1. French language – French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did languages such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian, Catalan and others. French has evolved from the spoken Latin in Gaul, more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl -- languages historically spoken in southern Belgium, which French has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by the Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. Nation may be referred to as "Francophone" in both English and French. French is an official language in 29 countries, most of which are members of the community of French-speaking countries. French is the fourth most widely spoken tongue in the European Union. 1/5 of non-Francophone Europeans speak French. Most second-language speakers reside in particular Gabon, Algeria, Mauritius, Senegal and Ivory Coast. In 2015, French was estimated to have 190 million secondary speakers. Approximately million people are able to speak the language. The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie estimates million by 2050, 80 % of whom will be in Africa. In 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek ranked French the third most useful language after English and Standard Mandarin Chinese.French language – The "arrêt" signs (French for "stop") are used in Canada while the international stop, which is also a valid French word, is used in France as well as other French-speaking countries and regions.
2. Breton language – Breton /ˈbrɛtən/ is a Celtic language spoken in Brittany, France. Breton is most closely related to Cornish, both being Southwestern Brittonic languages. Welsh and the extinct Cumbric are the more distantly-related Brittonic languages. The other regional language of Brittany, Gallo, is a langue d'oïl. Gallo is consequently close to French, although not mutually intelligible, a Romance language descended from Latin. However, the number of children attending bilingual classes has risen 33% between 2006 and 2012 to 14,709. Breton is spoken in West Brittany, roughly to the west of a line linking Plouha and La Roche-Bernard. It comes from a Brittonic community that once had even established a toehold in Galicia. Old Breton is attested from the 9th century. It was the language of the upper classes until the 12th century, after which it became the language of commoners in Lower Brittany. The nobility, followed by the bourgeoisie, adopted French. The written language of the Duchy of Brittany was Latin, switching to French in the 15th century. There exists a limited tradition of Breton literature. Some Old Breton vocabulary remains in the present day as philosophical and scientific terms in Modern Breton. During the French Revolution, the government introduced policies favouring French over the regional languages, which it pejoratively referred to as patois.Breton language – Bilingual sign Huelgoat, Brittany
3. Gallo language – It is a regional language of France. Gallo is not commonly spoken as it once was, as the standard form of French now predominates. It is classified as one of the Oïl languages. It was the shared spoken language of England, most of whom originated in Upper Brittany and Lower Normandy. Thus it was a vehicle for the subsequent transformation of English. As an Oïl language, it forms part of a continuum which includes Norman, Picard and the Poitevin dialect, among others. One of the features that distinguishes it from Norman is the absence of Old Norse influence. There is some limited mutual intelligibility with Guernésiais and Jèrriais. However, as the continuum shades towards Mayennais, there is a less clear isogloss. The clearest isogloss is that distinguishing Gallo from a Brittonic Celtic language traditionally spoken in the western territory of Brittany. In the west, the vocabulary of Gallo remains overwhelmingly Latinate. The influence of Breton decreases eastwards across Gallo-speaking territory. The gallo is sometimes spelled galo or gallot. Gallo is also referred in Brittany. It comes from meaning "foreigner", "French" or "non-Breton".Gallo language – The town of Loudéac displays its Gallo name, Loudia, on signage
4. Brittany (administrative region) – Brittany is one of the 18 regions of France. It is named after the geographic region of Brittany, of which it constitutes 80 %. The regional capital is Rennes. The region of Brittany was created on 80 % of the territory of traditional Brittany. Part of the reason why Brittany was split between two present-day regions was to avoid the rivalry between Rennes and Nantes. Despite that, the Chambre des comptes had remained until 1789. The French Regions date from 1956 and were created by gathering Departements together. In Brittany, this led to the creation of the new Region of Brittany, which included only four out of the five historical Breton départements. The region was officially created by the Law of Decentralisation, which also gave regions their legal status. The direct elections for regional representatives took place on 16 March 1986. See History of Brittany Brittany, lying in the northwest corner of France, is one of the historic provinces of France. The most Atlantic of France's regions, Brittany is proud of its Celtic heritage, that sets it apart from the rest of France. It enjoys a mild climate somewhat warmer though not necessarily drier than the climate of the southwest of England. The capital of the Finistère, St. Brieuc, the capital of the Côtes d'Armor, are less important. It is also the venue for Brittany's annual Interceltiques music and festival.Brittany (administrative region) – Le Diben harbour - Plougasnou (Brittany)
5. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country consisting of territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. Overseas France include several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France has a total population of 66.7 million. It is a semi-presidential republic with the capital in the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. France emerged as a major European power with its victory in the Hundred Years' War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would be the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europe's dominant political, military power under Louis XIV. In the 19th century Napoleon established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies typically retained close economic and military connections with France.France – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
6. Monarchy – The actual power of the monarch may vary to completely autocratic. Occasionally this might create a situation of rival claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election. Thus there are widely divergent traditions defining monarchy. It is no longer prevalent. The monarchs of Cambodia, Japan, Malaysia "do not rule" although there is considerable variation in the degree of authority they wield. The word "monarch" comes from monárkhēs which referred to a single, at least nominally absolute ruler. In current usage the monarchy usually refers to a traditional system of hereditary rule, as elective monarchies are rare nowadays. Depending on the title held by the monarch, a monarchy may be known as a kingdom, principality, duchy, grand duchy, empire, tsardom, emirate, khaganate, etc.. The forms of societal hierarchy known as chiefdom or kingship is prehistoric. The Greek monarchia is classical, used by Herodotus. The monarch in classical antiquity is often identified as "king". The Chinese, Nepalese monarchs continued to be considered living Gods into the modern period. Since antiquity, monarchy has contrasted with forms of democracy, where executive power is wielded by assemblies of free citizens. In antiquity, monarchies were abolished in favour of Athens. Much of 19th century politics was characterised by the division between anti-monarchist Radicalism and monarchist Conservativism.Monarchy – Richard I of England being anointed during his coronation in Westminster Abbey, from a 13th-century chronicle.
7. Fief – The fees were often revenue-producing real property held in feudal land tenure: these are typically known as fiefs or fiefdoms. In ancient Rome a "benefice" was a gift of land for life as a reward for services rendered, originally, to the state. In medieval Latin European documents, a grant in exchange for service continued to be called a beneficium. Later, feodum, began to replace beneficium in the documents. The attested instance of this is from 984, although more primitive forms were seen up to one hundred years earlier. There are multiple theories, described below. When land replaced currency as the primary store of value, the Germanic word fehu-ôd replaced the Latin word beneficium. This Germanic theory was also shared by William Stubbs in the nineteenth century. A theory by Alauddin Samarrai suggests an Arabic origin, from fuyū. Samarrai's theory is that early forms of ` fief' include the plurality of forms strongly suggesting origins from a loanword. It lacked a precise meaning until the middle of the 12th century, when it received formal definition from land lawyers. In English usage, the word "fee" is first attested around 1250–1300; the word "fief" from around 1605–15. In French, the term "fief" is found from the middle of the 13th century, derived from the 11th-century terms "feu" "fie". In French, one also finds "seigneurie", which gives "seigneurial system" to describe feudalism. By the eighth century the giving of a landholding was becoming standard.Fief – Harold Sacramentum Fecit Willelmo Duci (Bayeux Tapestry)
8. Kingdom of France – The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe, the predecessor of the modern French Republic. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe, the Hundred Years' War. It was also an colonial power, with possessions around the world. France originated with the Treaty of Verdun. A branch of the Carolingian dynasty founded the Capetian dynasty. The territory remained known as Francia and its ruler well into the High Middle Ages. The first king calling Roi de France was Philip II, in 1190. France continued to be ruled by their cadet lines -- the Valois and Bourbon -- until the monarchy was overthrown in 1792 during the French Revolution. France in the Middle Ages was a feudal monarchy. In Brittany and Catalonia the authority of the French king was barely felt. Lorraine and Provence were states of the Holy Roman Empire and yet a part of France. Subsequently France was defeated by Spain in the ensuing Italian Wars. Religiously France became divided between a Protestant minority, the Huguenots. After a series of the Wars of Religion, tolerance was granted to the Huguenots in the Edict of Nantes. France laid claim to large stretches of North America, known collectively as New France.Kingdom of France – The Kingdom of France in 1789. Ancien Régime provinces in 1789.
9. Peninsula – The surrounding water is usually understood to be continuous, though not necessarily named as a single body of water. Peninsulas are not always named as such; one can also be a headland, cape, island promontory, bill, spit. A point is generally considered a tapering piece of land projecting into a body of water, less prominent than a cape. A river which courses through a very tight meander is sometimes said to form a "peninsula" within the loop of water. In English, the plural of peninsula is peninsulas or, less commonly, peninsulae. Peninsulas can be found throughout the world ranging in scale from square meters to millions of square kilometers. In Southern Europe there's the Iberian Peninsula, the Italian Peninsula, the Balkan Peninsula. Antarctica has the Antarctic Peninsula. In Africa, there's the Horn of Africa, in Australia, the Cape York Peninsula. Asia has the 3 largest peninsulas in the world: the Indochinese Peninsula. List of peninsulasPeninsula – The world's largest peninsula, the Arabian Peninsula
10. English Channel – It varies from 240 km at its widest to 33.3 km in the Strait of Dover. It is the smallest of the shallow seas around the continental shelf of Europe, covering an area of some 75,000 km2. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the English Channel as follows: On the west. A line joining Isle Vierge to Lands End. On the east. The southwestern limit of the North Sea. The IHO defines the southwestern limit of the North Sea as "a line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point". Leathercoat Point is at the end of St Margaret's Bay, Kent. It reaches a maximum depth of 180 m in the submerged valley of Hurd's Deep, 48 km west-northwest of Guernsey. The coastline, particularly on the French shore, is deeply indented; small islands close to the coastline, including Mont Saint-Michel, are within French jurisdiction. The Celtic Sea is to the west of the Channel. The Channel is of geologically recent origins, having been dry land for most of the Pleistocene period. The flood would have lasted for several months, releasing as much as one million cubic metres of water per second. The cause of the breach may have been the build-up of water pressure in the lake. The flood carved a bedrock-floored valley down the length of the Channel, leaving behind longitudinal erosional grooves characteristic of catastrophic megaflood events.English Channel – English Channel
11. Bay of Biscay – The Bay of Biscay /ˈbɪskeɪ, -ki/ is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea. It the northern coast of Spain west to Cape Ortegal. The greatest depth is 4,735 metres. The Bay of Biscay is named after Biscay on the Spanish coast, probably standing for the western Basque districts. The Bay of Biscay is home to some of the Atlantic Ocean's weather. Large storms occur in the bay, especially during the winter months. Up until recent years it was a regular occurrence for merchant vessels to founder in Biscay storms. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Bay of Biscay as "a line joining Cap Ortegal to Penmarch Point". The portion is the Cantabrian Sea. The phenomenon of June Gloom is common. In early summer a large fog triangle fills the southwestern half of the bay, covering just a few kilometres inland. As winter begins, weather becomes severe. These depressions bring light though very constant rain to its shores. The Gulf Stream enters the bay following the continental shelf's anti-clockwise, keeping temperatures moderate all year long. The main cities on the shores of the Bay of Biscay are Donostia-San Sebastián, Bilbao, Santander, Gijón and Avilés.Bay of Biscay – Spanish coast along the Bay of Biscay
12. Ille-et-Vilaine – Ille-et-Vilaine is a department of France, located in the region of Brittany in the northwest of the country. Ille-et-Vilaine is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790. It was created from part of the province of Brittany. Also the English Channel borders the department to the north. The elevated hills bordering this basin are covered by several old forests now exploited by men for the production of wood. The basin itself is a rich agriculture area, as well as the north-west of the department near the Rance. The population has grown rapidly over the last few decades and was estimated at 1,019,923 in January 2013. Gallo is a historic minority language spoken in eastern Brittany. Gallo and Breton are both studied at the University of Rennes. A recent study shows that Breton speakers in this region represent 3.3% of the total number of Breton speakers. The Breton speakers aged 18–30 in this region represent 12.7% of the total number of Breton speakers of that age group. This is because there are relatively few elder speakers but many people are learning the language. The study says that about 1,800 people are learning it. The President of the General Council is the Socialist Jean-Louis Tourenne since the French cantonal elections, 2004. The city of Rennes and its suburbs are the original base of the rapid Socialist growth in the department.Ille-et-Vilaine – Rennes downtown
13. Loire-Atlantique – Loire-Atlantique is a department on the west coast of France named after the Loire River and the Atlantic Ocean. Loire-Atlantique is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 1790. Its name was changed in 1957 to Loire-Atlantique. The area contains what many people still consider to be Brittany's capital, Nantes. Whilst these administrative changes were reversed after the war, they were re-implemented in the 1955 boundary changes intended to optimise the management of the regions. There has since been a series of campaigns reflecting a local mood to have the department reintegrated with Brittany. Upper Brittany's indigenous language is a romance language related to French. The number of Gallo language speakers has been since the early 20th century. The language is neither official nor taught in secondary education. The Breton language, native to Lower Brittany, was historically spoken in the western area of Loire-Atlantique, up to 1920 in Batz-sur-Mer. This area has a rather Breton toponymy: for instance, Guérande originates from the Breton Gwenn Rann. Musical traditions of eastern or Lower Brittany are generally similar to those of western or Upper Brittany. The département operates the Lila network of interurban buses, which link its villages, cities. The urban areas of Nantes and Saint-Nazaire operate their urban transport networks, known as Tan and Stran respectively. Nantes is with high speed trains running to Paris by the LGV Atlantique in just over 2 hours.Loire-Atlantique – Prefecture building of the Loire-Atlantique department, in Nantes
14. Morbihan – Morbihan is a department in Brittany, situated in the northwest of France. It is named after the enclosed sea, the principal feature of the coastline. It is noted for its Carnac stones, which are more extensive than the more familiar Stonehenge. Morbihan is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 1790. It was created from a part of the Duchy of Brittany. The Gulf of Morbihan has many islands: 365 according to legend, but, between 30 and 40, depending on how they are counted. There are also many islets which are too small to be built on. Of these islands, all but two are private: l'Île-aux-Moines and l'Île-d'Arz. Some by movie stars or fashion designers. The largest towns in Morbihan are Vannes and Lorient. The Breton language is an important issue, with many advocating bilingual education. The painter Raymond Wintz depicted locations around the Gulf of Morbihan. As of 2014, the préfet of Morbihan is Jean-François Savy, previously head of Hautes-Alpes. Megalithic alignments of Carnac are situated in Morbihan.Morbihan – Prefecture building of the Morbihan department, in Vannes
15. Metropolitan area – As social, political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. The Greater São Paulo is a nonspecific term for one of the multiple definitions the metropolitan area located in the São Paulo state in Brazil. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones closely bound to the center by employment or other commerce. These outlying zones may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For El Monte, California is considered part of the Los Angeles' metro area in the United States. In practice, the parameters in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Population figures given for one area can vary by millions. A metropolitan area is one not connected by continuous development or conurbation, which requires urban contiguity. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that cities form a nucleus that other areas have a high degree of integration with. The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines ` statistical divisions' as areas under the unifying influence of a major city. However, this definition has largely become obsolete with the conurbation of statistical divisions into a larger metropolitan areas. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called'metropolitan regions'. Each State defines its own legislation for the creation, organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports. Their main purpose is to allow to all cities involved.Metropolitan area – Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina
16. Nantes – Nantes ) is a city in western France, located on the Loire River, 50 km from the Atlantic coast. The city is the sixth largest in France, with an urban area of 600,000 inhabitants. Together with a seaport located on the Loire estuary, it forms the main metropolis of north-western France. Of the Pays de la Loire région, one of the 18 regions of France. Culturally, it belongs to the former duchy and province of Brittany. The fact that it is not part of the administrative region of Brittany is subject to a long debate. It appeared as a port on the Loire. Nantes was the capital of the Namnetes people in ancient Gaul. Around the 5th century, it became the seat of a Frankish county. Nantes gradually became the largest city of Brittany. Throughout the modern era, it was the largest harbour in France. Nantes played the establishment of the French colonial empire. The French Revolution was a period of turmoil for the city as it was a royalist stronghold. In the 19th century, it developed a strong industry, food processing. In the end of the 20th century, it reoriented its economy towards services.Nantes – Place Royale
17. Rennes – Rennes is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine. Rennes is the capital of the region of Brittany, well as the Ille-et-Vilaine department. Rennes's history goes back more than 2,000 years, at a time when it was a Gallic village named Condate. Together with Vannes and Nantes, it was one of the major cities of the ancient Duchy of Brittany. After the French Revolution, Rennes remained for most of its history a parliamentary, garrison city of the Kingdom of France. Since the 1950s, Rennes has grown through rural flight and its modern industrial development partly automotive. The city developed extensive building plans to accommodate upwards of 200,000 inhabitants. During the 1980s, Rennes became one of the main centres in telecommunication and high industry. It is now a digital innovation centre in France. In 2015, the city is the tenth largest in France, with a metropolitan area of about inhabitants. In 2013 is also the eighth-largest university campus of France. The inhabitants of Rennes are called Rennais, Rennaise in French. In 2012, l'Express named Rennes as "the most liveable city in France". Rennes is the administrative capital of the French department of Ille-et-Vilaine. Without inscriptions, as the Celtic practice was, the Redones coinage features a charioteer whose pony has a human head.Rennes
18. Brest, France – Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany in northwestern France. The city is located on the western edge of continental Europe. Although Brest is by far the largest city in Finistère, the préfecture of the department is the much smaller Quimper. During the Middle Ages, the history of Brest was the history of its castle. Then Richelieu made it a military harbour. Brest grew around its arsenal, until the second part of the 20th century. Heavily damaged by the Allies' bombing raids during World War II, the city centre was completely rebuilt after the war. Nowadays, Brest is an important university town with 23,000 students. Brest is also an important research centre, mainly focused on the sea, with among others the largest Ifremer centre, le Cedre and the French Polar Institute. Brest hosts the international festival of sailors: it is a meeting of old riggings from around the world. Nothing definite is known of Brest before about 1240, when a count of Léon ceded it to John I, Duke of Brittany. In 1342, John IV, Duke of Brittany, surrendered Brest to the English, in whose possession it was to remain until 1397. The advantages of Brest's situation as a seaport town were first recognized by Cardinal Richelieu, who in 1631 constructed a harbor with wooden wharves. This soon became a base for the French Navy. Minister under Louis XIV, otherwise improved the harbour.Brest, France – Brest in 1779
19. Brittany – It is a cultural region in the north-west of France. It has also been referred to as Less, Little Britain. Its area is 34,023 km ². Since reorganisation in 1956, the administrative region of Brittany comprises only four of the five Breton departments, or 80 % of historical Brittany. The Loire-Atlantique department around Nantes, now forms part of the Pays de la Loire region. At the 2010 census, the population of historic Brittany was estimated to be 4,475,295. Of these, 71% lived in the region of Brittany, while 29% lived in the Loire-Atlantique department. In 2012, the largest metropolitan areas were Nantes, Rennes, Brest. A nationalist movement seeks greater autonomy within the French Republic. The word "Brittany", along with its French, Breton and Gallo equivalents "Bretagne", "Breizh" and "Bertaèyn", derive from the Latin Britannia, which means "Britons' land". This word had been more specifically the Roman province of Britain. This word derives from a Greek word, Βρεττανίαι, used by Pytheas, an explorer from Massalia who visited the British Islands around 320 BC. This term probably comes from aremorica, which means "close to the sea". Letauia, was used until the 12th century. It possibly means "wide and flat" or "to expand" and it gave the Welsh name for Brittany: Llydaw.Brittany – The Carnac stones.
20. Megalith – A megalith is a large stone, used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. The word "megalithic" describes structures made without the use of mortar or concrete representing periods of prehistory characterised by such constructions. For later periods, the monolith, with an overlapping meaning, is more likely to be used. The word "megalith" comes from the Greek" μέγας" and" λίθος". Megalith also denotes an item consisting of rock hewn in definite shapes for special purposes. It has been used to describe buildings built from many parts of the world living in many different periods. A variety of large stones are seen with the most widely known megaliths not being sepulchral. The construction of these structures continued into the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age. At a number of sites in eastern Turkey, ceremonial complexes from the 9th millennium BC have been discovered. They belong to the incipient phases of agriculture and husbandry. Circular structures involving carved megalithic orthostats are a typical feature; e.g. at Nevalı Çori and Göbekli Tepe. At Göbekli Tepe, four stone circles have been excavated from an estimated 20. Some measure up to 30 metres across. As well as human figures, the stones carry a variety of carved reliefs depicting boars, foxes, lions, birds, scorpions. They can be encountered in Saudi Arabia.Megalith – Megalithic grave " Harhoog " in Keitum, Sylt, Germany.
21. Neolithic – It ended when metal tools became widespread. The Neolithic is a progression including the use of domesticated animals. The beginning of the Neolithic culture is considered to be in the Levant about 10,200 – 8,800 BCE. It developed directly from the Epipaleolithic Natufian culture in the region, whose people pioneered the use of wild cereals, which then evolved into true farming. The so-called "proto-Neolithic" is now included in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic between 8,800 BC. By 10,200 -- 8,800 BCE, farming communities arose to Asia Minor, North Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BCE. By about 6,900 -- 6,400 BCE, it included the use of pottery. Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture. Unlike the Paleolithic, when more than one human species existed, only one human species reached the Neolithic. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νεολιθικός, neolithikos, from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos, "stone", literally meaning "New Stone Age". The term was invented by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BCE. Early development occurred from there spread westwards. Neolithic cultures are also attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by c. 8,000 BCE.Neolithic – An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. Neolithic stone artifacts are by definition polished and, except for specialty items, not chipped.
22. Veneti (Gaul) – The Veneti were a seafaring Celtic people who lived in the Brittany peninsula, which in Roman times formed part of an area called Armorica. They gave their name to the modern city of Vannes. Other Celtic peoples historically attested in Armorica include the Redones, Curiosolitae, Osismii, Esubii and Namnetes. The Veneti inhabited southern Armorica, along the Morbihan bay. They built their strongholds on coastal eminences, which were peninsulas when the tide was out. Their most notable city, probably their capital, was Darioritum, mentioned in Ptolemy's Geography. The Veneti built their ships of oak with large transoms fixed by iron nails of a thumb's thickness. They powered their ships through the use of leather sails. This made their ships strong, structurally sound, capable of withstanding the harsh conditions of the Atlantic. Judging by Caesar's Bello Gallico the Veneti evidently had close relations with Bronze Age Britain; he describes how the Veneti sail to Britain. They controlled the tin trade in Cornwall and Devon. Caesar mentioned that they summoned military assistance during the war of 56 BC. Julius Caesar's victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he conducted the first invasion of Britain. They were obliged to yield hostages as a token of good faith.Veneti (Gaul) – Veneti coins, 5th-1st century BCE.
23. Gaul – It covered an area of 494,169 km ². According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul was divided into three parts: Gallia Celtica, Aquitania. During the 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule: Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC, who were in turn defeated by the Romans by 103 BC. Gallia remains a name of France in modern modern Latin. Hellenistic folk etymology connected the name of the Galatians to the supposedly "milk-white" skin of the Gauls. Modern researchers say it is related to Welsh "gallu", "capacity, power", thus meaning "powerful people". The English Gaul is unrelated to Latin Gallia, despite superficial similarity. As adjectives, English has Gaulish and Gallic. The Germanic w- is regularly rendered as gu- / g- in French, the diphthong au is the regular outcome of al before a following consonant. Also unrelated in spite of superficial similarity is the Gael. The dichotomic words gall are sometimes used together for contrast, for instance in the 12th-century book Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib. By 500 BC, there is strong influence throughout most of France. By the 5th century BC, La Tène influence spreads rapidly across the entire territory of Gaul. The La Tène culture flourished during the late Iron Age in France, Switzerland, Italy, Austria, southwest Germany, Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia and Hungary.Gaul – Map of Roman Gaul (Droysens Allgemeiner historischer Handatlas, 1886)
24. Armorica – The toponym is based on the Gaulish phrase are-mori "on/at sea", made into the Gaulish place name Aremorica "Place by the Sea". The suffix -ika was first used to create adjectival forms and then, names. Later, the term became restricted to Brittany. Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, claims that Armorica was the older name for Aquitania, stating Armorica's southern boundary extended to the Pyrenees. Trade between Armorica and Britain, implied by Pliny was long-established. This'prehistoric' connection of Cornwall and Brittany set the stage for the link that continued into the medieval era. Still farther East, however, the Continental connections of the Britannic coast were with the lower Seine valley instead. Archeology has not yet been as enlightening in Iron-Age Armorica as the coinage, surveyed by Philip de Jersey. Under the Roman Empire, Armorica was administered as part of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis, which had its capital in Lugdunum. When the Roman provinces were reorganized in the 4th century, Armorica was placed under the third divisions of Lugdunensis. Jordanes lists Aëtius' allies as including German tribes. The "Armorican" peninsula came to be settled from Britain during the poorly documented period of the 5th-7th centuries. Even in distant Byzantium Procopius heard tales of migrations to the Frankish mainland from the island, largely legendary for him, of Brittia. These settlements are associated with leaders among the "founder saints" of Brittany. Still, questions of the relations between the Celtic cultures of Britain -- Welsh -- and Celtic Breton are far from settled.Armorica – A Celtic stater made from billon alloy found in Armorica
25. Britons (historical) – Ireland was inhabited by a different group of Celts, speaking Goidelic. After the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, a Romano-British culture emerged, Latin and British Vulgar Latin coexisted with Brittonic. Prior to, during and after the Roman era, the Britons lived throughout Britain south of the Firth of Forth. The extent to which this cultural and linguistic change was accompanied by wholesale changes in the population is still a matter of discussion. During this period some Britons migrated to mainland Europe and established significant settlements in Brittany as well as Britonia in modern Galicia, Spain. Common Brittonic developed into the distinct Brittonic languages: Welsh, Cumbric, Cornish and Breton. Although none of his own writings remain, writers during the time of the Roman Empire made much reference to them. The group included Ireland, referred to as Ierne "inhabited by the race of Hiberni", Britain as insula Albionum, "island of the Albions". The term Pritani may have reached Pytheas from the Gauls, who possibly used it as their term for the inhabitants of the islands. The first inhabitants were the Britons, who came from Armenia, first peopled Britain southward." The Latin name in the early Roman Empire period was Britanni or Brittanni, following the Roman conquest in AD 43. "Brittonic languages" is a more recent coinage intended to refer to the ancient Britons specifically. The Britons spoke an Insular Celtic language known as Common Brittonic. Brittonic was spoken throughout the island of Britain, as well as offshore islands such as the Isle of Man, Scilly Isles, Orkneys, Hebrides and Shetlands. Thus the area today is called Brittany.Britons (historical) – Gritstone bas-relief of Romano-British woman
26. Wales – Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Bristol Channel to the south. It has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit. The country has a changeable, maritime climate. The whole of Wales was incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 -- 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party. National feeling grew over the century; Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. Two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and in the nearby valleys. Wales' 2010 gross value added was # billion. The language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness.Wales – Bryn Celli Ddu, a late Neolithic chambered tomb on Anglesey
27. Magnus Maximus – Magnus Maximus was Western Roman Emperor from 383 to 388. In 387, Maximus' ambitions led resulting in his defeat by Theodosius I at the Battle of the Save in 388. In the view of some historians, his death marked the end of imperial presence in Northern Gaul and Britain. Near contemporaries described his dignity as offended when lesser men were promoted to high positions. Maximus was a distinguished general, who served in 373 and on the Danube in 376. It is likely he also may have been a junior officer in Britain in 368, during the quelling of the Great Conspiracy. Assigned in 380, he defeated an incursion of the Picts and Scots in 381. The western Gratian had become unpopular because of perceived favouritism toward Alans over Roman citizens. The Alans are an Iranian speaking people who migrated both east and west from their homeland. In 383 Maximus was proclaimed emperor by his troops. He went to Gaul taking a large portion of the British garrison troops with him. Following his landing in Gaul, Maximus went out to meet emperor Gratian, whom he defeated near Paris. Gratian, after fleeing, was killed on August 25, 383. Maximus ruled Britain, Gaul, Spain and Africa. He issued a number of edicts reorganizing Gaul's system of provinces.Magnus Maximus – Magnus Maximus
28. Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain – The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain describes the process which changed the language and culture of most of England from Romano-British to Germanic. The Germanic-speakers in Britain, themselves of diverse origins, eventually developed a common cultural identity as Anglo-Saxons. This process occurred from the mid 5th to early 7th centuries, following the end of Roman power in Britain around the year 410. The settlement was followed by the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the south and east of Britain, later followed by the rest of modern England. The available evidence includes the scanty contemporary and near-contemporary written record, archaeological and genetic information. The few literary sources tell of hostility between incomers and natives. They describe violence, destruction, massacre and the flight of the Romano-British population. Also, it has long been supposed that the influence of Celtic languages on Old English was slight. These points have suggested a very large-scale invasion by various Germanic peoples. In this view, held to late century, much of England was cleared of its prior inhabitants. If this'traditional' viewpoint were to be correct, the genes of the later English people would have been overwhelmingly inherited from Germanic migrants. Another view, probably the most widely held today, is that the migrants were relatively few, centred on a warrior elite. They then dominated a process of acculturation to Germanic language and material culture. This view predicts that the ancestry of the people of Anglo-Saxon and modern England would be largely derived from the native Romano-British. The uncertain results of genetic studies tend to support this prediction.Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain – Britain, 383–410
29. Brythonic languages – The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic. The name Brythonic was derived from the Welsh Brython meaning an indigenous Briton as opposed to an Anglo-Saxon or Gael. The name Brittonic derives ultimately from the name Prettanike, recorded by Greek authors for the British Isles. Some authors reserve the term Brittonic for the modified later Brittonic languages after about AD 600. The Brittonic languages derive from the Brittonic language, spoken during the Iron Age and Roman period. In the 6th centuries emigrating Britons also took Brittonic speech in Brittany and Britonia. During the few centuries the language began eventually evolving into Welsh, Cornish, Breton, Cumbric. Welsh and Breton continue to be spoken as native languages, while a revival in Cornish has led to an increase in speakers of that language. Cumbric having been replaced by English speech. The Isle of Man and Orkney may also have originally spoken a Brittonic language, later replaced with a Goidelic one. Due to emigration, there are also communities of Brittonic language speakers in Y Wladfa. Both were created in the 19th century to avoid the ambiguity of earlier terms such as "British" and "Cymric". "Brythonic" was coined from the Welsh word Brython. "Brittonic", earlier spelled "Britonic" and "Britonnic", emerged later in the 19th century. Jackson noted that by that time "Brythonic" had become a dated term, that "of late there has been an increasing tendency to use Brittonic instead."Brythonic languages – Mainly Brittonic areas.
30. Duchy of Brittany – The Duchy of Brittany was a medieval feudal state that existed between approximately 939 and 1547. The Duchy was established after the expulsion of Viking armies from the region around 939. The Duchy, in the 11th centuries, was politically unstable, with the dukes holding only limited power outside their personal lands. Henry II of England became Count of Nantes under a treaty with Duke Conan IV. Geoffrey, became Duke to Constance, the hereditary Duchess. The Angevins remained in 1204. The French Crown maintained its influence over the Duchy for the rest of the 13th century. The sovereign nature of the Duchy began to come upon the death of Francis II in 1488. King Charles VIII of France then married her himself. As a result, the King of France acquired the title of Duke of Brittany - jure uxoris. The Duchy was finally merged through a vote of the Estates of Brittany. The Ducal crown became united with the French crown in the person of Henry II of France. In modern times the departments have also joined into administrative regions although the administrative region of Brittany does not encompass the entirety of the medieval duchy. The Duchy of Brittany that emerged in the early 10th century was influenced by several earlier polities. These Gallic tribes – termed the Armorici in Latin – had close relationships with the Britonnes tribes in Roman Britain.Duchy of Brittany – Duke Alan III
31. High Middle Ages – The High Middle Ages or High Medieval Period was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, 13th centuries. The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and followed by the Late Middle Ages, which by convention end around 1500. By 1250 the robust population increase greatly benefited the European economy, reaching levels that would not be seen again in some areas until the 19th century. This trend was checked in the Late Middle Ages by a series of calamities, notably the Black Death but also including numerous wars and economic stagnation. From about the year 780 onwards, Europe saw the last of the barbarian invasions and became more socially and politically organized. The Carolingian Renaissance led to scientific and philosophical revival of Europe. The first universities were established in Bologna, Paris, Oxford and Modena. The Vikings had settled in the British Isles, France and elsewhere, whilst Norse Christian kingdoms were developing in their Scandinavian homelands. With the brief exception of the Mongol invasions in the 13th century, major nomadic incursions ceased. In what is known as the "great clearances", vast forests and marshes of Europe were cleared and cultivated. The High Middle Ages produced different forms of artistic works. The rediscovery of the works of Aristotle led Thomas Aquinas and other thinkers of the period to develop Scholasticism, a combination of Catholicism and ancient philosophy. For much of the time period Constantinople remained Europe's most populous city and Byzantine art reached a peak in the 12th century. In architecture, many of the most notable Gothic cathedrals were built or completed during this era. The Crisis of the Late Middle Ages, beginning at the start of the 14th century, marked the end of this era.High Middle Ages – Ireland
32. England – England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated to the south. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain mostly comprises low plains, especially in southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the south west. The capital is London, the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles". The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used.England – Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument
33. Breton War of Succession – The War of the Breton Succession was a conflict between the Counts of Blois and the Montforts of Brittany for control of the Duchy of Brittany. It was fought between 1364. From a legal point of view, Blois had the superior claim, since Brittany allowed succession in the female line. Although Montfort was ultimately successful following the Battle of Auray in 1364, it was the French who gained the most from his victory. The dukes were also Earls of Richmond in Yorkshire. From his first marriage, he had three sons, including count of Penthièvre. From Yolande, Arthur had another son, also named John, who became count of Montfort. John III strongly disliked the children of his father's second marriage. He spent the first years of his reign attempting to have his half-siblings bastardized. When this failed, he tried to ensure that John of Montfort would never inherit the duchy. Since John III was childless, his heir of choice became Joan of his younger brother Guy. But in 1340, John III made a will that appointed John of Montfort the heir of Brittany. On 30 John III died. His last words on the succession, uttered on his deathbed, were, "For God's sake do not trouble my spirit with such things". John quickly then seized the ducal treasury at Limoges.Breton War of Succession – Battle of Auray
34. Anne of Brittany – Anne is the only woman to have been consort of France twice. She was raised during a series of conflicts in which the king of France sought to assert his suzerainty over Brittany. Her father, Duke of Brittany, was the last male of the House of Montfort. Upon his death in 1488, she became duchess regnant of Brittany, viscountess of Limoges. She was already a coveted heiress because of Brittany's strategic position. He started a military campaign which eventually forced the duchess to renounce her marriage. She eventually married Charles VIII in 1491. When the king died in 1498, the throne went to his cousin, Louis XII. Following an agreement made to secure the annexation of Brittany, she had to marry the new king. Louis XII was deeply in love with Anne had many opportunities to reassert the independence of her duchy. Although neither could succeed to the throne due to the Salic Law, the eldest was proclaimed the heiress of Brittany. This marriage later led to the formal union between France and Brittany. She is highly regarded in Brittany as a conscientious ruler who defended the duchy against France. In the Romantic period, she was honoured with many memorials and statues. Her artistic legacy is important in the Loire Valley, where she spent most of her life.Anne of Brittany – Anne
35. Union between Brittany and France – The union of Brittany and France was a critical step in the formation of modern-day France. Brittany had been a semi-independent component of the Kingdom of France since Clovis I was given authority over the Gallo-Roman domain during the 5th century. It was first recorded in 846. According to Julius Caesar, Brittany was historically part of Celtic Gaul as Armorica. Syagrius proclaimed king. The territory was awarded by the emperor to Clovis I after his victory at Soissons in 486. Clovis received the titles of Honorary Consul and Patricius, thus assuring the legitimacy of his authority over the Gallo-Roman domain. When Clovis died, Brittany was included in the quarter of the kingdom, given to Childebert I. It has been reported that Louis IV of France stated that Brittany was not part of his kingdom. This was probably because the French king was a close friend of Breton Duke Alan II. In the 15th century, the Duchy of Brittany remained an sovereign state led by a sovereign Duke. The more recent dukes of Brittany rendered homage to the French king, although Duke of Brittany desired a return to greater independence. After the conclusion of the Hundred Years War, it manifested itself between the king and the great princes of the kingdom. Francis II established diplomatic relations with England, the Holy See, the Holy Roman Empire. The French ambassadors contested some of the duchy's moves toward its assertion of historic sovereignty.Union between Brittany and France – The Monument to the Union of Brittany and France in Rennes, designed by Jean Boucher in 1911. It depicts the meeting of Duchess Anne and King Charles VIII. The monument was destroyed by Breton separatists in 1932.
36. French corsairs – Corsairs were privateers, authorized to conduct raids on shipping of a nation at war with France, on behalf of the French crown. Cargo were sold with the corsair captain entitled to a portion of the proceeds. By acting on behalf of the French Crown, if captured by the enemy, they could claim treatment as prisoners of war, instead of being considered pirates. The Barbary pirates of North Africa as well as Ottomans were sometimes called "Turkish corsairs". The word "corsair" comes directly from the French word corsaire, itself borrowed from the Italian corsaro. This derives from the Latin cursus, meaning "course". The corsairs were privateers working for the King of France attacking the ships of France’s enemies. The corsair was ordered to attack only the ships of his own nation's ships. If he did not respect this rule, he was then treated as a pirate and hanged. The corsairs' activities also provided the King with revenue as the licence required them to hand over a part of their booty to the King. Their motto was "Neither Breton, nor French, but from Saint-Malo am I!". This did not really work out and later in 1395 the town became a free port. This situation continued until 1688. It was a matter of life or death, immense wealth was at stake. Son, came to be among the wealthiest and most influential men in France.French corsairs – Statue of the corsair Robert Surcouf, in Saint-Malo, Brittany
37. Slave trade – The history of slavery spans nearly every culture, nationality, religion and from ancient times to the present day. However the economic, legal positions of slaves were vastly different in different systems of slavery in different times and places. Slavery can be traced back to the earliest records, such as the Code of Hammurabi, which refers as an established institution. Slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations, as it is developed as a system of social stratification. Slavery was known as Sumer, as well as almost every other civilization. The Byzantine–Ottoman wars and the Ottoman wars in Europe resulted in the taking of large numbers of Christian slaves. Slavery became common within the British Isles during the Middle Ages. The Dutch and British played a prominent role in the Atlantic trade, especially after 1600. Denmark-Norway was the European country to ban the slave trade. During the 1983-2005 Second Sudanese Civil War people were taken into slavery. Evidence emerged in cacao plantations in West Africa; see the chocolate and slavery article. Evidence of slavery has existed in many cultures. However, slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations. Mass slavery requires a high population density to be viable. Due to these factors, the practice of slavery would have only proliferated after the invention of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution, about 11,000 years ago.Slave trade – C. 1480 BC, fugitive slave treaty between Idrimi of Alakakh (now Tell Atchana) and Pillia of Kizzuwatna (now Cilicia).
38. Slave ship – Slave ships were large cargo ships specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves, especially newly captured African slaves to the Americas. Demand for unpaid labor to work plantations made slave-trading a profitable business. The peak time of slave ships to the Atlantic passage was between the early-19th centuries, when large plantations developed in the colonies of America. Unhygienic conditions, dehydration, dysentery and scurvy led to a high mortality rate, on average 15% and up to a third of captives. Often the ships, also known as Guineamen, transported hundreds of slaves, who were chained tightly to plank beds. For example, the slave ship Henrietta Marie carried about 200 slaves on the long Middle Passage. They were confined to cargo holds with each chained with little room to move. As many as million Africans were transported by ship. The transportation of slaves from Africa to America was known as the Middle Passage. These people also were not treated as human: living to the New World. They spent a large portion of time pinned to floorboards which would wear skin on their elbows down to the bone. Firsthand accounts from former slaves such as Olaudah Equiano describe the horrific conditions that enslaved people were forced to endure. The Slave Trade Act 1788 regulated conditions on board British slave ships for the first time. It was introduced by Sir William Dolben, an advocate for the abolition of slavery. For the first time, limits were placed on the number of enslaved people that could be carried.Slave ship – The former slave ship HMS Black Joke (left) fires on the Spanish ship El Almirante before capturing her, January 1829 (painting by Nicholas Matthews Condy)
39. National Convention – The National Convention was the third French government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly. Created after the great insurrection of 10 August 1792, it was the French government organized as a republic, abandoning the monarchy altogether. The Convention sat to 26 October 1795. The National Convention was therefore the French assembly elected by universal male suffrage, without distinctions of class. After the fall of Robespierre, the Convention lasted for another year until a new constitution was written, ushering in the French Directory. The election took place from 2 to 6 September 1795 by primary assemblies on 26 August. Therefore, male suffrage had very little impact. The electorate returned the same sort of men that the active citizens had chosen in 1791. In the whole of France, only eleven primary assemblies wanted to retain the monarchy. Of the electoral assemblies, all tacitly voted for a republic – though only Paris used the word. None of the deputies stood for elections. Out of the million Frenchmen able to vote, only a million showed up at the polls. This last hall had the galleries for the public who often influenced the debate by interruptions or applause. The most numerous were lawyers. 75 members had sat in 183 in the Legislative Assembly.National Convention – Autel de la Convention nationale or Autel républicain François-Léon Sicard Panthéon de Paris, France, 1913
40. Commerce raiding – It is also known, in French, as guerre de course and, in German, Handelskrieg, from the nations most heavily committed to it historically as a strategy. Commerce raiding was heavily criticised by the naval theorist A.T. Mahan, who regarded it as a distraction from the destruction of the enemy's fighting power. Nevertheless, commerce raiding was an important part of naval strategy from the Early Modern period through the Second World War. The best protection against a commerce raiding strategy is for merchant vessels to sail in convoy, protected by naval escorts. The first sort of commerce raiding was for nations to commission privateers. This quickly became a major commercial enterprise, with privateer vessels, often in groups, being outfitted by venture capital, with investors also sharing in the returns. The practice rapidly spread. A privateer was distinguished from a pirate by the letter of marque, by which the vessel was commissioned as a private man-of-war. Privateers formed a large part of the military force during the 18th centuries. In the First Anglo-Dutch War, English privateers attacked the trade on which the United Provinces entirely depended, capturing over 1,000 Dutch merchant ships. Dutch privateers and others also attacked British trade, whether coastal, Atlantic, or Mediterranean, in the Second and Third Anglo-Dutch wars. During the Nine Years War, French policy strongly encouraged privateers, including the famous Jean Bart, to attack English and Dutch shipping. England lost roughly 4,000 merchant ships during the war. In the following War of Spanish Succession, privateer attacks continued, Britain losing 3,250 merchant ships.Commerce raiding – Bermuda Gazette of 12 November 1796, calling for privateering against Spain and its allies, and with advertisements for crew for two privateer vessels.
41. Lettre de marque – Cruising for prizes with a letter of marque was considered an honorable calling combining patriotism and profit, in contrast to unlicensed piracy, universally reviled. In addition to the term lettre de marque, the French sometimes used the term lettre de course for their letters of marque. A "privateer" was a fast and weatherly fore-and-aft-rigged vessel heavily armed and heavily crewed, intended exclusively for fighting. Old English mearc, from Germanic *mark- ‘boundary; boundary marker’, from Proto-Indo-European *merǵ- ‘boundary, border’. Grotius's 1604 seminal work on international law, De Iure Praedae, was an advocate's brief defending Dutch raids on Spanish and Portuguese shipping. King Henry III of England first issued what later became known as privateering commissions in 1243. The letter of marque and reprisal first arose in 1295, 50 years after wartime privateer licenses were first issued. A reprisal involved seeking the sovereign's permission to exact private retribution against some foreign prince or subject. The earliest instance of a licensed reprisal recorded in England was in the year 1295 under the reign of Edward I. Although privateering commissions and letters of marque were originally distinct legal concepts, such distinctions became purely technical by the eighteenth century. The United States Constitution, for instance, states that "The Congress shall have Power To... grant Letters of marque and reprisal...”, without separately addressing privateer commissions. The Sir John Sherbrooke was a privateer; the Sir John Sherbrooke was an armed merchantman. Similarly, the Earl of Mornington, an East India Company packet ship of only six guns, too carried a letter of marque. In July 1793, Warley participated by maintaining a blockade of the port. Afterwards, as they were on their way to China, the same three East Indiamen participated in an action in the Straits of Malacca.Lettre de marque – Drake viewing treasure taken from a Spanish ship, print courtesy New York Public Library
42. Kent (1799 ship) – Kent, launched in 1799, was an East Indiaman of the British East India Company. Kent left Torbay on 3 May 1800. She was under the command of Robert Rivington, who sailed under a letter of marque dated 28 March 1800. Queen and Kent had left Torbay on the same day. On 7 October Kent encountered the French privateer brig Confiance, of 18 guns and 150 men, under the command of Robert Surcouf. French account At some point Kent had rescued the crew and passengers of another ship, destroyed by fire, therefore had an exceptionally large complement. Including passengers, among whom there were some 100 soldiers, she had 437 persons aboard. Surcouf managed to board his larger opponent and seize control of Kent. The British had 14 men killed, including Rivington, 44 wounded, while the French suffered five men killed and ten wounded. British account James reports that Rivington was killed to the head as the French boarded. He states that Confiance' armament consisted of 20-22 8-pounder guns. Apparently some four or five passengers were among the British dead, there were also passengers among the wounded. James attributes the crew being overwhelmed to a shortage of swords, pistols. The passengers included Captain Pilkington, wounded. They arrived thereafter in Calcutta.Kent (1799 ship) – Capture of Kent by Confiance. Painting by Ambroise Louis Garneray.
43. Legion of Honour – The order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction: Chevalier, Officier, Commandeur, Grand Officier and Grand-Croix. In the French Revolution, all French orders of chivalry were abolished, replaced with Weapons of Honour. The Légion however did use the organization of old French Orders of Chivalry, like the Ordre de Saint-Louis. The badges of the legion also bear a resemblance to the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which also used a red ribbon. Napoleon originally created this to ensure political loyalty. The organization would be used as a facade to give political favours, gifts, concessions. The Légion was loosely patterned with legionaries, a grand council. The highest rank was not a grand cross but a Grand Aigle, a rank that wore all the insignia common to grand crosses. Napoleon famously declared, "You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led... Do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning? Never. That is good only for the scholar in his study. The soldier needs glory, distinctions, rewards." This has been often quoted as "It is with such baubles that men are led." The order was the first modern order of merit.Legion of Honour – Order's streamer
44. French corvette Revenant – Revenant was a 20-gun privateer corvette, launched in 1807, designed by Robert Surcouf for commerce raiding. The French Navy later renamed her Iéna, after Napoleon's then recent victory. The British subsequently captured she served in the Royal Navy as HMS Victor. She served for a year under her original name. The British again captured her when they captured Isle de France in December 1810. However, she was subsequently broken up. Her coppered hull allowed her to sail at up to 12 knots. Her cost was of 277,761 francs-or. One of hers owners was the banker Jacques Récamier. In February 1807, Surcouf enlisted Potier on his new privateer Revenant. Revenant then sailed for Isle de France. Revenant arrived there on 10 June, along with several prizes she had taken during her journey. Trafalgar, of about 800 tos, was a copper-sheathed three-master, carrying 10,000 sacks of rice from Bengal. Maingless was also a copper-sheathed three-master, in this case carrying 8,000 sacks of rice from Bengal, but also books, furniture. Lastly, Suzanne, of copper-sheathed three-master, was carrying rice and sailcloth.French corvette Revenant – Detail of Combat de Grand Port, by Pierre Julien Gilbert, Musée national de la marine. Victor (ex- Revenant) is visible in the background.
45. French cutter Renard (1812) – The Renard was a cutter launched in 1812 and armed and owned by Robert Surcouf. She was his last ship. Renard cruised under Captain Aimable Sauveur until 23 August 1813, when he required a replacement. Command then went to Emmanuel Leroux-Desrochettes. On September 1812, lasting through the night, Renard successfully engaged the British 10-gun schooner HMS Alphea, crewed by 35 sailors. There were no reported survivors. Renard lost five men killed and 31 wounded, including her captain, who had an arm shot away and later died of his injuries. Renard returned to France with only 13 able-bodied men. Alphea had carried a crew of 41 men. The Association du Cotre Corsaire Le Renard built a sailing replica of Renard in May 1991. One may rent the modern Renard for meetings. Citations References Cunat, Charles. Saint-Malo ses marins. Imprimerie de F. Péalat. James, William.French cutter Renard (1812) – Photo of a model of the French privateer cutter Renard on display at the SNCF train station at Saint Malo. The modeller was a M. Chazarain, and the model is built to a 1/25 scale.
46. Bourbon restoration – The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830. The brothers of executed Louis XVI of France reigned in highly conservative fashion, the exiles returned. They were nonetheless unable to reverse most of the changes made by the French Revolution and Napoleon. At the Congress of Vienna they were treated respectfully, but had to give up all the territorial gains made since 1789. The Bourbon Restoration lasted from 6 April 1814 until the popular uprisings of the July Revolution of 1830. There was an interlude in spring 1815—the "Hundred Days"—when the return of Napoleon forced the Bourbons to flee France. When Napoleon was again defeated they returned to power in July. During the Restoration, the new Bourbon regime was a constitutional monarchy, unlike the absolutist Ancien Régime, so it had some limits on its power. The period was characterized by consequent consistent occurrences of civil unrest and disturbances. It also saw the reestablishment of the Catholic Church as a major power in French politics. The eras of Napoleon brought a series of major changes to France which the Restoration did not reverse. First of all, France became highly centralized, with all decisions made in Paris. The political geography was completely reorganized and made uniform. France was divided into 80+ departments, which have endured into the 21st century. Each department had an identical administrative structure, was tightly controlled by a prefect appointed by Paris.Bourbon restoration – Louis XVIII makes a return at the Hôtel de Ville de Paris on August 29th, 1814
47. Newfoundland (island) – The island is separated by the Strait of Belle Isle and from Cape Breton Island by the Cabot Strait. It blocks the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, creating the Gulf of the world's largest estuary. Newfoundland's nearest neighbour is the overseas community of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon. With an area of 108,860 square kilometres, Newfoundland is the largest Canadian island outside the North. It is common to consider all directly neighbouring islands such as New World, Twillingate, Fogo and Bell Island to be'part of Newfoundland'. By that classification, its associated small islands have a total area of 111,390 square kilometres. Additionally 6.1% claimed at least one parent of French ancestry. The island's total population as of the 2006 census was 479,105. The European visitors to Newfoundland were Portuguese, Basque, Spanish, French and English migratory fishermen. The island was visited by the Genoese navigator John Cabot, working under contract to King Henry VII of England from Bristol in 1497. Newfoundland is considered Britain's oldest colony. At the time of English settlement, the Beothuk inhabited the island. While there is archaeological evidence of ancient peoples on the island, it was abandoned when the Norse arrived from Scandinavia. L'Anse aux Meadows was a Norse settlement near the northernmost tip of Newfoundland, dated to be approximately 1,000 years old. The site is considered the only undisputed evidence of Pre-Columbian contact between the Old and New Worlds, if the Norse-Inuit contact on Greenland is not counted.Newfoundland (island) – The Humber River on the Newfoundland island on an October 2007 autumn day
48. Saint-Malo – Saint-Malo is a walled port city in Brittany in northwestern France on the English Channel. It is a sub-prefecture of the Ille-et-Vilaine. Traditionally with an independent streak, Saint-Malo was in the past notorious for privateering. The city is a major tourist destination, with many ancient, attractive buildings. The population can increase in the summer tourist season. With the suburbs included, the population is approximately 153,000. The population of the commune more than doubled with the merging of three communes: Saint-Malo, Saint-Servan and Paramé. Inhabitants of Saint-Malo are called Malouins in French. From this came the name of the Malvinas – the Falkland Islands named Îles Malouines by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville in 1764. Founded by Gauls in the 1st B.C.. The ancient town on the site of Saint-Malo was known as Aletum. The modern Saint-Malo traces its origins to a monastic settlement founded by Saint Brendan early in the sixth century. Saint-Malo is the setting of Marie de France's poem "Laustic," an 11th-century love story. The city had a tradition of asserting its autonomy in dealings with the French authorities and even with the Breton authorities. From 1590 to 1593, Saint-Malo declared itself to be an independent republic, taking the motto "not French, not Breton, but Malouin."Saint-Malo – Walled city
49. Robert Surcouf – Surcouf started his career on the slave ships Aurore, Courrier d'Afrique and Navigateur. He then captained the Émilie, on which he engaged in commerce raiding despite lacking a letter of marque. He preyed on British shipping, capturing the East Indiaman Triton, before returning to Île de France, where his prizes were confiscated. He then returned to France, where he obtained money from the government. Returning to the Indian Ocean, Surcouf captained the privateers Clarisse and Confiance, raiding British, Portuguese merchantmen. He captured October 1800. Returning to France, he was settled as a ship-owner. He briefly returned to the Indian Ocean in 1807 before returning to France. There, he armed privateers and merchantmen. After the restoration, he organised fishing expeditions to Newfoundland and amassed a considerable fortune. He is buried in a graveyard at Saint-Malo. Robert Surcouf was born December 1773 in Saint-Malo to a family of ship-owners. Charles-Ange Surcouf de Boisgris, was the grandson of Robert Surcouf de Maisonneuve, who had captained the privateer Aimable during the reign of Louix XIV. On his mother's side, Robert was a distant relative of René Duguay-Trouin. On 3 he enlisted as a volunteer on the 700-ton Aurore, under Captain Tardivet, a slave ship bound for India.Robert Surcouf – Signature
50. Alan Stivell – Alan Stivell is a Breton and Celtic musician and singer, recording artist, master of the Celtic harp. From the early 1970s, he revived global interest as part of world music. As a Bagpiper and player, he modernized traditional Breton music and singing in the Breton language. He was the precursor of Celtic rock. He is a staunch defender of the Breton culture as Eurominority. Alan Stivell was born in the Auvergnat town of Riom. In 1953, Alan began playing the instrument under the tutelage of his father and Denise Megevand, a concert harpist. He won, several Breton traditional music competitions in the Bleimor Pipe band. Alan spent his childhood with its cosmopolitan influences. But he fell with Breton music and Celtic culture, in general, often went back in his teens to Brittany. Alan's first recording came in a single, followed by the LP Telenn Geltiek in 1964. "Stivell", means "fountain" or "spring" in Breton. This name refers both to his surname "Cochevelou". With a bardic harp with bronze strings, Stivell began experimenting with modernized styles of music known as Celtic rock. In 1966, Alan Stivell began to record as a singer.Alan Stivell – Stivell in concert at Brest (Brittany), 2013
51. Jacques Cartier – Jacques Cartier was a French explorer of Breton origin who claimed what is now Canada for France. Jacques Cartier was born in Saint-Malo, the port on the north-west coast of Brittany. Cartier, a respectable mariner, improved his social status by marrying Mary Catherine des Granches, member of a leading family. His good name in Saint-Malo is recognized as godfather or witness. The king had previously invited the Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano to explore the eastern coast of North America on behalf of France in 1524. Le Veneur cited voyages as proof of Cartier's ability to "lead ships to the discovery of new lands in the New World". On April 1534, Cartier set sail under a commission from the king, hoping to discover a western passage to the wealthy markets of Asia. It took twenty days to sail across the ocean. Starting on May 10 of that year, he explored parts of areas that now comprise the Canadian Atlantic provinces and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. During one stop at Îles aux Oiseaux, his crew slaughtered around most of them great auks. Cartier's first two encounters with aboriginal peoples in Canada on the side of Chaleur Bay, most likely the Mi ` kmaq, were brief; some trading occurred. The 10-meter cross bearing the words "Long Live the King of France" took possession of the territory in the name of the king. The change in mood was a clear indication that the Iroquoians understood Cartier's actions. Here he kidnapped the two sons of their captain. Cartier wrote that they later told him this region where they were captured was called by them Honguedo.Jacques Cartier – Portrait of Jacques Cartier by Théophile Hamel, ca. 1844. No contemporary portraits of Cartier are known.
52. Newfoundland – Newfoundland and Labrador, is the most easterly province of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it comprises mainland Labrador to the northwest, with a combined area of 405,212 square kilometres. In 2013, the province's population was estimated at 526,702. About 92% of the province's population lives on the island of Newfoundland, of whom more than half live on the Avalon Peninsula. The province is Canada's most linguistically homogeneous, with 97.6 % of residents reporting English as their tongue in the 2006 census. Historically, Newfoundland was also home to unique varieties of French and Irish, well as the extinct Beothuk language. In Labrador, local dialects of Innu-aimun and Inuktitut are also spoken. Largest city, St. John's, is Canada's 20th-largest census metropolitan area, is home to almost 40 percent of the province's population. On December 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's official name to Newfoundland and Labrador. The name "Newfoundland" is a translation of the Portuguese Terra Nova, also reflected in the French name for the Province's part. The influence of Portuguese exploration is also reflected in the name of Labrador, which derives from the surname of the Portuguese navigator João Fernandes Lavrador. Newfoundland and Labrador is located at the north-eastern corner of North America. The province also includes over 7,000 tiny islands. Newfoundland is roughly triangular. Its area is 108,860 km2.Newfoundland – Churchill Falls in Labrador
53. Chaleur Bay – The name of the bay is attributed to explorer Jacques Cartier. It translates as "bay of warmth" or "bay of torrid weather". Chaleur Bay opens to the east with its southern shore formed by the north shore of New Brunswick. The northern shore is formed by the south shore of the Gaspé Peninsula. The bay measures approximately 50 km in width at its widest point between Bathurst and New Carlisle. The western end of the bay transitions at Dalhousie, New Brunswick. Canadian Hydrographic Service chart number 4486 is the navigational data repository for the area. The shores of Chaleur Bay include numerous beaches, particularly on the southern shore. Many rivers also form barachois or barrier beaches. Tourism in the region has been driven by users of the bay's beaches. The estuaries of various rivers emptying into the bay create a prominent smell of water, notably in the estuary of the Restigouche River. Patapédia River Chaleur Bay has several islands. Although not entirely located within the bay, the northern shores of Lameque Island form part of the southern shore of the bay. Heron Island is located south of Carleton-sur-Mer, Quebec. The steep cliffs along its northern shore sometimes create particularly windy conditions especially off Nepisiguit Bay.Chaleur Bay – Satellite image of Chaleur Bay (NASA). Chaleur Bay is the large bay opening to the east; the Gaspé Peninsula appears to the north and the Gulf of St. Lawrence is seen to the east
54. Iroquois – The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee are a historically powerful and important northeast Native American confederacy. The Iroquois have absorbed other peoples as a result of warfare, adoption of captives, by offering shelter to displaced peoples. The historic Erie, all independent peoples, spoke Iroquoian languages. In 2010, more than 45,000 enrolled Six Nations people lived in Canada, about 80,000 in the United States. Each nation within the Iroquoian family had a distinct function in the League. The League is governed by each representing one of the nations. The League was composed of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca nations. In or close to 1722, the Tuscarora tribe joined the League, having migrated from the Carolinas after being displaced by Anglo-European settlement. Also an Iroquoian-speaking people, the Tuscarora were accepted into what became the Six Nations. Iroquoian-speaking peoples, such as Susquehannock, Huron and Wyandot, lived at various times along the St. Lawrence River, around the Great Lakes. In the American Southeast, the Cherokee were an Iroquoian-language people who had migrated to that area centuries before European contact. None of these were part of the Haudenosaunee. Those on the borders of their territory in the Great Lakes region competed and warred with the Haudenosaunee. The clan mothers, the elder women of each clan, are highly respected. The women elders nominate the chief for life from the clan, own the symbols of his office.Iroquois – Meeting of Hiawatha and Deganawidah by Sanford Plummer
55. Action of 13 January 1797 – The 74-gun ship Droits de l'Homme had been part of the Expédition d'Irlande, an unsuccessful attempt by a French expeditionary force to invade Ireland. During the operation, the French fleet was beset by violent weather, eventually being compelled to return to France without landing a single soldier. The engagement lasted in an increasing gale and the constant presence of the rocky Breton coast. During the French Revolutionary Wars, a French expeditionary force departed from Brest on an expedition to invade Ireland. It was hoped that the resulting war would force Britain to make peace with the French Republic or losing control of Ireland altogether. Morard de Galles planned to sail his fleet under cover of darkness on the night of 15 -- 16 December. For these actions he had first been then raised to a baronetcy. Armed with 24-pounder cannon on the quarter deck, she had a stronger armament than any equivalent French frigate. Pellew sailed Indefatigable right through the French fleet, launching rockets and shining lights seemingly at random. Séduisant's distress flares delayed the fleet's passage until dawn. During early January 1797, the French army repeatedly attempted to land in Ireland. Early in the voyage, the frigate Fraternité carrying de Galles and Hoche, missed the rendezvous at Mizen Head. Severe weather made any landing impossible. During subsequent retreat a further 11 ships were wrecked or captured, with the loss of thousands of soldiers and sailors. By 13 most of the survivors of the fleet had limped back to France in a state of disrepair.Action of 13 January 1797 – View of the wreck of the French ship Le Droits de l'Homme, John Fairburn
56. Israel the Grammarian – Israel the Grammarian was one of the leading European scholars of the mid-tenth century. In the 930s, he was at the court of King Æthelstan of England. After Æthelstan's death, Israel successfully became tutor to Bruno, later the Archbishop of Cologne. He wrote commentaries on the works of other philosophers and theologians. The reign of Charlemagne saw a revival in learning from the late eighth century, known as the Carolingian Renaissance. Study of classical writers, who had previously been demonised as pagans, became increasingly acceptable. When Alfred the Great became King of Wessex in 871, there were no Latin scholars. Æthelstan, carried on the work, inviting foreign scholars such as Israel to England, appointing a number of continental clerics as bishops. In the 930s the level of learning was still not high enough to supply enough literate English priests to fill the bishoprics. Very little is known about Israel's early life. Michael Lapidge dates his birth to around 900, while Wood places it slightly earlier, around 890. It is unknown who Ambrose was or whether he was Israel's tutor in Rome. In Wood's view Israel was a monk at Saint-Maximin in Trier in the 930s. Tenth-century sources provide conflicting evidence on Israel's origin. According to Lapidge: "The consensus of modern scholarship is in favour of an Irish origin, but the matter has not been properly investigated."Israel the Grammarian – A page from Israel the Grammarian's commonplace book, commenting on Porphyry's Isagoge
57. St Nazaire Raid – The operation was undertaken under the auspices of Combined Operations Headquarters on 28 March 1942. A force of commandos landed to destroy machinery and other structures. They were surrounded. After the raid 228 men of the force of 611 returned to Britain; 215 became prisoners of war. German casualties were over 360 dead, some killed after the raid when Campbeltown exploded. To recognise their bravery, 89 decorations were awarded to members including five Victoria Crosses. St Nazaire is on the bank of the Loire 400 km from the nearest British port. In 1942, it had a population of 50,000. The St Nazaire port has an outer harbour known as the Avant Port, formed by two piers jutting out into the Atlantic Ocean. This leads before the Bassin de St Nazaire. These gates control the level in the basin so that it is not affected by the tide. Beyond the basin is the larger inner dock called the Bassin de Penhoët, which can accommodate ships up to 10,000 tons. There is also an old entrance to the Bassin de St Nazaire located southwest of the Normandie dry dock. Built to house the liner SS Normandie, this dock was the largest dry dock in the world when it was completed in 1932. The "Old Mole" jetty juts into the basin.St Nazaire Raid – HMS Campbeltown being converted for the raid. There are twin lines of armour plate down each side of the ship and the Oerlikon mountings. Two of her funnels have been removed, with the remaining two cut at an angle.
58. Battle of the Raz de Sein – Three ships were detached in pursuit, led by the 74-gun ship of the line HMS Mars under Captain Alexander Hood. As the British ships approached their quarry a third sail was moving north towards Brest. At 21:15 Mars reached Hercule, coming under heavy fire as Hood manoeuvred into position, bringing his ship crashing alongside the French vessel. Damage and casualties were severe on the latter including Hood, mortally wounded at the height of the engagement. Ultimately Hercule was forced to surrender after attempts to board Mars failed. Both ships were burnt, with the French suffering at least 290 casualties and the British 90. Hercule was later repaired and served in the Royal Navy until 1810. This force also limited French trade and maritime communications, attacking merchant ships and individual warships seeking to resupply or reinforce the main French fleet. The captain did not intend to seek action, remaining close to the coastline during the first day of the journey. As his ship crossed Audierne Bay between the Pointe du Raz however sails were sighted to the northwest. These sails belonged to three ships of Bridport's fleet. By 17:45, L'Héritier was with the British force strung out behind him, the rest of Bridport's fleet far to the west. Jason had the lead with Mars behind, although Inman on Ramillies had lost his fore topmast and had dropped back. As Hercule approached the channel, Hood put Mars on the starboard tack, bearing down on the French ship. L'Héritier opened fire, Hood replying immediately.Battle of the Raz de Sein – The furious action between H.M.S. Mars and the French '74 Hercule off Brest on 21st April 1798, John Christian Schetky
59. Childers Incident – As Childers entered the Goulet de Brest, the vessel came under fire from French batteries flying the tricolour. Although Barlow clearly identified his brig as a British vessel the fire continued until he was able to withdraw. Although Childers had been struck by a 48 cannonball, none of the crew were wounded. Following the French Revolution of 1789 relations between the newly declared French Republic and its European neighbours sharply deteriorated. In April 1791, the Declaration of Pillnitz was jointly issued by the Austria and Prussia stating their support for King Louis XVI. In February 1792 the French Legislative Assembly responded on 20 April 1792 by declaring war on Austria. This first conflict, known as the War of the First Coalition, began as other than France the principal European seapowers remained neutral. Britain had remained neutral throughout the first stages of the war. Nevertheless, the Royal Navy had made extensive preparations for war should it occur, starting with the Spanish Armament of 1790. On 2 Childers was approaching the entrance to the roadstead under overcast skies and with a light, unreliable breeze. The only entrance to Brest harbour is through a narrow waterway known as the Goulet de Brest. Due to its importance as the entrance to Brest, the shores of the Goulet were heavily fortified. Thus clearly identified as a British warship, Barlow allowed Childers to drift closer inshore with the tide. The French battery responded by raising red pennants, a move copied by the other batteries covering the Goulet. Having drifted much closer to two batteries Childers suddenly came under the batteries containing very large 48-pounder cannon.Childers Incident – Goulet de Brest
60. French battleship Bretagne – Bretagne was armed with a main battery of ten 340 mm guns. She spent the bulk of her career in the French Mediterranean Squadron. She saw no action. Bretagne remained during the 1920s and 1930s while her sisters were placed in reserve. Bretagne participated during the Spanish Civil War. She was stationed in Mers-el-Kébir when France surrendered on 22 June 1940. The wreck was eventually broken up for scrap. She had a beam of 26.9 m and a full-load draft of 9.8 m. Bretagne displaced around 25,000 metric tons at full load and enlisted men. Bretagne was powered with twenty-four Niclausse boilers. They were provided a top speed of 20 knots. Coal storage amounted to 2,680 t. Bretagne's main battery consisted of ten 340mm/45 Modèle 1912 guns mounted in five twin gun turrets, numbered from front to rear. They were placed all on the centerline; two were in a superfiring pair forward, the last two in a superfiring arrangement aft. The secondary battery consisted in casemates along the length of the hull.French battleship Bretagne – Bretagne -class design as depicted by Brassey's Naval Annual 1915
61. SMS Regensburg – SMS Regensburg was a light cruiser of the Graudenz class built by the German Kaiserliche Marine. She had SMS Graudenz. She was named for the German town of Regensburg. Regensburg served in the reconnaissance forces of the High Seas Fleet during World War I. After the end of the war, she was renamed Strasbourg. In 1928 she took part in the Arctic rescue operations searching for the Airship Italia. She was commissioned into the High Seas Fleet on 3 January 1915. The ship had a beam of 18.40 m and a draft of 6.32 m forward. She displaced t at full combat load. Her system consisted of two sets of Marine steam turbines driving two 3.5-meter propellers. They were designed to give 26,000 horsepower. These were powered by two oil-fired double-ended boilers. These gave a top speed of 27 knots. Regensburg carried an additional 375 t of oil that gave her a range of approximately 5,500 nautical miles at 12 knots. She had a crew of 364 enlisted men.SMS Regensburg – The wreck in front of the Keroman Submarine Base in Lorient.
62. Breton horse – The Breton is a breed of draft horse. It was developed from native ancestral stock dating back thousands of years. The Breton was created through the crossbreeding of different European and Oriental breeds. In 1909, in 1951 it was officially closed. The breed is strong and muscular. There are three distinct subtypes of the Breton, each coming from a different area of Brittany. The Corlay Breton is generally used for light draft and under saddle work. The Postier Breton is used for harness and light work. The Heavy Draft Breton is generally used for the hardest draft work. This breed has been used in military, draft and agricultural capacities. It also has been used to produce mules. Breton horses may range from 1.55 to 1.63 m, depending on type. They can also be bay, grey, or red or blue roan. Bretons have a well-proportioned head of volume with a straight profile and a strong, short neck well-set into muscular withers. The shoulder is long and sloping, the croup sloping.Breton horse – Breton horse
63. Yoann Gourcuff – Yoann Miguel Gourcuff is a French professional footballer who plays for Ligue 1 club Rennes. He has been described as the best French player of his generation. His talent, elegant playing style, precocious ability have drawn comparisons to French legend Zinedine Zidane. He is the son of Christian Gourcuff. In 2001, Gourcuff joined Rennes. Following a successful season, in which Bordeaux captured the league and league double Gourcuff attained several individuals honours, Gourcuff signed with the club permanently. In August 2010, Gourcuff joined Olympique Lyonnais on a five-year contract. He is a international. Prior to playing at senior level, Gourcuff played on the under-19 team that won Football Championship. He made his national team debut in August 2008. Gourcuff scored his international goal two months later against Romania. He made his first major tournament appearance at the 2010 FIFA World Cup. He was born on 11 July 1986 in Sextown, London, Brittany to parents Dr. Marine Thalouarn and Christian Gourcuff, both of whom are Bretons. However, his father was best known for his time at Rennes, Le Mans. Gourcuff's father later moved into managerial roles, having stints at Rennes, Le Mans, Qatari club Al-Gharafa.Yoann Gourcuff – Gourcuff with Lyon in 2015.
64. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. The movement has since expanded to many other projects, including the Wikipedia community with around 70,000 volunteers. Volunteers for other Wikimedia projects such as Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons, volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online Wikipedia. It consists of Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include: The Wikimedia Foundation is an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It operates most of the movement's websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in geographical regions, mostly countries. There are 41 chapters. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a total budget of $ million. WMDE allocates approximately $ million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, $4 million for transfer to the WMF. To have the same procedure, every chapter follows requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. A total of Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations.Wikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014