1. Foxe's Book of Martyrs – It includes a polemical account of the sufferings of Protestants with particular emphasis on England and Scotland. The book helped shape lasting popular notions of Catholicism there. The book was to that time the largest publishing project ever undertaken in England. Foxe's own title for the first edition, is Actes and Monuments of these Latter and Perillous Days, Touching Matters of the Church. The count went from approximately 1,800 pages in 1563 to over 2,300 folio pages. The number of woodcuts increased from 60 to 150. As Foxe wrote about his own living contemporaries, the illustrations could not be borrowed from existing texts, as was commonly practiced. It describes "persecutions, horrrible troubles, other such thinges incident... in England and Scotland, all other forreine nations". The second volume of the 1570 edition has its own page and, again, an altered subject. Actes and Monuments for its existence has popularly been called the Book of Martyrs. The linking of titles is an expected norm for introducing John Foxe's sixteenth work. The name stuck." It was not John Foxe's. Dismayed by the popular misconception, Foxe tried to correct the error in the second edition. That his appeal was ineffective in his own time is not surprising, very few people would even have read it.Foxe's Book of Martyrs – A page of the first English-language edition, printed by John Day in 1563
2. Biography – A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person's life. It involves more than just the basic facts like death; it portrays a person's experience of these life events. Biographical works are usually non-fiction, but fiction can also be used to portray a person's life. One in-depth form of biographical coverage is called legacy writing. Works in diverse media, from literature to film, form the genre known as biography. An authorized biography is written at a subject's heirs. An autobiography is written by the person himself or herself, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter. At first, biographical writings were regarded merely as a subsection of history with a focus on a particular individual of historical importance. One of the earliest of the biographers was Plutarch, his Parallel Lives, published about 80 A.D. covers prominent figures in the classical world. In 44 B.C. Cornelius Nepos published a biographical work, his Excellentium Imperatorum Vitae. Perhaps the earliest extant biography that does not contain mythological material is The Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius. In the early Middle Ages, there was a decline in awareness of the classical culture in Europe. During this time, the only repositories of knowledge and records of the early history in Europe were those of the Roman Catholic Church. Hermits, monks, priests used this historic period to write biographies. Their subjects were usually restricted to saints.Biography – Third Volume of a 1727 edition of Plutarch 's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans printed by Jacob Tonson.
3. Genre – Genres form by conventions that the use of old ones is discontinued. Often, works fit by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Genre began for ancient Greek literature. Poetry, performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story. In later periods genres developed in response to changes in audiences and creators. Genre became a dynamic tool to help the public sense out of unpredictable art. Genre suffers from the same ills of any system. Genre is to weigh works on their unique merit. While the genre of storytelling has been relegated as lesser form of art because of the heavily borrowed nature of the conventions, admiration has grown. Proponents argue that the genius of an effective piece is in the variation, recombination, evolution of the codes. In art history has meanings that overlap rather confusingly. These are distinguished from staffage: incidental figures in what is primarily architectural painting. The concept of the "hierarchy of genres" was a powerful one in artistic theory, especially between the 19th centuries. It was strongest in France, where it was associated with the Académie française which held a central role in academic art. Genres may be determined by literary technique, tone, even length.Genre – A genre painting (Peasant Dance, c. 1568, by Pieter Brueghel the Elder)
4. Autobiography – An autobiography is a written account of the life of a person written by that person. In other words, it is the story that a person wrote about themselves. However, its next recorded use was in its present sense, by Robert Southey in 1809. Nonetheless, autobiography as a form goes back to Antiquity. Biographers generally rely on a wide variety of documents and viewpoints, whereas autobiography may be based entirely on the writer's memory. Closely associated with autobiography is the memoir form. See also: List of autobiographies and Category:Autobiographies for examples. In antiquity such works were typically entitled apologia, purporting to be self-justification rather than self-documentation. John Henry Newman's autobiography is entitled Apologia Pro Vita Sua in reference to this tradition. The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus introduces his autobiography with self-praise, followed by a justification of his actions as a Jewish rebel commander of Galilee. In the spirit of Augustine's Confessions is the 12th-century Historia Calamitatum of Peter Abelard, outstanding as an autobiographical document of its period. The first autobiographical work in Islamic society was written in the late 11th century, by Abdallah ibn Buluggin, last Zirid king of Granada. In the 15th century, Leonor López de Córdoba, a Spanish noblewoman, wrote her Memorias, which may be the first autobiography in Castillian. Zāhir ud-Dīn Mohammad Bābur,who founded the Mughal dynasty of South Asia kept a journal Bāburnāma, written between 1493 and 1529. These criteria for autobiography generally persisted until recent times, most serious autobiographies of the next three hundred years conformed to them.Autobiography – Cover of the first English edition of Clayton Baggett Born on Feb.28,1982
5. Piracy – Those who engage in acts of piracy are called pirates. Narrow channels which funnel shipping into predictable routes have long created opportunities for piracy, well as for privateering and commerce raiding. Historic examples include the waters of Gibraltar, the Strait of Malacca, Madagascar, the English Channel, whose geographic strictures facilitated pirate attacks. A land-based parallel is the ambushing of travelers by brigands in highways and mountain passes. It does not normally include crimes committed against people traveling on the same vessel as the perpetrator. They also use larger vessels, known as "mother ships", to supply the smaller motorboats. The international community is facing many challenges in bringing modern pirates to justice, as these attacks often occur in international waters. In the 2000s, a number of nations have used their naval forces to pursue pirates. The English "pirate" is derived from the Latin term pirata and that from Greek πειρατής, "brigand", from πεῖρα, "attempt, experience". The meaning of the Greek word peiratēs literally is "one who attacks". The word is also cognate to peril. The term is first attested to 1300. 1300. Spellings such as "pirrot", "pyrate" and "pyrat" were used until this period. It may be reasonable to assume that piracy has existed for long as the oceans were plied for commerce.Piracy – French pirate Jacques de Sores looting and burning Havana in 1555
6. Nassau, Bahamas – Nassau is the capital, largest city, commercial centre of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas. The city has an estimated population of 274,400 as of 2016, or 70 percent of the entire population of the Bahamas. The city is located on the island of New Providence, which functions much like a business district. Nassau is the site of the House of Assembly and various judicial departments and was considered historically to be a stronghold of pirates. The city was named in honour of William III of England, Prince of Orange-Nassau. Many of them settled in Nassau and eventually came to outnumber the original inhabitants. As the population of Nassau grew, so did its populated areas. The city dominates its satellite, Paradise Island. However, until the post-Second World War era, the outer suburbs scarcely existed. Most of New Providence was uncultivated bush until Loyalists were resettled there following the American Revolutionary War; they established several plantations, such as Clifton and Tusculum. Slaves were imported as labour. In addition, slaves freed from American ships, such as the Creole case in 1841, were allowed to settle there. The name Nassau derives from the House of Nassau and ultimately from the town of Nassau, Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany. Due to a lack of effective Governors, Nassau fell on hard times. In 1703 Spanish and French allied forces briefly occupied Nassau.Nassau, Bahamas – A view of Bay Street
7. Blackbeard – Although little is known about his early life, he was probably born in Bristol, England. The two engaged in numerous acts of piracy. Teach captured a French merchant vessel, equipped her with 40 guns. He blockaded the port of Charleston, South Carolina. After successfully ransoming its inhabitants, he ran Queen Anne's Revenge aground on a sandbar near Beaufort, North Carolina. He settled in Bath Town, where he accepted a royal pardon. But he was back at sea, where he attracted the attention of Alexander Spotswood, the Governor of Virginia. Spotswood arranged for a party of sailors to try to capture the pirate, which they did on 22 November 1718. During a ferocious battle, several of his crew were killed by a small force of sailors led by Lieutenant Robert Maynard. He became the inspiration for pirate-themed works of fiction across a range of genres. Little is known about Blackbeard's early life. It is commonly believed that at the time of his death he was between 40 years old and thus born in about 1680. In contemporary records his name is most often given as Blackbeard, Edward Teach; the latter is most often used today. However, several spellings of his surname exist—Thatch, Thach, Thache, Thack, Tack, Thatche and Theach. The lack of any supporting documentation makes this unlikely.Blackbeard – Blackbeard (c. 1736 engraving used to illustrate Johnson's General History)
8. Queen Anne's Revenge – Queen Anne's Revenge was a frigate, most famously used as a flagship by the pirate Blackbeard. She had been captured by France in 1711. She was captured by pirates in 1717. Blackbeard captured numerous prizes using her as his flagship. In 1718, Blackbeard ran the ship aground in the present-day Carteret County. After the grounding her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. Originally named Concord, was a frigate built in England in 1710. She was captured by the French one year later. The ship was modified to hold more cargo, including renamed La Concorde de Nantes. Sailing as a ship, she was captured by the pirate Captain Benjamin Hornigold on November 28, 1717, near the island of Martinique. Hornigold made him her captain. Blackbeard made La Concorde de Nantes into his flagship, renaming her Queen Anne's Revenge. Blackbeard sailed this ship to the Caribbean attacking British, Dutch, Portuguese merchant ships along the way. A deposition given by the former captain of David Herriot, states "Thatch's ship Queen Anne's Revenge run a-ground off of the Bar of Topsail-Inlet." He also states that Adventure "run a-ground likewise from the said Thatch" in an attempt to kedge Queen Anne's revenge off the bar.Queen Anne's Revenge – Illustration of Queen Anne's Revenge published in 1736
9. North Carolina – North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th most extensive and the 9th most populous of the U.S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties. The capital is Raleigh. It is the second largest banking center in the United States after New York City. The climate of the coastal plains is strongly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the subtropical climate zone. The western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. The United States Census Bureau places North Carolina in the South Atlantic division of the southern region. The most famous of these is the Queen Anne's Revenge, which went aground in Beaufort Inlet in 1718. The coastal plain transitions along the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, the elevation at which waterfalls first appear on streams and rivers. The Piedmont region of central North Carolina is the state's most populous region, containing the six largest cities in the state by population. It consists of gently rolling countryside frequently broken by low mountain ridges. The Piedmont ranges in the east to about 1,500 feet in the west.North Carolina – North Carolina topographic map
10. Charles Eden (politician) – Charles Eden was the second Governor of the separate Colony of North Carolina. Eden was appointed Governor of North Carolina on 13 July 1713. He is best known for his actions to end piracy in the area. The notorious Blackbeard surrendered to Governor Eden and received the King's Pardon upon promising to change their ways. Both, however, would eventually return to piracy. In 1719 prominent North Carolinian Edward Moseley accused Governor Eden of profiting from Blackbeard's crimes. Moseley was fined for his accusations. Eden presented an account of his dealings with Blackbeard to the provincial council, which accepted his pleas of innocence. Nevertheless, Eden's reputation has long been clouded to Blackbeard. Governor Eden died at the age of 48. Edenton, North Carolina is named for him. His remains were later reinterred at Edenton. Governor Eden was featured as a character in the Hallmark Entertainment mini Blackbeard, portrayed by Richard Chamberlain. Eden's step-daughter Penelope married the colonial governor of North Carolina from 1734 to 1752. His great-grandson through that marriage was Congressman William Johnston Dawson.Charles Eden (politician) – Governors under the Lords Proprietary 1711–31
11. Privateer – A privateer was a private person or ship that engaged in maritime warfare under a commission of war. Captured ships were subject to condemnation and sale with the proceeds divided between the privateer sponsors, shipowners, captains and crew. A share usually went to the issuer of the commission. Since robbery under arms was common to seaborne trade, all merchant ships were already armed. During war, naval resources were auxiliary to operations on land so privateering was a way of subsidizing power by mobilizing armed ships and sailors. The letter of marque of a privateer would typically limit activity to specified officers. Typically, captain would be required to post a performance bond. In the United Kingdom, letters of marque were revoked for various offences. Some crews were treated as naval crews of the time while others followed the comparatively relaxed rules of merchant ships. Some crews were made up of others of pirates, debtors, convicts. Some privateers ended up becoming pirates, just in the eyes of their enemies but also of their own nations. William Kidd, for instance, was later hanged for piracy. Entrepreneurs converted many different types of vessels including obsolete warships and refitted merchant ships. It was not unknown for them to form squadrons, or to co-operate with the regular navy. A number of privateers were part of the English fleet that opposed the Spanish Armada in 1588.Privateer – East Indiaman Kent battling Confiance, a privateer vessel commanded by French corsair Robert Surcouf in October 1800, as depicted in a painting by Ambroise Louis Garneray.
12. William Rhett – Colonel William Rhett was a British-born plantation owner in the Province of Carolina in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Arriving in America in 1698, accompanied by his Sarah, Rhett quickly became a prominent rice farmer and member of the South Carolina Assembly. Rhett was colonel of the Provincial militia, comptroller of customs for Carolina and the Bahama Islands. In 1706, Rhett commanded a flotilla which fought off a Franco-Spanish attack on Charles Town. Rhett's house in Charleston, completed in 1716, still stands at 54 Hasell St. Charleston, South Carolina. It is now privately owned. A descendant was Robert Rhett. William Rhett is a minor character in Tim Powers' novel On Stranger Tides. Lars Arentz-Hansen plays William Rhett in the Starz TV series Black Sails.William Rhett – Colonel William Rhett
13. Cape Fear River – The Cape Fear River is a 202 miles long blackwater river in east central North Carolina in the United States. It flows into the Atlantic Ocean near Cape Fear, from which it takes its name. In October 1662, William Hilton, Jr made a three-week reconnaissance of the lower reaches of the Cape Fear River. "ye 4th Octob. Or 16. Leagues into ye river; and after in our long boate, half of us went 15. Hilton's report contained favorable comments on the fish, wildlife of the region. He wished "all Englishmen, that know how to improve and use a plentiful Countrey and condition, not to delay to posses it...." During his 1664 visit, Hilton remained almost two months on the Cape Fear. The explorers spent much of their time on the Northeast Branch which they felt was the main channel. They rowed the ship's long-boat on trips up several tributaries. The longest of these explorations was two back down. As the Hilton party left the Cape Fear they "made a purchase of the river and land of Cape Fair, of Wat Coosa...." They found a warning near the mouth of the river left by the New Englanders which disparaged the country and warned against settlement there. It flows southeast past Lillington, Fayetteville, Elizabethtown, then receives the Black River approximately 10 miles northwest of Wilmington.Cape Fear River – The "Clarendon River" in "A New Description of Carolina", engraved by Francis Lamb (London, Tho. Basset and Richard Chiswell, 1676)
14. Charleston, South Carolina – Charleston had an estimated population of 132,609 in 2015. Charleston was founded as Charles Town—honoring King Charles II of England—in 1670. It adopted its present spelling with its incorporation as a city in 1783 at the close of the Revolutionary War. In 2016, Charleston was ranked the "World's Best City" by Travel + Leisure. The city proper consists of six distinct areas: the Peninsula or Downtown, West Ashley, Johns Island, James Island, Daniel Island, the Cainhoy Peninsula. The old city is located on Oyster Point, where, as locals say, "The Ashley and the Cooper Rivers come together to form the Atlantic Ocean." The entire peninsula is very low and presents a picturesque appearance from the harbor, where the buildings seem to rise from the sea. The situation, however, does leave the city vulnerable to frequent floods during hurricanes, heavy rains, storm surges, some high tides. The city limits also have expanded across the Cooper River, encompassing Daniel Island and the Cainhoy area. The present city has a total area of 127.5 square miles, of which 109.0 square miles is land and 18.5 square miles is covered by water. North Charleston blocks any expansion up the peninsula, Mount Pleasant occupies the land directly east of the Cooper River. Charleston Harbor runs about 7 miles southeast to the Atlantic with an average width of about 2 miles, surrounded on all sides except its entrance. Sullivan's Island lies to the north of the entrance and Morris Island to itself south. The entrance itself is about 1 mile wide; it was originally only 18 feet deep, but began to be enlarged in the 1870s. The tidal rivers are evidence of a submergent or drowned coastline.Charleston, South Carolina – St. Michael's on Broad Street
15. Stede Bonnet – Bonnet inherited the family estate after his father's death in 1694. In 1709, he engaged in some level of militia service. Because despite his lack of sailing experience, Bonnet decided he should to turn to piracy in the summer of 1717. After arriving in Nassau, Bonnet met the infamous pirate Blackbeard. Incapable of leading his crew, Bonnet temporarily ceded his ship's command to Blackbeard. Before separating in December 1717, Blackbeard and Bonnet captured merchant ships along the East Coast. After Bonnet failed to capture the Protestant Caesar, his crew abandoned him to join Blackbeard aboard the Queen Anne's Revenge. He had returned by July 1718. In August 1718, Bonnet anchored the Royal James on an estuary of the Cape River to careen and repair the ship. In late August and September, Colonel William Rhett, with the authorisation of South Carolina governor Robert Johnson, led a naval expedition on the river. The outnumbered pirates ultimately surrendered. Rhett brought them to Charleston in early October. Bonnet was recaptured on Sullivan's Island. On 10 Bonnet was brought to trial and charged with two acts of piracy. Judge Nicholas Trott sentenced Bonnet to death.Stede Bonnet – Monument to Stede Bonnet in Charleston, South Carolina
16. Francisco Goya – Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker. Immensely successful in his lifetime, Goya is often referred to the first of the moderns. He was born to a modest family in 1746 in Aragon. He moved to Madrid to study with Anton Raphael Mengs. He married Josefa Bayeu in 1773; the couple's life together was characterised by an almost constant series of miscarriages. Although letters and writings survive, we know comparatively little about his thoughts. He suffered a undiagnosed illness in 1793 which left him completely deaf. After 1793 his work became progressively pessimistic. He was appointed Director of the Royal Academy in 1795, the year Manuel Godoy made an unfavorable treaty with France. In 1799 Goya became Primer Pintor de Cámara, the then highest rank for a Spanish court painter. In the late 1790s, commissioned by Godoy, he completed his La maja desnuda, clearly indebted to Diego Velázquez. In 1801 he painted Charles IV of His Family. In 1807 Napoleon led the French army into Spain. He remained during the Peninsular War, which seems to have affected him deeply. A number of other, major, canvases.Francisco Goya – Portrait of Francisco Goya by Vicente López y Portaña (1826). Oil on canvas, 93 × 75 cm, Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain
17. Spain – Along with France and Morocco, it is one of only three countries to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union, after Italy. Largest city is Madrid, other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao and Málaga. Modern humans first arrived around 35,000 years ago. In the Middle Ages, the area was later by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised under a constitutional monarchy. It is a developed country with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged". Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. This man was a Grecian by birth, but, given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been by c. 350 BCE. Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by Basques and Celts. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came under the rule of the Roman Empire.Spain – Lady of Elche
18. Romanticism – It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the scientific rationalization of nature. It had a major impact on historiography, education, the natural sciences. It also valued spontaneity, as in the musical impromptu. Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of "heroic" artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society. It also promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered to Romanticism. The decline of Romanticism during this time was associated including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism. Defining the nature of Romanticism may be approached from the starting point of the primary importance of the free expression of the feelings of the artist. As well as rules, the influence of models from other works was considered to impede the creator's own imagination, so that originality was essential. This idea is often called "romantic originality." Not essential to Romanticism, but so widespread as to be normative, was a strong interest in the importance of nature. However, this is particularly upon the artist when he is surrounded by it, preferably alone. Romantic art addressed its audiences with what was intended to be felt as the personal voice of the artist. So, in literature, "much of romantic poetry invited the reader to identify the protagonists with the poets themselves".Romanticism – Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog, 1818
19. Printmaking – Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. Printmaking normally covers only the process of creating prints that have an element of originality, rather than just being a photographic reproduction of a painting. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of a same piece, called a print. Each print produced is not considered a "copy" but rather is considered an "original". A print may be known as an impression. Prints are created by transferring ink from a matrix or through a prepared screen to a sheet of paper or other material. Screens made of silk or synthetic fabrics are used for the screenprinting process. Other types of matrix substrates and related processes are discussed below. Multiple impressions printed from the same matrix form an edition. Prints may also be printed in form, such as artist's books. Printmaking techniques are generally divided into the following basic categories: Relief, where ink is applied to the original surface of the matrix. Wood engraving, metalcut. Intaglio, where ink is applied beneath the original surface of the matrix. Intaglio techniques include engraving, etching, mezzotint, aquatint. Planographic, where the matrix retains its original surface, but is specially prepared and/or inked to allow for the transfer of the image.Printmaking – Rembrandt, Self-portrait, etching, c.1630.
20. Old Master – In art history, "Old Master" refers to any painter of skill who worked in Europe before about 1800, or a painting by such an artist. An "old print" is an original print made by an artist in the same period. The term "old drawing" is used in the same way. Therefore, beyond a certain level of competence, date rather than quality is the criterion for using the term. Les Maitres d'autrefois of 1876 by Eugene Fromentin may have helped to popularize the concept, although "vieux maitres" is also used in French. The collection in the Dresden museum essentially stops at the Baroque period. The term might also be used for Eugène Delacroix, but usually is not. It remains current in the trade. Auction houses still usually divide their sales between, for example, "Old Master Paintings", "Modern paintings". Christie's defines the term as ranging "from the 14th to the early 19th century".Old Master – Giorgione's Sleeping Venus (c. 1510), Dresden, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister.
21. Spanish Crown – The Monarchy of Spain, constitutionally referred to as the Crown, is a constitutional institution and an historic office of Spain. It used to be also called the Hispanic Monarchy. The Spanish monarchy is represented by King Felipe VI, his wife Queen Letizia, Infanta Sofia. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 reestablished a constitutional monarchy for Spain. Constitutionally, the king is the commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armed Forces. According to the constitution, the monarch is also instrumental in promoting relations with the "nations of its historical community". The King of Spain serves as the president of the Ibero-American States Organization, purportedly representing over 700,000,000 people in twenty-four member nations worldwide. In 2008, Juan Carlos I was considered the most popular leader in all Ibero-America. A dynastic marriage between Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon united Spain in the 15th century. However, there is no evidence that any Spanish monarch has used the imperial titles, which convert the king of Spain in legitimate Emperor of Rome. The Spanish Empire became one of the global powers as Isabella and Ferdinand funded Christopher Columbus's exploratory voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. This led to the discovery of America, which became the focus of Spanish colonization. In 2010, the budget for the Spanish monarchy was one of the lowest public expenditures for the institution of monarchy in Europe. One of the earliest influential dynasties was the House of Jiménez which united much of Christian Iberia under its leadership in the 11th century. The Jiménez rulers sought to bring their kingdoms into the European mainstream and became patrons to Cluniac Reforms.Spanish Crown – King of Spain
22. Peninsular War – The French occupation destroyed the Spanish administration, which fragmented into quarrelling provincial juntas. The British Army under the then Lieutenant General Arthur Wellesley, campaigned against the French in Spain alongside the reformed Portuguese army. In the following year, Wellington scored a decisive victory at Vitoria. The years of fighting in Spain were a heavy burden on France's Grande Armée. They would regroup and relentlessly hound the French. This drain on French resources led Napoleon, who had unwittingly provoked a total war, to call the "Spanish Ulcer". Revolution against Napoleon's occupation led to the Spanish Constitution of 1812, later a cornerstone of European liberalism. Devastating civil wars between absolutist factions led by officers trained in the Peninsular War persisted in Iberia until 1850. Negotiated during a meeting between Emperors Napoleon and Alexander in July 1807, the Treaties of Tilsit concluded the War of the Fourth Coalition. With Prussia shattered and Russia allied with France, Napoleon had expressed irritation that Portugal was open to trade with the United Kingdom. Furthermore, Prince John of Braganza, regent for his insane mother Queen Maria I had declined to join the emperor's Continental System against British trade. Events moved rapidly. After a few days, a large force started concentrating at Bayonne. Meanwhile, shortly afterward, Napoleon was once again told that the government would not go beyond its original agreements. After he received the Portuguese answer, he ordered Junot's corps to cross the Spanish frontier.Peninsular War – The Second of May 1808: The Charge of the Mamelukes by Francisco de Goya, 1814
23. Desastres de la Guerra – The Disasters of War is a series of 82 prints created between 1810 and 1820 by the Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco Goya. Although deeply affected by the war, he kept private his thoughts on the art he produced to the conflict and its aftermath. He was in almost deaf when, at 62, he began work on the prints. They were not published after his death. It is likely that only then was it considered politically safe to distribute a sequence of artworks criticising restored Bourbons. The name by which the series is known today is not Goya's own. His handwritten title on an album of proofs given to a friend reads: Fatal consequences with Bonaparte and other emphatic caprices. Aside from the captions given to each print, these are Goya's only known words on the series. With these works, he breaks from a number of painterly traditions. He rejects the bombastic heroics of previous Spanish war art to show the effect of conflict on individuals. In addition he abandons colour in favour of a more direct truth he found in shade. As with other Goya prints, they are sometimes referred to as aquatints, but more often as etchings. The series is usually considered in three groups which broadly mirror the order of their creation. The first 47 show the consequences of the conflict on individual soldiers and civilians. The middle series record the effects of the famine that hit Madrid in 1811–12, before the city was liberated from the French.Desastres de la Guerra – Plate 3: Lo mismo (The same). A man about to cut off the head of a soldier with an axe.
24. 1793 – January 7 – The Ebel riot in Sweden. January 9 – Jean-Pierre Blanchard becomes the first to fly in a gas balloon in the United States. January 21 -- After being found guilty of treason by the French National Convention, Louis XVI of France, is guillotined. January 23 – Second Partition of Poland: The Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia partition the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. February 1 – French Revolutionary Wars: France declares war on Great Britain and the Netherlands. February 25 – George Washington holds the first Cabinet meeting as President of the United States. February 27 – The Giles resolutions are introduced to the United States House of Representatives, asking the House to condemn Alexander Hamilton's handling of loans. March 1–3 – John Langdon serves as President pro tempore of the United States Senate. March 4 – George Washington is sworn in as President of the United States in Philadelphia for his second term. March 5 – French troops are defeated by Austrian forces and Liège is recaptured. March 7 – France declares war on Spain. The Republic of Mainz, is declared by Andreas Joseph Hofmann. April 6 – The Committee of Public Safety is established in France with Georges Danton as its head. May 31 – Regular troops under François Hanriot demand that the Girondins be expelled from the national convention. June 2 – The Girondins are overthrown in France.1793 – October 16: Marie Antoinette 's execution
25. Henry Schoolcraft – He is also noted for his six-volume study of American Indians in the 1850s. She taught him the Ojibwe language and much about her maternal culture. They had several children, two of whom survived past childhood. She is now recognized as the first Native literary writer in the United States. He married again in 1847, from a slaveholding family in South Carolina. In 1860 she published The Black Gauntlet, an anti-Uncle Tom's Cabin novel. Schoolcraft was born in Guilderland, Albany County, New York, the son of Lawrence Schoolcraft and Anne Barbara Schoolcraft. He later attended Middlebury College. He was especially interested in mineralogy. Henry initially studied and worked in the same industry. Schoolcraft wrote his first paper on Vitreology. From November 18 to February 1819, his companion Levi Pettibone made an expedition from Potosi, Missouri, to what is now Springfield. They traveled further into Arkansas making a survey of the geography, geology, mineralogy of the area. Schoolcraft published this study in A View of Missouri. In this book he correctly identified the potential in the region; Missouri eventually became the number one lead-producing state.Henry Schoolcraft – 1855 photo
26. 1864 – As of the start of 1864, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 21 – New Zealand Wars: The Tauranga Campaign starts. February – John Wisden publishes The Cricketer's Almanack for the year 1864 in England; it will go on to become the major annual cricket reference publication. February 1 – Danish-Prussian War: 57,000 Austrian and Prussian troops cross the Eider River into Denmark. February 25 – American Civil War: The first Northern prisoners arrive at the Confederate prison at Andersonville, Georgia. March 1 – Alejandro Mon y Menéndez takes office as Prime Minister of Spain. March 9 – American Civil War: Abraham Lincoln appoints Ulysses S. Grant commander in chief of all Union armies. March 10 – American Civil War: The Red River Campaign begins as Union troops reach Alexandria, Louisiana. March 11 – Great Sheffield Flood: A reservoir near Sheffield, England bursts; 250 die. April 12 – American Civil War: The Battle of Fort Pillow: Confederate forces kill most of the African American soldiers that surrendered at Fort Pillow, Tennessee. April 15 – Choe Je-u, founder of the Donghak movement, is executed by beheading for sedition at Daegu in Korea. May 5 – American Civil War: The Battle of the Wilderness begins in Spotsylvania County, Virginia. May 7 – Clipper ship City of Adelaide launched in Sunderland, England. By the 21st century, she will be the world's oldest clipper of only two survivors. May 8–21 – American Civil War – Battle of Spotsylvania Court House: Some 4,000 die in an inconclusive engagement.1864 – February 17: Submarine H. L. Hunley
27. 1868 – As of the start of 1868, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 2 – British Expedition to Abyssinia: Robert Napier leads an expedition to free captive British officials and missionaries. January 5 – Paraguayan War: Brazilian Army commander Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias enters Asunción, Paraguay's capital. Later he declares the war is over. Nevertheless, Paraguay's president, prepares guerrillas to fight in the countryside. January 7 – Arkansas constitutional convention meets in Little Rock. January 9 – Penal transportation from Britain to Australia ends with arrival of the convict ship Hougoumont in Western Australia after an 89-day voyage from England. There are 62 Fenians among the transportees. January 10 – Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu declares the emperor's declaration "illegal" and prepares to attack Kyoto. February 13 – The British War Office sanctions the formation of what becomes the Army Post Office Corps. February 16 – In New York City the Jolly Corks organization is renamed the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. Johnson is later acquitted by the United States Senate. The first parade to have floats takes place at Mardi Gras in New Orleans. The prince survives and quickly recovers; O'Farrell is executed on April 21 despite attempts by the prince to gain clemency for him. March 23 – The University of California is founded in Oakland, California, when the Organic Act is signed into California law.1868 – January 3: Emperor Meiji.
28. Maxim Gorky – Alexei Maximovich Peshkov, primarily known as Maxim Gorky, was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist. He was also a five-time nominee for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Around fifteen years before success as a writer, he frequently changed jobs and roamed across the Russian Empire; these experiences would later influence his writing. He had an association with fellow Russian writers Leo Tolstoy and Anton Chekhov; Gorky would later mention them in his memoirs. Gorky was active with the emerging Marxist social-democratic movement. He publicly opposed the Tsarist regime, for a time closely associated himself with Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanov's Bolshevik wing of the party. For a significant part of his life, he was exiled from Russia and later the Soviet Union. In 1932, he returned to Russia on Joseph Stalin's personal invitation and died there in June 1936. Born as Alexei Maximovich Peshkov on 28 March 1868, in Nizhny Novgorod, Gorky became an orphan at the age of eleven. He was brought up by his grandmother and ran away from home at the age of twelve in 1880. As a journalist working for provincial newspapers, he wrote under the pseudonym Иегудиил Хламида. He began using the pseudonym "Gorky" in 1892, while working in Tiflis for the newspaper Кавказ. The name reflected his simmering anger about life in Russia and a determination to speak the bitter truth. Gorky's first book Очерки и рассказы in 1898 enjoyed a sensational success, his career as a writer began. Gorky wrote incessantly, viewing literature less as an aesthetic practice than as a moral and political act that could change the world.Maxim Gorky – Portrait of Gorky, c. 1906
29. 1936 – January 16 – Serial killer Albert Fish is executed in Sing Sing Prison. January 20 – King George V of the United Kingdom dies. His eldest son succeeds to the throne, becoming Edward VIII. The Prince of Wales is not used for another 22 years. January 31 – The Green Hornet radio show debuts. February – John Maynard Keynes' book The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money is published in the UK. February 4 – Radium E becomes the first radioactive element to be made synthetically. February 5 – Japanese Baseball League, a first professional baseball league in Asia, founded. February 6 – The IV Olympic Winter Games open in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. February 17 – The first superhero to wear a skin-tight costume and mask, The Phantom, makes his first appearance in U.S. newspapers. February 26 – February 26 Incident: The Imperial Way Faction engineers a failed coup against the Japanese government; some politicians are killed. February 29 – Emperor Hirohito orders the Japanese army to arrest 123 conspirators in Tokyo government offices; 19 of them are executed in July. March 1 – Construction of Hoover Dam is completed in the United States. March 7 – In violation of the Treaty of Versailles and Locarno Treaties, Nazi Germany reoccupies the Rhineland. According like Samuel Mitcham, this is the last time when the Allies could have stopped Hitler with the odds overwhelmingly on their side.1936 – March 1: Hoover Dam is completed
30. 1930 – January 6 The first diesel engine automobile trip is completed by Clessie Cummins, founder of the Cummins Motor Co.. An early literary character agreement is signed by A. A. Milne, granting Stephen Slesinger U.S. and Canadian merchandising rights to the Winnie-the-Pooh works. January 13 – The Mickey Mouse comic strip makes its first appearance. January 15 – The Moon moves into its nearest point to Earth, called perigee, at the same time as its fullest phase of the Lunar Cycle. The next one will be on January 1, 2257 at 356,371 km. January 26 – The Indian National Congress declares this date as Independence Day or as the day for Poorna Swaraj. January 28 – The first patent for a field-effect transistor is granted in the United States to Julius Edgar Lilienfeld. January 30 – Pavel Molchanov launches a radiosonde from Pavlovsk in the Soviet Union. January 31 – The 3M company markets Scotch Tape, invented by Richard Gurley Drew, in the United States. February 2 – The Communist Party of Vietnam is established. February 10 – The Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng launch the Yên Bái mutiny in the hope of ending French colonial rule in Vietnam. Elm Farm Ollie becomes the first cow to fly in a fixed-wing aircraft, also the first cow to be milked in an aeroplane. March 2 – Mahatma Gandhi informs the British viceroy of India that civil disobedience will begin the following week. March 5 – Danish painter Einar Wegener begins sex reassignment surgery in Germany and takes the name Lili Elbe. March 6 International Unemployment Day.1930 – Gene Hackman
31. Elizabeth Bainbridge – Elizabeth Bainbridge is a retired English opera singer. Bainbridge is a contralto. Bainbridge was born in the North of England. Elizabeth Bainbridge made her singing debut as the Third Lady in Mozart's Die Zauberflöte. Her debut at Covent Garden was made the following year in Wagner's Die Walküre. She has since sung in over 1000 performances at the Royal Opera House. In 1966, she appeared in the first recording of Bernard Herrmann's opera Wuthering Heights, conducted by the composer. Godfrey John, was born in 1954. She has Julian Robin, born 1990. She married the Jamaican Phillon Castell Morris in the 1970s. Mr. Morris who died in 1988. Bainbridge lives in the Emsworth.Elizabeth Bainbridge – This biographical article needs additional citations for verification. Please help by adding reliable sources. Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately, especially if potentially libelous or harmful. (June 2008)
32. 1955 – January 2 – José Antonio Remón Cantera, president of Panama, is assassinated at a race track in Panama City. January 3 – José Ramón Guizado becomes president of Panama. January 7 – Marian Anderson is the first African-American singer to perform at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City. January 17 – USS Nautilus, the first nuclear-powered submarine, puts to sea for the first time, from Groton, Connecticut. January 18–January 20 – Battle of Yijiangshan Islands: The Chinese Communist People's Liberation Army seizes the islands from the Republic of China. January 22 – In the United States, The Pentagon announces a plan to develop intercontinental ballistic missiles armed with nuclear weapons. January 23 – Sutton Coldfield rail crash kills 17 near Birmingham, England. January 28 – United States Congress authorizes President Dwight D. Eisenhower to use force to protect Formosa from the People's Republic of China. February 4 – "Baghdad Pact": Military treaty signed between Iraq and Turkey. February 9 – Apartheid in South Africa: 60,000 non-white residents of the Sophiatown suburb of Johannesburg are forcibly evicted. February 10 – The United States Seventh Fleet helps the Republic of China evacuate Chinese Nationalist army and residents from the Tachen Islands to Taiwan. February 12 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower sends the first U.S. advisors to South Vietnam. February 14 – WFLA-TV signs on the air in Tampa/St. Petersburg, Florida. February 16 – Nearly 100 die in a fire at a home for the elderly in Yokohama, Japan.1955 – January 7: Marian Anderson at the Met
33. Reba McEntire – Reba Nell McEntire is an American country music singer, songwriter, actress and record producer. She signed a contract with Mercury Records a year later in 1975. She released her first solo album in 1977 and released five additional studio albums under the label until 1983. The album brought her success, bringing number one singles in the 1990s. In the early 1990s, McEntire branched into film starting with 1990's Tremors. Reba Nell McEntire was born March 28, 1955, in McAlester, Oklahoma, to Jacqueline and Clark Vincent McEntire. She was named for her maternal grandmother Reba Estelle Smith. Reba Smith was the daughter of Byron Williams "B.W." Brasfield and Susie Elizabeth Brasfield. Her father and grandfather, John Wesley McEntire, were both champion steer ropers and her father was a World Champion Steer Roper three times. John McEntire was the son of Clark Stephen McEntire and Helen Florida McEntire. Her mother had once wanted to be a country-music artist but eventually decided to become a schoolteacher, but she did teach her children how to sing. Reba reportedly taught herself how to play the guitar. Reba played guitar in the group and wrote all the songs. The group sang at rodeos and recorded "The Ballad of John McEntire" together.Reba McEntire – Reba McEntire in April 2010
34. 1970 – 1 Unix time begins at 00:00:00 UTC. First Storm begin in the Philippines. January 4 – The 7.1 Mw Tonghai earthquake shakes Tonghai County, Yunnan province, China, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X. Between 10,000–14,621 were killed and 26,783 were injured. January 5 – The first episode of United States soap opera All My Children is broadcast on the ABC television network. January 12 – Biafra capitulates, ending the Nigerian Civil War. January 14 – Diana Ross and The Supremes perform their farewell live concert together at the Frontier Hotel in Las Vegas. Jean Terrell, is introduced onstage at the end of the last show. January 15 – After a 32-month fight for independence from Nigeria, Biafran forces under Philip Effiong formally surrender to General Yakubu Gowon. January 20 – The Greater London Council announces its plans for the Thames Barrier at Woolwich to prevent flooding. Five lifeboatmen are killed when a Fraserburgh, Scotland vessel, The Duchess of Kent, capsizes. Pan American Airways offers the first commercially scheduled Boeing service from John F. Kennedy International Airport to London Heathrow Airport. February 1 – The Benavidez rail disaster near Buenos Aires, Argentina kills 236. February 10 – An avalanche at Val-d'Isère, France kills 41 tourists. February 11 – Ōsumi, Japan's first satellite, is launched on a Lambda-4 rocket.1970 – February 11: Ōsumi (satellite) launched
35. Vince Vaughn – Vincent Anthony "Vince" Vaughn is an American actor, producer, screenwriter, comedian, activist. He began appearing before attaining wider recognition with the 1996 comedy-drama film Swingers. In the 2000s, Vaughn acted including Dodgeball: A True Underdog Story, Wedding Crashers, The Break-Up, Fred Claus. Vaughn continued his comedic roles with The Dilemma, The Internship. Vaughn was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Vernon Lindsay Vaughn, worked for a toy company. His surname comes from Ulster Scots immigrants who first settled in Kentucky. His parents divorced in 1991. Vaughn has Valerie. As a child, he was raised "both Protestant and Catholic" by his Catholic mother and Protestant father. He then moved to Lake Forest, where he graduated from Lake Forest High School in 1988. He was introduced to musical theater at a young age and decided to become an actor in 1987. In 1988, Vaughn was cast in a Chevrolet television commercial and subsequently moved to Hollywood. He appeared in the 1989 season of the television series China Beach and in three CBS Schoolbreak Specials in 1990. His first film role was 1993's Rudy playing Jamie O'Hare, where he also struck up a friendship with featured Jon Favreau.Vince Vaughn – Vaughn in 2011
36. 1941 – Below, the events of World War II have the "WWII" acronym. January 1 – Thailand Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram decrees January 1 as the official start of the Thai solar calendar new year. January 3 -- A decree promulgated by Martin Bormann on behalf of Adolf Hitler requires replacement of blackletter typefaces by Antiqua. January 6 – The keel of the USS Missouri is laid at the New York Navy Yard in Brooklyn. January 10 – The Lend-Lease Act is introduced into the United States Congress. January 11 – The British Royal Navy light cruiser HMS Southampton is sunk off Malta. January 13 – All persons born in Puerto Rico since this day are declared U.S. citizens by birth, through U.S. federal law. January 15 – John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry describe the workings of the Atanasoff–Berry computer in print. January 19 – WWII: British troops attack Italian-held Eritrea. January 20 – Franklin D. Roosevelt is sworn in for a third term as President of the United States. January 22 WWII: Battle of Tobruk: Australian and British forces capture Tobruk from the Italians. In Sweden, Victor Hasselblad registers the Hasselblad company. January 23 – Aviator Charles Lindbergh testifies before the U.S. Congress and recommends that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Adolf Hitler. January 30 – WWII: Australians capture Derna, Libya, from the Italians. February 3 – WWII: The Nazis forcibly restore Pierre Laval to office in occupied Vichy France.1941 – USS Arizona ablaze after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
37. Virginia Woolf – Adeline Virginia Woolf, known professionally as Virginia Woolf, was an English writer and one of the foremost modernists of the twentieth century. During the interwar period, Woolf was a significant figure in London literary society and a central figure in the influential Bloomsbury Group of intellectuals. Virginia Woolf was born Adeline Virginia Stephen at 22 Hyde Park Gate in Kensington, London. Her parents were Sir Leslie Stephen and Julia Prinsep Duckworth Stephen. Woolf's later experimental biographies. Julia Stephen was born to Maria Pattle Jackson. She was first cousin of the leader Lady Henry Somerset. Julia moved with her mother where she served for Pre-Raphaelite painters such as Edward Burne-Jones. Woolf was educated by her parents in their literate and well-connected household. Her parents had each been married previously and been widowed, and, consequently, the household contained the children of three marriages. Julia had three children by her first husband,: Gerald Duckworth. Leslie and Julia had four children together: Vanessa Stephen, Adrian Stephen. Henry James, George Henry Lewes, Virginia's honorary godfather, James Russell Lowell, were among the visitors to the house. Julia Stephen was equally well connected. Supplementing these influences was the immense library at the Stephens' house, from which Virginia and Vanessa were taught the classics and English literature.Virginia Woolf – Virginia Woolf in 1902; photograph by George Charles Beresford.
38. 1882 – As of the start of 1882, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. The Standard Oil Trust is secretly created in the United States to control multiple corporations set up by John D. Rockefeller and his associates. January 5 – Charles J. Guiteau is found guilty of the assassination of James A. Garfield, despite an insanity defense raised by his lawyer. He will be hanged on June 30. February 3 – American showman P. T. Barnum acquires the elephant Jumbo from London Zoo. March 2 – Roderick McLean fails in an attempt to assassinate Queen Victoria at Windsor. March 22 – Polygamy is made a felony by the Edmunds Act passed by the United States Congress. March 24 – Robert Koch announces the discovery of the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis. Republican Jules Ferry makes primary education in France free, non-clerical and obligatory. German medical products company Beiersdorf is founded. A Catholic fraternal service organization, is founded in New Haven, Connecticut. April 3 – Old West outlaw Jesse James is shot in the back of the head and killed by Robert Ford. April 29 – The "Elektromote", the world's first trolleybus started in Berlin. May 1 – Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, as known well for philharmonic orchestra group in Europe, which founded in Germany. May 2 – Charles Stewart Parnell is released.1882 – Photograph of the comet as seen from Cape Town by David Gill
39. 1953 – January 6 – The Asian Socialist Conference opens in Rangoon, Burma. January 7 – United States President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. January 12 – Estonian émigrés found a government-in-exile in Oslo. Marshal Josip Broz Tito is chosen President of Yugoslavia. The CIA-sponsored Robertson Panel first meets to discuss the UFO phenomenon. January 15 – Georg Dertinger, foreign minister of East Germany, is arrested for spying. This record has yet to be broken. January 20 – Dwight D. Eisenhower is sworn in as President of the United States. January 22 – The Crucible, a drama by Arthur Miller, opens on Broadway. January 24 Mau Mau Uprising: Rebels in Kenya kill the Ruck family. Walter Ulbricht announces that agriculture will be collectivized in East Germany. January 28 – Derek Bentley is executed for murder at Wandsworth Prison in London. February 1 – The surge of the North Sea flood continues from the previous day. February 5 – Walt Disney's feature film Peter Pan premieres. February 11 President Dwight D. Eisenhower refuses a clemency appeal for Ethel and Julius Rosenberg.1953 – 34th President Dwight D. Eisenhower
40. Jim Thorpe – James Francis Thorpe was an American athlete and Olympic gold medalist. A member of the Sac and Fox Nation, he became the first Native American to win a gold medal for his country. 30 years after his death, the International Olympic Committee restored his Olympic medals. He grew up in Oklahoma. From 1920 to 1921, he was nominally the first president of the American Professional Football Association, which would become the National Football League in 1922. Thorpe played professional sports with the start of the Great Depression. He struggled working several odd jobs. He lived his last years in failing health and poverty. Information about Thorpe's birth, ethnic background varies widely. Thorpe was baptized "Jacobus Franciscus Thorpe" in the Catholic Church. No birth certificate has been found. Thorpe was generally considered to have been born on May 1887, near the town of Prague, Oklahoma. However, most biographers believe that he was born on May 1887, as, what is listed on his baptismal certificate. Bellemont was a small community, now disappeared, on the line between Pottawatomie and Lincoln Counties. While Lincoln County, now claims to be the birthplace of Thorpe, there is no evidence that Thorpe himself called Prague his hometown.Jim Thorpe – Jim Thorpe in Carlisle Indian Industrial School uniform, c. 1909.
41. 1887 – As of the start of 1887, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 11 – Louis Pasteur's anti-rabies treatment is defended in the Académie Nationale de Médecine by Dr. Joseph Grancher. January 20 – The United States Senate allows the Navy to lease Pearl Harbor as a naval base. The Amateur Athletic Union is formed. Brisbane receives a one-day rainfall of 465 millimetres -- a record for any Australian city. January 24 – Battle of Dogali: Abyssinian troops defeat the talians. January 28 In a snowstorm at Fort Keogh, Montana, USA, the largest snowflakes on record are reported. They are 8 inches thick. Construction of the foundations of the Eiffel Tower starts in Paris, France. February 2 – In Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, the first Groundhog Day is observed. February 4 -- The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, as passed by the 49th United States Congress, is signed by President Grover Cleveland. February 5 – The Giuseppe Verdi opera Otello premieres at La Scala. February 8 -- the General Allotment Act, is enacted. February 23 – The French Riviera is hit by a large earthquake, killing around 2,000 along the coast of the Mediterranean. February 26 – At the Sydney Cricket Ground, George Lohmann becomes the first bowler to take eight wickets in a Test innings.1887 – January 6: Menelik II
42. 1958 – The European Economic Community is founded. The first Carrefour store opens, in Annecy. January 3 – Edmund Hillary's Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition completes the third overland journey to the South Pole, the first to use powered vehicles. January 4 – Sputnik 1 falls to Earth from its orbit and burns up. President Eisenhower signed the Alaskan statehood bill January 8 -- 14-year-old Bobby Fischer wins the United States Chess Championship. January 11 Marty and Nina Rosenzweig get married. Armed Lumbee Indians confront a handful of Klansmen in Maxton, North Carolina. The first of Young People's Concerts with the New York Philharmonic is telecast by CBS. The Emmy-winning series will run for more than fourteen years. It will make Bernstein's name a household word, the most famous conductor in the U.S. January 20 – Anne de Vries releases the fourth and final volume of Journey Through the Night. January 28 Hall of Fame player Roy Campanella is involved in an automobile accident that ends his career and leaves him paralyzed. Godtfred Kirk Christiansen files a patent for the plastic Lego brick. Since its foundation, the company has made an enormous billion Lego elements. January 31 – The first successful American satellite, Explorer 1, is launched into orbit.1958 – Boris Tadić
43. W.C. Handy – William Christopher Handy was an American composer and musician, known as the "Father of the Blues". He was one of the most influential American songwriters. He is credited with giving it its contemporary form. He was an educated musician who used elements of music in his compositions. Handy was scrupulous in documenting the sources of his works, which frequently combined stylistic influences from various performers. He was born in the son of Elizabeth Brewer and Charles Barnard Handy. His father was the pastor of a small church in a small town in northeast central Alabama. The cabin of Handy's birth has been preserved near downtown Florence. Up Handy apprenticed in carpentry, shoemaking and plastering. His musical style was influenced by the church music he sang and played as a youth. It was also influenced by the sounds of the natural world. Handy's father believed that musical instruments were tools of the devil. Handy moved on to learn to play the cornet. He kept this fact a secret from his parents. Handy spent every free minute practicing it.W.C. Handy – In July 1941, by Carl Van Vechten
44. 1873 – As of the start of 1873, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 Japan adopts the Gregorian calendar. The California Penal Code goes into effect. January 17 – American Indian Wars: The First Battle of the Stronghold is fought during the Modoca War. February 11 – The Spanish Cortes deposes King Amadeus I and proclaims the First Spanish Republic. The former foreign minister, becomes prime minister of the new Spanish Republic. February 20 – The University of California opens its first medical school in San Francisco. February 20 – British Naval Officer John Morseby discovers the site of Port Moresby and claims the land for Britain. March 3 – Censorship: The United States Congress enacts the Comstock Law, making it illegal to send any "obscene, lewd, or lascivious" books through the mail. March 4 – Ulysses S. Grant is sworn in for a second term as President of the United States. March 15 – The Phi Sigma Kappa fraternity is founded at the Massachusetts Agricultural College. March 19 – German Modernist composer Max Reger is born in Brand, Bavaria. March 22 – Emancipation Day for Puerto Rico: Slaves are freed. April 1 – The British steamer RMS Atlantic sinks off Nova Scotia, killing 547. April 4 – The Kennel Club, the world's first kennel club, is founded in the United Kingdom.1873 – Melitta Bentz
45. 1985 – The year 1985 was designated as the International Youth Year by the United Nations. The Internet's Domain Name System is created. Greenland is withdrawn from the European Economic Community. January 15 – Tancredo Neves is elected president of Brazil by the Congress, ending the 21-year military rule. January 17 – British Telecom announces it is going to phase out its famous red telephone boxes. January 20 – Ronald Reagan is privately sworn in for a second term as President of the United States. January 21 – President Ronald Reagan is publicly sworn in. January 27 – The Economic Cooperation Organization is formed. January 28 – In Hollywood, the charity single "We Are the World" is recorded by USA for Africa. February 4 – The border between Gibraltar and Spain reopens for the first time since Francisco Franco closed it in 1969. February 5 – Australia cancels its involvement in U.S.-led MX missile tests. February 12 – Rafael Addiego Bruno is sworn in as interim President of Uruguay. February 14 – CNN reporter Jeremy Levin is freed from captivity in Lebanon. February 16 Israel begins withdrawing troops from Lebanon. The ideology of Hezbollah is declared in a "program" issued in Beirut.1985 – Live Aid at JFK Stadium in Philadelphia
46. Marc Chagall – Marc Zakharovich Chagall was a Russian-French artist. Art critic Robert Hughes referred as "the Jewish artist of the twentieth century". According to art historian Michael J. Lewis, Chagall was considered to be "the last survivor of the first generation of European modernists". For decades, he "had also been respected as the world's preeminent Jewish artist". Using the medium of stained glass, he produced the Jerusalem Windows in Israel. He also did large-scale paintings, including part of the ceiling of the Paris Opéra. Before World War I, he traveled between Berlin. During this period he created his own style of modern art based on his idea of Eastern European Jewish culture. He writes Lewis: as a major Jewish artist. "When Matisse dies," Pablo Picasso remarked in the 1950s, "Chagall will be the only painter left who understands what colour really is". Marc Chagall was born Moishe Segal in a Lithuanian Jewish family in Liozna, near the city of Vitebsk in 1887. At the time of his birth, Vitebsk's population was about 66,000, with half the population being Jewish. A picturesque city of synagogues, it was called "Russian Toledo", after a city of the former Spanish Empire. As the city was built mostly of wood, little of it survived years of occupation and destruction during World War II. Chagall was the eldest of nine children.Marc Chagall – Chagall, c.1920 (by Pierre Choumoff)
47. 1987 – January 1 – Frobisher Bay, Northwest Territories, changes its name to Iqaluit. January 2 – Chadian–Libyan conflict – Battle of Fada: The Chadian army destroys a Libyan armoured brigade. January 3 – Aretha Franklin becomes the first woman inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. January 4 – 1987 Maryland train collision: An Amtrak train en route from Washington, D.C. to Boston collides with Conrail engines at Chase, Maryland, killing 16. January 5 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan undergoes prostate surgery, causing speculation about his physical fitness to continue in office. January 8 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes for the first time above 2,000, gaining 8.30 to close at 2,002.25. January 13 – New York mafiosi Anthony "Fat Tony" Salerno and Carmine Peruccia are sentenced to 100 years in prison for racketeering. January 15 – Hu Yaobang, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, is forced into retirement by political conservatives. January 16 – León Febres Cordero, president of Ecuador, is kidnapped by followers of imprisoned general Frank Vargas, who successfully demand the latter's release. January 20 – Terry Waite, the special envoy of the Archbishop of Canterbury in Lebanon, is kidnapped in Beirut. January 29 – William J. Casey ends his term as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. January 31 – The last Ohrbach's department store closes in New York City after 64 years of operation. British Airways is privatised and listed on the London Stock Exchange. The new Constitution of the Philippines goes into effect. This new constitution adds Spanish and Arabic as optional languages of the Philippines.1987 – MS Herald of Free Enterprise before its capsizing on March 6.
48. Maria von Trapp – Maria Augusta von Trapp, also known as Baroness von Trapp, was the stepmother and matriarch of the Trapp Family Singers. She wrote The Story of the Trapp Family Singers, published in 1949. Maria was born on the daughter of Augusta and Karl Kutschera. She was delivered on a train heading to a hospital in Vienna, Austria. She was an orphan by her seventh birthday. She graduated from the State Teachers College for Progressive Education in Vienna in 1923. In 1924 she entered a Benedictine monastery in Salzburg, as a postulant, intending to become a nun. In 1926, while still a schoolteacher at the abbey, Maria was asked to teach one of the seven children of naval commander Georg von Trapp. Agatha Whitehead, had died in 1922 from scarlet fever. Eventually, Maria began to look after the other children, well. Georg von Trapp, seeing how much she cared about his children, asked Maria to marry him, although he was her senior. Frightened, she fled back to Nonnberg Abbey to seek guidance from the Mother Abbess. I didn't love him. However, I loved the children, so in a way I really married the children. I learned to love him more than I have ever loved after."Maria von Trapp – Photo from Declaration of Intention, 21 January 1944
49. 1905 – As of the start of 1905, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. The U.S. expanded west, with the Alberta and Saskatchewan provinces and the founding of Las Vegas. January 1 – The Trans-Siberian Railway officially opens after its completion on July 21, 1904. January 2 – Russo-Japanese War: The Russian Army surrenders at Port Arthur in Qing dynasty China. January 5 – The play The Scarlet Pimpernel opens at the New Theatre in London and begins a run of 122 performances and numerous revivals. January 26 Russian Revolution of 1905: The Imperial Russian Army opens fire on demonstrators in Riga, Governorate of Livonia, killing 73 and injuring 200 people. The Cullinan Diamond is found at the Premier Mine. February 12 -- In New Zealand, the Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament is opened. February 17 – At Fremantle, the R.M.S. Orizaba is wrecked, but all 160 passengers and the mail are saved. February 20 – Russo-Japanese War: The Battle of Mukden begins in Manchuria. February 23 – Rotary International is founded. March 1 – Australian Conservative leader Richard Butler takes office as Premier of South Australia. March 3 – Tsar Nicholas II of Russia agrees to create an elected assembly. March 4 – Theodore Roosevelt is sworn in for a full term as President of the United States.1905 – The Bloody Sunday massacre of Russian demonstrators, at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg.
50. 2004 – January 3 – Flash Airlines Flight 604 crashes into the Red Sea off the coast of Egypt, killing all 148 aboard. February 1 – A hajj stampede in Mina, Saudi Arabia, kills 251 pilgrims. February 4 – Facebook, a mainstream online social networking site, is founded by Mark Zuckerberg. February 7 – Several leaders of Abnaa el-Balad are arrested in Israel. February 24 – The 6.3 Mw Al Hoceima earthquake strikes northern Morocco with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX. At least 628 people are killed. The United States lifts a 1981 travel ban upon Libya. Macedonian President Boris Trajkovski is killed in a crash near Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The John Jay Report into Catholic abuse cases in the United States has its initial release. February 29 – 2004 Haitian coup d'état: Jean-Bertrand Aristide resigns as president of Haiti. Boniface Alexandre, is sworn in as interim president. March 2 NASA announces that the Mars MER-B has confirmed that its landing area was once drenched in water. The Iraq Ashura bombings injure at least 500 Iraqi Shi'a Muslims commemorating the Day of Ashura. March 10 – Five British men are released from detention at Camp Delta, Guantanamo Bay. After they land at RAF Brize Norton, 4 of them are immediately arrested for questioning.2004 – Cyclone Gafilo
51. Peter Ustinov – Ustinov was a fixture on television shows lecture circuits for much of his career. He held various academic posts and served as a Goodwill Ambassador for UNICEF and President of the World Federalist Movement. Ustinov displayed a cultural versatility that has frequently earned him the accolade of a Renaissance man. Miklós Rózsa, composer of the music for Quo Vadis and of numerous concert works, dedicated his String Quartet No. 1, Op. 22 to Ustinov. He was born Peter Alexander von Ustinov in London, England. Jona von Ustinov, was of Russian, Polish Jewish, German, Ethiopian descent. His grandmother was Magdalena Hall, of mixed Ethiopian-German-Jewish origin. Peter's paternal great-great-grandparents were the Ethiopian aristocrat Court-Lady Isette-Werq in Gondar. Nadezhda Leontievna Benois, known as Nadia, was a painter and ballet designer of French, German, Italian, Russian descent. Leon Benois, was an Imperial Russian architect and owner of Leonardo da Vinci's painting Madonna Benois. Leon's brother Alexandre Benois was a designer who worked with Stravinsky and Diaghilev. Jona was a reporter for a German news agency. He had a difficult childhood because of his parents' constant fighting. One of his schoolmates was the eldest son of the Nazi Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop.Peter Ustinov – Ustinov in 1973
52. 1921 – As of the start of 1921, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 1 – In American football, the University of California, Berkeley defeats Ohio State 28–0 in the Rose Bowl. January 2 Cruzeiro Esporte Clube from Belo Horizonte is founded as Palestra Italia in Brazil. The religious radio broadcast is heard over station KDKA AM in Pittsburgh. The Spanish liner Santa Isabel sinks off Villa Garcia; 244 die. The De Young Museum opens in San Francisco. January 20 – The British K-class submarine HMS K5 sinks in the English Channel; all 56 on board die. The Italian Communist Party is founded in Livorno. The Marxist Left in the Transcarpathian Ukraine holds its founding congress in Ľubochňa. Women's suffrage is attained in Sweden. The Kid, written, produced, directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin, with Jackie Coogan, is released in the United States. January 25 – The Italian battleship Leonardo da Vinci is righted in Taranto Harbour. February 12 – Red Army invasion of Georgia: The Democratic Republic of Georgia is invaded by forces of Bolshevist Russia. February 20 – The Young Communist League of Czechoslovakia is founded. February 21 – 1921 Persian coup d'état: Rezā Khan and Zia'eddin Tabatabaee stage a coup d'état in Iran.1921 – Friedrich Dürrenmatt
53. Kentucky – Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth. Originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities, Lexington. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning" the meadow" or" the prairie". Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. Only Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. In several places, the rivers have changed courses away from the original borders.Kentucky – Narrow country roads bounded by stone and wood plank fences are a fixture in the Kentucky Bluegrass region.
54. Morton M. McCarver – "General" Morton Matthew McCarver was an American politician and pioneer in the West. A native of Kentucky, he helped found cities in Iowa, Oregon, Washington while also involved in the early government of California. He also fought in the Rogue River Wars. Morton Matthew McCarver was born on January 14, 1807, in Lexington, Kentucky. His father died during the younger McCarver left home at the age of 14. McCarver spent a few years in Texas and Louisiana before returning to Kentucky. In 1832, he fought in the Black Hawk War. After moving to what would become Iowa, he helped found Burlington, Iowa, in 1834. Once the Black Hawk Purchase was complete in June 1833 he rebuilt his cabin in what was then the Iowa Territory. While in Iowa he served as commissary general of Iowa, earning him the nickname of general. Once in Oregon, McCarver settled along the Columbia River in what is now Oregon. He founded Linnton in 1843, now part of Portland. On June 1844, he was selected as the speaker of the Legislative Committee, the forerunner to the Oregon House of Representatives. He started an orchard near Oregon City after buying the land claim next to that city. In 1848, they had five children; Thomas J. Jennie, Mary A. Naomi, Julia, Elizabeth, Dollie.Morton M. McCarver – Morton Matthew McCarver
55. Burlington, Iowa – Burlington is a city and the county seat of Des Moines County, Iowa, United States. The population was 25,663 in the 2010 census, a decline from the 26,839 population in the 2000 census. Burlington is the center of a area including West Burlington, Iowa, Middletown, Gulfport, Illinois. Burlington is the home of Snake Alley, once labelled the crookedest alley in the world. Prior to European settlement, the area was neutral territory for the Sac and Fox Indians, who called it Shoquoquon, meaning Flint Hills. In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson organized two parties of explorers to map the Louisiana Purchase. The Lewis and Clark Expedition followed the Missouri River, while Lt. Zebulon Pike followed the Mississippi River. The recommendation went unheeded. The American Fur Company of John Jacob Astor established a post in the area in 1829. According to an account A.T. Andreas wrote in 1875, White erected a cabin in the area later platted to be Front Street between Court and High streets. Andreas called the Romulus and Remus of their settlement referring to the mythic heroes who founded a city surrounded by hills. A few weeks later, William R. Ross joined them and established a general store. In November and December, he surveyed the settlement for White and Doolittle. In the spring of 1834 they allowed John Gray, who purchased the first lot with his wife Eliza Jane, to rename the town for $50.Burlington, Iowa – Skyline of Burlington from Mississippi River
56. Linnton, Portland, Oregon – Linnton is a Portland, Oregon neighborhood located between Forest Park and the Willamette River along U.S. Route 30, close to the agricultural community of Sauvie Island. The neighborhood extends north somewhat beyond Portland city limits into unincorporated Multnomah County, ending at the Sauvie Island Bridge. According to Oregon Geographic Names, the Town of Linnton was platted in 1843 by Peter Burnett and Morton M. McCarver. The two named the community for U.S. Senator Lewis F. Linn of Missouri, a proponent of settling the Oregon Country. Linnton had its own post office from 1889–1975. Industrialization began in 1889 when the Portland Smelting Company started to build a smelting plant, followed by the Linnton Manufacturing Company starting in 1892. Columbia Engineering Works arrived in Linnton in 1910. Linnton was incorporated on October 5, 1910, after a vote on September 12. At that time it was a company town for Clark-Wilson and West Oregon lumber mills, the Columbia Engineering Works shipyard. Linnton was soon annexed by Portland in 1915, bringing with it much of today's Forest Park. & St. Helens Rd. The train hopping scenes from the movie Paranoid Park were filmed around the NW 107th Ave grade crossing. Linnton Neighborhood Association Guide to Linnton Neighborhood Linnton Community CenterLinnton, Portland, Oregon – A home in Linnton, overlooking the Willamette
57. Constitutional Convention (California) – The California Constitutional Conventions were two separate constitutional conventions that took place in California during the nineteenth century. The first, held in advance of California attaining U.S. statehood the following year, adopted the state's original constitution. This document maintains jurisdiction along with the current constitution, ratified on May 1879. Article 3 Section 2 of the current Constitution references the original boundaries as stated at Article 7. None has thus far gained widespread political momentum. The first California Constitutional Convention took place in 1849. Bvt. Brig. Gen. Bennett C. The second California Constitutional Convention took place to March 1879. The new California Constitution produced by the Convention was adopted by a vote of 77,959 to 67,134. Among the consequences of the deficit, the state enacted unprecedented fee increases at its colleges and universities and sustained prison riots due to overcrowding. It was more an expression of frustration attributed than an actual suggestion, I believe. But we heard it." The principal proponents of the Sacramento summit were the Bay Area Council, the California League of Women Voters, Common Cause, the William C. Velasquez Institute, the Center for Governmental Studies, the Greenlining Institute, the Courage Campaign, the Planning and Conservation League, the Silicon Valley Network.Constitutional Convention (California) – Handwritten parchment copy of the 1849 constitution.
58. Tacoma, Washington – Tacoma is a mid-sized urban port city in and the county seat of Pierce County, Washington, United States. The population was 198,397, according to the 2010 census. Tacoma is the second-largest city in the Puget Sound area and the third largest in the state. Tacoma also serves as the center of business activity for the South Sound region, which has a population of around 1 million people. Tacoma adopted its name after the nearby Mount Rainier, originally called Takhoma or Tahoma. The decision of the railroad was influenced by Tacoma's neighboring deep-water harbor, Commencement Bay. By connecting the bay with the railroad, Tacoma's motto became "When rails meet sails." Commencement Bay serves the Port of Washington State's largest port. Like most central cities, Tacoma suffered a prolonged decline in the mid-20th century as a result of suburbanization and divestment. Neighborhoods such as the 6th Avenue District have become revitalized. Tacoma-Pierce County has been named one of the most livable areas in the United States. In 2006, Tacoma was listed as one of the "most walkable" cities in the country. That same year, the women's magazine Self named Tacoma the "Most Sexually Healthy City" in the United States. In contrast, Tacoma was also ranked as the "most stressed-out" city in the country in a 2004 survey. Tacoma gained notoriety in 1940 for the collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, which earned the nickname "Galloping Gertie".Tacoma, Washington – Tacoma, Washington
59. Perth, Western Australia – Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. It is the fourth-most populous city in Australia, with an estimated population of 2.04 million living in Greater Perth. The first areas settled were on the Swan River, with the city's central business district and port both located on its shores. Perth was founded by Captain James Stirling in 1829 as the administrative centre of the Swan River Colony. It gained city status in 1856, was promoted to the status of a Lord Mayorality in 1929. An influx of immigrants after the war, predominantly from Britain, Greece, Italy and Yugoslavia, led to rapid population growth. The city repeated the act as Glenn passed overhead on the Space Shuttle in 1998. The Whadjuk Noongar people have inhabited the Perth area for 38,000 years, as evidenced by archaeological remains at Upper Swan. The Noongar people occupied the southwest corner of Western Australia and lived as hunter-gatherers. The wetlands on the Swan Coastal Plain were particularly important to them, both spiritually and as a source of food. The Noongar people know the area where Perth now stands as Boorloo. Boorloo formed one of several known collectively as the Whadjuk. The Whadjuk were part of a larger group of fourteen tribes that formed the south-west socio-linguistic block known as the Noongar, also sometimes called the Bibbulmun. The judgment was overturned on appeal. The first documented sighting of the region was made by the Dutch Captain Willem de Vlamingh and his crew on 10 January 1697.Perth, Western Australia – Perth's skyline, viewed from South Perth.
60. Australia men's national field hockey team – The Australia men's national field hockey team is one of the nation's most successful top-level sporting teams. They also won World Cup in 1986, 2010 and 2014. Australia's first men's team competed in 1922. The major competition won by the national team was the 1983 World Championships held in Karachi. Australia's first men's team competed at the Olympics at the 1956 Summer Olympics. Australia did not medal at the 1988 Summer Olympics. At the 1992 Summer Olympics, Australia earned a silver medal, losing gold to Germany. At the 1996 Summer Olympics, Australia finished third, earning a medal. The team won their Olympic gold medal at the 2004 Summer Olympics. Barry Dancer coached the side. They would hold titles in the 2012 Olympics, 2010 World Cup, their continental championship at the same time. Along with those four titles Australia also holds the Commonwealth Games title from the 2010 championships. Aran Zalewski replaced Tristan White after he tore a month before the games. Official website FIH profileAustralia men's national field hockey team – Australia at the 2008 Olympics
61. Beirut – Beirut is the capital and largest city of Lebanon. Located on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanon's Mediterranean coast, Beirut is the country's largest and main seaport. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, inhabited more than 5,000 years ago. The historical mention of Beirut is found in the Egyptian Tell el Amarna letters dating from the 15th century BC. The Beirut River runs south to north on the eastern edge of the city. Following the destructive Lebanese Civil War, Beirut's cultural landscape underwent major reconstruction. Graded for accountancy, advertising, law, Beirut is ranked as a Beta World City by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. In May 2015, Beirut was officially recognized together with La Paz. The site was discovered by Lortet in 1894 and discussed by Godefroy Zumoffen in 1900. The flint industry from the site was described as Mousterian and is held by the Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon. Beirut II, or Umm el Khatib, was suggested by Burkhalter to have been south of Tarik el Jedideh, where P.E. Gigues discovered a Copper Age flint industry at around 100 metres above sea level. The site had been built on and destroyed by 1948. Beirut III, Furn esh Shebbak or Plateau Tabet, was suggested to have been located on the left bank of the Beirut River. Burkhalter suggested that it was west of the Damascus road, although this determination has been criticized by Lorraine Copeland.Beirut – clockwise from top left: Mosque in Downtown Beirut, Beirut Souks, High rise construction near Manara, Place de l'etoile, Cafés in Downtown, Saifi Village
62. Tokyo – Tokyo, officially Tokyo Metropolis, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, is both the capital and most populous city of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world. It is the seat of the Emperor of the Japanese government. Tokyo includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Formerly known as Edo, it has been the facto seat of government since 1603 when Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters. Tokyo Metropolis was formed from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. The metropolitan government also administers 39 municipalities in the western part of the two outlying island chains. The population of the special wards is with the total population of the prefecture exceeding 13 million. The prefecture is part with upwards of 37.8 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy. The city hosts 51 of the highest number of any city in the world. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development IndexEdit. The city is also home to various television networks like Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo fourth in the Global Cities Index. In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world.Tokyo – Clockwise from top: Nishi-Shinjuku, Rainbow Bridge, National Diet Building, Shibuya, Tokyo Skytree
63. Ismaili – Ismāʿīlism is a branch of Shia Islam. Ismaili thought is heavily influenced by neoplatonism. There are also a significant number of Ismāʿīlīs in Central Asia. Ismailism shares its beginnings with early Shi`i sects that emerged during the crisis that spread throughout the early Muslim community. From the beginning, the Shia asserted the right of cousin of Muhammad, to have both spiritual control over the community. This also included his two sons, who were the grandsons of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah. ‘Ali voted against it as he believed that situation at that time demanded a peaceful resolution of the matter. Following this battle, Muawiya, the Umayyad governor of Syria, also staged a revolt under the same pretences. ‘Ali accepted this, an arbitration was done which ended in his favor. A group among Ali's army believed that subjecting his legitimate authority to arbitration was tantamount to apostasy, abandoned his forces. While he was unable to do this, he nonetheless defeated their forces in subsequent battles. Regardless of these defeats, the Kharijites survived and became a violently problematic group in Islamic history. The Entrusted Imam is an Imam in the full sense except that the lineage of the Imamate must continue through the Permanent Imam. The early followers of ‘Ali seem to have taken his guidance as “right guidance” deriving from Divine support. In other words, ‘Ali’s guidance was seen to be the expression of God’s will and the Qur’anic message.Ismaili – Tree of the Shia Islam.
64. Yemen – Yemen, officially known as the Republic of Yemen, is an Arab country in Western Asia, occupying South Arabia, the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. Yemen is the second-largest country in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 km2. The coastline stretches for about 2,000 km. Although Yemen's stated capital is the city of Sana'a, the city has been since February 2015. Because of this, Yemen's capital has been temporarily relocated to the port city of Aden, on the southern coast. Yemen's territory includes more than 200 islands; the largest of these is Socotra. In 275 AD, the region came under the rule of the later Jewish-influenced Himyarite Kingdom. Christianity arrived in the fourth century, whereas Judaism and local paganism were already established. Yemenite troops were crucial in the expansion of the Islamic conquests. Administration of Yemen has long been notoriously difficult. Several dynasties emerged to 16th centuries the Rasulid dynasty being the most prosperous. The country was divided in the early century. The Zaydi Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen was established in 1962. South Yemen remained a British protectorate known as the Aden Protectorate until 1967. The two Yemeni states united to form the modern republic of Yemen in 1990.Yemen – Sabaean gravestone of a woman holding a stylized sheaf of wheat, a symbol of fertility in ancient Yemen
65. Mecca – Mecca or Makkah is a city in the Hejaz in Saudi Arabia, the capital of its Makkah Region. The city is located at a height of 277 m above sea level. Mecca is home by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. During this expansion, Mecca has lost archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. More than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. The Saudi government is not universally known or used worldwide. The full name is Makkah al-Mukarramah or Makkatu l-Mukarramah, which means "Mecca the Honored", but is also loosely translated as "The Holy City of Mecca". The early name for the site of Mecca is Bakkah. Its etymology, like that of Mecca, is obscure. The Bakkah is used for the name Mecca in the Quran in 3:96, while the form Mecca is used in 48:24. In the language in use in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of Muhammad, the b and m were interchangeable. Other references to Mecca in the Quran call meaning "mother of all settlements." Another name of Mecca is Tihamah.Mecca – Mecca seen from Jabal al-Nour
66. Sanusi Pane – Sanusi Pane was an Indonesian writer, journalist, historian. He was highly active in literary media, sitting on the editorial boards of several publications. He has also been described from before the Indonesian National Revolution. Pane was born in Muara Sipongi, Dutch East Indies, on 14 November 1905 to a Muslim family. He began his education before continuing to middle school, first in Padang, then in Batavia. While in Jakarta, Pane published his first poem, "Tanah Air", in the magazine Jong Soematra. In 1929, Pane moved to India, where he spent a year studying the culture of India. After his return to the Indies in 1930, Pane became a member of the editorial staff of Timboel magazine well as a teacher. In 1933, Armijn called on him to work on the new literary magazine, Poedjangga Baroe; Pane accepted. In 1934 he was fired as a teacher due to his membership in the Indonesian National Party. Afterward, Pane continued becoming an editor at the Chinese-owned Kebangoenan together with Mohammad Yamin. Together with Armijn, Sumanang, on 13 December 1937 Pane founded the news agency Antara; after independence, Antara became Indonesia's official news agency. From 1941 to 1942, Pane edited Indonesia, published by the state-owned publisher Balai Pustaka. After the Japanese invaded the Indies, Pane became the head of the Central Cultural Office. Pane died in Jakarta on 2 January 1968.Sanusi Pane – Sanusi Pane
67. Indonesian National Revolution – It took place at the end of 1949. The Indonesian movement began in May 1908, commemorated as the "Year of National Awakening". The struggle involved sporadic but bloody armed conflict, internal Indonesian political and communal upheavals, two major international diplomatic interventions. In 1949 international pressure on the Netherlands became such that, together with the existing military stalemate, it recognised Indonesian independence. The revolution marked the end of the colonial administration of the Dutch East Indies, except for Netherlands New Guinea. It also significantly changed ethnic castes, well as reducing the power of many of the local rulers. Budi Utomo, others pursued strategies of co-operation by joining the Dutch initiated Volksraad in the hope that Indonesia would be granted self-rule. Others chose a non-cooperative strategy demanding the freedom of self-government from the Dutch East Indies colony. The occupation of Indonesia by Japan for three and a half years during World War II was a crucial factor in the subsequent revolution. To a lesser extent in Sumatra, the Japanese spread and encouraged nationalist sentiment. As significantly for the subsequent revolution, the Japanese destroyed and replaced much of the Dutch-created economic, administrative, political infrastructure. No date was set. For supporters of Sukarno, this announcement was seen with the Japanese. The Central Indonesian National Committee elected Sukarno as President, Hatta as Vice-President. The people of Indonesia, hereby declare the independence of Indonesia.Indonesian National Revolution – The Dutch Queen signs the document transferring sovereignty to the United States of Indonesia
68. Japanese architecture – Japanese architecture has traditionally been typified by wooden structures, elevated slightly off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. Sliding doors were used in place of walls, allowing the internal configuration of a space to be customized for different occasions. People usually sat otherwise on the floor, traditionally; chairs and high tables were not widely used until the 20th century. The earliest Japanese architecture was seen in prehistoric times in simple stores that were not adapted to a hunter-gatherer population. Influence from Han Dynasty China via Korea saw the introduction of ceremonial burial chambers. The introduction of Buddhism in Japan during the sixth century was a catalyst for large-scale building using complicated techniques in wood. Influence from the Chinese Tang and Sui Dynasties led in Nara. Its checkerboard layout used the Chinese capital of Chang ` an as a template for its design. A gradual increase in the size of buildings led to standard units of measurement as well as refinements in layout and garden design. The introduction of the ceremony emphasised simplicity and modest design as a counterpoint to the excesses of the aristocracy. During the Meiji Restoration of 1868 the history of Japanese architecture was radically changed by two important events. Second, it was then that Japan underwent a period of intense Westernization in order to compete with other developed countries. Initially styles from abroad were imported to Japan but gradually the country taught its own architects and began to express its own style. Architects returning with western architects introduced the International Style of modernism into Japan. Much in the traditional architecture of Japan was imported from China and other Asian cultures over the centuries.Japanese architecture – Kinkaku-ji, Kyoto, originally built in 1397 (Muromachi period)
69. Imperial Japan – Militarization under the slogan Fukoku Kyōhei led to its emergence as a world power and the establishment of a colonial empire. A new constitution was created with American involvement in 1947, officially dissolving the Empire. The historical state is frequently referred to as "the Empire of Japan" or "the Japanese Empire" or "Imperial Japan" in English. In Japanese it is referred as Dai Nippon Teikoku, which translates to "Great Japanese Empire". This meaning is significant in terms of geography, encompassing its surrounding areas. Due to its flag, it was also given the exonym Empire of the Sun. The following years saw interaction; commercial treaties between the Tokugawa shogunate and Western countries were signed. In March 1863, the "order to expel barbarians" was issued. Although the Shogunate had no intention of enforcing the order, it nevertheless inspired attacks in Japan. The Namamugi Incident during 1862 led to the murder of an Englishman, Charles Lennox Richardson, from Satsuma. The British were denied. While attempting to exact payment, The Royal Navy was fired from coastal batteries near the town of Kagoshima. They responded by bombarding the port of Kagoshima in 1863. For Richardson's death, the Tokugawa government agreed to pay an indemnity. Shelling of attacks against foreign property led to the Bombardment of Shimonoseki by a multinational force in 1864.Imperial Japan – The battleship Asahi
70. Wallace Stevens – Wallace Stevens was an American Modernist poet. He won the Pulitzer Prize in 1955. He then attended New York Law School, graduating in 1903. On a trip back to Reading in 1904 Stevens met Elsie Viola Kachel, a young woman who had worked as a saleswoman, milliner, stenographer. After a long courtship, he married her over the objections of his parents, who considered her lower-class. Holly, was born in 1924. She later edited a collection of his poems. In 1913, the Stevenses rented a New York City apartment from sculptor Adolph A. Weinman, who made a bust of Elsie. Her striking profile was later used for the head of the Walking Liberty Half Dollar. The Stevenses remained married. By 1914 he had become the vice-president of the New York office of the Equitable Surety Company of Missouri. He remained there for only one year. From 1924 to 1932 he resided at 735 Farmington Avenue. In 1932 he purchased a 1920s Colonial at 118 Westerly Terrace where he resided for the remainder of his life. By 1934, he had been named vice-president of the company.Wallace Stevens – Wallace Stevens
71. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. The movement has since expanded to many other projects, including the Wikipedia community with around 70,000 volunteers. Volunteers for other Wikimedia projects such as Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons, volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online Wikipedia. It consists of Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include: The Wikimedia Foundation is an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It operates most of the movement's websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in geographical regions, mostly countries. There are 41 chapters. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a total budget of $ million. WMDE allocates approximately $ million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, $4 million for transfer to the WMF. To have the same procedure, every chapter follows requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. A total of Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations.Wikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014