1. French language – French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages, French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues doïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to Frances past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, a French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French. French is a language in 29 countries, most of which are members of la francophonie. As of 2015, 40% of the population is in Europe, 35% in sub-Saharan Africa, 15% in North Africa and the Middle East, 8% in the Americas. French is the fourth-most widely spoken mother tongue in the European Union, 1/5 of Europeans who do not have French as a mother tongue speak French as a second language. As a result of French and Belgian colonialism from the 17th and 18th century onward, French was introduced to new territories in the Americas, Africa, most second-language speakers reside in Francophone Africa, in particular Gabon, Algeria, Mauritius, Senegal and Ivory Coast. In 2015, French was estimated to have 77 to 110 million native speakers, approximately 274 million people are able to speak the language. The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie estimates 700 million by 2050, in 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek ranked French the third most useful language for business, after English and Standard Mandarin Chinese. Under the Constitution of France, French has been the language of the Republic since 1992. France mandates the use of French in official government publications, public education except in specific cases, French is one of the four official languages of Switzerland and is spoken in the western part of Switzerland called Romandie, of which Geneva is the largest city. French is the language of about 23% of the Swiss population. French is also a language of Luxembourg, Monaco, and Aosta Valley, while French dialects remain spoken by minorities on the Channel Islands. A plurality of the worlds French-speaking population lives in Africa and this number does not include the people living in non-Francophone African countries who have learned French as a foreign language. Due to the rise of French in Africa, the total French-speaking population worldwide is expected to reach 700 million people in 2050, French is the fastest growing language on the continent. French is mostly a language in Africa, but it has become a first language in some urban areas, such as the region of Abidjan, Ivory Coast and in Libreville. There is not a single African French, but multiple forms that diverged through contact with various indigenous African languages, sub-Saharan Africa is the region where the French language is most likely to expand, because of the expansion of education and rapid population growthFrench language – The "arrêt" signs (French for "stop") are used in Canada while the international stop, which is also a valid French word, is used in France as well as other French-speaking countries and regions.
2. Breton language – Breton /ˈbrɛtən/ is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany. Breton is most closely related to Cornish, both being Southwestern Brittonic languages, Welsh and the extinct Cumbric are the more distantly related Brittonic languages. The other regional language of Brittany, Gallo, is a langue doïl, Gallo is consequently close to French, although not mutually intelligible, and a Romance language descended from Latin. However, the number of children attending bilingual classes has risen 33% between 2006 and 2012 to 14,709, Breton is spoken in West Brittany, roughly to the west of a line linking Plouha and La Roche-Bernard. It comes from a Brittonic language community that extended from Great Britain to Armorica and had even established a toehold in Galicia. Old Breton is attested from the 9th century and it was the language of the upper classes until the 12th century, after which it became the language of commoners in Lower Brittany. The nobility, followed by the bourgeoisie, adopted French, the written language of the Duchy of Brittany was Latin, switching to French in the 15th century. There exists a tradition of Breton literature. Some Old Breton vocabulary remains in the present day as philosophical, during the French Revolution, the government introduced policies favouring French over the regional languages, which it pejoratively referred to as patois. The revolutionaries assumed that reactionary and monarchist forces preferred regional languages to try to keep the peasant masses underinformed, in 1794, Bertrand Barère submitted his report on the patois to the Committee of Public Safety in which he said that federalism and superstition speak Breton. Teachers humiliated students for using their regional languages, and such practices prevailed until the late 1960s, the majority of todays speakers are more than 60 years old, and Breton is now classified as an endangered language. At the beginning of the 20th century, half of the population of Lower Brittany knew only Breton, by 1950, there were only 100,000 monolingual Bretons, and this rapid decline has continued, with likely no monolingual speakers left today. A statistical survey in 1997 found around 300,000 speakers in Lower Brittany, few 15- to 19-year-olds spoke Breton. In 1925, Professor Roparz Hemon founded the Breton-language review Gwalarn, during its 19-year run, Gwalarn tried to raise the language to the level of a great international language. Its publication encouraged the creation of literature in all genres. In 1946, Al Liamm replaced Gwalarn, other Breton-language periodicals have been published, which established a fairly large body of literature for a minority language. In 1977, Diwan schools were founded to teach Breton by immersion and they taught a few thousand young people from elementary school to high school. See the education section for more information, the Asterix comic series has been translated into BretonBreton language – Bilingual sign Huelgoat, Brittany
3. Gallo language – Gallo is a regional language of France. It is not as commonly spoken as it once was, as the form of French now predominates. Gallo is classified as one of the Oïl languages, Gallo was originally spoken in the Marches of Neustria, which now corresponds to the border lands of Brittany and Normandy and its former heart in Le Mans, Maine. Gallo was the spoken language of the leaders of the Norman conquest of England, most of whom originated in Upper Brittany. Thus Gallo was a vehicle for the subsequent transformation of English, as an Oïl language, Gallo forms part of a dialect continuum which includes Norman, Picard and the Poitevin dialect, among others. One of the features that distinguishes it from Norman is the absence of Old Norse influence, there is some limited mutual intelligibility with adjacent varieties of the Norman language along the linguistic frontier and with Guernésiais and Jèrriais. However, as the dialect continuum shades towards Mayennais, there is a clear isogloss. The clearest isogloss is that distinguishing Gallo from Breton, a Brittonic Celtic language traditionally spoken in the territory of Brittany. In the west, the vocabulary of Gallo has been influenced by contact with Breton, the influence of Breton decreases eastwards across Gallo-speaking territory. The term gallo is sometimes spelled galo or gallot and it is also referred to as langue gallèse or britto-roman in Brittany. In south Lower Normandy and in the west of Pays de la Loire it is referred to as patois. Gallo comes from the Breton word gall, meaning “foreigner”, “French” or “non-Breton”, the Celts settled in Armorica toward the 8th century BC. Some of early groups mentioned in the records of the Greeks were the Redones. They spoke dialects of the Gaulish language and maintained important economic ties with the British Isles, julius Caesar’s invasion of Armorica in 56 BC led to a sort of Romanization of the population. Gaulish continued to be spoken in this region until the 6th century, especially in less populated, when the Bretons emigrated to Armorica around this time, they found a people who had retained their Celtic language and culture. The Bretons were therefore able to integrate easily, in contrast to Armorica’s western countryside, Nantes and Rennes were Roman cultural centres. Following the Migration Period, these two cities, as well as regions to the east of the Vilaine, including the town Vannes, fell under Frankish rule. Thus, during the Merovingian dynasty, the population of Armorica was diverse, consisting of Gaulish tribes with assimilated Bretons, as well as Romanized cities and Germanic tribesGallo language – The town of Loudéac displays its Gallo name, Loudia, on signage
4. Brittany (administrative region) – Brittany is one of the 18 regions of France. It is named after the historic and geographic region of Brittany, the region of Brittany was created in 1941 on 80% of the territory of traditional Brittany. The remaining 20% is now called the Loire-Atlantique department which is included in the Pays de la Loire region, whose capital, part of the reason why Brittany was split between two present-day regions was to avoid the rivalry between Rennes and Nantes. Although Nantes was the capital of the Duchy of Brittany until the sixteenth century. Despite that, the Chambre des comptes had remained in Nantes until 1789, although there were previous plans to create Régions out of the Départements, like the Clémentel plan or the Vichy regionalisation programme, these plans had no effect or else were abolished in 1945. The current French Regions date from 1956 and were created by gathering Departements together, in Brittany, this led to the creation of the new Region of Brittany, which included only four out of the five historical Breton départements. The term region was created by the Law of Decentralisation. The first direct elections for representatives took place on 16 March 1986. See History of Brittany Brittany, lying in the northwest corner of France, is one of the historic provinces of France. The most Atlantic of Frances regions, Brittany is proud of its Celtic heritage and it enjoys a mild climate somewhat warmer though not necessarily drier than the climate of the southwest of England. Quimper, the capital of the Finistère, and St. Brieuc and it is also the venue for Brittanys annual Interceltiques music and culture festival. Despite its limited size, Brittany is quite a diverse region, the south coast, facing onto the Bay of Biscay, is flatter, much milder, and graced by a number of large sandy beaches. The sea here is warmer in summer, the backbone of Brittany is a granite ridge stretching from east to west, peaking in the Monts dArrée. But most of inland Brittany is gentle farming country, a famous for its milk and butter. In cultural terms, Brittany is very distinctive, with its own language and Celtic cultural tradition that set it apart from the rest of France. The Breton language, though not much used in life, and not understood by most of the modern population, has made a comeback in recent years. Celtic traditions are alive or recalled today in Breton folk music, its Celtic festivals, the name of Brittany derives from settlers from Great Britain, who fled that island in the wake of the Anglo-Saxon conquest of England between the fifth and seventh centuries. Unlike the rest of France and Brittany, Lower Brittany has maintained a distinctly Celtic language, Breton and it was the dominant language in Lower, or western, Brittany until the mid-20th centuryBrittany (administrative region) – Le Diben harbour - Plougasnou (Brittany)
5. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the FranksFrance – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
6. Monarchy – The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic, to partial and restricted, to completely autocratic. Traditionally and in most cases, the monarchs post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication, occasionally this might create a situation of rival claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election. Finally, there have been cases where the term of a reign is either fixed in years or continues until certain goals are achieved. Thus there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy, Monarchy was the most common form of government until the 19th century, but it is no longer prevalent. Currently,47 sovereign nations in the world have monarchs acting as heads of state,19 of which are Commonwealth realms that recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their head of state. The monarchs of Cambodia, Japan, and Malaysia reign, the word monarch comes from the Greek language word μονάρχης, monárkhēs which referred to a single, at least nominally absolute ruler. In current usage the word usually refers to a traditional system of hereditary rule. Depending on the held by the monarch, a monarchy may be known as a kingdom, principality, duchy, grand duchy, empire, tsardom, emirate, sultanate, khaganate. The form of societal hierarchy known as chiefdom or tribal kingship is prehistoric, the Greek term monarchia is classical, used by Herodotus. The monarch in classical antiquity is often identified as king, the Chinese, Japanese and Nepalese monarchs continued to be considered living Gods into the modern period. Since antiquity, monarchy has contrasted with forms of democracy, where power is wielded by assemblies of free citizens. In antiquity, monarchies were abolished in favour of such assemblies in Rome, much of 19th century politics was characterised by the division between anti-monarchist Radicalism and monarchist Conservativism. Many countries abolished the monarchy in the 20th century and became republics, advocacy of republics is called republicanism, while advocacy of monarchies is called monarchism. In the modern era, monarchies are more prevalent in small states than in large ones, most monarchs, both historically and in the modern day, have been born and brought up within a royal family, the centre of the royal household and court. Growing up in a family, future monarchs are often trained for the responsibilities of expected future rule. Different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of blood, primogeniture, and agnatic seniority. While most monarchs have been male, many female monarchs also have reigned in history, rule may be hereditary in practice without being considered a monarchy, such as that of family dictatorships or political families in many democracies. The principal advantage of hereditary monarchy is the continuity of leadershipMonarchy – Richard I of England being anointed during his coronation in Westminster Abbey, from a 13th-century chronicle.
7. Fief – The fees were often lands or revenue-producing real property held in feudal land tenure, these are typically known as fiefs or fiefdoms. However, not only land but anything of value could be held in fee, including office, rights of exploitation such as hunting or fishing, monopolies in trade. In ancient Rome a benefice was a gift of land for life as a reward for services rendered, originally, in medieval Latin European documents, a land grant in exchange for service continued to be called a beneficium. Later, the term feudum, or feodum, began to replace beneficium in the documents, the first attested instance of this is from 984, although more primitive forms were seen up to one hundred years earlier. The origin of the feudum and why it replaced beneficium has not been well established, but there are multiple theories, described below. The most widely held theory is put forth by Marc Bloch that it is related to the Frankish term *fehu-ôd, in which means cattle and -ôd means goods. When land replaced currency as the store of value, the Germanic word *fehu-ôd replaced the Latin word beneficium. This Germanic origin theory was also shared by William Stubbs in the nineteenth century, a theory put forward by Archibald R. Lewis that the origin of fief is not feudum, but rather foderum, the earliest attested use being in Astronomuss Vita Hludovici. In that text is a passage about Louis the Pious which says annona militaris quas vulgo foderum vocant, a theory by Alauddin Samarrai suggests an Arabic origin, from fuyū. Samarrais theory is that early forms of fief include feo, feu, feuz, feuum and others, Samarrai, however, also advises medieval and early modern Muslim scribes often used etymologically fanciful roots in order to claim the most outlandish things to be of Arabian or Muslim origin. It lacked a precise meaning until the middle of the 12th century, in English usage, the word fee is first attested around 1250–1300, the word fief from around 1605–15. In French, the fief is found from the middle of the 13th century. In French, one also finds seigneurie, which rise to the expression seigneurial system to describe feudalism. Originally, vassalage did not imply the giving or receiving of landholdings, by the middle of the 10th century, fee had largely become hereditary. The eldest son of a deceased vassal would inherit, but first he had to do homage and fealty to the lord, historically, the fees of the 11th and the 12th century derived from two separate sources. The first was land carved out of the estates of the upper nobility, the second source was allodial land transformed into dependent tenures. The process occurred later in Germany, and was going on in the 13th century. In England, Henry II transformed them into important sources of royal income, the discontent of barons with royal claims to arbitrarily assessed reliefs and other feudal payments under Henrys son King John resulted in Magna Carta of 1215Fief – Harold Sacramentum Fecit Willelmo Duci (Bayeux Tapestry)
8. Kingdom of France – The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and it was also an early colonial power, with possessions around the world. France originated as West Francia, the half of the Carolingian Empire. A branch of the Carolingian dynasty continued to rule until 987, the territory remained known as Francia and its ruler as rex Francorum well into the High Middle Ages. The first king calling himself Roi de France was Philip II, France continued to be ruled by the Capetians and their cadet lines—the Valois and Bourbon—until the monarchy was overthrown in 1792 during the French Revolution. France in the Middle Ages was a de-centralised, feudal monarchy, in Brittany and Catalonia the authority of the French king was barely felt. Lorraine and Provence were states of the Holy Roman Empire and not yet a part of France, during the Late Middle Ages, the Kings of England laid claim to the French throne, resulting in a series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years War. Subsequently, France sought to extend its influence into Italy, but was defeated by Spain in the ensuing Italian Wars, religiously France became divided between the Catholic majority and a Protestant minority, the Huguenots, which led to a series of civil wars, the Wars of Religion. France laid claim to large stretches of North America, known collectively as New France, Wars with Great Britain led to the loss of much of this territory by 1763. French intervention in the American Revolutionary War helped secure the independence of the new United States of America, the Kingdom of France adopted a written constitution in 1791, but the Kingdom was abolished a year later and replaced with the First French Republic. The monarchy was restored by the great powers in 1814. During the later years of the elderly Charlemagnes rule, the Vikings made advances along the northern and western perimeters of the Kingdom of the Franks, after Charlemagnes death in 814 his heirs were incapable of maintaining political unity and the empire began to crumble. The Treaty of Verdun of 843 divided the Carolingian Empire into three parts, with Charles the Bald ruling over West Francia, the nucleus of what would develop into the kingdom of France. Viking advances were allowed to increase, and their dreaded longboats were sailing up the Loire and Seine rivers and other waterways, wreaking havoc. During the reign of Charles the Simple, Normans under Rollo from Norway, were settled in an area on either side of the River Seine, downstream from Paris, that was to become Normandy. With its offshoots, the houses of Valois and Bourbon, it was to rule France for more than 800 years. Henry II inherited the Duchy of Normandy and the County of Anjou, and married Frances newly divorced ex-queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine, after the French victory at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, the English monarchs maintained power only in southwestern Duchy of Guyenne. The death of Charles IV of France in 1328 without male heirs ended the main Capetian line, under Salic law the crown could not pass through a woman, so the throne passed to Philip VI, son of Charles of ValoisKingdom of France – The Kingdom of France in 1789. Ancien Régime provinces in 1789.
9. Peninsula – A peninsula is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends out. Examples include the upper and lower peninsulas of the state of Michigan, the surrounding water is usually understood to be continuous, though not necessarily named as a single body of water. Peninsulas are not always named as such, one can also be a headland, cape, island promontory, bill, point, a point is generally considered a tapering piece of land projecting into a body of water that is less prominent than a cape. A river which courses through a very tight meander is also said to form a peninsula within the loop of water. In English, the plural of peninsula is peninsulas or, less commonly, peninsulas can be found on coastlines and in smaller bodies of water throughout the world, ranging in scale from square meters to millions of square kilometers. Theres the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe, and in Southern Europe theres the Iberian Peninsula, the Italian Peninsula, south America has the Brunswick Peninsula, and Antarctica has the Antarctic Peninsula. In Africa, theres the Horn of Africa, and in Australia, asia has the 3 largest peninsulas in the world, the Arabian Peninsula, the Indian Peninsula, and the Indochinese PeninsulaPeninsula – The world's largest peninsula, the Arabian Peninsula
10. English Channel – The English Channel, also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France, and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. It is about 560 km long and varies in width from 240 km at its widest to 33.3 km in the Strait of Dover and it is the smallest of the shallow seas around the continental shelf of Europe, covering an area of some 75,000 km2. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the English Channel as follows, a line joining Isle Vierge to Lands End. The southwestern limit of the North Sea, the IHO defines the southwestern limit of the North Sea as a line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. The Walde Lighthouse is 6 km east of Calais, and Leathercoat Point is at the end of St Margarets Bay. The Strait of Dover, at the Channels eastern end, is its narrowest point and it is relatively shallow, with an average depth of about 120 m at its widest part, reducing to a depth of about 45 m between Dover and Calais. Eastwards from there the adjoining North Sea reduces to about 26 m in the Broad Fourteens where it lies over the watershed of the land bridge between East Anglia and the Low Countries. It reaches a depth of 180 m in the submerged valley of Hurds Deep,48 km west-northwest of Guernsey. The eastern region along the French coast between Cherbourg and the mouth of the Seine river at Le Havre is frequently referred to as the Bay of the Seine. There are several islands in the Channel, the most notable being the Isle of Wight off the English coast. The coastline, particularly on the French shore, is indented, several small islands close to the coastline, including Chausey. The Cotentin Peninsula in France juts out into the Channel, whilst on the English side there is a parallel channel known as the Solent between the Isle of Wight and the mainland. The Celtic Sea is to the west of the Channel, the Channel is of geologically recent origins, having been dry land for most of the Pleistocene period. The first flood would have lasted for months, releasing as much as one million cubic metres of water per second. The flood started with large but localized waterfalls over the ridge, the flow eroded the retaining ridge, causing the rock dam to fail and releasing lake water into the English Channel. The erosion of the Lobourg Channel was probably the final opening of the Strait, the time difference of about six hours between high water at the eastern and western limits of the Channel is indicative of the tidal range being amplified further by resonance. It was never defined as a border and the names were more or less descriptive. It was not considered as the property of a nation, strangely, before the development of the modern nations, British scholars very often referred to it as Gaulish and the French one as British or EnglishEnglish Channel – English Channel
11. Bay of Biscay – The Bay of Biscay /ˈbɪskeɪ, -ki/ is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea. It lies along the western coast of France from Point Penmarch to the Spanish border, the average depth is 1,744 metres and the greatest depth is 4,735 metres. The Bay of Biscay is named after Biscay on the northern Spanish coast, the Bay of Biscay is home to some of the Atlantic Oceans fiercest weather. Large storms occur in the bay, especially during the winter months, up until recent years it was a regular occurrence for merchant vessels to founder in Biscay storms. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Bay of Biscay as a line joining Cap Ortegal to Penmarch Point, the southernmost portion is the Cantabrian Sea. The phenomenon of June Gloom is common, in late spring and early summer a large fog triangle fills the southwestern half of the bay, covering just a few kilometres inland. As winter begins, weather becomes severe and these depressions cause severe weather at sea and bring light though very constant rain to its shores. The Gulf Stream enters the bay following the continental shelfs border anti-clockwise, the main cities on the shores of the Bay of Biscay are Bordeaux, Bayonne, Biarritz, Brest, Nantes, La Rochelle, Donostia-San Sebastián, Bilbao, Santander, Gijón and Avilés. The southern end of the gulf is called in Spanish Mar Cantábrico, from the Estaca de Bares, as far as the mouth of Adour river. It was named by Romans in the 1st century BC as Sinus Cantabrorum and also, on some medieval maps, the Bay of Biscay is marked as El Mar del los Vascos. The Bay of Biscay has been the site of famous naval engagements over the centuries. In 1592 the Spanish defeated an English fleet during the eponymous Battle of the Bay of Biscay, the USS Californian sank here after striking a naval mine on June 22,1918. On December 28,1943, the Battle of the Bay of Biscay was fought between HMS Glasgow and HMS Enterprise and a group of German destroyers as part of Operation Stonewall during World War II. U-667 sank on 25 August 1944 in position 46°00′N 01°30′W, when she struck a mine, often specialist groups take the ferries to hear more information. Volunteers and employees of Biscay Dolphin Research regularly observe and monitor cetacean activity from the bridge of the ships on the P&O Ferries Portsmouth to Bilbao route, many species of whales and dolphins can be seen in this area. Most importantly, it is one of the few places where the beaked whales and this is the best study area in the world for beaked whales. Other records in the late 20th century include one off Galicia at 43°00′N 10°30′W in September 1977 reported by a whaling company and another one seen off the Iberian Peninsula. The best areas to see the larger cetaceans lie in the deep waters beyond the shelf, particularly over the Santander CanyonBay of Biscay – Spanish coast along the Bay of Biscay
12. Ille-et-Vilaine – Ille-et-Vilaine is a department of France, located in the region of Brittany in the northwest of the country. Ille-et-Vilaine is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4,1790 and it was created from part of the province of Brittany. Also the English Channel borders the department to the north, the department is named after its two main rivers, the Ille and the Vilaine, whose confluence is in Rennes, the capital of the department and of the region. The elevated hills bordering this basin are covered by several old forests now exploited by men for the production of wood, the basin itself is a rich agriculture area, as well as the north-west of the department near the Rance. The population has grown rapidly over the last few decades and was estimated at 1,019,923 in January 2013, gallo is a historic minority language spoken in eastern Brittany. Gallo and Breton are both studied at the University of Rennes, a recent study shows that Breton speakers in this region represent 3. 3% of the total number of Breton speakers. The Breton speakers aged 18–30 in this region represent 12. 7% of the number of Breton speakers of that age group. This is because there are relatively few elder speakers but many people are learning the language, the study says that about 1,800 people are learning it. The President of the General Council is the Socialist Jean-Louis Tourenne since the French cantonal elections,2004, the city of Rennes and its suburbs are the original base of the rapid Socialist growth in the department. The city has been governed by Socialist Mayors since 1977, notably by Edmond Hervé between 1977 and 2008, since then, the growth of middle-class suburbs have helped the Socialists, who have been rapidly gaining strength in those formerly right-leaning areas. The right remains strong in a strongly Catholic area from outside Redon to Vitré or Fougères, in addition, the right is strong in the wealthy coastal area of Saint-Malo and DinardIlle-et-Vilaine – Rennes downtown
13. Loire-Atlantique – Loire-Atlantique is a department on the west coast of France named after the Loire River and the Atlantic Ocean. Loire-Atlantique is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4,1790, originally, it was named Loire-Inférieure, but its name was changed in 1957 to Loire-Atlantique. The area is part of the historical Duchy of Brittany, and contains what many still consider to be Brittanys capital. However, when the system of French Regions was reviewed by the Vichy Government, whilst these administrative changes were reversed after the war, they were re-implemented in the 1955 boundary changes intended to optimise the management of the regions. There has since been a series of reflecting a strong local mood to have the department reintegrated with Brittany. Loire-Atlantique is part of the current region of Pays-de-la-Loire and is surrounded by the department of Morbihan, Ille-et-Vilaine, Maine-et-Loire, Upper Brittanys indigenous language is Gallo, a romance language related to French. The number of Gallo language speakers has been in decline since the early 20th century. The language is neither official nor taught in primary or secondary education, the Breton language, a Celtic language, native to Lower Brittany, was historically spoken in the western area of Loire-Atlantique, and up to 1920 in Batz-sur-Mer. This area has a rather Breton toponymy, for instance, Guérande originates from the Breton Gwenn Rann, the folklore and musical traditions of eastern or Lower Brittany are generally similar to those of western or Upper Brittany. The département operates the Lila network of buses, which link its villages, towns. The urban areas of Nantes and Saint-Nazaire operate their own urban transport networks, by rail, the regional trains and buses of the TER Pays de la Loire link major towns and cities of the Pays de la Loire and adjoining regions, including those of the département. Nantes is on the TGV network, with high speed trains running to Paris by the LGV Atlantique in just over 2 hours, Nantes Atlantique Airport, located 8 km to the southwest of the city of Nantes, serves the département and surrounding areas. It is the biggest airport in northwestern France, linking with several French, North African and European cities and it is currently planned that this airport will be replaced by a new Aéroport du Grand Ouest, situated 30 km to the north-west of Nantes in the commune of Notre-Dame-des-Landes. The €580 million project was approved in February 2008, with construction expected to start in 2012 and an opening date in 2015Loire-Atlantique – Prefecture building of the Loire-Atlantique department, in Nantes
14. Morbihan – Morbihan is a department in Brittany, situated in the northwest of France. It is named after the Morbihan, the sea that is the principal feature of the coastline. It is noted for its Carnac stones, which predate and are more extensive than the more familiar Stonehenge, Morbihan is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4,1790. It was created from a part of the Duchy of Brittany, Morbihan is part of the current region of Brittany and is surrounded by the departments of Finistère, Côtes-dArmor, Ille-et-Vilaine, and Loire-Atlantique, and the Atlantic Ocean on the southwest. The Gulf of Morbihan has many islands,365 according to legend, there are also many islets which are too small to be built on. Of these islands, all but two are private, lÎle-aux-Moines and lÎle-dArz, the others are privately owned, some by movie stars or fashion designers. The largest towns in Morbihan are Vannes and Lorient, the Breton language is an important issue, with many advocating bilingual education. The painter Raymond Wintz depicted locations around the Gulf of Morbihan, as of 2014, the préfet of Morbihan is Jean-François Savy, previously head of the Prefectures of Ardennes and of Hautes-Alpes. The Carnac stones, megalithic alignments of Carnac are situated in MorbihanMorbihan – Prefecture building of the Morbihan department, in Vannes
15. Metropolitan area – As social, economic and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. The Greater São Paulo is a term for one of the multiple definitions the large metropolitan area located in the São Paulo state in Brazil. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not necessarily urban in character and these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, and may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, El Monte, California is considered part of the Los Angeles metro area in the United States, in practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Population figures given for one area can vary by millions. A polycentric metropolitan area is one not connected by continuous development or conurbation, in defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus that other areas have a high degree of integration with. The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines statistical divisions as areas under the influence of one or more major towns or a major city. However, this definition has become obsolete with the conurbation of several statistical divisions into a larger metropolitan areas. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called metropolitan regions, each State defines its own legislation for the creation, definition and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography. Their main purpose is to allow for a management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved. They dont have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the area must have a population of at least 100,000. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a degree of integration with the core. As of the Canada 2011 Census, there were 33 CMAs in Canada, including six with a population over one million—Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary and Edmonton. In Denmark the only area is Greater Copenhagen, consisting of the Capital Region of Denmark along with the neighboring regions Region Zealand. Greater Copenhagen has an population of 1.25 million peopleMetropolitan area – Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina
16. Nantes – Nantes is a city in western France, located on the Loire River,50 km from the Atlantic coast. The city is the sixth largest in France, with almost 300,000 inhabitants within its limits. Together with Saint-Nazaire, a located on the Loire estuary. Nantes is the seat of the Loire-Atlantique département and of the Pays de la Loire région. Historically and culturally, Nantes belongs to Brittany, a former duchy, the fact that it is not part of the modern administrative Brittany région is subject to debate. Nantes appeared during the Antiquity as a port on the Loire and it became the seat of a bishopric at the end of the Roman era, before being conquered by the Breton people in 851. Nantes was the residence of the dukes of Brittany in the 15th century. The French Revolution was a period of turmoil resulted in an economic decline. Nantes managed to develop a strong industry after 1850, chiefly in ship building, however, deindustrialisation in the second half of the 20th century pushed the city to reorient its economy towards services. In 2012, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked Nantes as a Gamma- world city and it is the fourth highest ranking city in France after Paris, Lyon and Marseilles. The Gamma- category gathers other large cities such as Algiers, Orlando, Porto, Turin, Nantes has often been praised for its quality of life and it was awarded the European Green Capital Award in 2013. The settlement is mentioned in Ptolemys Geography as Κονδηούινϰον and Κονδιούινϰον, during the Gallo-Roman period, this name was latinised and adapted as Condevincum, Condevicnum, Condivicnum, Condivincum, etc. Condevincum seems to be related to the Gaulish word condate meaning confluence, at the end of the Roman period, Condevincum became known as Portus Namnetum and civitas Namnetum. This phenomenon can be observed on most of the ancient cities of France throughout the 4th century, for instance, Lutecia became Paris, city of the Parisii, Darioritum became Vannes, city of the Veneti. Portus Namnetum evolved in Nanetiæ and Namnetis in the 5th century, the name of the Namnetes people could either come from the Gaulish root *nant-, from the pre-Celtic root *nanto or from the other tribe name Amnites, which could mean men of the river. The name Nantes is pronounced and the city inhabitants are called Nantais, in Gallo, the romance dialect traditionally spoken in the region around Nantes, the city is called Naunnt or Nantt, according to the various spelling systems. The Gallo pronunciation is the same as the French one, although northern speakers pronounce it with a long, in Breton language, Nantes is known as Naoned or An Naoned. The latter, meaning the Nantes, is common and reflects the fact that articles are more frequent in Breton toponyms than in French onesNantes – Place Royale
17. Rennes – Rennes is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine. Rennes is the capital of the region of Brittany, as well as the Ille-et-Vilaine department, renness history goes back more than 2,000 years, at a time when it was a small Gallic village named Condate. Together with Vannes and Nantes, it was one of the cities of the historic province of Brittany. After the French Revolution, Rennes remained for most of its history a parliamentary, administrative, since the 1950s, Rennes has grown in importance through rural flight and its modern industrial development, partly automotive. The city developed extensive building plans to accommodate upwards of 200,000 inhabitants, during the 1980s, Rennes became one of the main centres in telecommunication and high technology industry. It is now a significant digital innovation centre in France, in 2015, the city is the tenth largest in France, with a metropolitan area of about 700,000 inhabitants. With more than 63,000 students in 2013, is also the eighth-largest university campus of France, the inhabitants of Rennes are called Rennais in French. In 2012, lExpress named Rennes as the most liveable city in France, Rennes is the administrative capital of the French department of Ille-et-Vilaine. It has a long history due to its location at the confluence of two rivers and its proximity to the regions from which arose various challenges to the borders of Brittany. Without inscriptions, as the Celtic practice was, the Redones coinage features a charioteer whose pony has a human head, large hoards of their coins were unearthed in the treasure of Amanlis found in June 1835 and that of Saint-Jacques-de-la-Lande, discovered in February 1941. The museum at Rennes contains a representative collection. In 57 BC the Redones joined the Gaulish coalition against Rome which was suppressed by Crassus, in 52 BC, the Redones responded to the call of Vercingetorix to furnish a large contingent of warriors. The oldest known Rennais is Titus Flavius Postuminus, known to us from his steles found in Rennes in 1969. As indicated by his name, he would have been born under the Flavian dynasty, under the reign of Titus, one of the steles tells us, in Latin, that he took charge over all the public affairs in the Civitas Riedonum. He was twice duumvir and flamen for life for Mars Mullo, during the Roman era, the strategic position of the town contributed to its importance. To the west the principal Roman route, via Osismii, stretched from Condate Riedonum to Vorgium, in 275, the threat of barbarians led to the erection of a robust brick wall around Rennes. The Holy See of Rennes had been established by 453, with a church having occupied the site of the current Rennes Cathedral since the start of the 6th century. One of the earliest bishops of Rennes, Melaine - who would become the patron saint - played an important role in the peace treaty between the Franks and the Armoricans in 497Rennes
18. Brest, France – Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany in northwestern France. The city is located on the edge of continental Europe. Although Brest is by far the largest city in Finistère, the préfecture of the department is the much smaller Quimper, during the Middle Ages, the history of Brest was the history of its castle. Then Richelieu made it a military harbour, Brest grew around its arsenal, until the second part of the 20th century. Heavily damaged by the Allies bombing raids during World War II, at the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, the deindustrialization of the city was followed by the development of the service sector. Nowadays, Brest is an important university town with 23,000 students, Brest is also an important research centre, mainly focused on the sea, with among others the largest Ifremer centre, le Cedre and the French Polar Institute. Brest’s history has always been linked to the sea, the Académie de Marine was founded in 1752 in this city, the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle was built there. Every four years, Brest hosts the festival of the sea, boats and sailors. Nothing definite is known of Brest before about 1240, when a count of Léon ceded it to John I, in 1342, John IV, Duke of Brittany, surrendered Brest to the English, in whose possession it was to remain until 1397. The importance of Brest in medieval times was great enough to rise to the saying. With the marriage of Francis I of France to Claude, the daughter of Anne of Brittany, the advantages of Brests situation as a seaport town were first recognized by Cardinal Richelieu, who in 1631 constructed a harbor with wooden wharves. This soon became a base for the French Navy, jean-Baptiste Colbert, finance minister under Louis XIV, rebuilt the wharves in masonry and otherwise improved the harbour. Fortifications by Vauban followed in 1680–1688 and these fortifications, and with them the naval importance of the town, were to continue to develop throughout the 18th century. In 1694, an English squadron under Lord Berkeley, was defeated in its attack on Brest. In 1917, during the First World War, Brest was used as the port for many of the troops coming from the United States. Thousands of such men came through the port on their way to the front lines, the United States Navy established a naval air station on 13 February 1918 to operate seaplanes. The base closed shortly after the Armistice of 11 November 1918, in the Second World War, the Germans maintained a large U-boat submarine base at Brest. In 1944, after the Allied invasion of Normandy, the city was almost totally destroyed during the Battle for Brest, with only a tiny number of buildings left standingBrest, France – Brest in 1779
19. Brittany – Brittany is a cultural region in the north-west of France. Brittany has also referred to as Less, Lesser or Little Britain. It is bordered by the English Channel to the north, the Celtic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and its land area is 34,023 km². Since reorganisation in 1956, the administrative region of Brittany comprises only four of the five Breton departments. The remaining area of old Brittany, the Loire-Atlantique department around Nantes, at the 2010 census, the population of historic Brittany was estimated to be 4,475,295. Of these, 71% lived in the region of Brittany, while 29% lived in the Loire-Atlantique department, in 2012, the largest metropolitan areas were Nantes, Rennes, and Brest. Brittany is the homeland of the Breton people and is recognised by the Celtic League as one of the six Celtic nations. A nationalist movement seeks greater autonomy within the French Republic, the word Brittany, along with its French, Breton and Gallo equivalents Bretagne, Breizh and Bertaèyn, derive from the Latin Britannia, which means Britons land. This word had been used by the Romans since the 1st century to refer to Great Britain and this word derives from a Greek word, Πρεττανικη or Βρεττανίαι, used by Pytheas, an explorer from Massalia who visited the British Islands around 320 BC. This term probably comes from a Gallic word, aremorica, which close to the sea. Another name, Letauia, was used until the 12th century and it possibly means wide and flat or to expand and it gave the Welsh name for Brittany, Llydaw. Later, authors like Geoffrey of Monmouth used the terms Britannia minor, breton-speaking people may pronounce the word Breizh in two different ways, according to their region of origin. Breton can be divided into two dialects, the KLT and the dialect of Vannes. KLT speakers pronounce it and would write it Breiz, while the Vannetais speakers pronounce it, the official spelling is a compromise between both variants, with a z and an h together. In 1941, efforts to unify the dialects led to the creation of the so-called Breton zh, on its side, Gallo language has never had a widely accepted writing system and several ones coexist. For instance, the name of the region in that language can be written Bertaèyn in ELG script, or Bertègn in MOGA, Brittany has been inhabited by humans since the Lower Paleolithic. This population was scarce and very similar to the other Neanderthals found in the whole of Western Europe and their only original feature was a distinct culture, called Colombanian. One of the oldest hearths in the world has found in PlouhinecBrittany – The Carnac stones.
20. Megalith – A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. The word megalithic describes structures made of large stones without the use of mortar or concrete. For later periods, the monolith, with an overlapping meaning, is more likely to be used. The word megalith comes from the Ancient Greek μέγας and λίθος, megalith also denotes an item consisting of rock hewn in definite shapes for special purposes. It has been used to describe buildings built by people from parts of the world living in many different periods. A variety of stones are seen as megaliths, with the most widely known megaliths not being sepulchral. The construction of these took place mainly in the Neolithic and continued into the Chalcolithic. At a number of sites in eastern Turkey, large ceremonial complexes from the 9th millennium BC have been discovered and they belong to the incipient phases of agriculture and animal husbandry. Large circular structures involving carved megalithic orthostats are a feature, e. g. at Nevalı Çori. Although these structures are the most ancient megalithic structures known so far, at Göbekli Tepe, four stone circles have been excavated from an estimated 20. Some measure up to 30 metres across, as well as human figures, the stones carry a variety of carved reliefs depicting boars, foxes, lions, birds, snakes and scorpions. Dolmens and standing stones have been found in areas of the Middle East starting at the Turkish border in the north of Syria close to Aleppo. They can be encountered in Lebanon, Syria, Iran, Israel, Jordan, the largest concentration can be found in southern Syria and along the Jordan Rift Valley, however they are being threatened with destruction. They date from the late Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age, megaliths have also been found on Kharg Island and pirazmian in Iran, at Barda Balka in Iraq, and at Jaintapur in Bangladesh. A semicircular arrangement of megaliths was found in Israel at Atlit Yam and it is a very early example, dating from the 7th millennium BC. The most concentrated occurrence of dolmens in particular is in an area on both sides of the Jordan Rift Valley, with greater predominance on the eastern side. They occur first and foremost on the Golan Heights, the Hauran, and in Jordan, in Saudi Arabia, only very few dolmen have been identified so far in the Hejaz. They seem, however, to re-emerge in Yemen in small numbers, the standing stone has a very ancient tradition in the Middle East, dating back from Mesopotamian timesMegalith – Megalithic grave " Harhoog " in Keitum, Sylt, Germany.
21. Neolithic – It ended when metal tools became widespread. The Neolithic is a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops, the beginning of the Neolithic culture is considered to be in the Levant about 10, 200–8800 BC. It developed directly from the Epipaleolithic Natufian culture in the region, whose people pioneered the use of wild cereals, which then evolved into true farming. The Natufian period was between 12,000 and 10,200 BC, and the so-called proto-Neolithic is now included in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic between 10,200 and 8800 BC. By 10, 200–8800 BC, farming communities arose in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa, Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat, millet and spelt, and the keeping of dogs, sheep. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order, the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery. Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture, unlike the Paleolithic, when more than one human species existed, only one human species reached the Neolithic. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, new and λίθος líthos, stone, the term was invented by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC, early development occurred in the Levant and from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the Neolithic 1 period began roughly 10,000 years ago in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe dated around 9500 BC may be regarded as the beginning of the period. This site was developed by nomadic tribes, evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity. At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals, insects, Stone tools were used by perhaps as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, Israel, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Tahunian and Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming, in the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, and perhaps early seed selection and re-seeding occurred. The grain was ground into flour, emmer wheat was domesticated, and animals were herded and domesticatedNeolithic – An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. Neolithic stone artifacts are by definition polished and, except for specialty items, not chipped.
22. Veneti (Gaul) – The Veneti were a seafaring Celtic people who lived in the Brittany peninsula, which in Roman times formed part of an area called Armorica. They gave their name to the city of Vannes. Other ancient Celtic peoples historically attested in Armorica include the Redones, Curiosolitae, Osismii, Esubii, the Veneti inhabited southern Armorica, along the Morbihan bay. They built their strongholds on coastal eminences, which were islands when the tide was in and their most notable city, and probably their capital, was Darioritum, mentioned in Ptolemys Geography. The Veneti built their ships of oak with large transoms fixed by iron nails of a thumbs thickness and they navigated and powered their ships through the use of leather sails. This made their ships strong, sturdy and structurally sound, capable of withstanding the harsh conditions of the Atlantic, judging by Caesars Bello Gallico the Veneti evidently had close relations with Bronze Age Britain, he describes how the Veneti sail to Britain. They controlled the tin trade from mining in Cornwall and Devon, Caesar mentioned that they summoned military assistance from that island during the war of 56 BCE. Julius Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BCE, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both bodies of water when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain. Caesar reports in the Bellum Gallicum that in 57 BCE, the Gauls on the Atlantic coast and they were obliged to sign treaties and yield hostages as a token of good faith. Angered by what he considered a breach of law, Caesar prepared for war, given the highly defendable nature of the Veneti strongholds, land attacks were frustrated by the incoming tide, and naval forces were left trapped on the rocks when the tide ebbed. Despite this, Caesar managed to engineer moles and raised siegeworks that provided his legions with a base of operations. However, once the Veneti were threatened in one stronghold, they used their fleet to evacuate to another stronghold, since the destruction of the enemy fleet was the only permanent way to end this problem, Caesar directed his men to build ships. However, his galleys were at a disadvantage compared to the far thicker Veneti ships. The Veneti manoeuvred so skilfully under sail that boarding was impossible and these factors, coupled with their intimate knowledge of the coast and tides, put the Romans at a disadvantage. However, these advantages would not stand in the face of Roman perseverance, the Romans were at last able to board, and the whole Veneti fleet fell into their hands. The strongholds on the coast were now stormed and the nobles were slaughtered and this served as a lesson to the rest of the confederacy of the fate in store for those who dared to stand against Rome. History of Brittany List of Celtic tribes List of peoples of Gaul Cunliffe, erickson, Brice Falling Masts, Rising Masters, The Ethnography of Virtue in Caesars Account of the Veneti, American Journal of Philology 123, 601-22Veneti (Gaul) – Veneti coins, 5th-1st century BCE.
23. Gaul – It covered an area of 190,800 sq mi. According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul was divided into three parts, Gallia Celtica, Belgica and Aquitania, during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule, Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC by the Cimbri and the Teutons, Gallia remains a name of France in modern Greek and modern Latin. The Greek and Latin names Galatia, and Gallia are ultimately derived from a Celtic ethnic term or clan Gal-to-. Galli of Gallia Celtica were reported to refer to themselves as Celtae by Caesar. Hellenistic folk etymology connected the name of the Galatians to the supposedly milk-white skin of the Gauls, modern researchers say it is related to Welsh gallu, Cornish galloes, capacity, power, thus meaning powerful people. The English Gaul is from French Gaule and is unrelated to Latin Gallia, as adjectives, English has the two variants, Gaulish and Gallic. The two adjectives are used synonymously, as pertaining to Gaul or the Gauls, although the Celtic language or languages spoken in Gaul is predominantly known as Gaulish. The Germanic w- is regularly rendered as gu- / g- in French, also unrelated in spite of superficial similarity is the name Gael. The Irish word gall did originally mean a Gaul, i. e. an inhabitant of Gaul, but its meaning was later widened to foreigner, to describe the Vikings, and later still the Normans. The dichotomic words gael and gall are sometimes used together for contrast, by 500 BC, there is strong Hallstatt influence throughout most of France. By the late 5th century BC, La Tène influence spreads rapidly across the territory of Gaul. The La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age in France, Switzerland, Italy, Austria, southwest Germany, Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia, farther north extended the contemporary pre-Roman Iron Age culture of northern Germany and Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the Romans described Gallia Transalpina as distinct from Gallia Cisalpina, while some scholars believe the Belgae south of the Somme were a mixture of Celtic and Germanic elements, their ethnic affiliations have not been definitively resolved. One of the reasons is political interference upon the French historical interpretation during the 19th century, in addition to the Gauls, there were other peoples living in Gaul, such as the Greeks and Phoenicians who had established outposts such as Massilia along the Mediterranean coast. Also, along the southeastern Mediterranean coast, the Ligures had merged with the Celts to form a Celto-Ligurian culture, the prosperity of Mediterranean Gaul encouraged Rome to respond to pleas for assistance from the inhabitants of Massilia, who were under attack by a coalition of Ligures and Gauls. The Romans intervened in Gaul in 154 BC and again in 125 BC, whereas on the first occasion they came and went, on the second they stayed. Massilia was allowed to keep its lands, but Rome added to its territories the lands of the conquered tribes. The direct result of conquests was that by now, Rome controlled an area extending from the Pyrenees to the lower Rhône riverGaul – Map of Roman Gaul (Droysens Allgemeiner historischer Handatlas, 1886)
24. Armorica – The toponym is based on the Gaulish phrase are-mori on/at sea, made into the Gaulish place name Aremorica Place by the Sea. The suffix -ika was first used to create forms and then. The original designation was vague, including a part of what became Normandy in the 10th century and, in some interpretations. Later, the term became restricted to Brittany, in Breton, on sea is war vor, though the older form arvor is used to refer to the coastal regions of Brittany, in contrast to argoad for the inland regions. Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, claims that Armorica was the name for Aquitania. Trade between Armorica and Britain, described by Diodorus Siculus and implied by Pliny was long-established and this prehistoric connection of Cornwall and Brittany set the stage for the link that continued into the medieval era. Still farther East, however, the typical Continental connections of the Britannic coast were with the lower Seine valley instead, archeology has not yet been as enlightening in Iron-Age Armorica as the coinage, which has been surveyed by Philip de Jersey. Under the Roman Empire, Armorica was administered as part of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis, when the Roman provinces were reorganized in the 4th century, Armorica was placed under the second and third divisions of Lugdunensis. Jordanes lists Aëtius allies as including Armoricans and other Celtic or German tribes, the Armorican peninsula came to be settled with Britons from Britain during the poorly documented period of the 5th-7th centuries. Even in distant Byzantium Procopius heard tales of migrations to the Frankish mainland from the island, largely legendary for him, of Brittia. These settlers, whether refugees or not, made the presence felt of their coherent groups in the naming of the westernmost, Atlantic-facing provinces of Armorica, Cornouaille and these settlements are associated with leaders like Saints Samson of Dol and Pol Aurelian, among the founder saints of Brittany. Still, questions of the relations between the Celtic cultures of Britain— Cornish and Welsh— and Celtic Breton are far from settled, Martin Henig suggests that in Armorica as in sub-Roman Britain, there was a fair amount of creation of identity in the migration period. In western Armorica the small elite which managed to impose an identity on the population happened to be British rather than Gallo-Roman in origin, the process may have been essentially the same. With western Armorica having already evolved into Brittany, the east was recast from a Frankish viewpoint as the Breton March under a Frankish marquis. The home village of the fictional comic-book hero Asterix was located in Armorica during the Roman Republic, there and this unnamed village was reported as having been discovered by archaeologists in a spoof article in the British The Independent newspaper on April Fools Day,1993. North Armorica is mentioned in the first sentence of James Joyces novel Finnegans Wake, Armorica is featured extensively in Bernard Cornwells novel The Winter King where Ynys Trebes, later Mont Saint Michel is besieged and destroyed by the Franks. The protagonist, Mathurin Kerbouchard, of Louis LAmours The Walking Drum is a native of Brittany, armoricani Armorican Plomodiern Parish close Saxon shore Martin Henig, review in British Archaeology 72 John Hooker - Coriosolite coinage and classificationArmorica – A Celtic stater made from billon alloy found in Armorica
25. Britons (historical) – They spoke the Common Brittonic language, the ancestor to the modern Brittonic languages. The earliest evidence for the Britons and their language in historical sources dates to the Iron Age, after the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, a Romano-British culture emerged, and Latin and British Vulgar Latin coexisted with Brittonic. During and after the Roman era, the Britons lived throughout Britain south of the Firth of Forth, with the beginning of Anglo-Saxon settlement in the 5th century, the culture and language of the Britons fragmented and much of their territory was taken over by the Anglo-Saxons. The extent to which cultural and linguistic change was accompanied by wholesale changes in the population is still a matter of discussion. During this period some Britons migrated to mainland Europe and established significant settlements in Brittany as well as Britonia in modern Galicia, Common Brittonic developed into the distinct Brittonic languages, Welsh, Cumbric, Cornish and Breton. Although none of his own writings remain, writers during the time of the Roman Empire made much reference to them, the group included Ireland, which was referred to as Ierne inhabited by the race of Hiberni, and Britain as insula Albionum, island of the Albions. The term Pritani may have reached Pytheas from the Gauls, who used it as their term for the inhabitants of the islands. The first inhabitants were the Britons, who came from Armenia, the Latin name in the early Roman Empire period was Britanni or Brittanni, following the Roman conquest in AD43. Brittonic languages is a recent coinage intended to refer to the ancient Britons specifically. In English, the term Briton originally denoted the ancient Britons and their descendants, most particularly the Welsh, who were seen as heirs to the ancient British people. After the Acts of Union 1707, the terms British and Briton came to be applied not just to the remaining Brittonic peoples themselves, the Britons spoke an Insular Celtic language known as Common Brittonic. Brittonic was spoken throughout the island of Britain, as well as islands such as the Isle of Man, Scilly Isles, Orkneys, Hebrides. Thus the area today is called Brittany, Common Brittonic developed from the Insular branch of the Proto-Celtic language that developed in the British Isles after arriving from the continent in the 7th century BC. The language eventually began to diverge, some linguists have grouped subsequent developments as Western and Southwestern Brittonic languages, Pictish is now generally accepted to descend from Common Brittonic, rather than being a separate Celtic language. Welsh and Breton survive today, Cumbric became extinct in the 12th century, Cornish had become extinct by the 19th century but has been the subject of language revitalization since the 20th century. Ideas about the development of British Iron Age culture changed greatly in the 20th century, by this time Celtic styles seem to have been in decline in continental Europe, even before Roman invasions. Throughout their existence, the inhabited by the Britons was composed of numerous ever-changing areas controlled by Brittonic tribes. Part of the Pictish territory was absorbed into the Gaelic kingdoms of Dál Riata and AlbaBritons (historical) – Gritstone bas-relief of Romano-British woman
26. Wales – Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector, light and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen. The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage, culture, and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian, Cambric and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, WelshWales – Bryn Celli Ddu, a late Neolithic chambered tomb on Anglesey
27. Magnus Maximus – Magnus Maximus was Western Roman Emperor from 383 to 388. In 387, Maximus ambitions led him to invade Italy, resulting in his defeat by Theodosius I at the Battle of the Save in 388, in the view of some historians, his death marked the end of direct imperial presence in Northern Gaul and Britain. Maximus was born c.335 in Gallaecia, on the estates of Count Theodosius, to whom he was a nephew, and Flavius Iulius Eucherius son, near contemporaries described his dignity as offended when lesser men were promoted to high positions. Maximus was a general, who served under Count Theodosius in Africa in 373. It is likely he also may have been an officer in Britain in 368. Assigned to Britain in 380, he defeated an incursion of the Picts and Scots in 381, the western emperor Gratian had become unpopular because of perceived favouritism toward Alans over Roman citizens. The Alans are an Iranian speaking people who were early adopters of Christianity, in 383 Maximus was proclaimed emperor by his troops. He went to Gaul to pursue his ambitions, taking a large portion of the British garrison troops with him. Following his landing in Gaul, Maximus went out to meet his opponent, emperor Gratian. Gratian, after fleeing, was killed at Lyon on August 25,383, negotiations followed in 384 including the intervention of Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, leading to an accord with Valentinian II and Theodosius I in which Maximus was recognized as Augustus in the west. Maximus made his capital at Augusta Treverorum in Gaul, and ruled Britain, Gaul, Spain and he issued coinage and a number of edicts reorganizing Gauls system of provinces. Some scholars believe Maximus may have founded the office of the Comes Britanniarum as well and he became a popular emperor, Quintus Aurelius Symmachus delivered a panegyric on Maximus virtues. He used foederati forces such as the Alamanni to great effect and he was also a stern persecutor of heretics. These executions went ahead despite the wishes of prominent men such as St. Martin of Tours. Maximus edict of 387 or 388 which censured Christians at Rome for burning down a Jewish synagogue, was condemned by bishop Ambrose, in 387 Maximus managed to force emperor Valentinian II out of Milan, after which he fled to Theodosius I. Theodosius I and Valentinian II then invaded from the east, and campaigned against Magnus Maximus in July–August 388, their troops being led by Richomeres, Maximus was defeated in the Battle of the Save, and retreated to Aquileia. Meanwhile, the Franks under Marcomer had taken the opportunity to invade northern Gaul, andragathius, magister equitum of Maximus and the killer of emperor Gratian, was defeated near Siscia while Maximus brother, Marcellinus, fell in battle at Poetovio. Maximus surrendered in Aquileia, and although he pleaded for mercy was executed, the Senate passed a decree of Damnatio memoriae against himMagnus Maximus – Magnus Maximus
28. Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain – The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain describes the process which changed the language and culture of most of England from Romano-British to Germanic. The Germanic-speakers in Britain, themselves of diverse origins, eventually developed a cultural identity as Anglo-Saxons. This process occurred from the mid 5th to early 7th centuries, the settlement was followed by the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the south and east of Britain, later followed by the rest of modern England. The available evidence includes the scanty contemporary and near-contemporary written record, the few literary sources tell of hostility between incomers and natives. They describe violence, destruction, massacre and the flight of the Romano-British population, also, it has long been supposed that the influence of Celtic languages on Old English was slight. These points have suggested a very large-scale invasion by various Germanic peoples, in this view, held by the majority of historians until the mid to late twentieth century, much of England was cleared of its prior inhabitants. If this traditional viewpoint were to be correct, the genes of the later English people would have been inherited from Germanic migrants. Another view, probably the most widely today, is that the migrants were relatively few. They then dominated a process of acculturation to Germanic language and material culture, consistent with this theory, archaeologists find that settlement patterns and land-use show no clear break with the Romano-British past, though there are marked changes in material culture. This view predicts that the ancestry of the people of Anglo-Saxon, the uncertain results of genetic studies tend to support this prediction. There are also two less well-supported theories, held by a minority of scholars, both originating from population genetics studies, first, Stephen Oppenheimer has argued that Germanic peoples, language and culture existed in eastern regions of Britain, even in pre-Roman times. This idea has been very actively challenged by a number of linguists, second, that the early settlers may have arrived in considerable numbers but represented a minority relative to the natives. If these incomers established themselves as an elite, this could have allowed them enhanced reproductive success. In this case, the genes of later Anglo-Saxon England could have been derived from moderate numbers of Germanic migrants. By 400, the Roman provinces in Britain were a part of the Roman Empire, occasionally lost to rebellion or invasion. That cycle of loss and recapture collapsed over the next decade, the history of this period has traditionally been a narrative of decline and fall. However, evidence from Verulamium suggests that urban-type rebuilding, featuring piped water, was continuing late on in the 5th century, at Silchester, there are signs of sub-Roman occupation down to around 500, and at Wroxeter new Roman baths have been identiﬁed as Roman-type. There are also signs in Gildas works that the economy was thriving without Roman taxation, as he complains of luxuria and this is the 5th century Britain into which the Anglo-Saxons appearAnglo-Saxon invasion of Britain – Britain, 383–410
29. Brythonic languages – The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family, the other is Goidelic. The name Brythonic was derived by Welsh Celticist John Rhys from the Welsh word Brython, the name Brittonic derives ultimately from the name Prettanike, recorded by Greek authors for the British Isles. Some authors reserve the term Brittonic for the modified later Brittonic languages after about AD600, the Brittonic languages derive from the Common Brittonic language, spoken throughout Great Britain south of the Firth of Forth during the Iron Age and Roman period. In addition, North of the Forth, the Pictish language is considered to be related, it is possible it was a Brittonic language, in the 5th and 6th centuries emigrating Britons also took Brittonic speech to the continent, most significantly in Brittany and Britonia. During the next few centuries the language began to split into several dialects, eventually evolving into Welsh, Cornish, Breton, Welsh and Breton continue to be spoken as native languages, while a revival in Cornish has led to an increase in speakers of that language. Cumbric is extinct, having been replaced by Goidelic and English speech, the Isle of Man and Orkney may also have originally spoken a Brittonic language, later replaced with a Goidelic one. Due to emigration, there are communities of Brittonic language speakers in England, France. Both were created in the 19th century to avoid the ambiguity of earlier terms such as British, Brythonic was coined in 1879 by the Celticist John Rhys from the Welsh word Brython. Brittonic, derived from Briton and also earlier spelled Britonic and Britonnic and it became more prominent through the 20th century, and was used in Kenneth H. Jacksons highly influential 1953 work on the topic, Language and History in Early Britain. Jackson noted that by that time Brythonic had become a term. Today, Brittonic often replaces Brythonic in the literature, rudolf Thurneysen used Britannic in his influential A Grammar of Old Irish, though this never became popular among subsequent scholars. Comparable historical terms include the Medieval Latin lingua Britannica and sermo Britannicus, some writers use British for the language and its descendants, though due to the risk of confusion, others avoid it or use it only in a restricted sense. Jackson, and later John T. Koch, use British only for the phase of the Common Brittonic language. However, subsequent writers have tended to follow Jacksons scheme, rendering this use obsolete, knowledge of the Brittonic languages comes from a variety of sources. For the early information is obtained from coins, inscriptions and comments by classical writers as well as place names. For later languages there is information from medieval writers and modern native speakers, the names recorded in the Roman period are given in Rivet and Smith. The Brittonic branch is referred to as P-Celtic because linguistic reconstruction of the Brittonic reflex of the Proto-Indo-European phoneme *kʷ is p as opposed to Goidelic c. Other major characteristics include, The retention of the Proto-Celtic sequences am and an, Proto-Celtic *wassos servant, young man became Welsh, Cornish and Breton gwasBrythonic languages – Mainly Brittonic areas.
30. Duchy of Brittany – The Duchy of Brittany was a medieval feudal state that existed between approximately 939 and 1547. The Duchy was established after the expulsion of Viking armies from the region around 939, the Duchy, in the 10th and 11th centuries, was politically unstable, with the dukes holding only limited power outside their own personal lands. The Duchy had mixed relationships with the neighbouring Duchy of Normandy, sometimes allying itself with Normandy, Henry II of England invaded Brittany in the mid-12th century and became Count of Nantes in 1158 under a treaty with Duke Conan IV. Henrys son, Geoffrey, became Duke through his marriage to Constance, the Angevins remained in control until the collapse of their empire in northern France in 1204. The French Crown maintained its influence over the Duchy for the rest of the 13th century, civil war broke out in the 14th century, as rival claimants for the Duchy vied for power during the Breton War of Succession, with different factions supported by England and France. The independent sovereign nature of the Duchy began to come to an end upon the death of Francis II in 1488, the Duchy was inherited by his daughter, Anne, but King Charles VIII of France had her existing marriage annulled and then married her himself. As a result, the King of France acquired the title of Duke of Brittany - jure uxoris, the Duchy was finally merged into the Kingdom of France in 1532 through a vote of the Estates of Brittany. The Ducal crown became united with the French crown in the person of Henry II of France, in modern times the departments have also joined into administrative regions although the administrative region of Brittany does not encompass the entirety of the medieval duchy. The Duchy of Brittany that emerged in the early 10th century was influenced by several earlier polities and these Gallic tribes – termed the Armorici in Latin – had close relationships with the Britonnes tribes in Roman Britain. The reasons for these migrations remain uncertain and these migrations from Britain contributed to Brittanys name. Brittany fragmented into small, warring regna, kingdoms, each competing for resources, the Frankish Carolingian Empire conquered the region during the 8th century, starting around 748 taking the whole of Brittany by 799. The Carolingians tried to create a unitary administration around the centres of Rennes, Nantes, and Vannes using the local rulers, Carolingian technology and culture began to influence Brittany, and the church in Brittany also began to emulate the Frankish model. The greatest influence on the later Duchy, however, was the formation of a unitary Brittany kingdom in the 9th century, in 831 Louis the Pious appointed Nominoe, the Count of Vannes, ruler of the Bretons, imperial missus, at Ingelheim in 831. After the death of Louis in 840, Nominoe rose to challenge the new emperor, Charles the Bald, Charles the Bald created the Marches of Neustria to defend Western Francia from the Bretons and the Vikings. Erispoe fought Charles the Bald, who felt that an attack would successfully challenge the new Breton leader. Erispoe won a victory at the Battle of Jengland and, under their Treaty of Angers in 851, the new kingdom proved fragile and collapsed under Viking attack. In 853 the Viking Godfried left the Seine with his fleet, sailed around the Breton peninsula, Erispoe entered into an alliance with the leader of another Viking fleet, Sidroc, who betrayed him, resulting in Erispoes defeat at the hands of the Vikings. A weakened Erispoe ruled until 857 when he was assassinated and then followed as Breton ruler by his cousin and rival, Salomon, Alan Is military success resulted in a period of peace from Viking invasions and few raids from the Vikings were recorded from 900 through to 907Duchy of Brittany – Duke Alan III
31. High Middle Ages – The High Middle Ages or High Medieval Period was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and followed by the Late Middle Ages, by 1250 the robust population increase greatly benefited the European economy, reaching levels that would not be seen again in some areas until the 19th century. This trend was checked in the Late Middle Ages by a series of calamities, notably the Black Death but also including numerous wars, from about the year 780 onwards, Europe saw the last of the barbarian invasions and became more socially and politically organized. The Carolingian Renaissance led to scientific and philosophical revival of Europe, the first universities were established in Bologna, Paris, Oxford and Modena. The Vikings had settled in the British Isles, France and elsewhere, the Magyars had ceased their expansion in the 10th century, and by the year 1000, a Christian Kingdom of Hungary was recognized in Central Europe, forming alliances with regional powers. With the brief exception of the Mongol invasions in the 13th century, in the 11th century, populations north of the Alps began to settle new lands, some of which had reverted to wilderness after the end of the Roman Empire. In what is known as the clearances, vast forests. At the same time settlements moved beyond the boundaries of the Frankish Empire to new frontiers in Europe, beyond the Elbe River. The High Middle Ages produced many different forms of intellectual, spiritual, the rediscovery of the works of Aristotle led Thomas Aquinas and other thinkers of the period to develop Scholasticism, a combination of Catholicism and ancient philosophy. For much of the time period Constantinople remained Europes most populous city, in architecture, many of the most notable Gothic cathedrals were built or completed during this era. The Crisis of the Late Middle Ages, beginning at the start of the 14th century, in England, the Norman Conquest of 1066 resulted in a kingdom ruled by a Francophone nobility. The Normans invaded Ireland by force in 1169 and soon established throughout most of the country. Likewise, Scotland and Wales were subdued to vassalage at about the same time, the Exchequer was founded in the 12th century under King Henry I, and the first parliaments were convened. In 1215, after the loss of Normandy, King John signed the Magna Carta into law, from the mid-tenth to the mid-11th centuries, the Scandinavian kingdoms were unified and Christianized, resulting in an end of Viking raids, and greater involvement in European politics. King Cnut of Denmark ruled over both England and Norway, after Cnuts death in 1035, England and Norway were lost, and with the defeat of Valdemar II in 1227, Danish predominance in the region came to an end. Meanwhile, Norway extended its Atlantic possessions, ranging from Greenland to the Isle of Man, while Sweden, under Birger Jarl, however, the Norwegian influence started to decline already in the same period, marked by the Treaty of Perth of 1266. Also, civil wars raged in Norway between 1130 and 1240, by the time of the High Middle Ages, the Carolingian Empire had been divided and replaced by separate successor kingdoms called France and Germany, although not with their modern boundaries. Germany was under the banner of the Holy Roman Empire, which reached its mark of unityHigh Middle Ages – Ireland
32. England – England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 yearsEngland – Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument
33. Breton War of Succession – The War of the Breton Succession was a conflict between the Counts of Blois and the Montforts of Brittany for control of the Duchy of Brittany. It was fought between 1341 and 12 April 1365, the rival kings supported the duke of the principle opposite to their own claims to the French throne—the Plantagenet having claimed it by female succession, and the Valois by male succession. From a legal point of view, Blois had the superior claim, although Montfort was ultimately successful following the Battle of Auray in 1364, it was the French who gained the most from his victory. The dukes had both a historical and ancestral connection to England and were also Earls of Richmond in Yorkshire, Duke Arthur II of Dreux married twice, first to Mary of Limoges, then to Yolande of Dreux, countess of Montfort and widow of king Alexander III of Scotland. From his first marriage, he had three sons, including his heir John III and Guy, count of Penthièvre, from Yolande, Arthur had another son, also named John, who became count of Montfort. John III strongly disliked the children of his fathers second marriage and he spent the first years of his reign attempting to have this marriage annulled and his half-siblings bastardized. When this failed, he tried to ensure that John of Montfort would never inherit the duchy, since John III was childless, his heir of choice became Joan of Penthièvre, la Boiteuse, daughter of his younger brother Guy. In 1337 she married Charles of Blois, the son of a powerful French noble house. But in 1340, John III reconciled himself with his half-brother, on 30 April 1341, John III died. His last words on the succession, uttered on his deathbed, were, For Gods sake leave me alone and do not trouble my spirit with such things. Most of the nobility supported Charles of Blois, so if John of Montfort was to have any chance, John quickly took possession of the ducal capital Nantes and then seized the ducal treasury at Limoges. By the middle of August, John of Montfort was in possession of most of the duchy, up to this point, the succession crisis had been a purely internal affair. But to complicate things further, the Hundred Years War between England and France had broken out four years earlier, in 1337. In 1341, there was truce between the two countries, but there was doubt that hostilities would be renewed when the truce ended in June 1342. Thus, when rumours reached Philip VI of France that John of Montfort had received English agents, Charles of Blois became the official French candidate. Whatever had been his original intentions, John of Montfort was now forced to support Edward III of England as King of France, Edward III was bound by the truce not to take any offensive action in France. Nothing in it, however, hindered France from subduing rebellious vassals, in November, after a short siege and defeat at the Battle of Champtoceaux, John of Montfort was forced to surrender at Nantes by the citizens. He was offered safe conduct to negotiate a settlement with Charles of Blois and it now fell upon Johns wife, Joanna of Flanders, to lead the Montfortist causeBreton War of Succession – Battle of Auray
34. Anne of Brittany – Anne of Brittany was Duchess of Brittany from 1488 until her death, and queen consort of France from 1491 to 1498 and from 1499 to her death. She is the woman to have been queen consort of France twice. During the Italian Wars, Anne also became queen consort of Naples, from 1501 to 1504, Anne was raised in Nantes during a series of conflicts in which the king of France sought to assert his suzerainty over Brittany. Her father, Francis II, Duke of Brittany, was the last male of the House of Montfort, upon his death in 1488, Anne became duchess regnant of Brittany, countess of Nantes, Montfort, and Richmond, and viscountess of Limoges. She was only 12 at that time, but she was already a coveted heiress because of Brittanys strategic position. The next year, she married Maximilian I of Austria by proxy and he started a military campaign which eventually forced the duchess to renounce her marriage. Anne eventually married Charles VIII in 1491, none of their children survived early childhood, and when the king died in 1498, the throne went to his cousin, Louis XII. Following an agreement made to secure the annexation of Brittany, Anne had to marry the new king, Louis XII was deeply in love with his wife and Anne had many opportunities to reassert the independence of her duchy. They had two daughters together and, although neither could succeed to the French throne due to the Salic Law, the eldest was proclaimed the heiress of Brittany. Anne managed to have her eldest daughter engaged to the future Charles V of Austria, grandchild of Maximilian I and this marriage later led to the formal union between France and Brittany. Anne is highly regarded in Brittany as a ruler who defended the duchy against France. In the Romantic period, she became a figure of Breton patriotism and she was honoured with many memorials and her artistic legacy is important in the Loire Valley, where she spent most of her life. She was notably responsible, with her husbands, for projects in the châteaux of Blois. Four years later, her parents had a daughter, Isabelle. Her mother died when she was little, while her father died when Anne was eleven years old and it is likely that she learned to read and write in French, and perhaps a little Latin. Contrary to what is claimed, it was unlikely that she learned Greek or Hebrew. She was raised by a governess, Françoise de Dinan, Lady of Chateaubriant, in addition, she had several tutors, including her butler and court poet, Jean Meschinot, who is thought to have taught her dancing, singing and music. The Treaty of Guérande in 1365, however, stated that in the absence of an heir from the House of MontfortAnne of Brittany – Anne
35. Union between Brittany and France – The union of Brittany and France was a critical step in the formation of modern-day France. Brittany had been a semi-independent component of the Kingdom of France since Clovis I was given authority over the Gallo-Roman domain during the 5th century and it was first recorded as a duchy during the rule of Nominoe in 846. As a result of wars, treaties, and papal decisions, Brittany was united with France through the eventual marriage of Louis XIs son Charles VIII to the heiress of Brittany. However, because of the different systems of inheritance between the two realms, the crown and the duchy were not held by the same hereditary claimant until the reign of Henry II, according to Julius Caesar, Brittany was historically part of Celtic Gaul as Armorica. The territory was liberated from imperial control and was awarded by the emperor to Clovis I after his victory at Soissons in 486, Clovis received the titles of Honorary Consul and Patricius, thus assuring the legitimacy of his authority over the ancient Gallo-Roman domain. When Clovis died, Brittany was included in the quarter of the kingdom that was given to his son, in the 9th century, with chaos spreading over Brittany, the Frankish kings, following their policy of partial delegation of power to local representatives, nominated administrators of Brittany. It has been reported that Louis IV of France stated that Brittany was not part of his kingdom and this was probably because the French king was a close friend of Breton Duke Alan II. Both of them had grown up together at the court of Æthelstan, king of England, as they were in exile from King Raoul of France. In the 15th century, the Duchy of Brittany remained an independent, the more recent dukes of Brittany rendered homage to the French king, although Francis II, Duke of Brittany desired a return to greater independence. After the conclusion of the Hundred Years War, it manifested itself in direct conflicts between the king and the princes of the kingdom. Francis II sought alliances and established relations with England, the Holy See. The French ambassadors contested some of the moves toward independence. The territorial expansion of France brought it to the borders of Brittany, Louis XI felt a great hatred for Francis II of Brittany following the latters involvement in a number of great conspiracies. The French Chancery justified its sovereignty over Brittany based on precedent, In 497. In the late 8th century, Charlemagne incorporated Brittany into the Carolingian Empire, in the 11th century, William the Conqueror expanded into Brittany. This last point was not recognized by the King of France, following this civil war, the new Tudor dynasty did not yet have the resources within England to permit a risky attempt to expand overseas. The end of the dynasty of Anjou in 1482 gave the control of the border between Anjou and Brittany. The Breton nobility had many interests in the kingdom and, like other nobles, in addition, the nobles envied the influence of the Valois and of the treasurer of the Landes, who was a simple commonerUnion between Brittany and France – The Monument to the Union of Brittany and France in Rennes, designed by Jean Boucher in 1911. It depicts the meeting of Duchess Anne and King Charles VIII. The monument was destroyed by Breton separatists in 1932.
36. French corsairs – Corsairs were privateers, authorized to conduct raids on shipping of a nation at war with France, on behalf of the French crown. Seized vessels and cargo were sold at auction, with the corsair captain entitled to a portion of the proceeds, by acting on behalf of the French Crown, if captured by the enemy, they could claim treatment as prisoners of war, instead of being considered pirates. Because corsairs gained a reputation, the word corsair is also used generically as a more romantic or flamboyant way of referring to privateers. The Barbary pirates of North Africa as well as Ottomans were sometimes called Turkish corsairs, the word corsair comes directly from the French word corsaire, itself borrowed from the Italian corsaro. This derives from the Latin cursus, meaning course, the French word corsaire may also come as a mispronunciation of the Arabic word qorṣaan, yet the term pirate had been in use in French since the Middle Ages. The corsairs were privateers working for the King of France attacking the ships of France’s enemies, the corsair was ordered to attack only the ships of enemy countries, theoretically respecting neutrals and his own nations ships. If he did not respect this rule, he was treated as a pirate. The corsairs activities also provided the King with revenue as the licence required them to hand over a part of their booty to the King. In common with privateers of other nationalities, however, they were considered pirates by their foreign opponents. Jean de Châtillon, who was a bishop, in 1144 gave the town of Saint-Malo the status of rights of asylum which encouraged all manner of thieves and rogues to move there and their motto was Neither Breton, nor French, but from Saint-Malo am I. Saint-Malo however, progressed and in 1308 the town was made into a commune to encourage the commercial activities of craftsmen as well as merchants. This did not really work out and later in 1395 the town became a free port. During this period, there was an intense drive to improve, not only the speed of the ships involved in this contest. It was a matter of life or death, and immense wealth was at stake, Jean dAngo, father and son, came to be among the wealthiest and most influential men in France. Giovanni da Verrazano and Jean Fleury are among the heroes of this epic saga about which so little has been written. The activities of the corsairs were so profitable that the Minister of the Navy used this in his strategy to make money, moreover, the King used to take one quarter and even one third of the booty. The corsairs activities weakened Frances enemies, indeed, the English trade losses were very important from 1688 until 1717. In a note based on an examination of Lloyds List from 1793 to 1800, losses to capture,4314, recaptured 705, Net –3639 Perils of the sea,2385 plus 652 driven on shore, of which 70 recovered, Net –2967French corsairs – Statue of the corsair Robert Surcouf, in Saint-Malo, Brittany
37. Slave trade – The history of slavery spans nearly every culture, nationality, and religion from ancient times to the present day. However the social, economic, and legal positions of slaves were vastly different in different systems of slavery in different times and places, Slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations, as it is developed as a system of social stratification. Slavery was known in the very oldest civilizations such as Sumer in Mesopotamia which dates back as far as 3500 BC, the Byzantine–Ottoman wars and the Ottoman wars in Europe resulted in the taking of large numbers of Christian slaves. Slavery became common within much of Europe and the British Isles during the Dark Ages, the Dutch, French, Spanish, Portuguese, British, Arabs and a number of West African kingdoms played a prominent role in the Atlantic slave trade, especially after 1600. During the 1983–2005 Second Sudanese Civil War people were taken into slavery, evidence emerged in the late 1990s of systematic slavery in cacao plantations in West Africa, see the chocolate and slavery article. Evidence of slavery predates written records, and has existed in many cultures, however, slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations. Mass slavery requires economic surpluses and a population density to be viable. Due to these factors, the practice of slavery would have only proliferated after the invention of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution, about 11,000 years ago. Such institutions were a mixture of debt-slavery, punishment for crime, the enslavement of prisoners of war, child abandonment, French historian Fernand Braudel noted that slavery was endemic in Africa and part of the structure of everyday life. During the 16th century, Europe began to outpace the Arab world in the export traffic, the Dutch imported slaves from Asia into their colony in South Africa. In 1807 Britain, which extensive, although mainly coastal, colonial territories on the African continent, made the international slave trade illegal. In Senegambia, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved, in early Islamic states of the Western Sudan, including Ghana, Mali, Segou, and Songhai, about a third of the population was enslaved. In Sierra Leone in the 19th century about half of the population consisted of slaves. In the 19th century at least half the population was enslaved among the Duala of the Cameroon, the Igbo and other peoples of the lower Niger, the Kongo, among the Ashanti and Yoruba a third of the population consisted of slaves. The population of the Kanem was about a third slave and it was perhaps 40% in Bornu. Between 1750 and 1900 from one- to two-thirds of the population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of slaves. The population of the Sokoto caliphate formed by Hausas in northern Nigeria and it is estimated that up to 90% of the population of Arab-Swahili Zanzibar was enslaved. Roughly half the population of Madagascar was enslaved, the Anti-Slavery Society estimated that there were 2,000,000 slaves in the early 1930s Ethiopia, out of an estimated population of between 8 and 16 millionSlave trade – C. 1480 BC, fugitive slave treaty between Idrimi of Alakakh (now Tell Atchana) and Pillia of Kizzuwatna (now Cilicia).
38. Slave ship – Slave ships were large cargo ships specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves. Only a few decades after the arrival of Europeans to America, the peak time of slave ships to the Atlantic passage was between the 18th and early-19th centuries, when large plantations developed in the colonies of America. In order to profit, the owners of the ships divided their hulls into holds with little headroom. Unhygienic conditions, dehydration, dysentery and scurvy led to a mortality rate, on average 15%. Often the ships, also known as Guineamen, transported hundreds of slaves, for example, the slave ship Henrietta Marie carried about 200 slaves on the long Middle Passage. They were confined to cargo holds with each slave chained with little room to move, the most significant routes of the slave ships led from the north-western and western coasts of Africa to South America and the south-east coast of what is today the United States, and the Caribbean. As many as 20 million Africans were transported by ship, the transportation of slaves from Africa to America was known as the Middle Passage. These people also were not treated as human, living like animals throughout their voyage to the New World. The enslaved were naked and shackled together with different types of chains. They spent a portion of time pinned to floorboards which would wear skin on their elbows down to the bone. Firsthand accounts from former slaves, such as Olaudah Equiano, describe the conditions that enslaved people were forced to endure. The Slave Trade Act 1788 regulated conditions on board British slave ships for the first time and it was introduced to the United Kingdom parliament by Sir William Dolben, an advocate for the abolition of slavery. For the first time, limits were placed on the number of enslaved people that could be carried. Under the terms of the act, ships could transport 1.67 slaves per ton up to a maximum of 207 tons burthen, the well-known slave ship Brookes was limited to carrying 454 people, it had previously transported as many as 609 enslaved. This limited reduction in the overcrowding on slave ships may have reduced the death rate. In the eighteenth and early centuries, the sailors on slave ships were often badly paid. Furthermore, a mortality rate of around 20% was expected during a voyage, with sailors dying as a result of disease. While conditions for the crew were vastly better than those of the people, they remained harshSlave ship – The former slave ship HMS Black Joke (left) fires on the Spanish ship El Almirante before capturing her, January 1829 (painting by Nicholas Matthews Condy)
39. National Convention – The National Convention was the third government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly. Created after the insurrection of 10 August 1792, it was the first French government organized as a republic. The Convention sat as an assembly from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795. The National Convention was therefore the first French assembly elected by a suffrage without distinctions of class, although the Convention lasted until 1795, power was effectively stripped from the elected deputies and concentrated in the small Committee of Public Safety from April 1793. After the fall of Robespierre, the Convention lasted for year until a new constitution was written. The election took place from 2 to 6 September 1792 after the election of the colleges by primary assemblies on 26 August. Therefore, the increased suffrage had very little impact, the electorate returned the same sort of men that the active citizens had chosen in 1791. In the whole of France, only eleven primary assemblies wanted to retain the monarchy, of the electoral assemblies, all tacitly voted for a republic – though only Paris used the word. None of the deputies stood as a royalist for elections, out of the five million Frenchmen able to vote, only a million showed up at the polls. The Salle des Machines had galleries for the public who often influenced the debates with interruptions or applause, the members of the Convention came from all classes of society, but the most numerous were lawyers. 75 members had sat in the National Constituent Assembly,183 in the Legislative Assembly, the full number of deputies was 749, not counting 33 from the French colonies, of whom only some arrived in Paris in time. Besides these, however, the newly formed départements annexed to France from 1792 to 1795 were allowed to send deputations, according to its own ruling, the Convention elected its President every fortnight, and the outgoing President was eligible for re-election after the lapse of a fortnight. Ordinarily the sessions were held in the morning, but evening sessions also occurred frequently, sometimes in exceptional circumstances the Convention declared itself in permanent session and sat for several days without interruption. For both legislative and administrative the Convention used committees, with more or less widely extended and regulated by successive laws. The most famous of these included the Committee of Public Safety. The Convention held legislative and executive powers during the first years of the French First Republic and had three periods, Girondin, Montagnard or Jacobin, and Thermidorian. The abolition of the royalty is a matter you cannot put off till tomorrow, the first session was held on 20 September 1792. The following day, amidst profound silence, the proposition was put to the assembly, on the 22nd came the news of the Battle of ValmyNational Convention – Autel de la Convention nationale or Autel républicain François-Léon Sicard Panthéon de Paris, France, 1913
40. Commerce raiding – It is also known, in French, as guerre de course and, in German, Handelskrieg, from the nations most heavily committed to it historically as a strategy. Commerce raiding was heavily criticised by the naval theorist A. T, mahan, who regarded it as a distraction from the destruction of the enemys fighting power. Nevertheless, commerce raiding was an important part of strategy from the Early Modern period through the Second World War. Usually, commerce raiding is chosen by a naval power against a stronger. The best protection against a commerce raiding strategy is for merchant vessels to sail in convoy, the first sort of commerce raiding was for nations to commission privateers. This quickly became a commercial enterprise, with privateer vessels, often in groups, being outfitted by venture capital. A privateer was distinguished from a pirate by the letter of marque, privateers formed a large part of the total military force at sea during the 17th and 18th centuries. In the First Anglo-Dutch War, English privateers attacked the trade on which the United Provinces entirely depended, Dutch privateers and others also attacked British trade, whether coastal, Atlantic, or Mediterranean, in the Second and Third Anglo-Dutch wars. During the Nine Years War, French policy strongly encouraged privateers, including the famous Jean Bart, to attack English, england lost roughly 4,000 merchant ships during the war. In the following War of Spanish Succession, privateer attacks continued, parliament passed an updated Cruisers and Convoys Act in 1708, allocating regular warships to the defence of trade. In the War of Austrian Succession, the Royal Navy was able to more on defending British ships. Britain lost 3,238 merchantmen, a fraction of her merchant marine than the enemy losses of 3,434. During Britains wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France, the Royal Navy dominated the seas, France adopted a guerre de course strategy by licensing civilian privateers to seize British shipping. British East Indiamen of the time were heavily armed to protect themselves against such raids, at the cost of considerable speed. Some East Indiamen, such as the Arniston, were able to fend off these attacks in other parts of the world, others. U. S. and British privateers also actively raided each others shipping during the War of 1812, during the American Civil War, the Confederate Navy operated a fleet of commissioned Confederate States Navy commerce raiders. These differed from privateers as they were state-owned ships with orders to destroy enemy commerce rather than privately owned ships with letters of marque and these included Sumter, Florida, Alabama, and Shenandoah. Most of the used in this period were built in BritainCommerce raiding – Bermuda Gazette of 12 November 1796, calling for privateering against Spain and its allies, and with advertisements for crew for two privateer vessels.
41. Lettre de marque – Cruising for prizes with a letter of marque was considered an honorable calling combining patriotism and profit, in contrast to unlicensed piracy, which was universally reviled. In addition to the term lettre de marque, the French sometimes used the term lettre de course for their letters of marque. Letter of marque was used to describe the vessel used. A privateer was a fast and weatherly fore-and-aft-rigged vessel heavily armed, old English mearc, from Germanic *mark- ‘boundary, boundary marker’, from Proto-Indo-European *merǵ- ‘boundary, border’. Grotiuss 1604 seminal work on law, De Iure Praedae, was an advocates brief defending Dutch raids on Spanish. King Henry III of England first issued what became known as privateering commissions in 1243. These early licences were granted to individuals to seize the king’s enemies at sea in return for splitting the proceeds between the privateers and the crown. The letter of marque and reprisal first arose in 1295,50 years after wartime privateer licenses were first issued, a reprisal involved seeking the sovereigns permission to exact private retribution against some foreign prince or subject. The earliest instance of a licensed reprisal recorded in England was in the year 1295 under the reign of Edward I, licensing privateers during wartime became widespread in Europe by the 16th Century, when most countries began to enact laws regulating the granting of letters of marque and reprisal. Although privateering commissions and letters of marque were originally distinct legal concepts, the United States Constitution, for instance, states that The Congress shall have Power To. Grant Letters of marque and reprisal. ”, without separately addressing privateer commissions, the Sir John Sherbrooke was a privateer, the Sir John Sherbrooke was an armed merchantman. Similarly, the Earl of Mornington, an East India Company packet ship of six guns. In July 1793, the East Indiamen Royal Charlotte, Triton, afterwards, as they were on their way to China, the same three East Indiamen participated in an action in the Straits of Malacca. They came upon a French frigate, with six or seven of her prizes. The three British vessels immediately gave chase, the frigate fled towards the Sunda Strait. The Indiamen were able to catch up with a number of the prizes, had they not carried letters of marque, such behaviour might well have qualified as piracy. Similarly, on 10 November 1800 the East Indiaman Phoenix captured the French privateer General Malartic, under Jean-Marie Dutertre, an action made legal by a letter of marque. Additionally, vessels with a letter of marque were exempt from having to sail in convoy, during the Napoleonic Wars there were also two cases, where British privateers spent some months off the coast of Sierra Leone hunting slave-trading vesselsLettre de marque – Drake viewing treasure taken from a Spanish ship, print courtesy New York Public Library
42. Kent (1799 ship) – Kent, launched in 1799, was an East Indiaman of the British East India Company. On her first voyage in 1800 she was on her way to Bengal, Kent left Torbay on 3 May 1800. She was under the command of Robert Rivington, who sailed under a letter of marque dated 28 March 1800. At St. Salvador, she took on 300 persons, including troops and passengers, the survivors of the East Indiaman Queen, Queen and Kent had left Torbay on the same day. On 7 October Kent encountered the French privateer brig Confiance, of 18 guns and 150 men, French account At some point Kent had rescued the crew and passengers of another ship, destroyed by fire, and therefore had an exceptionally large complement. Including passengers, among whom there were some 100 soldiers, she had 437 persons aboard, Surcouf managed to board his larger opponent and seize control of Kent. The British had 14 men killed, including Rivington, and 44 wounded, while the French suffered five men killed, British account James reports that Kent fought for almost two hours and that Rivington was killed by a shot to the head as the French boarded. He states that Kents armament consisted of twenty 12-pounders, and six 6-pounders on her castles, and he speculates that if Kent had carried 18 or 24-pounder carronades instead of the long 6-pounders, she might have been able to use grapeshot to deter boarding. Apparently some four or five passengers were among the British dead, James attributes the crew being overwhelmed by the boarders to a shortage of swords, pikes and pistols. Another account estimates the number of persons on Kent as under 200, and gives the casualties as 11 killed and 44 wounded on the British side, and 16 wounded, on the French side. The passengers included General St. John, his wife, three daughters, two women, and St. Johns aide, Captain Pilkington, who had been wounded. Surcouf put them into a passing Arab merchantman and they arrived shortly thereafter in Calcutta, aftermath Surcouf put his first officer, Joachim Drieux, aboard Kent, together with a 60-man prize crew. Surcouf released the passengers on a merchantman that he stopped a few days later, Confiance and Kent arrived at the Rade des Pavillons in Port Louis, Mauritius, in November. The capture of Kent became a sensation, and the British Admiralty promised a reward for the capture of Surcouf, Kent was sold for 30,900 piastres to a Danish shipping company and renamed Cronberg. Notes Citations References Cleveland, Richard Jeffry A Narrative of Voyages, hackman, Rowan Ships of the East India Company. Biographie maritime ou notices historiques sur la vie et les campagnes des marins célèbres français et étrangers, the Naval History of Great Britain, from the Declaration of War by France in 1793, to the Accession of George IV. Laughton, John Knox Studies in Naval History, Biographies, les gloires maritimes de la France, notices biographiques sur les plus célèbres marins. Histoire des marins français sous la République, de 1789 à1803Kent (1799 ship) – Capture of Kent by Confiance. Painting by Ambroise Louis Garneray.
43. Legion of Honour – The Legion of Honour, full name National Order of the Legion of Honour, is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte. The order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction, Chevalier, Officier, Commandeur, Grand Officier and Grand-Croix. The orders motto is Honneur et Patrie and its seat is the Palais de la Légion dHonneur next to the Musée dOrsay, in the French Revolution, all French orders of chivalry were abolished, and replaced with Weapons of Honour. The Légion however did use the organization of old French orders of chivalry, the badges of the legion also bear a resemblance to the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which also used a red ribbon. Napoleon originally created this to ensure political loyalty, the organization would be used as a facade to give political favours, gifts, and concessions. The Légion was loosely patterned after a Roman legion, with legionaries, officers, commanders, regional cohorts, the highest rank was not a grand cross but a Grand Aigle, a rank that wore all the insignia common to grand crosses. The members were paid, the highest of them extremely generously,5,000 francs to an officier,2,000 francs to a commandeur,1,000 francs to an officier,250 francs to a légionnaire. Napoleon famously declared, You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led, do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning. That is good only for the scholar in his study, the soldier needs glory, distinctions, rewards. This has been quoted as It is with such baubles that men are led. The order was the first modern order of merit, under the monarchy, such orders were often limited to Roman Catholics, and all knights had to be noblemen. The military decorations were the perks of the officers, the Légion, however, was open to men of all ranks and professions—only merit or bravery counted. The new legionnaire had to be sworn in the Légion and it is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion is a secular institution. The jewel of the Légion has five arms, in a decree issued on the 10 Pluviôse XIII, a grand decoration was instituted. This decoration, a cross on a sash and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire, became known as the Grand Aigle. After Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the Napoleonic nobility in 1808, the title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees. Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the legion among his family and this collar was abolished in 1815. The Légion dhonneur was prominent and visible in the French Empire, the Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the timeLegion of Honour – Order's streamer
44. French corvette Revenant – Revenant was a 20-gun privateer corvette, launched in 1807, and designed by Robert Surcouf for commerce raiding. The French Navy later requisitioned her and renamed her Iéna, after Napoleons then recent victory, the British subsequently captured her and she served in the Royal Navy as HMS Victor. The French Navy recaptured her in 1809, and she served for a year under her original name, the British again captured her when they captured Isle de France in December 1810. However, they did not restore her to service and she was broken up. Her coppered hull allowed her to sail at up to 12 knots and her cost was of 277,761 francs-or. One of hers owners was the banker Jacques Récamier, in February 1807, Surcouf enlisted Potier as first officer on his new privateer Revenant. Revenant then departed from Saint-Malo on 2 March, and sailed for Isle de France, Revenant arrived there on 10 June, along with several prizes she had taken during her journey. Trafalgar, of about 800 tos, was a copper-sheathed three-master, maingless was also a copper-sheathed three-master, in this case carrying 8,000 sacks of rice from Bengal, but also books, mirrors, and furniture. Lastly, Suzanne, of 400 tons, copper-sheathed three-master, was carrying rice and they had been captured on 11,18, and 25 November, and arrived at Port-Louis on 2 and 16 December. After Revenant returned to Port-Louis from her first campaign Surcouf gave Potier command of the ship on 2 April, Surcouf sent Portier to intercept, and Revenant departed Port-Louis on 30 April. She arrived in her patrol zone on 17 May and sighted her prey on the 24th, Revenant captured Conceçáo-de-Santo-Antonio after a one-hour battle. Potier gave Conceçáo a prize crew under First Lieutenant Fonroc, Surcouf then planned to send Revenant back to France en aventurier with colonial goods. However, General Decaen, governor of Isle de France, requisitioned Revenant on 4 July, the government renamed her Iéna, and gave command of her to Lieutenant Morice, with Lieutenant de vaisseau Albin Roussin as second officer. Surcouf had an altercation with Decaen but had to accept the requisitioning of his ship, Surcouf eventually purchased Sémillante, which he renamed Charles, to return to France with his goods. Iéna set sail to cruise the Persian Gulf and Bay of Bengal, on 8 October 1808, off the Sandheads near the mouth of the Ganges river, she was chased by the 44-gun HMS Modeste, under Captain George Elliot, which caught the Iéna after 9 hours. A night battle followed at musket range, after two and a half hours, Iéna was crippled, dismasted and leaking water, and struck her colours, Iéna had no casualties, while Modeste had her master killed and a seaman wounded. The Royal Navy commissioned Iéna as the 18-gun ship sloop HMS Victor, initially under Commander Thomas Grout, on 2 May 1809, she departed from the Sandheads with a convoy of five Indiamen and several smaller vessels. On 24 May a storm split the convoy and Victor, the small ships, Streatham and Europe were captured on 31 MayFrench corvette Revenant – Detail of Combat de Grand Port, by Pierre Julien Gilbert, Musée national de la marine. Victor (ex- Revenant) is visible in the background.
45. French cutter Renard (1812) – The Renard was a cutter launched in 1812 and armed and owned by Robert Surcouf. She was his eighth and last privateer ship, Renard cruised under Captain Aimable Sauveur until 23 August 1813, when he required a replacement. Command then went to Emmanuel Leroux-Desrochettes, on 9 September 1812, beginning at 5 p. m. and lasting through the night, Renard successfully engaged the British 10-gun schooner HMS Alphea, crewed by 35 sailors. Combat was intense and bloody until at 3,30 a. m. the following morning, Renard lost five men killed and 31 wounded, including her captain, who had an arm shot away and later died of his injuries. Renard returned to France with only 13 able-bodied men, Alphea had carried a crew of 41 men. The Association du Cotre Corsaire Le Renard built a replica of Renard in May 1991. One may rent the modern Renard for a day, for cruises, the Naval History of Great Britain, from the Declaration of War by France in 1793, to the Accession of George IVFrench cutter Renard (1812) – Photo of a model of the French privateer cutter Renard on display at the SNCF train station at Saint Malo. The modeller was a M. Chazarain, and the model is built to a 1/25 scale.
46. Bourbon restoration – The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830. The brothers of executed Louis XVI of France reigned in highly conservative fashion, and they were nonetheless unable to reverse most of the changes made by the French Revolution and Napoleon. At the Congress of Vienna they were treated respectfully, but had to give up all the gains made since 1789. King Louis XVI of the House of Bourbon had been overthrown and executed during the French Revolution, a coalition of European powers defeated Napoleon in the War of the Sixth Coalition, ended the First Empire in 1814, and restored the monarchy to the brothers of Louis XVI. The Bourbon Restoration lasted from 6 April 1814 until the uprisings of the July Revolution of 1830. There was an interlude in spring 1815—the Hundred Days—when the return of Napoleon forced the Bourbons to flee France, when Napoleon was again defeated by the Seventh Coalition they returned to power in July. During the Restoration, the new Bourbon regime was a monarchy, unlike the absolutist Ancien Régime. The period was characterized by a conservative reaction, and consequent minor but consistent occurrences of civil unrest. It also saw the reestablishment of the Catholic Church as a power in French politics. The eras of the French Revolution and Napoleon brought a series of changes to France which the Bourbon Restoration did not reverse. First of all, France became highly centralized, with all decisions made in Paris, the political geography was completely reorganized and made uniform. France was divided more than 80 departments, which have endured into the 21st century. Each department had an administrative structure, and was tightly controlled by a prefect appointed by Paris. The Catholic Church lost all its lands and buildings during the Revolution, the bishop still ruled his diocese, and communicated with the pope through the government in Paris. Bishops, priests, nuns and other people were paid salaries by the state. All the old rites and ceremonies were retained, and the government maintained the religious buildings. The Church was allowed to operate its own seminaries and to some extent local schools as well, bishops were much less powerful than before, and had no political voice. However, the Catholic Church reinvented itself and put a new emphasis on personal religiosity that gave it a hold on the psychology of the faithful, education was centralized, with the Grand Master of the University of France controlling every element of the entire educational system from ParisBourbon restoration – Louis XVIII makes a return at the Hôtel de Ville de Paris on August 29th, 1814
47. Newfoundland (island) – Newfoundland is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It has 29 percent of the land area. The island is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle and it blocks the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, creating the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the worlds largest estuary. Newfoundlands nearest neighbour is the French overseas community of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, with an area of 108,860 square kilometres, Newfoundland is the worlds 16th-largest island, Canadas fourth-largest island, and the largest Canadian island outside the North. The provincial capital, St. Johns, is located on the southeastern coast of the island, Cape Spear, just south of the capital, is the easternmost point of North America, excluding Greenland. It is common to consider all directly neighbouring islands such as New World, Twillingate, Fogo, by that classification, Newfoundland and its associated small islands have a total area of 111,390 square kilometres. Additionally 6. 1% claimed at least one parent of French ancestry, the islands total population as of the 2006 census was 479,105. Long settled by peoples of the Dorset culture, the island was visited by the Icelandic Viking Leif Eriksson in the 11th century. The next European visitors to Newfoundland were Portuguese, Basque, Spanish, French, the island was visited by the Genoese navigator John Cabot, working under contract to King Henry VII of England on his expedition from Bristol in 1497. In 1501, Portuguese explorers Gaspar Corte-Real and his brother Miguel Corte-Real charted part of the coast of Newfoundland in a attempt to find the Northwest Passage. Newfoundland is considered Britains oldest colony, at the time of English settlement, the Beothuk inhabited the island. While there is evidence of ancient indigenous peoples on the island. LAnse aux Meadows was a Norse settlement near the northernmost tip of Newfoundland, the site is considered the only undisputed evidence of Pre-Columbian contact between the Old and New Worlds, if the Norse-Inuit contact on Greenland is not counted. There is a second suspected Norse site in Point Rosee, the island is a likely location of Vinland, mentioned in the Viking Chronicles, although this has been disputed. The indigenous people on the island at the time of European settlement were the Beothuk, later immigrants developed a variety of dialects associated with settlement on the island, Newfoundland English, Newfoundland French. In the 19th century, it also had a dialect of Irish known as Newfoundland Irish, Scottish Gaelic was spoken on the island during the 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in the Codroy Valley area, chiefly by settlers from Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. The Gaelic names reflected the association with fishing, in Scottish Gaelic, it was called Eilean a Trosg, or literally, similarly, the Irish Gaelic name Talamh an Éisc means Land of the Fish. The first inhabitants of Newfoundland were the Paleo-Eskimo, who have no link to other groups in Newfoundland historyNewfoundland (island) – The Humber River on the Newfoundland island on an October 2007 autumn day
48. Saint-Malo – Saint-Malo is a walled port city in Brittany in northwestern France on the English Channel. It is a sub-prefecture of the Ille-et-Vilaine, traditionally with an independent streak, Saint-Malo was in the past notorious for privateering. Today the city is a major tourist destination, with many ancient, the population can increase to up to 200,000 in the summer tourist season. With the suburbs included, the population is approximately 153,000, the population of the commune more than doubled in 1968 with the merging of three communes, Saint-Malo, Saint-Servan and Paramé. Inhabitants of Saint-Malo are called Malouins in French, from this came the name of the Malvinas – the Falkland Islands named Îles Malouines by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville in 1764. Founded by Gauls in the 1st century B. C, the ancient town on the site of Saint-Malo was known as the Roman Reginca or Aletum. By the late 4th century AD the Saint-Servan district was the site of a major Saxon Shore promontory fort that protected the Rance river estuary from seaborne raiders from beyond the frontiers. According to the Notitia Dignitatum the fort was garrisoned by the militum Martensium under a dux of the Tractus Armoricanus and Nervicanus section of the litus Saxonicum, the modern Saint-Malo traces its origins to a monastic settlement founded by Saint Aaron and Saint Brendan early in the sixth century. Its name is derived from a man said to have been a follower of Brendan the Navigator, Saint Malo or Maclou, Saint-Malo is the setting of Marie de Frances poem Laustic, an 11th-century love story. The city had a tradition of asserting its autonomy in dealings with the French authorities, from 1590 to 1593, Saint-Malo declared itself to be an independent republic, taking the motto not French, not Breton, but Malouin. Saint-Malo became notorious as the home of the corsairs, French privateers, in the 19th century, this piratical notoriety was portrayed in Jean Richepins play Le flibustier and in César Cuis eponymous opera. The corsairs of Saint-Malo not only forced English ships passing up the Channel to pay tribute, in 1758, the Raid on St Malo saw a British expedition land intending to capture the town. However, the British made no attempt on Saint-Malo, and instead occupied the town of Saint-Servan. Saint-Malo was rebuilt over a 12-year period from 1948–60, the commune of Saint-Servan was merged, together with Paramé, and became the commune of Saint-Malo in 1967. Saint-Malo was the site of an Anglo-French summit in 1998 that led to a significant agreement regarding European defence policy and it also has a railway station, Gare de Saint-Malo, offering direct TGV service to Rennes, Paris and several regional destinations. There is a bus provided by Keolis. The town is served by the Dinard–Pleurtuit–Saint-Malo Airport around 5 kilometres to the south, now inseparably attached to the mainland, Saint-Malo is the most visited place in Brittany. Sites of interest include, The walled city The château of Saint-Malo, the Solidor Tower in Saint-Servan is a 14th-century building that holds a collection tracing the history of voyages around Cape HornSaint-Malo – Walled city
49. Robert Surcouf – Surcouf started his career as a sailor and officer on the slave ships Aurore, Courrier dAfrique and Navigateur. Having risen to captain, and in spite of the prohibition of trading by the National Convention in 1793. He then captained the merchantman Émilie, on which he engaged in commerce raiding despite lacking a letter of marque and he preyed on British shipping, capturing the East Indiaman Triton, before returning to Île de France, where his prizes were confiscated. He then returned to France, where he obtained money from the government. Returning to the Indian Ocean, Surcouf captained the privateers Clarisse and Confiance, raiding British, American and he captured the East Indiaman Kent on 7 October 1800. Returning to France, he was awarded the Legion of Honour and he briefly returned to the Indian Ocean in 1807 on the custom-built Revenant before returning to France. There, he armed privateers and merchantmen, after the Bourbon restoration, he organised fishing expeditions to Newfoundland and amassed a considerable fortune. He died in 1827 and is buried in a graveyard at Saint-Malo, Robert Surcouf was born 12 December 1773 in Saint-Malo to a family of ship-owners. His father, Charles-Ange Surcouf de Boisgris, was the grandson of Robert Surcouf de Maisonneuve, on his mothers side, Robert was a distant relative of René Duguay-Trouin. When his parents sent him to Dinan college to become a priest, he fled at age thirteen to enlist on the merchantman Héron, on 3 March 1789, he enlisted as a volunteer on the 700-ton Aurore, under Captain Tardivet, a slave ship bound for India. Aurore sailed to Pondicherry and ferried troops bound for Isle de France, on her next journey, seeking to purchase slaves on the Horn of Africa, Aurore was wrecked in Mozambique Channel, drowning 400 black slaves chained in the orlop. Promoted to officer, Surcouf enlisted on the Courrier dAfrique, another slave ship, Captain Tardivet then brought him over as Lieutenant on his new ship, Revanche. On Revanche, Surcouf made several expeditions off Madagascar, Surcouf enlisted as a helmsman on the French Royal Navys 20-gun fluyt Bienvenue, under Lieutenant Haumont, bound for France. Bienvenue arrived at Lorient on 2 January 1792, where Surcouf discovered the political changes France had undergone in the wake of the French Revolution, after six months, Surcouf enlisted as a lieutenant on the slave ship Navigateur, under Captain Lejoliff. She departed on 27 August 1792 for Mozambique before sailing to Isle de France, rising to the rank of captain, Surcouf took command of the brig Créole, a four-gun slave ship. Upon his return to Isle de France, agents of the Committee of Public Safety inspected Créole for evidence of slave trading, but left empty-handed as Surcouf had already sold his slaves. When British naval forces arrived to blockade Isle de France, he served as an ensign on the 40-gun frigate Cybèle. In the spring in 1795, Surcouf took command of the 180-ton, privateer schooner Modeste, renamed Émilie, with a 32-man crew and four 6-pounder guns, armed by Malroux and LevaillantRobert Surcouf – Signature
50. Tour Vauban – It has three levels and is flanked by walls, a guardhouse and a gun battery which can hold 11 cannons as well as a cannonball foundry added in the French Revolution period. Drafted in 1683, the tower was designed in 1689 by Vauban, the 11 cannons in the battery are believed to have been forged with those for the battery on pointe du Grand Gouin, for the Quélern defensive-lines and the many neighbouring batteries. In the French victory in the Battle of Camaret on 18 June 1694, on 18 June 1694 Vauban himself was in command of the garrison when they repelled an Anglo-Dutch attack. The battery put several British vessels out of action, on land, a charge by French dragoons scattered the British troops that had landed, and the local militia helped complete the victory. The French claimed to have killed 1200 attackers and captured 450 prisoners, vaubans forces claimed to have only suffered 45 men wounded. British estimates were that they had lost 700 soldiers killed, wounded, and captured, a Dutch frigate of 20 guns also was sunk. The Anglo-Dutch fleet anchored between Camaret Bay and Bertheaume, consequently, Tour Vauban also received some support from Fort de Bertheaume on the opposite side of the Goulet de Brest. Camaret-sur-Mer is a member of the network of major Vauban sites, since 7 July 2008 the tour Vauban and 11 other sites have been classed as a World Heritage Site. Dossiers électroniques de lInventaire général, Bretagne, the tour Vauban Dossiers électroniques de lInventaire général, Bretagne. The cannon-ball foundry The Fortifications of Vauban - official siteTour Vauban – Tour Vauban
51. Camaret-sur-Mer – Camaret-sur-Mer is a commune in the Finistère department in northwestern France, located at the end of Crozon peninsula. Camaret-sur-Mer is home to the Tour Vauban or Tour dorée, a fortification guarding the harbor. In 2008, the Tour dorée was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, camaret also is home to a marina and some beaches. Inhabitants of Camaret-sur-Mer are called Camarétois, Camaret-sur-Mer is twinned with St Ives, Cornwall, UKCamaret-sur-Mer – Vauban's fortifications
52. World Heritage Site – A World Heritage Site is a landmark which has been officially recognized by the United Nations, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some form of significance. UNESCO regards these sites as being important to the interests of humanity. The programme catalogues, names, and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture, under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund. The program was founded with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the Worlds Cultural and Natural Heritage, since then,192 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most adhered to international instruments. As of July 2016,1052 sites are listed,814 cultural,203 natural, in 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites. In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the Member States for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia, the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. The project cost $80 million, about $40 million of which was collected from 50 countries, the projects success led to other safeguarding campaigns, saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, and the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia. UNESCO then initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, the United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation. The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, the Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of June 2016, it has been ratified by 192 states, including 188 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See, Niue, a country must first list its significant cultural and natural sites, the result is called the Tentative List. A country may not nominate sites that have not been first included on the Tentative List, next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File. The Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and these bodies then make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list, up to 2004, there were six criteria for cultural heritage and four criteria for natural heritage. In 2005, this was modified so there is now only one set of ten criteria. Nominated sites must be of outstanding value and meet at least one of the ten criteria. Thus, the Geneva Convention treaty promulgates, Article 53, PROTECTION OF CULTURAL OBJECTS AND OF PLACES OF WORSHIP. There are 1,052 World Heritage Sites located in 165 States Party, of these,814 are cultural,203 are natural and 35 are mixed propertiesWorld Heritage Site – Site #252: Taj Mahal, an example of cultural heritage site
53. Jacques Cartier – Jacques Cartier was a French explorer of Breton origin who claimed what is now Canada for France. Jacques Cartier was born in 1491 in Saint-Malo, the port on the north-west coast of Brittany, Cartier, who was a respectable mariner, improved his social status in 1520 by marrying Mary Catherine des Granches, member of a leading family. His good name in Saint-Malo is recognized by its frequent appearance in baptismal registers as godfather or witness, the king had previously invited the Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano to explore the eastern coast of North America on behalf of France in 1524. Le Veneur cited voyages to Newfoundland and Brazil as proof of Cartiers ability to lead ships to the discovery of new lands in the New World. On April 20,1534, Cartier set sail under a commission from the king, hoping to discover a western passage to the markets of Asia. In the words of the commission, he was to certain islands and lands where it is said that a great quantity of gold. It took him twenty days to sail across the ocean, starting on May 10 of that year, he explored parts of Newfoundland, areas that now comprise the Canadian Atlantic provinces and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. During one stop at Îles aux Oiseaux, his crew slaughtered around 1000 birds, Cartiers first two encounters with aboriginal peoples in Canada on the north side of Chaleur Bay, most likely the Mikmaq, were brief, some trading occurred. His third encounter took place on the shores of Gaspé Bay with a party of St. Lawrence Iroquoians, the 10-meter cross bearing the words Long Live the King of France took possession of the territory in the name of the king. The change in mood was an indication that the Iroquoians understood Cartiers actions. Here he kidnapped the two sons of their captain, Cartier wrote that they later told him this region where they were captured was called by them Honguedo. The natives captain at last agreed that they could be taken, Cartier returned to France in September 1534, sure that he had reached an Asian land. Jacques Cartier set sail for a voyage on May 19 of the following year with three ships,110 men, and his two Iroquoian captives. Reaching the St. Lawrence, he sailed up-river for the first time, and reached the Iroquoian capital of Stadacona, Cartier left his main ships in a harbour close to Stadacona, and used his smallest ship to continue on to Hochelaga, arriving on October 2,1535. Hochelaga was far more impressive than the small and squalid village of Stadacona, the site of their arrival has been confidently identified as the beginning of the Sainte-Marie Sault – where the bridge named after him now stands. The expedition could proceed no further, as the river was blocked by rapids, after spending two days among the people of Hochelaga, Cartier returned to Stadacona on October 11. It is not known exactly when he decided to spend the winter of 1535–1536 in Stadacona, Cartier and his men prepared for the winter by strengthening their fort, stacking firewood, and salting down game and fish. From mid-November 1535 to mid-April 1536, the French fleet lay frozen solid at the mouth of the St. Charles River, under the Rock of Quebec, ice was over a fathom thick on the river, with snow four feet deep ashoreJacques Cartier – Portrait of Jacques Cartier by Théophile Hamel, ca. 1844. No contemporary portraits of Cartier are known.
54. Newfoundland – Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province of Canada. Situated in the countrys Atlantic region, it comprises the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador to the northwest, in 2013, the provinces population was estimated at 526,702. About 92% of the population lives on the island of Newfoundland. The province is Canadas most linguistically homogeneous, with 97. 6% of residents reporting English as their mother tongue in the 2006 census, historically, Newfoundland was also home to unique varieties of French and Irish, as well as the extinct Beothuk language. In Labrador, local dialects of Innu-aimun and Inuktitut are also spoken, Newfoundland and Labradors capital and largest city, St. Johns, is Canadas 20th-largest census metropolitan area and is home to almost 40 percent of the provinces population. St. Johns is the seat of government, home to the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador and to the highest court in the jurisdiction and it became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on March 31,1949, as Newfoundland. On December 6,2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the official name to Newfoundland. The name Newfoundland is a translation of the Portuguese Terra Nova, the influence of early Portuguese exploration is also reflected in the name of Labrador, which derives from the surname of the Portuguese navigator João Fernandes Lavrador. Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province in Canada, and is located at the corner of North America. The Strait of Belle Isle separates the province into two divisions, Labrador, which is a large area of mainland Canada, and Newfoundland. The province also includes over 7,000 tiny islands, each side is about 400 km long, and its area is 108,860 km2. Newfoundland and its small islands have a total area of 111,390 km2. Newfoundland extends between latitudes 46°36′N and 51°38′N, Labrador is an irregular shape, the western part of its border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands drained by rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, most of Labradors southern boundary with Quebec follows the 52nd parallel of latitude. Labradors extreme northern tip, at 60°22′N, shares a border with Nunavut. Together, Newfoundland and Labrador make up 4. 06% of Canadas area, Labrador is the easternmost part of the Canadian Shield, a vast area of ancient metamorphic rock comprising much of northeastern North America. Colliding tectonic plates have shaped much of the geology of Newfoundland, gros Morne National Park has a reputation as an outstanding example of tectonics at work, and as such has been designated a World Heritage Site. The Long Range Mountains on Newfoundlands west coast are the northeasternmost extension of the Appalachian Mountains, the north-south extent of the province, prevalent westerly winds, cold ocean currents and local factors such as mountains and coastline combine to create the various climates of the provinceNewfoundland – Churchill Falls in Labrador
55. Chaleur Bay – Chaleur Bay - also known informally in English as Bay of Chaleur due to the influence of its French translation - is an arm of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence located between Quebec and New Brunswick. The name of the bay is attributed to explorer Jacques Cartier and it translates into English as bay of warmth or bay of torrid weather. Chaleur Bay opens to the east with its southern shore formed by the shore of New Brunswick. The northern shore is formed by the shore of the Gaspé Peninsula. The bay measures approximately 50 km in width at its widest point between Bathurst and New Carlisle, the western end of the bay transitions into the estuary of the Restigouche River at Dalhousie, New Brunswick. The mouth of the bay is delineated by a running from Haut-fond Leander near Grande-Rivière, Quebec in the north. Canadian Hydrographic Service chart number 4486 is the navigational data repository for the area. The shores of Chaleur Bay include numerous beaches, particularly on the southern shore, many rivers also form barachois or barrier beaches. This sand bar is not only because it has fresh water on one side and salt water on the next. Tourism in the region has been driven in the months by users of the bays beaches. The warm ocean currents that enter the bay from the larger Gulf of St. Lawrence result in some of the warmest saltwater on the Atlantic coast north of the state of Virginia. The estuaries of rivers emptying into the bay create a prominent smell of salt water. Patapédia River Chaleur Bay has several islands, although not entirely located within the bay, the northern shores of Miscou Island and Lameque Island form part of the southern shore of the bay. Heron Island lies near Dalhousie, New Brunswick and is located south of Carleton-sur-Mer, the bays shape and the steep cliffs along its northern shore sometimes create particularly windy conditions especially off Nepisiguit Bay. Under the right direction and speed, sea conditions on large areas of the bay can become quite treacherous. Tidal currents are weak, except at the mouths of some rivers. Its configuration tends to channel the wind for two reasons, the cliffs on its North side, and its V shape. This means that in the middle of this section, off Nepisiguit Bay, there is a zone that is particularly windy, tidal currents in this section rarely reach one knot, except at the mouths of some rivers and some channelsChaleur Bay – Satellite image of Chaleur Bay (NASA). Chaleur Bay is the large bay opening to the east; the Gaspé Peninsula appears to the north and the Gulf of St. Lawrence is seen to the east
56. Iroquois – The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy. The Iroquois have absorbed many other peoples into their cultures as a result of warfare, adoption of captives, the historic Erie, Susquehannock, Wyandot, and St. Lawrence Iroquoians, all independent peoples, spoke Iroquoian languages. In 2010, more than 45,000 enrolled Six Nations people lived in Canada, the most common name for the confederacy, Iroquois, is of somewhat obscure origin. The first time it appears in writing is in the account of Samuel de Champlain of his journey to Tadoussac in 1603, other spellings occurring in the earliest sources include Erocoise, Hiroquois, Hyroquoise, Irecoies, Iriquois, Iroquaes, Irroquois, and Yroquois. In the French spoken at the time, this would have been pronounced as or. In 1883, Horatio Hale wrote that the Charlevoix etymology was dubious, Hale suggested instead that the term came from Huron, and was cognate with Mohawk ierokwa they who smoke or Cayuga iakwai a bear. Hewitt responded to Hales etymology in 1888 by expressing doubt that either of those words even exist in the respective languages, a more modern etymology is that advocated by Gordon M. Day in 1968, who elaborates upon an earlier etymology given by Charles Arnaud in 1880. Arnaud had claimed that the word came from Montagnais irnokué, meaning terrible man, Day proposes a hypothetical Montagnais phrase irno kwédač, meaning a man, an Iroquois, as the origin of this term. More recently, Peter Bakker has proposed a Basque origin for Iroquois. g and he proposes instead that the word derives from hilokoa, from the Basque roots hil to kill, ko, and a. He also argues that the /l/ was rendered as /r/ since the former is not attested in the inventory of any language in the region. Thus the word according to Bakker is translatable as the killer people, a different term, Haudenosaunee, is the designation more commonly used by the Iroquois to refer to themselves. It is also preferred by scholars of Native American history who consider the name Iroquois to be derogatory in origin. An alternate designation, Ganonsyoni, is encountered as well. More transparently, the Iroquois confederacy is also referred to simply as the Six Nations. The history of the Iroquois Confederacy goes back to its formation by the Peacemaker in 1142, each nation within the Iroquoian family had a distinct language, territory and function in the League. Iroquois influence extended into present-day Canada, westward along the Great Lakes, the League is governed by a Grand Council, an assembly of fifty chiefs or sachems, each representing one of the clans of one of the nations. The original Iroquois League or Five Nations, occupied areas of present-day New York State up to the St. Lawrence River, west of the Hudson River. The League was composed of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, in or close to 1722, the Tuscarora tribe joined the League, having migrated from the Carolinas after being displaced by Anglo-European settlementIroquois – Meeting of Hiawatha and Deganawidah by Sanford Plummer
57. Action of 13 January 1797 – The Action of 13 January 1797 was a minor naval battle fought between a French ship of the line and two British frigates off the coast of Brittany during the French Revolutionary Wars. During the action the frigates outmanoeuvred the much larger French vessel and drove it onto shore in heavy seas, one of the British frigates was also lost in the engagement with six sailors drowned after running onto a sandbank while failing to escape a lee shore. The French 74-gun ship Droits de lHomme had been part of the Expédition dIrlande, during the operation, the French fleet was beset by poor coordination and violent weather, eventually being compelled to return to France without landing a single soldier. The engagement lasted for more than 15 hours, in an increasing gale, in December 1796, during the French Revolutionary Wars, a French expeditionary force departed from Brest on an expedition to invade Ireland. This army of 18,000 French soldiers was intended to link up with the organisation of Irish nationalists known as the United Irishmen. It was hoped that the war would force Britain to make peace with the French Republic or risk losing control of Ireland altogether. Morard de Galles planned to sail his fleet from the French naval fortress of Brest under cover of darkness on the night of 15–16 December. Pellew was already renowned, having been the first British officer of the war to capture a French frigate and he later captured the frigates Pomone and Virginie in 1794 and 1796, and saved 500 lives following the shipwreck of the East Indiaman Dutton in January 1796. For these actions he had first been knighted and then raised to a baronetcy, armed with 24-pounder cannon on the main decks and 42-pounder carronades on the quarter deck, she had a stronger armament than any equivalent French frigate. Believing that the frigates in the bay must be the forerunners of a larger British force, de Galles attempted to pass his fleet through the Raz de Sein. This channel was a narrow, rocky and dangerous passage, and de Galles used corvettes as temporary light ships that shone blue lights, Pellew observed this, and sailed Indefatigable right through the French fleet, launching rockets and shining lights seemingly at random. This succeeded in confusing the French officers, causing the Séduisant to strike the Grand Stevenent rock, séduisants distress flares added to the confusion and delayed the fleets passage until dawn. His task of observing the enemy completed, Pellew took his squadron to Falmouth, sent a report to the Admiralty by semaphore telegraph. During December 1796 and early January 1797, the French army repeatedly attempted to land in Ireland, early in the voyage, the frigate Fraternité carrying de Galles and Hoche, was separated from the fleet and missed the rendezvous at Mizen Head. Admiral Bouvet and General Grouchy decided to attempt the landing at Bantry Bay without their commanders, during the operation and subsequent retreat a further 11 ships were wrecked or captured, with the loss of thousands of soldiers and sailors. By 13 January most of the survivors of the fleet had limped back to France in a state of disrepair, detached from the main body of the fleet during the retreat from Bantry Bay, Lacrosse made his way to the mouth of the Shannon alone. Pellew too was on his way back to Brest in Indefatigable, at 13,00 on 13 January, the British ships were approaching the island of Ushant in a heavy fog when they spied another ship through the gloom ahead. This ship, clearly much larger than either of the British vessels, was the Droits de lHomme, at the same time, lookouts on the French ship spotted the British, and Lacrosse was faced with the dilemma of whether or not to engage the enemyAction of 13 January 1797 – View of the wreck of the French ship Le Droits de l'Homme, John Fairburn
58. Israel the Grammarian – Israel the Grammarian was one of the leading European scholars of the mid-tenth century. In the 930s, he was at the court of King Æthelstan of England, after Æthelstans death, Israel successfully sought the patronage of Archbishop Rotbert of Trier and became tutor to Bruno, later the Archbishop of Cologne. In the late 940s Israel is recorded as a bishop, Israel was an accomplished poet, a disciple of the ninth-century Irish philosopher John Scottus Eriugena and one of the few Western scholars of his time to understand Greek. He wrote theological and grammatical tracts, and commentaries on the works of other philosophers, the reign of Charlemagne saw a revival in learning in Europe from the late eighth century, known as the Carolingian Renaissance. The Carolingian Empire collapsed in the ninth century, while the tenth is seen as a period of decline. The Bible remained the primary fount of knowledge, but study of classical writers, when Alfred the Great became King of Wessex in 871, learning in southern England was at a low level, and there were no Latin scholars. He embarked on a programme of revival, bringing in scholars from Continental Europe, Wales and Mercia and his grandson, Æthelstan, carried on the work, inviting foreign scholars such as Israel to England, and appointing a number of continental clerics as bishops. In the 930s the level of learning was not high enough to supply enough literate English priests to fill the bishoprics. Very little is known about Israels early life, michael Lapidge dates his birth to around 900, while Wood places it slightly earlier, around 890. He was a disciple of Ambrose and spent time at Rome, in Woods view Israel was a monk at Saint-Maximin in Trier in the 930s. Tenth-century sources provide conflicting evidence on Israels origin, according to Lapidge, The consensus of modern scholarship is in favour of an Irish origin, but the matter has not been properly investigated. He argues that the bishop of Bangor in County Down, Dub Innse, described Israel as a Roman scholar, Lapidge states that Flodoard was contemporary with Israel and may have known him, whereas Ruotger wrote after Israels death and probably did not have first hand knowledge. Giving children Old Testament Hebrew names such as Israel was common in Celtic areas in the tenth century, in 2007, Wood revived the Irish theory, questioning whether Flodoards Israel Britto means Breton, and stating that Ruotger knew Israel. Æthelstans biographer, Sarah Foot, mentions Woods view, but she rejects it, stating that Israel was not Irish, thomas Charles-Edwards, a historian of medieval Wales, thinks he may have been Welsh. The twelfth-century copyist appears to have changed Dub Innses first person note to the third person, in a later passage, he interprets Roman scholar, that is Israel as meaning a Roman Jew. Israel is thought to be Israel the Grammarian, described as a Roman scholar because of his time in the city, a number of manuscripts associated with Israel, including two of the four known copies of his poem De arte metrica, were written in England. Israel was a practitioner of the style of Latin, characterised by long, convoluted sentences. He probably influenced the scribe known to historians as Æthelstan A, Israels poem De arte metrica was dedicated to Rotbert, Archbishop of TrierIsrael the Grammarian – A page from Israel the Grammarian's commonplace book, commenting on Porphyry's Isagoge
59. St Nazaire Raid – The St Nazaire Raid or Operation Chariot was a successful British amphibious attack on the heavily defended Normandie dry dock at St Nazaire in German-occupied France during the Second World War. The operation was undertaken by the Royal Navy and British Commandos under the auspices of Combined Operations Headquarters on 28 March 1942. The obsolete destroyer HMS Campbeltown, accompanied by 18 smaller craft, a force of commandos landed to destroy machinery and other structures. Almost all were forced to surrender when their ammunition was expended, after the raid 228 men of the force of 611 returned to Britain,169 were killed and 215 became prisoners of war. German casualties were over 360 dead, some killed after the raid when Campbeltown exploded, to recognise their bravery,89 decorations were awarded to members of the raiding party, including five Victoria Crosses. After the war, St Nazaire was one of 38 battle honours awarded to the Commandos, St Nazaire is on the north bank of the Loire 400 km from the nearest British port. In 1942, it had a population of 50,000, the St Nazaire port has an outer harbour known as the Avant Port, formed by two piers jutting out into the Atlantic Ocean. This leads to two lock gates before the Bassin de St Nazaire and these gates control the water level in the basin so that it is not affected by the tide. Beyond the basin is the inner dock called the Bassin de Penhoët. There is also an old entrance to the Bassin de St Nazaire located southwest of the Normandie dry dock, built to house the ocean liner SS Normandie, this dock was the largest dry dock in the world when it was completed in 1932. The Old Mole jetty juts into the Loire halfway between the pier of the Avant Port and the old entrance into the basin. On 24 May 1941, the Battle of the Denmark Strait was fought between the German ships Bismarck and Prinz Eugen and the British ships HMS Prince of Wales, Hood was sunk and the damaged Prince of Wales was forced to retire. She was intercepted by the British and sunk en route, britains Naval Intelligence Division first proposed a commando raid on the dock in late 1941. When the German battleship Tirpitz was declared operational in January 1942, planners from Combined Operations Headquarters were looking at potential scenarios if Tirpitz escaped the naval blockade and reached the Atlantic. They decided the only port able to accommodate her was St Nazaire, especially if, like the Bismarck, she was damaged en route and they came to the conclusion that if the dock at St Nazaire were unavailable the Germans were unlikely to risk sending Tirpitz into the Atlantic. Combined Operations examined a number of options while planning the destruction of the dock, at this stage of the war the British government still tried to avoid civilian casualties. This ruled out an attack by the RAF, which at the time did not possess the accuracy needed to destroy the dock without serious loss of civilian life. The Special Operations Executive were approached to see if its agents could destroy the dock gates and they decided that the mission was beyond their capabilities because the weight of explosives required would have needed too many agents to carry themSt Nazaire Raid – HMS Campbeltown being converted for the raid. There are twin lines of armour plate down each side of the ship and the Oerlikon mountings. Two of her funnels have been removed, with the remaining two cut at an angle.
60. Battle of the Raz de Sein – The Battle of the Raz de Sein was a naval engagement of the blockade of Brest during the French Revolutionary Wars between a French and Royal Navy ships of the line on 21 April 1798. The British blockade fleet under Admiral Lord Bridport had sailed from St Helens on 12 April, three ships were detached in pursuit, led by the 74-gun ship of the line HMS Mars under Captain Alexander Hood. As the British ships approached their quarry a third sail was sighted to the southeast close to the coastline and moving north towards Brest. Facing overwhelming odds LHéritier attempted to escape through the narrow Raz de Sein passage, at 21,15 Mars reached Hercule, coming under heavy fire as Hood manoeuvred into position, bringing his ship crashing alongside the French vessel. For more than an hour the ships fired directly into one another, damage and casualties were severe on both sides, the latter including Hood who was mortally wounded at the height of the engagement. Ultimately Hercule was forced to surrender after attempts to board Mars failed, both ships were battered and burnt, with the French suffering at least 290 casualties and the British 90. Hercule was conveyed to Britain in the aftermath and later repaired and served in the Royal Navy until 1810 and this blockade force also limited French trade and maritime communications, attacking merchant ships and individual warships seeking to resupply or reinforce the main French fleet. On 12 April 1798 the British blockade fleet under the command of Admiral Lord Bridport sailed from its anchorage at St Helens on the Isle of Wight for the Breton coast. On board were surplus naval supplies, including a set of rigging for a ship of the line. LHéritiers crew were inexperienced and the captain did not intend to seek action, as his ship crossed Audierne Bay between Point Penmarch and the Pointe du Raz however sails were sighted to the northwest. These sails belonged to three ships of Bridports fleet, at 11,00 on 21 April the British fleet had been cruising in the Iroise Passage when two sails were sighted approximately 12 nautical miles to the east. This new sail was much larger than the others sighted earlier in the day, by 17,45, LHéritier was in full flight with the British force strung out behind him, the rest of Bridports fleet far to the west. Jason had the lead with Mars shortly behind, although Inman on Ramillies had lost his fore topmast and had dropped back. Hood, an officer and a nephew of both Bridport and the veteran Admiral Lord Hood, pressed his ship forwards and gradually gained on both Jason and Hercule. As Hercule approached the channel, Hood put Mars on the tack, overtaking Jason. At 20,45, with Jason far behind in the darkness, Mars hauled up, at 21,15 Mars was in range and LHéritier opened fire, Hood replying immediately. Thus locked together, both captains ordered their ships to fire into the other. So closely aligned were they that many cannon on both ships could not be run out, and instead had to be fired from inside the shipsBattle of the Raz de Sein – The furious action between H.M.S. Mars and the French '74 Hercule off Brest on 21st April 1798, John Christian Schetky
61. Childers Incident – Following the French Revolution of 1789, diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the French Republic had steadily deteriorated and France was in political and social turmoil. One of the strongest hotbeds of republican activity was the principal Atlantic naval base of the French Navy at Brest in Brittany, as Childers entered the Goulet de Brest, the vessel came under fire from French batteries flying the tricolour. Although Barlow clearly identified his brig as a neutral British vessel the fire continued until he was able to withdraw, although Childers had been struck by a 48 lb cannonball, none of the crew were wounded. Following the French Revolution of 1789 relations between the newly declared French Republic and its European neighbours sharply deteriorated, in April 1791, the Declaration of Pillnitz was jointly issued by the Austria and Prussia stating their support for King Louis XVI. In February 1792 Austria and Prussia formally allied and the French Legislative Assembly responded on 20 April 1792 by declaring war on Austria and this first conflict, known as the War of the First Coalition, began on land as other than France the principal European seapowers remained neutral. The arrest of the French king in August 1792 and the expansion of the war into Northern Italy brought about the start of the war in the Mediterranean Sea. Britain had remained throughout the first stages of the war. Nevertheless, the Royal Navy had made preparations for war should it occur. On 2 January 1793, Childers was approaching the entrance to the roadstead under overcast skies and with a light, the only entrance to Brest harbour is through a narrow waterway known as the Goulet de Brest. The Goulet lies between the Pointe du Petit Minou and the Pointe du Portzic on the shore and the îlot des Capucins. Due to its importance as the entrance to Brest, the shores of the Goulet were heavily fortified. As Childers entered the Goulet one of the covering the entrance from the southern shore fired a shot at a distance of 0.75 nautical miles which passed over the brig into the sea beyond. Thus clearly identified as a neutral British warship, Barlow allowed Childers to drift closer inshore with the tide, the French battery responded by raising tricolour flags and red pennants, a move copied by the other batteries covering the Goulet. Having drifted much closer to two batteries Childers suddenly came under fire, the batteries containing very large 48-pounder cannon. Under fire and with the wind too calm for sailing, Barlow ran out oars to try, the diminutive size of his vessel made it a difficult target and he was soon able to take advantage of a fresh breeze to withdraw from the crossfire. A single shot struck the brig, smashing into one of the 4-pounder cannon on deck, having successfully withdrawn Childers from danger, Barlow returned to Britain on 4 January after battling a strong gale in the Channel. On 24 January the French ambassador was expelled in response to the execution of Louis XVI in Paris on 21 January, the naval campaign in the Atlantic began in earnest in March 1793, when a French battle squadron briefly put to sea before a mutiny forced it to return. The war between Britain and France begun in the Goulet on 2 January 1793 was to last, with a 14-month break in 1802–1803, the Naval History of Great Britain, Vol. IChilders Incident – Goulet de Brest
62. French battleship Bretagne – Bretagne was a battleship of the French Navy built in the 1910s, and the lead ship of her class, she had two sister ships, Provence and Lorraine. The ship was laid down in July 1912 at the Arsenal de Brest, launched in April 1913 and she was named in honour of the French region of Brittany, and was armed with a main battery of ten 340 mm guns. Bretagne spent the bulk of her career in the French Mediterranean Squadron, during World War I, she was stationed at Corfu to prevent the Austro-Hungarian fleet from leaving the Adriatic Sea, but she saw no action. She remained in service during the 1920s and 1930s, while her sisters were placed in reserve and she participated in non-intervention patrols during the Spanish Civil War. Bretagne escorted convoys after the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, fearful that the Germans would seize the French Navy, the British Royal Navy attacked the ships at Mers-el-Kébir, in the attack Bretagne was hit badly and exploded, killing the majority of her crew. The wreck was raised in 1952 and broken up for scrap. Bretagne was 166 meters long overall and had a beam of 26.9 m and she displaced around 25,000 metric tons at full load and had a crew of between 1124 and 1133 officers and enlisted men. She was powered by four Parsons steam turbines with twenty-four Niclausse boilers and they were rated at 29,000 shaft horsepower and provided a top speed of 20 knots. Coal storage amounted to 2,680 t, bretagnes main battery consisted of ten 340mm/45 Modèle 1912 guns mounted in five twin gun turrets, numbered from front to rear. They were placed all on the centerline, two were in a superfiring pair forward, one amidships, and the last two in a superfiring arrangement aft, the secondary battery consisted of twenty-two Canon de 138 mm Modèle 1910 guns in casemates along the length of the hull. She also carried seven 47 mm Hotchkiss guns, two on the tower and one on the roof of each turret. The ship was armed with four submerged 450 mm torpedo tubes. The ships main belt was 270 mm thick and the battery was protected by up to 300 mm of armor. The conning tower had 314 mm thick sides, Bretagne was laid down at the Arsenal de Brest on 1 July 1912, launched on 21 April 1913, and completed in September 1915. She was commissioned into the French Navy on 10 February 1916 and they spent the majority of their time at Corfu to prevent the Austro-Hungarian fleet from attempting to break out of the Adriatic. The fleets presence was intended to intimidate Greece, which had become increasingly hostile to the Triple Entente. Later in the war, men were drawn from their crews for anti-submarine warfare vessels, as the Austro-Hungarians largely remained in port for the duration of the war, Bretagne saw no action during the conflict. Indeed, she did not leave port at all for the entirety of 1917, Bretagne returned to Toulon in November 1918French battleship Bretagne – Bretagne -class design as depicted by Brassey's Naval Annual 1915
63. SMS Regensburg – SMS Regensburg was a light cruiser of the Graudenz class built by the German Kaiserliche Marine. She had one sister ship, SMS Graudenz, the ship was built by the AG Weser shipyard in Bremen, laid down in 1912, launched in April 1914, and commissioned into the High Seas Fleet in January 1915. She was named for the German town of Regensburg, the ship was armed with a main battery of twelve 10.5 cm SK L/45 guns and had a top speed of 27.5 knots, though in 1917 she was rearmed with seven 15 cm SK L/45 guns. Regensburg served in the forces of the High Seas Fleet during World War I. She saw significant action at the Battle of Jutland on 31 May –1 June 1916, after the end of the war, she was ceded to France in 1920 and renamed Strasbourg. In 1928 she took part in the Arctic rescue operations searching for the Airship Italia. Removed from service in 1936, she was used as a ship in Lorient until 1944. She was commissioned into the High Seas Fleet on 3 January 1915, the ship was 142.7 meters long overall and had a beam of 13.8 m and a draft of 5.75 m forward. She displaced 6,382 t at combat load. Her propulsion system consisted of two sets of Marine steam turbines driving two 3. 5-meter propellers and they were designed to give 26,000 shaft horsepower. These were powered by ten coal-fired Marine-type water-tube boilers and two oil-fired double-ended boilers and these gave the ship a top speed of 27.5 knots. Regensburg carried 1,280 t of coal, and an additional 375 t of oil gave her a range of approximately 5,500 nautical miles at 12 knots. She had a crew of 21 officers and 364 enlisted men, the ship was armed with twelve 10.5 cm SK L/45 guns in single pedestal mounts. Two were placed side by side forward on the forecastle, eight were located amidships, four on either side, the guns had a maximum elevation of 30 degrees, which allowed them to engage targets out to 12,700 m. These were later replaced with seven 15 cm SK L/45 guns and she was also equipped with a pair of 50 cm torpedo tubes with five torpedoes submerged in the hull on the broadside. Four deck-mounted launchers were added when the gun armament was upgraded, and she could also carry 120 mines. The ship was protected by an armored belt that was 60 mm thick amidships. The conning tower had 100 mm thick sides, and the deck was covered with up to 60 mm thick armor plate, Regensburg completed her trials on 10 March 1915, and was then assigned to the II Scouting GroupSMS Regensburg – The wreck in front of the Keroman Submarine Base in Lorient.
64. Breton horse – The Breton is a breed of draft horse. It was developed in Brittany, a province in northwest France, the Breton was created through the crossbreeding of many different European and Oriental breeds. In 1909, a book was created, and in 1951 it was officially closed. The breed is often chestnut in color, and is strong, there are three distinct subtypes of the Breton, each coming from a different area of Brittany. The Corlay Breton is the smallest type, and is used for light draft. The Postier Breton is used for harness and light farm work, the Heavy Draft Breton is the largest subtype, and is generally used for the hardest draft work. This horse breed has been used in military, draft and agricultural capacities and it also has been used to improve and create many other draft breeds, and to produce mules. Breton horses are usually about 1.58 metres tall, but may range from 1.55 to 1.63 m, depending on type. They usually have a coat, often with a flaxen mane and tail. Bretons have a head of medium volume with a straight profile. The shoulder is long and sloping, the chest broad and muscular, the short and wide. The legs are well-feathered, short but powerful, with broad joints, there are several subtypes of the Breton breed. Two, the Trait Breton and the Postier Breton, are recognised, while others such as the Corlais or Cheval de Corlay. Older types that have disappeared include the Grand Breton and the Bidet Breton or Bidet dAllure, the Corlay Breton is derived from crossbreeding native stock with the Arabian and Thoroughbred, and is considered the real descendant of the original Breton. It has the general features as the draft type but is smaller with a more dished face. It was used mainly for light draft work that required speed and under saddle, the type is also known as the Cheval de Corlay, and is now extremely rare. It was also used in races because of its speed. Postier Bretons were developed as a result of crossbreeding with the Norfolk Trotter and this type is bred mainly in central Brittany, has a very attractive gait, is a good coach horse, and capable of light farming workBreton horse – Breton horse
65. Yoann Gourcuff – Yoann Miguel Gourcuff is a French professional footballer who plays for Ligue 1 club Rennes. He operates mainly as an midfielder, but can also be utilized as a withdrawn striker and is described as a playmaker of real quality who is an accomplished passer of the ball. Gourcuff has been described by former French international David Ginola as the best French player of his generation and his talent, elegant playing style, tenacity on the pitch, technical skills and precocious ability have drawn comparisons to French legend Zinedine Zidane. Gourcuff is the son of Christian Gourcuff, in 2001, he followed in his fathers footsteps and joined Rennes. C. Gourcuff achieved many club honours despite not being able to break into the starting eleven, following a successful season, in which Bordeaux captured the league and league cup double and Gourcuff attained several individuals honours, he signed with the club permanently. Gourcuff is a winner of the UNFP Ligue 1 Player of the Year award and. In August 2010, he joined Olympique Lyonnais on a five-year contract, prior to playing at senior level, he played on the under-19 team that won the 2005 European Under-19 Football Championship. Gourcuff made his national team debut in August 2008. He scored his first international goal two months later against Romania, Gourcuff made his first major tournament appearance for France at the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Since joining the team, he has been inserted into the playmaker role. Gourcuff was born in Ploemeur, Brittany to parents Dr. Marine Thalouarn and Christian Gourcuff, however, his father was best known for his time at Rennes, Lorient, and Le Mans. Gourcuffs father later moved into managerial roles, having stints at Rennes, Le Mans, Lorient and he currently serves as manager of Stade Rennais. As a youth, the younger Gourcuff excelled at football and tennis, becoming the top player of his age group, but eventually opted to focus on football. He often attempted to emulate the skills of Brazilian legend Pelé, Gourcuff began his career with Lorient, who were, at the time, managed by his father Christian in 1992. During his time at Lorient, he trained at PEF Ploufragan. Further to his fathers departure to Stade Rennais, Gourcuff, who initially considered rivals Nantes, followed suit and signed an aspirant contract with the club in 2001. He spent two years in the youth academy and, while competing domestically in the system, Gourcuff played on the clubs under-19 team that won the 2003 edition of the Coupe Gambardella. Rennes defeated Strasbourg 4–1 in the match at the Stade de FranceYoann Gourcuff – Gourcuff with Lyon in 2015.
66. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. These volunteers are supported by organizations around the world, including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia and it consists of editors and Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include, The Wikimedia Foundation is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco and it owns the domain names and operates most of the movements websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. According to the WMFs 2015 financial statements, in 2015 the WMF had a budget of $72 million USD, spending $52 million USD on its operation, Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in specified geographical regions, mostly countries. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a budget of €20 million. WMDE allocates approximately €1 million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, to have the same procedure, every chapter follows the same process and requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. The foundation as internet domain owner of the project pages requests a share of the donations via the website in a country, a total of under 4 Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations. The legal base is a Chapters Agreement with the foundation, thematic organizations are founded to support Wikimedia projects in a focal area. User groups have less formal requirements than chapters and thematic organizations and they support and promote the Wikimedia projects locally or on a specific theme, topic, subject, or issue. At the beginning of 2016, there were 55 user groups, once they are recognized by the Affiliations Committee, they enter into a User Groups Agreement and Code of Conduct with the foundation. They have a program to encourage female editorsWikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014