nominee is chosen in a series of state caucuses. Superdelegates, delegates whose votes are not bound to the outcome of a caucus or primary. To secure the nomination for the Democratic party in 2016, a candidate must secure 2,383 delegates and this number includes both pledged delegates and superdelegates. Prior to 1936, nomination for president was required, not merely by a majority, unless there was a popular incumbent, something that only happened three times between the Civil War and World War II, getting that many votes on the first ballot was implausible. The choice was a contentious debate that riled the passions of party leaders. Delegates were forced to vote for a nominee repeatedly until someone could capture a number of delegates needed. In 1912,1920 and most notoriously in 1924, the voting went on for dozens and dozens of ballots, backroom deals by party bosses were normal and often resulted in compromise nominees that became known as dark horse candidates. Dark horse candidates were people who never imagined they would run for president until the last moments of the convention, dark horse candidates were chosen in order to break deadlocks between more popular and powerful prospective nominees that blocked each other from gaining enough delegates to be nominated. The rules were changed to a majority in 1936. Since then only one multi-ballot convention has taken place, before about 1970, the partys choice of the vice-presidential nominee was usually not known until the last evening of the convention. This was because the nominee had little to do with the process. In order to prevent such things happening in the future, the presumptive nominee has, since 1984, announced his choice before the convention even opened. By 1824, the nominating caucus had fallen into disrepute and collapsed as a method of nominating presidential. A national convention idea had been brought up but nothing occurred until the next decade, state conventions and state legislatures emerged as the nomination apparatus until they were supplanted by the national convention method of nominating candidates. The first national convention of the Democratic Party began in Baltimore on May 21,1832, in that year the 2/3 rule was created, requiring a 2/3 vote to nominate a candidate, in order to show the partys unanimous support of Martin Van Buren for vice presidentDemocratic National Convention – Democratic National Committee Secretary Alice Travis Germond opens the roll call of the states during the third day of the 2008 convention.
69. Wikimedia Foundation – The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is mostly known for participating in the Wikimedia movement and it owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like Wikipedia. The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, as of 2015, the foundation employs over 280 people, with annual revenues in excess of US$75 million. Christophe Henner is chairman of the board, Katherine Maher is the executive director since March 2016. The Wikimedia Foundation has stated its goal is to develop and maintain open content, wiki-based projects, another main objective of the Wikimedia Foundation is political advocacy. The Wikimedia Foundation was granted section 501 status by the U. S, internal Revenue Code as a public charity in 2005. Its National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities code is B60, the foundations by-laws declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it effectively and globally. In 2001, Jimmy Wales, an Internet entrepreneur, and Larry Sanger, the project was originally funded by Bomis, Wales for-profit business. As Wikipedias popularity skyrocketed, revenues to fund the project stalled, since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis resources, Wales and Sanger thought of a charity model to fund the project. The Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20,2003 and it applied to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Wikipedia on September 17,2004. The mark was granted status on January 10,2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16,2004, there were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs. In April 2005, the U. S. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership rights, the decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously. On September 25,2007, the board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the San Francisco Bay Area. Lila Tretikov was appointed director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014. Former chief communications officer Katherine Maher was appointed the executive director. In addition to Wikipedia, the foundation operates other wikis that follow the free content model with their goal being the dissemination of knowledge. These include, Several additional projects exist to provide infrastructure or coordination of the free knowledge projects, for instance, a wiki helps coordinate work on MediaWiki software and Outreach gives guidelines for best practices on encouraging the use of Wikimedia sitesWikimedia Foundation – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014