1. Cultural icon – A cultural icon is an artifact that is recognised by members of a culture or sub-culture as representing some aspect of cultural identity. Icons are judged by their ability to be an authentic proxy, when individuals perceives a cultural icon, they compare it with their perceptions of the culture identity it attempts to mimic. Cultural Icons can also be identified as a representation of the practices of one culture by another. In the media, many items of culture have been called iconic despite their lack of durability. Some commentators believe that the word is overused or misused, a subset of cultural icons are national icons. Some examples are, Big Ben, Cup of tea, Red telephone box, Red AEC Routemaster London double decker bus, Spitfire, matryoshka dolls are seen internationally as cultural icons of Russia. Thus an apple pie is an icon of the United States. Religious icons can become cultural icons in societies where religion and culture are deeply entwined. Describing something as iconic or as an icon has become common in the popular media. This has drawn criticism from some, a writer in Liverpool Daily Post calls iconic a word that makes my flesh creep, category, Lists of cultural icons Pop icon Popular culture Biedermann, Hans. Dictionary of Symbolism, Cultural Icons and the Meanings Behind Them, batman Unmasked, Analysing a Cultural Icon. Edwards, Peter, Karl Enenkel, and Elspeth Graham, the Horse as Cultural Icon, The Real and the Symbolic Horse in the Early Modern World. CS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Foudy, Julie, Leslie Heywood, built to Win, The Female Athlete as Cultural Icon. Titanic Century, Media, Myth, and the Making of a Cultural Icon, titanic Century, Media, Myth, and the Making of a Cultural Icon. Cles Pour la France en 80 Icones Culturelles, the DNA Mystique, The Gene as a Cultural Icon. Reydams-Schils, Gretchen J. Platos Timaeus as Cultural Icon and our New Icons by The Daily Telegraph Nothing and no one are Off Limits in an Age of Iconomania by The Age British Postal Museum & Archive, Icons of England Culture24, Icons of EnglandCultural icon – Apple pie, baseball, and the flag grouped together are a cliché of American cultural icons
2. Biography – A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a persons life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, relationships, biographical works are usually non-fiction, but fiction can also be used to portray a persons life. One in-depth form of biographical coverage is called legacy writing, works in diverse media, from literature to film, form the genre known as biography. An authorized biography is written with the permission, cooperation, and at times, an autobiography is written by the person himself or herself, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter. At first, biographical writings were regarded merely as a subsection of history with a focus on an individual of historical importance. The independent genre of biography as distinct from general history writing, began to emerge in the 18th century, one of the earliest of the biographers was Plutarch, and his Parallel Lives, published about 80 A. D. covers prominent figures in the classical world. Cornelius Nepos published a work, his Excellentium Imperatorum Vitae. Perhaps the earliest extant biography that does not contain mythological material is The Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius, in the early Middle Ages, there was a decline in awareness of the classical culture in Europe. During this time, the only repositories of knowledge and records of the history in Europe were those of the Roman Catholic Church. Hermits, monks, and priests used this period to write biographies. Their subjects were usually restricted to the fathers, martyrs, popes. Their works were meant to be inspirational to the people and vehicles for conversion to Christianity, one significant secular example of a biography from this period is the life of Charlemagne by his courtier Einhard. Early biographical dictionaries were published as compendia of famous Islamic personalities from the 9th century onwards and they contained more social data for a large segment of the population than other works of that period. And then began the documentation of the lives of other historical figures who lived in the medieval Islamic world. By the late Middle Ages, biographies became less church-oriented in Europe as biographies of kings, knights, the most famous of such biographies was Le Morte dArthur by Sir Thomas Malory. The book was an account of the life of the fabled King Arthur, following Malory, the new emphasis on humanism during the Renaissance promoted a focus on secular subjects, such as artists and poets, and encouraged writing in the vernacular. Giorgio Vasaris Lives of the Artists was the landmark biography focusing on secular lives, vasari made celebrities of his subjects, as the Lives became an early bestseller. Two other developments are noteworthy, the development of the press in the 15th centuryBiography – Third Volume of a 1727 edition of Plutarch 's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans printed by Jacob Tonson.
3. Genre – Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time. Genres form by conventions that change over time as new genres are invented, often, works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Stand alone texts, works, or pieces of communication may have individual styles, some genres may be rigid with strictly adhered to guidelines while others may be very flexible. Genre began as a classification system for ancient Greek literature. Poetry, prose, and performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story. Speech patterns for comedy would not be appropriate for tragedy, in later periods genres proliferated and developed in response to changes in audiences and creators. Genre became a tool to help the public make sense out of unpredictable art. Because art is often a response to a state, in that people write/paint/sing/dance about what they know about. Genre suffers from the ills of any classification system. Genre is to be reassessed and scrutinized, and to works on their unique merit. While the genre of storytelling has been relegated as lesser form of art because of the heavily borrowed nature of the conventions, proponents argue that the genius of an effective genre piece is in the variation, recombination, and evolution of the codes. The term genre is used in the history and criticism of visual art. These are distinguished from staffage, incidental figures in what is primarily a landscape or architectural painting, Genre painting may also be used as a wider term covering genre painting proper, and other specialized types of paintings such as still-life, landscapes, marine paintings and animal paintings. The concept of the hierarchy of genres was a one in artistic theory. It was strongest in France, where it was associated with the Académie française which held a role in academic art. Genres may be determined by technique, tone, content. Genre should not be confused with age category, by which literature may be classified as adult, young adult. They also must not be confused with format, such as novel or picture bookGenre – A genre painting (Peasant Dance, c. 1568, by Pieter Brueghel the Elder)
4. W. S. Gilbert – Sir William Schwenck Gilbert was an English dramatist, librettist, poet and illustrator best known for the fourteen comic operas produced in collaboration with the composer Sir Arthur Sullivan. The most famous of these include H. M. S, Pinafore, The Pirates of Penzance and one of the most frequently performed works in the history of musical theatre, The Mikado. The popularity of works was supported for over a century by year-round performances of them, in Britain and abroad, by the repertory company that they founded. Eleven of the Savoy operas continue to be performed in the English-speaking world and beyond by opera companies, repertory companies, schools. Lines from these works have become part of the English language, such as short, sharp shock, What, and Let the punishment fit the crime. Gilberts creative output included over 75 plays and libretti, and numerous stories, poems and lyrics. He also began to write burlesques and his first comic plays, developing a unique absurdist and he also developed a realistic method of stage direction and a reputation as a strict theatre director. M. S. Pinafore and The Pirates of Penzance, in the 1880s, Gilbert focused on the Savoy operas, including Patience, Iolanthe, The Mikado, The Yeomen of the Guard and The Gondoliers. Gilbert won the lawsuit, but the argument caused hurt feelings among the partnership. Although Gilbert and Sullivan were persuaded to collaborate on two last operas, they were not as successful as the previous ones, in later years, Gilbert wrote several plays, and a few operas with other collaborators. He retired, with his wife and ward, Nancy McIntosh, to a country estate, Gilbert died of a heart attack while attempting to rescue a young woman to whom he was giving a swimming lesson in the lake at his home. Gilbert was born at 17 Southampton Street, Strand, London and his father, also named William, was briefly a naval surgeon, who later became a writer of novels and short stories, some of which were illustrated by his son. Gilberts mother was the former Anne Mary Bye Morris, the daughter of Thomas Morris, Gilberts parents were distant and stern, and he did not have a particularly close relationship with either of them. They quarrelled increasingly, and following the break-up of their marriage in 1876, his relationships with them, especially his mother, Gilbert was nicknamed Bab as a baby, and then Schwenck, after his fathers godparents. As a child, Gilbert travelled to Italy in 1838 and then France for two years with his parents, who returned to settle in London in 1847. He then attended Kings College London, graduating in 1856, instead he joined the Civil Service, he was an assistant clerk in the Privy Council Office for four years and hated it. In 1859 he joined the Militia, a volunteer force formed for the defence of Britain, with which he served until 1878. In 1863 he received a bequest of £300 that he used to leave the service and take up a brief career as a barristerW. S. Gilbert – W. S. Gilbert
5. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-governmentUnited Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
6. Dramatist – A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes plays. The term is not a variant spelling of playwrite, but something quite distinct, hence the prefix and the suffix combine to indicate someone who has wrought words, themes, and other elements into a dramatic form - someone who crafts plays. The homophone with write is in this case entirely coincidental, the term playwright appears to have been coined by Ben Jonson in his Epigram 49, To Playwright, as an insult, to suggest a mere tradesman fashioning works for the theatre. Jonson described himself as a poet, not a playwright, since plays during that time were written in meter and this view was held as late as the early 19th century. The term playwright later lost this negative connotation, the earliest playwrights in Western literature with surviving works are the Ancient Greeks. These early plays were written for annual Athenian competitions among playwrights held around the 5th century BC, such notables as Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes established forms still relied on by their modern counterparts. For the ancient Greeks, playwriting involved poïesis, the act of making and this is the source of the English word poet. In the 4th century BCE, Aristotle wrote his Poetics, the first play-writing manual, in this famous text, Aristotle established the principle of action or praxis as the basis for all drama. He then included a hierarchy of elements for the beginning with plot, character, thought, diction, music. The ends of drama were plot, character, and thought, the means of drama were language and music, since the myths, upon which Greek tragedy were based, were widely known, plot had to do with the arrangement and selection of existing material. Character was equated with choice as rather than psychology, so that character was determined by action, in tragedy, the notion of ethical choice determined the character of the individual. Thought had more to do and the imitation of an action that is serious, thus, he developed his notion of hamartia, or tragic flaw, an error in judgment by the main character or protagonist. It provides the basis for the play, a term still held as the sine qua non of dramaturgy. The Poetics, while very brief and highly condensed, is studied today. Perhaps the most Aristotelian of contemporary playwrights is David Mamet, who embraces the idea of character as agent of the action, and emphasizes causality in the structure of his plays. His recently revived, Speed-the-Plow, is quintessentially Aristotelian, in that it observes the unities and builds its plot through a causal stream of discoveries and reversals. The Italian Renaissance brought about a stricter interpretation of Aristotle, as this long-lost work came to light in the late 15th century. The neoclassical ideal, which was to reach its apogee in France during the 17th century, dwelled upon the unities, of action, place, and timeDramatist – William Shakespeare
7. Libretto – A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical. The term libretto is also used to refer to the text of major liturgical works, such as the Mass, requiem and sacred cantata. Libretto, from Italian, is the diminutive of the word libro, sometimes other language equivalents are used for libretti in that language, livret for French works and Textbuch for German. A libretto is distinct from a synopsis or scenario of the plot, in that the libretto contains all the words and stage directions, while a synopsis summarizes the plot. The relationship of the librettist to the composer in the creation of a work has varied over the centuries, as have the sources. In the context of a modern English language musical theatre piece, Libretti for operas, oratorios and cantatas in the 17th and 18th centuries generally were written by someone other than the composer, often a well-known poet. Metastasio was one of the most highly regarded librettists in Europe and his libretti were set many times by many different composers. Another noted 18th-century librettist was Lorenzo Da Ponte, who wrote the libretti for three of Mozarts greatest operas, as well as for other composers. Eugène Scribe was one of the most prolific librettists of the 19th century, providing the words for works by Meyerbeer, Auber, Bellini, Donizetti, Rossini and Verdi. The French writers duo Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy wrote a number of opera and operetta libretti for the likes of Jacques Offenbach, Jules Massenet. Arrigo Boito, who wrote libretti for, among others, Giuseppe Verdi and Amilcare Ponchielli, the libretto is not always written before the music. Some composers wrote their own libretti, Richard Wagner is perhaps most famous in this regard, with his transformations of Germanic legends and events into epic subjects for his operas and music dramas. Hector Berlioz, too, wrote the libretti for two of his works, La Damnation de Faust and Les Troyens. Alban Berg adapted Georg Büchners play Woyzeck for the libretto of Wozzeck, sometimes the libretto is written in close collaboration with the composer, this can involve adaptation, as was the case with Rimsky-Korsakov and his librettist Belsky, or an entirely original work. In the case of musicals, the music, the lyrics, thus, a musical such as Fiddler on the Roof has a composer, a lyricist and the writer of the book. In rare cases, the composer writes everything except the dance arrangements - music, lyrics and libretto, Other matters in the process of developing a libretto parallel those of spoken dramas for stage or screen. A famous case of the latter is Wagners 1861 revision of the original 1845 Dresden version of his opera Tannhäuser for Paris, since the late 19th century some opera composers have written music to prose or free verse libretti. The libretto of a musical, on the hand, is almost always written in proseLibretto – Cover of a 1921 libretto for Giordano's Andrea Chénier
8. Gilbert and Sullivan – Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian-era theatrical partnership of the librettist W. S. Gilbert and the composer Arthur Sullivan and to the works they jointly created. The two men collaborated on fourteen comic operas between 1871 and 1896, of which H. M. S, Pinafore, The Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado are among the best known. Sullivan, six years Gilberts junior, composed the music, contributing memorable melodies that could convey both humour and pathos and their operas have enjoyed broad and enduring international success and are still performed frequently throughout the English-speaking world. Gilbert and Sullivan introduced innovations in content and form that influenced the development of musical theatre through the 20th century. The operas have influenced political discourse, literature, film. Producer Richard DOyly Carte brought Gilbert and Sullivan together and nurtured their collaboration and he built the Savoy Theatre in 1881 to present their joint works and founded the DOyly Carte Opera Company, which performed and promoted Gilbert and Sullivans works for over a century. Gilbert was born in London on 18 November 1836 and his father, William, was a naval surgeon who later wrote novels and short stories, some of which included illustrations by his son. Director and playwright Mike Leigh described the Gilbertian style as follows, With great fluidity and freedom, First, within the framework of the story, he makes bizarre things happen, and turns the world on its head. Thus the Learned Judge marries the Plaintiff, the soldiers metamorphose into aesthetes, and so on and his genius is to fuse opposites with an imperceptible sleight of hand, to blend the surreal with the real, and the caricature with the natural. In other words, to tell a perfectly outrageous story in a deadpan way. Gilbert developed his theories on the art of stage direction. At the time Gilbert began writing, theatre in Britain was in disrepute, Gilbert helped to reform and elevate the respectability of the theatre, especially beginning with his six short family-friendly comic operas, or entertainments, for Thomas German Reed. At a rehearsal for one of these entertainments, Ages Ago, the composer Frederic Clay introduced Gilbert to his friend, two years later, Gilbert and Sullivan would write their first work together. Those two intervening years continued to shape Gilberts theatrical style, Sullivan was born in London on 13 May 1842. His father was a bandmaster, and by the time Arthur had reached the age of eight. In school he began to compose anthems and songs, in 1856, he received the first Mendelssohn Scholarship and studied at the Royal Academy of Music and then at Leipzig, where he also took up conducting. His graduation piece, completed in 1861, was a suite of music to Shakespeares The Tempest. Revised and expanded, it was performed at the Crystal Palace in 1862 and was an immediate sensation and he began building a reputation as Englands most promising young composer, composing a symphony, a concerto, and several overtures, among them the Overture di Ballo, in 1870Gilbert and Sullivan – W. S. Gilbert
9. Composer – A composer is a person who creates or writes music, which can be vocal music, instrumental music or music which combines both instruments and voices. The core meaning of the term refers to individuals who have contributed to the tradition of Western classical music through creation of works expressed in written musical notation, many composers are also skilled performers, either as singers, instrumentalists, and/or conductors. Examples of composers who are well known for their ability as performers include J. S. Bach, Mozart. In many popular genres, such as rock and country. For a singer or instrumental performer, the process of deciding how to perform music that has previously composed and notated is termed interpretation. Different performers interpretations of the work of music can vary widely, in terms of the tempos that are chosen. Composers and songwriters who present their own music are interpreting, just as much as those who perform the music of others, although a musical composition often has a single author, this is not always the case. A piece of music can also be composed with words, images, or, in the 20th and 21st century, a culture eventually developed whereby faithfulness to the composers written intention came to be highly valued. This musical culture is almost certainly related to the esteem in which the leading classical composers are often held by performers. The movement might be considered a way of creating greater faithfulness to the original in works composed at a time that expected performers to improvise. In Classical music, the composer typically orchestrates her own compositions, in some cases, a pop songwriter may not use notation at all, and instead compose the song in her mind and then play or record it from memory. In jazz and popular music, notable recordings by influential performers are given the weight that written scores play in classical music. The level of distinction between composers and other musicians varies, which issues such as copyright and the deference given to individual interpretations of a particular piece of music. In the development of European classical music, the function of composing music initially did not have greater importance than that of performing it. The preservation of individual compositions did not receive attention and musicians generally had no qualms about modifying compositions for performance. In as much as the role of the composer in western art music has seen continued solidification, for instance, in certain contexts the line between composer and performer, sound designer, arranger, producer, and other roles, can be quite blurred. The term composer is often used to refer to composers of music, such as those found in classical, jazz or other forms of art. In popular and folk music, the composer is usually called a songwriter and this is distinct from a 19th-century conception of instrumental composition, where the work was represented solely by a musical score to be interpreted by performersComposer – French composer Louis-Nicolas Clérambault composing at the keyboard
10. Arthur Sullivan – Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan MVO was an English composer. He is best known for his series of 14 operatic collaborations with the dramatist W. S. Gilbert, Pinafore, The Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado. The best known of his hymns and songs include Onward Christian Soldiers, the son of a military bandmaster, Sullivan composed his first anthem at age eight. He was selected as soloist in the choir of the Chapel Royal. His graduation piece was a suite of music to Shakespeares The Tempest. When it was performed in London in 1862, it was an immediate sensation, Sullivan began his composing career with a series of ambitious works, interspersed with hymns, parlour ballads and other light pieces. Among his best received early pieces were a ballet, LÎle Enchantée, from 1861 to 1872, he supplemented his income by working as a church organist and music teacher, and writing hymns and songs. In 1866, Sullivan composed a comic opera, Cox and Box. His most successful work, the Overture di Ballo, premiered in 1870. Sullivans talent and native charm earned him friends in musical and social circles, including Queen Victorias son Alfred. In 1871, Sullivan wrote his first opera with W. S. Gilbert, Sullivan then produced his Festival Te Deum, an oratorio, The Light of the World, and incidental music for West End productions of several Shakespeare plays. He also had conducting and academic appointments, in 1875, producer Richard DOyly Carte reunited Gilbert and Sullivan to create a one-act piece, Trial by Jury, which was a surprise hit. Pinafore became a sensation, as did The Pirates of Penzance and Patience. Sullivan never married but had a love affair with an American socialite. After the death of his brother Fred in 1877, Sullivan supported Freds large family financially for the rest of his life, effectively adopting his nephew Bertie. Carte used his profits from the Gilbert and Sullivan partnership to build the Savoy Theatre in 1881, later hits in the series were Iolanthe, The Mikado, The Yeomen of the Guard and The Gondoliers. Sullivan was knighted for his contributions to music in 1883 and his infrequent serious pieces during the 1880s included two cantatas, The Martyr of Antioch and The Golden Legend, his most popular choral work. Sullivans only serious opera, Ivanhoe, though successful in 1891, was little-heard after thatArthur Sullivan – Arthur Sullivan
11. H.M.S. Pinafore – Pinafore, or, The Lass That Loved a Sailor is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and a libretto by W. S. Gilbert. It opened at the Opera Comique in London, on 25 May 1878 and ran for 571 performances, Pinafore was Gilbert and Sullivans fourth operatic collaboration and their first international sensation. The story takes place aboard the ship HMS Pinafore, the captains daughter, Josephine, is in love with a lower-class sailor, Ralph Rackstraw, although her father intends her to marry Sir Joseph Porter, the First Lord of the Admiralty. She abides by her fathers wishes at first, but Sir Josephs advocacy of the equality of humankind encourages Ralph and they declare their love for each other and eventually plan to elope. The captain discovers this plan, but, as in many of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, drawing on several of his earlier Bab Ballad poems, Gilbert imbued this plot with mirth and silliness. The operas humour focuses on love between members of different social classes and lampoons the British class system in general, Pinafore also pokes good-natured fun at patriotism, party politics, the Royal Navy, and the rise of unqualified people to positions of authority. The title of the piece comically applies the name of a garment for girls and women, pinafores extraordinary popularity in Britain, America and elsewhere was followed by the similar success of a series of Gilbert and Sullivan works, including The Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado. Their works, later known as the Savoy operas, dominated the stage on both sides of the Atlantic for more than a decade and continue to be performed today. The structure and style of these operas, particularly Pinafore, were copied and contributed significantly to the development of modern musical theatre. In 1875, Richard DOyly Carte, who was managing the Royalty Theatre for Selina Dolaro, brought Gilbert and Sullivan together to write their second show. With this theatre company, Carte finally had the resources, after many failed attempts, to produce a new full-length Gilbert. This next opera was The Sorcerer, which opened in November 1877 and it too was successful, running for 178 performances. Sheet music from the show well, and street musicians played the melodies. Instead of writing a piece for production by a proprietor, as was usual in Victorian theatres, Gilbert, Sullivan. They were therefore able to choose their own cast of performers and they then tailored their work to the particular abilities of these performers. For until then no living soul had seen upon the stage such weird, eccentric, conjured into existence a hitherto unknown comic world of sheer delight. The success of The Sorcerer paved the way for another collaboration by Gilbert, Carte agreed on terms for a new opera with the Comedy Opera Company, and Gilbert began work on H. M. S. Pinafore before the end of 1877, Gilberts father had been a naval surgeon, and the nautical theme of the opera appealed to himH.M.S. Pinafore – Theatre poster, 1879
12. The Pirates of Penzance – The Pirates of Penzance, or, The Slave of Duty is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert. The operas official premiere was at the Fifth Avenue Theatre in New York City on 31 December 1879, where the show was well received by both audiences and critics. Its London debut was on 3 April 1880, at the Opera Comique, the story concerns Frederic, who, having completed his 21st year, is released from his apprenticeship to a band of tender-hearted pirates. He meets Mabel, the daughter of Major-General Stanley, and the two people fall instantly in love. Frederic soon learns, however, that he was born on the 29th of February and his indenture specifies that he remain apprenticed to the pirates until his twenty-first birthday, meaning that he must serve for another 63 years. Bound by his own sense of duty, Frederics only solace is that Mabel agrees to wait for him faithfully, Pirates was the fifth Gilbert and Sullivan collaboration and introduced the much-parodied Major-Generals Song. The opera was performed for over a century by the DOyly Carte Opera Company in Britain and by other opera companies. Pirates remains popular today, taking its place along with The Mikado, Pinafore as one of the most frequently played Gilbert and Sullivan operas. The Pirates of Penzance was the only Gilbert and Sullivan opera to have its premiere in the United States. At the time, American law offered no protection to foreigners. After the pairs previous opera, H. M. S, however, Gilbert, Sullivan, and their producer, Richard DOyly Carte, failed in their efforts, over the next decade, to control the American performance copyrights to Pirates and their other operas. Fiction and plays about pirates were ubiquitous in the 19th century, walter Scotts The Pirate and James Fenimore Coopers The Red Rover were key sources for the romanticised, dashing pirate image and the idea of repentant pirates. Both Gilbert and Sullivan had parodied these ideas early in their careers, Sullivan had written a comic opera called The Contrabandista, in 1867, about a hapless British tourist who is captured by bandits and forced to become their chief. Gilbert had written several works that involved pirates or bandits. In Gilberts 1876 opera Princess Toto, the character is eager to be captured by a brigand chief. Gilbert had translated Jacques Offenbachs operetta Les brigands, in 1871, as in Les brigands, The Pirates of Penzance absurdly treats stealing as a professional career path, with apprentices and tools of the trade such as the crowbar and life preserver. While Pinafore was running strongly at the Opera Comique in London, Gilbert was eager to get started on his and Sullivans next opera and he re-used several elements of his 1870 one-act piece, Our Island Home, which had introduced a pirate chief, Captain Bang. Bang was mistakenly apprenticed to a band as a child by his deaf nursemaidThe Pirates of Penzance – Drawing of the Act I finale
13. The Mikado – The Mikado, or, The Town of Titipu is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert, their ninth of fourteen operatic collaborations. Before the end of 1885, it was estimated that, in Europe and America, the Mikado remains the most frequently performed Savoy Opera, and it is especially popular with amateur and school productions. The work has translated into numerous languages and is one of the most frequently played musical theatre pieces in history. Setting the opera in Japan, a locale far away from Britain, allowed Gilbert to satirise British politics. Gilbert and Sullivans opera immediately preceding The Mikado was Princess Ida, which ran for nine months, on 22 March 1884, Carte gave Gilbert and Sullivan contractual notice that a new opera would be required within six months. Sullivans close friend, the conductor Frederic Clay, had suffered a stroke in December 1883 that effectively ended his career. Gilbert, who had started work on a new libretto in which people fall in love against their wills after taking a magic lozenge, was surprised to hear of Sullivans hesitation. Gilbert was much hurt, but Sullivan insisted that he could not set the lozenge plot, in addition to the improbability of it, it was too similar to the plot of their 1877 opera, The Sorcerer. Sullivan returned to London, and, as April wore on, Gilbert tried to rewrite his plot, but he could not satisfy Sullivan. However, by 8 May 1884, Gilbert was ready to back down, writing, am I to understand that if I construct another plot in which no element occurs. A consistent plot, free from anachronisms, constructed in perfect good faith & to the best of my ability, the stalemate was broken, and on 20 May, Gilbert sent Sullivan a sketch of the plot to The Mikado. It would take ten months for The Mikado to reach the stage. A revised version of their 1877 work, The Sorcerer, coupled with their one-act piece Trial by Jury, played at the Savoy while Carte, Gilbert eventually found a place for his lozenge plot in The Mountebanks, written with Alfred Cellier in 1892. A trifling accident inspired him with an idea, One day an old Japanese sword that, for years, had been hanging on the wall of his study, fell from its place. This incident directed his attention to Japan, Just at that time a company of Japanese had arrived in England and set up a little village of their own in Knightsbridge. The story is an one, but it is largely fictional. Gilbert was interviewed twice about his inspiration for The Mikado, in both interviews the sword was mentioned, and in one of them he said it was the inspiration for the opera, although he never said that the sword had fallen. Gilbert scholar Brian Jones, in his article The Sword that Never Fell, notes that the further removed in time the writer is from the incident and it suggested the broad idea, as he said laterThe Mikado – Theatre poster for The Mikado
14. Savoy opera – Savoy opera was a style of comic opera that developed in Victorian England in the late 19th century, with W. S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan as the original and most successful practitioners. The name is derived from the Savoy Theatre, which impresario Richard DOyly Carte built to house the Gilbert and Sullivan pieces, and later, the Savoy operas were seminal influences on the creation of the modern musical. Most of the literature on Gilbert and Sullivan since that time refers to these works as Savoy Operas, comic operas. However, the Penguin Opera Guides and many other general music dictionaries and encyclopedias classify the Gilbert, to their contemporaries, the term Savoy Opera referred to any opera that appeared at that theatre, regardless of who wrote it. Aside from curtain raisers, the G&S operas were the works produced at the Savoy Theatre from the date it opened until The Gondoliers closed on 20 June 1891. Over the next decade, there were two new G&S pieces, both of which had comparatively brief runs. To fill the gap, Carte mounted G&S revivals, Sullivan operas with different librettists, Richard DOyly Carte died on 3 April 1901. If the nexus of Carte and the Savoy Theatre is used to define Savoy Opera, then the last new Savoy Opera was The Rose of Persia, after Cartes death, his wife Helen Carte assumed management of the theatre. She continued to new pieces in the G&S style, along with G&S revivals. Counting the pieces that Mrs. DOyly Carte and the DOyly Carte Opera Company produced, the last Savoy Opera was A Princess of Kensington and this is the point that Cyril Rollins and R. John Witts adopt as the end of the Savoy Operas. Workman assumed control of the theatre, producing three new pieces, including one by Gilbert himself, Fallen Fairies. The last of these Workman-produced works came in early 1910, Two Merry Monarchs, by Arthur Anderson, George Levy, the contemporary press referred to these works as Savoy Operas, and S. J. Adair Fitz-Gerald regarded Workmans pieces as the last Savoy Operas. Fitz-Gerald wrote his book, The Story of the Savoy Opera, in 1924, but over time, all of the works produced at the Savoy by composers and librettists other than Gilbert and Sullivan were largely forgotten. The term Savoy Opera came to be synonymous with the thirteen extant works of Gilbert, given its lack of a DOyly Carte or Savoy connection, Thespis has a tenuous claim to be a Savoy Opera. However, Rollins & Witts include it in their compendium of the Savoy Operas, as does Geoffrey Smith, the following table shows all of the full-length operas that could be considered Savoy Operas under any of the definitions mentioned above. Curtain-raisers and afterpieces that played with the Savoy Operas are included in the table below. The fashion in the late Victorian era and Edwardian era was to present long evenings in the theatre, during the original runs of the Savoy Operas, each full-length work was normally accompanied by one or two short companion pieces. A piece that began the performance was called a curtain raiser, W. J. MacQueen-Pope commented, concerning the curtain raisers, This was a one-act play, seen only by the early comersSavoy opera – c.1881 Savoy Theatre
15. International Monetary Fund – The International Monetary Fund is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D. C. It now plays a role in the management of balance of payments difficulties. Countries contribute funds to a pool through a system from which countries experiencing balance of payments problems can borrow money. As of 2016, the fund had SDR477 billion, the rationale for this is that private international capital markets function imperfectly and many countries have limited access to financial markets. The IMF provides alternate sources of financing and this assistance was meant to prevent the spread of international economic crises. The IMF was also intended to help mend the pieces of the economy after the Great Depression. As well, to provide investments for economic growth and projects such as infrastructure. The IMFs role was altered by the floating exchange rates post-1971. It shifted to examining the economic policies of countries with IMF loan agreements to determine if a shortage of capital was due to economic fluctuations or economic policy, the IMF also researched what types of government policy would ensure economic recovery. Rather than maintaining a position of oversight of only exchange rates and their role became a lot more active because the IMF now manages economic policy rather than just exchange rates. In addition, the IMF negotiates conditions on lending and loans under their policy of conditionality, nonconcessional loans, which include interest rates, are provided mainly through Stand-By Arrangements, the Flexible Credit Line, the Precautionary and Liquidity Line, and the Extended Fund Facility. The IMF provides emergency assistance via the Rapid Financing Instrument to members facing urgent balance-of-payments needs, the IMF is mandated to oversee the international monetary and financial system and monitor the economic and financial policies of its member countries. This activity is known as surveillance and facilitates international cooperation, the responsibilities changed from those of guardian to those of overseer of members’ policies. In 1995 the International Monetary Fund began work on data dissemination standards with the view of guiding IMF member countries to disseminate their economic and financial data to the public. The executive board approved the SDDS and GDDS in 1996 and 1997 respectively, the system is aimed primarily at statisticians and aims to improve many aspects of statistical systems in a country. It is also part of the World Bank Millennium Development Goals, some countries initially used the GDDS, but later upgraded to SDDS. The IMF does require collateral from countries for loans but also requires the government seeking assistance to correct its macroeconomic imbalances in the form of policy reform, if the conditions are not met, the funds are withheld. The concept of conditionality was introduced in a 1952 Executive Board decision, conditionality is associated with economic theory as well as an enforcement mechanism for repaymentInternational Monetary Fund – IMF "Headquarters 1" in Washington, D.C.
16. World Bank – The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital programs. It comprises two institutions, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the International Development Association, the World Bank is a component of the World Bank Group, which is part of the United Nations system. The World Banks stated official goal is the reduction of poverty, the president of the World Bank is, traditionally, an American. The World Bank and the IMF are both based in Washington, D. C. and work closely with each other, although many countries were represented at the Bretton Woods Conference, the United States and United Kingdom were the most powerful in attendance and dominated the negotiations. Before 1974 the reconstruction and development loans provided by the World Bank were relatively small, the Banks staff were aware of the need to instill confidence in the bank. Fiscal conservatism ruled, and loan applications had to meet strict criteria, the first country to receive a World Bank loan was France. The Banks president at the time, John McCloy, chose France over two other applicants, Poland and Chile, the loan was for US$250 million, half the amount requested, and it came with strict conditions. France had to agree to produce a budget and give priority of debt repayment to the World Bank over other governments. World Bank staff closely monitored the use of the funds to ensure that the French government met the conditions. In addition, before the loan was approved, the United States State Department told the French government that its members associated with the Communist Party would first have to be removed, the French government complied with this diktat and removed the Communist coalition government - the so-called tripartisme. Within hours, the loan to France was approved, when the Marshall Plan went into effect in 1947, many European countries began receiving aid from other sources. Faced with this competition, the World Bank shifted its focus to non-European countries, in 1960, the International Development Association was formed, providing soft loans to developing countries. From 1974 to 1980 the bank concentrated on meeting the needs of people in the developing world. The size and number of loans to borrowers was greatly increased as loan targets expanded from infrastructure into social services and these changes can be attributed to Robert McNamara, who was appointed to the presidency in 1968 by Lyndon B. Johnson. McNamara implored bank treasurer Eugene Rotberg to seek out new sources of capital outside of the banks that had been the primary sources of funding. Rotberg used the bond market to increase the capital available to the bank. One consequence of the period of poverty alleviation lending was the rise of third world debt. From 1976 to 1980 developing world debt rose at an annual rate of 20%World Bank – John Maynard Keynes (right) and Harry Dexter White, the "founding fathers" of both the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
17. 1813 – As of the start of 1813, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 24 – The Philharmonic Society founded in London, January 28 – Jane Austens Pride and Prejudice is published anonymously in London. January 31 – The Assembly of the Year XIII is inaugurated in Buenos Aires, February 3 – Argentine War of Independence, José de San Martín and his Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers gain a largely symbolic victory against a Spanish royalist army in the Battle of San Lorenzo. February 7 – Napoleonic Wars, Action of 7 February 1813 between the French frigate Aréthuse and HMS Amelia in British service in the Îles de Los on the Guinea Coast, both ships retire unbeaten. February 9 – Prussia abolishes the canton system February 11 – War of 1812, major Amos Stoddard assumes command of its artillery. March 4 Cyril VI of Constantinople is elected Ecumenical Patriarch, James Madison is sworn in for a second term as President of the United States. March 17 – Napoleonic Wars, Prussia declares war on France, march 29 – Mexican War of Independence –Battle of Rosillo Creek, The Republican Army of the North defeats the Spanish Royalist Army in present-day Bexar County, Texas. April 8 – Colonel James Ball arrives at Fort Meigs with 200 dragoons, april 27 –War of 1812 –Battle of York, United States troops raid, destroy, but do not hold the capital of Upper Canada, York. May 1–May 9 –War of 1812 – First siege of Fort Meigs by British allied forces under General Henry Proctor, may 2 –Battle of Lützen, Napoleon wins against the German alliance. May 11 –Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson and William Wentworth leave on an expedition to cross the Blue Mountains of Australia, may 20–May 21 –Battle of Bautzen, Napoleon again defeats his combined enemies. May 27 –War of 1812, In Canada, American forces capture Fort George, june 6 War of 1812 –Battle of Stoney Creek, A British force of 700 under John Vincent defeat an American force three times its size under William Winder and John Chandler. Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson and William Wentworth succeed in crossing the Blue Mountains and return home. June 21 –Peninsular War –Battle of Vitoria, A British, Spanish, july –War of 1812 –Second siege of Fort Meigs by British allied forces fails. July 5 –War of 1812, Three weeks of British raids on Fort Schlosser, Black Rock and Plattsburgh, july 13 The Carabinieri, the national military police of Italy, are founded by Victor Emmanuel I as the police force of the Kingdom of Sardinia. Missionaries Adoniram Judson and his wife Ann Hasseltine Judson arrive in Burma, august 12 – Austria declares war on France. August 19 –Gervasio Antonio de Posadas joins Argentinas second triumvirate, august 23 –Battle of Großbeeren, Napoleon is defeated by Prussia and Sweden. August 26 –Battle of Katzbach, Napoleons troops are defeated by Prussia and Russia, august 26–27 –Battle of Dresden, Napoleons troops are victorious. August 29–30 –First Battle of Kulm, French Marshal Vandamme defeated, captured by allied Coalition forces from Russia, Prussia and Austria, august 30 –Creek War –Fort Mims massacre, A force of Creeks belonging to the Red Sticks faction kill hundreds of settlers in Fort Mims in Alabama1813 – Retreat of the French after the Battle of Leipzig
18. Richard Wagner – Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is primarily known for his operas. Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works and he described this vision in a series of essays published between 1849 and 1852. Wagner realised these ideas most fully in the first half of the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen and his advances in musical language, such as extreme chromaticism and quickly shifting tonal centres, greatly influenced the development of classical music. His Tristan und Isolde is sometimes described as marking the start of modern music, Wagner had his own opera house built, the Bayreuth Festspielhaus, which embodied many novel design features. The Ring and Parsifal were premiered here and his most important stage works continue to be performed at the annual Bayreuth Festival, until his final years, Wagners life was characterised by political exile, turbulent love affairs, poverty and repeated flight from his creditors. His controversial writings on music, drama and politics have attracted extensive comment, notably, since the late 20th century, where they express antisemitic sentiments. The effect of his ideas can be traced in many of the arts throughout the 20th century, his influence spread beyond composition into conducting, philosophy, literature, Richard Wagner was born to an ethnic German family in Leipzig, where his family lived at No. 3, the Brühl in the Jewish quarter and he was baptized at St. Thomas Church. He was the child of Carl Friedrich Wagner, who was a clerk in the Leipzig police service, and his wife, Johanna Rosine. Wagners father Carl died of typhus six months after Richards birth, afterwards his mother Johanna lived with Carls friend, the actor and playwright Ludwig Geyer. In August 1814 Johanna and Geyer probably married—although no documentation of this has found in the Leipzig church registers. She and her family moved to Geyers residence in Dresden, until he was fourteen, Wagner was known as Wilhelm Richard Geyer. He almost certainly thought that Geyer was his biological father, Geyers love of the theatre came to be shared by his stepson, and Wagner took part in his performances. In his autobiography Mein Leben Wagner recalled once playing the part of an angel, in late 1820, Wagner was enrolled at Pastor Wetzels school at Possendorf, near Dresden, where he received some piano instruction from his Latin teacher. He struggled to play a scale at the keyboard and preferred playing theatre overtures by ear. Following Geyers death in 1821, Richard was sent to the Kreuzschule, at the age of nine he was hugely impressed by the Gothic elements of Carl Maria von Webers opera Der Freischütz, which he saw Weber conduct. At this period Wagner entertained ambitions as a playwright and his first creative effort, listed in the Wagner-Werk-Verzeichnis as WWV1, was a tragedy called Leubald. Begun when he was in school in 1826, the play was influenced by ShakespeareRichard Wagner – Richard Wagner in 1871
19. 1859 – As of the start of 1859, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 24 – Wallachia and Moldavia are united under Alexandru Ioan Cuza, january 28 – The city of Olympia is incorporated in the Washington Territory in the United States of America. February 14 – Oregon is admitted as the 33rd U. S. state, february 17 – French naval forces under Charles Rigault de Genouilly capture the city and Citadel of Saigon in Vietnam, beginning the Siege of Saigon. February 27 – United States Congressman Daniel Sickles shoots Philip Barton Key for having an affair with his wife, march 9 – The army of the Kingdom of Sardinia mobilizes against Austria, beginning the crisis which will lead to the Austro-Sardinian War. March 26 – A French amateur astronomer, Edmond Modeste Lescarbault, april 13 – The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art is founded by Peter Cooper, industrialist, inventor and philanthropist of New York. April 25 – Ground is broken for the Suez Canal, april 28 – The Pomona is wrecked off the English coast, with 424 dead. April 29 – Austrian troops begin to cross the Ticino River to Piedmont, april 30 – A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens is published. May 4 – The Cornwall Railway opens across the Royal Albert Bridge, linking the counties of Devon, may 5 – Border Treaty between Brazil and Venezuela, The two countries agree their borders should be traced at the water divide between the Amazon and the Orinoco basins. May 22 – Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies is succeeded by his 23-year-old son Francis II of the Two Sicilies, may 26 – Austro-Sardinian War, Giuseppe Garibaldis Hunters of the Alps confront Austrian forces led by Field Marshal-Lieutenant Carl Baron Urban at Varese. May 30 – Battle of Palestro, The Sardinians defeat the Austrian army, may 31 – The Great Clock at the Palace of Westminster, London was started, and its bells ring for the very first time. June 4 – Austro-Sardinian War – Battle of Magenta, The French, june 6 – The British Crown colony of Queensland in Australia is created by devolving part of the territory of New South Wales. June 17 – The only recorded simoom ever in North America hit Goleta, California and Santa Barbara, june 18 – Aletschhorn, second summit of the Bernese Alps, is first ascended. June 30 – Charles Blondin crosses Niagara Falls on a tightrope for the first time, july Count Camillo Benso di Cavour resigns. Pikes Peak Gold Rush begins in the Colorado Territory, july 1 – The first intercollegiate baseball game is played, between Amherst and Williams Colleges. July 8 Charles XV succeeds his father Oscar I of Sweden, an armistice is declared between Austria and others. July 11 – The chimes of Big Ben ring for the first time in London and this brings the Austro-Sardinian War effectively to a close. July 30 – Grand Combin, one of the highest summits in the Alps, is first ascended, august 16 – The Tuscan National Assembly formally deposes the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, ending an ascendancy of 109 years. August 27 – Edwin Drake drills the first oil well in the United States, near Titusville, Pennsylvania, starting the Pennsylvania oil rush1859 – This article is about the year 1859.
20. Arthur Conan Doyle – He is also known for writing the fictional adventures of Professor Challenger, a second character he invented, and for propagating the mystery of the Mary Celeste. He was a writer whose other works include fantasy and science fiction stories, plays, romances, poetry, non-fiction. Doyle is often referred to as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle or simply Conan Doyle and his baptism entry in the register of St Marys Cathedral, Edinburgh, gives Arthur Ignatius Conan as his given names and Doyle as his surname. It also names Michael Conan as his godfather, the cataloguers of the British Library and the Library of Congress treat Doyle alone as his surname. Steven Doyle, editor of the Baker Street Journal, wrote, shortly after he graduated from high school he began using Conan as a sort of surname. But technically his last name is simply Doyle, when knighted, he was gazetted as Doyle, not under the compound Conan Doyle. Nevertheless, the use of a compound surname is demonstrated by the fact that Doyles second wife was known as Jean Conan Doyle rather than Jean Doyle. Doyle was born on 22 May 1859 at 11 Picardy Place, Edinburgh and his father, Charles Altamont Doyle, was English, of Irish Catholic descent, and his mother, Mary, was Irish Catholic. In 1864 the family dispersed because of Charless growing alcoholism, in 1867, the family came together again and lived in squalid tenement flats at 3 Sciennes Place. Doyles father died in 1893, in the Crichton Royal, Dumfries, supported by wealthy uncles, Doyle was sent to England, at the Jesuit preparatory school Hodder Place, Stonyhurst in Lancashire at the age of nine. He then went on to Stonyhurst College until 1875, from 1875 to 1876, he was educated at the Jesuit school Stella Matutina in Feldkirch, Austria. He later rejected the Catholic faith and became an agnostic and he also later became a spiritualist mystic. From 1876 to 1881, Doyle studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh Medical School, including working in Aston, Sheffield and Ruyton-XI-Towns. During that time, he studied botany at the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh. While studying, Doyle began writing short stories and his earliest extant fiction, The Haunted Grange of Goresthorpe, was unsuccessfully submitted to Blackwoods Magazine. His first published piece, The Mystery of Sasassa Valley, a set in South Africa, was printed in Chamberss Edinburgh Journal on 6 September 1879. Doyle was employed as a doctor on the Greenland whaler Hope of Peterhead in 1880 and, C. M. as a ships surgeon on the SS Mayumba during a voyage to the West African coast. He completed his M. D. degree on the subject of tabes dorsalis in 1885, arriving in Portsmouth in June 1882 with less than £10 to his name, he set up a medical practice at 1 Bush Villas in Elm Grove, SouthseaArthur Conan Doyle – Portrait of Doyle by Herbert Rose Barraud, 1893
21. 1930 – January 6 The first diesel engine automobile trip is completed by Clessie Cummins, founder of the Cummins Motor Co. An early literary character licensing agreement is signed by A. A. Milne, granting Stephen Slesinger U. S. January 13 – The Mickey Mouse comic strip makes its first appearance. January 15 – The Moon moves into its nearest point to Earth, called perigee and this is the closest moon distance at 356,397 km in recent memory and the next one will be on January 1,2257 at 356,371 km. January 26 – The Indian National Congress declares this date as Independence Day or as the day for Poorna Swaraj, January 28 – The first patent for a field-effect transistor is granted in the United States to Julius Edgar Lilienfeld. January 30 – Pavel Molchanov launches a radiosonde from Pavlovsk in the Soviet Union, January 31 – The 3M company markets Scotch Tape, invented by Richard Gurley Drew, in the United States. February 2 – The Communist Party of Vietnam is established, february 10 – The Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng launch the Yên Bái mutiny in the hope of ending French colonial rule in Vietnam. February 18 While studying photographs taken in January, Clyde Tombaugh confirms the existence of Pluto, elm Farm Ollie becomes the first cow to fly in a fixed-wing aircraft, and also the first cow to be milked in an aeroplane. March 2 – Mahatma Gandhi informs the British viceroy of India that civil disobedience will begin the following week, March 5 – Danish painter Einar Wegener begins sex reassignment surgery in Germany and takes the name Lili Elbe. The first frozen foods of Clarence Birdseye go on sale in Springfield, March 28 – The government of Turkey requests the international community to adopt Istanbul and Ankara as the official names for Constantinople and Angora. March 29 – Heinrich Brüning is appointed Chancellor of Germany, March 31 – The Motion Picture Production Code is instituted in the United States, imposing strict guidelines on the treatment of sex, crime, religion and violence in films for the next 40 years. April 4 – The Communist Party of Panama is founded, April 5 – In an act of civil disobedience, Mahatma Gandhi breaks the Salt laws of British India by making salt by the sea at the end of the Salt March. April 6 International Left Opposition is founded in Paris, France, April 17 – Neoprene is invented by DuPont. April 18 The Chittagong Rebellion begins in India with the Chittagong armoury raid, BBC Radio from London reports on this day that There is no news. April 19 – Warner Bros. in the United States release their first cartoon series called Looney Tunes which runs until 1969, April 21 A fire in the Ohio Penitentiary in Columbus kills 320 people. April 22 – The United Kingdom, Japan and the United States sign the London Naval Treaty to regulate submarine warfare, April 28 – The first night game in organized baseball history takes place in Independence, Kansas. May 5 – Mahatma Gandhi is re-arrested, may 6 – The 7.1 Mw Salmas earthquake shakes northwestern Iran and southeastern Turkey with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X. Up to three-thousand people were killed, may 10 – The National Pan-Hellenic Council is founded in Washington, D. C. May 15 – Nurse Ellen Church becomes the worlds first flight attendant, may 16 – Rafael Leónidas Trujillo is elected president of the Dominican Republic1930 – Gene Hackman
22. Laurence Olivier – Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, was an English actor who, along with his contemporaries Ralph Richardson and John Gielgud, dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century. He also worked in films throughout his career, playing more than fifty cinema roles, late in his career, he had considerable success in television roles. His family had no connections, but Oliviers father, a clergyman. After attending a school in London, Olivier learned his craft in a succession of acting jobs during the late 1920s. In 1930 he had his first important West End success in Noël Cowards Private Lives, in 1935 he played in a celebrated production of Romeo and Juliet alongside Gielgud and Peggy Ashcroft, and by the end of the decade he was an established star. In the 1940s, together with Richardson and John Burrell, Olivier was the co-director of the Old Vic, there his most celebrated roles included Shakespeares Richard III and Sophocless Oedipus. From 1963 to 1973 he was the director of Britains National Theatre. His own parts there included the role in Othello and Shylock in The Merchant of Venice. Among Oliviers films are Wuthering Heights, Rebecca, and a trilogy of Shakespeare films as actor-director, Henry V, Hamlet and his later films included Sleuth, Marathon Man, and The Boys from Brazil. His television appearances included an adaptation of The Moon and Sixpence, Long Days Journey into Night, Love Among the Ruins, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Brideshead Revisited, Oliviers honours included a knighthood, a life peerage and the Order of Merit. For his on-screen work he received four Academy Awards, two British Academy Film Awards, five Emmy Awards and three Golden Globe Awards. The National Theatres largest auditorium is named in his honour, and he is commemorated in the Laurence Olivier Awards, given annually by the Society of London Theatre. He was married three times, to the actresses Jill Esmond from 1930 to 1940, Vivien Leigh from 1940 to 1960, Olivier was born in Dorking, Surrey, the youngest of the three children of the Revd Gerard Kerr Olivier and his wife Agnes Louise, née Crookenden. Their elder children were Sybille and Gerard Dacres Dickie and his great-great-grandfather was of French Huguenot descent, and Olivier came from a long line of Protestant clergymen. Gerard Olivier had begun a career as a schoolmaster, but in his thirties he discovered a strong religious vocation and was ordained as a priest of the Church of England and he practised extremely high church, ritualist Anglicanism and liked to be addressed as Father Olivier. This made him unacceptable to most Anglican congregations, and the church posts he was offered were temporary. This meant a nomadic existence, and for Laurences first few years, in 1912, when Olivier was five, his father secured a permanent appointment as assistant priest at St Saviours, Pimlico. He held the post for six years, and a family life was at last possibleLaurence Olivier – Olivier in 1973
23. 1927 – January 1 – The Cristero War erupts in Mexico when Catholic rebels attack the government, which had placed heavy restrictions on the Catholic Church. January 7 – The first transatlantic telephone call is made via radio from New York City to London, january 7 – The Harlem Globetrotters play their first ever road game in Hinckley, Illinois. January 9 – A military rebellion is crushed in Lisbon, Portugal, january 15 – Teddy Wakelam gives the first sports commentary on BBC Radio. January 19 – Great Britain sends troops to China to protect foreign nationals from spreading anti-foreign riots in Central China, january 24 – U. S. marines invade Nicaragua by orders of President Calvin Coolidge, intervening in the Nicaraguan Civil War and remaining in the country until 1933. January 30 – Right-wing veterans and the Republikanischer Schutzbund clash in Schattendorf, Austria, february – Werner Heisenberg formulates his famous uncertainty principle while employed as a lecturer at Niels Bohrs Institute for Theoretical Physics at the University of Copenhagen. February 12 – The first British troops land in Shanghai, february 14 – An earthquake in Yugoslavia kills 100. February 19 A general strike in Shanghai protests the presence of British troops, in the United States, the silent romantic comedy film It starring Clara Bow, is released, popularising the concept of the It girl. February 23 – The U. S. Federal Radio Commission begins to regulate the use of radio frequencies, March 4 – A diamond rush in South Africa includes trained athletes that have been hired by major companies to stake claims. March 7 – The 7.0 Mw Kita Tango earthquake kills at least 2,925 in the Toyooka and Mineyama areas, western Honshu, March 10 – Albania mobilizes in case of an attack by Yugoslavia. March 11 In New York City, the Roxy Theatre is opened by Samuel Roxy Rothafel, the first armored car robbery is committed by the Flatheads Gang near Pittsburgh. March 13 – Fritz Langs culturally influential film Metropolis premieres in Germany. S, Navy and the British Royal Navy fire shells and shot to disperse the crowds. April 1 – The U. S. Bureau of Prohibition is founded, April 5 – In Britain, the Trade Disputes and Trade Unions Act 1927 forbids strikes of support. April 7 – Bell Telephone Co. transmits an image of Herbert Hoover, April 12 The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 renames the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The change acknowledges that the Irish Free State is no part of the Kingdom. Kuomintang troops kill a number of communist-supporting workers in Shanghai, the incident is called the April 12 Incident, or the Shanghai Massacre. The 1st United Front between the Nationalists and Communist ends, and the Civil War lasting until 1949 begins, April 14 – The first Volvo automobile rolled off the production line in Gothenburg, Sweden. April 18 – The Kuomintang set up a government in Nanking, April 21 – A banking crisis hits Japan. April 22–May 5 – The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 strikes 700,000 people in the greatest natural disaster in American history through that time, April 27 The Carabineros de Chile are created1927 – May 20: Solo flight New York to Paris
24. George Andrew Olah – George Andrew Olah was a Hungarian and American chemist. His research involved the generation and reactivity of carbocations via superacids, for this research, Olah was awarded a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1994 for his contribution to carbocation chemistry. He was also awarded the Priestley Medal, the highest honor granted by the American Chemical Society, cotton Medal for Excellence in Chemical Research of the American Chemical Society in 1996. Olah was born in Budapest, Hungary, on May 22,1927, to Magda and Gyula Oláh, from 1949 through 1954, he taught at the school as a professor of organic chemistry. Olahs pioneering work on carbocations started during his eight years with Dow, in 1971, Olah became a naturalized citizen of the United States. He then moved to the University of Southern California in 1977, at USC, Olah was a distinguished professor and the director of the Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute. Starting in 1980, he served as the Distinguished Donald P. Loker Professor of Chemistry and later became a distinguished professor in USCs School of Engineering. In 1994, Olah was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his contribution to carbocation chemistry, in particular, Olahs search for stable nonclassical carbocations led to the discovery of protonated methane stabilized by superacids, like FSO3H-SbF5. The awards are selected and administered by the American Chemical Society, later in his career, his research shifted from hydrocarbons and their transformation into fuel to the methanol economy, namely generating methanol from methane. He joined with Robert Zubrin, Anne Korin, and James Woolsey in promoting a flexible-fuel mandate initiative. He married Judith Agnes Lengyel in 1949, and they had two children, George, born in Hungary in 1954, and Ronald, born in the U. S. in 1959, Olah died on March 8,2017, at his home in Beverly Hills, California. After his death, the Hungarian government said that the country has lost a great patriot, cotton Medal 1997 Elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1997George Andrew Olah – George Olah
25. 1942 – Below, events of World War II have the WWII prefix. United States and Philippines troops fight the Battle of Bataan against Japanese forces, january 2 – WWII, Japanese warplanes bomb Manila, Philippines. Activation of the United States Eighth Air Force in Savannah, Georgia, january 7 – WWII, Operation Typhoon, the German attempt to take Moscow, ends in failure. The siege of the Bataan Peninsula begins, january 11 – WWII, Dutch East Indies campaign, Japan declares war on the Netherlands and invades the Dutch East Indies. Malayan Campaign, The Japanese capture Kuala Lumpur, the capital of the Federated Malay States, january 13 Sikorsky R-4 first flies, in the United States, it will become the first mass-produced helicopter. Heinkel test pilot Helmut Schenk becomes the first person to escape from an aircraft with an ejection seat. January 19 – WWII, Japanese forces invade Burma, establishment of Commands of the United States Eighth Air Force, VIII Bomber Command initially at Langley Field in Virginia and VIII Fighter Command at Selfridge Field in Michigan. January 20 – The Holocaust, Nazis at the Wannsee Conference in Berlin decide that the Final Solution to the Jewish problem is relocation, january 21 – WWII, Erwin Rommel launches his new offensive in Cyrenaica. January 23 – WWII, The Battle of Rabaul begins, january 25 – WWII, Thailand declares war on the United States and United Kingdom. January 26 – WWII, The first American forces arrive in Europe, january 31 – WWII, Malayan Campaign, The last organized Allied forces leave British Malaya, ending the 54-day campaign, and the Johor–Singapore Causeway is severed. February – C. S. Lewiss The Screwtape Letters first published in format in England. February 1 – WWII, The Command staff of the Eighth Air Force reaches England, February 3 – WWII, Rommel suspends his offensive in Cyrenaica. February 7 – United States Maritime Commission fleet operations transferred to the War Shipping Administration, February 8 António Óscar Carmona is elected president of Portugal. WWII, Top United States military leaders hold their first formal meeting to discuss American military strategy in the war, daylight saving time goes into effect in the United States. February 9 – The ocean liner SS Normandie catches fire while being converted into the troopship USS Lafayette for WWII at pier 88 in New York City, she capsizes early the following morning. February 11 – Operation Cerberus, A flotilla of Kriegsmarine ships dash from Brest through the English Channel to northern ports, February 15 – WWII, Singapore surrenders to Japanese forces. February 18 – WWII, More than 200 American sailors die in Newfoundland when the USS Truxtun runs aground near Chambers Cove, February 19 – WWII, Japanese warplanes bomb Darwin, Australia. United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066 allowing the United States military to define areas as exclusionary zones and these zones affect the Japanese on the West Coast, and Germans and Italians primarily on the East Coast1942 – Spring 1942: the Nazi German extermination camp Treblinka II opens in occupied Poland near the village of Treblinka
26. Theodore Kaczynski – Theodore John Ted Kaczynski, also known as the Unabomber, is an American anarchist and domestic terrorist. In conjunction with this campaign he issued a wide-ranging social critique opposing industrialization and modern technology, Kaczynski was born and raised in Evergreen Park, Illinois. While growing up in Evergreen Park he was a child prodigy, Kaczynski was accepted into Harvard University at the age of 16, where he earned an undergraduate degree. He subsequently earned a PhD in mathematics from the University of Michigan and he became an assistant professor at the University of California, Berkeley in 1967 at age 25. In 1971, he moved to a cabin without electricity or running water in Lincoln, Montana. The Unabomber was the target of one of the Federal Bureau of Investigations costliest investigations, before Kaczynskis identity was known, the FBI used the title UNABOM to refer to his case, which resulted in the media calling him the Unabomber. Kaczynski tried unsuccessfully to dismiss his court-appointed lawyers because they wanted to plead insanity in order to avoid the death penalty and he has been designated a domestic terrorist by the FBI. Some anarcho-primitivist authors, such as John Zerzan and John Moore, have come to his defense, while also holding some reservations about his actions and ideas. Kaczynski was born on May 22,1942, in Evergreen Park, Illinois, to second-generation Polish Americans, Wanda, at six months of age, Kaczynski developed a severe case of hives. He was placed in isolation in a hospital where visitors were not allowed and he was treated several times at the hospital over an eight-month period. His mother wrote in March 1943, Baby home from hospital and is healthy, Kaczynski attended grades one through eight in Evergreen Park District 124 Schools. As a result of testing conducted in the grade, which determined he had an IQ of 167, he was allowed to skip the sixth grade. Kaczynski described this as an event in his life. He recalled not fitting in with the children and being subjected to their bullying. As a child, Kaczynski had a fear of people and buildings and his mother was so worried by his poor social development that she considered entering him in a study for autistic children led by Bruno Bettelheim. In his sophomore year at Harvard, Kaczynski participated in a personality assessment study conducted by Henry Murray, students in Murrays study were told they would be debating personal philosophy with a fellow student. Instead, they were subjected to a purposely brutalizing psychological experiment, during the test, students were taken into a room and connected to electrodes that monitored their physiological reactions, while facing bright lights and a one-way mirror. This was filmed, and students expressions of impotent rage were played back to several times later in the studyTheodore Kaczynski – Kaczynski after his capture by police in 1996
27. 1982 – January 1 – New ITV franchises, Central, TVS and TSW, are launched. January 7 – The Commodore 64 8-bit home computer is launched by Commodore International in Las Vegas, January 8 – AT&T Corporation agrees to break up and divest itself of 22 subdivisions. January 11 – Mark Thatcher, son of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, disappears in the Sahara during the Dakar Rally, January 11 – January 17 – A brutal cold snap sends temperatures to all-time record lows in dozens of cities throughout the Midwestern United States. January 13 – Shortly after takeoff, Air Florida Flight 90 crashes into Washington, D. C. s 14th Street Bridge and falls into the Potomac River, on the same day, a Washington Metro train derails to the north, killing 3. January 17 – Cold Sunday sweeps over the northern United States, January 26 Mauno Koivisto is elected President of Finland. Unemployment in the United Kingdom increases by 129,918 to 3,070,621, January 27 – The Garret FitzGerald government of the Republic of Ireland is defeated 82–81 on its budget, the 22nd Dáil Éireann is dissolved. January 30 – The first computer virus, the Elk Cloner and it infects Apple II computers via floppy disk. February 1 – Senegal and Gambia form a loose Senegambia Confederation, february 2 – The Hama massacre begins in Syria. February 3 – Syrian president Hafez al-Assad orders the army to purge the city of Harran of the Muslim Brotherhood, february 5 – London-based Laker Airways collapses, leaving 6,000 stranded passengers and debts of $270 million. February 7 – Iraqi club Al-Shorta win the 1982 Arab Club Champions Cup with a 4–2 aggregate win over Al-Nejmeh in the final. February 9 – Japan Airlines Flight 350 crashes in Tokyo Bay due to thrust reversal on approach to Tokyo International Airport, february 15 – The oil platform Ocean Ranger sinks during a storm off the coast of Newfoundland, killing all 84 rig workers aboard. February 18 – The Republic of Ireland general election gives a boost to Fianna Fáil, february 19 – The DeLorean Motor Company Car Factory in Belfast is put into receivership. February 24 – In South Africa,22 National Party MPs led by Andries Treurnicht vote for no confidence in P. W. Botha. February 25 – The European Court of Human Rights rules that teachers who cane, february 27 – Atlanta murders of 1979–81, Wayne Williams is convicted of murdering 2 adult men and is sentenced to two consecutive life terms. February 28 – Adobe Systems was founded, March 3 – Elizabeth II opens the Barbican Centre in London. March 9 – Charles Haughey becomes Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, March 10 The United States places an embargo on Libyan oil imports, alleging Libyan support for terrorist groups. Syzygy, All 8 planets align on the side of the Sun. March 16 – In Newport, Rhode Island, Claus von Bülow is found guilty of the murder of his wife1982 – Elena Paparizou
28. Apolo Anton Ohno – Apolo Anton Ohno is a retired American short track speed skating competitor and an eight-time medalist in the Winter Olympics. Raised by his father, Ohno began training full-time in 1996 and he has been the face of short track in the United States since winning his medals at the 2002 Winter Olympics. At the age of 14, he became the youngest U. S. national champion in 1997 and was the champion from 2001–2009. In December 1999, he became the youngest skater to win a World Cup event title, and became the first American to win a World Cup overall title in 2001 and he won his first overall World Championship title at the 2008 championships. Ohno later became host of a revival of Minute to Win It on Game Show Network, Ohno was born in Seattle, Washington, to a Japanese-born father, Yuki Ohno and a European American mother, Jerrie Lee. He attended Saghalie Middle School in Federal Way, Ohnos parents divorced when he was an infant, and he was raised in Seattle by his father. He has had contact with his biological mother and as of 2002 had expressed no interest in knowing her or his older half-brother. Ohnos father, a hair stylist and owner of the salon Yukis Diffusion, often worked 12-hour shifts and his father chose to name his son Apolo after the Greek words apo, which means to steer away from and lo, which means look out, here he comes. When Ohno was very young, his father meticulously researched childcare providers to care for his son during his work hours. As he grew older, his father became concerned his son would become a kid, so he got his son involved with competitive swimming. His father used Inline Speedskating to fill his spare time, Ohnos days were spent with morning swimming practices, followed by schooling, and finally skating practices in the afternoon. When Ohno was 12, he won the Washington state championship in the breaststroke and he has stated that by the time he turned 13 years of age he attended parties with older teenagers if he did not have competitions on the weekends. His father has stated that it was a struggle balancing his sons desire for independence while helping him reach his potential as a young athlete, when he was 12 years old, Ohno became interested in short track speed skating after seeing the sport during the 1994 Olympics in Lillehammer. His father capitalized on this interest by driving him to short track competitions throughout the northwest United States and Canada, and Ohno won several competitions in his age divisions. His father wanted to encourage Ohno to develop his skills and, although Ohno was underage, at 13 years of age, Ohno was the youngest skater admitted to the center. At first, Ohnos commitment at Lake Placid was low until his teammates nicknamed him Chunky, in January, he failed to make the 1997 U. S. Ohno adjusted his training and made a winning the 1997 U. S. Senior Championships overall title, taking a medal in the 1500 m, a silver in the 300 mApolo Anton Ohno – Apolo Anton Ohno at the Men's 500 meters medal ceremony at the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin
29. Constantine I of the Roman Empire – Constantine the Great, also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD. Constantine was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army officer and his father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under the emperors Diocletian, in 305, Constantius was raised to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia. As emperor, Constantine enacted many administrative, financial, social, the government was restructured and civil and military authority separated. A new gold coin, the solidus, was introduced to combat inflation and it would become the standard for Byzantine and European currencies for more than a thousand years. He called the First Council of Nicaea in 325, at which the Nicene Creed was adopted by Christians, in military matters, the Roman army was reorganised to consist of mobile field units and garrison soldiers capable of countering internal threats and barbarian invasions. The age of Constantine marked an epoch in the history of the Roman Empire. He built a new residence at Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople after himself. It would later become the capital of the Empire for over one thousand years and his more immediate political legacy was that, in leaving the empire to his sons, he replaced Diocletians tetrarchy with the principle of dynastic succession. His reputation flourished during the lifetime of his children and centuries after his reign, the medieval church upheld him as a paragon of virtue while secular rulers invoked him as a prototype, a point of reference, and the symbol of imperial legitimacy and identity. Beginning with the Renaissance, there were more critical appraisals of his due to the rediscovery of anti-Constantinian sources. Critics portrayed him as a tyrant, trends in modern and recent scholarship attempted to balance the extremes of previous scholarship. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, built on his orders at the site of Jesus tomb in Jerusalem. The Papal claim to power in the High Middle Ages was based on the supposed Donation of Constantine. He is venerated as a saint by Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholics, though Constantine has historically often been referred to as the First Christian Emperor, scholars debate his actual beliefs or even his actual comprehension of the Christian faith itself. Constantine was a ruler of major importance, and he has always been a controversial figure, the fluctuations in Constantines reputation reflect the nature of the ancient sources for his reign. These are abundant and detailed, but have strongly influenced by the official propaganda of the period. There are no surviving histories or biographies dealing with Constantines life, the nearest replacement is Eusebius of Caesareas Vita Constantini, a work that is a mixture of eulogy and hagiographyConstantine I of the Roman Empire – Colossal marble head of Emperor Constantine the Great, Roman, 4th century, located at the Capitoline Museums, in Rome.
30. Saint Rita of Cascia – Margherita Lotti Saint Rita of Cascia was an Italian widow and Augustinian nun venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church. Rita was married at an early age, the marriage lasted for eighteen years, during which she is remembered for her Christian values as a model wife and mother who made efforts to convert her husband from his abusive behavior. Upon the murder of her husband by another feuding family, she sought to dissuade her sons from revenge and she subsequently joined an Augustinian community of religious sisters, where she was known both for practicing mortification of the flesh and for the efficacy of her prayers. Various miracles are attributed to her intercession, and she is portrayed with a bleeding wound on her forehead. Pope Leo XIII canonized Rita on 24 May 1900 and her feast day is celebrated on May 22. Saint Rita was born in 1371 in the city of Roccaporena where various sites connected with her are the focus of pilgrimages and her parents, Antonio and Amata Ferri Lotti, were known to be noble, charitable persons, who gained the epithet Conciliatore di Cristo. According to pious accounts, Rita was originally pursued by a notary named Gubbio and she was married at age twelve to a nobleman named Paolo Mancini. Her parents arranged her marriage, a practice at the time. Her husband, Paolo Mancini, was known to be a rich, quick-tempered, immoral man, Rita had her first child at the age of twelve. Rita endured his insults, physical abuse, and infidelities for many years, Rita eventually bore two sons, Giangiacomo Antonio, and Paulo Maria, and brought them up in the Christian faith. Rita gave a public pardon at Paolos funeral to her husbands murderers, Paolo Mancinis brother, Bernardo, was said to have continued the blood family feud and hoped to convince Ritas sons to seek revenge. Bernardo convinced Ritas sons to leave their manor and live at the Mancini villa ancestral home, as her sons grew, their characters began to change as Bernardo became their tutor. Ritas sons wished to revenge their fathers murder, Rita, fearing that her sons would lose their souls, tried to persuade them from retaliating, but to no avail. Accordingly, she petitioned God to take her sons rather than submit them to mortal sin. After the deaths of her husband and sons, Rita desired to enter the monastery of Saint Mary Magdalene in Cascia but was turned away. Although the convent acknowledged Ritas good character and piety, the nuns were afraid of being associated with her due to the scandal of her husbands violent death. However, she persisted in her cause and was given a condition before the convent could accept her and she implored her three patron saints to assist her, and she set about the task of establishing peace between the hostile parties of Cascia. Popular religious tales recall that the plague, which ravaged Italy at the time, infected Bernardo ManciniSaint Rita of Cascia – Patron Saint of the Impossible, abused wives and widows (note the accurate portrayal of her Medieval religious habit, brown and white veil with brown ribbon borders). She is holding a thorn from the crown of Christ that pierced her forehead as a sign of penance
31. Pope Alexander VII – Pope Alexander VII, born Fabio Chigi, was pope from 7 April 1655 to his death in 1667. He began his career as a legate, and he held various diplomatic positions in the Holy See. He was ordained as a priest in 1634, and he became Bishop of Nardo in 1635 and he was later transferred in 1652, and he became Bishop of Imola. Pope Innocent X made him Secretary of State in 1651, and in 1652, he was appointed as a Cardinal. Early in his papacy, Alexander, who was seen as anti-Nepotist at the time of his election, lived simply, later, however, he gave jobs to his relatives and his administration worked to support the Jesuits. However, his administrations relations with France were strained due to his frictions with French diplomats, Alexander was interested in architecture and supported various urban projects in Rome. He also wrote poetry and patronized artists who expanded the decoration of churches and his theological writings included discussions of heliocentrism and the Immaculate Conception. Fabios elder brother, Mario, married Berenice, the daughter of Tiberio della Ciala, producing four children, Flavio was created cardinal by his uncle on April 9,1657. His brother, Augusto Chigi, married Olimpia della Ciaia and continued the line as the parents of Agostino Chigi. Fabios sister Onorata Mignanelli married Firmano Bichi, their son Antonio was named Bishop of Montalcino and then Osimo, in 1627 he began his apprenticeship as vice-papal legate at Ferrara, and on recommendations from two cardinals he was appointed Inquisitor of Malta. Chigi was ordained a priest in December 1634 and he was appointed Referendarius utriusque signaturae, which made him a prelate and gave him the right to practice before the Roman courts. On 8 January 1635, Chigi was named Bishop of Nardò in southern Italy and consecrated on 1 July 1635 by Miguel Juan Balaguer Camarasa, on 13 May 1652 he was transferred to the Bishopric of Imola. Bishop Chigi was named nuncio in Cologne on 11 June 1639, there, he supported Urban VIIIs condemnation of the heretical book Augustinus by Cornelius Jansen, Bishop of Ypres, in the papal Bull In eminenti of 1642. Though expected to take part in the negotiations which led in 1648 to the Peace of Westphalia, negotiations therefore took place in two cities, Osnabrück and Münster in Westphalia, with intermediaries travelling back and forth between the Protestant and the Catholic delegates. Chigi, of course, protested on behalf of the Papacy, Pope Innocent himself stated that the Peace is null, void, invalid, unjust, damnable, reprobate, inane, empty of meaning and effect for all time. The Peace ended the Thirty Years War and established the balance of European power that lasted until the wars of the French Revolution, Pope Innocent X recalled Chigi to Rome. In December 1651 Pope Innocent named Cardinal Chigi Secretary of State and he was created cardinal by Innocent X in the Consistory of 19 February 1652, and on 12 March was granted the title of Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria del Popolo. In December 1651 Pope Innocent named Cardinal Chigi Cardinal Secretary of StatePope Alexander VII – Pope Alexander VII
32. 1599 – As of the start of 1599, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 8 – The Jesuit educational plan known as the Ratio Studiorum is issued, march 12 – Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland by Queen Elizabeth I of England. April 23 – The Earl of Essex arrives in Dublin at the head of 16,000 troops, may 16 – The Kalmar Bloodbath take place in Kalmar in Sweden. May 29 – Essex takes Cahir Castle, supposedly the strongest in Ireland, june 20 – The Synod of Diamper is convened. July 24 – The Swedish King Sigismund III Vasa is dethroned by his uncle Duke Charles, who takes over as regent of the realm until 1604, august 15 – First Battle of Curlew Pass, Irish forces defeat the English. September 21 – The first reported performance at the Globe Theatre in London, september 28 – The Earl of Essex arrives back in England, disobeying the Queens strict orders. October 18 – Battle of Sellenberk, Michael the Brave, Prince of Wallachia, defeats the army of Andrew Báthory near Șelimbăr, november 10 – Åbo Bloodbath takes place in Åbo in Swedish Finland. November – Persian embassy to Europe, A Persian embassy arrives in Moscow, the forces of Minye Thihathu II of Toungoo and his ally Min Razagyi of the Kingdom of Mrauk U end the First Toungoo Empire by capturing Pegu. The first Capuchin friar is entombed in the Capuchin catacombs of Palermo, a Dutch fleet returns to Amsterdam, carrying 600,000 pounds of pepper and 250,000 pounds of cloves and nutmeg. The Italian city of Pompeii is rediscovered more than 1500 years after its burial following the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 791599 – William Shakespeare.
33. 1760 – As of the start of 1760, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 9 – Afghans defeat Marathas in Battle of Barari Ghat, january 22 – Seven Years War – At the Battle of Wandiwash in India, British general Sir Eyre Coote is victorious over the French under the Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau. January 28 – Benning Wentworth creates the New Hampshire Grant of Pownal, february 15 – The British Royal Navy ship HMS Royal Katherine runs aground off Bolt Head in England with the loss of 699 lives. February 27 – Seven Years War – French and Indian War & Anglo-Cherokee War, the attack is repelled by the militia under the command of General Hugh Waddell. March 20 – The Great Fire of Boston, Massachusetts, destroys 349 buildings, may–July – Tackys War, a slave rebellion, occurs in Jamaica. June 4 – Expulsion of the Acadians, New England planters arrive to land in Nova Scotia taken from the Acadians. July 3 – A lightning strike causes a fire at Portsmouth Royal Dockyard in England. July 8 – Seven Years War – French and Indian War, Battle of Restigouche, july 19 – A formal request is made to the Spanish government as to allow the founding of the later city of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico. July 31 – Seven Years War – Battle of Warburg, The Anglo-Hanoverian army of Ferdinand of Brunswick storms Warburg, august 21 – The church of Our Lady of Candlemas of Mayagüez is founded, establishing the basis for the founding of the city. September 8 – Seven Years War, Jeffery Amherst captures Montreal, september 18 – The town of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, is founded. October 5 The wedding of Princess Isabella of Parma and Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, october 9 – Seven Years War, Russian troops enter Berlin. October 16 – Seven Years War – Battle of Kloster-Kamp, Ferdinand of Brunswick is beaten back from the Rhine by a French army, october 25 – George II of Great Britain dies, his grandson George III ascends to the throne. November 3 – Seven Years War – Battle of Torgau, In another extremely hard battle, Frederick defeats Dauns Austrians, dr. James Fordyces two-volume compendium, Sermons for Young Women, is published. Western countries pay 3,000,000 ounces of silver for Chinese goods, approximate date – Abu Dhabi is founded. January 11 – Oliver Wolcott Jr1760 – June 4: Evangeline commemorates the Expulsion of the Acadians.
34. Israel ben Eliezer – Rabbi Yisroel ben Eliezer, often called Baal Shem Tov or Besht, was a Jewish mystical rabbi. He is considered to be the founder of Hasidic Judaism, the Besht is better known to many religious Jews as the holy Baal Shem or Baal Shem Tov, meaning Master of the Good Name or perhaps one with a good reputation. The name Besht — an acronym from the Hebrew letters bet ayin shin tet—is typically used in print rather than speech, the attitude of the Hasidim towards these legends is a blend of suspicion and belief. Nevertheless, from the legends connected with his birth it appears that his parents were poor, upright. When he was orphaned, his community cared for him, while at school, many of his disciples believed that he came from the Davidic line tracing its lineage to the royal house of King David, and by extension with the institution of the Jewish Messiah. Yisroel was born to poor parents Eliezer and Sarah in a settlement near Okopy Świętej Trójcy, a newly built fortress close to Kameniec in West Ukraine, today, Okopy is a village located in the Borschiv Raion of the Ternopil Oblast. He died in Medzhybizh, which was part of Poland and today is situated in the Khmelnytskyi Oblast, in 1703, Israel became an orphan, and was adopted by the Jewish community of Tluste. It is reported that, after the conclusion of his studies at the local cheder, he would wander into the fields. In 1710, he finished cheder and became an assistant to a melamed, sometime in 1712 Israel became a shammash of the local synagogue. He was periodically hired as a assistant in the cheders of the small villages through which they passed. He would later relate that he took pleasure in accompanying the children to and from school, using this opportunity to recite prayers with them. According to Hasidic legend, the Baal Shem Tov would have visions in which the prophet Achiya Hashiloni would appear to him, in 1716 the Baal Shem Tov married, but soon his wife died and he went on traveling throughout Eastern Galicia. After serving for a time as helper in various small communities of West Ukraine. The Besht was introduced to Kabbalah by Rabbi Adam Baal Shem of Ropczyce who was a disciple of Rabbi Yoel Baal Shem of Zamość, the Besht became the leader of this movement at the age of 18. Caring for the Jewish poor, the group of Tzadikim encouraged Jews to move to agrarian lifestyles as alternatives to the poverty of city Jews. In continuation of policy they decided that they needed to look after the educational needs of the children living in small farm communities. If a suitable teacher could not be sourced they themselves would provide one and he later commented The most joyous time in my life was teaching the small children how to say Modeh Ani, Shema Yisrael and Kametz Alef Ah. He was chosen by people conducting suits against each other to act as their arbitrator and mediator and his services were brought into frequent requisition because the Jews had their own civil courts in PolandIsrael ben Eliezer – Variations of this portrait are popularly used to represent Israel Baal Shem Tov. Actually, it depicts Rabbi Falk, the Baal Shem of London.
35. 1700 – As of the start of 1700, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. As of March 1, when the Julian calendar acknowledged a leap day and the Gregorian calendar did not, in Sweden, the year started in the Julian calendar and remained so until February 28. Then, by skipping the leap day, the Swedish calendar was introduced, letting February 28 be followed by March 1 and this calendar, being 10 days behind the Gregorian and 1 day ahead of the Julian, lasts until 1712. January 26 – At approximately 9 p. m. the Cascadia earthquake occurred with a moment magnitude of 8. 7–9.2. This megathrust earthquake ruptured about 1,000 kilometers of the Cascadia Subduction Zone, February 3 – The Lesser Great Fire destroys a substantial part of central Edinburgh, Scotland. February 12 – The Great Northern War begins with a joint invasion of Swedish territory in Germany and Latvia by Denmark, Sweden has control of the Baltic Sea and holds territory that includes Finland, Estonia, Latvia and parts of northern Germany. To challenge its power, an alliance is formed between Tsar Peter I of Russia, King Frederick IV of Denmark and Augustus II the Strong, King of Poland, swedens ruler is the militaristic Charles XII, known as the Swedish Meteor. February 27 – Island of New Britain discovered by William Dampier in the western Pacific, March 1 – Protestant Germany and Denmark–Norway adopt the Gregorian calendar. March 1, March 11, February 29 – Swedish calendar adopted, early March – William Congreves comedy The Way of the World is first performed in London. March 25 – Treaty of London signed between France, England and Holland, april – Fire destroys many buildings in Gondar, the capital of Ethiopia, including two in the palace complex. May 5 Within a few days of John Drydens death, his last written work is performed as part of Vanbrughs version of The Pilgrim, William Penn begins monthly meetings for blacks advocating emancipation. July 11 – The Prussian Academy of Sciences is founded with Gottfried Leibniz as president, summer – Charles XII of Sweden counter-attacks his enemies by invading Zealand, assisted by an Anglo-Dutch naval squadron under Sir George Rooke, rapidly compelling the Danes to submit to peace. August 18 – Peace of Travendal concluded between the Swedish Empire, Denmark–Norway and Holstein-Gottorp in Traventhal, on the same day, Augustus II, King of Poland, and Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia, enter the war against Sweden. Late summer – A Russian army invades Swedish Estonia and besieges the town of Narva, november 1 – Charles II, last Spanish king of the House of Habsburg, dies insane at the Royal Alcazar of Madrid leaving no children. November 15 – Louis XIV accepts the Spanish crown on behalf of his grandson Philip of Anjou, november 18 – Battle of Olkieniki, Lithuanian Civil War, victory for the anti-Sapieha coalition. November 23 – Pope Clement XI succeeds Pope Innocent XII as the 243rd pope, november 30 – Battle of Narva in Estonia. Having led his army of 8,000 on a march from Denmark to Estonia. December 28 – Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester, is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, mission San Xavier del Bac is founded in New Spain near Tucson, as a Spanish Roman Catholic mission1700 – November 30: Battle of Narva.
36. 1885 – As of the start of 1885, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 3–4 – Sino-French War – Battle of Núi Bop, French troops under General Oscar de Négrier defeat a numerically superior Qing Chinese force in northern Vietnam, january 4 – The first successful appendectomy is performed by Dr. William W. Grant on Mary Gartside. January 17 – Mahdist War in Sudan, British victory at the Battle of Abu Klea, january 20 – LaMarcus Adna Thompson patents a roller coaster. January 24 – Irish terrorists damage Westminster Hall and the Tower of London with dynamite, january 26 – Mahdist War in Sudan, Troops loyal to the Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad conquer Khartoum. The British commander Charles George Gordon is killed, February 5 – King Léopold II of Belgium establishes the Congo Free State as a personal possession. February 7 – The play La vida alegre y muerte triste by dramatist José Echegaray opens, February 9 – The first Japanese arrive in Hawaii. February 16 – Charles Dow publishes the first edition of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, the index stood at a level of 62.76, and represented the dollar average of 14 stocks,12 railroads and two leading American industries. February 21 – United States President Chester A. Arthur dedicates the Washington Monument, February 23 Sino-French War, France gains an important victory over China in the Battle of Đồng Đăng in the Tonkin region of modern-day Vietnam. An English executioner fails after several attempts to hang John Babbacombe Lee, sentenced for the murder of his employer Emma Keyse, February 26 – The final act of the Berlin Conference regulates European colonization and trade in the scramble for Africa. February 28 – February concludes without having a full moon, march 3 – A subsidiary of the American Bell Telephone Company, American Telephone and Telegraph, is incorporated in New York. March 4 – Grover Cleveland is sworn in as President of the United States, march 7 – The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Madrid is founded. March 14 – Gilbert and Sullivans comic opera The Mikado opens at the Savoy Theatre in London, march 26 The Prussian government, motivated by Otto von Bismarck, expels all ethnic Poles and Jews without German citizenship from Prussia in the Prussian deportations. North-West Rebellion in Canada by the Métis people, led by Louis Riel, first legal cremation in England, Mrs Jeannette C. Pickersgill of London, well known in literary and scientific circles, is cremated by the Cremation Society at Woking, march 30 – The Battle for Kushka triggers the Panjdeh Incident, which nearly gives rise to war between the British Empire and Russian Empire. March 31 – The United Kingdom establishes the Bechuanaland Protectorate, april 2 – Frog Lake Massacre, Cree warriors led by Wandering Spirit kill 9 settlers at Frog Lake in the Northwest Territories. April 3 – Gottlieb Daimler is granted a German patent for his single-cylinder water-cooled engine design, april 11 – Luton Town Football Club are created by the merger of Wanderers F. C. and Luton Excelsior F. C. in England. April 14 – Final engagement of Sino-French War, with a French victory at Kép, China withdraws its forces from Tonkin. April 30 – A bill is signed in the New York State legislature forming the Niagara Falls State Park, may 2 Good Housekeeping magazine goes on sale for the first time in the United States1885 – Feb. 21: Washington Monument dedicated.
37. Victor Hugo – Victor Marie Hugo was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement. He is considered one of the greatest and best-known French writers, outside France, his best-known works are the novels Les Misérables,1862, and The Hunchback of Notre-Dame,1831. In France, Hugo is known primarily for his collections, such as Les Contemplations. He produced more than 4,000 drawings and also campaigned for causes such as the abolition of capital punishment. He is buried in the Panthéon in Paris and his legacy has been honoured in many ways, including his portrait being placed on French currency. Victor Hugo was the son of Joseph Léopold Sigisbert Hugo and Sophie Trébuchet, his brothers were Abel Joseph Hugo. He was born in 1802 in Besançon in the region of Franche-Comté. On 19 November 1821, Léopold Hugo wrote to his son that he had conceived on one of the highest peaks in the Vosges Mountains. This elevated origin, he went on, seems to have had effects on you so that your muse is now continually sublime, Hugos childhood was a period of national political turmoil. Napoleon was proclaimed Emperor of the French two years after Hugos birth, and the Bourbon Monarchy was restored before his 13th birthday, since Hugos father was an officer, the family moved frequently and Hugo learned much from these travels. On a childhood trip to Naples, Hugo saw the vast Alpine passes and the snowy peaks, the magnificently blue Mediterranean. Though he was five years old at the time, he remembered the six-month-long trip vividly. They stayed in Naples for a few months and then headed back to Paris, at the beginning of her marriage, Hugos mother Sophie followed her husband to posts in Italy and Spain. Thereafter she dominated Hugos education and upbringing, as a result, Hugos early work in poetry and fiction reflect her passionate devotion to both King and Faith. It was only later, during the leading up to Frances 1848 Revolution. Young Victor fell in love and, against his mothers wishes, because of his close relationship with his mother, Hugo waited until after her death to marry Adèle in 1822. Adèle and Victor Hugo had their first child, Léopold, in 1823, on 28 August 1824, the couples second child, Léopoldine was born, followed by Charles on 4 November 1826, François-Victor on 28 October 1828, and Adèle on 24 August 1830. Hugos eldest and favourite daughter, Léopoldine, died aged 19 in 1843, on 4 September, she drowned in the Seine at Villequier, pulled down by her heavy skirts when a boat overturnedVictor Hugo – Woodburytype of Victor Hugo by Étienne Carjat, 1876.
38. 1802 – As of the start of 1802, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 15 – Canonsburg Academy is chartered by the Pennsylvania General Assembly, january 29 – A French expeditionary force led by General Charles Leclerc lands in Saint-Domingue to restore colonial rule. Where Toussaint Louverture has himself proclaimed Governor-General for Life and established control over Hispaniola, march 16 – The United States Army Corps of Engineers is re-established and the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York established under its management, opening on July 4. March 25–27 – Napoleonic Wars, The Treaty of Amiens between France and the United Kingdom ends the War of the Second Coalition, march 28 – H. W. Olbers discovers the asteroid Pallas. April 10 – Great Trigonometrical Survey of India begins with the measurement of a baseline near Madras, may 19 – Napoleon Bonaparte establishes the French Légion dhonneur. May 20 – By the Law of 20 May 1802, Napoleon reinstates slavery in the French colonies, june 1 – United States Patent and Trademark Office established within the Department of State. June 2 – Indigenous Australian Pemulwuy, a leader of the resistance to European settlement of Australia, is dead by Henry Hacking. June 8 – Haitian revolutionary Toussaint Louverture is seized by French troops, june – Gia Long is crowned as first Emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty in Vietnam. July – Éleuthère Irénée du Pont founds E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, July 5–August 28 – A United Kingdom general election brings victory for the Tories, led by Henry Addington. July 22 – Gia Long captures Hanoi, completing his unification of Vietnam, august 2 – In a plebiscite, Napoleon Bonaparte is confirmed as the First Consul of France. September 3 – William Wordsworth composes the poem Westminster Bridge in London, september 11 – The Italian region of Piedmont becomes a part of the French First Republic. October 2 – War ends between Sweden and Tripoli, the United States also negotiates peace, but war continues over the size of compensation. October – The French army enters Switzerland, december 2 – The Health and Morals of Apprentices Act in the United Kingdom comes into effect, regulating conditions for child labour in factories. Although poorly enforced, it pioneers a series of Factory Acts, thomas Wedgwood publishes an account of his experiments in photography, along with Humphry Davy. Since they have no means of fixing the image, their photographs quickly fade, ludwig van Beethoven publishes his Piano Sonata No.14 in Vienna. Marie Tussaud first exhibits her wax sculptures in London, having been commissioned during the Reign of Terror in France to make masks of the victims1802 – Victor Hugo
39. 1967 – January 1 – Canada begins a year-long celebration of the 100th anniversary of the British North America Act,1867, featuring the Expo 67 Worlds Fair. January 2 – Ronald Reagan, past movie actor and future President of the United States, is inaugurated the new governor of California, january 4 – The Doors release their début album The Doors. January 5 Spain and Romania sign in Paris an agreement establishing full consular, Charlie Chaplin launches his last film, A Countess from Hong Kong, in the UK. January 6 – Vietnam War, USMC and ARVN troops launch Operation Deckhouse Five in the Mekong Delta, january 8 – Vietnam War, Operation Cedar Falls starts. January 10 – Segregationist Lester Maddox is sworn in as Governor of Georgia, january 12 – Dr. James Bedford becomes the first person to be cryonically preserved with the intent of future resuscitation. January 13 – A military coup occurs in Togo under the leadership of Étienne Eyadema, january 14 The New York Times reports that the U. S. Army is conducting secret germ warfare experiments. The Human Be-In takes place in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, january 15 Louis Leakey announces the discovery of pre-human fossils in Kenya, he names the species Kenyapithecus africanus. The United Kingdom enters the first round of negotiations for European Economic Community membership in Rome, American football, The Green Bay Packers defeat the Kansas City Chiefs 35-10 in the First AFL-NFL World Championship Game at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. January 18 Albert DeSalvo is convicted of crimes and sentenced to life in prison. Jeremy Thorpe becomes leader of the UKs Liberal Party, a Fistful of Dollars, the first significant spaghetti Western film, is released in the United States. January 23 In Munich, the trial begins of Wilhelm Harster and he is eventually sentenced to 15 years in prison. Milton Keynes is founded as a new town by Order in Council and its initial designated area enclosed three existing towns and twenty one villages. The area to be developed was largely farmland, with evidence of permanent settlement dating back to the Bronze Age, january 26 – The Parliament of the United Kingdom decides to nationalise 90% of the British steel industry. January 27 Apollo 1, U. S. astronauts Gus Grissom, Edward Higgins White, the United States, Soviet Union and United Kingdom sign the Outer Space Treaty. January 31 – West Germany and Romania establish diplomatic relations, February 2 – The American Basketball Association is formed. February 3 – Ronald Ryan becomes the last man hanged in Australia, February 4 – The Soviet Union protests the demonstrations before its embassy in Beijing. February 5 NASA launches Lunar Orbiter 3, italys first guided missile cruiser, the Vittorio Veneto, is launched. General Anastasio Somoza Debayle becomes president of Nicaragua, February 6 – Alexei Kosygin arrives in the UK for an 8-day visit1967 – Plaque commemorating installation of world's first bank cash machine
40. 1902 – As of the start of 1902, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 The first college bowl game, the Rose Bowl between Michigan and Stanford, is held in Pasadena, California. Nurses Registration Act 1901 comes into effect in New Zealand, making it the first country in the world to require registration of nurses. On January 10, Ellen Dougherty becomes the worlds first registered nurse, January 12 – Uddevalla Suffrage Association is officially dissolved. January 23 – A snowstorm at Mount Hakkoda, northern Honshu, Japan, January 28 – The Carnegie Institution is founded in Washington, D. C. with a $10 million gift from Andrew Carnegie. February 9 – Fire levels 26 city blocks of Jersey City, february 11 – Police and universal suffrage demonstrators are involved in a physical altercation in Brussels. February 15 – The Berlin U-Bahn underground is opened, february 18 – U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt prosecutes the Northern Securities Company for violation of the Sherman Act. February 27 American writer John Steinbeck is born, australian officers Breaker Morant and Peter Handcock are executed for the murder of Boer prisoners of war near Louis Trichardt. March 6 – Real Madrid C. F. is founded as Madrid Football Club, march 7 – Second Boer War, South African Boers win their last battle over the British Army, with the capture of a British general and 200 of his men. March 8 – Jean Sibeliuss Second Symphony is premiered in Helsinki, march 10 – A Circuit Court prevents Thomas Edison from having a monopoly on motion picture technology. April 2 – Electric Theatre, the first movie theater in the United States, april 13 – A new car speed record of 74 mph is set in Nice, France, by Léon Serpollet. April 19 – The 7.5 Mw Guatemala earthquake shakes Guatemala with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII, may 5 – The Commonwealth Public Service Act creates Australias Public Service. May 13 – Alfonso XIII of Spain begins his reign, may 20 – Cuba gains independence from the United States. May 22 – The White Star Liner, SS Ionic, is launched, may 29 – Lord Rosebery opens London School of Economics. May 31 – The Treaty of Vereeniging ends the Second Boer War, june 2 – The Anthracite Coal Strike begins in the United States. June 15 – The New York Central Railroad inaugurates the 20th Century Limited passenger train between Chicago and New York City, june 16 – Australia, Female British subjects win the vote with the Uniform Franchise Act. June 17 – Norwich City Football Club is formed, june 26 – Edward VII institutes the Order of Merit. July 5 – Erik Gustaf Boström returns as Prime Minister of Sweden, july 8 – Service of Reclamation within U. S. Geological Survey1902 – January 1: first Rose Bowl college American football game.
41. Cecil Day-Lewis – Cecil Day-Lewis CBE was an Anglo-Irish poet and the Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom from 1968 until his death in 1972. He also wrote mystery stories under the pseudonym of Nicholas Blake and he was the father of actor Daniel Day-Lewis and documentary filmmaker and television chef Tamasin Day-Lewis. Day-Lewis was born in Ballintubbert, Athy/Stradbally border, Queens County and he was the son of Frank Day-Lewis, Church of Ireland Rector of that parish, and Kathleen Blake. Some of his family was from England and his father took on the surname Day-Lewis as a combination of his own birth fathers and adoptive fathers surnames. In his autobiography The Buried Day, he wrote As a writer I do not use the hyphen in my surname – a piece of inverted snobbery which has produced mixed results. After the death of his mother in 1906, Cecil was brought up in London by his father, with the help of an aunt and he was educated at Sherborne School and at Wadham College, Oxford. In Oxford, Day-Lewis became part of the circle gathered around W. H. Auden and his first collection of poems, Beechen Vigil, appeared in 1925. In 1928 he married Constance Mary King, the daughter of a Sherborne master, during the 1940s he had a long and troubled love affair with the novelist Rosamond Lehmann. His first marriage was dissolved in 1951, and he married actress Jill Balcon, during the Second World War his work was now no longer so influenced by Auden and he was developing a more traditional style of lyricism. Some critics believe that he reached his full stature as a poet in Word Over All, after the war he joined the publisher Chatto & Windus as a director and senior editor. In 1946, Day-Lewis was a lecturer at Cambridge University, publishing his lectures in The Poetic Image, Day-Lewis was made a Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire by Elizabeth II in her 1950 Birthday Honours. He later taught poetry at Oxford, where he was Professor of Poetry from 1951 to 1956, during 1962–1963, he was the Norton Professor at Harvard University. Day-Lewis was appointed Poet Laureate in 1968, in succession to John Masefield, Cecil Day-Lewis died from pancreatic cancer on 22 May 1972, aged 68, at Lemmons, the Hertfordshire home of Kingsley Amis and Elizabeth Jane Howard, where he and his family were staying. He was an admirer of Thomas Hardy, and had arranged to be buried as close as possible to the authors grave at St Michaels Church in Stinsford. Day-Lewiss epitaph, taken from his poem Is it Far to Go, Day Lewis, An English Literary Life. Daniel Day-Lewis donated his father’s archive to the Bodleian library and this was followed by nineteen more crime novels. From the mid-1930s Day-Lewis was able to earn his living by writing, four of the Blake novels – A Tangled Web, Penknife in My Heart, The Deadly Joker, The Private Wound – do not feature Strangeways. Minute for Murder is set against the background of Day-Lewiss Second World War experiences in the Ministry of Information, in 1937 he edited The Mind in Chains, Socialism and the Cultural RevolutionCecil Day-Lewis – Cecil Day-Lewis
42. 1904 – As of the start of 1904, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 7 – The distress signal CQD is established, only to be replaced 2 years later by SOS, january 12 – Henry Ford sets a new automobile land speed record of 91.37 mph. January 16 – The first large-scale bodybuilding competition in America takes place at Madison Square Garden in New York City, january 18 – The Herero Rebellion in German South-West Africa begins. January 23 – The Ålesund Fire destroys most buildings in the town of Ålesund, Norway, february 7 – The Great Baltimore Fire in Baltimore, Maryland, destroys over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours. February 8–9 – Battle of Port Arthur, A surprise Japanese naval attack on Port Arthur in Manchuria starts the Russo-Japanese War, february 10 – Roger Casement publishes his account of Belgian atrocities in the Congo. February 17 – Puccinis opera Madama Butterfly, with a theme of Japan–United States relations. On May 28 a revised version opens in Brescia to huge success, february 23 – For $10 million, the United States gains control of the Panama Canal Zone. February 28 – Sport Lisboa e Benfica is founded in Portugal, march 3 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany becomes the first person to make a political recording of a document, using Thomas Edisons cylinder. March 4 – Russo-Japanese War, Russian troops in Korea retreat toward Manchuria, march 26 –80,000 demonstrators gather in Hyde Park, London, to protest against the importation of Chinese labourers to South Africa by the British government. March 31 – British expedition to Tibet – Battle of Guru, April 8 The Entente Cordiale is signed between the UK and France. Longacre Square in Midtown Manhattan is renamed Times Square after The New York Times, aleister Crowley begins writing Liber Al vel Legis, better known as The Book of the Law, a text central to Thelema. He completes this task on April 10, April 19 – The Great Toronto Fire destroys much of that citys downtown, but there are no fatalities. April 27 – The Australian Labor Party becomes the first such party to gain national government, April 30 – The Louisiana Purchase Exposition Worlds Fair opens in St. Louis, Missouri. May 4 United States Army engineers begin work on the Panama Canal, German football club FC Schalke 04 is established. May 5 Pitching against the Philadelphia Athletics, Cy Young of the Boston Americans throws the first perfect game in the era of baseball. British expedition to Tibet, Hundreds of Tibetans attack the British camp at Changlo and, for a while, hold the advantage before being defeated by superior weapons and losing at least 200 men. May 9 – Great Western Railway of England 3700 Class 3440 City of Truro becomes the first railway locomotive to exceed 100 mph. May 15– The Russian minelayer Amur lays a minefield about 15 miles off Port Arthur and sinks Japans battleships Hatsuse,15,000 tons, with 496 crew, may 21 – The International Federation of Association Football, FIFA, is established1904 – February 7: Aftermath of the Great Baltimore Fire.
43. Eric Clapton – Eric Patrick Clapton, CBE, is an English rock and blues guitarist, singer, and songwriter. He is the only inductee to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, once as a solo artist and separately as a member of the Yardbirds. Clapton has been referred to as one of the most important, Clapton ranked second in Rolling Stone magazines list of the 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time and fourth in Gibsons Top 50 Guitarists of All Time. He was also named number five in Time magazines list of The 10 Best Electric Guitar Players in 2009, in the mid-1960s Clapton left the Yardbirds to play with John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers. Furthermore, he formed rock band Blind Faith with Baker, Steve Winwood. For most of the 1970s Claptons output bore the influence of the style of J. J. Cale. His version of Marleys I Shot the Sheriff helped reggae reach a mass market, two of his most popular recordings were Layla, recorded with Derek and the Dominos, and Robert Johnsons Crossroads, recorded with Cream. Following the death of his son Conor in 1991, Claptons grief was expressed in the song Tears in Heaven, Clapton has been the recipient of 18 Grammy Awards, and the Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music. In 2004 he was awarded a CBE at Buckingham Palace for services to music, in 1998, Clapton, a recovering alcoholic and drug addict, founded the Crossroads Centre on Antigua, a medical facility for recovering substance abusers. Clapton was born on 30 March 1945 in Ripley, Surrey, England, to 16-year-old Patricia Molly Clapton and Edward Walter Fryer, Fryer shipped off to war prior to Claptons birth and then returned to Canada. The similarity in surnames gave rise to the belief that Claptons real surname is Clapp. Years later, his mother married another Canadian soldier and moved to Germany, Clapton received an acoustic Hoyer guitar, made in Germany, for his thirteenth birthday, but the inexpensive steel-stringed instrument was difficult to play and he briefly lost interest. Two years later Clapton picked it up again and started playing consistently, Clapton was influenced by the blues from an early age, and practised long hours to learn the chords of blues music by playing along to the records. He preserved his practice sessions using his portable Grundig reel-to-reel tape recorder and his guitar playing was so advanced that, by the age of 16, he was getting noticed. Around this time, Clapton began busking around Kingston, Richmond, in 1962, Clapton started performing as a duo with fellow blues enthusiast David Brock in pubs around Surrey. When he was seventeen years old, Clapton joined his first band, an early British R&B group and he stayed with this band from January until August 1963. In October of that year, Clapton did a stint with Casey Jones & the Engineers. In October 1963, Clapton joined the Yardbirds, a rock and roll bandEric Clapton – Clapton performing at Hyde Park, London in June 2008
44. Paul McCartney – Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE is an English singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, and composer. With John Lennon, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr, he gained fame with the rock band the Beatles, largely considered the most popular. His songwriting partnership with Lennon is the most celebrated of the post-war era, after the bands break-up, he pursued a solo career and formed the band Wings with his first wife, Linda, and Denny Laine. McCartney has been recognised as one of the most successful composers and performers of all time, More than 2,200 artists have covered his Beatles song Yesterday, more than any other copyrighted song in history. Wings 1977 release Mull of Kintyre is one of the all-time best-selling singles in the UK.5 million RIAA-certified units in the United States. McCartney, Lennon, Harrison and Starr all received The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire in 1965, McCartney has released an extensive catalogue of songs as a solo artist and has composed classical and electronic music. He has taken part in projects to promote international charities related to subjects as animal rights, seal hunting, land mines, vegetarianism, poverty. He has married three times and is the father of five children, James Paul McCartney was born on 18 June 1942 in Walton Hospital, Liverpool, England, where his mother, Mary Patricia, had qualified to practise as a nurse. His father, James McCartney, was absent from his sons birth due to his work as a firefighter during World War II. Paul has one brother, Michael. Though the children were baptised in their mothers Catholic faith, their father was a former Protestant turned agnostic, McCartney attended Stockton Wood Road Primary School in Speke from 1947 until 1949, when he transferred to Joseph Williams Junior School in Belle Vale because of overcrowding at Stockton. In 1953, with three others out of ninety examinees, he passed the 11-Plus exam, meaning he could attend the Liverpool Institute. In 1954, he met schoolmate George Harrison on the bus from his home in Speke. The two quickly became friends, McCartney later admitted, I tended to talk down to him because he was a year younger. McCartneys mother Mary was a midwife and the primary wage earner, her earnings enabled them to move into 20 Forthlin Road in Allerton. She rode a bicycle to her patients, McCartney described an early memory of her leaving at about three in the morning streets, on 31 October 1956, when McCartney was fourteen, his mother died of an embolism. McCartneys loss later became a point of connection with John Lennon, whose mother, McCartneys father was a trumpet player and pianist, who had led Jim Macs Jazz Band in the 1920s. He kept a piano in the front room, encouraged his sons to be musical and advised Paul to take piano lessonsPaul McCartney – Paul McCartney in 2010
45. Iron Maiden – Iron Maiden are a British heavy metal band formed in Leyton, East London, in 1975 by bassist and primary songwriter Steve Harris. The bands discography has grown to thirty-eight albums, including sixteen studio albums, eleven albums, four EPs. Pioneers of the new wave of British heavy metal, Iron Maiden achieved initial success during the early 1980s,1 in 28 countries and receiving widespread critical acclaim. Their sixteenth studio album, The Book of Souls, was released on 4 September 2015 to similar success, the band won the Ivor Novello Award for international achievement in 2002. As of October 2013, the band have played over 2000 live shows throughout their career. For the past 35 years, the band have been supported by their famous mascot, Eddie, Iron Maiden were formed on Christmas Day in 1975 by bassist Steve Harris shortly after he left his previous group, Smiler. Harris attributes the name to a film adaptation of The Man in the Iron Mask from the novel by Alexandre Dumas. After months of rehearsal, Iron Maiden made their debut at St. Nicks Hall in Poplar on 1 May 1976, before taking up a semi-residency at the Cart and Horses Pub in Maryland Point, Stratford. The original line-up did not last very long, however, with vocalist Paul Day being the first casualty as, according to Harris and he was replaced by Dennis Wilcock, a Kiss fan who used make-up and fake blood during live performances. Wilcocks friend Dave Murray was invited to join, to the dismay of the bands guitarists Dave Sullivan and their frustration led Harris to temporarily disband Iron Maiden in 1976, though the group reformed soon after with Murray as the sole guitarist. Steve Harris and Dave Murray remain the bands longest-standing members and have performed on all of their releases, Iron Maiden recruited yet another guitarist in 1977, Bob Sawyer, who was sacked for embarrassing the band on stage by pretending to play guitar with his teeth. Tension ensued again, causing a rift between Murray and Wilcock, who convinced Harris to fire Murray, as well as original drummer Ron Matthews. A new line-up was put together, including future Cutting Crew member Tony Moore on keyboards, Terry Wapram on guitar, and drummer Barry Purkis. A bad performance at the Bridgehouse, a pub located in Canning Town, in November 1977 was the line-ups first and only concert, at the same time, Moore was asked to leave as Harris decided that keyboards did not suit the bands sound. A few months later, Dennis Wilcock decided that he had had enough with the group and left to form his own band, V1, as he preferred to be the bands sole guitarist, Wapram disapproved of Murrays return and was also dismissed. Steve Harris, Dave Murray and Doug Sampson spent the summer, a chance meeting at the Red Lion pub in Leytonstone in November 1978 evolved into a successful audition for vocalist Paul DiAnno. Steve Harris has stated, Theres sort of a quality in Pauls voice, a raspiness in his voice, or whatever you want to call it, that just gave it this great edge. At this time, Murray would typically act as their sole guitarist, with Harris commenting, the plan was always to get a second guitarist in, but finding one that could match Davey was really difficultIron Maiden – Top: Steve Harris (L), Dave Murray (R) Middle: Adrian Smith (L), Bruce Dickinson (R) Bottom: Nicko McBrain (L), Janick Gers (R)
46. Pearl Jam – Pearl Jam is an American rock band formed in Seattle, Washington, in 1990. Since its inception, the bands line-up has comprised Eddie Vedder, Mike McCready, Stone Gossard, the bands fifth member is drummer Matt Cameron, who has been with the band since 1998. Boom Gaspar has also been a member with the band since 2002. Drummers Dave Krusen, Matt Chamberlain, Dave Abbruzzese and Jack Irons are former members of the band, formed after the demise of Gossard and Aments previous band, Mother Love Bone, Pearl Jam broke into the mainstream with its debut album, Ten, in 1991. In 2006, Rolling Stone described the band as having spent much of the past decade deliberately tearing apart their own fame, to date, the band has sold nearly 32 million records in the United States and an estimated 60 million worldwide. Pearl Jam has outlasted and outsold many of its contemporaries from the alternative rock breakthrough of the early 1990s, stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic referred to Pearl Jam as the most popular American rock & roll band of the 90s. Pearl Jam is to be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on April 7,2017, Stone Gossard and Jeff Ament were members of pioneering grunge band Green River during the mid-1980s. Green River toured and recorded to moderate success but disbanded in 1987 due to a division between the pair and bandmates Mark Arm and Steve Turner. In late 1987, Gossard and Ament began playing with Malfunkshun vocalist Andrew Wood, in 1988 and 1989, the band recorded and toured to increasing interest and found the support of the PolyGram record label, which signed the band in early 1989. Mother Love Bones debut album, Apple, was released in July 1990, Ament and Gossard were devastated by the death of Wood and the resulting demise of Mother Love Bone. Gossard spent his time writing material that was harder-edged than what he had been doing previously. After a few months, Gossard started practicing with fellow Seattle guitarist Mike McCready, whose band, Shadow, had broken up, after practicing for a while, the trio sent out a five-song demo tape in order to find a singer and a drummer. They gave former Red Hot Chili Peppers drummer Jack Irons the demo to see if he would be interested in joining the band, Irons passed on the invitation but gave the demo to his basketball buddy, San Diego, California singer Eddie Vedder. Vedder was the lead vocalist for a San Diego band, Bad Radio and he listened to the tape shortly before going surfing, where lyrics came to him. He then recorded the vocals to three of the songs in what he described as a mini-opera entitled Momma-Son. Vedder sent the tape with his vocals back to the three Seattle musicians, who were impressed enough to fly Vedder up to Seattle for an audition, within a week, Vedder had joined the band. With the addition of Dave Krusen on drums, the band took the name Mookie Blaylock, the band played its first official show at the Off Ramp Café in Seattle on October 22,1990, and soon signed to Epic Records and renamed themselves Pearl Jam. In a 2006 Rolling Stone cover story however, Vedder admitted that this story was total bullshit, Pearl Jam entered Seattles London Bridge Studios in March 1991 to record its debut album, TenPearl Jam – Pearl Jam performing in 2012. From left to right: McCready, Ament, Cameron, Vedder and Gossard.
47. Usher (entertainer) – Usher Raymond IV is an American singer, songwriter, dancer, and actor. Born in Dallas, Texas but raised and lived in Chattanooga, Tennessee until moving to Atlanta, at the age of 12, his mother put him in local singing competitions, before catching the attention of a music A&R from LaFace Records. In 1994 he released his debut album, Usher. 8701 produced the number-one singles U Remind Me and U Got It Bad and it sold 8 million copies worldwide and won his first two Grammy Awards as Best Male R&B Vocal Performance in 2002 and 2003. Confessions established him as one of the musical artists of the 2000s decade. Bolstered by its four consecutive Billboard Hot 100 number one singles, Burn, Confessions Part II, and My Boo, it has been certified Diamond by the RIAA. Here I Stand and Raymond v. Raymond, debuted atop of the Billboard 200, the EP, Versus, also produced the Hot 100 top-five single DJ Got Us Fallin in Love. Looking 4 Myself, also debuted atop the Billboard 200 chart, Raymond v. Raymond and Looking 4 Myself received Grammy Awards for R&B singles There Goes My Baby and Climax. Hard II Love peaked at five of the Billboard 200 albums chart. Usher has sold 23.8 million albums and 38.2 million digital songs in the United States, to date, his worldwide sales stand at 43 million albums and 75 million records overall, making him one of the best-selling music artists of all time. Usher has won awards and accolades including 18 Billboard Music Awards and 8 Grammy Awards. Billboard also placed him at number 6 on their list of Top 50 R&B/Hip-Hop Artists of the Past 25 Years, Usher has attained 9 US Hot 100 number-one singles. Considered an icon and sex symbol, he was inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame, in 2008, he started his own record label Raymond-Braun Media Group, a joint venture with talent manager Scooter Braun that includes Canadian singer Justin Bieber. Usher was born in Dallas, Texas, the son of Jonetta Patton, from Tennessee, Usher spent the majority of his young life in Chattanooga, his father left the family when Usher was a year old. Usher grew up with his mother, then-stepfather, and half-brother, while in Atlanta, Usher attended North Springs High School. At age 10, Usher joined an R&B local quintet called the NuBeginnings, Usher recorded 10 songs with the group in 1991, and the ensuing album, Nubeginning Featuring Usher Raymond IV, was only made available regionally and by mail order. However, Patton took him out because, according to her, the album was re-released nationally in April 2002 by Hip-O Records. At age 13, Usher would meet A. J, alexander at local talent show in AtlantaUsher (entertainer) – Usher during the Division 1 launch party, 2010
48. Snoop Dogg – Cordozar Calvin Broadus, Jr. known professionally as Snoop Dogg, is an American rapper and actor from Long Beach, California. His music career began in 1992 when he was discovered by Dr. Dre of N. W. A and he has since sold over twenty-three million albums in the United States and thirty-five million albums worldwide. Snoops debut album, Doggystyle, was released in 1993 under Death Row Records, Selling almost a million copies in the first week of its release, Doggystyle became certified 4× platinum in 1994 and spawned several hit singles, including Whats My Name. and Gin & Juice. In 1994 Snoop released a soundtrack on Death Row Records for the short film Murder Was The Case and his second album Tha Doggfather, also debuted at number one on both charts with Snoops Upside Ya Head, as the lead single. The album was certified platinum in 1997. After leaving Death Row Records, Snoop signed with No Limit Records, Da Game Is to Be Sold, Not to Be Told, No Limit Top Dogg, and Tha Last Meal. Snoop then signed with Priority/Capitol/EMI Records in 2002, where he released Paid tha Cost to Be da Boss and he then signed with Geffen Records in 2004 for his next three albums R&G, The Masterpiece, Tha Blue Carpet Treatment, and Ego Trippin. Malice n Wonderland, and Doggumentary, were released on Priority, Snoop Dogg has starred in motion pictures and hosted several television shows, including Doggy Fizzle Televizzle, Snoop Doggs Father Hood, and Dogg After Dark. He also coaches a youth league and high school football team. In September 2009, Snoop was hired by EMI as the chairman of a reactivated Priority Records, in 2012, after a trip to Jamaica, Snoop announced a conversion to the Rastafari movement and a new alias, Snoop Lion. Under the new moniker, he released an album, Reincarnated. His fourteenth solo album, Coolaid, was released in July 2016. Snoop Dogg holds the distinction of having seventeen Grammy nominations without a win. Snoop Dogg was born Cordozar Calvin Broadus, Jr. in Long Beach, California and he was named after his stepfather, Cordozar Calvin Broadus, Sr. His father, Vernell Varnado, was a Vietnam veteran, singer, as a boy, his parents nicknamed him Snoopy because of his appearance, but they usually addressed him as Calvin at home. His mother and stepfather divorced in 1975, when he was very young, Broadus began singing and playing piano at the Golgotha Trinity Baptist Church. In sixth grade, he began rapping, as a teenager, Snoop Dogg frequently ran into trouble with the law. He was a member of the Rollin 20 Crips gang in the Eastside of Long Beach, shortly after graduating from high school, he was arrested for possession of cocaine, and for the following three years, was frequently in and out of prisonSnoop Dogg – Snoop Dogg performing in Toronto, Ontario in August 2012
49. List of Knesset speakers – The Speaker of the Knesset is the presiding officer in the Knesset, the unicameral legislature of Israel. The Speaker also fills the role of the President of Israel when the President is incapacitated, the current speaker is Yuli-Yoel Edelstein. To date, Ahdut HaAvodas Nahum Nir is the only Speaker not to have come from the ruling party, a total of sixteen people have served as Speaker of the Knesset, one of whom, Reuven Rivlin, have served two non-consecutive terms. Knesset Speakers since the first Knesset Knesset website Israeli ministries, etc – Rulers. orgList of Knesset speakers
50. Shlomo Hillel – Shlomo Hillel is an Iraqi-born Israeli diplomat and politician who served as Speaker of the Knesset, Minister of Police and Minister of Internal Affairs. He was also an ambassador to several countries in Africa, born in Baghdad in Iraq, Hillel immigrated to Mandate Palestine with his family in 1934 at the age of eleven. After graduating from the Herzliya Hebrew High School in Tel Aviv, he underwent agricultural training in kibbutz Degania Alef, Hillel was secretary of a Hebrew Scouts group which later established Kibbutz Maagan Michael. In 1945, Hillel and his colleagues worked at a Haganah munitions factory disguised as a facility in the basement of the Ayalon Institute in Rehovot. He studied political science, economics and public administration at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and he married Temima, with whom he has two children, a son and a daughter, and currently lives in Ramat Denya in Jerusalem. In 1946, Hillel flew to Baghdad on an Iraqi passport and he visited Baghdad again in 1950 to negotiate the mass immigration of the Jews of Iraq,120,000 of whom were airlifted to Israel in Operation Ezra and Nehemiah between 1950 and 1952. On these trips, he disguised himself as either a Frenchman or an Englishman, the airlift was made possible through the cooperation of Iran, which was a close ally of Israel at the time. Hillels partner was Ronnie Barnett, a British Jew who worked for Trans-Ocean Airlines, while organizing pilgrimages to Mecca, Barnett met the director of a travel agency called Iraq Tours, Abdul Rahman Raouf. Barnett and Raouf met in Rome and Hillel came along as Richard Armstrong and they visited the prime minister at his home. Al-Suweidi complained that the emigration of the Jews was harming Iraq because they were probably smuggling out property. According to his estimates, at least 60,000 Jews would leave the country if they could and they agreed on a ticket price of 12 dinars per ticket. For the 1951 Knesset elections Hillel was given a place on the Mapai list, although he failed to win a seat, he entered the Knesset on 21 December 1952 as a replacement for the deceased Eliyahu Hacarmeli. He was re-elected in 1955, but resigned from the Knesset shortly before the 1959 elections, after which he joined the foreign service, and was appointed ambassador to Guinea in 1959. In 1961 he became ambassador to Côte dIvoire, Dahomey, Republic of Upper Volta and he returned to Israel in 1967, serving as the Deputy Director of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs until 1969. In 1969, Hillel returned to the Knesset on the Alignment list and he served consecutively from the 1969 elections until the 1992 elections, in which he lost his seat. He was Minister of Police between 1969 and 1977, and Interior Minister in 1974 and 1977, in 1984 he was elected Speaker of the eleventh Knesset. In 1988, Hillel was awarded the Israel Prize, for his contribution to the society. He currently serves as president of the Society for Preservation of Israel Heritage Sites, list of Israel Prize recipients 1950-1951 Baghdad bombings Shlomo Hillel on the Knesset websiteShlomo Hillel – Shlomo Hillel
51. Ammunition – Ammunition is the general term used for the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon. The term ammunition can be traced back to the mid 17th century, broadly speaking, ammunition refers to both expendable weapons and the component parts of other weapons that create the effect on a target. Nearly all weapons will require some form of ammunition to operate, the word comes from the French la munition, which refers to the material used for war. The terms ammunition and munitions are used interchangeably, although the term munition now usually refers to both the actual weapons system alongside the ammunition required to operate it. The purpose of ammunition is to project a force against a target to have an effect. The most iconic example of ammunition is the cartridge, which all components required to deliver the weapon effect in a single package. Ammunition comes in a range of sizes and types and is often designed to work only in specific weapons systems. However, there are internationally recognized standards for certain types that enable their use across different weapons. There are also types of ammunition that are designed to have a specialized effect on a target, such as armor-piercing shells and tracer ammunition. Ammunition is commonly colored in a manner to assist in the identification. A round is a cartridge containing a projectile, propellant, primer. A shell is a form of ammunition that is fired by a large cannon or artillery piece. Before the mid-19th century, these shells were made of solid materials. However, since that time, they are often filled with high-explosives. A shot refers to a release of a weapons system. This may involve firing just one round or piece of ammunition, a dud refers to loaded ammunition that fails to function as intended, typically failing to detonate on landing. However, it can refer to ammunition that fails to fire inside the weapon, known as a misfire, or when the ammunition only partially functions. Dud ammunition, which is classified as an ordnance, is regarded as highly dangerousAmmunition – A belt of 0.50 caliber ammunition loaded to an M2 Browning. Every fifth round with a red tip is an M20 (armour piercing incendiary tracer).
52. Laundry – Laundry is the washing of clothing and linens. Laundry processes are often done in a reserved for that purpose. An apartment building or student hall of residence may have a laundry facility such as a tvättstuga. A stand-alone business is referred to as a laundrette, the material that is being washed, or has been laundered, is also generally referred to as laundry. Laundry was first done in watercourses, letting the water carry away the materials which could cause stains, laundry is still done this way in some less industrialized areas and rural regions. Agitation helps remove the dirt, so the laundry is often rubbed, twisted, wooden bats or clubs could be used to help with beating the dirt out. These were often called washing beetles or bats and could be used by the waterside on a rock, on a block and they were once common across Europe and were also used by settlers in North America. Similar techniques have also identified in Japan. When no watercourses were available, laundry was done in vats or vessels. Sometimes large metal cauldrons were filled with water and heated over a fire. Wooden or stone scrubbing surfaces set up near a water supply or portable washboards, including corrugated metal ones. A posser could be used to agitate clothes in a tub, once clean, the clothes were wrung out — twisted to remove most of the water. Then they were hung up on poles or clotheslines to air dry, before the advent of the washing machine, laundry was often done in a communal setting. In poor parts of the world today, laundry is still done beside a river or lake, villages across Europe that could afford it built a wash-house. Water was channelled from a stream or spring and fed into a building, such facilities were much more comfortable than washing in a watercourse because the launderers could work standing up instead of on their knees, and were protected from inclement weather. Also, they didnt have to go far, as the facilities were usually at hand in the village or at the edge of a town and these facilities were public and available to all families, and usually used by the entire village. Many of these village wash-houses are still standing, historic structures with no modern purpose. This job was reserved for women, who washed all their familys laundry, washerwomen took in the laundry of others, charging by the pieceLaundry – Laundry is hung to dry above an Italian street
53. British Mandate of Palestine – Mandatory Palestine was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Southern Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948, further confusing the issue was the Balfour Declaration of 1917, promising British support for a Jewish national home in Palestine. At the wars end the British and French set up a joint Occupied Enemy Territory Administration in what had been Ottoman Syria, the British achieved legitimacy for their continued control by obtaining a mandate from the League of Nations in June 1922. The civil Mandate administration was formalized with the League of Nations consent in 1923 under the British Mandate for Palestine, the land west of the Jordan River, known as Palestine, was under direct British administration until 1948. The land east of the Jordan, a region known as Transjordan, under the rule of the Hashemite family from the Hijaz. The divergent tendencies regarding the nature and purpose of the mandate are visible already in the discussions concerning the name for this new entity. As a set-off to this, certain of the Arab politicians suggested that the country should be called Southern Syria in order to emphasise its close relation with another Arab State. During the British Mandate period the area experienced the ascent of two major nationalist movements, one among the Jews and the other among the Arabs, following its occupation by British troops in 1917–1918, Palestine was governed by the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration. In July 1920, the administration was replaced by a civilian administration headed by a High Commissioner. The first High Commissioner, Herbert Samuel, a Zionist recent cabinet minister, arrived in Palestine on 20 June 1920, following the arrival of the British, Muslim-Christian Associations were established in all the major towns. In 1919 they joined to hold the first Palestine Arab Congress in Jerusalem and its main platforms were a call for representative government and opposition to the Balfour Declaration. The Zionist Commission was formed in March 1918 and was active in promoting Zionist objectives in Palestine, on 19 April 1920, elections were held for the Assembly of Representatives of the Palestinian Jewish community. The Zionist Commission received official recognition in 1922 as representative of the Palestinian Jewish community, Rutenberg soon established an electric company whose shareholders were Zionist organizations, investors, and philanthropists. Palestinian-Arabs saw it as proof that the British intended to favor Zionism, when Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Kamil al-Husayni died in March 1921, High Commissioner Samuel appointed his half-brother Mohammad Amin al-Husseini to the position. Amin al-Husseini, a member of the clan of Jerusalem, was an Arab nationalist. As Grand Mufti, as well as the influential positions that he held during this period. In 1922, al-Husseini was elected President of the Supreme Muslim Council which had created by Samuel in December 1921. The Council controlled the Waqf funds, worth annually tens of thousands of pounds, in addition, he controlled the Islamic courts in PalestineBritish Mandate of Palestine – Flag
54. Hasan ibn Zayd ibn Muhammad – Al-Ḥasan ibn Zayd ibn Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘il ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Zayd, also known as al-Da‘ī al-kabīr, was an Alid who became the founder of the Zaydid dynasty of Tabaristan. Al-Ḥasan was a descendant of Hasan ibn Zayd ibn Hasan, a great-grandson of Ali, in 864, he was living at Rayy in northern Iran, when he was invited by pro-Alid elements in the neighbouring province of Tabaristan to join them in an uprising against the Abbasid authorities. Tabaristan, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea, had remained largely untouched by the Muslim conquests of the 7th century. It was only after 840, when Tabaristan came under Tahirid rule and it proceeded rapidly, and although the majority of the people adopted Sunni Islam, the province offered opportunities for the activities of pro-Alid Shiite missionaries as well. In the 860s, western Iran was governed by the Tahirid Muhammad ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir, popular resentment of the Tahirids rule increased through the oppression of their officials, especially their fiscal agents in the province. Consequently, in 864 a rebellion broke out in the towns of Ruyan, Kalar and Chalus, the rebels called upon Hasan to lead them, and allied themselves with the neighbouring Daylamites. Hasan, who assumed the regnal name al-Da‘ī ila’l-ḥaqq, was recognized as emir by a part of the local population, despite the rapid success of the rebellion, Hasans reign was troubled due to repeated invasions, and he was several times forced to seek refuge in Daylam. Thus he was chased out of Tabaristan in 865 by Sulayman ibn Abdallah, another Alid uprising occurred in Qazvin and Zanjan in 865, led by Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Kaukabi and aided by the Justanids, but it was suppressed two years later by the Abbasid general Musa ibn Bugha. Hasan was forced into Daylam again by the Abbasid general Muflih in 869, in 874, Hasan came into conflict with Yaqub al-Saffar for sheltering one of the latters enemies, Abdallah al-Sijzi. Yaqub invaded Tabaristan and defeated the Zaydid forces at Sari, forcing Hasan once again to flee to the mountains of Daylam. Exploiting the turmoils of the period, from 867 Hasan also usually controlled Gurgan to the east, Hasan died at Amul in 884, and was succeeded by his brother Muhammad ibn Zayd. The Zaydids continued to rule Tabaristan until 928 and this was a result of both his ardent enforcement of Shiism and repression of the Sunni majority, as well as his regimes reliance on the semi-barbarous Daylamite soldiery. In the event, Hasan managed to have the latter replaced by his brother Justan, the Orientalist Frants Buhl assesses Hasans character thus, he possessed rare energy and the capacity for stubborn resistance, was a sincerely religious man, well educated, and a patron of letters. Caspian expeditions of the Rus Bosworth, C. E, the Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4, From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume III, H–Iram, the Minor Dynasties of Northern Iran. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4, From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs, madelung, W. ʿALIDS OF ṬABARESTĀN, DAYLAMĀN, AND GĪLĀNHasan ibn Zayd ibn Muhammad – Silver dirham issued by Hasan
55. Zaydid – The first and most powerful Zaydi emirate was established in Tabaristan in 864 and lasted until 928. It was interrupted by Samanid occupation in 900, but restored in 914 by another Alid branch. The second period of the Alid emirate was plagued by internal dissensions, local Zaydi rulers survived in Daylam and Gilan until the 16th century. Hasan ibn Zayd, adopted the regnal name al-Dai ilal-Haqq and he was forced to abandon Tabaristan briefly for Daylam in 869 and 874 due to invasions Muhammad ibn Zayd, also adopted the regnal name al-Dai ilal-Haqq. Rule in Tabaristan proper was usurped by Abul-Husayn Ahmad ibn Muhammad for a few months as Muhammad was in Gurgan at the time of Hasans death. Tabaristan was overrun briefly by Rafi ibn Harthama in 891–893, and in 900 Muhammad tried to conquer Khurasan, the Samanids captured Tabaristan, and the Alavids fled to Daylam in exile. Hasan ibn Ali al-Utrush, adopted the regnal name al-Nasir lil-Haqq, a Husaynid from Medina, he converted the Gilites and Daylamites to the Zaydi doctrine, recovered Tabaristan. Abu Muhammad Hasan ibn Qasim, also adopted the regnal name al-Dai ilal-haq, a Hasanid, he was the commander of the army under al-Utrush and named by the latter as his heir. His rule was challenged by al-Utrushs sons and their numerous supporters, regained the throne with the help of Makan ibn Kaki, ruled until he was killed in battle with Asfar ibn Shiruya. Abu l-Husayn Ahmad ibn Hasan, surnamed Nasir, reigned jointly with his brother in 919, thereafter reconciled himself with Abu Muhammad Hasan al-Dai until 923, when he reigned briefly until his death. Abu l-Qasim Jafar ibn Hasan, surnamed Nasir, reigned jointly with his brother in 919 and from 923 until his death. Abu Ali Muhammad ibn Abu l-Husayn Ahmad, surnamed Nasir, son of Ahmad ibn Hasan, he was chosen as emir after Jafar died. Deposed briefly by Makan ibn Kaki, who installed Ismail ibn Jafar as a puppet ruler, Abu Jafar Husayn ibn Abu l-Husayn Ahmad, surnamed Nasir. Brother of Abu Ali Muhammad, he was deposed by Makan ibn Kaki, installed once more as imam briefly by Asfar ibn Shiruya under Samanid suerainty, but later removed to the Samanid court at Bukhara. Tried to recover Tabaristan in 931 with the help of Mardavij, History of Iran Muslim dynasties of Iran List of Shia Muslim dynasties Madelung, W. The Minor Dynasties of Northern Iran, the Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4, From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Madelung, W. ʿALIDS OF ṬABARESTĀN, DAYLAMĀN, AND GĪLĀNZaydid – Alid-era art: Bowl with white slip, incised design, colored, and glazed. Excavated at Sabz Pushan, Nishapur, Iran. 9th-early 10th century. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.
56. Tabaristan – Tabaristan, also known as Tapuria, was the name applied to Mazandaran, a province in northern Iran. Although the natives of the region knew it as Mazandaran, the region was called Tabaristan from the Arab conquests to the Seljuk period, the Amardians are believed to have been the earliest inhabitants of the region where modern day Mazanderan and Gilan are located. The establishment of the great kingdom dates back to about the first millennium BCE when the Hyrcanian Kingdom was founded with Sadracarta as its capital. Its extent was so large that for centuries the Caspian Sea was called the Hyrcanian Ocean, the first known dynasty were the Faratatians, who ruled some centuries before Christ. During the indigenous Gushnaspian dynasty, many of the people adopted Christianity, in 418 CE, the Tapurian calendar was designed and its use implemented. The Gashnaspians ruled the region until 528 CE, when, after a period of fighting. He then chose Amol as capital of United Tapuria in 647 CE, the dynasty of Gil was known as Gavbareh in Gilan, and as the Dabuyids in eastern Tapuria. Tabaristan was one of the last parts of Persia to fall to the Muslim Conquest, maintaining resistance until 761, even after this, Tabaristan remained largely independent of direct control of the Caliphate, and underwent numerous power struggles and rebellions. In the early 9th century, for example, a Zoroastrian by the name of Mazyar rebelled, taking control of Tabaraistan, while the Dabuyids were in plain regions, the Sokhrayans governed the mountainous regions. Vandad Hormozd ruled the region for about 50 years until 1034 CE, after 1125 CE, an increase in conversion to Islam was achieved, not by the Arab Caliphs, but by the Imams ambassadors. Mazandaranis and Gilaks were one of the first groups of Iranians to convert directly to Shia Islam, pietro della Valle, who visited a town near Pirouzcow in Mazandaran, noted that Mazandarani women never wore the veil and didnt hesitate to talk to foreigners. He also noted the large amount of Circassians and Georgians in the region. Today, Persia proper, Fars, Mazanderan on the Caspian Sea, most of them remain Christian to this day, but in a very crude manner, since they have neither priest nor minister to tend them. After the Safavid period, the Qajars began to campaign south from Mazandaran with Agha Mohammad Khan who already incorporated Mazandaran into his empire in 1782, on 21 March 1782, Agha Mohammad Shah proclaimed Sari as his imperial capital. Sari was the site of local wars in those years, which led to the transfer of the capital from Sari to Tehran by Fath Ali Shah, inostranzev, M. Iranian Influence on Moslem Literature – Appendix I, Independent Zoroastrian Princes of TabaristanTabaristan – Silver gilt dish of Tapuria, 7th–8th centuries. A tradition initiated under the Sasanians and continued after the Arab invasions. "Anuzhad" inscription in Pahlavi script, next to the reclining figure. British Museum.
57. Muhammad ibn Zayd – Little is known of his early life, before coming to Tabaristan after Hasan established Zaydid rule there in 864. He served his brother as a general and governor, and continued his policies after his accession and his reign was troubled by rebellions and wars, most notably by the invasion of Rafi ibn Harthama in 889–892, which occupied most of his domains. After Rafi fell out of favour with the Abbasids, Muhammad recovered his position and secured the allegiance of Rafi, but did not particularly support him against the Saffarids. In 900, following the Saffarids defeat by the Samanids, he tried to invade Khurasan, Muhammad was the younger brother of Hasan ibn Zayd, an Alid who founded Zaydid rule over Tabaristan in 864. Nothing is known of his early life, iranologist Wilferd Madelung speculates that the family lived in Iraq before coming to Tabaristan after Hasans takeover of the province, Muhammad appears to have come to Tabaristan in 867. During Hasans rule, Muhammad is mentioned as being captured by Yaqub al-Saffar during the latters 874 invasion, after a brief visit to Tabaristan to see his mother, he returned to Gurgan as an assistant to Hasans brother-in-law, Muhammad ibn Ibrahim. The Zaydids were expelled from Gurgan by the Tahirid general Ishaq al-Sari in spring 877, in 880, Muhammad also suppressed the rebellion of Rustam I, a member of the native Bavandid dynasty which ruled the mountains of eastern Tabaristan and opposed the Zaydids. Due to Muhammads absence in Gurgan, upon Hasans death power in Tabaristan was usurped by his brother-in-law, Abul-Husayn Ahmad ibn Muhammad, finally, in October 884 Muhammad was able to return to Tabaristan, seize the capital Amul, and behead the usurper. Muhammad assumed the regnal name as his brother, al-Da‘ī ila‘l-Ḥaqq. He is also found in sources as al-Qa’im bi al-Ḥaqq. Muhammad now attacked Rustam, who had supported the usurper Ahmad, with Saffarid mediation, Rustam was allowed to return. Like his brother, Muhammad tried to expand his domain by military means, in August 885 he tried to capture Rayy from its Turkish ruer Asategin, but was driven back. Rafi ibn Harthama used the opportunity to occupy Gurgan, but Muhammad recovered control of the province as soon as Rafi departed it, in 888 or 889, Muhammad again attacked Rustam, who now fled to Rafi and sought his aid. Rafi launched an invasion of the Zaydid domains and conquered most of them, forcing Muhammad, like his brother before him. Muhammad also gained the support of Jastan ibn Wahsudan, lord of Daylam, with his aid, Muhammad engaged in constant fighting with Rafi, but was unable to recover his realm. Eventually, Rafi struck a peace with Jastan, and the Daylamites too withdrew, at this point, Muhammads fortunes changed, with the accession of a new Caliph, al-Mutadid, on the Abbasid throne in 892. Fearful of Ibn Harthamas power, the Caliph stripped him of the governorship of Khurasan and gave it to his rival, in response, Rafi concluded a peace with Muhammad, returned Tabaristan to him and even pledged allegiance to the Zaydid cause. Muhammad re-entered Amul on 24 June 893, despite their alliance, Muhammad refrained from aiding Rafi in his wars with the Saffarids, and the two fell out and clashed again briefly when Muhammad tried to recover Sari as wellMuhammad ibn Zayd – Hasanids
58. Thomas Jefferson Ramsdell – Thomas Jefferson Ramsdell was an entrepreneur who lived in Manistee, Michigan. He was a Michigan State Representative in 1861 and served one term, Ramsdell was born near Plymouth in Wayne County, Michigan, on July 29,1833, of Scottish descent. His parents came from Massachusetts after immigrating to the United States from Scotland twenty years earlier. Ramsdell had three brothers, two farmers by the names of D. E. Ramsdell and W. A. Ramsdell, as well as a well known judge in Traverse City. Ramsdell divided his time working on his fathers farm in the summers and attending school in the winter as a boy. In 1851, when he was eighteen years old, Ramsdell attended Plymouth Seminary and he graduated from there in 1856 and taught school in between terms. His true interest was always in the legal profession, one year he was introduced to J. W. Longyear and spent this time learning law from him. He then went on to the National Law School of Poughkeepsie in New York State, when he became legally a lawyer in Michigans state capitol his first job in 1859 was as a clerk for the Michigan Supreme Court. It was here that he met Chief Justice Martin of the bench who suggested the lumbering town of Manistee as a place to start a law profession. Manistee was in desperate need of a new lawyer about this time, with a legal library of books Ramsdell set out with a horse and a small one seated sleigh in the winter of 1860 for Manistee. Manistee was then a remote town and it took Ramsdell a week to make the journey to Manistee from Muskegon. There were no roads going there north from Whitehall - only a blaze trail, at times his horse would give out and they would have to stop and rest. One time he traveled the complete night and progressed only five miles toward Manistee, Manistee was a wild, lawless frontier. History records that lumbermen wrote their own contracts, resulting in legal problems. There were accounts of men walking all the way to Traverse City just to get a document that would get out of the Manistee County jail. Ramsdell was welcomed by the entire whiskey-drinking community, which treated him with great respect, because of the reverence they had for him, he was never asked to drink with them. He rode the law circuit with Judge Littlejohn and was known as the father of the circuit, in the Fall of 1860 he was elected to the Michigan state Legislature. Ramsdell married a Manistee school teacher named Nettie Stanton on September 7,1861 and they had nine children, five boys and four girlsThomas Jefferson Ramsdell – Thomas Jefferson Ramsdell
59. Opera house – An opera house is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and set building. While some venues are constructed specifically for operas, other houses are part of larger performing arts centers. In contrast, there was no house in London when Henry Purcell was composing. Early United States opera houses served a variety of functions in towns and cities, hosting community dances, fairs, plays, with the rise of bourgeois and capitalist social forms in the 19th century, European culture moved away from its patronage system to a publicly supported system. In the 2000s, most opera and theatre companies raise funds from a combination of government and institutional grants, ticket sales, the Teatro San Carlo in Naples introduces the plant horseshoe, the oldest in the world, a model for the Italian theater. On this model were built following theaters of Italy and Europe, among others, the theater of the Palace of Caserta. Given the popularity of opera in 18th and 19th century Europe, opera houses are large, with generally more than 1,000 seats. Modern opera houses of the century such as New Yorks Metropolitan Opera. Many operas are better suited to being presented in smaller theatres, in a traditional opera house, the auditorium is U-shaped, with the length of the sides determining the audience capacity. Around this are tiers of balconies, and often, nearer to the stage, are boxes and this is especially true of Wagners Bayreuth Festspielhaus where the pit is almost completely covered. The size of an opera orchestra varies, but for some operas, oratorios and other works, it may be large, for some romantic period works. Similarly, an opera may have a large cast of characters, chorus, dancers, therefore, a major opera house will have extensive dressing room facilities. Opera houses often have on-premises set and costume building shops and facilities for storage of costumes, make-up, masks, and stage properties, major opera houses throughout the world often have highly mechanized stages, with large stage elevators permitting heavy sets to be changed rapidly. At the Metropolitan Opera, for instance, sets are changed during the action, as the audience watches. This occurs in the Mets productions of such as Aida. Much the same happened in the remodeling of Milans La Scala opera house between 2002 and 2004, since the 1990s, however, many opera houses have begun using a subtle form of sound reinforcement called acoustic enhancement. Often, operas are presented in their languages, which may be different from the first language of the audience. For example, a Wagnerian opera presented in London may be in German, therefore, since the 1980s modern opera houses have assisted the audience by providing translated supertitles, projections of the words above or near to the stageOpera house – Teatro di San Carlo in Naples, the world’s oldest working theatre.
60. James Earl Jones – James Earl Jones is an American actor. His career has spanned more than 60 years, and he has described as one of Americas most distinguished and versatile actors. Since his Broadway debut in 1957, Jones has won awards, including a Tony Award. Jones has won three Emmy Awards, including two in the year in 1991, and he also earned an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor in a Leading Role in the film version of The Great White Hope. He is also known for his roles as Darth Vader in the Star Wars film series and Mufasa in Disneys The Lion King as well as many other film, stage. As a child Jones had a stutter, in his episode of Biography, he said he overcame the affliction through poetry, public speaking, and acting, although it lasted for several years. A pre-med major in college, he went on to serve in the United States Army during the Korean War before pursuing a career in acting, on November 12,2011, he received an Honorary Academy Award. On November 9,2015, Jones received the Voice Arts Icon Award, Jones and his father reconciled many years later. His parents were African-American, and Jones has learned they also had Irish, from the age of five, Jones was raised by his maternal grandparents, John Henry and Maggie Connolly, who had moved from Mississippi and had a farm in Jackson, Michigan. Jones has described his grandmother, Maggie, as the most racist person I have ever known and his grandmother was of African-American, Cherokee and Choctaw ancestry. Jones found the transition to his grandparents in Michigan traumatic, when his family moved to Brethren, Michigan, a teacher helped him overcome his stutter. He remained functionally mute for eight years, until he entered high school and he credits his English teacher, Donald Crouch, who discovered he had a gift for writing poetry, with helping him end his silence. Crouch urged him to challenge his reluctance to speak, so my first year of school was my first mute year, and then those mute years continued until I got to high school. He joined the Reserve Officer Training Corps, and excelled and he felt comfortable within the structure of the military environment, and enjoyed the camaraderie of his fellow cadets in the Pershing Rifles Drill Team and Scabbard and Blade Honor Society. During the course of his studies, Jones discovered he was not cut out to be a doctor, after four years of college, Jones graduated from the university in 1955. With the war intensifying in Korea, Jones expected to be deployed as soon as he received his commission as a second lieutenant. As he waited for his orders, he worked as a stage crew hand at the Ramsdell Theatre in Manistee, Michigan. Jones was commissioned in mid-1953 and reported to Fort Benning to attend Infantry Officers Basic Course and he then attended Ranger School and received his Ranger TabJames Earl Jones – Jones in 2013
61. Oxford University – The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England. It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris, after disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two ancient universities are frequently referred to as Oxbridge. The university is made up of a variety of institutions, including 38 constituent colleges, All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities. Being a city university, it not have a main campus, instead, its buildings. Oxford is the home of the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the worlds oldest and most prestigious scholarships, the university operates the worlds oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system in Britain. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 28 Nobel laureates,27 Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, the University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in form as early as 1096. It grew quickly in 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris, the historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190. The head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge, the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two nations, representing the North and the South. In later centuries, geographical origins continued to many students affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. At about the time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, Lincolnshire was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III. Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England, even in London, thus, Oxford and Cambridge had a duopoly, the new learning of the Renaissance greatly influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, and John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, as a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxfords reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment, enrolments fell and teaching was neglectedOxford University – Balliol College – one of the university's oldest constituent colleges
62. Master's degree – A masters degree normally requires previous study at the bachelors level, either as a separate degree or as part of an integrated course. The original meaning of the degree was thus that someone who had been admitted to the rank of master in one university should be admitted to the same rank in other universities. This gradually became formalised as the licentia docendi, initially, the Bachelor of Arts was awarded for the study of the trivium and the Master of Arts for the study of the quadrivium. The nineteenth century saw an expansion in the variety of masters degrees offered. By 1861 this had been adopted throughout Scotland as well as by Cambridge and Durham in England, when the Philadelphia College of Surgeons was established in 1870, it too conferred the Master of Surgery, the same as that in Europe. In the United States, the first masters degrees were awarded at Harvard University soon after its foundation, at Harvard the 1700 regulations required that candidates for the masters degree had to pass a public examination, but by 1835 this was awarded Oxbridge-style 3 years after the BA. In Scotland, Edinburgh maintained separate BA and MA degrees until the mid nineteenth century, in Scotland all the statutes of the Universities which enforced conditions on the grant of degrees were a dead letter. Probably the most important masters degree introduced in the 19th century was the Master of Science, at the University of Michigan this was introduced in two forms in 1858, in course, first awarded in 1859, and on examination, first awarded in 1862. The in course MS was last awarded in 1876, in Britain, however, the degree took a while longer to arrive. The same two degrees, again omitting the masters, were awarded at Edinburgh, despite the MA being the undergraduate degree for Arts in Scotland. In 1862, a Royal Commission suggested that Durham should award masters degrees in theology and science and this scheme would appear to have then been quietly dropped, with Oxford going on to award BAs and MAs in science. The Master of Science degree was introduced in Britain in 1878 at Durham. At the Victoria University both the MA and MSc followed the lead of Durhams MA in requiring an examination for those with an ordinary bachelors degree. The Bologna declaration in 1999 started the Bologna Process, leading to the creation of the European Higher Education Area, as the process continued, descriptors were introduced for all three levels in 2004, and ECTS credit guidelines were developed. This led to questions as to the status of the masters degrees. In 1903, the London Daily News criticised the practice of Oxford and Cambridge, calling their MAs the most stupendous of academic frauds, in 1900, Dartmouth College introduced the Master of Commercial Science, first awarded in 1902. This was the first masters degree in business, the forerunner of the modern MBA, the idea quickly crossed the Atlantic, with Manchester establishing a Faculty of Commerce, awarding Bachelor and Master of Commerce degrees, in 1903. Over the first half of the century the masters degrees for honours graduates vanished as honours degrees became the standard undergraduate qualification in the UKMaster's degree – An English-language master's degree diploma from India.
63. Fredrik Magnus Piper – Fredrik Magnus Piper was a Swedish landscape architect and architect. He introduced the theory and practice of the English landscape garden to Sweden, Fredrik Magnus Piper was a nobleman but came from a bourgeois family, his father having been ennobled only in 1776. In Karlskrona he befriended Admiral Fredrik Henrik af Chapman, who supported his artistic ambitions, after continuing his studies in Stockholm, partly under the tutelage of the architect Carl Fredrik Adelcrantz, he went on a study trip to the United Kingdom. He left Sweden in 1773, only to return in 1780, aided by a letter of recommendation by af Chapman, Piper was introduced to William Chambers and to institutions such as the Royal Academy. During his stay in England, Piper was introduced to the new theory. He made well-executed drawings of The Leasowes, Painshill and Stourhead and he later left England and continued his studies in France and Italy. In France he studied the gardens of André Le Nôtre and in Italy he made visits to the gardens at Villa Lante, Villa Doria Pamphili and he returned briefly to England where he married in 1780, and then finally went back to Sweden. Chambers was unhappy that Piper had left England, writing to Admiral af Chapman to complain that he had not been consulted sufficiently and it appears, however, that Piper always held Chambers in high regard as his first art teacher. In Sweden he was promoted and given prestigious commissions by King Gustav III, despite having an undiplomatic. Most of his work was executed during the reign of Gustav III, after the assassination of the king in 1792, his activity declined. One of the first works carried out by Piper after his return to Sweden was a design for the park at Drottningholm Palace near Stockholm and his ideas were in this case widely disregarded, as the king had his own ideas for the re-shaping of the park. His design, however, did include copper tents and Turkish pavilions, instead, Haga park outside Stockholm became Pipers chef doeuvre. He was given a mandate by the monarch to pursue his own ideas. He repeated the idea of the tent and Turkish pavilion. Although the plans for the park were not executed in their entirety, Piper also produced designs for several other parks, both private and public, some of which still exist, e. g. Hogland park in Karlskrona and Bellevue park in Stockholm. As a landscape architect, Piper has been described as skilful and open-minded, Piper was also active as an architect, he designed the main building of Bjärka-Säby Castle in about 1796 and Listonhill villa on Djurgården in 1790 and 1791. He wrote but never published a treatise on landscape gardening. Media related to Fredrik Magnus Piper at Wikimedia CommonsFredrik Magnus Piper – Fredrik Magnus Piper
64. English landscape garden – The English garden presented an idealized view of nature. The work of Lancelot Capability Brown was particularly influential, by the end of the 18th century the English garden was being imitated by the French landscape garden, and as far away as St. Petersburg, Russia, in Pavlovsk, the gardens of the future Emperor Paul. It also had a influence on the form of the public parks. These parks featured vast lawns, woods, and pieces of architecture and these gardens, modelled after the gardens of Versailles, were designed to impress visitors with their size and grandeur. William Kent was an architect, painter and furniture designer who introduced Palladian style architecture to England and his gardens were designed to complement the Palladian architecture of the houses he built. He collaborated with Kent on several major gardens, providing the botanical expertise which allowed Kent to realize his architectural visions, Kent created one of the first true English landscape gardens at Chiswick House for Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington. Between 1733 and 1736, he redesigned the garden, adding lawns sloping down to the edge of the river, for the first time the form of a garden was inspired not by architecture, but by an idealized version of nature. Rousham House in Oxfordshire is considered by some as the most accomplished, the patron was General Dormer, who commissioned Bridgeman to begin the garden in 1727, then brought in Kent to recreate it in 1737. Bridgeman had built a series of gardens, including a grotto of Venus, on the slope along the river Cherwell, finally, he added cascades modelled on those of the garden of Aldobrandini and Pratolino in Italy, to add movement and drama. Stowe, in Buckinghamshire, was a more radical departure from the formal French garden. In the early 18th century, Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham, had commissioned Charles Bridgeman to design a formal garden, bridgemans design included an octagonal lake and a Rotunda designed by Vanbrugh. In the 1730s, William Kent and James Gibbs were appointed to work with Bridgeman, Kent remade the lake in a more natural shape, and created a new kind of garden, which took visitors on a tour of picturesque landscapes. The garden attracted visitors from all over Europe, including Jean-Jacques Rousseau and it became the inspiration for landscape gardens in Britain and on the Continent. Stourhead, in Wiltshire, created by banker Henry Hoare, was one of the first picturesque gardens, Hoare had travelled to Italy on the Grand Tour and had returned with a painting by Claude Lorrain. He sought to create an ideal landscape out of the English countryside and he created artificial lakes and used dams and canals to transform streams or springs into the illusion that a river flowed through the garden. He compared his own role as a designer to that of a poet or composer. Here I put a comma, there, when its necessary to cut the view, I put a parenthesis, there I end it with a period, the most important were, Petworth in 1752, Chatsworth in 1761, Bowood in 1763, Blenheim Palace in 1764. Humphry Repton was the last great English landscape designer of the eighteenth century, to help clients visualize his designs, Repton produced Red Books with explanatory text and watercolors with a system of overlays to show before and after viewsEnglish landscape garden – Rotunda at Stowe Garden (1730-38)
65. Sweden – Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is also the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is also a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribeSweden – A Vendel-era helmet, at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities.
66. University of Arts in Belgrade – The University of Arts in Belgrade is a public university in Belgrade, founded in 1957 as the Academy of Arts to unite four academies. It became a university and acquired its current name in 1973, the University of Arts was established on June 10,1957, as the Academy of Arts, a union of the existing higher art schools. Being their association, the then Academy of Arts became the University of Arts in Belgrade, interdisciplinary studies were created out of the need of studying contemporary artistic or theoretical fields which are not covered by usual artistic and scientific disciplines. These studies research new artistic and theoretical practices, which are linked to studies on particular faculties and it was established in 1937 as the Academy of Music, and became a faculty and acquired its current name in 1973. The faculty has three departments - sculpture, painting and graphic - and has approximately 2500 students and a staff of 550. The Faculty of Applied Arts was established in 1948 as the Academy of Applied Arts, the Faculty of Dramatic Arts was established in 1948 as the Academy of Theatre Arts. In 1950, the High Education School for Film Acting and Directing was merged into it, in 1973, it became a faculty and acquired its current name. It is the one located in Novi BeogradUniversity of Arts in Belgrade – Albania
67. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. These volunteers are supported by organizations around the world, including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia and it consists of editors and Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include, The Wikimedia Foundation is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco and it owns the domain names and operates most of the movements websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. According to the WMFs 2015 financial statements, in 2015 the WMF had a budget of $72 million USD, spending $52 million USD on its operation, Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in specified geographical regions, mostly countries. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a budget of €20 million. WMDE allocates approximately €1 million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, to have the same procedure, every chapter follows the same process and requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. The foundation as internet domain owner of the project pages requests a share of the donations via the website in a country, a total of under 4 Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations. The legal base is a Chapters Agreement with the foundation, thematic organizations are founded to support Wikimedia projects in a focal area. User groups have less formal requirements than chapters and thematic organizations and they support and promote the Wikimedia projects locally or on a specific theme, topic, subject, or issue. At the beginning of 2016, there were 55 user groups, once they are recognized by the Affiliations Committee, they enter into a User Groups Agreement and Code of Conduct with the foundation. They have a program to encourage female editorsWikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014