1. Cultural icon – A cultural icon is an artifact that is recognised by members of a culture or sub-culture as representing some aspect of cultural identity. Icons are judged by their ability to be an authentic proxy, when individuals perceives a cultural icon, they compare it with their perceptions of the culture identity it attempts to mimic. Cultural Icons can also be identified as a representation of the practices of one culture by another. In the media, many items of culture have been called iconic despite their lack of durability. Some commentators believe that the word is overused or misused, a subset of cultural icons are national icons. Some examples are, Big Ben, Cup of tea, Red telephone box, Red AEC Routemaster London double decker bus, Spitfire, matryoshka dolls are seen internationally as cultural icons of Russia. Thus an apple pie is an icon of the United States. Religious icons can become cultural icons in societies where religion and culture are deeply entwined. Describing something as iconic or as an icon has become common in the popular media. This has drawn criticism from some, a writer in Liverpool Daily Post calls iconic a word that makes my flesh creep, category, Lists of cultural icons Pop icon Popular culture Biedermann, Hans. Dictionary of Symbolism, Cultural Icons and the Meanings Behind Them, batman Unmasked, Analysing a Cultural Icon. Edwards, Peter, Karl Enenkel, and Elspeth Graham, the Horse as Cultural Icon, The Real and the Symbolic Horse in the Early Modern World. CS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Foudy, Julie, Leslie Heywood, built to Win, The Female Athlete as Cultural Icon. Titanic Century, Media, Myth, and the Making of a Cultural Icon, titanic Century, Media, Myth, and the Making of a Cultural Icon. Cles Pour la France en 80 Icones Culturelles, the DNA Mystique, The Gene as a Cultural Icon. Reydams-Schils, Gretchen J. Platos Timaeus as Cultural Icon and our New Icons by The Daily Telegraph Nothing and no one are Off Limits in an Age of Iconomania by The Age British Postal Museum & Archive, Icons of England Culture24, Icons of EnglandCultural icon – Apple pie, baseball, and the flag grouped together are a cliché of American cultural icons
2. Biography – A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a persons life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, relationships, biographical works are usually non-fiction, but fiction can also be used to portray a persons life. One in-depth form of biographical coverage is called legacy writing, works in diverse media, from literature to film, form the genre known as biography. An authorized biography is written with the permission, cooperation, and at times, an autobiography is written by the person himself or herself, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter. At first, biographical writings were regarded merely as a subsection of history with a focus on an individual of historical importance. The independent genre of biography as distinct from general history writing, began to emerge in the 18th century, one of the earliest of the biographers was Plutarch, and his Parallel Lives, published about 80 A. D. covers prominent figures in the classical world. Cornelius Nepos published a work, his Excellentium Imperatorum Vitae. Perhaps the earliest extant biography that does not contain mythological material is The Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius, in the early Middle Ages, there was a decline in awareness of the classical culture in Europe. During this time, the only repositories of knowledge and records of the history in Europe were those of the Roman Catholic Church. Hermits, monks, and priests used this period to write biographies. Their subjects were usually restricted to the fathers, martyrs, popes. Their works were meant to be inspirational to the people and vehicles for conversion to Christianity, one significant secular example of a biography from this period is the life of Charlemagne by his courtier Einhard. Early biographical dictionaries were published as compendia of famous Islamic personalities from the 9th century onwards and they contained more social data for a large segment of the population than other works of that period. And then began the documentation of the lives of other historical figures who lived in the medieval Islamic world. By the late Middle Ages, biographies became less church-oriented in Europe as biographies of kings, knights, the most famous of such biographies was Le Morte dArthur by Sir Thomas Malory. The book was an account of the life of the fabled King Arthur, following Malory, the new emphasis on humanism during the Renaissance promoted a focus on secular subjects, such as artists and poets, and encouraged writing in the vernacular. Giorgio Vasaris Lives of the Artists was the landmark biography focusing on secular lives, vasari made celebrities of his subjects, as the Lives became an early bestseller. Two other developments are noteworthy, the development of the press in the 15th centuryBiography – Third Volume of a 1727 edition of Plutarch 's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans printed by Jacob Tonson.
3. Genre – Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time. Genres form by conventions that change over time as new genres are invented, often, works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Stand alone texts, works, or pieces of communication may have individual styles, some genres may be rigid with strictly adhered to guidelines while others may be very flexible. Genre began as a classification system for ancient Greek literature. Poetry, prose, and performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story. Speech patterns for comedy would not be appropriate for tragedy, in later periods genres proliferated and developed in response to changes in audiences and creators. Genre became a tool to help the public make sense out of unpredictable art. Because art is often a response to a state, in that people write/paint/sing/dance about what they know about. Genre suffers from the ills of any classification system. Genre is to be reassessed and scrutinized, and to works on their unique merit. While the genre of storytelling has been relegated as lesser form of art because of the heavily borrowed nature of the conventions, proponents argue that the genius of an effective genre piece is in the variation, recombination, and evolution of the codes. The term genre is used in the history and criticism of visual art. These are distinguished from staffage, incidental figures in what is primarily a landscape or architectural painting, Genre painting may also be used as a wider term covering genre painting proper, and other specialized types of paintings such as still-life, landscapes, marine paintings and animal paintings. The concept of the hierarchy of genres was a one in artistic theory. It was strongest in France, where it was associated with the Académie française which held a role in academic art. Genres may be determined by technique, tone, content. Genre should not be confused with age category, by which literature may be classified as adult, young adult. They also must not be confused with format, such as novel or picture bookGenre – A genre painting (Peasant Dance, c. 1568, by Pieter Brueghel the Elder)
4. Autobiography – An autobiography is a self-written account of the life of a person. The word autobiography was first used deprecatingly by William Taylor in 1797 in the English periodical The Monthly Review, when he suggested the word as a hybrid, however, its next recorded use was in its present sense, by Robert Southey in 1809. Despite only being named early in the century, first-person autobiographical writing originates in antiquity. Autobiography thus takes stock of the life from the moment of composition. While biographers generally rely on a variety of documents and viewpoints. The memoir form is associated with autobiography but it tends, as Pascal claims, to focus less on the self. See also, List of autobiographies and Category, Autobiographies for examples, in a classic essay on American autobiography James M. Autobiographical works are by nature subjective. The inability—or unwillingness—of the author to accurately recall memories has in certain cases resulted in misleading or incorrect information, some sociologists and psychologists have noted that autobiography offers the author the ability to recreate history. Spiritual autobiography is an account of a struggle or journey towards God, followed by conversion a religious conversion. The author re-frames his or her life as a demonstration of divine intention through encounters with the Divine, the spiritual autobiography works as an endorsement of his or her religion. A memoir is slightly different in character from an autobiography, while an autobiography typically focuses on the life and times of the writer, a memoir has a narrower, more intimate focus on his or her own memories, feelings and emotions. Memoirs have often written by politicians or military leaders as a way to record. One early example is that of Julius Caesars Commentarii de Bello Gallico, in the work, Caesar describes the battles that took place during the nine years that he spent fighting local armies in the Gallic Wars. His second memoir, Commentarii de Bello Civili is an account of the events took place between 49 and 48 BC in the civil war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate. Leonor López de Córdoba wrote what is supposed to be the first autobiography in Spanish, the English Civil War provoked a number of examples of this genre, including works by Sir Edmund Ludlow and Sir John Reresby. French examples from the period include the memoirs of Cardinal de Retz. Daniel Defoes Moll Flanders is an early example, charles Dickens David Copperfield is another such classic, and J. D. Salingers The Catcher in the Rye is a well-known modern example of fictional autobiography. Charlotte Brontës Jane Eyre is yet another example of fictional autobiography, the term may also apply to works of fiction purporting to be autobiographies of real characters, e. g. Robert Nyes Memoirs of Lord ByronAutobiography – Cover of the first English edition of Clayton Baggett Born on Feb.28,1982
5. Akkadian language – Akkadian is an extinct East Semitic language that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia. The earliest attested Semitic language, it used the writing system, which was originally used to write the unrelated Ancient Sumerian. The language was named after the city of Akkad, a centre of Mesopotamian civilization during the Akkadian Empire. The mutual influence between Sumerian and Akkadian had led scholars to describe the languages as a sprachbund, Akkadian proper names were first attested in Sumerian texts from around the mid 3rd-millennium BC. From the second half of the third millennium BC, texts written in Akkadian begin to appear. By the second millennium BC, two variant forms of the language were in use in Assyria and Babylonia, known as Assyrian and Babylonian respectively, for centuries, Akkadian was the native language in Mesopotamian nations such as Assyria and Babylonia. However, it began to decline during the Neo-Assyrian Empire around the 8th century BC, by the Hellenistic period, the language was largely confined to scholars and priests working in temples in Assyria and Babylonia. The last known Akkadian cuneiform document dates from the 1st century AD, Akkadian belongs with the other Semitic languages in the Near Eastern branch of the Afroasiatic languages, a family native to East Africa, which then spread to West, Northwest and Northeast Africa. Within the Near Eastern Semitic languages, Akkadian forms an East Semitic subgroup and this novel word order is due to the influence of the Sumerian substratum, which has an SOV order. Additionally Akkadian is the only Semitic language to use the prepositions ina and ana, other Semitic languages like Arabic and Aramaic have the prepositions bi/bə and li/lə. The origin of the Akkadian spatial prepositions is unknown, in contrast to most other Semitic languages, Akkadian has only one non-sibilant fricative, ḫ. Akkadian lost both the glottal and pharyngeal fricatives, which are characteristic of the other Semitic languages, until the Old Babylonian period, the Akkadian sibilants were exclusively affricated. Old Akkadian is preserved on clay tablets dating back to c.2500 BC and it was written using cuneiform, a script adopted from the Sumerians using wedge-shaped symbols pressed in wet clay. As employed by Akkadian scribes, the cuneiform script could represent either Sumerian logograms, Sumerian syllables, Akkadian syllables. For this reason, the sign AN can on the one hand be a logogram for the word ilum, additionally, this sign was used as a determinative for divine names. Another peculiarity of Akkadian cuneiform is that many signs do not have a phonetic value. Certain signs, such as AḪ, do not distinguish between the different vowel qualities, nor is there any coordination in the other direction, the syllable -ša-, for example, is rendered by the sign ŠA, but also by the sign NĪĜ. Both of these are used for the same syllable in the same textAkkadian language – An Akkadian inscription
6. Sharrum – Lugal is the Sumerian term for king, ruler. It was one of several Sumerian titles that a ruler of a city-state could bear, the sign eventually became the predominant logograph for King in general. In the Sumerian language, lugal is used to mean an owner or a head, in Akkadian orthography, it may also be a syllabogram šàr, acrophonically based on the Akkadian for king, šarrum. There are different theories regarding the meaning of the title lugal in 3rd millennium Sumer, interestingly, the ensis of Lagash would sometimes refer to the citys patron deity, Ningirsu, as their lugal. All of the above is connected to the possibly priestly or sacral character of the titles ensi, a lugal at that time is assumed to have been normally a young man of outstanding qualities from a rich landowning family. Thorkild Jacobsen theorized that he was originally an war leader, as opposed to the en, among the earliest rulers whose inscriptions describe them as lugals are Enmebaragesi and Mesilim at Kish, and Meskalamdug, Mesannepada and several of their successors at Ur. At least from the Third Dynasty of Ur onwards, only lugal was used to designate a contemporary sovereign in Sumerian, Lugal is used extensively in the Amarna letters, for addressing the kings or pharaohs, and elsewhere in speaking about the various kings. One common address, in the introduction of letters, from the vassals writing to the pharaoh was to use, Šàr-riSharrum – Detail of the Sumerian statue of Lugaldalu, King of Adab - as being stated in the inscription of circa mid-3rd millennium BC, inscription including the sumerian cuneiform sign of lugal
7. Akkadian Empire – The empire united all the Akkadian and Sumerian speakers under one rule. The Akkadian Empire controlled Mesopotamia, the Levant, and eastern and southern parts of Anatolia and Iran, sending military expeditions as far south as Dilmun and Magan in the Arabian Peninsula. During the 3rd millennium BC, there developed an intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as a spoken language somewhere between the 3rd and the 2nd millennia BC, the Akkadian Empire reached its political peak between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests by its founder Sargon of Akkad. Under Sargon and his successors, the Akkadian language was imposed on neighboring conquered states such as Elam. Akkad is sometimes regarded as the first empire in history, though there are earlier Sumerian claimants, the Bible refers to Akkad in Genesis 10,10, which states that the beginning of Nimrods kingdom was in the land of Akkad. Nimrod is a Hebrew name not attested in Mesopotamians sources, many have pointed out similarities with the legend of Gilgamesh who founded Uruk, which is said to be the city Nimrod came to power. Today, some 7,000 texts from the Akkadian period alone are known, many later texts from the successor states of Assyria and Babylonia also deal with the Akkadian Empire. Understanding of the Akkadian Empire continues to be hampered by the fact that its capital Akkad has not yet been located, likewise, material that is thought to be Akkadian continues to be in use into the Ur III period. Many of the recent insights on the Akkadian Empire have come from excavations in the Upper Khabur area in modern northeastern Syria which was to become a part of Assyria after the fall of Akkad. For example, excavations at Tell Mozan brought to light a sealing of Taram-Agade, an unknown daughter of Naram-Sin. The excavators at nearby Tell Leilan have used the results from their investigations to argue that the Akkadian Empire came to an end due to a sudden drought, the so-called 4.2 kiloyear event. The impact of this event on Mesopotamia in general, and on the Akkadian Empire in particular. The Akkadian Period is contemporary with, EB IV, EB IVA and EJ IV, the absolute dates of their reigns are approximate. The Akkadian Empire takes its name from the region and city of Akkad, although the city of Akkad has not yet been identified on the ground, it is known from various textual sources. Among these is at least one text predating the reign of Sargon, together with the fact that the name Akkad is of non-Akkadian origin, this suggests that the city of Akkad may have already been occupied in pre-Sargonic times. Sargon of Akkad defeated and captured Lugal-Zage-Si in the Battle of Uruk, the earliest records in the Akkadian language date to the time of Sargon. Sargon was claimed to be the son of Laibum or Itti-Bel, a humble gardener, One legend related of Sargon in Assyrian times says that My mother was a changeling, my father I knew notAkkadian Empire – Map of the Akkadian Empire (brown) and the directions in which military campaigns were conducted (yellow arrows)
8. Sumer – Living along the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates, Sumerian farmers were able to grow an abundance of grain and other crops, the surplus of which enabled them to settle in one place. Proto-writing in the dates back to c.3000 BC. The earliest texts come from the cities of Uruk and Jemdet Nasr and date back to 3300 BC, modern historians have suggested that Sumer was first permanently settled between c.5500 and 4000 BC by a West Asian people who spoke the Sumerian language, an agglutinative language isolate. These conjectured, prehistoric people are now called proto-Euphrateans or Ubaidians, some scholars contest the idea of a Proto-Euphratean language or one substrate language. Reliable historical records begin much later, there are none in Sumer of any kind that have dated before Enmebaragesi. Juris Zarins believes the Sumerians lived along the coast of Eastern Arabia, todays Persian Gulf region, Sumerian civilization took form in the Uruk period, continuing into the Jemdet Nasr and Early Dynastic periods. During the 3rd millennium BC, a cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians, who spoke a language isolate, and Akkadian-speakers, which included widespread bilingualism. The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a scale, to syntactic, morphological. This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the 3rd millennium BC as a Sprachbund, Sumer was conquered by the Semitic-speaking kings of the Akkadian Empire around 2270 BC, but Sumerian continued as a sacred language. Native Sumerian rule re-emerged for about a century in the Neo-Sumerian Empire or Third Dynasty of Ur approximately 2100-2000 BC, the term Sumerian is the common name given to the ancient non-Semitic-speaking inhabitants of Mesopotamia, Sumer, by the East Semitic-speaking Akkadians. The Sumerians referred to themselves as ùĝ saĝ gíg ga, phonetically /uŋ saŋ gi ga/, literally meaning the black-headed people, the Akkadian word Shumer may represent the geographical name in dialect, but the phonological development leading to the Akkadian term šumerû is uncertain. Hebrew Shinar, Egyptian Sngr, and Hittite Šanhar, all referring to southern Mesopotamia, in the late 4th millennium BC, Sumer was divided into many independent city-states, which were divided by canals and boundary stones. Each was centered on a dedicated to the particular patron god or goddess of the city. The Sumerian city-states rose to power during the prehistoric Ubaid and Uruk periods, classical Sumer ends with the rise of the Akkadian Empire in the 23rd century BC. Following the Gutian period, there is a brief Sumerian Renaissance in the 21st century BC, the Amorite dynasty of Isin persisted until c.1700 BC, when Mesopotamia was united under Babylonian rule. The Sumerians were eventually absorbed into the Akkadian population, 2500–2334 BC Akkadian Empire period, c. 2218–2047 BC Ur III period, c, 2047–1940 BC The Ubaid period is marked by a distinctive style of fine quality painted pottery which spread throughout Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf. It appears that this culture was derived from the Samarran culture from northern Mesopotamia and it is not known whether or not these were the actual Sumerians who are identified with the later Uruk cultureSumer – Map of Sumer
9. Kish (Sumer) – Kish was occupied from the Jemdet Nasr period, gaining prominence as one of the pre-eminent powers in the region during the early dynastic period. The Sumerian king list states that Kish was the first city to have following the deluge. Jushurs successor is called Kullassina-bel, but this is actually a sentence in Akkadian meaning All of them were lord, thus, some scholars have suggested that this may have been intended to signify the absence of a central authority in Kish for a time. The names of the nine kings of Kish preceding Etana are all Akkadian words for animals. The twelfth king of Kish appearing on the Sumerian king list, Etana, is noted as the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries. Although his reign has yet to be archaeologically attested, his name is found in later legendary tablets, and Etana is sometimes regarded as the first king and founder of Kish. The twenty-first king of Kish on the list, Enmebaragesi, who is said to have captured the weapons of Elam, is the first name confirmed by finds from his reign. He is also known through literary references, in which he and his son Aga of Kish are portrayed as contemporary rivals of Dumuzid, the Fisherman. Some early kings of Kish are known through archaeology, but are not named on the King list. These include Utug or Uhub, said to have defeated Hamazi in the earliest days, and Mesilim, who built temples in Adab and Lagash, the Third Dynasty of Kish is unique in that it begins with a woman, previously a tavern keeper, Kubau, as king. She was later deified as the goddess Kheba, afterwards, although its military and economic power was diminished, Kish retained a strong political and symbolic significance. Just as with Nippur to the south, control of Kish was an element in legitimizing dominance over the north of Mesopotamia. Because of the symbolic value, strong rulers later claimed the traditional title King of Kish, even if they were from Akkad, Ur, Assyria, Isin. One of the earliest to adopt this title upon subjecting Kish to his empire was King Mesannepada of Ur, a few governors of Kish for other powers in later times are also known. Sargon of Akkad, the founder of the Akkadian Empire came from the area nearby Kish and he would later declare himself the king of Kish, as an attempt to signify his connection to the religiously important area. In Akkadian times the citys patron deity was Zababa, along with his wife, Kish continued to be occupied through the pre-Babylonian, old Babylonian, Kassite, and Neo-Assyrian Empire and Neo-Babylonian periods, and into classical Seleucid times, before being abandoned. The most notable mounds are, - Tell Uhaimir - believed to be the location of the city of Kish and it means the red after the red bricks of the ziggurat there. Tell Ingharra - believed to be the location of Hursagkalamma, east of Kish home of a temple of Inanna and those tablets ended up in a variety of museumsKish (Sumer) – Murex bearing the name of " Rimush, king of Kish", ca. 2270 BC, Louvre
10. Mesopotamia – In the Iron Age, it was controlled by the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires. The Sumerians and Akkadians dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of history to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC. It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, and after his death, around 150 BC, Mesopotamia was under the control of the Parthian Empire. Mesopotamia became a battleground between the Romans and Parthians, with parts of Mesopotamia coming under ephemeral Roman control. In AD226, eastern part of it fell to the Sassanid Persians, division of Mesopotamia between Roman and Sassanid Empires lasted until the 7th century Muslim conquest of Persia of the Sasanian Empire and Muslim conquest of the Levant from Byzantines. A number of primarily neo-Assyrian and Christian native Mesopotamian states existed between the 1st century BC and 3rd century AD, including Adiabene, Osroene, and Hatra, Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. The regional toponym Mesopotamia comes from the ancient Greek root words μέσος middle and ποταμός river and it is used throughout the Greek Septuagint to translate the Hebrew equivalent Naharaim. In the Anabasis, Mesopotamia was used to designate the land east of the Euphrates in north Syria, the Aramaic term biritum/birit narim corresponded to a similar geographical concept. The neighbouring steppes to the west of the Euphrates and the part of the Zagros Mountains are also often included under the wider term Mesopotamia. A further distinction is made between Northern or Upper Mesopotamia and Southern or Lower Mesopotamia. Upper Mesopotamia, also known as the Jazira, is the area between the Euphrates and the Tigris from their sources down to Baghdad, Lower Mesopotamia is the area from Baghdad to the Persian Gulf and includes Kuwait and parts of western Iran. In modern academic usage, the term Mesopotamia often also has a chronological connotation and it is usually used to designate the area until the Muslim conquests, with names like Syria, Jazirah, and Iraq being used to describe the region after that date. It has been argued that these later euphemisms are Eurocentric terms attributed to the region in the midst of various 19th-century Western encroachments, Mesopotamia encompasses the land between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, both of which have their headwaters in the Armenian Highlands. Both rivers are fed by tributaries, and the entire river system drains a vast mountainous region. Overland routes in Mesopotamia usually follow the Euphrates because the banks of the Tigris are frequently steep and difficult. The climate of the region is semi-arid with a vast desert expanse in the north which gives way to a 15,000 square kilometres region of marshes, lagoons, mud flats, in the extreme south, the Euphrates and the Tigris unite and empty into the Persian Gulf. In the marshlands to the south of the area, a complex water-borne fishing culture has existed since prehistoric times, periodic breakdowns in the cultural system have occurred for a number of reasons. Alternatively, military vulnerability to invasion from marginal hill tribes or nomadic pastoralists has led to periods of trade collapse and these trends have continued to the present day in IraqMesopotamia – Known world of the Mesopotamian, Babylonian, and Assyrian cultures from documentary sources
11. Mediterranean – The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning inland or in the middle of land and it covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, but its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar. In oceanography, it is called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The Mediterranean Sea has a depth of 1,500 m. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia and it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, the seas average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has an area of approximately 2,510,000 square km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade, the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri, the term Mediterranean derives from the Latin word mediterraneus, meaning amid the earth or between land, as it is between the continents of Africa, Asia and Europe. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, between + γη, land, earth) and it can be compared with the Ancient Greek name Mesopotamia, meaning between rivers. The Mediterranean Sea has historically had several names, for example, the Carthaginians called it the Syrian Sea and latter Romans commonly called it Mare Nostrum, and occasionally Mare Internum. Another name was the Sea of the Philistines, from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites, the sea is also called the Great Sea in the General Prologue by Geoffrey Chaucer. In Ottoman Turkish, it has also been called Bahr-i Sefid, in Modern Hebrew, it has been called HaYam HaTikhon, the Middle Sea, reflecting the Seas name in ancient Greek, Latin, and modern languages in both Europe and the Middle East. Similarly, in Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ, in Turkish, it is known as Akdeniz, the White Sea since among Turks the white colour represents the west. Several ancient civilisations were located around the Mediterranean shores, and were influenced by their proximity to the sea. It provided routes for trade, colonisation, and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages, due to the shared climate, geology, and access to the sea, cultures centered on the Mediterranean tended to have some extent of intertwined culture and history. Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilisations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states, later, when Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Romans referred to the Mediterranean as Mare NostrumMediterranean – Circa the 6th century BCE: In ancient times the Mediterranean provided sources of food and local commerce and direct routes for trade and communications, colonisation, and war. Numerous cities and colonies were situated at its shores or within the basin: Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity; and other cities (grey), including the provincial "Rom".
12. Iran – Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the worlds 17th-most-populous country. It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers. During the 18th century, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body. Following a coup instigated by the U. K. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. Iran is a member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC. Its political system is based on the 1979 Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris, Kurds and Lurs. Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, however, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was then shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeablyIran – Cave painting in Doushe cave, Lorestan, Iran, 8th millennium BC
13. Syria – Syrias capital and largest city is Damascus. Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, Sunni Arabs make up the largest religious group in Syria. Its capital Damascus and largest city Aleppo are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, in the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a number of military coups. In 1958, Syria entered a union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, who was in office from 1970 to 2000. Mainstream modern academic opinion strongly favours the argument that the Greek word is related to the cognate Ἀσσυρία, Assyria, in the past, others believed that it was derived from Siryon, the name that the Sidonians gave to Mount Hermon. However, the discovery of the inscription in 2000 seems to support the theory that the term Syria derives from Assyria. The area designated by the word has changed over time, since approximately 10,000 BC, Syria was one of centers of Neolithic culture where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. The following Neolithic period is represented by houses of Mureybet culture. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, gyps, finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations. Cities of Hamoukar and Emar played an important role during the late Neolithic, archaeologists have demonstrated that civilization in Syria was one of the most ancient on earth, perhaps preceded by only those of Mesopotamia. The earliest recorded indigenous civilisation in the region was the Kingdom of Ebla near present-day Idlib, gifts from Pharaohs, found during excavations, confirm Eblas contact with Egypt. One of the earliest written texts from Syria is an agreement between Vizier Ibrium of Ebla and an ambiguous kingdom called Abarsal c.2300 BC. The Northwest Semitic language of the Amorites is the earliest attested of the Canaanite languages, Mari reemerged during this period, and saw renewed prosperity until conquered by Hammurabi of Babylon. Ugarit also arose during this time, circa 1800 BC, close to modern Latakia, Ugaritic was a Semitic language loosely related to the Canaanite languages, and developed the Ugaritic alphabet. The Ugarites kingdom survived until its destruction at the hands of the marauding Indo-European Sea Peoples in the 12th century BC, Yamhad was described in the tablets of Mari as the mightiest state in the near east and as having more vassals than Hammurabi of Babylon. Yamhad imposed its authority over Alalakh, Qatna, the Hurrians states, the army of Yamhad campaigned as far away as Dēr on the border of ElamSyria – Female figurine, 5000 BC. Ancient Orient Museum.
14. Anatolia – Anatolia, in geography known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea to the Armenian Highlands, thus, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises approximately the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. The Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century, however, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Assyrian, Armenian, Arabic, Laz, Georgian, and Greek. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea. This traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Websters Geographical Dictionary, under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, and the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia. To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria, the first name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula was Ἀσία, presumably after the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia. As the name of Asia came to be extended to areas east of the Mediterranean. The name Anatolia derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more literally “sunrise”, the precise reference of this term has varied over time, perhaps originally referring to the Aeolian, Ionian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western, the modern Turkish form of Anatolia is Anadolu, which again derives from the Greek name Aνατολή. The Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin, in English the name of Turkey for ancient Anatolia first appeared c. It is derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia, which was used by the Europeans to define the Seljuk controlled parts of Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert. Human habitation in Anatolia dates back to the Paleolithic, neolithic Anatolia has been proposed as the homeland of the Indo-European language family, although linguists tend to favour a later origin in the steppes north of the Black Sea. However, it is clear that the Anatolian languages, the oldest branch of Indo-European, have spoken in Anatolia since at least the 19th century BC. The earliest historical records of Anatolia stem from the southeast of the region and are from the Mesopotamian-based Akkadian Empire during the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 24th century BC, scholars generally believe the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurrians. The region was famous for exporting raw materials, and areas of Hattian-, one of the numerous cuneiform records dated circa 20th century BC, found in Anatolia at the Assyrian colony of Kanesh, uses an advanced system of trading computations and credit lines. They were speakers of an Indo-European language, the Hittite language, originating from Nesa, they conquered Hattusa in the 18th century BC, imposing themselves over Hattian- and Hurrian-speaking populations. According to the most widely accepted Kurgan theory on the Proto-Indo-European homeland, however, the Hittites adopted the cuneiform script, invented in MesopotamiaAnatolia – The traditional definition of Anatolia within modern Turkey
15. Arabian peninsula – The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate. From a geological perspective, it is considered a subcontinent of Asia and it is the largest peninsula in the world, at 3,237,500 km2. The Arabian Peninsula consists of the countries Yemen, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the Arabian Peninsula plays a critical geopolitical role in the Middle East and the Arab world due to its vast reserves of oil and natural gas. Before the modern era, it was divided into four regions, Hejaz, Najd, Southern Arabia. Hejaz and Najd make up most of Saudi Arabia, Southern Arabia consists of Yemen and some parts of Saudi Arabia and Oman. Eastern Arabia consists of the coastal strip of the Persian Gulf. The most prominent feature of the peninsula is desert, but in the southwest there are mountain ranges, harrat ash Shaam is a large volcanic field that extends from the northwestern Arabian Peninsula into Jordan and southern Syria. The peninsulas constituent countries are Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the island nation of Bahrain lies off the east coast of the peninsula. Six countries form the Gulf Cooperation Council, however, this is a disputed term. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia covers the part of the peninsula. The majority of the population of the live in Saudi Arabia. The peninsula contains the worlds largest reserves of oil, Saudi Arabia and the UAE are economically the wealthiest in the region. Qatar, a peninsula in the Persian Gulf on the larger peninsula, is home of the Arabic-language television station Al Jazeera. Kuwait, on the border with Iraq, is an important country strategically, though historically lightly populated, political Arabia is noted for a high population growth rate - as the result of both very strong inflows of migrant labor as well as sustained high birth rates. The population tends to be young and heavily skewed gender ratio dominated by males. In many states, the number of South Asians exceeds that of the local citizenry, the four smallest states, which have their entire coastlines on the Persian Gulf, exhibit the worlds most extreme population growth, roughly tripling every 20 years. In 2014, the population of the Arabian Peninsula was 77,983,936. Listed here are the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups in Arabia Haplogroup J is the most abundant component in the Arabian peninsula and its two main subclades, show opposite latitudinal gradients in the Middle EastArabian peninsula – A map of the Arabian peninsula made in 1720 by the German publisher Christoph Weigel
16. Euphrates – The Euphrates is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia, originating in eastern Turkey, the Euphrates flows through Syria and Iraq to join the Tigris in the Shatt al-Arab, which empties into the Persian Gulf. The Ancient Greek form Euphrátēs was borrowed from Old Persian Ufrātu, the Elamite name is ultimately derived from the Sumerian Buranuna, possibly through the Akkadian name. In Akkadian the river was similarly called Purattu, which has been perpetuated in Semitic languages, the Elamite, Akkadian, and possibly Sumerian forms are suggested to be from an unrecorded substrate language. The earliest references to the Euphrates come from texts found in Shuruppak and pre-Sargonic Nippur in southern Iraq. In these texts, written in Sumerian, the Euphrates is called Buranuna, the name could also be written KIB. NUN. or dKIB. NUN, with the prefix d indicating that the river was a divinity. In Sumerian, the name of the city of Sippar in modern-day Iraq was also a written UD. KIB. NUN, the Euphrates is the longest river of Western Asia. It emerges from the confluence of the Kara Su or Western Euphrates, the same figures are given by Isaev and Mikhailova. The length of the Shatt al-Arab, which connects the Euphrates, both the Kara Su and the Murat Su rise northwest from Lake Van at elevations of 3,290 metres and 3,520 metres amsl, respectively. At the location of the Keban Dam, the two rivers, now combined into the Euphrates, have dropped to an elevation of 693 metres amsl, from Keban to the Syrian–Turkish border, the river drops another 368 metres over a distance of less than 600 kilometres. The Euphrates receives most of its water in the form of rainfall and melting snow, discharge in these two months accounts for 36 percent of the total annual discharge of the Euphrates, or even 60–70 percent according to one source, while low runoff occurs in summer and autumn. The discharge regime of the Euphrates has changed dramatically since the construction of the first dams in the 1970s, data on Euphrates discharge collected after 1990 show the impact of the construction of the numerous dams in the Euphrates and of the increased withdrawal of water for irrigation. Average discharge at Hīt after 1990 has dropped to 356 cubic metres per second, the seasonal variability has equally changed. The pre-1990 peak volume recorded at Hīt was 7,510 cubic metres per second, the minimum volume at Hīt remained relatively unchanged, rising from 55 cubic metres per second before 1990 to 58 cubic metres per second afterward. In Syria, three rivers add their water to the Euphrates, the Sajur, the Balikh and the Khabur and these rivers rise in the foothills of the Taurus Mountains along the Syro–Turkish border and add comparatively little water to the Euphrates. The Sajur is the smallest of these tributaries, emerging from two streams near Gaziantep and draining the plain around Manbij before emptying into the reservoir of the Tishrin Dam. The Balikh receives most of its water from a spring near Ayn al-Arus. In terms of length, drainage basin and discharge, the Khabur is the largest of these three and its main karstic springs are located around Ras al-Ayn, from where the Khabur flows southeast past Al-Hasakah, where the river turns south and drains into the Euphrates near BusayrahEuphrates – The Euphrates near Halabiye (Syria); the site can be seen in the background on the left bank
17. Empire – An empire can be made solely of contiguous territories such as the Austro-Hungarian Empire, or of territories far remote from the homeland, such as a colonial empire. Aside from the formal usage, the term empire can also be used to refer to a large-scale business enterprise. The term empire is associated with words such as imperialism, colonialism. Empire is often used to describe a displeasure to overpowering situations, the former method provides greater tribute and direct political control, yet limits further expansion because it absorbs military forces to fixed garrisons. The latter method provides less tribute and indirect control, but avails military forces for further expansion, territorial empires tend to be contiguous areas. The term, on occasion, has applied to maritime empires or thalassocracies, with looser structures. Empires are usually larger than kingdoms and this aspiration to universality resulted in conquest by converting ‘outsiders’ or ‘inferiors’ into the colonialized religion. This association of nationality and race became complex and has had an intense drive for expansion. An empire is a multi-ethnic or multinational state with political and/or military dominion of populations who are culturally and ethnically distinct from the ethnic group. This is in contrast to a federation, which is a state voluntarily composed of autonomous states and peoples. An empire is a political party who rules over territories outside of its original borders. Definitions of what physically and politically constitute an empire vary and it might be a state affecting imperial policies or a particular political structure. Empires are typically formed from ethnic, national, cultural. Empire and colonialism are used to refer to relationships between powerful state or society versus a less powerful one, sometimes, an empire is a semantic construction, such as when a ruler assumes the title of emperor. That rulers nation logically becomes an empire, despite having no additional territory or hegemony, among the last of the empires in the 20th century were the Central African Empire, Ethiopia, Vietnam, Manchukuo, the German Empire, and Korea. Furthermore, empires can expand by both land and sea, Empires originated as different types of states, although they commonly began as powerful monarchies. Ideas about empires have changed over time, ranging from public approval to universal distaste, Empires are built out of separate units with some kind of diversity – ethnic, national, cultural, religious – and imply at least some inequality between the rulers and the ruled. Without this inequality, the system would be seen as commonwealth, many empires were the result of military conquest, incorporating the vanquished states into a political union, but imperial hegemony can be established in other waysEmpire – Maurya Empire of India at its greatest extent under Ashoka the Great
18. Sargon of Akkad – Sargon of Akkad was the first ruler of the Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC. He was the founder of the Sargonic or Old Akkadian dynasty, the Sumerian king list makes him the cup-bearer to king Ur-Zababa of Kish. His empire is thought to have included most of Mesopotamia, parts of the Levant, besides incursions into Hurrite and Elamite territory, ruling from his capital, Sargon appears as a legendary figure in Neo-Assyrian literature of the 8th to 7th centuries BC. Tablets with fragments of a Sargon Birth Legend were found in the Library of Ashurbanipal, the Akkadian name is normalized as either Šarru-ukīn or Šarru-kēn. The names cuneiform spelling is variously LUGAL-ú-kin, šar-ru-gen6, šar-ru-ki-in, šar-ru-um-ki-in, in Late Assyrian references, the name is mostly spelled as LUGAL-GI. NA or LUGAL-GIN, i. e. identical to the name of the Neo-Assyrian king Sargon II. The spelling Sargon is derived from the mention of the name in the Hebrew Bible, as סַרְגוֹן. The first element in the name is šarru, the Akkadian for king, the second element derived from the root kūn to confirm, establish. A possible interpretation of the reading Šarru-ukīn is the king has established stability, such a name would however be unusual, other names in -ukīn always include both a subject and an object, as in Šamaš-šuma-ukīn Shamash has established an heir. There is some debate whether the name was an adopted regnal name or a birth name. The reading Šarru-kēn has been interpreted adjectivally, as the king is established, legitimate, the terms Pre-Sargonic and Post-Sargonic were used in Assyriology based on the chronologies of Nabonidus before the historical existence of Sargon of Akkad was confirmed. The form Šarru-ukīn was known from the Assyrian Sargon Legend discovered in 1867 in Ashurbanipals library at Nineveh, the first contemporary reference to Sargon was found on the cylinder seal of Ibni-sharru, a high-ranking official serving under Sargon. Ménant published a description of this seal in 1877, reading the name as Shegani-shar-lukh. In 1883, the British Museum acquired the mace-head of Shar-Gani-sharri and this Shar-Gani was identified with the Sargon of Agade of Assyrian legend. The identification of Shar-Gani-sharri with Sargon was recognised as mistaken in the 1910s, Shar-Gani-sharri is in fact Sargons great-grandson, the successor of Naram-Sin. It is not entirely clear whether the Neo-Assyrian king Sargon II was directly named for Sargon of Akkad, primary sources pertaining to Sargon are very sparse, the main near-contemporary reference is that in the various versions of the Sumerian king list. Here, Sargon is mentioned as the son of a gardener, former cup-bearer of Ur-Zababa of Kish and he usurped the kingship from Lugal-zage-si of Uruk and took it to his own city of Akkad. Various copies of the king list give the duration of his reign as either 54,55 or 56 years, in absolute years, his reign would correspond to ca. 2340–2284 BC in the Middle Chronology and his successors until the Gutian conquest of Sumer are also known as the Sargonic Dynasty and their rule as the Sargonic Period of Mesopotamian historySargon of Akkad – Bronze head of an Akkadian ruler, probably Sargon, Nineveh, c. 23rd – 22nd century BC. It might depict Sargon's grandson Naram-Sin
19. United States Navy – The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U. S. Navy is the largest, most capable navy in the world, the U. S. Navy has the worlds largest aircraft carrier fleet, with ten in service, two in the reserve fleet, and three new carriers under construction. The service has 323,792 personnel on duty and 108,515 in the Navy Reserve. It has 274 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of October 2016, the U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was effectively disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. It played a role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy. It played the role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is an admiral and the senior naval officer of the Department of the Navy. The CNO may not be the highest ranking officer in the armed forces if the Chairman or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The mission of the Navy is to maintain, train and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression, the United States Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States. The Navys three primary areas of responsibility, The preparation of naval forces necessary for the prosecution of war. The development of aircraft, weapons, tactics, technique, organization, U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is to prepare and conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest, as part of that establishment, the U. S. Navys functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to sealift duties. It follows then as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, the Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors, captains, and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia, the establishment of a national navy was an issue of debate among the members of the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy, then the worlds preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships, and reported the captures to the CongressUnited States Navy
20. Muammar Gaddafi – Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi, commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He governed Libya as Revolutionary Chairman of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and he was initially ideologically committed to Arab nationalism and Arab socialism, but he came to rule according to his own Third International Theory. Gaddafi was born near Sirte to an impoverished Bedouin family and he became an Arab nationalist while at school in Sabha, later enrolling in the Royal Military Academy, Benghazi. Within the military he founded a cell which, in a 1969 coup. Now in power, Gaddafi converted Libya into a republic governed by his Revolutionary Command Council, an Islamic modernist, he introduced sharia as the basis for the legal system and promoted Islamic socialism. In 1973, he initiated a Popular Revolution with the formation of General Peoples Committees, purported to be a system of direct democracy and he outlined his Third International Theory that year, publishing these ideas in The Green Book. In 1977, Gaddafi transformed Libya into a new socialist state called the Jamahiriya, officially he adopted a symbolic role in governance but remained head of both the military and the Revolutionary Committees responsible for policing and suppressing dissent. A particularly hostile relationship developed with the United States, United Kingdom, from 1999, Gaddafi rejected Arab socialism and encouraged economic privatisation, rapprochement with Western nations, and Pan-Africanism, he was Chairperson of the African Union from 2009–10. Amid the 2011 Arab Spring, protests against widespread corruption and unemployment broke out in eastern Libya, the situation descended into civil war, in which NATO intervened militarily on the side of the anti-Gaddafist National Transitional Council. The government was overthrown and Gaddafi, who had retreated to Sirte, was captured and killed by NTC militants, a highly divisive figure, Gaddafi dominated Libyas politics for four decades and was the subject of a pervasive cult of personality. Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi was born in a tent near Qasr Abu Hadi and his family came from a small, relatively un-influential tribal group called the Qadhadhfa, who were Arabized Berber in heritage. His mother was named Aisha, and his father, Mohammad Abdul Salam bin Hamed bin Mohammad, was known as Abu Meniar, nomadic Bedouins, they were illiterate and kept no birth records. His parents only surviving son, he had three older sisters, Gaddafis upbringing in Bedouin culture influenced his personal tastes for the rest of his life, he preferred the desert over the city and would retreat there to meditate. According to later claims, Gaddafis paternal grandfather, Abdessalam Bouminyar, was killed by the Italian Army during the Italian invasion of 1911, at World War IIs end in 1945, Libya was occupied by British and French forces. Although Britain and France intended on dividing the nation between their empires, the General Assembly of the United Nations declared that the country be granted political independence. In 1951, the UN created the United Kingdom of Libya, a state under the leadership of a pro-Western monarch, Idris. Gaddafis earliest education was of a nature, imparted by a local Islamic teacher. Subsequently moving to nearby Sirte to attend school, he progressed through six grades in four yearsMuammar Gaddafi – Muammar Gaddafi in 1973
21. Arabic language – Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is also the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin. Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has also borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is also believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were also spoken in southern Arabia at this time. To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz, Dadanitic and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attestedArabic language – The Galland Manuscript of One Thousand and One Nights, 14th century
22. Libya – The three traditional parts of the country are Tripolitania, Fezzan and Cyrenaica. With an area of almost 1.8 million square kilometres, Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world. The largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya, the other large city is Benghazi, which is located in eastern Libya. Libya has been inhabited by Berbers since the late Bronze Age, the Phoenicians established trading posts in western Libya, and ancient Greek colonists established city-states in eastern Libya. Libya was variously ruled by Carthaginians, Persians, Egyptians and Greeks before becoming a part of the Roman Empire, Libya was an early center of Christianity. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area of Libya was mostly occupied by the Vandals until the 7th century, in the 16th century, the Spanish Empire and the Knights of St John occupied Tripoli, until Ottoman rule began in 1551. Libya was involved in the Barbary Wars of the 18th and 19th centuries, Ottoman rule continued until the Italian occupation of Libya resulted in the temporary Italian Libya colony from 1911 to 1943. During the Second World War Libya was an important area of warfare in the North African Campaign, the Italian population then went into decline. Libya became an independent kingdom in 1951, a military coup in 1969 overthrew King Idris I, beginning a period of sweeping social reform. Since then, Libya has experienced a period of instability, the European Union is involved in an operation to disrupt human trafficking networks exploiting refugees fleeing from wars in Africa for Europe. At least two political bodies claim to be the government of Libya, the Council of Deputies is internationally recognized as the legitimate government, but it does not hold territory in the capital, Tripoli, instead meeting in the Cyrenaica city of Tobruk. Parts of Libya are outside of either governments control, with various Islamist, rebel, the United Nations is sponsoring peace talks between the Tobruk and Tripoli-based factions. An agreement to form an interim government was signed on 17 December 2015. Under the terms of the agreement, a nine-member Presidency Council, the leaders of the new government, called the Government of National Accord, arrived in Tripoli on 5 April 2016. Since then the GNC, one of the two governments, has disbanded to support the new GNA. The name Libya was introduced in 1934 for Italian Libya, reviving the name for Northwest Africa. The name was based on use in 1903 by Italian geographer Federico Minutilli. It was intended to supplant terms applied to Ottoman Tripolitania, the region of what is today Libya having been ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911Libya – The temple of Zeus in the ancient Greek city of Cyrene.
23. 2011 Libyan Civil War – The protests escalated into a rebellion that spread across the country, with the forces opposing Gaddafi establishing an interim governing body, the National Transitional Council. In early March, Gaddafis forces rallied, pushed eastwards and re-took several coastal cities before reaching Benghazi, a further UN resolution authorised member states to establish and enforce a no-fly zone over Libya, and to use all necessary measures to prevent attacks on civilians. The Gaddafi government then announced a ceasefire, but fighting continued, throughout the conflict, rebels rejected government offers of a ceasefire and efforts by the African Union to end the fighting because the plans set forth did not include the removal of Gaddafi. On 16 September 2011, the National Transitional Council was recognised by the United Nations as the representative of Libya. Muammar Gaddafi remained at large until 20 October 2011, when he was captured and killed in Sirte, the National Transitional Council declared the liberation of Libya and the official end of the war on 23 October 2011. In the aftermath of the war, a low-level insurgency by former Gaddafi loyalists continued. A much greater issue has been the role of militias which fought in the civil war and these unresolved issues led directly to a second civil war in Libya. Muammar Gaddafi was the head of the Free Officers, a group of Arab nationalists that deposed King Idris I in 1969 in a bloodless coup and he abolished the Libyan Constitution of 1951, considering it a neocolonial document. From 1969 until 1975 standards of living, life expectancy and literacy grew rapidly, in 1975 he published his manifesto The Green Book. He officially stepped down from power in 1977, and subsequently claimed to be merely a figurehead until 2011. Under Gaddafi, Libya was theoretically a decentralized, direct democracy state run according to the philosophy of Gaddafis The Green Book, according to Freedom House, however, these structures were often manipulated to ensure the dominance of Gaddafi, who reportedly continued to dominate all aspects of government. WikiLeaks disclosure of confidential US diplomatic cables revealed US diplomats there speaking of Gaddafis mastery of tactical maneuvering and this extended even to his own sons, as he repeatedly changed affections to avoid the rise of a clear successor and rival. Both Gaddafi and the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, however, officially denied that he held any power, while he was popularly seen as a demagogue in the West, Gaddafi always portrayed himself as a statesman-philosopher. According to several Western media sources, Gaddafi feared a coup against his government. The Libyan Army consisted of about 50,000 personnel and its most powerful units were four crack brigades of highly equipped and trained soldiers, composed of members of Gaddafis tribe or members of other tribes loyal to him. One, the Khamis Brigade, was led by his son Khamis, local militias and Revolutionary Committees across the country were also kept well-armed. By contrast, regular units were poorly armed and trained. By the end of Gaddafis 42 years rule, Libyas population had a per capita income of $14,000, a broadly secular society was imposed2011 Libyan Civil War – U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton with Libyan National Security Adviser Mutassim Gaddafi in 2009
24. Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma – During the Second World War, he was Supreme Allied Commander, South East Asia Command. He was the last Viceroy of India and the first Governor-General of independent India, from 1954 until 1959 he was First Sea Lord, a position that had been held by his father, Prince Louis of Battenberg, some forty years earlier. Thereafter he served as Chief of the Defence Staff until 1965, during this period Mountbatten also served as Chairman of the NATO Military Committee for a year. He was the youngest child and the son of Prince Louis of Battenberg and his wife Princess Victoria of Hesse. His maternal grandparents were Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse, and Princess Alice of the United Kingdom and his paternal grandparents were Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine and Julia, Princess of Battenberg. His siblings were Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark, Queen Louise of Sweden, young Mountbattens nickname among family and friends was Dickie, although Richard was not among his given names. This was because his great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, had suggested the nickname of Nicky, but to avoid confusion with the many Nickys of the Russian Imperial Family, Nicky was changed to Dickie. Mountbatten was educated at home for the first 10 years of his life, he was sent to Lockers Park School in Hertfordshire and on to the Royal Naval College. His second son acquired the courtesy title Lord Louis Mountbatten and was known as Lord Louis until he was created a peer in 1946 and he paid a brief visit of ten days to the Western Front, in July 1918. He was appointed officer of the small warship HMS P.31 on 13 October 1918 and was promoted sub-lieutenant on 15 January 1919. HMS P.31 took part in the Peace River Pageant on 4 April 1919, Mountbatten attended Christs College, Cambridge for two terms, starting in October 1919, where he studied English literature in a programme that was specially designed for ex-servicemen. He was posted to the battlecruiser HMS Renown in March 1920 and accompanied Edward, Prince of Wales and he was promoted lieutenant on 15 April 1920. HMS Renown returned to Portsmouth on 11 October 1920, early in 1921 Royal Navy personnel were used for civil defence duties as serious industrial unrest seemed imminent. Mountbatten had to command a platoon of stokers, many of whom had never handled a rifle before and he transferred to the battlecruiser HMS Repulse in March 1921 and accompanied the Prince of Wales on a Royal tour of India and Japan. Edward and Mountbatten formed a friendship during the trip. Mountbatten survived the deep defence cuts known as the Geddes Axe and he was posted to the battleship HMS Revenge in the Mediterranean Fleet in January 1923. Promoted lieutenant-commander on 15 April 1928, he returned to the Signals School in July 1929 as Senior Wireless Instructor. He was appointed Fleet Wireless Officer to the Mediterranean Fleet in August 1931, in 1934, Mountbatten was appointed to his first command – the destroyer HMS DaringLouis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma – Admiral of the Fleet The Right Honourable The Earl Mountbatten of Burma KG GCB OM GCSI GCIE GCVO DSO PC FRS
25. George Orwell – Eric Arthur Blair, better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist, and critic. His work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of injustice, opposition to totalitarianism. Orwell wrote literary criticism, poetry, fiction, and polemical journalism and he is best known for the allegorical novella Animal Farm and the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. In 2008, The Times ranked him second on a list of The 50 greatest British writers since 1945, Eric Arthur Blair was born on 25 June 1903, in Motihari, Bengal Presidency, in British India. His grandfather, Thomas Richard Arthur Blair, was a clergyman, although the gentility passed down the generations, the prosperity did not, Eric Blair described his family as lower-upper-middle class. His father, Richard Walmesley Blair, worked in the Opium Department of the Indian Civil Service and his mother, Ida Mabel Blair, grew up in Moulmein, Burma, where her French father was involved in speculative ventures. Eric had two sisters, Marjorie, five years older, and Avril, five years younger, when Eric was one year old, his mother took him and his sister to England. His birthplace and ancestral house in Motihari has been declared a monument of historical importance. In 1904, Ida Blair settled with her children at Henley-on-Thames in Oxfordshire, Eric was brought up in the company of his mother and sisters, and apart from a brief visit in mid-1907, they did not see the husband and father Richard Blair until 1912. His mothers diary from 1905 describes a lively round of social activity, before the First World War, the family moved to Shiplake, Oxfordshire where Eric became friendly with the Buddicom family, especially their daughter Jacintha. When they first met, he was standing on his head in a field, on being asked why, he said, You are noticed more if you stand on your head than if you are right way up. Jacintha and Eric read and wrote poetry, and dreamed of becoming famous writers and he said that he might write a book in the style of H. G. Wellss A Modern Utopia. During this period, he enjoyed shooting, fishing and birdwatching with Jacinthas brother and sister. At the age of five, Eric was sent as a day-boy to a convent school in Henley-on-Thames and it was a Roman Catholic convent run by French Ursuline nuns, who had been exiled from France after religious education was banned in 1903. His mother wanted him to have a school education, but his family could not afford the fees. Ida Blairs brother Charles Limouzin recommended St Cyprians School, Eastbourne, Limouzin, who was a proficient golfer, knew of the school and its headmaster through the Royal Eastbourne Golf Club, where he won several competitions in 1903 and 1904. The headmaster undertook to help Blair to win a scholarship, in September 1911 Eric arrived at St Cyprians. He boarded at the school for the five years, returning home only for school holidaysGeorge Orwell – Orwell's press card portrait, 1943
26. Carly Simon – Carly Elisabeth Simon is an American singer-songwriter, musician and childrens author. Over the course of her career, Simon has amassed 24 Billboard Hot 100 charting singles,28 Billboard Adult Contemporary charting singles, AllMusic called Simon, One of the quintessential singer-songwriters of the 70s. Simon has a vocal range. She was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1994, inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame for Youre So Vain in 2004 and awarded the ASCAP Founders Award in 2012. In 1995 and 1998, respectively, Simon received the Boston Music Awards Lifetime Achievement, Simon is the former wife of another notable singer-songwriter, James Taylor. Simon and Taylor have two children together, Sarah Sally Maria Taylor and Benjamin Ben Simon Taylor, who are also musicians, Carly Simon was born in New York City. Her father was Richard L. Simon, a pianist who often played Chopin and her mother was Andrea Louise Simon, a civil rights activist and singer. Her father was from a German Jewish family, while her maternal grandfather Frederick was a German-speaking Swiss and maternal grandmother a Spanish-Catholic from Valencia and her grandmother was sent to England and raised by nuns until the age of sixteen. In 2015, Simon stated that when she was seven years old and she stated, It was heinous, adding, It changed my view about sex for a long time. Simon began stuttering severely when she was eight years old, a psychiatrist tried unsuccessfully to cure her stuttering. Instead, Simon turned to singing and songwriting, I felt so strangulated talking that I did the natural thing, which is to write songs, because I could sing without stammering, as all stammerers can. Simon was raised in the Riverdale neighborhood of the Bronx, New York City and has two sisters, Joanna and Lucy, and a younger brother, Peter. They were raised as nominal Catholics, according to a book of photography Peter published in the late 1990s and she also briefly attended Sarah Lawrence College before dropping out to pursue music. Simons career began with a music group with her sister Lucy as the Simon Sisters. They had a hit in 1964 called Winkin, Blinkin and Nod. Their second album, Cuddlebug, followed later that year, the duo made one more album together, 1969s The Simon Sisters Sing the Lobster Quadrille and Other Songs for Children, before Lucy left to get married and start a family. Later, Carly collaborated with eclectic New York rockers Elephants Memory for about six months and she also appeared in the 1971 Miloš Forman film Taking Off, playing an auditioning singer, and sang Long Term Physical Effects, which was included in the 1971 soundtrack for the film. Simon was signed by Jac Holzman to Elektra Records in 1970 and she released her self-titled debut album, Carly Simon, in March 1971Carly Simon – Seventies publicity photo
27. George Michael – Georgios Kyriacos Panayiotou, known professionally as George Michael, was an English singer, songwriter, record producer, and philanthropist who rose to fame as a member of the music duo Wham. He was best known for his work in the 1980s and 1990s, including hit singles such as Wake Me Up Before You Go-Go and Last Christmas, and albums such as Faith and Listen Without Prejudice Vol.1. Up to the time of his death, Michael sold more than 115 million records worldwide and his breakthrough duo Wham. sold 28 million records between 1982 and 1986, and his debut solo album Faith sold more than 20 million copies worldwide. Michael achieved seven number one singles in the UK and eight number one songs on the Billboard Hot 100 in the US, including Careless Whisper and Praying for Time. He ranks among the best-selling British acts of all time, Michael, who came out as gay in 1998, was an active LGBT rights campaigner and HIV/AIDS charity fundraiser. In 2004, the Radio Academy named Michael the most played artist on British radio during the period 1984–2004, the documentary A Different Story covered his career and personal life. Michaels first tour in 15 years, the worldwide 25 Live tour, in the early hours of 25 December 2016, Michael, aged 53, was found dead in bed at his Oxfordshire home. A coroners report attributed his death to natural causes, Michael was born in East Finchley on 25 June 1963. His father, Kyriacos Jack Panayiotou, a Greek Cypriot restaurateur, had emigrated to Britain in the 1950s, Michaels mother, Lesley Angold, was an English dancer, and his maternal grandmother was Jewish. Michael spent most of his childhood in Kingsbury, London, in the home his parents soon after his birth. His older sisters are Yioda and Melanie, while he was in his early teens, the family moved to Radlett. There, Michael attended Bushey Meads School in Bushey, where he befriended his future Wham. partner Andrew Ridgeley, the two had the same career ambition of being musicians. Michael busked on the London Underground, performing such as 39 by Queen. His involvement in the business began with his working as a DJ, playing at clubs and local schools around Bushey, Stanmore. This was followed by the formation of a ska band called The Executive, with Ridgeley, Ridgeleys brother Paul, Andrew Leaver. Michael formed the duo Wham. with Andrew Ridgeley in 1981, the bands first album Fantastic reached No.1 in the UK in 1983 and produced a series of top 10 singles including Young Guns, Wham Rap. and Club Tropicana. Their second album, Make It Big, reached No.1 on the charts in the US, Michael sang on the original Band Aid recording of Do They Know Its Christmas. And donated the profits from Last Christmas/Everything She Wants to charity and he also contributed background vocals to David Cassidys 1985 hit The Last Kiss, as well as Elton Johns 1985 successes Nikita and Wrap Her UpGeorge Michael – George Michael performing during his 25 Live tour in 2008.
28. Dikembe Mutombo – Outside basketball, he has become known for his humanitarian work. On January 10,2007, he surpassed Kareem Abdul-Jabbar as the second most prolific shot blocker in NBA history, behind only Hakeem Olajuwon. He averaged a double-double for most of his career, and is 12th all-time in career double-doubles, at the conclusion of the 2009 NBA playoffs, Mutombo announced his retirement. On September 11,2015, he was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, Dikembe Mutombo was born on June 25,1966 in Leopoldville, Democratic Republic of the Congo as one of twelve children to Samuel and Biamba Marie Mutombo. He speaks English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and five Central African varieties including Lingala and he is a member of the Luba ethnic group. He moved to the United States in 1987 at the age of 21 to enroll in college and he spoke almost no English when he arrived at Georgetown and studied in the ESL program. During his first year of basketball as a sophomore, Mutombo once blocked twelve shots in a game. While at Georgetown, Mutombos international background and interests stood out, like many other Washington-area college students, he served as a summer intern, once for the Congress of the United States and once for the World Bank. In 1991 he graduated with degrees in linguistics and diplomacy. In the 1991 NBA draft, the Denver Nuggets drafted Mutombo with the fourth overall pick, coming to a team ranked last in the NBA in opponent points-per-game and Defensive Rating, his shot blocking ability made an immediate impression across the league. Mutombo developed his signature move in 1992 as a way to more marketable. After blocking a shot, he would point his right index finger at that player. That year, Mutombo starred in a Adidas advertisement which used the catchprase Man does not fly … in the house of Mutombo, a reference to his prolific shot-blocking. As a rookie, Mutombo was selected for the All-Star team and averaged 16.6 points,12.3 rebounds, Mutombo began establishing himself as one of the leagues best defensive players, regularly putting up big rebound and block numbers. The 1993–94 season saw Denver continue the improvement with Mutombo as the franchise cornerstone, finishing with a 42-40 record. They were matched up with the top-seeded 63–19 Seattle SuperSonics in the first round, at the end of Game 5, Mutombo memorably grabbed the game-winning rebound and fell to the ground, holding the ball over his head in a moment of joy. Mutombos defensive presence was the key to the victory, his total of 31 blocks remains a record for a five-game series. In the second round of the playoffs, the Nuggets fell to the Utah Jazz 4-3, the following season, he was selected to his second All-Star game and received the NBA Defensive Player of the Year AwardDikembe Mutombo – Mutombo in 2012
29. Lucy Benjamin – Lucy Benjamin is an English actress. Born in Reading, Berkshire, England, she took the name of Benjamin after her brother. Benjamin trained at the Redroofs Theatre School in Maidenhead and her first acting role was as a child actress in Doctor Who in 1983, playing a younger version of the character Nyssa in Mawdryn Undead. She remained uncredited both on-screen and in Radio Times for this part, despite having dialogue — albeit one word, in 1989, she starred in the hit childrens television programme Press Gang, where she played Julie Craig. She left after the first series for another role, but returned for the fourth and final series until 1993, in 1989 and 1990, Benjamin appeared in two series of LWT sitcom Close to Home, playing Paul Nicholas teenaged daughter Kate Shepherd. Also in 1990, Benjamin appeared in the BSB Galaxy Channel soap opera Jupiter Moon, in 1995, she appeared in the Adrian Edmondson and Rik Mayall comedy Bottom. However, she is best known for her role as Lisa Fowler in the BBC soap opera EastEnders which she played from 1998 to 2003, and was involved in several groundbreaking stories during her time there. During her time on EastEnders, Benjamin was involved in one of the soaps most renowned and highly anticipated storylines, the storyline centred on the shooting of her on-screen lover Phil Mitchell, and who, out of the many potential candidates, actually performed the dastardly deed. Several suspects emerged and the audience was kept in the dark for weeks as to the identity of the shooter. Benjamins character was eventually unveiled as the shooter and she was asked back for a short period in 2003, however, to help with the forthcoming exit of Steve McFadden, who was taking a hiatus from the programme. Then again on 5 August 2010, Benjamin returned to Eastenders for one episode in a storyline that was building up to the exit of Barbara Windsor, since leaving EastEnders, Benjamin has appeared in the BBC television programme The Afternoon Play, and the BBC hospital drama Casualty. She has also appeared in pantomimes across London, as well as touring for 6 months in the play Framed in which she starred with Tom Craig from Coronation Street. In April 2006, the Daily Mirror reported that Benjamin was in talks with EastEnders about reprising the role of Lisa Fowler. Benjamin, however, has confirmed in a recent interview that all rumours of her returning to EastEnders were inaccurate, in June 2006, Benjamin appeared on The X Factor, Battle of the Stars, where she was the outright winner. She was mentored by the judge, Louis Walsh and she also appeared as Heather in Stephen Frys drama Kingdom. In October 2006, Benjamin appeared in an episode of the BBC medical drama Doctors, in September 2008, she appeared in All Star Family Fortunes, winning £10,000 for her charity www. rosiesrainbowfund. co. uk. She starred in The Pretender Agenda at the New Players Theatre with Lee Ryan, Benjamin starred also in the directorial debut from FX Artist Tristan Versluis the UK horror film called Not Alone. She was a contestant in the ITV1 series Im a Celebrity. Get Me Out of Here, Benjamin recently was in the UK Nationwide tour of the West End hit stage show, HairsprayLucy Benjamin – Lucy Benjamin at the British Academy Television Awards 2009
30. Carlos Delgado – Carlos Juan Delgado Hernández is a Puerto Rican former professional baseball player. With 473 home runs and 1,512 RBI, he holds the home run. He is one of six players in Major League history to hit 30 home runs in ten consecutive seasons. Delgado also played for the Florida Marlins and New York Mets, on February 4,2015, Delgado was elected to the Canadian Baseball Hall of Fame. Delgado was born in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico to Carlos Cao Delgado and he grew up in the El Prado section of Aguadilla. There, he attended elementary school alongside his three siblings, both his father, Don Cao, and his grandfather, Asdrúbal Pingolo Delgado, were well-known figures in the town. Delgado has said that made him feel protected, but that it also demanded that he had to behave properly. Delgado attended Agustín Stahl Middle School and José de Diego High School, Delgado has expressed his strong feelings of pride in being an Aguadillano, noting everything he holds dear is found in the municipality, and his off-season house is located there. He developed friendships with several of the inhabitants, with whom he began playing baseball in the little leagues. At the age of 16, several major league organizations including the Cincinnati Reds, Montreal Expos, New York Mets, Texas Rangers and Toronto Blue Jays saw his potential and he signed with the Blue Jays in 1988 after being discovered by team scout Epy Guerrero. After being named the #4 prospect in the leagues by Baseball America. Though he didnt play in the 1993 World Series, he was awarded a World Series ring, originally a catcher, he later switched to first base and became one of the most productive sluggers in the major leagues. A two-time All-Star, in 2000 and 2003, Delgado holds several Blue Jays single-season and he won the Hank Aaron and The Sporting News Player of the Year Awards in 2000, and the Silver Slugger Award in 1999,2000, and 2003. In 1999, Delgado hit a career-high 44 home runs, along with 134 RBI, the next year, he batted a career-high.344, along with 41 home runs,57 doubles, and 137 RBI. He finished fourth in the 2000 American League MVP voting, on September 25,2003, in a game against the Tampa Bay Devil Rays, Delgado became the 15th major league player to hit four home runs in one game. Delgado is the player to hit four home runs with only 4 at-bats in a game. In the 2003 season, Delgado hit 42 home runs and led the Majors with 145 RBI, while batting.302 and he was named AL Player of the Week on September 30,2003 and again on September 7,2004. Following the 2004 season, Delgado became an agent, and was pursued by the Baltimore Orioles, Florida Marlins, New York Mets, Seattle MarinersCarlos Delgado – Delgado with the New York Mets
31. Major League Baseball – Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams now play in the National League and American League, the NL and AL operated as separate legal entities from 1876 and 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining legally separate entities since 1903, the merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000. The organization also oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises about 240 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs, with the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseballs first professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869,30 years after Abner Doubleday supposedly invented the game of baseball, the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who often jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era, Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal. The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, and survived potential downturns during the Great Depression, shortly after the war, baseballs color barrier was broken by Jackie Robinson. The 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL, then new stadiums, Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, and media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, today, MLB is composed of thirty teams, twenty-nine in the United States and one in Canada. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television, radio, and the Internet throughout North America, MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution and this document has undergone several incarnations since 1875, with the most recent revisions being made in 2012. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sports umpiring crews, and negotiates marketing, labor, MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball. This ruling has been weakened only slightly in subsequent years, the weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLBs primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916, the last attempt at a new league was the aborted Continental League in 1960. The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner, Rob Manfred, the chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives, president, chief officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer. The multimedia branch of MLB, which is based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media and this branch oversees MLB. com and each of the 30 teams websites. Its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, MLB Productions is a similarly structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast mediaMajor League Baseball – MLB headquarters at 245 Park Avenue, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, USA
32. Vladimir Kramnik – Vladimir Borisovich Kramnik is a Russian chess Grandmaster. He was the Classical World Chess Champion from 2000 to 2006, and he has won three team gold medals and three individual medals at Chess Olympiads. In October 2000, he defeated Garry Kasparov in a match played in London, in late 2004, Kramnik successfully defended his title against challenger Péter Lékó in a drawn match played in Brissago, Switzerland. In October 2006, Kramnik, the Classical World Champion, defeated reigning FIDE World Champion Veselin Topalov in a unification match, as a result, Kramnik became the first undisputed World Champion, holding both the FIDE and Classical titles, since Kasparov split from FIDE in 1993. In 2007, Kramnik lost the title to Viswanathan Anand, who won the World Chess Championship 2007 tournament ahead of Kramnik and he challenged Anand at the World Chess Championship 2008 to regain his title, but lost. Nonetheless, he has remained a player, and is the current world number four. Vladimir Kramnik was born in the town of Tuapse, on the shores of the Black Sea and his fathers birth name was Boris Sokolov, but he took his stepfathers surname when his mother remarried, his mother is Ukrainian. As a child, Vladimir Kramnik studied in the school established by Mikhail Botvinnik. His first notable result in a tournament was his gold medal win as first reserve for the Russian team in the 1992 Chess Olympiad in Manila. He scored eight wins, one draw, and no losses, the following year, Kramnik played in the very strong tournament in Linares. He finished fifth, beating the world number three, Vassily Ivanchuk, along the way. In 1995, Kramnik served as a second for Kasparov in the Classical World Chess Championship 1995 match against challenger Viswanathan Anand, Kramnik continued to produce good results, including winning at Dortmund ten times from 1995 to 2011. He is the second of nine chess players to have reached a rating of 2800. Kramniks 12 years between world number-one rankings is the longest since the inception of the FIDE ranking system in 1971. In the mid- and late-90s, Kramnik, although considered one of the strongest players in the world, in 1998, Kramnik faced Alexei Shirov in a Candidates match for the right to play Garry Kasparov for the Classical World Chess Championship, and lost 3½–5½. In 1999, Kramnik participated in the FIDE knockout championship in Las Vegas, suitable sponsorship was not found for a Kasparov–Shirov match, and it never took place. In 2000, sponsorship was secured for a Kasparov–Kramnik match instead and this was somewhat controversial, making Kramnik the first player since 1935 to play a world championship match without qualifying. In 2000, Kramnik played a match against Garry Kasparov in LondonVladimir Kramnik – Kramnik at the 2005 Corus chess tournament
33. Mary Tudor, Queen of France – Mary Tudor, the third daughter of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, was an English princess. Mary became the wife of Louis XII of France, more than 30 years her senior. Following his death, she married Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, the marriage, which was performed secretly in France, took place during her brothers reign and without his consent. This necessitated the intervention of Thomas Wolsey and although the couple were eventually pardoned by Henry VIII, Mary was the fourth child of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the youngest to survive infancy. She was born at Sheen Palace, most probably in March 1496, a privy seal bill dated from midsummer 1496 authorizes a payment of fifty shillings to her nurse, Anne Skeron. Also, Erasmus stated that she was four years old when he visited the Royal nursery in 1499–1500, at age six, she was given her own household, complete with a staff of gentlewomen assigned to wait upon her, a schoolmaster, and a physician. She was given instruction in French, Latin, music, dancing, as children, Mary and her brother, the future King Henry VIII, shared a close friendship. He would name his first surviving child, the future Queen Mary I and they lost their mother when Mary was just seven, and given the number of bills paid to her apothecary between 1504 and 1509, it would appear that Marys own health was fragile. Known in her youth as one of the most beautiful princesses in Europe, in 1506, during a visit from Philip I of Castile, Mary was called upon to entertain the guests, dancing, and playing the lute and clavicord. The following year, King Philip died, and on 21 December 1507, Mary was betrothed to his son Charles, the betrothal was called off in 1513. Instead, Cardinal Wolsey negotiated a treaty with France, and on 9 October 1514, at the age of 18. One of the Maids of Honour who attended her in France was Anne Boleyn, following Louis death, the new King Francis I made attempts to arrange a second marriage for the beautiful widow. Mary had been unhappy with her marriage of state to Louis, as at this time she was almost certainly already in love with Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk. Henry was aware of his sisters feelings, letters from 1515 indicate that Mary agreed to wed Louis only on condition that if she survived him, however, Henry wanted any future marriage to be to his advantage. The Kings council, not wishing to see Brandon gain further power at Court, were opposed to the match. Meanwhile, rumours swirled in France that she would wed either the Duke of Lorraine or the Duke of Savoy, a pair of French friars actually went so far as to warn Mary that she must not wed Brandon, because he had traffickings with the devil. When Henry sent Brandon to bring Mary back to England in late January 1515, once in France, Mary persuaded Brandon to abandon this pledge. The couple wed in secret at the Hotel de Clugny on 3 March 1515, in the presence of just ten people, technically this was treason, as Brandon had married a Royal Princess without Henrys consentMary Tudor, Queen of France – Portrait of Mary Tudor by an unknown artist in the French school
34. Louis XII of France – Louis XII was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504. The son of Charles, Duke of Orléans, and Maria of Cleves, he succeeded his cousin Charles VIII, who died without a closer heir in 1498. Before his accession to the throne of France, he was known as Louis of Orléans and was compelled to be married to his disabled and supposedly sterile cousin Joan by his second cousin, king Louis XI. By doing so, Louis XI hoped to extinguish the Orléans cadet branch of the House of Valois, Louis of Orléans was one of the great feudal lords who opposed the French monarchy in the conflict known as the Mad War. At the royal victory in the Battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier in 1488, Louis was captured and he subsequently took part in the Italian War of 1494–1498 as one of the French commanders. When Louis XII became king in 1498, he had his marriage with Joan annulled by Pope Alexander VI and instead married Anne of Brittany and this marriage allowed Louis to reinforce the personal Union of Brittany and France. Louis persevered in the Italian Wars, initiating a second Italian campaign for the control of the Kingdom of Naples, Louis conquered the Duchy of Milan in 1500 and pushed forward to the Kingdom of Naples, which fell to him in 1501. Proclaimed King of Naples, Louis faced a new coalition gathered by Ferdinand II of Aragon and was forced to cede Naples to Spain in 1504. A popular king, Louis was proclaimed Father of the People in 1506 by the Estates-General of Tours for his reduction of the tax known as taille, legal reforms, Louis XII died in 1515 without a male heir. He was succeeded by his cousin Francis from the Angoulême cadet branch of the House of Valois, Louis was born on 27 June 1462 in the Château de Blois, Touraine. The son of Charles, Duke of Orléans, and Marie of Cleves, however, Louis XI may have been more influenced in this opinion by his opposition to the entire Orleanist faction of the royal family than by the actual facts of this paternity case. Despite any alleged doubts that King Louis XI may have had, King Louis XI died on 30 August 1483. He was succeeded to the throne of France by his thirteen year-old son, nobody knew the direction which the new king would take in leading the kingdom. Accordingly, on 24 October 1483, a call went out for a convocation of the Estates General of the French kingdom, in January 1484, deputies of the Estates General began to arrive in Tours, France. The deputies represented three different estates in society, the First Estate was the Church, in France this meant the Roman Catholic Church. The Second Estate was composed of the nobility and the royalty of France, the Third Estate was generally composed of commoners and the class of traders and merchants in France. Louis, the current Duke of Orleans and future Louis XII, each estate brought their chief complaints to the Estates General in hopes to have some impact on the policies that the new King would pursue. The First Estate wanted a return to the Pragmatic Sanction, the Pragmatic Sanction had been first instituted by King Charles VII, the current King Charles VIIIs grandfatherLouis XII of France – Louis XII
35. E. T. A. Hoffmann – Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann was a Prussian Romantic author of fantasy and Gothic horror, a jurist, composer, music critic, draftsman and caricaturist. His stories form the basis of Jacques Offenbachs famous opera The Tales of Hoffmann and he is also the author of the novella The Nutcracker and the Mouse King, on which Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovskys ballet The Nutcracker is based. The ballet Coppélia is based on two stories that Hoffmann wrote, while Schumanns Kreisleriana is based on Hoffmanns character Johannes Kreisler. Hoffmanns stories highly influenced 19th century literature, and he is one of the authors of the Romantic movement. Hoffmanns ancestors, both maternal and paternal, were jurists and his father, Christoph Ludwig Hoffmann, was a barrister in Königsberg, Prussia, as well as a poet and amateur musician who played the viola da gamba. In 1767 he married his cousin, Lovisa Albertina Doerffer, ernst Theodor Wilhelm, born on 24 January 1776, was the youngest of three children, of whom the second died in infancy. The household, dominated by the uncle, was pietistic and uncongenial, Hoffmann was to regret his estrangement from his father. Nevertheless, he remembered his aunts with great affection, especially the younger, Charlotte, between 1781 and 1792 he attended the Lutheran school or Burgschule, where he made good progress in classics. He was taught drawing by one Saemann, and counterpoint by a Polish organist named Podbileski, ernst showed great talent for piano-playing, and busied himself with writing and drawing. He had however read Schiller, Goethe, Swift, Sterne, Rousseau and Jean Paul, and wrote part of a novel titled Der Geheimnisvolle. Around 1787 he became friends with Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel the Younger, the son of a pastor, and nephew of Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel the Elder, during 1792, both attended some of Kants lectures at the University of Königsberg. Their friendship, although tested by an increasing social difference, was to be lifelong. In 1794, Hoffmann became enamored of Cora Hatt, a woman to whom he had given music lessons. She was ten years older, and in 1795 gave birth to her sixth child, in February 1796, her family protested against his attentions and, with his hesitant consent, asked another of his uncles to arrange employment for him in Glogau, Prussian Silesia. From 1796 Hoffmann obtained employment as a clerk for his uncle, Johann Ludwig Doerffer, after passing further examinations he visited Dresden, where he was amazed by the paintings in the gallery, particularly those of Correggio and Raphael. During the summer of 1798 his uncle was promoted to a court in Berlin, and it was there that Hoffmann first attempted to promote himself as a composer, writing an operetta called Die Maske and sending a copy to Queen Luise of Prussia. The official reply advised to him to write to the director of the Royal Theatre, from June 1800 to 1803 he worked in Prussian provinces in the area of Greater Poland and Masovia. This was the first time he had lived without supervision by members of his family, and he started to become what school principals, parsons, uncles, and aunts call dissoluteE. T. A. Hoffmann – E. T. A. Hoffmann
36. George Armstrong Custer – George Armstrong Custer was a United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the American Indian Wars. Raised in Michigan and Ohio, Custer was admitted to West Point in 1857, with the outbreak of the Civil War, Custer was called to serve with the Union Army. Custer developed a reputation during the Civil War. He participated in the first major engagement, the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21,1861, near Washington and his association with several important officers helped his career as did his success as a highly effective cavalry commander. He was wounded in the Battle of Culpeper Court House in Virginia on September 13,1863, in 1864, Custer was awarded another star and brevetted to major general rank. At the conclusion of the Appomattox Campaign, in which he and his troops played a role, Custer was present at General Robert E. Lees surrender to General Ulysses S. Grant. After the Civil War, Custer remained a general in the United States Volunteers until they were mustered out in February 1866. He reverted to his permanent rank of captain and was appointed a lieutenant colonel in the 7th Cavalry Regiment in July 1866 and he was dispatched to the west in 1867 to fight in the American Indian Wars. The battle is known in American history as Custers Last Stand. Custer and his regiment were defeated so decisively at the Little Bighorn that it has overshadowed all of his prior achievements, according to family letters, Custer was named after George Armstrong, a minister, in his devout mothers hope that her son might join the clergy. Custer was born in New Rumley, Ohio, to Emanuel Henry Custer, a farmer and blacksmith and he had two younger brothers, Thomas Custer and Boston Custer, both of whom died with him on the battlefield at Little Bighorn. His other full siblings were the familys youngest child, Margaret Custer, and Nevin Custer, Custer also had three older half-siblings. It was in large, close knit family that Custer. Emanuel Custer was an outspoken Democrat who taught his children politics, in a February 3,1887 letter to his sons widow, Libby, he related an incident when Autie was about four years old. He had to have a tooth drawn, and he was much afraid of blood. When I took him to the doctor to have the tooth pulled, it was in the night and I told him if it bled well it would get right away. When he got to the doctor he took his seat, the forceps slipped off and he had to make a second trial. He pulled it out, and Autie never even scrunched, going home, I led him by the armGeorge Armstrong Custer – George Armstrong Custer
37. Johnny Mercer – John Herndon Johnny Mercer was an American lyricist, songwriter and singer. He was also the founder of Capitol Records and he is best known as a lyricist, but he also composed music. He was also a singer who recorded his own songs as well as those written by others. From the mid-1930s through the mid-1950s, many of the songs Mercer wrote and he wrote the lyrics to more than fifteen hundred songs, including compositions for movies and Broadway shows. He received nineteen Academy Award nominations, and won four Best Original Song Oscars, Mercer was born in Savannah, Georgia. Lillians father was a merchant seaman who ran the Union blockade during the U. S. Civil War, Mercer was Georges fourth son, first by Lillian. Mercer was also a distant cousin of General George S. Patton, neither the General, nor Mercer himself, ever lived there. His mothers father was born in Lastovo, Croatia in 1834 to mother Ivana Cucevic, Mercer liked music as a small child and attributed his musical talent to his mother, who would sing sentimental ballads. Mercers father also sang, mostly old Scottish songs and his aunt told him he was humming music when he was six months old and later she took him to see minstrel and vaudeville shows where he heard “coon songs” and ragtime. The family’s summer home “Vernon View” was on the waters and Mercer’s long summers there among mossy trees, saltwater marshes. Mercer’s exposure to music was perhaps unique among the white songwriters of his generation. As a child, Mercer had African-American playmates and servants, and he listened to the fishermen and vendors about him and he was also attracted to black church services. Mercer later stated, “Songs always fascinated me more than anything and he had no formal musical training but was singing in a choir by six and at 11 or 12 he had memorized almost all of the songs he had heard and became curious about who wrote them. He once asked his brother who the best songwriter was, and his brother said Irving Berlin, despite Mercers early exposure to music, his talent was clearly in creating the words and singing, not in playing music, though early on he had hoped to become a composer. In addition to the lyrics that Mercer memorized, he was an avid reader and his attempts to play the trumpet and piano were not successful, and he never could read musical scores with any facility, relying instead on his own notation system. As a teenager in the Jazz Era, he was a product of his age and he hunted for records in the black section of Savannah and played such early black jazz greats as Ma Rainey, Bessie Smith, and Louis Armstrong. His father owned the first car in town, and Mercer’s teenage social life was enhanced by his driving privilege, later, Mercer wrote a humorous song called Arthur Murray Taught Me Dancing in a Hurry. Mercer attended exclusive Woodberry Forest boys prep school in Virginia until 1927, though not a top student, he was active in literary and poetry societies and as a humor writer for the school’s publicationsJohnny Mercer – Johnny Mercer, c. 1947
38. Jacques-Yves Cousteau – Jacques-Yves Cousteau AC was a French naval officer, explorer, conservationist, filmmaker, innovator, scientist, photographer, author and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in water. He co-developed the Aqua-lung, pioneered marine conservation and was a member of the Académie française, Cousteau also directed films, most notably the documentary adaptation of the book, The Silent World, which won a Palme dor at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival. He remained the only person to win a Palme dOr for a documentary film, Cousteau was born on 11 June 1910, in Saint-André-de-Cubzac, Gironde, France to Daniel and Élisabeth Cousteau. Cousteau completed his studies at the Collège Stanislas in Paris. In 1930, he entered the École Navale and graduated as a gunnery officer, after an automobile accident cut short his career in naval aviation, Cousteau indulged his interest in the sea. The accident caused him to both his arms and could have even killed him. This caused Cousteau to have to change his plans in becoming a naval pilot, Cousteau also belonged to the information service of the French Navy, and was sent on missions to Shanghai and Japan and in the USSR. On 12 July 1937 he married Simone Melchior, with whom he had two sons, Jean-Michel and Philippe and his sons took part in the adventures of the Calypso. In 1991, one year after his wife Simones death from cancer and they already had a daughter Diane Cousteau and a son Pierre-Yves Cousteau, born during Cousteaus marriage to his first wife. The years of World War II were decisive for the history of diving, after the armistice of 1940, the family of Simone and Jacques-Yves Cousteau took refuge in Megève, where he became a friend of the Ichac family who also lived there. Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Marcel Ichac shared the desire to reveal to the general public unknown and inaccessible places — for Cousteau the underwater world. In 1943, they made the film Épaves, in which used two of the very first Aqua-Lung prototypes. These prototypes were made in Boulogne-Billancourt by the Air Liquide company, following instructions from Cousteau, at that time, he kept his distance from his brother Pierre-Antoine Cousteau, a pen anti-semite who wrote the collaborationist newspaper Je suis partout and who received the death sentence in 1946. However, this was commuted to a life sentence. During the 1940s, Cousteau is credited with improving the design which gave birth to the open-circuit scuba technology used today. In 1943 Cousteau tried out the first prototype aqua-lung which finally made extended underwater exploration possible, a little later it became the GERS, then the COMISMER, and finally more recently the CEPHISMER. In 1947, Chief Petty Officer Maurice Fargues became the first diver to die using an aqualung while attempting a new record with the GERS near Toulon. The small team also undertook the exploration of the Roman wreck of Mahdia and it was the first underwater archaeology operation using autonomous diving, opening the way for scientific underwater archaeologyJacques-Yves Cousteau – Jacques-Yves Cousteau in 1972
39. Farrah Fawcett – Farrah Fawcett was an American actress and artist. In 1996, she was ranked No.26 on TV Guides 50 Greatest TV stars of All-Time, Fawcett began her career in 1968 in commercials and guest roles on television. During the 1970s, she appeared in television series, including recurring roles on Harry O. Her breakthrough role came in 1976, when she was cast as Jill Munroe in the ABC series Charlies Angels, alongside Kate Jackson, the show propelled all three to stardom, but especially Fawcett. After appearing in only the first season, Fawcett decided to leave the show led to legal disputes. Eventually she signed a contract requiring her to make six guest appearances in the shows third, for her role in Charlies Angels she received her first Golden Globe nomination. In 1983, Fawcett received positive reviews for her performance in the Off-Broadway play Extremities and she was subsequently cast in the 1986 film version and received a Golden Globe nomination. She received two Emmy Award nominations for her roles in TV movies, as a wife in the 1984 film The Burning Bed. Her 1980s work in TV movies also earned her four additional Golden Globe nominations, in 1997, she gained some negative press for a rambling appearance on The Late Show with David Letterman, but also garnered strong reviews for her role in the film The Apostle with Robert Duvall. She continued in numerous TV series, including recurring roles in the sitcom Spin City, for the latter, she received her third Emmy nomination. Her film roles include, Love Is a Funny Thing, Myra Breckinridge, Logans Run, Sunburn, Saturn 3, The Cannonball Run, Extremities, The Apostle, and Dr. T & the Women. Fawcett was diagnosed with cancer in 2006, the 2009 NBC documentary Farrahs Story chronicled her battle with the disease. She posthumously earned her fourth Emmy nomination for her work as a producer on the documentary, Fawcett was born in Corpus Christi, Texas, the younger of two daughters. Her mother, Pauline Alice Fawcett, was a homemaker, and her father and her elder sister was Diane Fawcett Walls, a graphic artist. She was of Irish, French, English and Choctaw Native American ancestry, Fawcett once said the name Farrah was made up by her mother because it went well with their last name. Another theory is that her father, an oilman, reportedly named her Farah after the Arabic word for joy, a Roman Catholic, Fawcetts early education was at the parish school of the church her family attended, St. Patricks Roman Catholic Church in Corpus Christi. Ray High School in Corpus Christi, where she was voted most beautiful by her classmates her freshman, sophomore, junior, for three years, she attended the University of Texas at Austin, studying art. She lived at Madison House on 22nd street, west of campus, during her freshman year, she was named one of the ten most beautiful coeds on campus, the first time a freshman had been chosenFarrah Fawcett – Fawcett in 1977
40. Michael Jackson – Michael Joseph Jackson was an American singer, songwriter, record producer, dancer, actor, and philanthropist. Called the King of Pop, his contributions to music, dance, the eighth child of the Jackson family, Michael made his professional debut in 1964 with his elder brothers Jackie, Tito, Jermaine, and Marlon as a member of the Jackson 5. He began his career in 1971. In the early 1980s, Jackson became a dominant figure in popular music, the popularity of these videos helped bring the television channel MTV to fame. Jacksons 1987 album Bad spawned the U. S and he continued to innovate with videos such as Black or White and Scream throughout the 1990s, and forged a reputation as a touring solo artist. Through stage and video performances, Jackson popularized a number of complicated dance techniques, such as the robot and his distinctive sound and style has influenced numerous artists of various music genres. Thriller is the album of all time, with estimated sales of 65 million copies worldwide. Jacksons other albums, including Off the Wall, Bad, Dangerous and he is recognized as the Most Successful Entertainer of All Time by Guinness World Records. Jackson won hundreds of awards, making him the most awarded recording artist in the history of popular music. He became the first artist in history to have a top ten single in the Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades when Love Never Felt So Good reached number nine on May 21,2014. Jackson traveled the world attending events honoring his humanitarianism, and, in 2000, aspects of Jacksons personal life, including his changing appearance, personal relationships, and behavior, generated controversy. In 1993, he was accused of sexual abuse, but the civil case was settled out of court for an undisclosed amount. In 2005, he was tried and acquitted of child sexual abuse allegations. While preparing for his concert series, This Is It, Jackson died of acute propofol and benzodiazepine intoxication on June 25,2009. The Los Angeles County Coroner ruled his death a homicide, and his personal physician, Jacksons death triggered a global outpouring of grief, and a live broadcast of his public memorial service was viewed around the world. Forbes ranks Jackson as the dead celebrity with earnings of $825 million in 2016. Michael Joseph Jackson was born on August 29,1958 and his mother, Katherine Esther Scruse, was a devout Jehovahs Witness. She played clarinet and piano and once aspired to be a country-and-western performer, michaels father, Joseph Walter Joe Jackson, a former boxer, was a steelworker at U. S. SteelMichael Jackson – Jackson performing in 1988, during the Bad World Tour
41. Prince Antasari – Prince Antasari, also known by his Indonesian name Pangeran Antasari, was a sultan of Banjar and is a National Hero of Indonesia. He was son of Prince Mashud and grandson of Prince Amir and he was a prince from a line of the royal family whose power had been usurped in the 18th century. As Antasari wanted to repel the Dutch, he cooperated with the leaders of Martapura, Kapuas, Pelaihari, Barito and he was also aided by Hidayatullah and Demang Leman. On 18 April 1859, the Banjarmasin War broke out between Antasaris alliance, which was able to field some 6,000 armed men, the war took place mainly in South and Central Kalimantan. Antasaris forces attacked the Dutch in Gunung Jabuk and also the Dutch coal mines in Pengaron, meanwhile, his allies attacked other Dutch posts. They also attacked Dutch ships, killing Lieutenants Van der Velde, Antasari rejected Dutch attempts to negotiate an end to the war, in which they offered him wealth and power in exchange for his surrender. In early August 1860, Antasaris forces were in Ringkau Katan and they were defeated in a battle on 9 August, after Dutch reinforcements had arrived from Amuntai. Hidayatullah was exiled to Java, but Antasari, together with Prince Miradipa and Tumenggung Mancanegara and he also defended a fort in Mount Tongka on 8 November 1861 with Gusti Umar and Tumenggung Surapati. In October 1862, Antasari was planning a big attack, however, an outbreak of smallpox led to his death on 11 October 1862. He was buried in Banjarmasin, and several other leaders, from different periods, were later buried there. After Antasaris death, his son, Muhammad Seman, continued his struggle against the Dutch, the resistance ended with Semans death in 1905. Antasari was given the title Panembahan Amiruddin Khaliful Mukmin on 14 March 1862 by his people and he was declared a National Hero of Indonesia in 1968 by President Suharto through presidential decree No. In the mid-1990s a documentary on Antasaris life was made, Antasari is featured on the obverse of the 2009 series 2,000 rupiah bill, which shows traditional Bornean dancers on the reversePrince Antasari – Portrait of Antasari, from 2000 rupiah bill (2009 series)
42. Dutch East Indies – The Dutch East Indies was a Dutch colony. It was formed from the colonies of the Dutch East India Company. During the 19th century, Dutch possessions and hegemony were expanded and this colony was one of the most valuable European colonies under the Dutch Empires rule, and contributed to Dutch global prominence in spice and cash crop trade in the 19th to early 20th century. The colonial social order was based on racial and social structures with a Dutch elite living separate from. The term Indonesia came into use for the location after 1880. In the early 20th century, local intellectuals began developing the concept of Indonesia as a nation state, Japans World War II occupation dismantled much of the Dutch colonial state and economy. Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Indonesian nationalists declared independence which they fought to secure during the subsequent Indonesian National Revolution, the word Indies comes from Latin, Indus. The original name Dutch Indies was translated by the English as the Dutch East Indies, the name Dutch Indies is recorded in the Dutch East India Companys documents of the early 1620s. Scholars writing in English use the terms Indië, Indies, the Dutch East Indies, the Netherlands Indies, centuries before Europeans arrived, the Indonesian archipelago supported various states, including commercially oriented coastal trading states and inland agrarian states. The first Europeans to arrive were the Portuguese in the late 15th century, following disruption of Dutch access to spices in Europe, the first Dutch expedition set sail for the East Indies in 1595 to access spices directly from Asia. When it made a 400% profit on its return, other Dutch expeditions soon followed, recognising the potential of the East Indies trade, the Dutch government amalgamated the competing companies into the United East India Company. The VOC was granted a charter to wage war, build fortresses, a capital was established in Batavia, which became the centre of the VOCs Asian trading network. Smuggling, the expense of war, corruption, and mismanagement led to bankruptcy by the end of the 18th century. The company was dissolved in 1800 and its colonial possessions in the Indonesian archipelago were nationalised under the Dutch Republic as the Dutch East Indies. From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late 16th century, to the declaration of independence in 1945, although Java was dominated by the Dutch, many areas remained independent throughout much of this time, including Aceh, Bali, Lombok and Borneo. Piracy remained a problem until the mid-19th century, finally in the early 20th century, imperial dominance was extended across what was to become the territory of modern-day Indonesia. In 1811, British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies ports including Java, Dutch control was restored in 1816. Under the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the Dutch secured British settlements such as Bengkulu in Sumatra, in exchange for ceding control of their possessions in the Malay Peninsula, the resulting borders between British and Dutch possessions remain between Malaysia and IndonesiaDutch East Indies – The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830, painting by Nicolaas Pieneman
43. University of West Alabama – The University of West Alabama is a public university located in Livingston, Alabama, United States. Founded in 1835, the school began as a school for young women called Livingston Female Academy. The original Board of Trustees of Livingston Female Academy was selected in 1836, the university serves students in several academic colleges and divisions on a 600-acre campus in west-central Alabama. UWA offers an arrangement of degree programs including associate, bachelors, masters. The university hosts concerts, lectures, fall and spring theatrical productions, fall and spring commencement exercises and its athletics teams – known as the UWA Tigers — are members of the Gulf South Conference and compete in the NCAAs Division II in all sports except two. The mens and womens teams compete in the Ozark Region of the National Intercollegiate Rodeo Association. The University of West Alabama began as Livingston Female Academy in 1835, as a church-related female academy, it admitted its first students in 1839. The school was established by ethnic Scots-Irish Presbyterians, who controlled the majority of seats on the first board of trustees selected in 1836, the purpose of the school was to educate future teachers, while also offering course work in art, music, languages, and home economics. Tuition at this time was $20 annually with an additional $25 charged for piano lessons and $10 for French language, jones Hall was the first building constructed on the campus in 1837, and was located near what is now Brock Hall. On January 15,1840, state lawmakers incorporated Livingston Female Academy, granted it tax-exempt status, Livingston Female Academy awarded its first diploma in 1843 to Elizabeth Houston, the daughter of M. L. Houston, a prominent local businessman and a school trustee. The first principal of the school was A. A. Kimbrell, in 1853, Dr. Robert Dickens Webb arrived in Sumter County and served as a trustee for more than 40 years. He led the school during the American Civil War and Reconstruction through the 1870s, the main administration building that sits in the middle of campus today is named in his honor. In 1878, the changed its name to Livingston Normal College. Education reformer Julia Strudwick Tutwiler joined the faculty in 1881 as co-principal with her uncle, Carlos G. Smith, in 1882–1883, state lawmakers provided $2,500 for tuition and supplies, Alabama was the first southern state to fund the education of women. Tutwiler and state legislator Addison Gillespie Smith helped secure this appropriation, Normal training was the term used at that time to describe teacher education that represented high school plus two years of college education. The Normal College presented its first diplomas at the 1886 commencement exercises, in 1890, Tutwiler was named president of the college. She is the woman to have been president. During her tenure, Tutwiler aided in establishing the Alabama Girls Industrial Institute, in the early 20th century new leadership brought a new name to the college as wellUniversity of West Alabama – Julia Tutwiler
44. Field goal (American and Canadian football) – A field goal is a means of scoring in American football and Canadian football. To score a goal the team in possession of the ball must place kick, or drop kick. The vast majority of goals, in both codes, are placed kicked. Drop kicked field goals were common in the days of Gridiron football but are almost never done in modern times. In most leagues, a field goal awards three points. A field goal may also be scored through a fair catch kick, since a field goal is worth only three points, as opposed to a touchdown, which is worth six points, it is usually only attempted in specific situations. The goal structure consists of a crossbar suspended 10 feet above the ground. In American football the goals are centered on each end line, in the first half, there is enough time remaining to execute only one more play. In the second half, there is time remaining to execute only one more play. The game is in overtime, and a FG is the quickest, easiest, even under ideal conditions, the best professional kickers historically had difficulty making kicks longer than 50 yards consistently. If a team not to attempt a field goal on their last down. A punt cannot score any points in American football unless the team touches the ball first and the kicking team recovers it. The longest field goal kick in NFL history is 64 yards, the previous record was 63, originally set by Tom Dempsey and then matched by Jason Elam, Sebastian Janikowski, and David Akers. High school, college and most professional football leagues offer only a three-point field goal, however, NFL Europe encouraged long field goals of 50 yards or more by making those worth four points instead of three, a rule since adopted by the Stars Football League. Similarly, the sport of football sought to repopularize the drop kick by making that worth four points, it failed. The overall field goal percentage during the 2010 NFL season was 82.3, in comparison, Jan Stenerud, one of only two pure kickers in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, had a career field goal percentage of 66.8 from 1967 to 1985. The holder is usually the teams punter or backup quarterback, instead of the regular center, a team may have a dedicated long snapper trained especially to snap the ball on placekick attempts and punts. The holder usually lines up seven to eight yards behind the line of scrimmage, upon receiving the snap, the holder holds the ball against the ground vertically, with the stitches away from the kickerField goal (American and Canadian football) – Execution of a field goal.
45. National Collegiate Athletic Association – The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit association which regulates athletes of 1,281 institutions, conferences, organizations, and individuals. It also organizes the programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. The organization is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 2014, the NCAA generated almost a billion dollars in revenue. 80 to 90% of this revenue was due to the Division I Mens Basketball Tournament and this revenue is then distributed back into various organizations and institutions across the United States. In August 1973, the current three-division setup of Division I, Division II, under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships, generally, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term Division I-AAA was briefly added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, in 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were respectively renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision. Inter-collegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard University, as other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, the IAAUS was officially established on March 31,1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted. Gradually, more rules committees were formed and more championships were created, a series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II. The Sanity Code – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses, postseason football games were multiplying with little control, and member schools were increasingly concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers, previously an executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association, as college athletics grew, the scope of the nations athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Associations membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, and III, five years later in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer womens athletics, instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed womens collegiate sports in the United StatesNational Collegiate Athletic Association – The current NCAA headquarters office in Indianapolis
46. College football – It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football and it is in college football where a players performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as a free agent. Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained extremely popular throughout the U. S, in many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. This allows them to more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries, colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition, housing, and books. Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as football, by the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport later known as Rugby football. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges, the first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9,1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock, a football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College, also a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional mob football played in England. The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football, Princeton University students played a game called ballown as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as Bloody Monday began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes, in 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a figure called Football Fightum. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called Old division football, the rules of which were first published in 1871, all of these games, and others, shared certain commonalitiesCollege football – A college football game between Colorado State and Air Force
47. Jin (Chinese state) – Although it grew in power during the Spring and Autumn period, its aristocratic structure saw it break apart when the duke lost power to his nobles. In 453 BCE, Jin was split into three states, Han, Zhao and Wei. The Partition of Jin marks the end of the Spring and Autumn Period, Jin was located in the lower Fen River drainage basin on the Shanxi plateau. To the north were the Xirong and Beidi peoples, to the west were the Lüliang Mountains and then the Loess Plateau of northern Shaanxi. To the south are the Zhongtiao Mountains and then the east-west valley of the Yellow River which was the route to the Wei Valley to the west. To the east were the Taihang Mountains and then the North China Plain and this location gave ambitious Jin dukes the opportunity to move north to conquer and absorb the Xirong tribes, move southwest and fight Qin, and move southeast to absorb the many smaller Zhou states. Also important to the region were the states of Chu to the south in the Yangtze and Huai River regions. The first capital of Jin was Tang, the capital was later moved to È, then Jiàng, then Xintian. From 746 to 677, Quwo was the capital of a fragment of Jin, when the Zhou Dynasty was founded, the conquered lands were given to Zhou relatives and ministers as hereditary fiefs. King Cheng of Zhou, the second Zhou king, gave the land called Tang, west of modern Yicheng County in Shanxi, to his younger brother, Tang Shuyus son and successor, Marquis Xie of Jin, changed the name of Tang to Jin. There is little information about Jin for this period beyond a list of rulers, in 771 BCE the Quanrong nomads drove the Zhou out of the Wei River valley and killed the king. Marquis Wen of Jin, the marquis of Jin, supported King Ping of Zhou by killing his rival, King Xie of Zhou. When Marquis Zhao of Jin acceded to the throne, he gave the land of Quwo to his uncle Chengshi who became Huan Shu of Quwo, in 739 BCE, an official named Panfu murdered Marquis Zhao and invited Huan Shu to take the throne. Huan Shu entered Jin but was out by the people. All three Quwo rulers, Huan Shu, Zhuang Bo and Duke Wu made attempts to take over Jin, in 678 BCE, Duke Wu of Quwo conquered Jin and killed Marquis Min of Jin. One year later, after receiving gifts from Duke Wu, King Xi of Zhou made Duke Wu the legal ruler of Jin, with the establishment of the Quwo line, Jin became the most powerful state for three generations and remained powerful for a century or more after that. Duke Wu died soon after gaining control of Jin and he was followed by Duke Xian of Jin. Xian broke with Zhou feudalism by killing or exiling his cousins and he annexed 16 or 17 small states in Shanxi, dominated 38 others, and absorbed a number of Rong tribesJin (Chinese state) – Duke Wen of Jin Recovering His State attributed to Li Tang, 1140 (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
48. Warring States period – The Warring States Period derives its name from the Record of the Warring States, a work compiled early in the Han dynasty. The political geography of the era was dominated by the Seven Warring States, namely, Qin, The State of Qin was in the far west, with its core in the Wei River Valley and Guanzhong. This geographical position offered protection from the states of the Central Plains, the Three Jins, Northeast of Qin, on the Shanxi plateau, were the three successor states of Jin. These were, Han, south, along the Yellow River, Zhao, the northernmost of the three. Qi, located in the east of China, centred on the Shandong Peninsula, described as east of Mount Tai, Chu, located in the south of China, with its core territory around the valleys of the Han River and, later, the Yangtze River. Yan, located in the northeast, centred on modern-day Beijing, late in the period Yan pushed northeast and began to occupy the Liaodong Peninsula Besides these seven major states, some minor states also survived into the period. Yue, On the southeast coast near Shanghai was the State of Yue, Sichuan, In the far southwest were the States of Ba and Shu. These were non-Zhou states that were conquered by Qin late in the period, in the Central Plains comprising much of modern-day Henan Province, many smaller city states survived as satellites of the larger states, though they were eventually to be absorbed as well. Zhongshan, Between the states of Zhao and Yan was the state of Zhongshan, the Spring and Autumn period was initiated by the eastward flight of the Zhou court. There is no one single incident or starting point for the Warring States era, some proposed starting points are as follows,481 BC, Proposed by Song-era historian Lü Zuqian, since it is the end of the Spring and Autumn Annals. 476–475 BC, The author, Sima Qian, of Records of the Grand Historian who chose the year of King Yuan of Zhou. 403 BC, The year when Han, Zhao and Wei were officially recognised as states by the Zhou court, author Sima Guang of Zizhi Tongjian tells us that the symbol of eroded Zhou authority should be taken as the start of the Warring States era. The Spring and Autumn period led to a few states gaining power at the expense of many others, during the Warring States period, many rulers claimed the Mandate of Heaven to justify their conquest of other states and spread their influence. Other major states also existed, such as Wu and Yue in the southeast, the last decades of the Spring and Autumn era were marked by increased stability, as the result of peace negotiations between Jin and Chu which established their respective spheres of influence. This situation ended with the partition of Jin, whereby the state was divided between the houses of Han, Zhao and Wei, and thus enabled the creation of the seven major warring states. This allowed other clans to gain fiefs and military authority, and decades of struggle led to the establishment of four major families. The Battle of Jinyang saw the allied Han, Zhao and Wei destroy the Zhi family, with this, they became the de facto rulers of most of Jins territory, though this situation would not be officially recognised until half a century later. The Jin division created a vacuum that enabled during the first 50 years expansion of Chu and Yue northwardWarring States period – History of China
49. Shlomo Moussaieff (businessman) – Shlomo Moussaieff was an Israeli multimillionaire of Bukharan Jewish descent who lived in London from 1963 until his death. Founder of Moussaieff Jewellers Ltd. he and his wife and business partner, Alisa, were ranked No.315 on the Sunday Times Rich List 2011, with a fortune estimated at £220 million. Moussaieff made most of his fortune selling precious jewellery to royalty and high society, especially Arabs from Saudi Arabia. In addition, Moussaieff was regarded as one of the top private collectors of antiquities associated with the Bible and ancient Near East. Shlomo Moussaieff was the second of 12 children of Rehavia Moussaieff and he was named after his grandfather, Shlomo Moussaieff, a wealthy Bukharan merchant who was one of the founders of the Bukharim neighbourhood in Jerusalem in 1891. Rehavia, who traded in fine gems in Paris, introduced Shlomo to the jewellery trade at a young age. Shlomos youngest brother, Alon, also became a Jerusalem jewellery dealer, several of his sisters own jewellery stores, Hannah in Jerusalems King David Hotel, Naomi in London and Aviva in Geneva. His father, a disciplinarian, threw him out of the house at the age of 12 because he refused to apply himself to his studies. Moussaieff claims he had dyslexia and was unable to read and write and he began sleeping in synagogues, buses, and even the street, and worked for a carpenter in Sanhedria. After hours, he hung around the Second Temple-era Tombs of the Sanhedrin in the nearby park, inside the caves, which were then open to the public, he discovered ancient coins that he sold to traders. He also carved up lead coffins and sold the lead in the Armenian Quarter, apprehended and beaten by an Arab policeman, he was brought before an Arab judge and sentenced to nine months in a reform school in Tulkarm. He asked to learn in a madrassa, where he found it easy to learn the Koran by heart, in 1940 Moussaieff joined the Etzel which opposed British rule in Palestine. Upon the recommendation of his Etzel leader, he joined the British Army at age 17 to fight Nazi Germany during World War II, in 1947 he rejoined the Etzel to battle the Arab Legion in the Old City of Jerusalem. When the city fell to the Jordanians in 1948, he was taken captive and he married his wife, Alisa, an Austrian native, two weeks before he went into captivity. After his release, Moussaieff worked in his familys jewellery store and he supplemented his income by smuggling gold and antiquities from Jordan to Israel in the 1950s. During this time he came in contact with Moshe Dayan, another confirmed antiquities smuggler, in 1954 he was detained under suspicion of stealing 1,000 coins and other antiquities from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Moussaieff claimed he had paid full price for the items, and he was released after his wife returned the lot to the Jerusalem District Police. In 1963 he moved to London and opened his first jewellery shop in the lobby of the London Hilton on Park Lane and he later opened another store on Londons Bond StreetShlomo Moussaieff (businessman) – The Tombs of the Sanhedrin
50. Gemstone – A gemstone is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments. However, certain rocks or organic materials that are not minerals are used for jewelry and are therefore often considered to be gemstones as well. Most gemstones are hard, but some soft minerals are used in jewelry because of their luster or other properties that have aesthetic value. Rarity is another characteristic that lends value to a gemstone, apart from jewelry, from earliest antiquity engraved gems and hardstone carvings, such as cups, were major luxury art forms. A gem maker is called a lapidary or gemcutter, a worker is a diamantaire. The carvings of Carl Fabergé are significant works in this tradition, the traditional classification in the West, which goes back to the ancient Greeks, begins with a distinction between precious and semi-precious, similar distinctions are made in other cultures. In modern usage the precious stones are diamond, ruby, sapphire, other stones are classified by their color, translucency and hardness. Another unscientific term for semi-precious gemstones used in art history and archaeology is hardstone, in modern times gemstones are identified by gemologists, who describe gems and their characteristics using technical terminology specific to the field of gemology. The first characteristic a gemologist uses to identify a gemstone is its chemical composition, for example, diamonds are made of carbon and rubies of aluminium oxide. Next, many gems are crystals which are classified by their crystal system such as cubic or trigonal or monoclinic, another term used is habit, the form the gem is usually found in. For example, diamonds, which have a crystal system, are often found as octahedrons. Gemstones are classified into different groups, species, and varieties, for example, ruby is the red variety of the species corundum, while any other color of corundum is considered sapphire. Other examples are the Emerald, aquamarine, red beryl, goshenite, heliodor, and morganite, gems are characterized in terms of refractive index, dispersion, specific gravity, hardness, cleavage, fracture, and luster. They may exhibit pleochroism or double refraction and they may have luminescence and a distinctive absorption spectrum. Material or flaws within a stone may be present as inclusions, gemstones may also be classified in terms of their water. This is a grading of the gems luster, transparency. Very transparent gems are considered first water, while second or third water gems are those of a lesser transparency, there is no universally accepted grading system for gemstones. Diamonds are graded using a system developed by the Gemological Institute of America in the early 1950s, historically, all gemstones were graded using the naked eyeGemstone – A selection of gemstone pebbles made by tumbling rough rock with abrasive grit, in a rotating drum. The biggest pebble here is 40 mm long (1.6 inches).
51. Diamond color – A chemically pure and structurally perfect diamond is perfectly transparent with no hue, or color. However, in reality almost no gem-sized natural diamonds are absolutely perfect, the color of a diamond may be affected by chemical impurities and/or structural defects in the crystal lattice. Depending on the hue and intensity of a diamonds coloration, a color can either detract from or enhance its value. For example, most white diamonds are discounted in price when more yellow hue is detectable, while intense pink diamonds or blue diamonds can be more valuable. Of all colored diamonds, red diamonds are the rarest, the Aurora Pyramid of Hope displays a spectacular array of naturally colored diamonds, including red diamonds. Diamonds occur in a variety of colors—steel gray, white, blue, yellow, orange, red, green, pink to purple, brown, colored diamonds contain interstitial impurities or structural defects that cause the coloration, whilst pure diamonds are perfectly transparent and colorless. 1%. If the nitrogen atoms are in pairs they do not affect the diamonds color, if the nitrogen atoms are in large even-numbered aggregates they impart a yellow to brown tint. 1% of known natural diamonds. Synthetic diamond containing nitrogen is Type Ib, Type I diamonds absorb in both the infrared and ultraviolet region, from 320 nm. They also have a characteristic fluorescence and visible absorption spectrum, Type II diamonds have no measurable nitrogen impurities. Type II diamonds absorb in a different region of the infrared and they also have differing fluorescence characteristics, but no discernible visible absorption spectrum. Type IIb diamonds, which account for 0. 1% of gem diamonds, are light blue due to scattered boron within the crystal matrix. However, a blue-grey color may also occur in Type Ia diamonds, also not restricted to type are green diamonds, whose color is caused by GR1 color centers in the crystal lattice produced by exposure to varying quantities of radiation. Pink and red are caused by deformation of the crystal lattice from temperature and pressure. Black diamonds are caused by black or gray inclusions of other materials such as graphite or sulfides and/or microscopic fractures. Opaque or opalescent white diamonds are caused by microscopic inclusions. Purple diamonds are caused by a combination of crystal lattice distortion, the majority of diamonds that are mined are in a range of pale yellow or brown color that is termed the normal color range. Diamonds that are of yellow or brown, or any other color are called fancy color diamonds. Diamonds that are of the very highest purity are totally colorless, the degree to which diamonds exhibit body color is one of the four value factors by which diamonds are assessedDiamond color – The Hope Diamond, 45.52 carats (9.104 g), dark grayish-blue
52. Baseball – Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of nine players each, who take turns batting and fielding. A run is scored when a player advances around the bases, Players on the batting team take turns hitting against the pitcher of the fielding team, which tries to prevent runs by getting hitters out in any of several ways. A player on the team who reaches a base safely can later attempt to advance to subsequent bases during teammates turns batting. The teams switch between batting and fielding whenever the team records three outs. One turn batting for both teams, beginning with the team, constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, and the team with the number of runs at the end of the game wins. Baseball has no clock, although almost all games end in the ninth inning. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games already being played in England by the mid-18th century and this game was brought by immigrants to North America, where the modern version developed. By the late 19th century, baseball was widely recognized as the sport of the United States. Baseball is now popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, in the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions, East, West, and Central. The major league champion is determined by playoffs that culminate in the World Series, the top level of play is similarly split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League. The evolution of baseball from older bat-and-ball games is difficult to trace with precision, a French manuscript from 1344 contains an illustration of clerics playing a game, possibly la soule, with similarities to baseball. Other old French games such as thèque, la balle au bâton, consensus once held that todays baseball is a North American development from the older game rounders, popular in Great Britain and Ireland. Baseball Before We Knew It, A Search for the Roots of the Game, by David Block, suggests that the game originated in England, recently uncovered historical evidence supports this position. Block argues that rounders and early baseball were actually regional variants of other. It has long believed that cricket also descended from such games. The earliest known reference to baseball is in a 1744 British publication, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, David Block discovered that the first recorded game of Bass-Ball took place in 1749 in Surrey, and featured the Prince of Wales as a player. William Bray, an English lawyer, recorded a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford and this early form of the game was apparently brought to Canada by English immigrantsBaseball – A baseball game at Angel Stadium in Anaheim, CA
53. Darin Downs – Darin Burton Downs is an American professional baseball pitcher for the Lamigo Monkeys of the Chinese Professional Baseball League. His professional career began when he was drafted by the Chicago Cubs in 2003 and he also played in the Tampa Bay Rays minor league system and during that time, survived a very serious concussion. After spending the 2011 season in the minors for the Florida Marlins organization and he was called up to the majors for the first time on July 3,2012. Downs was claimed off waivers by the Houston Astros after the 2013 season, Downs was a fifth-round draft choice of the Chicago Cubs in June 2003. As a member of the Arizona League Cubs, Downs appeared in a total of 13 games during the 2003 minor league season and he posted an earned run average of 6.57 and had an 0–2 record. For the 2004 season, Downs played for another Cubs minor league affiliate and he pitched in 14 games, all but one as a starter. His ERA was better than that of the year, as was his record of 5–3. Also, he struck out 61 opponents, the most by any Boise pitcher that season, Downs remained with Boise for most of 2005 and for the second consecutive season, he appeared in 14 games for the team and started 13 of them. With Boise, his ERA dropped again, this time to 3.50, during his time with the Hawks, Downs also struck out 63 opponents. However, he began the year with the Peoria Chiefs. In 2006, Downs was again on the Boise roster, on the whole, Downs appeared in nine games for the Hawks, but made only two starts. His ERA was 4.81 and he posted a 4–2 mark, Downs briefly returned to the Arizona League Cubs in August, seeing action in a couple of contests, but soon rejoining Boise. Downs spent 2007 with the Daytona Cubs, setting a new high with 34 appearances. For the entire season, he was 3–7 with an ERA of 4.11, Downs also got his first professional saves in 2007. Downs played for three minor league teams in 2008, Daytona, the Tennessee Smokies and the Vero Beach Devil Rays. He started with Daytona, where he was 2–0 with a 2.89 ERA in 17 relief appearances, Downs then joined Tennessee, where his numbers, 0–2 with a 6.56 ERA in 22 games, were much worse. His time as a Cubs minor league player came to an end in July when he was shipped to the Tampa Bay Rays and he finished the 2008 season there and in 10 games, had an 0–3 record and a 6.00 ERA. During the 2009 season, Downs played with the Charlotte Stone Crabs and he was a Florida State League All–Star, making both the midseason and postseason rostersDarin Downs – Downs with the Houston Astros
54. Mohammed al-Maskati – Mohammed Abdulnabi al-Maskati is a Bahraini human rights activist and digital security consultant with Front Line Defenders for Middle East and North Africa. He is the founder of the Bahrain Youth Society for Human Rights, as part of the groups work, al-Maskati lobbied for the freedom of Egyptian blogger Kareem Amer as well as reporting on domestic human trafficking in Bahrain. In June 2005, the BYSHR attempted to register as a organization with the Bahraini government. Al-Maskatis trial was postponed until 2009, In June 2010, al-Maskati was found guilty. The Bahrain Centre for Human Rights protested the sentence, describing it as a continuation of the Authoritys policy in Bahrain to restrict civil society institutions, in February 2011, Bahrain saw a series of large-scale pro-democracy protests as part of the international Arab Spring. Al-Maskati and the BYSHR were active at Pearl Roundabout in the capital of Manama, in March, he was named in a widely circulated text message death threat, causing Amnesty International to call on Bahraini authorities to investigate and provide him police protection. As a result, he received a number of threats by telephone. On 9 April, al-Maskati was present for a raid on the home of his father-in-law, Bahrain Centre for Human Rights co-founder Abdulhadi al-Khawaja. Al-Maskati alleges that the arresting officers struck him and placed a boot on his neck after he was handcuffed and lying face-down on the ground, in late 2011, al-Maskati was arrested for his cyberdissidence but later released, the arrest was protested in Reporters Without Borders Internet Enemies report. In December, he was again the target of a threat, this time by Adel FlaifelMohammed al-Maskati – Mohammed al-Maskati, 2011
55. Maimonides – In his time, he was also a preeminent astronomer and physician. Born in Cordova, Almoravid Empire on Passover Eve,1135 or 1138, he worked as a rabbi, physician and he died in Egypt on December 12,1204, whence his body was taken to the lower Galilee and buried in Tiberias. Nonetheless, he was acknowledged as among the foremost rabbinical arbiters and philosophers in Jewish history. His fourteen-volume Mishneh Torah still carries significant canonical authority as a codification of Talmudic law and he is sometimes known as ha Nesher ha Gadol in recognition of his outstanding status as a bona fide exponent of the Oral Torah. Aside from being revered by Jewish historians, Maimonides also figures prominently in the history of Islamic. Influenced by Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and his contemporary Averroes, he in his turn influenced other prominent Arab and Muslim philosophers and he became a prominent philosopher and polymath in both the Jewish and Islamic worlds. His full Hebrew name is Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, whose acronym forms Rambam and his full Arabic name is Abū ʿImrān Mūsā bin Maimūn bin ʿUbaidallāh al-Qurtabī or Mūsā bin Maymūn for short. In Latin, the Hebrew ben becomes the Greek−style suffix -ides to form Moses Maimonides, Maimonides was born in Córdoba during what some scholars consider to be the end of the golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula, after the first centuries of the Moorish rule. At an early age, he developed an interest in sciences and he read those Greek philosophers accessible in Arabic translations, and was deeply immersed in the sciences and learning of Islamic culture. Maimonides was not known as a supporter of mysticism, although a strong type of mysticism has been discerned in his philosophy. He expressed disapproval of poetry, the best of which he declared to be false and this sage, who was revered for his personality as well as for his writings, led a busy life, and wrote many of his works while travelling or in temporary accommodation. Maimonides studied Torah under his father Maimon, who had in turn studied under Rabbi Joseph ibn Migash, a Berber dynasty, the Almohads, conquered Córdoba in 1148, and abolished dhimmi status in some of their territories. The loss of protected status threatened the Jewish and Christian communities with conversion to Islam, death. The historical records of abuses against Jews in the immediate post-1148 period are subject to different interpretations, Maimonidess family, along with most other Jews, chose exile. Some say, though, that it is likely that Maimonides feigned a conversion to Islam before escaping and this forced conversion was ruled legally invalid under Islamic law when brought up by a rival in Egypt. For the next ten years, Maimonides moved about in southern Spain, during this time, he composed his acclaimed commentary on the Mishnah in the years 1166–1168. Following this sojourn in Morocco, together with two sons, he sojourned in the Holy Land, before settling in Fustat, Egypt around 1168, while in Cairo, he studied in a yeshiva attached to a small synagogue. In the Holy Land, he prayed at the Temple Mount and he wrote that this day of visiting the Temple Mount was a day of holiness for him and his descendantsMaimonides – 18th-century portrait of Maimonides
56. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. These volunteers are supported by organizations around the world, including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia and it consists of editors and Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include, The Wikimedia Foundation is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco and it owns the domain names and operates most of the movements websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. According to the WMFs 2015 financial statements, in 2015 the WMF had a budget of $72 million USD, spending $52 million USD on its operation, Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in specified geographical regions, mostly countries. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a budget of €20 million. WMDE allocates approximately €1 million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, to have the same procedure, every chapter follows the same process and requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. The foundation as internet domain owner of the project pages requests a share of the donations via the website in a country, a total of under 4 Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations. The legal base is a Chapters Agreement with the foundation, thematic organizations are founded to support Wikimedia projects in a focal area. User groups have less formal requirements than chapters and thematic organizations and they support and promote the Wikimedia projects locally or on a specific theme, topic, subject, or issue. At the beginning of 2016, there were 55 user groups, once they are recognized by the Affiliations Committee, they enter into a User Groups Agreement and Code of Conduct with the foundation. They have a program to encourage female editorsWikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014