1. Medieval Greek – From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language in the Byzantine Empire. This stage of language is thus described as Byzantine Greek. However, this approach is rather arbitrary as it is more an assumption of political linguistic developments. Indeed, by this time the spoken language, particularly pronunciation, had already shifted towards modern forms. Medieval Greek is the link between this vernacular, known as Koine Greek, the Modern Greek language. At first, it was used for official documents, but its influence soon waned. From the beginning of the 6th century, amendments to the law were mostly written in Greek. Furthermore, parts of the Roman Corpus Iuris Civilis were gradually translated into Greek. Under the rule of Emperor Heraclius, who also assumed the Greek title Basileus in 629, Greek became the official language of the Eastern Roman Empire. This was in spite of the fact that the inhabitants of the empire still considered themselves in 1453. The number of those who were able to communicate in Greek may have been far higher. In any case, all cities of the Eastern Roman Empire were strongly influenced by the Greek language. A center of Greek culture and language, fell to the Arabs in 642. During the eighth centuries, Greek was replaced by Arabic as an official language in conquered territories such as Egypt. From the 11th century onwards, the interior of Anatolia was invaded by Seljuq Turks, who advanced westwards.Medieval Greek – Manuscript of the Anthology of Planudes (c.1300)
2. Roman Empire – The imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empire's existence were "Roman Peace". Following Octavian's victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, but the Praetorian Guard proclaimed Claudius emperor instead. Under Claudius, the empire invaded its major expansion since Augustus. His short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors. The empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. Commodus' assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, renamed "Constantinople" in his honour. It remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the official state religion of the empire. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time.Roman Empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
3. Late Antiquity – The development of the periodization has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown, after the publication of his seminal work The World of Late Antiquity. Brown proposes a period between the 8th centuries AD. Beginning with Constantine the Great the Empire was Christianized, a new capital founded at Constantinople. The cultural fusion of Greco-Roman, Christian traditions formed the foundations of the subsequent culture of Europe. The Spätantike, literally "late antiquity", has been used by Alois Riegl in the early 20th century. Concurrently, some migrating Germanic tribes such as the Ostrogoths and Visigoths saw themselves as perpetuating the "Roman" tradition. Constantine confirmed the legalization of the religion through the so-called Edict of Milan in 313, jointly issued with his rival in the East, Licinius. Monasticism was not the only new Christian movement to appear in Late Antiquity, although it had perhaps the greatest influence. Notable in this regard is the topic of the Fifty Bibles of Constantine. Within the recently legitimized Christian community of the 4th century, a division could be more distinctly seen between the laity and an increasingly celibate male leadership. Detached, the upper clergy became an elite equal to urban notables, the potentes or dynatoi. The Late Antique period also saw a wholesale transformation of the social basis of life around the Roman Empire. The later Roman Empire was in a sense a network of cities. Archaeology now supplements literary sources to document the transformation followed by collapse of cities in the Mediterranean basin. Burials within the urban precincts mark another stage of urbanistic discipline overpowered by the attraction of saintly shrines and relics.Late Antiquity – The Barberini ivory, a late Leonid / Justinian Byzantine ivory leaf from an imperial diptych, from an imperial workshop in Constantinople in the first half of the sixth century (Louvre Museum)
4. Middle Ages – In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It merged into the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into Late Middle Ages. Counterurbanisation, movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements including Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The Byzantine Empire remained a major power. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during 9th century. The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by a philosophy that emphasised joining faith by the founding of universities. Controversy, the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms.Middle Ages – The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The body of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
5. Constantinople – Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire, also of the brief Latin, the later Ottoman empires. Constantinople was famed for its massive and complex defences. The first wall of the city was surrounded the city on both sea fronts. Constantinople never truly recovered from the devastation of the Fourth Crusade and the decades of misrule by the Latins. The founding myth of the city has it told that the settlement was named after the leader of the Megarian colonists, Byzas. During this time, the city was also called Roma Constantinopolitana. In the language of other peoples, Constantinople was referred to just as reverently. The medieval Vikings, who had contacts with the empire through their expansion in eastern Europe used the Old Norse name Miklagarðr, later Miklagard and Miklagarth. In Arabic, the city was sometimes called Rūmiyyat al-kubra and in Persian as Takht-e Rum. This was presumably a calque on a Greek phrase such as Βασιλέως Πόλις,'the city of the emperor'. The Turkish name for İstanbul, derives from the Greek phrase eis tin polin, meaning "into the city" or "to the city". In 1928, the Turkish alphabet was changed from Arabic script to Latin script. In time the city came to be known as Istanbul and its variations in most world languages. In Greece today, the city is still called Konstantinoúpolis/Konstantinoúpoli or simply just "the City". Apart from this, little is known about this initial settlement, except that it was abandoned by the time the Megarian colonists settled the site anew.Constantinople – Constantinople in the Byzantine era
6. Istanbul – Istanbul, historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosphorus strait between the Sea of the Black Sea. Its historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives on the Asian side. The city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, both hosting a population of around million residents. Istanbul is ranks as the world's 7th-largest city proper and the largest European city. Founded under the name of Byzantion around 660 BCE, the city developed to become one of the most significant in history. Overlooked during the interwar period, the city has since regained much of its prominence. Arts, music, cultural festivals were established at the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex network. Considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world. It hosts media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years. The known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from Byzas. Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists.Istanbul – Clockwise from top: View of Golden Horn between Galata and Seraglio Point including the historic areas; Maiden's Tower; a nostalgic tram on İstiklal Avenue; Levent business district with Dolmabahçe Palace; Ortaköy Mosque in front of the Bosphorus Bridge; and Hagia Sophia.
7. Byzantium – Byzantium was an ancient Greek colony on the site that later became Constantinople, later still Istanbul. It was colonised from Megara in c. 657 BC. The etymology of Byzantion is unknown. It has been suggested that the name is of Thraco-Illyrian origin, Byzantium may be derived from Illyrian personal name, Byzas. Greek legend refers to a legendary king Byzas, the leader of the Megarian colonists and founder of the city. The Byzantium is a Latinization of the original name. This usage was introduced only by the historian Hieronymus Wolf, a century after the empire had ceased to exist. During the time of the empire, the Byzantium was restricted to just the city, rather than the empire it ruled. The European side featured only two fishing settlements: Lygos and Semistra. The origins of Byzantium are shrouded in legend. The traditional legend has it that Byzas from Megara founded Byzantium in 667 BC when he sailed northeast across the Aegean Sea. The tradition tells that son of King Nisos, planned to found a colony of the Dorian Greek city of Megara. Byzas consulted the oracle of Apollo at Delphi, which instructed Byzas to settle opposite the "Land of the Blind". He adjudged the Chalcedonians blind not to have recognized the land on the European side of the Bosphorus had over the Asiatic side. In 667 BC he founded Byzantium at their location, thus fulfilling the oracle's requirement.Byzantium – O: Head of Alexander the Great with Amun's horns.
8. Deposition of Romulus Augustulus – Odoacer's deposition of Romulus Augustulus, occurring in 476 AD, marked the end of the period during which Western Roman Emperors exercised sovereignty. The widow of Licinia, was herself taken to Carthage, where her daughter was married to Genseric's son. Rome not only lost a portion of its population during the Vandal rampage – a fairly large amount of its treasures was plundered by the barbarians. This loot was later recovered by the Byzantines. At the time, however, its loss was a major blow to the Western Empire. Among the more successful of these commanders, the most senior of whom were called magistri militum, were Avitus, who would eventually be crowned emperor, Ricimer. Ricimer grew so powerful that he was able to depose weak emperors almost at will. Rather than take himself, Orestes had his young son, Romulus Augustulus, crowned emperor. Orestes, who ruled in his son's name, found an enemy in the persons of his non-Roman mercenary-soldiers. When, led by an auxiliary general called Odoacer, they were refused, they swept into Italy. Orestes fled to fortified Pavia. Odoacer laid siege to Pavia, which fell in due course. The bishop of Epiphanius, managed to ransom many of the captives taken during this invasion, but was unable to save Orestes, executed. Orestes's brother was killed by Odoacer's forces, who entered the imperial capital soon afterward. The young monarch Romulus Augustulus was, on September 4, compelled to abdicate before the Senate.Deposition of Romulus Augustulus – Romulus Augustulus, the last Western Roman Emperor, surrenders the crown to Odoacer (1880 illustration).
9. Western Roman Empire – Theodosius I divided the Empire upon his death between his two sons. As the Roman Republic expanded, it reached a point where the central government in Rome could not effectively rule the distant provinces. Communications and transportation were especially problematic given the vast extent of the Empire. For this reason, provincial governors had de facto rule in the name of the Roman Republic. Antony received the provinces in the East: Achaea, Macedonia and Epirus, Cyrenaica. These lands had previously been conquered by Alexander the Great; thus, much of the aristocracy was of Greek origin. Especially the major cities, had been largely assimilated into Greek often serving as the franca. Octavian obtained the Roman provinces of the West: Hispania. These lands also included Greek and Carthaginian colonies in the coastal areas, though Celtic tribes such as Gauls and Celtiberians were culturally dominant. Lepidus received the minor province of Africa. Octavian soon took Africa from Lepidus, while adding Sicilia to his holdings. Upon the defeat of Mark Antony, a victorious Octavian controlled a united Roman Empire. While the Roman Empire featured many distinct cultures, all were often said to experience gradual Romanization. Minor rebellions and uprisings were fairly common events throughout the Empire. Conquered tribes or cities would revolt, the legions would be detached to crush the rebellion.Western Roman Empire – Tremissis depicting Flavius Julius Nepos (474-480), the de jure last Emperor of the Western Court
10. Fall of Constantinople – The Fall of Constantinople was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading army of the Ottoman Empire on 29 May 1453. The conquest of Constantinople followed a 53-day siege that had begun on 6 April 1453. The capture of Constantinople marked the end of the Roman Empire, an imperial state that had lasted for nearly 1,500 years. After the conquest, Sultan Mehmed II transferred the capital of the Ottoman Empire from Edirne to Constantinople. Constantinople had been an imperial capital since its consecration in 330 under Roman Emperor, Constantine the Great. In the following eleven centuries, the city was captured once: during the Fourth Crusade in 1204. They also fought to the Byzantine throne. The Nicaeans eventually reconquered Constantinople from the Latins in 1261. The Black Plague between 1346 and 1349 killed almost half of the inhabitants of Constantinople. The Empire of an independent state that formed in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, also survived on the coast of the Black Sea. This optimism was reinforced by friendly assurances made by Mehmed to envoys sent to his new court. But Mehmed's actions spoke far louder than his mild words. Since the mutual excommunications of 1054, the Pope in Rome was committed to establishing authority over the eastern church. Nominal union had been negotiated in 1274, at the Second Council of Lyon, indeed, some Palaiologoi emperors had since been received into the Latin church. Emperor John VIII Palaiologos had also recently negotiated union with Pope Eugene IV, with the Council of Florence of 1439 proclaiming a Bull of Union.Fall of Constantinople – The last siege of Constantinople, contemporary 15th century French miniature
11. Ottoman Empire – After 1354, with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire by Mehmed the Conqueror. At the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. The empire continued to military throughout the seventeenth and much of the eighteenth century. The empire allied with Germany with the imperial ambition of recovering its lost territories, joining in World War I. The word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman. Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti. The Rūmī was also used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In the West, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were often used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being increasingly favored both in informal situations. This dichotomy was officially ended in 1920 -- 23, when the newly established Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character. Osman's early followers not all converts to Islam.Ottoman Empire – Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. Painting from 1523.
12. Ancient Greek – Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period, Hellenistic period. It is antedated by Mycenaean Greek. The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of classical Athenian historians, philosophers. It has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the West since the Renaissance. This article primarily contains information of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects. The main dialect groups are Doric, many of them with several subdivisions. Some dialects are found in literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are also historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects. The early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence.Ancient Greek – Inscription about the construction of the statue of Athena Parthenos in the Parthenon, 440/439 BC
13. Latin language – Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from Greek alphabets. Latin was originally spoken in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin developed such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Romanian. Latin, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language. Ancient Greek roots are used in theology, biology, medicine. By the late Roman Republic, Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin. Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence. Later, Early Modern Latin and Modern Latin evolved. Latin was used until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Many students, scholars and members of the Catholic clergy speak Latin fluently. It is taught around the world. The language has been passed down through various forms.Latin language – Latin inscription, in the Colosseum
14. Partition of the Roman Empire – During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, military force in Europe. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin. The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the north stabilised. In a matter of years the Empire lost Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle as a homeland. The Empire recovered again during such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire. The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in poetic contexts. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came in the Western world.Partition of the Roman Empire – Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great (r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
15. List of Byzantine emperors – The Byzantine Empire was nothing more than the continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire following the division of the Roman Empire in 395. All Byzantine emperors considered the rightful "Roman Emperors"; the term "Byzantine" was coined by Western historiography only in the 16th century. The title of all Emperors preceding Heraclius was officially "Augustus," although other titles such as Dominus were also used. Their names were followed by Augustus. Following Heraclius, the title was then used in place of Augustus. Following the establishment of the rival Holy Roman Empire in Western Europe, the title "Autokrator" was increasingly used. In later centuries, the Emperor could be referred to as the "Emperor of the Greeks." Towards the end of the standard imperial formula of the Byzantine ruler was" in Christ, Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans". Family trees of the Byzantine imperial dynasties List of Roman emperors List of Roman usurpers List of Byzantine usurpers List of Roman and Byzantine empressesList of Byzantine emperors – Constantine XI
16. Diocletian – Diocletian, born Diocles, was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305. After his son Numerian on campaign in Persia, Diocletian was proclaimed emperor. Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus. Diocletian's reign marks the end of the Crisis of the Third Century. He appointed fellow officer Maximian in 286. Diocletian delegated further on 1 March 293, appointing Galerius and Constantius as junior co-emperors. Under "rule of four", each emperor would rule over a quarter-division of the empire. Diocletian purged it of all threats to his power. He defeated the Sarmatians and Carpi between 297 and 298. Galerius, aided by Diocletian, campaigned successfully against the empire's traditional enemy. In 299 he sacked Ctesiphon. Diocletian achieved a lasting and favorable peace. He established administrative centres in Nicomedia, Mediolanum, Antioch, Trier, closer to the empire's frontiers than the traditional capital at Rome had been. Building on third-century trends towards absolutism, he styled elevating himself above the empire's masses with imposing forms of court ceremonies and architecture. Military growth, constant campaigning, construction projects increased the state's expenditures and necessitated a comprehensive tax reform.Diocletian – Laureate head of Diocletian
17. Constantine the Great – Constantine the Great, also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD. Constantine was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, his consort Helena. His father became the deputy emperor in the west in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under the emperors Diocletian and Galerius. In 305, Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia. As emperor, Constantine enacted many administrative, financial, social, military reforms to strengthen the empire. Civil and military authority separated. The solidus, was introduced to combat inflation. It would become the standard for European currencies for more than a thousand years. He called the First Council of Nicaea in 325, at which the Nicene Creed was professed by Christians. In military matters, the Roman army was reorganised to consist of mobile field units and garrison soldiers capable of countering internal threats and barbarian invasions. The age of Constantine marked a distinct epoch in the history of the Roman Empire. He renamed the city Constantinople after himself. His more immediate political legacy was that, in leaving the empire to his sons, he replaced Diocletian's tetrarchy with the principle of dynastic succession. His reputation flourished after his reign.Constantine the Great – Colossal marble head of Emperor Constantine the Great, Roman, 4th century, located at the Capitoline Museums, in Rome.
18. Rome – Rome is a city and special comune in Italy. Rome is the capital of Italy and of the Lazio region. The Metropolitan City of Rome has a population of million residents. The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, along the shores of Tiber river. Rome's history spans a half thousand years. The city's early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and Sabines. Rome is also called the "Caput Mundi". Due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, then the birthplace of both Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters, architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city. In 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed as a World Heritage Site. Rome is the seat of United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself.Rome
19. Theodosius I – Theodosius I, also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395. Theodosius was the last emperor to rule over the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against other barbarians who had invaded the empire. He fought two civil wars, in which he defeated the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius at great cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made the official state church of the Roman Empire. He neither punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. Theodosius was born to a senior military officer, Theodosius the Elder. Theodosius learned his military lessons by campaigning with his father's staff in Britannia where he went to help quell the Great Conspiracy in 368. In about 373, he oversaw hostilities against the Sarmatians and thereafter against the Alemanni. He was military commander of a Roman province on the lower Danube, in 374. However, thereafter, at about the same time as the sudden disgrace and execution of his father, Theodosius retired to Hispania. His father's death is unclear. The death of Valentinian I in 375 created political pandemonium.Theodosius I – Theodosius
20. Christianity – Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, who serves as the focal point for the religion. It is the world's largest religion, over 2.4 billion followers, or 33 % of the global population, known as Christians. Christians believe that Jesus is the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Christian theology is summarized in various creeds. His incarnation, earthly ministry, resurrection are often referred to as "the gospel", meaning "good news". Christianity is an Abrahamic religion that began in the mid-1st century. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread through missionary work and colonization. Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization. Throughout its history, Christianity has weathered theological disputes that have resulted in many distinct churches and denominations. The three largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the various denominations of Protestantism. There are important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible and sacred tradition on which Christianity is based. Doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds. They were later expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even while agreeing with all of the substance of the creeds. The Baptists have been non-creedal "in that they have not sought to establish authoritative confessions of faith on one another."Christianity – An Eastern Christian icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381
21. State religion – A state religion is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. Official religions have been known throughout human history in almost all types of cultures. Observing them was a requirement made to all citizens, especially public officials. Official religions justified and reinforced the type of government existing in a society. Closely related to state churches are what sociologists call ecclesiae, though the two are slightly different. The institution of religious cults is ancient, reaching into the Ancient Near East and prehistory. The relation of the state was discussed by Varro, under the term of theologia civilis. The first Christian church was the Armenian Apostolic Church, established in 301 AD. The nature of state backing for denomination or creed designated as a state religion can vary. In these cases, state religions are widely seen by the state to prevent alternate sources of authority. There is also a difference between the broader term of "state religion". A "church" is a state religion created by a state for use exclusively by that state. In either case, the official religion has some influence over the ruling of the state. As of 2012, there are only seven state churches left, as most countries that once featured state churches have separated the church from their government. Disestablishment is the process of repealing a church's status as an organ of the state.State religion – Roman Catholicism
22. Religion in ancient Rome – This archaic religion was the foundation of the maiorum, "the way of the ancestors" or simply "tradition", viewed as central to Roman identity. This and imported mystery religions were generally practiced alongside the official religion. Ultimately, Roman polytheism was brought as the official religion of the empire. The priesthoods of public religion were held by members of the elite classes. There was no principle analogous to separation of state in ancient Rome. During the Roman Republic, the same men who were elected public officials might also serve as pontiffs. Priests married, led politically active lives. Julius Caesar became pontifex maximus before he was elected consul. Roman religion was thus contractual, based on the principle of do ut des, "I give that you might give." Even the most skeptical among Rome's intellectual elite such as Cicero, an augur, saw religion as a source of social order. For ordinary Romans, religion was a part of daily life. Each home had a shrine at which prayers and libations to the family's domestic deities were offered. Sacred places such as springs and groves dotted the city. The Roman calendar was structured around religious observances. Women, children all participated in a range of religious activities.Religion in ancient Rome – Marcus Aurelius (head covered) sacrificing at the Temple of Jupiter
23. Heraclius – He was the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 610 to 641. Heraclius was responsible for introducing Greek as the Eastern Roman Empire's official language. Heraclius's reign was marked by military campaigns. The year Heraclius came to power, the empire was threatened on multiple frontiers. He immediately took charge of the Byzantine -- Sassanid War of 602 -- 628. Soon after, Heraclius initiated reforms to strengthen the military. He pushed deep into their territory, defeating them decisively in 627 at the Battle of Nineveh. Peaceful relations were restored to the two deeply strained empires. He soon experienced the Muslim conquests. Emerging from the Arabian Peninsula, the Muslims quickly conquered the Sassanid empire. In 634 the Muslims marched into Roman Syria, defeating Heraclius' Theodore. Within a short period of time, the Arabs conquered Mesopotamia, Armenia and Egypt. He entered diplomatic relations in the Balkans. Heraclius tried to repair the schism in the Christian church in regard by promoting a compromise doctrine called Monothelitism. The Church of the East was also involved in the process.Heraclius – Tremissis of Emperor Heraclius.
24. Ancient Rome – Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. In its approximately 12 centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through assimilation, it came to dominate Southern and Western Europe, Asia Minor, parts of Northern and Eastern Europe. Rome was preponderant throughout the Mediterranean region and was one of the most powerful entities of the ancient world. Societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Roman society has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, society. The Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would have lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe. King Numitor was deposed by Amulius, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins.Ancient Rome – Senātus Populus que Rōmānus
25. Eastern Orthodox Church – The Eastern Orthodox Church teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission to the apostles. It practices what it understands to be the original Christian faith and maintains the sacred tradition passed down from the apostles. The Eastern Orthodox Church is a communion of autocephalous churches, each typically governed by a Holy Synod. Eastern Orthodoxy spread throughout the Roman and later Byzantine Empires and beyond, playing a prominent role in European, some African cultures. Its most prominent episcopal see is Constantinople. There are also many in other parts of the world, formed through missionary activity. The official name of the Eastern Orthodox Church is the Orthodox Catholic Church. Orthodox teachers refer to the Church as Catholic. Longer variants containing "Catholic" are also referenced in other books and publications by secular or non-Orthodox writers. The common name of the Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, is a shortened practicality that helps to avoid confusions in casual use. For this reason, the eastern churches were sometimes identified as "Greek", even before the great schism. After 1054, "Greek Orthodox" or "Greek Catholic" marked a church as being with Constantinople, much as "Roman Catholic" did with Rome. This identification with Greek, however, became increasingly confusing with time. Missionaries brought Orthodoxy to many regions without ethnic Greeks, where the Greek language was not spoken. Almost from the very beginning, Christians referred as Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church".Eastern Orthodox Church – Orthodox liturgy
26. Justinian I – During his reign, Justinian sought to reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. Because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been called the "last Roman" in modern historiography. This ambition was expressed by the partial recovery of the territories of the western Roman empire. Belisarius, swiftly conquered the Vandal kingdom in North Africa. The prefect Liberius reclaimed the south of the Iberian peninsula, establishing the province of Spania. These campaigns re-established Roman control over the western Mediterranean, increasing the Empire's annual revenue by over a solidi. During his Justinian also subdued the Tzani, a people on the east coast of the Black Sea that had never been under Roman rule before. His building program yielded such masterpieces as the church of Hagia Sophia. A devastating outbreak of bubonic plague in the early 540s marked the end of an age of splendour. Justinian was born around 482. A native speaker of Latin, he came from a family believed to have been of Illyro-Roman or Thraco-Roman origins. The cognomen Iustinianus, which he took later, is indicative of adoption by his Justin. During his reign, he founded Justiniana Prima far from his birthplace, which today is in South East Serbia. His mother was the sister of Justin. Justin, in the imperial guard before he became emperor, adopted Justinian, ensured the boy's education.Justinian I – Detail of a contemporary portrait mosaic in the Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna.
27. Mediterranean Sea – The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning "inland" or "in the middle of land". Its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east in the south by Africa. It is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is approximately 4,000 km. The sea's north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has a area of approximately 2,510,000 square km. The sea was an important route for travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region. The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of modern societies. In addition, the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, "between" + γη, "land, earth"). It can be compared with meaning "between rivers".Mediterranean Sea – Circa the 6th century BCE: In ancient times the Mediterranean provided sources of food and local commerce and direct routes for trade and communications, colonisation, and war. Numerous cities and colonies were situated at its shores or within the basin: Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity; and other cities (grey), including the provincial "Rom".
28. Maurice (emperor) – He was Eastern Roman Emperor from 582 to 602. A prominent general in Maurice fought with success against the Sassanid Persians. Maurice campaigned extensively in the Balkans against the Avars – pushing them back across the Danube by 599. Maurice also conducted campaigns across the Danube, the first Roman Emperor to do so in over two centuries. In the West, Maurice established two semi-autonomous provinces called exarchates, ruled by exarchs, or viceroys, of the emperor. In Italy, he established the Exarchate of Ravenna in the first real effort by the Empire to halt the advance of the Lombards. With the creation of the Exarchate of Africa in 590, Maurice further solidified the power of Constantinople in the western Mediterranean. His reign was troubled by almost constant warfare. In 602, a dissatisfied general named Phocas usurped the throne, having his six sons executed. His reign is a accurately documented era of Late Antiquity, in particular by the historian Theophylact Simocatta. A manual of war which influenced European and Middle Eastern military traditions for well over a millennium, is traditionally attributed to Maurice. He was born in 539, the son of a certain Paul. Maurice had one brother, two sisters, Theoctista and Gordia, later the wife of the general Philippicus. Maurice is recorded to have been a native Greek speaker, since Anastasius I Dicorus. Possibly he was a Hellenized Armenian.Maurice (emperor) – Follis with Maurice in consular uniform.
29. Sassanid Empire – The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilization. Persia influenced Roman culture considerably during the Sasanian period. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world. Conflicting accounts shroud the details of the fall of the Parthian Empire and subsequent rise of the Sasanian Empire in mystery. The Sassanid Empire was established in Estakhr by Ardashir I. Papak was originally the ruler of a region called Khir. However, by the year 200, he managed to overthrow Gochihr, appoint himself as the new ruler of the Bazrangids. His mother, Rodhagh, was the daughter of the provincial governor of Pars. Papak and his eldest son Shapur managed to expand their power over all of Pars. The subsequent events are unclear, due to the elusive nature of the sources. Sources reveal that Shapur, leaving for a meeting with his brother, was killed when the roof of a building collapsed on him.Sassanid Empire – Normal domains
30. Muslim conquests – The early Muslim conquests also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic Prophet Muhammad in the 7th century. He established a new unified polity in the Arabian Peninsula which under the subsequent Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates saw a century of rapid expansion. The Muslim conquests brought about the collapse of the Sassanid Empire and a great territorial loss for the Byzantine Empire. The reasons for the Muslim success are hard to reconstruct in hindsight, primarily because only fragmentary sources from the period have survived. Most historians agree that the Sassanid Persian and Byzantine Roman empires were militarily and economically exhausted from decades of fighting one another. In the case of Byzantine Egypt, Palestine and Syria, these lands had only a few years before being reclaimed from the Persians. The last of these wars ended for the Byzantines: Emperor Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem in 629. According to George Liska, the "unnecessarily prolonged Byzantine–Persian conflict opened the way for Islam". The province of Syria was the first to be wrested from Byzantine control. On the heels of their victory, the Arab armies took Damascus in 636, with Baalbek, Homs, Hama to follow soon afterwards. However, fortified towns had to be conquered individually. Jerusalem fell in 638, Caesarea in 640, while others held out until 641. The Byzantine province of Egypt held strategic as a base for further conquests in Africa. The Muslim general'Amr ibn al-'As began the conquest of the province on his own initiative in 639. Nevertheless, the province was scarcely urbanized and the defenders lost hope of receiving reinforcements from Constantinople when the emperor Heraclius died in 641.Muslim conquests – Expansion from 622-750, with modern borders overlaid
32. Macedonian Renaissance – Because of problems with the term, scholars have employed alternative names to describe this period, including "renaissance", "renascence", First Byzantine Renaissance. Art refers to the art of this period. The term Macedonian Renaissance was first used by Kurt Weitzmann in his The Joshua Roll: A Work of the Macedonian Renaissance. It describes the architecture of Macedonia. At the same time, the manuscripts of "Paris Psalter" were indicated by scholars. The term "Byzantine" arose from Byzantium, a city is now Istanbul. Being on the easternmost territory of the Roman Empire allowed the groundwork for the Macedonian Renaissance to come about. The religion was Orthodox Christianity. While the West Roman Empire had declined into the Middle Ages the Eastern Roman Empire, was able to survive and flourish. This was due mainly to its strategic location for commerce but also to the way it was able to hold back its enemies. The founder of the Macedonian Dynasty of Byzantine rulers, was born in Thrace to a peasant family said to be of Armenian descent. He was rapidly promoted by the emperor Michael III eventually becoming co-emperor. By means of political maneuvering he then began military and diplomatic campaigns to secure the empire. He was able to regain control over Crete and Cyprus at the same time he was able to hold back Bulgarian advances into his territory. His dynasty was thus able to maintain a period of peace under which economics, philosophy, culture could thrive.Macedonian Renaissance – People
33. Basil II – Basil II was a Byzantine Emperor from the Macedonian dynasty who reigned from 10 January 976 to 15 December 1025. He was known as Basil the Porphyrogenitus and Basil the Young to distinguish him from his supposed ancestor, Basil I the Macedonian. The early years of his long reign were dominated from the Anatolian aristocracy. For this he was nicknamed the Bulgar Slayer, by which he is popularly known. His reign is therefore often seen as the medieval apogee of the Empire. His paternal ancestry is of uncertain origins, the founder of the dynasty, being variously attributed as Armenian, Slavic, or Greek. Indeed the biological father of Leo VI the Wise was possibly not Michael III. The family of Michael III were Anatolians of the Melchisedechian heretical faith. In 960, Basil was associated by his father, who then died in 963, when Basil was only five years old. Nikephoros was murdered by his nephew John I Tzimisces, who then became emperor and reigned for seven years. When Tzimisces died on 10 January 976, Basil II finally took the throne as senior emperor. He would prove himself as an able general and strong ruler. Basil watched without interfering, devoting himself to learning the details of administrative business and military science. Even though John I Tzimiskes were brilliant military commanders, both had proven to be lax administrators. He ended his days blind, perhaps through disease, though he may have been punished by blinding.Basil II – Basil II (Βασίλειος Β' ο Βουλγαροκτόνος)
34. Seljuq dynasty – Due to various events, the Oghuz had come into close contact with Muslim cities. Around 985, Seljuq converted to Islam. In the 11th century the Seljuqs migrated from their ancestral homelands in the province of Khurasan, where they encountered the Ghaznavid empire. In 1025, 40,000 families of Oghuz Turks migrated to the area of Caucasian Albania. The Seljuqs defeated the Ghaznavids in 1035. Tughril, Chaghri, Yabghu were given the title of dehqan. The Seljuqs adopted the Persian culture and Persian language in the following decades. The rulers of western Persia, who maintained a very loose grip on the Abbasids of Baghdad. Turkic emirs gained a strong level of influence in the region, such as the Eldiduzids. Kerman was a province in southern Persia. Between 1154, the territory also included Umman. Kerman was eventually annexed by the Khwarezmid Empire in 1196. The Empire of the Steppes: a History of Central Asia. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. P. 147.Seljuq dynasty – History of the Turkic peoples Pre-14th century
35. Romanos IV Diogenes – While still captive when released Romanos was quickly detained by members of the Doukas family. In 1072, he was blinded and sent to a monastery, where he died of his wounds. His mother was a daughter of Basil Argyros, brother of the emperor Romanos III. Courageous and generous, but also impetuous, Romanos rose with distinction in the army due to his military talents, he served on the Danubian frontier. However, he was eventually convicted of attempting to usurp the throne of the sons of Constantine X Doukas in 1067. Eudokia had in executing this plan was that Constantine X, had made her swear an oath never to remarry. On January 1068 Romanos married the empress and was crowned Emperor of the Romans. Romanos IV was now junior co-emperors, Michael VII, Andronikos Doukas. They waited for the next year's campaigning season. He did not take into account the degraded state of the Byzantine forces, which had suffered years of neglect from his predecessors, in particular Constantine X. It was soon evident that while Romanos possessed military talent, his impetuosity was a serious flaw. The first military operations of Romanos did achieve a measure of success, reinforcing his opinions about the outcome of the war. Antioch was exposed to the Saracens of Aleppo who, with help from Turkish troops, began an attempt to reconquer the Byzantine province of Syria. Romanos captured Hierapolis, which he fortified to provide protection against further incursions into the south-eastern provinces of the empire. He then engaged in further fighting against the Saracens of Aleppo, but neither side managed a decisive victory.Romanos IV Diogenes – Diptych of the boy Emperor Romanus II and his child wife Bertha-Eudokia, the daughter of Hugh of Italy, c. 944-946. This Diptych is often used erroneously to show Emperor Romanus IV (Bibliothèque nationale de France).
36. Eastern Anatolia – The Eastern Anatolia Region is a geographical region of Turkey. The region and the name "Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi" were first defined at the First Geography Congress in 1941. It has the highest average altitude, lowest population density of all regions of Turkey. After the Armenian Genocide, the geopolitical term "Eastern Anatolia" was created to replace what had historically been known as Western Armenia. Starting from 1880 the Armenia was forbidden to be used in official Ottoman documents. The government of Sultan Abdul Hamid II replaced the name Armenia as "Kurdistan" or "Anatolia". The Sublime Porte was trying to cover up the Armenian Question; if there was no Armenia, then there was no Armenian Question. Starting from 1923 the entire territory of Western Armenia was officially renamed “Eastern Anatolia”. Armenia, together with its boundaries, was unequivocally mentioned till the end of the 19th century. A famous Ottoman chronicler of the 17th century, had a special chapter titled "About the Country Called Armenia" in his book Jihan Numa. When, however, this book was republished in 1957, H. Selen changed this title into "Eastern Anatolia". A historian of the second half of the 19th century, mentions Armenia repeatedly in his three-volume Abdul Hamid and the Period of His Reign. The Anatolia means "sunrise" or "east" in Greek. This name was given to the Asia Minor peninsula approximately in the 4th centuries B.C.. During the Ottoman era, the term Anadolou included the north-eastern vilayets of Asia Minor with Kyotahia as its center.Eastern Anatolia – 1895 map making a clear distinction between Armenia and Anatolia
37. Battle of Manzikert – The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuq Turks on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert. This led to the mass movement of Turks into central Anatolia—by 1080, an area of 78,000 square kilometres had been gained by the Seljuk Turks. It took three decades of internal strife before Alexius I restored stability to Byzantium. It was the first time in history a Byzantine Emperor had become the prisoner of a Muslim commander. Under Constantine IX the Byzantines first came into contact with the Seljuk Turks when they attempted to annex Ani, the Armenian capital. Constantine made a truce with the Seljuks that lasted until 1064, but they then took Ani, in 1067 the rest of Armenia, followed by Caesarea. After some military reforms entrusted Manuel Comnenus to lead an expedition against the Seljuks. Abandoning the siege of Edessa, he immediately led his army to attack Fatimid-held Aleppo. Accompanying Romanos was rival. The expedition rested at Sebasteia on the river Halys, reaching Theodosiopolis in June 1071. There, some of his generals suggested continuing the march into Seljuk territory and catching Alp Arslan before he was ready. Others, including Nicephorus Bryennius, suggested they wait and fortify their position. It was decided to continue the march. Alp Arslan was already in the area, however, with allies and 30,000 cavalry from Aleppo and Mosul. Alp Arslan's scouts knew exactly where Romanos was, while Romanos was completely unaware of his opponent's movements.Battle of Manzikert – In this 15th-century French miniature depicting the Battle of Manzikert, the combatants are clad in contemporary Western European armour.
38. Komnenian restoration – The empire was also being threatened by the Normans of Robert Guiscard, who were invading the Balkans from their base in southern Italy. All this had grown increasingly reliant on mercenaries. The Komnenoi nevertheless managed to culturally. Relations between the Byzantine East and Western Europe flourished, later emperors with the Crusaders. The scattered and disorganized army was restructured into a competent fighting force that became known as the Komnenian Byzantine army. Instead of a professional army, they relied on aging conscripts to defend the tenuous frontier. After his capture the empire descended into civil war as many grappled in Constantinople. Upon ascension, Alexios inherited a much-weakened empire, immediately beset by a serious invasion from the Normans of Southern Italy. The Normans used the deposition of the previous emperor Michael as the casus belli to invade the Balkans. The Normans took Dyrrhachium in advanced inland, capturing most of Macedonia and Thessaly. Robert was then forced to leave Greece to deal by the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV. Robert left his son Bohemond in Greece. He was defeated by Alexios outside Larissa. Forced to retreat to Italy, Bohemond lost all the territory gained in the campaign. This victory began the Komnenian restoration.Komnenian restoration – The Byzantine Empire before the First Crusade.
39. Komnenoi – The Romanian historian George Murnu suggested in 1924 that the Komnenoi were of Aromanian descent, but this view too is now rejected. Modern scholars consider the family to have been entirely of Greek origin. Manuel Erotikos Komnenos was the father of Isaac I Komnenos and grandfather, through Isaac's younger brother John Komnenos, of Alexios I Komnenos. Isaac I Komnenos, a Stratopedarch of the East under Michael VI, founded the Komnenos dynasty of Byzantine emperors. In 1057 Isaac led a coup against Michael and was proclaimed emperor. Although his reign lasted only till 1059, when his courtiers pressured him to abdicate and become a monk, Isaac initiated many useful reforms. The dynasty returned to the throne with the accession of Alexios I Komnenos, Isaac I's nephew, in 1081. By this time, descendants of all the previous dynasties of Byzantium seem to have disappeared from the realm, such as the important Scleros and Argyros families. Thereafter the combined clan often was referred as "Komnenodoukai" and several individuals used both surnames together. Several families descended from the Komnenodoukai, such as Palaiologos, Angelos, Vatatzes and Laskaris. Under Alexios I and his successors the Empire was fairly prosperous and stable. Alexios moved the imperial palace to the Blachernae section of Constantinople. Much of Anatolia was recovered from the Seljuk Turks, who had captured it just prior to Alexios' reign. Alexios also saw the First Crusade pass through Byzantine territory, leading to the establishment of the Crusader states in the east. John's son Manuel ruled for another 37 years.Komnenoi – Alexios I Komnenos.
40. First Crusade – The First Crusade was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to capture the Holy Land, called by Pope Urban II in 1095. The Crusaders arrived at Jerusalem, captured it in July 1099, massacring many of the city's Muslim and Jewish inhabitants. They also established the crusader states of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Tripoli, the County of Edessa. The First Crusade was followed to the Ninth Crusades. It was also the major step towards reopening international trade in the West since the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The view is that it had elements of both in its nature. The origin of the Crusades in general, particularly that of the First Crusade, is widely debated among historians. The confusion is partially due to their lack of direct unity. The connections were rarely strong, the unity broke down often. The Umayyad Caliphate had conquered Syria, Egypt, North Africa from Hispania from the Visigothic Kingdom. Essentially, between 1096 and 1101 the Byzantine Greeks experienced the crusade as it arrived at Constantinople in three separate waves. In the early summer of 1096, the first unruly group arrived on the outskirts of Constantinople. This wave was reported to be ill-equipped as an army. This first group is often called the Peasants’ or People’s Crusade. The second wave was made up of a number of armies with their own commanders.First Crusade – The Capture of Jerusalem marked the First Crusade's success
41. Second Crusade – The Second Crusade was the second major crusade launched from Europe as Catholic holy war against Islam. The Second Crusade was started to the forces of Zengi. The county had been founded during the First Crusade in 1098. While it was the first Crusader state to be founded, it was also the first to fall. The armies of the two kings marched separately across Europe. After crossing Byzantine territory into Anatolia, both armies were separately defeated by the Seljuk Turks. The remnants of their armies reached Jerusalem and participated in 1148 in an ill-advised attack on Damascus. The crusade in the east was a great victory for the Muslims. It would ultimately give rise to the Third Crusade at the end of the 12th century. The only Christian success of the Second Crusade came in 1147. The County of Tripoli, was established in 1109. Count Baldwin II and count Joscelin of Courtenay were taken captive after their defeat at the Battle of Harran in 1104. Joscelin had also quarreled with the Prince of Antioch, leaving Edessa with no powerful allies. Both Zengi and King Baldwin II turned their attention towards Damascus; Baldwin was defeated outside the great city in 1129. In late 1144, Joscelin II marched out of Edessa with almost his entire army to support the Ortoqid army against Aleppo.Second Crusade – Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. 1140), was recaptured by the Turks. This was the primary cause of the Second Crusade.
42. Massacre of the Latins – The Roman Catholics of Constantinople at that time dominated the city's maritime trade and financial sector. Some 4,000 survivors were sold as slaves to the Sultanate of Rum. A sequence of hostilities between the two followed. Since the 11th century, Western merchants, primarily from the Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa, had started appearing in the East. The first had been the Venetians, who had secured large-scale trading concessions from Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos. Gradually, all four Italian cities were also allowed to establish their own quarters in the northern part of Constantinople itself, towards the Golden Horn. Together with the perceived arrogance of the Italians, it fueled popular resentment both in the countryside and in the cities. The religious differences between the two sides, who viewed each other as schismatics, further exacerbated the problem. Emperor Manuel subsequently expelled most of the Genoese and Pisans from the city, thus giving a free hand for several years. As talks dragged on through the winter, the Venetian fleet waited at Chios, until an outbreak of the plague forced them to withdraw. Relations were only gradually normalized: there is evidence of a treaty in 1179, although a full restoration of relations would only be reached in the mid-1180s. Meanwhile, by 1180, it is estimated that up to 60,000 Latins lived in Constantinople. Following the death of Manuel I in 1180, the Latin princess Maria of Antioch, acted as regent to her infant son Alexios II Komnenos. Almost immediately, after entering the city's Latin quarter a mob began attacking the inhabitants. Many had escaped by sea.Massacre of the Latins – Map of Constantinople in the Byzantine period. The Latin quarters are captioned in purple.
43. Komnenos dynasty – This view too is now rejected. Modern scholars consider the family to have been entirely of Greek origin. Manuel Erotikos Komnenos was the father of grandfather, through Isaac's younger brother John Komnenos, of Alexios I Komnenos. A Stratopedarch of the East under Michael VI, founded the Komnenos dynasty of Byzantine emperors. In 1057 Isaac was proclaimed emperor. Although his reign lasted only till 1059, when his courtiers pressured him to become a monk, Isaac initiated many useful reforms. The dynasty returned in 1081. By this time, descendants of all the previous dynasties of Byzantium seem to have disappeared from the realm, such as the important Scleros and Argyros families. Thereafter several individuals used both surnames together. Several families descended such as Palaiologos, Angelos, Vatatzes and Laskaris. Under his successors the Empire was fairly prosperous and stable. Alexios moved the imperial palace to the Blachernae section of Constantinople. Much of Anatolia was recovered from the Seljuk Turks, who had captured it prior to Alexios' reign. Alexios also saw the First pass through Byzantine territory, leading to the establishment of the Crusader states in the east. John's Manuel ruled for another 37 years.Komnenos dynasty – Alexios I Komnenos.
44. Fourth Crusade – Instead, a sequence of events culminated in the Crusaders sacking the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Christian-controlled Byzantine Empire. The intention of the crusaders was then to continue with promised Byzantine financial and military assistance. On June 1203 the main crusader fleet reached Constantinople. Smaller contingents continued to Acre. Following clashes outside Constantinople, Alexios Angelos was crowned co-Emperor with crusader support. However, in January 1204, he was deposed by a popular uprising in Constantinople. In April 1204, they captured and set up a new Latin Empire as well as partitioning other Byzantine territories among themselves. Byzantine resistance based in unconquered sections of the empire such as Nicaea, Trebizond, Epirus ultimately recovered Constantinople in 1261. Ayyubid Sultan Saladin had conquered most of the Frankish, Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, including the ancient city itself, in 1187. The Kingdom had been established 88 years before, after the sack of Jerusalem in the First Crusade. Returning it to Christian hands had been a primary purpose of the First Crusade. Saladin led his incorporation of Jerusalem into his domains shocked and dismayed the Catholic countries of Western Europe. The timing of his death makes that impossible. The crusader states had been reduced to three cities along the coast: Tyre, Tripoli, Antioch. The experiences of the first two crusades had thrown into stark relief the cultural differences between the two Christian civilizations.Fourth Crusade – Conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204
45. Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae – The Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae was a treaty signed amongst the crusaders after the sack of the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, by the Fourth Crusade in 1204. Latin rule lasted longest in southern Greece, well as the Aegean islands, which came largely under the control of Venice. 1203, well as the areas still controlled at the time. Alexander Kazhdan, ed.. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. Pp. 1591–92. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae – The actual partition of the Byzantine Empire after the Fourth Crusade
46. Frankokratia – The term derives from the fact that the Orthodox Greeks called the Western Catholics "Latins", most of whom were of French or Venetian origin. The Latin Empire, encompassing Thrace and Bithynia, while also exercising nominal suzerainty over the other Crusader states. Its territories were gradually reduced to little more than the capital, eventually captured in 1261. Duchy of Philippopolis, fief of the Latin Empire in northern Thrace, by the Bulgarians. Lemnos formed a fief of the Latin Empire from 1207 until conquered by the Byzantines in 1278. Its rulers bore the title of megadux of the Latin Empire. The Kingdom of Thessalonica, encompassing Macedonia and Thessaly. The brief existence of the Kingdom was continuously troubled by warfare with the Second Bulgarian Empire; eventually, it was conquered by the Despotate of Epirus. It came under Catalan and later Navarrese rule before being sold to the Knights Hospitaller in 1403. It was finally conquered in 1410. The Marquisate of Bodonitsa, like Salona, later came under the influence of Achaea. In 1335, the Venetian Giorgi family ruled until the Ottoman conquest in 1414. The Principality of Achaea, encompassing the Morea or Peloponnese peninsula. It quickly prospered even after the demise of the Latin Empire. Its main rival was the Byzantine Despotate of the Morea, which eventually succeeded in conquering the Principality.Frankokratia – The Greek and Latin states in southern Greece, ca. 1214.
47. Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty – From the start, the régime faced numerous problems. The Turks of Asia Minor had since 1263 been raiding and expanding into Byzantine territory in Asia Minor. By 1380, the Byzantine Empire consisted of a other isolated exclaves, which only nominally recognized the Emperor as their lord. The Empire of Trebizond, fell shortly afterwards. However, the Palaiologan period witnessed a renewed flourishing in art and the letters, in what has been called the "Palaiologian Renaissance". The migration of Byzantine scholars to the West also helped to spark the Renaissance in Italy. In addition, the disintegration of the Byzantine Empire allowed the various Turcoman emirates of Anatolia to make gains. The Nicaean Empire was successful in holding its own against its Latin and Seljuk opponents. At the Battle of Meander Valley, a Turkic force was repelled and an earlier assault on Nicaea led to the death of the Seljuk Sultan. In 1261, the Empire of Nicaea was ruled by John IV Laskaris, a boy of ten years. However, John IV was overshadowed by his co-emperor, Michael VIII Palaiologos. Thrace, Macedonia and Thessalonica had already been taken by Nicaea in 1246. Following the capture of Constantinople, Michael ordered the blinding of John IV in December 1261, so as to become sole emperor. He was replaced by Joseph I. The Fourth Crusade and their successors, the Latin Empire, had done much to reduce Byzantium's finest city to an underpopulated wreck.Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty – The Byzantine Empire ca. 1265
48. Byzantine Empire – During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, military force in Europe. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin. The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the north stabilised. In a matter of years the Empire lost Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle as a homeland. The Empire recovered again during such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire. The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in poetic contexts. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came in the Western world.Byzantine Empire – Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great (r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
49. Greek language – It is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, western and northeastern Asia Minor, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus. Greek has the longest documented history of any living language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. The alphabet was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic and many other writing systems. Together with the Latin traditions of the Roman world, the study of the Greek texts and society of antiquity constitutes the discipline of Classics. During antiquity, it was a widely spoken franca in the Mediterranean world and beyond. Greek would eventually develop into Medieval Greek. The language is spoken by at least million people today in Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Albania, Turkey, the Greek diaspora. Greek roots are often used to coin new words for other languages; Greek and Latin are the predominant sources of scientific vocabulary. It has been spoken since around the 3rd millennium BC, or possibly earlier. Among the Indo-European languages, its date of earliest written attestation is matched only by the now extinct Anatolian languages. The Greek language is conventionally assumed last ancestor of all known varieties of Greek. The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Bronze Age. Mycenaean Greek: the language of the Mycenaean civilisation. Greek is recorded on tablets dating from the 15th century BC onwards. Ancient Greek: in its various dialects, the language of the Archaic and Classical periods of the ancient Greek civilisation.Greek language – Idealized portrayal of Homer
50. Latin – Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from Greek alphabets. Latin was originally spoken in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin developed such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Romanian. Latin, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language. Ancient Greek roots are used in theology, biology, medicine. By the late Roman Republic, Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin. Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence. Later, Early Modern Latin and Modern Latin evolved. Latin was used until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Many students, scholars and members of the Catholic clergy speak Latin fluently. It is taught around the world. The language has been passed down through various forms.Latin – Latin inscription, in the Colosseum
51. Ottoman Turkish language – Ottoman Turkish /ˈɒtəmən/, or the Ottoman language, is the variety of the Turkish language, used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic and Persian, it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. The Tanzimât era saw the application of the term "Ottoman" when referring to the language and the same distinction is made in Modern Turkish. Nominative case: كول göl, چوربه çorba, گجه gece. Accusative case: طاوشان گترمش ṭavşan getirmiş. Genitive case: answers the question كمڭ kimiñ, formed with the suffix ڭ –ıñ, –iñ, –uñ, –üñ. E.g. پاشانڭ paşanıñ from پاشا paşa. Accusative case: answers يى neyi, formed with the suffix ى -- ı, - i: طاوشانى گترمش ṭavşanı getürmiş. The variant suffix -- u, -- ü does not occur in Modern Turkish because of the lack of labial harmony. Thus, كولى göli, but Modern Turkish has gölü. Locative case: answers the question نره ده nerede, formed with the suffix ده –de, –da: مكتبده mektebde, قفصده ḳafeṣde, باشده başda, شهرده şehirde. As with the indefinite accusative case, the variant suffix –te, –ta does not occur unlike in Modern Turkish. Ablative case: answers the questions نره دن nereden and ندن neden. Instrumental case: answers the question نه ايله ne ile. The conjugation for the aorist tense is as follows: Ottoman Turkish was highly influenced by Arabic and Persian.Ottoman Turkish language – A poem about Rumi in Ottoman Turkish.
52. Empire – The term "empire" is associated with other words such as imperialism, globalization. Empire is often used to describe a displeasure to overpowering situations. The former method limits further expansion because it absorbs military forces to fixed garrisons. The latter method avails military forces for further expansion. Territorial empires tend to be contiguous areas. The term, on occasion, has been applied to maritime thalassocracies, with looser structures and more scattered territories. Empires are usually larger than kingdoms. This aspiration to universality resulted by converting ` outsiders' or ` inferiors' into the colonialized religion. This association of race became complex and has had a more intense drive for expansion. This is to a federation, an extensive state voluntarily composed of autonomous states and peoples. An empire is a political party who rules over territories outside of its original borders. Definitions of what politically constitute an empire vary. It might be a state affecting a particular political structure. Empires are typically formed from diverse ethnic, cultural, religious components. Empire and colonialism are used to refer to relationships versus a less powerful one.Empire – Maurya Empire of India at its greatest extent under Ashoka the Great
53. Capital (political) – A capital city is the municipality enjoying primary status in a country, state, province, or other region, usually as its seat of government. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official capital and the seat of government, in another place. The capital derives from the Latin caput, "head". In English-speaking states, the terms county town, borough seat are also used in lower subdivisions. In unitary states, subnational capitals are commonly known as "administrative centres". An alternative term is headtown. The capital is often, but not necessarily, the largest city of its constituent. Historically, the economic centre of a region often becomes the focal point of political power, becomes a capital through conquest or federation. Examples are Ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, Constantinople, Chang ` an, Ancient Cusco, Madrid, Paris, London, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, Vienna, Berlin. Some of these cities were also religious centres, e.g. Constantinople, Rome, Jerusalem, Ancient Babylon, Peking. The convergence of cultural power is by no means universal. Traditional capitals may be economically eclipsed by provincial rivals, numerous US state capitals. The decline of a culture could also mean the extinction of its city, as occurred at Babylon and Cahokia. In Canada, there is a federal capital, while the ten provinces and three territories all have capital cities.Capital (political) – Parliament Hill, the national legislative buildings, in Ottawa, the capital of Canada.
54. Latin Empire – It was established after the capture of Constantinople in 1204 and lasted until 1261. Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders, was crowned the first Latin emperor as Baldwin I on 16 May 1204. The imperial title survived, until the 14th century. The original name of this state in the Latin language was Imperium Romaniae. This name was used based on the fact that the common name for the Eastern Roman Empire in this period had been Romania. The names Byzantine and Latin were not contemporaneous terms. The Latin has been used Latin as scholarly language. It is used in contrast to the Eastern Orthodox locals who used Greek in both liturgy and common speech. After the fall of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade, the crusaders agreed to divide up Byzantine territory. None of these polities actually controlled the city of Rome, which remained under the temporal authority of the Pope. Latin successes continued, in 1207 a truce was signed with Theodore, newly proclaimed Emperor of Nicaea. Nicaea turned also to the Aegean, capturing the islands awarded to the empire. In 1235, finally, the last Latin possessions fell to Nicaea. When Baldwin campaigned against the Byzantine lords of Thrace, they called upon Kaloyan for help. He was imprisoned in the Bulgarian capital Tarnovo until his death later in 1205.Latin Empire – Capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade in 1204.
55. Golden Horn – Its English names mean the same, while its Turkish name, Haliç, simply means "estuary", is derived from the Arabic word khaleej, meaning "gulf". Throughout its storied past, its dramatic vistas have been the subject of countless works of art. The Golden Horn is the estuary of the Alibeyköy and Kağıthane Rivers. It is 750 meters across at its widest. Its maximum depth, where it flows into the Bosphorus, is about 35 meters. At present, the Golden Horn is spanned by five bridges. The third is the Atatürk Bridge, aka Unkapanı Bridge, completed in 1940, which connects Kasımpaşa and Unkapanı. The fifth bridge is the most current incarnation of Galata Bridge, completed in 1994, that runs between Karaköy and Eminönü. Walls were built along the shoreline to protect the city of Constantinople from naval attacks. Known as the Megàlos Pyrgos, this tower was largely destroyed by the Latin Crusaders during the Fourth Crusade in 1204. In 1348, the Genoese built a new tower nearby which they called Christea Turris, now called Galata Tower. There were three notable times when the chain across the Horn was either circumvented. During the Fourth Crusade, Venetian ships were able to break the chain with a ram. After the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453, Mehmed II resettled ethnic Greeks in the Phanar. Balat continued to be inhabited by Jews, as during the Byzantine age, though many Jews decided to leave following the takeover of the city.Golden Horn – 1860-70 German map of Ottoman -era Istanbul, showing the Golden Horn (Sector B2) and its source rivers, Alibeyköy and Kağıthane.
56. Sea of Marmara – The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Black Sea and the Dardanelles strait to the Aegean Sea. The former also separates Istanbul into its Asian and European sides. The sea has an area of 11,350 km² with the greatest depth reaching 1,370 m. The sea takes its name from the island of Marmara, rich in sources of marble, from the Greek μάρμαρον, "marble". The water is much more saline at the sea bottom, averaging salinities of around 38 parts per thousand, similar to that of the Mediterranean Sea. This high-density saline water, like that of the Black Sea, does not migrate to the surface. Water from the Susurluk, Biga and Gonen Rivers also reduces the salinity of the sea, though with less influence than on the Black Sea. With little land in Thrace draining southward, almost all of these rivers flow from Anatolia. The sea contains the archipelago of the Prince Islands and Marmara Island, Avşa and Paşalimanı. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Sea of Marmara as follows: On the West. The Dardanelles limit of the Aegean Sea. On the Northeast. A line joining Cape Rumili with Cape Anatoli.Sea of Marmara – Photograph of the Sea of Marmara from space (STS-40, 1991). The sea is the light-colored body of water.
57. Europe – Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Europe had a total population of about million as of 2012. Further from the Atlantic, seasonal differences are mildly greater than close to the coast. Europe, in ancient Greece, is the birthplace of Western civilization. The Renaissance humanism, exploration, art, science led the "old continent", eventually the rest of the world, to the modern era. From this period onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 20th centuries, European nations controlled at various times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania, the majority of Asia. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem states celebrate peace and unity on Europe Day.Europe – Reconstruction of Herodotus ' world map
58. Asia – Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometers, 8.7 % of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. The western boundary with Europe is a cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 A.D. The accidental discovery of America by Columbus in search for India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the East-West trading route in the Asian hitherland while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Overall population growth has since fallen. Given its diversity, the concept of Asia -- a name dating back to classical antiquity -- may actually have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies greatly with regard to ethnic groups, cultures, environments, economics, historical ties and government systems. The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Suez Canal. This makes a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the country in Africa. The border between Asia and Europe was historically defined by European academics. In Sweden, five years in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. The Russians were enthusiastic about the concept, which allowed them to keep their European identity in geography. Tatishchev announced that he had proposed the idea to von Strahlenberg.Asia – Two-point equidistant projection of Asia and surrounding landmasses.
59. Christendom – Christendom has several meanings. It had the sense now taken by Christianity. The current sense of the word of "lands where Christianity is the dominant religion" emerges in Late Middle English. The reason is the increasing fragmentation of Western Christianity at that time both in political respect. The Christian world is also known collectively as a translated as the Christian body, meaning the community of all Christians. The Christian polity, embodying a less meaning, can be compatible with the idea of both a religious and a temporal body: Corpus Christianum. The Corpus Christianum can be seen as a Christian equivalent of the Muslim Ummah. The word "Christendom" is also used to frame-true Christianity. In its most broad term, it refers to the world's Christian majority countries, which, share little in common aside from the predominance of the faith. This region is further subdivided into the West and Latin America. It is also less geographically cohesive than the Muslim world, which stretches continuously from North Africa to South Asia. There is a common and nonliteral sense of the word, much like the terms Western world, Free World. The post-apostolic period concerns the time roughly after the death of the apostles when bishops emerged as overseers of Christian populations. Dates to this period, the 2nd century, attributed to Ignatius of Antioch c. 107. 107.Christendom – This T-and-O map, which abstracts the then known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. More detailed versions place Jerusalem at the center of the world.
60. Ancient Greece – Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages to c. 5th century BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Byzantine era. Included in ancient Greece is the period of Classical Greece, which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Classical Greece began with the era of the Persian Wars. Because of conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Hellenistic civilization flourished to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. Classical Antiquity in the Mediterranean region is commonly considered to have ended in the 6th century AD. Classical Antiquity in Greece is preceded by the Dark Ages, archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery. The end of the Dark Ages is also frequently dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The earliest of these is the Archaic period, in which artists made larger free-standing sculptures with the dreamlike "archaic smile". The Archaic period is often taken to end in 508 BC. This period saw Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon. Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East. This period ends with the Roman conquest. Herodotus is widely known as the "father of history": his Histories are eponymous of the entire field. Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Xenophon, Demosthenes, Plato and Aristotle.Ancient Greece – The Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena, located on the Acropolis in Athens, is one of the most representative symbols of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks.
61. Constantine VIII – Constantine VIII was reigning Byzantine Emperor from 15 December 1025 until his death in 1028. By her he had three daughters: Eudokia, who became a nun, Zoe and Theodora of Byzantium. Constantine VIII had been crowned by their father in 962 when he was still an infant. Even when his elder brother became senior emperor, Constantine was perfectly content to enjoy all the privileges of Imperial status without concerning himself with state affairs. On occasion Constantine participated against rebel nobles. In 989, he acted between Basil II and Bardas Skleros. Physically Constantine was graceful, where Basil had been short and stocky. He was a superb horseman. By the time he became emperor, he could hardly walk. His reign was a disaster because he lacked political savvy. He reacted with impulsive cruelty, persecuting uppity nobles and allegedly ordering the execution or mutilation of hundreds of innocent men. Constantine carried on as he always had -- hunting, enjoying life -- and avoided state business as much as possible. He was poor at appointing officials. Within months, the land laws of Basil II were dropped from the Anatolian aristocracy although Constantine struck at the nobility when threatened by conspiracy. Like his brother, Constantine died without a male heir.Constantine VIII – Constantine VIII on the reverse of this histamenon coin, with crown, pelled labarum and akakia.
62. Nomisma histamenon – Histamenon was the name given to the gold Byzantine solidus when the slightly lighter tetarteron was introduced in the 960s. To distinguish the two, the histamenon was changed from the original solidus becoming wider and thinner, as well as concave in form. Later usually shortened to stamenon, it was discontinued after 1092. In the 13th centuries, the name stamenon came to be applied to the concave billon and copper trachea coins. The Byzantine emperor Nikephoros II Phokas, however, introduced the tetarteron, 2 carats lighter than the original nomisma. The latter now became implying that these followed the traditional standard. Initially, the two coins were virtually indistinguishable except in weight. Only during the sole rule of Constantine VIII, however, did the two coins become iconographically distinct well. Scyphate ones came to predominate from Constantine IX on and became standard under Isaac I Komnenos. These concave coins were simply trachea from their shape. Starting with Michael IV, a former money lender, the coins debased. After a period of relative stability in circa 1055 -- 1070, the gold content declined dramatically in the disastrous 1080s.Nomisma histamenon – Histamenon of Emperor Constantine VIII (r. 1025–1028).
63. Porphyrogenitus – Porphyrogénnētos was an honorific title in the Byzantine Empire given to a son, or daughter, born after the father had become emperor. In addition to this, the birth had to meet other conditions in order for the title to apply. The term became common by the 10th century, particularly in connection with Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, its use continued into the Palaiologan period. Imperial purple was a luxury dye obtained from sea snails, used to colour cloth. Its production was extremely expensive, so the dye was used as a status symbol by the Romans e.g. a purple stripe on the togas of magistrates. By the Byzantine period the colour had become associated with the emperors, sumptuary laws restricted its use by anyone except the imperial household. Purple was thus seen as an imperial colour. Constantine VII, himself porphyrogénnētos, described the ceremonies which took place during the birth of a porphyrogénnētos child in his work De Ceremoniis aulae byzantinae. The most distinctive condition was that the child be born in the "Πορφύρα": no child born anywhere else could legitimately be called Porphyrogénnētos. The Palace of the Porphyrogenitus is a late 13th-century Byzantine palace in the north-western part of the old city of Constantinople named after Constantine Palaiologos. In Imperial diplomacy a porphyrogénnēta bride was sometimes sent to seal a bargain, or a foreign princess may have gone to Constantinople to marry a porphyrogénnētos. A different bride,n't purple-born, Theophanu Skleraina, was subsequently acquired in 971. Constantine VII PorphyrogenitusPorphyrogenitus – Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos in a 945 carved ivory
64. Basil I the Macedonian – Basil I, called the Macedonian was a Byzantine Emperor who reigned from 867 to 886. Born a simple peasant in the Byzantine theme of Macedonia, he rose in the Imperial court, usurped the Imperial throne from Emperor Michael III. Basil was born in the Byzantine theme of Macedonia. Contemporary Byzantine Thrace was inhabited by people of Armenian origins. Claims have been made for an Armenian, Slavic, or indeed "Armeno-Slavonic" origin for Basil I. Basil lived there until 836, when he and several others escaped to Byzantine-held territory in Thrace. Basil was ultimately lucky enough to enter the service of Theophilitzes, a relative of the Caesar Bardas, as a groom. On Emperor Michael's orders, Basil married Michael's favourite mistress, in around 865. Basil then was invested in the now vacant dignity of kaisar, before being crowned co-emperor on May 866. This promotion may have included Basil's adoption by a much younger man. It was commonly believed that Leo VI, Basil's successor and reputed son, was really the son of Michael. When Michael III started to favour another courtier, Basiliskianos, Basil decided that his position was being undermined. Michael and Basiliskianos were insensibly drunk following a banquet at the palace of Anthimos when Basil, with a small group of companions, gained entry. The locks to the chamber doors had been tampered with and the chamberlain had not posted guards; both victims were then put to the sword. On Michael III's death, Basil, as an already acclaimed co-emperor, automatically became the ruling basileus.Basil I the Macedonian – Basil, his son Constantine, and his second wife, Empress Eudokia Ingerina.
65. Byzantine emperor – The Byzantine Empire was nothing more than the continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire following the division of the Roman Empire in 395. All Byzantine emperors considered the rightful "Roman Emperors"; the term "Byzantine" was coined by Western historiography only in the 16th century. The title of all Emperors preceding Heraclius was officially "Augustus," although other titles such as Dominus were also used. Their names were followed by Augustus. Following Heraclius, the title was then used in place of Augustus. Following the establishment of the rival Holy Roman Empire in Western Europe, the title "Autokrator" was increasingly used. In later centuries, the Emperor could be referred to as the "Emperor of the Greeks." Towards the end of the standard imperial formula of the Byzantine ruler was" in Christ, Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans". Family trees of the Byzantine imperial dynasties List of Roman emperors List of Roman usurpers List of Byzantine usurpers List of Roman and Byzantine empressesByzantine emperor – Constantine XI
66. Anatolia – The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Aegean Sea to the west. The mountainous plateau to the east of this line was historically known as the Armenian Highlands. Traditionally, Anatolia is the territory that comprises approximately the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. However, non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Assyrian, Armenian, Arabic, Laz, Georgian, Greek. This geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, as well as the archeological community. Under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia. To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in the Mesopotamian plain. Since then, Anatolia is often considered to be synonymous with Asian Turkey. The oldest known reference to Anatolia -- as "Land of the Hatti" -- was found from the period of the Akkadian Empire. The first name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula was Ἀσία, presumably after the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia. The Anatolia derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning "the East" or more literally "sunrise", comparable to the Latin derived terms "levant" and "orient". In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolia Region. The Turkish form of Anatolia is Anadolu, which again derives from the Greek name Aνατολή. The French Anatole share the same linguistic origin. In English the name of Turkey for ancient Anatolia first appeared c.Anatolia – The traditional definition of Anatolia within modern Turkey
67. First Bulgarian Empire – The First Bulgarian Empire was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed in southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD. It was founded circa 681 when Bulgar tribes led by Asparukh moved to the northeastern Balkans. At the height of its power, Bulgaria spread from the Danube Bend to the Adriatic Sea. As the state solidified its position in the Balkans, it entered with the Byzantine Empire. Bulgaria emerged to its north resulting in several wars. Byzantium had a cultural influence on Bulgaria, which also led to the eventual adoption of Christianity in 864. After the disintegration of the Avar Khaganate, the country expanded its territory northwest to the Pannonian Plain. During the late 9th and 10th centuries, Simeon I achieved a string of victories over the Byzantines. Thereafter, he proceeded to expand the state to its greatest extent. After the annihilation of the Byzantine army in the battle of Anchialus in 917, the Bulgarians laid siege in 923 and 924. In 1014, under Basil II, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Bulgarians at the Battle of Kleidion. By 1018, the First Bulgarian Empire had ceased to exist. It was succeeded by the Bulgarian Empire in 1185. After the adoption of Christianity, Bulgaria became the cultural center of Slavic Europe. It came to be known as Old Church Slavonic.First Bulgarian Empire – Bulgaria during the reign of Simeon the Great, 10th century
68. Vladimir I of Kiev – Vladimir Sviatoslavich the Great was a prince of Novgorod, grand prince of Kiev, ruler of Kievan Rus' from 980 to 1015. Vladimir's father was prince Sviatoslav of the Rurik dynasty. With the help from his relative Ladejarl Håkon Sigurdsson, ruler of Norway, he assembled a Varangian army and reconquered Novgorod from Yaropolk. Originally a follower of Slavic paganism, Vladimir converted to Christianized the Kievan Rus'. Born in 958, Vladimir was the natural youngest son of Sviatoslav I of Kiev by his housekeeper Malusha. Malusha's Dobrynya was Vladimir's tutor and most trusted advisor. His place of birth is identified as Budyatychi or Budnik. Transferring his capital to Pereyaslavets in 969, Sviatoslav gave Kiev to his legitimate son Yaropolk. After Sviatoslav's death in 972, a fratricidal war erupted in his younger brother Oleg, ruler of the Drevlians. In 977 Vladimir fled to his kinsman Haakon Sigurdsson, ruler of Norway, collecting as many Norse warriors as he could to assist him to recover Novgorod. On his return he marched against Yaropolk. On his way to Kiev he sent ambassadors to prince of Polotsk, to sue for the hand of his daughter Rogneda. The high-born princess refused to affiance herself to the son of a bondswoman, so Vladimir took Ragnhild by force. Vladimir continued to expand his territories beyond his father's extensive domain. He may have attempted to reform Slavic paganism by establishing the thunder-god, Perun, as a supreme deity.Vladimir I of Kiev – Vladimir the Great
69. Christianization of Kievan Rus' – The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages. In early 867, Patriarch Photius of Constantinople announced to other Orthodox patriarchs that the Rus', baptised by his bishop, took to Christianity with particular enthusiasm. The latter events are traditionally referred in Ukrainian literature. He traveled over the Black Sea to the Greek colony of Chersonesus Taurica in Crimea, where he converted several thousand men to new faith. Saints Cyril and Methodius were the missionaries of Christianity among the Slavic peoples of Bulgaria, Great Moravia and Pannonia. Through their work they influenced the cultural development of all Slavs, for which they received the title "Apostles to the Slavs". After their deaths, their pupils continued their missionary work among other Slavs. Both brothers are venerated in the Ukrainian Catholic and Byzantine Catholic Churches as well as the Orthodox Church as saints with the title of "equal-to-apostles". The most authoritative source for the early Christianization of Rus' is an encyclical letter of Patriarch Photius, datable to early 867. As was the case with the Bulgarians, the Patriarch found it prudent to send to the barbarians a bishop from Constantinople. There is also an silentio: no Greek source recorded the second baptism of the Rus in the 990s. Whatever the scope of Photius's efforts to Christianize the Rus', their effect was not lasting. Either in 957, Olga of Kiev, visited Constantinople with a certain priest, Gregory. Her reception at the imperial court is described in De Ceremoniis. When she was baptized, she said it was inappropriate for a godfather to marry his goddaughter.Christianization of Kievan Rus' – The Baptism of Kievans, a painting by Klavdiy Lebedev
70. Kievan Rus' – The modern peoples of Belarus, Ukraine, Russia all claim Kievan Rus' as their cultural ancestors. According to Russian historiography the first ruler to start uniting East Slavic lands into what has become known as Kievan Rus' was Prince Oleg. Sviatoslav I achieved the first major expansion of Kievan Rus' territorial control, fighting a war of conquest against the Khazars. Vladimir the Great introduced Christianity with his own baptism and, by decree, extended it to all inhabitants of Kiev and beyond. The state declined disintegrating into various regional powers. The state finally fell to the Mongol invasion of the 1240s. Various etymologies have been proposed, including Ros, a tribe from the middle Dnieper valley region. The term "Kievan Rus'" was coined in the 19th century in Russian historiography to refer to the period when the centre was in Kiev. Later, the Russian term was rendered as Ки́ївська Русь Kyivs ` ka Rus', respectively. To their north, in the Ladoga and Karelia regions, were the Finnic Chud tribe. Controversy persists over whether the Rus’ were Varangians or Slavs. This uncertainty is due largely to a paucity of contemporary sources. Attempts to address this question instead rely on archaeological evidence, the accounts of foreign observers, legends and literature from centuries later. To some extent the controversy is related to the foundation myths of modern states in the region. According to the "Normanist" view, the Rus' were Scandinavians, while nationalist historians generally argue that the Rus' were themselves Slavs.Kievan Rus' – The Invitation of the Varangians by Viktor Vasnetsov: Rurik and his brothers Sineus and Truvor arrive at the lands of the Ilmen Slavs.
71. Byzantine studies – The discipline's founder in Germany is considered to be a Renaissance humanist. He gave Byzantine to the eastern Roman Empire that continued after the western part collapsed in AD 476. About 100 years after the final conquest of Byzantium by the Ottomans, Wolf began to collect, translate the writings of Byzantine philosophers. 16th-century humanists introduced Byzantine studies to Holland and Italy. Byzantine studies is the discipline that addresses the culture of Byzantium. Thus the unity of the object of investigation stands to the diversity of approaches that may be applied to it. -- There were already "Byzantine" studies in the high Byzantine Empire. It expanded in the 17th century throughout Europe and Russia. Early 20th centuries brought the formation of Byzantine studies as an independent discipline. Christian faith, together with a relative unity of language and culture, constitute medieval Byzantium. The starting point of Byzantine history is usually taken to be the reign of the foundation of Constantinople. This "early Byzantine" period lasts until approximately 641. This may be perceived as the "end of antiquity," and the beginning of the "Byzantine" era. This was also of the origin of the Holy Roman Empire. A certain stability was achieved until the Battle of Myriokephalon.Byzantine studies – The opening session of the IV International Congress of Byzantine Studies in the Aula of the University of Sofia, 09/09/1934
72. Germany – Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With about million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Largest metropolis is Berlin. Urban areas include Ruhr, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart and Düsseldorf. Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. In 1871, Germany became a state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and -- 1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic. The establishment of the socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and a genocide. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded: the Federal Republic of the German Democratic Republic.Germany – The Nebra sky disk is dated to c. 1600 BC.
73. Philologist – Philology is the study of language in written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, linguistics. A person who pursues this kind of study is known as a philologist. Classical philology studies classical languages. Indo-European studies involves the comparative philology of all Indo-European languages. Any classical language can be philologically studied, and, indeed, describing a language as "classical" is to imply the existence of a philological tradition associated with it. Philology, with its focus on historical development, is contrasted with linguistics due to Ferdinand de Saussure's insistence on the importance of synchronic analysis. The contrast continued alongside its emphasis on syntax. As an allegory of literary erudition, Philologia appears in an idea revived in Late Medieval literature. The meaning of "love of literature" was narrowed to "the study of the historical development of languages" in 19th-century usage of the term. Most European countries still maintain the term to designate departments, colleges, position titles, journals. J. R. R. Tolkien opposed the nationalist reaction against philological practices, claiming that "the philological instinct" was "universal as is the use of language". The comparative linguistics branch of philology studies the relationship between languages. It is now named Proto-Indo-European. Philology also includes the study of their history. It includes elements of textual criticism, trying to reconstruct an author's original text based on variant copies of manuscripts.Philologist – Cover of Indo-European philology historical and comparative by William Burley Lockwood
74. Hieronymus Wolf – Born at Oettingen in Bayern, Germany, he was one of nine children. His father, allegedly of noble origin, was much impoverished. Hieronymus himself for years worked as a scribe, though formally was educated as an attorney. He directly exposed to Lutheran teaching. Allegedly he taught himself Greek. Upon acquiring some mastery of Greek he plunged in German of the speeches of Demosthenes. His translation was published by a well-known publishing house Oporinus which made his name known to the Fugger Family in Augsburg. Wolf got a position in 1551. He first published an edition of him at Paris in 1551. The library would become famous in particular for 100 Greek manuscripts that were transferred from Venice. On, under the scholarly direction of Hieronymus Wolf and others, the library became a research center of both respect and quality throughout Europe. Six years later Wolf was appointed first Rector of Gelchrtenschule in the building of St Anne Carmelite cloister, subsequently known as St Anne Gymnasium. The Protestant College was established there to counterbalance the Jesuit college created less at the same time. Hieronymus Wolf was, however, a sick man throughout his life. He never married.Hieronymus Wolf – Hieronymus Wolf
75. Renaissance – This new thinking became manifest in art, politics, literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. The Renaissance first began in Florence, in the 14th century. Major centres were Italian city-states such as Venice, Genoa, Milan, Bologna, finally Rome during the Renaissance Papacy. The word Renaissance, literally meaning "Rebirth" in French, first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word also occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France. The word Renaissance has also been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected intellectual life in the modern period. Renaissance scholars searched in art. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion, reflected in many other areas of cultural life. Political philosophers, most famously Niccolò Machiavelli, sought to describe political life as it really was, to understand it rationally. Others see more general competition between artists and polymaths such as Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, Donatello, Masaccio for artistic commissions as sparking the creativity of the Renaissance. Yet it remains much debated why the Renaissance began in Italy, why it began when it did. Accordingly, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins. During the Renaissance, money and art went hand in hand.Renaissance – David, by Michelangelo (Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence) is a masterpiece of Renaissance and world art.
76. Renaissance Humanism – Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, 16th centuries. The Renaissance humanism is contemporary to that period -- Renaissance and "humanist". Renaissance humanism was a response to the utilitarian approach and what came to be depicted as the "narrow pedantry" associated with medieval scholasticism. This was to be accomplished through the study of today known as the humanities: grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry, moral philosophy. There were important centres of Urbino. Some of the first humanists were great collectors of antique manuscripts, including Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Poggio Bracciolini. Of the four, Petrarch was dubbed the "Father of Humanism" because of his devotion to Roman scrolls. Some of the highest officials of the Church were humanists with the resources to amass important libraries. The movement which they inspired is shown as humanism. They included Gemistus Pletho, George of Trebizond, John Argyropoulos. There was often patronage of humanists by senior church figures. Humanity -- with all its distinct capabilities, talents, worries, possibilities -- was the center of interest. Inevitably, the rediscovery of classical science would eventually challenge traditional religious beliefs. Venice began teaching humanist thinking in the late 14oo. Lorenzo Valla, however, puts a defense of epicureanism in the mouth of one of the interlocutors of one of his dialogues.Renaissance Humanism – Leonardo da Vinci 's Vitruvian Man (c. 1490) shows the correlations of ideal human proportions with geometry described by the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius in his De Architectura. Vitruvius described the human figure as being the principal source of proportion among the Classical orders of architecture.
77. History – History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory. It is an term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians. Ancient influences have helped continue to change today. The modern study of history includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. The academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies. The history comes ultimately from Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning "inquiry", "knowledge from inquiry", or "judge". It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his Περὶ Τὰ Ζῷα Ἱστορίαι. The ancestor ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, Heraclitus, the Athenian ephebes' oath, in Boiotic inscriptions. This word fell out of use in the late Old English period. This time the loan stuck. In Middle English, the meaning of history was "story" in general. For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory. In an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human storytelling in general.History – Historia by Nikolaos Gysis (1892)
78. Mathematics – Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, change. There is a range of views among philosophers as to the exact scope and definition of mathematics. Mathematicians use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry. Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements. Galileo Galilei said, "The universe can not become familiar with the characters in which it is written. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth." Carl Friedrich Gauss referred as "the Queen of the Sciences". Benjamin Peirce called mathematics "the science that draws necessary conclusions". David Hilbert said of mathematics: "We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules.Mathematics – Euclid (holding calipers), Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens.
79. Philosophy – Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, language. The term was probably coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, systematic presentation. Philosophical questions include: Is it possible to prove it? What is most real? However, philosophers might also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will? Historically, "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy, physics. For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy later became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became academic disciplines, including sociology, linguistics and economics. Other investigations closely related to art, other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective?Philosophy – René Descartes
80. Poetry – Poetry has a long history, dating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused in rhetoric, drama, comedy. From the mid-20th century, poetry has sometimes been more generally regarded as a fundamental creative act employing language. Poetry uses conventions to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects. The use of ambiguity, symbolism, irony and other stylistic elements of poetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Similarly figures of speech such as metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images -- a layering of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, in their patterns of rhythm. Some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. In today's increasingly globalized world, poets often adapt techniques from diverse cultures and languages. Some scholars believe that the art of poetry may predate literacy. Others, however, suggest that poetry did not necessarily predate writing. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were initially lyrics.Poetry – Aristotle
81. Eunuch (court official) – A eunuch is a man, castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences. In Latin, the words eunuchus, spado, castratus were used to denote eunuchs. The earliest records for intentional castration to produce eunuchs are from the Sumerian city of Lagash in the 21st century BC. Similar instances are reflected in the humble origins and etymology of many high offices. Because their condition usually lowered their social status, they could also be easily replaced or killed without repercussion. In cultures that had both harems and eunuchs, eunuchs were sometimes used as harem servants or seraglio guards. Eunuch comes from the Greek word eunoukhos, first attested in a fragment of Hipponax, the 6th century BC comic poet and prolific inventor of compound words. The earliest surviving etymology of the word is from late antiquity. The 12th century Etymologicum Magnum essentially repeats the entry from Orion, but stands by the first option, while attributing the second option to what "some say". In the late 12th century, Eustathius of Thessalonica offered an original derivation of the word from eunis + okheuein, "deprived of mating". He says the word only came to be applied to castrated men in general because such men were the usual holders of that office. Still, Vossius notes the alternate etymologies offered by Eustathius and others, calling these analyses "quite subtle". Modern etymologists have followed Orion's first option. By analogy, a compound between eunē and ekhein would be expected to come out as eunēkhos, or in English "eunech". On the other hand, the etymology offered by Eustathius would work only if eunis contributes an e-sound or o-sound to the compound.Eunuch (court official) – The Kızlar Ağası, head of the black eunuchs of the Ottoman Imperial Harem. The title literally means "Chief of the Girls".
82. Vatatzes – The feminine form of the name is Vatatzina. The first member of the family, known simply by his surname, is attested around the year 1000. Over the next centuries, the family remained associated with the surrounding region, where their estates were. Basil Vatatzes was domestikos of the East soon after. Basil was possibly his brother, the sebastokrator Isaac Doukas Vatatzes. John III was succeeded by his son Theodore II, who however preferred his mother's surname, Laskaris. The family remained important. The prominent member was John Vatatzes in the mid-14th century. A variant of Diplovatatzes, was used from the mid-12th century on for family members who descended from the Vatatzai on both sides. They too ranked among the senior nobility of the Byzantine Empire. Kazhdan, Alexander. "Vatatzes". In Kazhdan, Alexander. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York, U.S. and Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.Vatatzes – 15th-century miniature portrait of Emperor John III Doukas Vatatzes
83. Megas archon – Archon is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office. It is the present participle of the verb stem αρχ -, meaning "to rule", derived from the same root as monarch and hierarchy. In the literary period of ancient Greece the chief magistrates of various Greek city states were called Archon. In Roman terms, archontes ruled by imperium, whereas Basileis had auctoritas. In Athens a system of three concurrent Archons evolved, the three office holders being known as the Archon Eponymos, the Archon Basileus. Originally these offices were filled by elections every ten years. The year was named after the Archon Eponymos. The Archon Eponymos remained the head of state under democracy, though of much reduced political importance. The Archons were assisted by "junior Archons", called Thesmothetes. After 457 BC ex-archons were automatically enrolled as life members of the Areopagus, though that assembly was longer extremely important politically at that time. In 1963, Archons were organized into a society dedicated to St Andrew. This Archon status is purely honorary. See http://www.archons.org/. It is the sworn oath of the Archon to promote the Orthodox Church faith and tradition. His main concern is to promote the Holy Patriarchate and its mission.Megas archon – Depiction from the east frieze of the Parthenon, of an assumed Archon Basileus, a remnant title of the Greek monarchy
84. Diocese of Hierapolis – The Diocese of Hierapolis in Phrygia, was a Christian bishopric in Phrygia. Through the influence of the Christian apostle Paul, a church was founded at Hierapolis while he was at Ephesus. The Christian apostle Philip spent the last years of his life here. The town's martyrium was alleged to have been built upon the spot where Philip was crucified in AD 80. His daughters were also said to have acted as prophetesses in the region. During the 4th century, Christianity had begun suppressing other faiths in the area. A see of the province of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I raised the bishop of Hierapolis to the rank of metropolitan bishop in 531. The city's Roman baths were transformed into a Christian basilica. During the Byzantine period, the city also remained an important centre for Christianity. Tiberiopolis was a suffragan see. † Johann Ludwig von Windsheim, O.S.A. † Goswin Haex von Loenhout, O. Carm. † Guillaume Thurin, O.P. † Johann Schlecht, O.S.A. † Vincenzo Scevola, O.P. † Andrés de Oviedo, S.J. † João da Rocha, S.J.Diocese of Hierapolis – Martyrium
85. Battle of Andrassos – On his return, however, his army was ambushed by Leo Phokas at the pass of Andrassos. His army was annihilated. Coming after a series of costly defeats in the previous years, this battle broke the power of the Hamdanid emirate for good. In winter 945/946, Sayf al-Dawla recommenced the Muslim custom of launching annual raids into Byzantine territory. This first operation was followed by a prisoner exchange. Warfare on the frontiers then recommenced only in 948. Initially, Bardas Phokas although a capable enough subordinate, his tenure as commander-in-chief proved a failure. In 948–950 the Byzantines scored a few successes, sacking the border fortresses of Hadath and Marash. Sayf al-Dawla nevertheless continued to launch raids. More importantly, he set including Marash and Hadath. Bardas Phokas repeatedly was defeated each time, even losing his youngest son, Constantine, to Hamdanid captivity. In 955, Bardas' failures led by his eldest son, Nikephoros Phokas. Under the capable leadership of Nikephoros, their nephew John Tzimiskes, the tide began to turn again. Its garrison was massacred. Many prisoners were made.Battle of Andrassos – Depiction of the battle in the Madrid Skylitzes
86. Al-Muktafi – Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad, better known by his regnal name al-Muktafī bi-llāh, was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 902 to 908. The war with the Byzantine Empire continued with alternating success, although the Arabs scored a major victory in 904. He was born in the son of Caliph al-Mu ` tadid by a Turkish slave-girl, named Čiček. 894/5, in 899 over the frontier areas, when al-Mu ` tamid deposed the last local autonomous governor, Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Shaybani. The future al-Muktafi took up residence at al-Raqqa. When al-Mu'tadid died on 5 April 892, al-Muktafi succeeded him unopposed. The new caliph was 25 years old. Al-Tabari describes him with beautiful hair and a luxurious beard". On the other hand, he was easily swayed by the officials at court. The early period of his caliphate was dominated by the vizier al-Qasim ibn Ubayd Allah. Meanwhile, the bureaucracy was divided between two bitterly hostile factions, centred around the clans of the Banu ` the Banu ` l-Jarrah. Al-Qasim ibn Ubayd Allah resisted the pro-Shi ` ite leanings of the latter. The leading representative of the Banu ` l-Furat, Abu ` Ali ibn al-Furat, only escaped death due to the vizier's own death in 904. He was unlike his father, the "ghazī caliph" par excellence. Al-Muktafi, on the other hand, did not "in his comportment, being a sedentary figure, instil much loyalty, let alone inspiration, in the soldiers".Al-Muktafi – Gold dinar of al-Muktafî
87. Shibl al-Dawla Nasr – He was the eldest son of Salih ibn Mirdas, founder of the Mirdasid dynasty. Nasr fought alongside his father in the battle of al-Uqhuwanah, where Salih was killed by a Fatimid army. Afterward, Nasr ruled the emirate jointly with his brother Thimal. The young emirs soon faced a large scale Byzantine offensive led by Emperor Romanos III. Commanding a much smaller force of Bedouin horsemen, Nasr routed the Byzantines at the Battle of Azaz. Following his victory, he ousted Thimal from Aleppo and entered into Byzantine vassalage, while attempting to maintain ties with the Fatimids. He nominally recognized Fatimid suzerainty in 1037 and was concurrently given control of Hims, which the Mirdasids lost several years prior. Thimal succeeded Nasr, but Aleppo fell to al-Dizbari weeks later. Mirdasid rule was continued until 1080. Nasr made his seat of power. Under the direction of his Christian vizier, Aleppo was urbanized to accommodate an influx of Muslims from the countryside. Nasr's rule was limited to the northern Syrian portion of the emirate, while the Mirdasids' Upper Mesopotamian fortresses were controlled by Thimal. Though relations with his Banu Kilab tribe were strained at times, Nasr secured strong ties with the Banu Numayr by marrying the Numayri princess al-Sayyida Alawiyya. With her, he had his only known son, Mahmud, who later ruled Aleppo. Nasr was founder of the Mirdasid dynasty.Shibl al-Dawla Nasr – Battle of Azaz
88. Sino-Roman relations – These empires inched progressively closer in the course of the Roman expansion into the ancient Near East and simultaneous military incursions into Central Asia. However, intermediate empires such as the Parthians and Kushans, seeking to maintain lucrative control over the silk trade, inhibited direct contact between these two Eurasian powers. Mutual awareness remained low and firm knowledge about each other was limited. Only a few attempts at direct contact are known from records. Several alleged Roman emissaries to China were recorded by ancient Chinese historians. The first one on record, supposedly from either the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius or his adopted son Marcus Aurelius, arrived in 166 AD. Others are recorded as arriving until the first recorded Byzantine embassy in 643 AD. The indirect exchange of goods on land along sea routes included Chinese silk, high-quality cloth. Roman silverwares have been discovered at archaeological sites dated to the Han period. Roman coins and glass beads have also been found in Japan. In Chinese records, the Roman Empire came to be known as "Daqin" or Great Qin. Daqin was directly associated with the later "Fulin" in Chinese sources, identified by scholars such as Friedrich Hirth as the Byzantine Empire. Ptolemy's Cattigara was most likely Óc Eo, Vietnam, where Antonine-era Roman items have been found. Ancient Chinese geographers demonstrated a general knowledge of West Asia and Rome's eastern provinces. The 7th-century AD Byzantine historian Theophylact Simocatta wrote of the contemporary reunification of southern China, which he treated recently at war.Sino-Roman relations – The Roman Empire and the Chinese Han dynasty occupied the opposite ends of Eurasia.
89. Byzantine Bath (Thessaloniki) – It is located in the Upper Old Town of Thessaloniki. The Byzantine sources do not mention it, hence it is likely that it originally belonged to a complex. In Ottoman times, it was known as Kule Hammam, i.e. "bath of the citadel". The bath's long use led over time. The original architecture follows the typical conventions of Roman baths. The original entrance in the south leads to the rectangular frigidarium rooms, which were used as dressing rooms. Then came two vaulted tepidarium rooms and finally two caldarium rooms. The latter featured hypocausts below the floor. One was covered by a dome supported by an octagonal base with eight windows, the other had a domed ceiling. To the north of the baths was the cistern that provided it with water, with a hearth beneath to warm it. In 1988, it was included among the Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki by UNESCO. Following four years of work, the bath was re-opened to the public as a museum and cultural space in June 2015. Kourkoutidou-Nikolaidou, E.; Tourta, A. Wandering in Byzantine Thessaloniki, Kapon Editions, ISBN 960-7254-47-3Byzantine Bath (Thessaloniki) – UNESCO World Heritage Site
90. Cosmas I of Alexandria – Cosmas I or Kosmas I served as Greek Patriarch of Alexandria between ca. 727 and his death in 768. Cosmas was the first Chalcedonian patriarch to be established in Alexandria following the Muslim conquest of Egypt in the 640s. Cosmas was appointed with the consent of both the Umayyad Caliph and the Byzantine Emperor. The chronicler Theophanes the Confessor reports that in 742/3, he abjured the dominant doctrine among Alexandrian Melkites since it had been promulgated by Emperor Heraclius. Kazhdan, Alexander, ed.. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.Cosmas I of Alexandria – Patriarchs prior to the Chalcedonian schism (43–451)
91. The Baptism of Constantine – The Baptism of Constantine is a painting by assistants of the Italian renaissance artist Raphael. It was most likely painted by Gianfrancesco Penni, between 1524. The Baptism of Constantine is located in the Sala di Costantino. While serenity typical of the High Renaissance, the crowded scene demonstrates the Mannerist tendency towards complexity and discordance. Baptism of Constantine at mv.vatican.vaThe Baptism of Constantine – The Baptism of Constantine
92. Raphael – Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the the largest, work of his career. The best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome much of his work was executed by his workshop with considerable loss of quality. He was extremely influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was mostly known from his collaborative printmaking. His poem to Federico shows him as keen to show awareness of Early Netherlandish artists as well. In the very small court of Urbino he was probably more integrated into the central circle of the ruling family than most court painters. Under them, the court continued for literary culture. Social skills stressed by Vasari. They became good friends. Raphael mixed easily in the highest circles throughout one of the factors that tended to give a misleading impression of effortlessness to his career. He did not receive a humanistic education however; it is unclear how easily he read Latin.Raphael – Presumed Portrait of Raphael
93. Basiliscus – Basiliscus was Byzantine Emperor from 475 to 476. A member of the House of Leo, he came to power when Emperor Zeno had been forced out by a revolt. Basiliscus was the brother of Empress Aelia Verina, the wife of Emperor Leo I. So, when Zeno tried to regain his empire, he found virtually no opposition, triumphantly entering Constantinople, capturing and killing Basiliscus and his family. Likely of Balkan origin, Basiliscus was the brother of wife of Leo I. It has been argued that Basiliscus was uncle to the chieftain of the Heruli, Odoacer. This link is based by John of Antioch, which states that Odoacer and Armatus, Basiliscus' nephew, were brothers. However, not all scholars accept this interpretation, since sources do not say anything about the foreign origin of Basiliscus. It is known that Basiliscus had a wife, at least one son, Marcus. Basiliscus' military career started under Leo I. The Emperor conferred in Thrace. In this country Basiliscus led a successful military campaign in 463. He had several successes against the Goths and Huns. Basiliscus's value rose in Leo's consideration. However, his rise was soon to meet a serious reversal.Basiliscus – Solidus of Emperor Basiliscus.
94. Battle of Dyrrhachium (1081) – The battle was ended in a Norman victory. Following the Norman conquest of Byzantine Italy and Saracen Sicily, Michael VII Doukas, betrothed his son to Robert Guiscard's daughter. When Michael was deposed, Robert took this as an excuse to invade the Byzantine Empire in 1081. His fleet was defeated by the Venetians. On October 18, the Normans engaged a Byzantine army under Alexios I Komnenos outside Dyrrhachium. The battle began with the Byzantine wing routing the Norman left wing, which broke and fled. Varangian mercenaries joined in the pursuit of the fleeing Normans, but were massacred. Norman knights in the centre routed it, causing the bulk of the Byzantine army to rout. After this victory, the Normans took Dyrrhachium in advanced inland, capturing most of Macedonia and Thessaly. Robert was then forced to leave Greece to deal by the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV. Robert left his son Bohemond in Greece. Bohemond was initially successful, defeating Alexios in several battles, but was defeated outside Larissa. Forced to retreat to Italy, Bohemond lost all the territory gained in the campaign. The Byzantine recovery began the Komnenian restoration. The Normans first served local Lombard lords as mercenaries against the Byzantine Empire.Battle of Dyrrhachium (1081) – Coin of Robert Guiscard.
95. Battle of Kalavrye – Bryennios had rebelled against Michael VII Doukas and had won over the allegiance of the Byzantine army's regular regiments in the Balkans. Even after Doukas's overthrow by Nikephoros III Botaneiates, Bryennios continued his revolt, threatened Constantinople. After failed negotiations, Botaneiates sent the young general Alexios Komnenos with whatever forces he could gather to confront him. The two armies clashed at Kalavrye on the Halmyros river in what is now European Turkey. Alexios Komnenos, whose army was considerably smaller and far less experienced, tried to ambush Bryennios's army. The ambush failed, the wings of his own army were driven back by the rebels. Alexios barely managed to break through with his personal retinue, but succeeded in regrouping his scattered men. At the same time, despite having seemingly won the battle, Bryennios's army fell into disorder after its own Pecheneg allies attacked its camp. Reinforced by Turkish mercenaries, Alexios lured the troops of Bryennios into another ambush through a feigned retreat. The rebel army broke and Bryennios was captured. The constant warfare depleted the Empire's armies, devastated Asia Minor and left it defenceless against the increasing encroachment of the Turks. In the Balkans, invasions by the Pechenegs and the Cumans devastated Bulgaria, the Serbian princes renounced their allegiance to the Empire. The government of Michael VII Doukas failed to deal with the situation effectively, rapidly lost support among the military aristocracy. He preferred to negotiate at first, but his offers were rebuffed by Michael VII. Bryennios then sent his brother John to lay siege to Constantinople.Battle of Kalavrye – Miniature of Alexios Komnenos, the victor of Kalavrye, as emperor
96. Byzantine navy – The Byzantine navy was the naval force of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire. This process would be furthered with the onset of the Muslim conquests in the 7th century. Following the loss of later Africa, the Mediterranean Sea was transformed from a "Roman lake" into a battleground between Byzantines and Arabs. Initially, the defence of the approaches to Constantinople was borne by the great fleet of the Karabisianoi. By the 8th century, the Byzantine navy, a well-organized and maintained force, was again the dominant maritime power in the Mediterranean. During the 11th century, the navy, like the Empire itself, began to decline. Their efforts had only a temporary effect. The diminished navy, however, continued to be active until the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. The Byzantine navy, like the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire itself, was a continuation of its institutions. The civil wars of the early 5th centuries, however, did spur a revival of naval activity, with fleets mostly employed to transport armies. The Vandal raids continued unabated over the next two decades, despite repeated Roman attempts to defeat them. Finally, it failed disastrously. This forced the Romans to sign a peace treaty. After Geiseric's death in 477, however, the Vandal threat receded. The 6th century marked the rebirth of Roman naval power.Byzantine navy – By the late 5th century, the Western Mediterranean had fallen into the hands of barbarian kingdoms. The conquests of Justinian I restored Roman control over the entire sea, which would last until the Muslim conquests in the latter half of the 7th century.
97. Chariot racing – Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek, Roman, Byzantine sports. Chariot races could be watched by women, who were barred from watching many other sports. In the Roman form of chariot racing, teams represented different groups of financial backers and sometimes competed for the services of particularly skilled drivers. The rivalries were sometimes politicized, when teams became associated with competing social or religious ideas. This helps explain why Roman and later Byzantine emperors took control of the teams and appointed many officials to oversee them. Their rivalry culminated in the Nika riots, which marked the gradual decline of the sport. It is unknown exactly when chariot racing began, but it may have been as old as chariots themselves. The participants in this race were Diomedes, Eumelus, Antilochus, Menelaus, Meriones. The races themselves were held in the hippodrome, which held both chariot races and riding races. The single horse race was known as the "keles". Until recently, its exact location was unknown, since it is buried by several meters of sedimentary material from the Alfeios River. In 2008, however, Annie Muller and staff of the German Archeological Institute used radar to locate a large, rectangular structure similar to Pausanias's description. Pausanias, who visited Olympia in the second AD, describes the monument as a flat space, approximately 780 meters long and 320 meters wide. The elongated racecourse was divided longitudinally into two tracks by a stone or wooden barrier, the embolon. All the chariots headed back west.Chariot racing – A modern recreation of chariot racing in Puy du Fou
98. Greece runestones – The Greece runestones are about 30 runestones containing information related to voyages made by Norsemen to the Byzantine Empire. They were engraved in the Old Norse language with Scandinavian runes. All the stones have been found in the majority in Uppland and Södermanland. Several stones were documented by Richard Dybeck in the 19th century. The latest stone to be found was in Nolinge, in 1952. Viking ships were common on the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea, the Sea of Marmara and on the wider Mediterranean Sea. As late as 1195, Emperor Alexios Angelos sent emissaries to Denmark, Norway and Sweden requesting 1,000 warriors from each of the three kingdoms. About 3,000 runestones from the Viking Age have been discovered in Scandinavia of which c. 2,700 were raised within what today is Sweden. As many as 1,277 of them were raised in the province of Uppland alone. In many districts c. 50 % of the stone inscriptions have traces of Christianity. The runestone tradition probably died out by 1125. These two provinces are those that have the greatest concentrations of runic inscriptions. Fótr carved the runes." They include inheritance issues, status and the honouring of the deceased. Such concerns would have arisen when a family knew that a relative would not return from abroad.Greece runestones – The Piraeus Lion with a runic inscription, now in Venice
99. Gregory of Nazianzus – Gregory of Nazianzus, also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople, theologian. He is widely considered the most accomplished rhetorical stylist of the patristic age. As a classically trained orator and philosopher he infused Hellenism into the early church, establishing the paradigm of Byzantine theologians and church officials. Gregory made a significant impact on the shape of Trinitarian theology among both Greek- and Latin-speaking theologians, he is remembered as the "Trinitarian Theologian". Much of his theological work continues to influence modern theologians, especially in regard to the relationship among the three Persons of the Trinity. Along with the brothers Basil the Great and Gregory of Nyssa, he is known as one of the Cappadocian Fathers. Gregory is a saint in both Eastern and Western Christianity. He was born in southwest Cappadocia. His parents, Gregory and Nonna, were wealthy land-owners. In AD 325 Nonna converted a Hypsistarian, to Christianity; he was subsequently ordained in 328 or 329. Caesarius, first studied with their uncle Amphylokhios. Gregory went on to study advanced rhetoric and philosophy in Nazianzus, Caesarea, Alexandria and Athens. In Athens, Gregory studied under the famous rhetoricians Himerius and Proaeresius. Upon finishing his education, he taught rhetoric in Athens for a short time. In 361 Gregory returned to Nazianzus and was ordained a presbyter by his father, who wanted him to assist with caring for local Christians.Gregory of Nazianzus – Icon of St. Gregory the Theologian Fresco from Kariye Camii, Istanbul, Turkey
100. Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria – Ivan Alexander, also sometimes Anglicized as John Alexander, ruled as Emperor of Bulgaria from 1331 to 1371, during the Second Bulgarian Empire. The date of his birth is unknown. He died on 17 February 1371. The long reign of Ivan Alexander is considered a transitional period in Bulgarian medieval history. However, the emperor was later unable to cope with the mounting incursions of Ottoman forces, Hungarian invasions from the northwest and the Black Death. Ivan Alexander was the son of the despotēs Sracimir of Kran by Petrica, a sister of Michael Asen III of Bulgaria. Therefore, Ivan Alexander was a nephew of Michael Asen III. Paternally, Ivan Alexander descended from the Asen dynasty. By 1330 Ivan Alexander was himself a despotēs and governed the city of Lovech. The defeat, combined with the worsening relations with the Byzantine Empire, precipitated an internal crisis, exacerbated by an invasion of the Byzantines. A coup d'état drove Ivan Stefan out of the capital Tarnovo in 1331, the conspirators placed Ivan Alexander on the throne. The new ruler set about consolidating his position by regaining territories recently lost to the Byzantine Empire. In 1331 Ivan Alexander campaigned around Adrianople and reconquered northeastern Thrace. Meanwhile, Stefan Uroš IV Dušan deposed his father Stefan Uroš III Dečanski and became Serbian king in 1331. This helped normalize the previously tense relations between the two countries.Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria – Portrait of the tsar from the medieval manuscript, Tetraevangelia of Ivan Alexander
101. Manuel I Komnenos – Manuel I Komnenos was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean. Eager to restore his empire to its past glories as the superpower of the Mediterranean world, Manuel pursued an energetic and ambitious foreign policy. In the process he made alliances with the Pope and the resurgent West. He invaded the Norman Kingdom of Sicily, although unsuccessfully. The passage of the potentially dangerous Second Crusade was adroitly managed through his empire. Manuel established a Byzantine protectorate over the Crusader states of Outremer. Facing Muslim advances in the Holy Land, he made common cause with the Kingdom of Jerusalem and participated in a combined invasion of Fatimid Egypt. Called ho Megas by the Greeks, Manuel is known to have inspired intense loyalty in those who served him. He also appears as the hero of a history written by his secretary, John Kinnamos, in which every virtue is attributed to him. Modern historians, however, have been less enthusiastic about him. Manuel Komnenos was the fourth son of John II Komnenos and Piroska of Hungary, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed his father. His maternal grandfather was St. Ladislaus. After John died on 8 April 1143, his son, Manuel, was acclaimed emperor by the armies. Axouch arrived in the capital even before news of the emperor's death had reached it. He quickly secured the loyalty of the city, when Manuel entered the capital in August 1143, he was crowned by the new Patriarch, Michael Kourkouas.Manuel I Komnenos – Manuscript miniature of Manuel I (part of double portrait with Maria of Antioch, Vatican Library, Rome)
102. Maximus the Confessor – Maximus the Confessor, also known as Maximus the Theologian and Maximus of Constantinople, was a Christian monk, theologian, scholar. In his early life, Maximus was a civil servant, an aide to the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius. However, he gave up this life in the political sphere to enter into the monastic life. Maximus is venerated in both Eastern Christianity and Western Christianity. He was eventually persecuted for his Christological positions; following a trial, his tongue and right hand were mutilated. He was then exiled and died on August 13, 662 in Tsageri, Georgia. However, his theology was upheld by the Third Council of Constantinople and he was venerated as a saint soon after his death. He is almost unique among saints in that he has two feast days: the 13th of August and the 21st of January. His title of Confessor means that he suffered for the Christian faith, but was not directly martyred. Very little is known about the details of Maximus' life prior to his involvement in the theological and political conflicts of the Monothelite controversy. It is more likely that Maximus was born of an aristocratic family and received an unparalleled education in philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, etc. Maximus was elevated to the position of abbot of the monastery. "Theology without practice is the theology of demons". When the Persians conquered Anatolia, Maximus was forced to flee to a monastery near Carthage. Maximus continued his career as a theological and spiritual writer while his lengthy stay in Carthage.Maximus the Confessor – Icon of St. Maximus
103. Paul Palaiologos Tagaris – Paul Palaiologos Tagaris was a Byzantine Greek monk and impostor. A scion of Paul also claimed a -- somewhat dubious -- connection with the Palaiologos dynasty that ruled the Byzantine Empire at the time. Soon his fraudulent practices embroiled him in scandal. Fleeing Constantinople, he travelled widely, to Italy, Latin Greece, Cyprus and France. In the end, his deceptions unmasked, he returned to Constantinople, where he confessed his sins before a synod in 1394. Paul Tagaris was apparently a scion of a lineage which first appears in the early 14th century. Tagaris himself adopted the surname for himself. Patriarch Kallistos I declined to take action against him. In Palestine, Paul was able to secure his ordination by the Patriarch of Jerusalem Lazaros, who took him under his protection. Shortly after, his locum tenens Damianos brought charges against Paul, forced to abandon Jerusalem for Antioch. Soon he began to ordain bishops, even in territories subject to the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Paul was apparently consecrated by the Bishop of Tyre and Sidon. Reluctant to face the Patriarch's wrath, Paul try his luck in Rome. To avoid passing near Constantinople, Paul was forced to make a broad detour. In exchange, he received an escort to the Kingdom of Hungary, thence to Rome.Paul Palaiologos Tagaris – Pope Urban VI
104. Sack of Amorium – The Sack of Amorium by the Abbasid Caliphate in mid-August 838 was one of the major events in the long history of the Arab–Byzantine Wars. The caliph gathered an exceptionally large army, which he divided in two parts, which invaded from the northeast and the south. After sacking the city, they turned south to Amorium, where they arrived on 1 August. Faced with intrigues at Constantinople and the rebellion of the large Khurramite contingent of his army, Theophilos was unable to aid the city. Amorium was strongly fortified and garrisoned, but a traitor revealed a weak spot in the wall, where the Abbasids concentrated their attack, effecting a breach. Unable to break through Boiditzes, the commander of the breached section privately attempted to negotiate without notifying his superiors. He left his post, which allowed the Arabs to take advantage, capture it. Amorium was systematically destroyed, never to recover its former prosperity. Many of its inhabitants were slaughtered, the remainder driven off as slaves. As Iconoclasm relied heavily on military success for its legitimization, the fall of Amorium contributed decisively to its abandonment shortly after Theophilos's death in 842. By 829, when the young emperor Theophilos ascended the Byzantine throne, the Byzantines and Arabs had been fighting on and off for almost two centuries. Theophilos was an ambitious man and also a convinced adherent of Byzantine Iconoclasm, which prohibited the depiction of divine figures and the veneration of icons. He sought to support his religious policies by military success against the Empire's major antagonist. Theophilos's campaign was unable, however, to save his followers, who in late 837 were forced by the general Afshin. Babak was died of torture.Sack of Amorium – Follis of a new type, minted in large quantities in celebration of Theophilos's victories against the Arabs from ca. 835 on. On the obverse, he is represented in triumphal attire, wearing the toupha, and on the reverse the traditional acclamation "Theophilos Augustus, you conquer".
105. Simeon I of Bulgaria – Simeon I the Great ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927, during the First Bulgarian Empire. His reign was also a period of unmatched cultural enlightenment later deemed the Golden Age of Bulgarian culture. It was at the Preslav Literary School in the 890s that the Cyrillic alphabet was developed. Halfway through his reign, Simeon assumed the title of Emperor, having prior to that been styled Prince. Simeon was born as the third son of Knyaz Boris I of Krum's dynasty. As Boris was the ruler who Christianized Bulgaria in 865, Simeon was all his life. He took the name Simeon in a monastery in Constantinople. During the decade he spent in the Byzantine capital, he studied the rhetoric of Demosthenes and Aristotle. He also learned fluent Greek, to the extent that he was referred to as "the half-Greek" in Byzantine chronicles. This is not supported by any source. Meanwhile, Vladimir had succeeded Boris, who had retreated as ruler of Bulgaria. Vladimir possibly signed an anti-Byzantine pact with Arnulf of Carinthia, forcing Boris to re-enter political life. Boris had Vladimir blinded, then appointed Simeon as the new ruler. It is not known why Boris did not place Gavril, on the throne, but instead preferred Simeon. With Simeon on the throne, the long-lasting peace with the Byzantine Empire established by his father was about to end.Simeon I of Bulgaria – Simeon I. From the Madrid Skylitzes.
106. Theodore Komnenos Doukas – He was also the power behind the rule of his sons John and Demetrios over Thessalonica in 1237–46. Theodore was the scion of a distinguished Byzantine family related to the imperial Komnenos, Doukas, Angelos dynasties. Nevertheless, nothing is known about Theodore's life by the Fourth Crusade in 1204. When Michael died in 1215, Theodore assumed the governance of the Epirote state. Theodore continued his brother's policy of territorial expansion. Allied with Serbia, he expanded into Macedonia, threatening the Latin Kingdom of Thessalonica. As ruler of Thessalonica, Theodore quickly declared himself challenging the Nicaean emperor John III Vatatzes's claims on the Byzantine imperial throne. His final attack against the seat of the much-reduced Latin Empire was delayed until 1230. In that year, Theodore amassed an army to besiege Constantinople, but then diverted it against an ambivalent ally which threatened his northern flank. Theodore spent the next seven years in captivity. In the meantime, he was succeeded by his Manuel. Manuel quickly lost Thrace, Albania to the Bulgarian Tsar John II Asen. Thessalonica itself became a Bulgarian vassal, while in Epirus proper power was seized by Michael II, returning from exile. Theodore was released in 1237 when his Irene married John Asen, quickly managed to regain control of Thessalonica, ousting Manuel. In 1241, John III Vatatzes invited Theodore to visit Nicaea.Theodore Komnenos Doukas – Silver coin with Theodore (left) blessed by Thessalonica's patron, St. Demetrius
107. Thomas the Slav – Thomas the Slav was a 9th-century Byzantine military commander, most notable for leading a wide-scale revolt in 821–23 against Emperor Michael II the Amorian. After usurpation of the throne by Michael the Amorian, Thomas revolted, claiming the throne for himself. Thomas quickly secured support from most of the themes and troops in Asia Minor, concluded an alliance with the Abbasid Caliphate. After winning over their ships as well, he crossed with his army to Europe and laid siege to Constantinople. The imperial capital withstood Thomas's attacks by sea, while Michael II called for help from the Bulgarian ruler khan Omurtag. His supporters sought refuge in Arcadiopolis, where he was soon blockaded by Michael's troops. In the end, he was executed. Consequently, driving forces have been attributed to Thomas and his followers. Its effects on the military position of the Empire, particularly the Arabs, are also disputed. Most modern scholars believe his birthplace to have been near Gaziura in the Pontus. Hence his epithet of "the Slav", applied only in modern times. Nothing is known except that his parents were poor and that Thomas himself had received no education. Given that he was between 60 years old at the time of the rebellion, he was probably born around 760. Two different accounts of Thomas's life are recounted in both Genesios and Theophanes Continuatus. According to the first account, Thomas pursued a military career until launching his revolt in late 820.Thomas the Slav – Miniature from the Madrid Skylitzes version of the chronicle of John Skylitzes depicting Thomas, on horseback and dressed as a Byzantine emperor, negotiating with the Arabs. The rebellion of Thomas is one of the most richly illustrated episodes in the chronicle.
108. Treaty of Devol – It is named after the Byzantine fortress of Devol. Although the treaty was not immediately enforced, it was intended to make a vassal state of the Byzantine Empire. At the beginning of the First Crusade, Crusader armies promised to return to the Byzantine Empire any land they might conquer. However, the son of Alexios' former enemy Robert Guiscard, claimed the Principality of Antioch for himself. Bohemond went to Europe looking for reinforcements. Under the terms of the Treaty, Bohemond agreed to defend the Empire whenever needed. He also accepted the appointment of a Greek Patriarch. Following this, Bohemond died there. Tancred, regent in Antioch, refused to accept the terms of the Treaty. It was not until 1158 that it truly became a Byzantine vassal. In 1097, the Crusader armies assembled at Constantinople having traveled eastward through Europe. The Crusaders eventually swore these oaths, individually rather than as a group. In return, Alexios gave guides and a military escort. The Crusaders, who had unexpectedly withstood the siege, believed Alexios had considered the Byzantines completely untrustworthy. Therefore, they regarded their oaths as invalidated.Treaty of Devol – The siege of Antioch from a medieval miniature painting
109. Jovan Vladimir – Jovan Vladimir or John Vladimir was the ruler of Duklja, the most powerful Serbian principality of the time, from around 1000 to 1016. He ruled during the protracted war between the First Bulgarian Empire. Vladimir was acknowledged as a pious, just, peaceful ruler. He is recognized with his feast day being celebrated on 22 May. A medieval chronicle asserts that Theodora Kosara, fell in love with Vladimir and begged her father for his hand. The tsar returned Duklja to Vladimir, who ruled as his vassal. Vladimir took no part in his father-in-law's war efforts. The warfare death soon after. In 1016, Vladimir fell victim by Ivan Vladislav, the last ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire. He was buried there. He was soon recognized as a saint. Kosara, reburied him in the Prečista Krajinska Church, near his court in southeastern Duklja. The cross Vladimir held when he was beheaded is also regarded as a relic. Jovan Vladimir is regarded in Montenegro. His hagiographies in Church Slavonic were first published, respectively, in 1690 and 1802.Jovan Vladimir – A Serbian Orthodox icon of Prince Jovan Vladimir, who was recognized as a saint shortly after his death
110. Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor (782) – The Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor in 782 was one of the largest operations launched by the Abbasid Caliphate against the Byzantine Empire. The invasion was launched in the aftermath of a series of Byzantine successes. As Harun lacked ships to do so, he turned back. The defection of the general Tatzates, however, allowed Harun to regain the upper hand. The Abbasid prince detained the high-ranking Byzantine envoys, who included Empress Irene's chief minister, Staurakios. This forced Irene to pay a heavy annual tribute. In response to these Byzantine successes, Caliph al-Mahdi now resolved to take the field in person. On 12 Mahdi departed Baghdad and via Aleppo marched to Hadath, which he refortified. He then advanced to Arabissus, where he returned to Baghdad. Thumama, entrusted with the other half, penetrated deeper into Asia Minor. He was heavily defeated there by Lachanodrakon. The Muslims were met near Caesarea by the combined Byzantine forces under Lachanodrakon. The ensuing battle resulted in a Arab defeat, forcing Abd al-Kabir to abandon his campaign and retreat to Syria. This defeat infuriated the Caliph, who prepared a new expedition. The Caliph took care to send experienced officers to accompany him.Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor (782) – Map of Byzantine Asia Minor and the Byzantine-Arab frontier region ca. 780
111. Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor (806) – The Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor in 806 was the largest operation ever launched by the Abbasid Caliphate against the Byzantine Empire. Following Harun's departure, however, Nikephoros reoccupied the frontier forts he had been forced to abandon. His death three years later, prohibited a reprisal on a similar scale. In addition, he was determined to refill the imperial treasury among other measures, ceasing the tribute. Harun retaliated at once, launching a raid under his al-Qasim in spring 803. Nikephoros could not respond to this, as he faced a large-scale revolt of the Byzantine army of Asia Minor under Bardanes Tourkos. After disposing of Bardanes, Nikephoros marched out to meet a second, larger invasion under the Caliph himself. In 804, an Abbasid force under Ibrahim ibn Jibril crossed the Taurus Mountains into Asia Minor. Nikephoros was surprised and heavily defeated at the Battle of Krasos, where he barely escaped with his own life. Preoccupied with trouble in Khurasan, Harun made peace. Harun then departed for Khurasan, leaving al-Qasim to watch over the Byzantine frontier. The Byzantine army took prisoners as it went. The entire garrison was taken captive. This sudden resumption of offensive activity greatly alarmed Harun. According to al-Tabari, his army numbered additional volunteers and freebooters.Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor (806) – Map of the Muslim expansion and the Muslim world under the Umayyad and early Abbasid caliphates, 7th–mid-10th centuries
112. Abu'l-Aswar Shavur ibn Fadl – Abu'l-Aswar or Abu'l-Asvar Shavur ibn Fadl ibn Muhammad ibn Shaddad was a member of the Shaddadid dynasty. Between 1049 and 1067 he was the eighth Shaddadid ruler of Arran from Ganja. Prior to that, he ruled the city of Dvin from 1022 as an autonomous lord. A cunning ruler, Abu ` l-Aswar was engaged with most of his neighbours. During his rule over Dvin, he was mostly involved in the affairs of the Armenian principalities. In 1049, a revolt in Ganja overthrew his infant great-great-nephew, Anurshirvan. The rebels invited him to take up the family's emirate, he moved from Dvin to Ganja. Under his rule, the Shaddadid dynasty reached its zenith. At the same time, his reign witnessed the rapid rise of the Seljuk Empire and the extension of its control over the Transcaucasian principalities. Abu'l-Aswar became a Seljuk vassal in 1054/5. The main historical source on the Shaddadids is the work of the Ottoman historian Münejjim Bashi. Münejjim Bashi considered the family to be of Kurdish origin, a view widely accepted by modern scholars. The family's founder, Muhammad ibn Shaddad, briefly seized control of Dvin in the early 950s. The family then moved to Ganja, the main Muslim town of Arran, seized by Muhammad's sons Lashkari, Marzuban, Fadl c. 970. The brothers successively ruled the city as emirs after that.Abu'l-Aswar Shavur ibn Fadl – The defeat of the Byzantines before Dvin, miniature from the Madrid Skylitzes
113. Ahmad ibn Tulun – Ahmad ibn Tulun was the founder of the Tulunid dynasty that ruled Egypt and Syria between 868 and 905. Originally a Turkic slave-soldier, in 868 Ibn Tulun was sent to Egypt by the Abbasid caliph. Ibn Tulun also took care to establish an efficient administration in Egypt. After reforms to the tax system, other measures, the annual tax yield grew markedly. As a symbol of his new regime, he built a new capital, al-Qata ` i, north of the old Fustat. After 875/6 he entered with al-Muwaffaq, who tried unsuccessfully to unseat him. The defection of Tarsus, forced Ibn Tulun to return to Syria. He fell sick. Returning to Egypt, he was succeeded by Khumarawayh. Medieval authors wrote about Ahmad ibn Tulun. The two major sources are two biographies by two 10th-century authors, al-Balawi. Al-Balawi's work relies to a large extent on Ibn al-Daya's, although it is much more extensive. Ibn al-Daya also wrote a book from the Tulunid-era Egyptian society. Ahmad ibn Tulun was born on the 23rd day of the month of Ramadan 220 AH or probably in Baghdad. Tulun, was a Turk from a locality known in Arabic sources as Tagharghar or Toghuzghuz, i.e. the Uyghur confederation.Ahmad ibn Tulun – Gold dinar of Ahmad ibn Tulun minted in Fustat in 881/2
114. Al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith – Al-Mundhir ibn al-Ḥārith, known in Greek sources as Alamoundaros, was the king of the Ghassanid Arabs from 569 to circa 581. Throughout Mundhir's reign his relations with Byzantium were lukewarm due to his staunch Monophysitism. This led in 572 after Mundhir discovered Byzantine plans to assassinate him. In 581, Mundhir participated in an unsuccessful campaign against the Persian capital, Ctesiphon, alongside the Byzantine general Maurice. The failure of the campaign led to a quarrel between the Maurice accused Mundhir of treason. Byzantine agents never faced trial. His arrest provoked an uprising under Mundhir's son al-Nu ` man VI. Mundhir was the important Ghassanid ruler; in 584, the Byzantines would break up the Ghassanid federation. His rule also saw the strengthening of Monophysitism and a cultural flowering among the Arabs under his rule. Mundhir had been succeeded after Harith's death in 569. Soon after Harith's death, Ghassanid territory was attacked by the new Lakhmid ruler, who sought to take advantage of the situation. Mundhir invaded Lakhmid territory in turn, seizing much plunder. As he turned back, the Lakhmids suffered a heavy defeat. After this success, Mundhir wrote to the Byzantine emperor Justin II asking for gold for his men. This request reportedly angered Justin, who sent instructions to his local commander to have him killed.Al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith – The Byzantine Diocese of the East, where the Ghassanids were active.
115. Bardanes Tourkos – Bardanes, nicknamed Tourkos, "the Turk", was a Byzantine general of Armenian origin who launched an unsuccessful rebellion against Emperor Nikephoros I in 803. Although a major supporter of Byzantine empress Irene of Athens, soon after her overthrow he was appointed as commander-in-chief of the Anatolian armies. From this position, he launched a revolt to Nikephoros's economic and religious policies. His troops failed to win popular support. He retired to a monastery he had founded. There he was blinded, possibly on Nikephoros's orders. Nothing is known of the early life of Bardanes. Bardanes is probably identical with the patrikios Bardanios who appears in the Chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor in the mid-790s. As strategos of the Thracesian Theme, this same Bardanios supported the Empress-mother Irene of Athens when she usurped the throne from her son. Irene herself was exiled by the logothetes tou genikou Nikephoros on 31 October 802. At the time, Bardanes was soon transferred to command the powerful Anatolic Theme. It is possible that later sources misinterpreted his title to mean "general of all the East". In July 803, a son of the Caliph Harun al-Rashid, began advancing towards the Byzantine frontier. As Nikephoros had broken his foot in early May, it fell to Bardanes to lead the Byzantine army against the Arabs. He therefore ordered the thematic armies of Anatolia assembled in the Anatolic Theme.Bardanes Tourkos – Gold solidus of Empress Irene, during the period of her sole rule (797–802).
116. Battle of Lalakaon – The Battle of Lalakaon or the Battle of Poson was fought in 863 between the Byzantine Empire and an invading Arab army in Paphlagonia. Umar al-Aqta was able to reach the shores of the Black Sea. The Arab army was encircled near the River Lalakaon. The Bulgarians were pressured into accepting the Byzantine form of Christianity, thus beginning this nation's absorption into the cultural sphere. As Byzantium remained the Caliphate's infidel enemy, Arab raids into Asia Minor continued throughout the 8th and 9th centuries. In the summer of 863, Umar struck again, joining forces into Cappadocia. The Arabs crossed the Cilician Gates into Byzantine territory, plundering as they went, until they reached a place near Tyana. Umar obtained Ja ` far's leave to press on into Asia Minor. The Byzantinist John Haldon estimates the size of the combined Arab force at 15,000 -- 20,000 men. It is likely that a Paulician contingent under Karbeas was present as well. The battle was bloody with many casualties on both sides; according to the Persian al-Tabari, only a thousand of Umar's army survived. This is not supported by Byzantine sources. Given the bias against Michael by the historians writing during the Macedonian dynasty, this may be a deliberate omission. The forces assembled came from all over the Byzantine Empire. With the approach of the Byzantine armies, the open escape route left to the Emir and his men was dominated by a strategically located hill.Battle of Lalakaon – The Battle of Lalakaon, as depicted in the Madrid Skylitzes
117. Battle of Solachon – The Battle of Solachon was fought in 586 CE in northern Mesopotamia between the East Roman forces, led by Philippicus, the Sassanid Persians under Kardarigan. The engagement was part of the inconclusive Byzantine -- Sassanid War of 572 -- 591. It was not in the end decisive. The war dragged on until 591, when it ended with a negotiated settlement between the Persian shah Khosrau II. In the days before the battle, Philippicus, newly assigned to the Persian front, moved to intercept an Persian invasion. They had been warned and were deployed in battle order when Kardarigan reached Solachon. The Byzantine right wing broke through the Persian left flank. Philippicus was able to restore order. Under threat of a double envelopment, the Persian army fled, with many dying in the desert of thirst or from water poisoning. Kardarigan himself survived and, with a part of his army, held out before the Byzantines withdrew. Justin's refusal was tantamount to a declaration of war, the fourth fought in the 6th century. Philippicus raided the region in 584 while in 585 he raided in Arzanene. The Persian commander, Kardarigan -- an honorific title rather than a proper name -- responded with an unsuccessful siege of Philippicus' main base, Monokarton. In spring 586 Maurice rejected Persian proposals involving the conclusion of peace in exchange for renewed payments in gold. On the Persian side, Kardarigan was also eager to confident of victory.Battle of Solachon – Map of the Roman-Persian frontier in Late Antiquity.
118. Bessas (general) – Bessas was an East Roman general of Gothic origin from Thrace, primarily known for his career in the wars of Justinian I. Returning east in disgrace, despite his advanced age he was appointed as commander in the Lazic War. There his subsequent idleness led Justinian to dismiss him and exile him to Abasgia. This evidence has been variously interpreted, with most modern commentators leaning towards a Gothic identity. Nevertheless, according to Patrick Amory, it is impossible from the sources at hand to draw any definite conclusion about his ethnicity. Amory maintains that Bessas was a typical example of the "ethnographic identity" evidenced in 6th-century Balkan populations, especially among the military. Nothing is known of his service there. If this identification is valid, then Bessas was a Monophysite. Bessas reappears during the Iberian War against Persia, when he was appointed dux Mesopotamiae, with Martyropolis as his base. The Byzantines routed them, killing Gadar and taking Yazdgerd captive. Bessas then returned to Martyropolis. In retaliation for this Byzantine success, the Persian shah Kavadh I sent against Martyropolis a large army commanded by Bawi, Mihr-Mihroe and Chanaranges. The garrison, under Bessas and Bouzes, held firm. In 535, Bessas was appointed in the expedition against the Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy. From there the Byzantine army advanced on Rome, which it captured without a fight.Bessas (general) – Map of the Byzantine-Persian frontier area.
119. John Kourkouas – John Kourkouas, also transliterated as Kurkuas or Curcuas, was one of the most important generals of the Byzantine Empire. Kourkouas belonged to a family of Armenian descent that produced several Byzantine generals. As commander of an bodyguard regiment, Kourkouas was among the chief supporters of Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos and facilitated the latter's rise to the throne. In 923, Kourkouas was appointed facing the Abbasid Caliphate and the semi-autonomous Muslim border emirates. He kept this post for more than twenty years, overseeing decisive military successes that altered the strategic balance in the region. During the 9th century, Byzantium had gradually recovered its strength and internal stability while the Caliphate had become fractured. Under Kourkouas's leadership, the Byzantine armies advanced deep into Muslim territory for the first time in almost 200 years, expanding the imperial border. The emirates of Melitene and Qaliqala were conquered, extending Byzantine control over western Armenia. Armenian princes became Byzantine vassals. His subsequent fate is unknown. Little is known about John's early life. His father was a wealthy official in the imperial palace. Lekapenos gradually assumed more powers until he was crowned senior emperor in December 920. As a reward for his support, in ca. 923, Romanos Lekapenos promoted Kourkouas to the post of Domestic of the Schools, in effect commander-in-chief of all the imperial armies in Anatolia.John Kourkouas – Gold coin (solidus) of Romanos I Lekapenos, depicting him and his eldest son (and co-emperor from 921 on), Christopher.
120. John Troglita – John Troglita was a 6th-century Byzantine general. As dux Mesopotamiae, he was noticed by agents of the Byzantine emperor, Justinian I. This victory heralded an era of peace for Africa. He was also involved in the Gothic War, twice sending some of his troops to Italy to assist against the Ostrogoths. The exact origins of John Troglita are unclear. His peculiar surname might indicate provenance from Trogilos in Macedonia. Troglita himself had a son, Peter. He participated in the expeditions of Solomon against the Moors in 534 -- 535. Nevertheless, the battle resulted in an imperial victory. In 538, he distinguished himself in the Byzacena. From this position, Troglita arrested a member of the embassy sent to the Persians to incite them to attack Byzantium. Nevertheless, Corippus maintains that John was congratulated by Urbicius, one of Emperor Justinian's advisors, sent to supervise the war. During Troglita's absence from Africa, the situation had been turbulent. Germanus had succeeded in restoring discipline in the army and pacifying the core territories of Africa Proconsularis and Byzacena. However, Solomon was killed in the Battle of Cillium in 544.John Troglita – Roman Africa, with the provinces of Byzacena, Zeugitana and Numidia.
121. Priscus (general) – Priscus or Priskos was a leading East Roman general during the reigns of the Byzantine emperors Maurice, Phocas and Heraclius. He comes across as an capable military leader, although the contemporary sources are markedly biased in his favour. Under Maurice, Priscus distinguished himself in the Balkans. He, however, also negotiated with and was entrusted with command against the Persians in 611 -- 612. After the failure of this campaign, Priscus was tonsured. Priscus died shortly after. Priscus only assumed his new command at Monocarton in April. Priscus's attempts from Constantina to calm the soldiers by rescinding the decree also failed. Philippicus was restored to command by Maurice, while Priscus returned to Constantinople. Outflanked, he retreated to Tzurullum, where he was besieged by the Avars. The 12th-century history of Michael the Syrian gives as 800 pounds of gold, a considerably reduced sum compared to the 100,000 solidi agreed in 584. The Avars departed for their country, while Priscus returned to Constantinople. He disappears for the few years, as he fell into disfavour with Maurice. By 593, Priscus had recovered his position, as a letter by Pope Gregory the Great which congratulates him on returning to the emperor's favour testifies. The Pope's letter also testifies that by this time, Priscus had been given that of patrikios.Priscus (general) – Gold solidus of Emperor Maurice (r. 582–602).
122. Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria – The allies then turned against each other, the ensuing military confrontation ended with a Byzantine victory. The Rus' eastern Bulgaria was incorporated into the Byzantine Empire. In 927, a treaty had been signed between Bulgaria and Byzantium, ending many years of warfare and establishing forty years of peace. Preoccupied with his campaigns in the East, Nikephoros invited the Rus' ruler Sviatoslav to invade Bulgaria. Sviatoslav's subsequent campaign greatly exceeded the expectations of the Byzantines, who had regarded him only as a means to exert diplomatic pressure on the Bulgarians. After a three-month siege of the fortress of Dorostolon, Sviatoslav withdrew from Bulgaria. Tzimiskes formally annexed Eastern Bulgaria to the Byzantine Empire. His imperial title was recognized. An annual tribute was agreed to be paid to the Bulgarian ruler in exchange for peace. The agreement was kept as peaceful relations suited both sides. Bulgaria, despite the barrier formed by the Danube, was still menaced by steppe peoples, the Magyars and the Pechenegs. They launched raids throughout Bulgaria, occasionally reaching Byzantine territory well. The Byzantine–Bulgarian peace nevertheless meant less trouble from the north, as many Pecheneg raids had been sponsored by the Byzantines. Peter's reign, although lacking the military splendour of Simeon's, was still a "golden age" for Bulgaria, with a thriving urban society. At the same time, military reforms created a offensively-oriented army.Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria – The Byzantines pursuing the Rus' at Dorostolon, from the Madrid Skylitzes
123. Vitalian (general) – Vitalian was a general of the East Roman Empire. Vitalian fled to his native Thrace and remained in hiding until Anastasius's death in 518. His sons also became generals in the East Roman army. Vitalian was born in Zaldapa in Lower Moesia. He is called a "Goth" or a "Scythian" in the Byzantine sources. On the other hand, the assertion that he was a "Goth" is based on a single Syriac source, is today considered dubious. Whatever Patriciolus's origin, his name was Latin, while of Vitalian's own sons, the generals Bouzes and Coutzes had Thracian names and Venilus a Gothic name. John, also became a distinguished general against the Ostrogoths of Italy. According to the chroniclers' descriptions, Vitalian was short of stature and stammered, but his personal bravery and military skills were widely acknowledged. Vitalian is first mentioned in 503, when he accompanied his father in the Anastasian War against the Persians. From this post, he rebelled against Emperor Anastasius I, taking advantage of widespread resentment over the emperor's military, religious, social policies. Hypatius's subordinate commanders were either killed or joined the rebellion. Indeed, it appears that Vitalian's revolt was primarily motivated by religious reasons, something suggested by his repeatedly demonstrated willingness to reach an accommodation with Anastasius. To counter Vitalian's propaganda, Anastasius ordered bronze crosses to be set up on the city walls inscribed with his own version of events. The emperor also reduced taxes in the provinces of Bithynia and Asia to prevent them from joining the rebellion.Vitalian (general) – Gold semissis of Emperor Anastasius I (r. 491–518).
124. Abdallah al-Battal – Nothing is known of Abdallah al-Battal's origin or early life. Later accounts claim that he hailed from Antioch or Damascus, that he was a mawla of the Umayyad family. He is also given ` l-Husayn, by which he is usually known. In historical sources, al-Battal first appears in 727, in one of the annual raids against Byzantine Asia Minor. This campaign was commanded by the son of the reigning Caliph Hisham. Al-Battal himself commanded another raid in 731–732, of which little is known. It most probably is remembered only for the death in battle of another Arab hero, Abd al-Wahhab ibn Bukht. In the next year, al-Battal campaigned again alongside Mu'awiya ibn Hisham, raiding as far as Akroinon in Phrygia. Al-Battal defeated Constantine and took him prisoner. Al-Battal's last appearance is in 740, when a major campaign involving several tens of thousands of men was launched by the Umayyads against Byzantium. Along with deputy governor of Malatya, al-Battal commanded a 20,000-strong cavalry force while Sulayman ibn Hisham led the main force behind them. Two thirds of their army perished. In the 10th -- 12th centuries his alleged role in the siege of Constantinople was embellished by the Persian historian Bal ` the Andalusian mystic Ibn Arabi. Ibn Kathir in particular regarded it as "confused material suitable only for the unsophisticated". Al-Battal's exploits became the subject of two romances, the Turkish epic tradition of Sayyid Baṭṭāl Ghāzī.Abdallah al-Battal – Map of Byzantine Asia Minor and the Arab–Byzantine frontier zone in the early 8th century
125. Abu Taghlib – The two later concluded an alliance. The army of the Buyid Mu'izz al-Dawla occupied Mosul and Nasir al-Dawla was again forced to flee to the hill country of the northern Jazira. Abu Taghlib led the resistance against the Buyids, who, evacuated Mosul and reached a new agreement with the Hamdanids. Consequently, Nasir al-Dawla was deposed outright and exiled in 967, dying in captivity shortly after. Hamdan refused to recognize Abu Taghlib. With the aid of the new Buyid emir of Iraq,'Izz al-Dawla Bakhtiyar, Abu Taghlib prevailed over Hamdan, who fled to Baghdad. Sa'd al-Dawla, lacking any power to offer any resistance, tacitly accepted these losses as well as his cousin's suzerainty. However, the Buyid prince intervened in the Hamdanid family quarrels. Thus in 970 Hamdan was restored in Rahba thanks only to be chased away again in 971. In 973–975, Abu Taghlib supported Bakhtiyar in his own struggles to safeguard his power. In 975 Abu Taghlib secured a revision of the earlier treaty which freed him from the payment of tribute. In 977, as Bakhtiyar found himself driven by the ambitious ` Adud al-Dawla, he turned again to the Hamdanids for aid. Abu Taghlib agreed to support him over of Hamdan, promptly executed. Although this secured Abu Taghlib's position in his family, it also brought him to the attention of'Adud al-Dawla. In May 978, Bakhtiyar and Abu Taghlib were defeated in a battle near Samarra by'Adud al-Dawla.Abu Taghlib – Map of the Jazira (Upper Mesopotamia), the homeland and main power base of the Hamdanids
126. Alexios Apokaukos – Alexios Apokaukos was a leading Byzantine statesman and high-ranking military officer during the reigns of emperors Andronikos III Palaiologos and John V Palaiologos. Apokaukos died when he was lynched during an inspection of a new prison. Alexios was born in the late 13th century somewhere in Bithynia. He nevertheless became a tax official. By 1320 he was director of the salt pans, from which he later advanced to the position of domestikos of the themes of the West. He rose in the bureaucratic hierarchy until, in 1321, he was appointed the imperial parakoimōmenos. Under the threat of war, the Emperor surrendered Thrace and some districts to the rule of his grandson. Shortly before Andronikos's death, he was rewarded with the high office of megas doux, giving him the high command over the Byzantine navy. He re-equipped the fleet, paying from his own pocket 100,000 hyperpyra. Soon as Kantakouzenos left Constantinople in July 1341 to campaign against the Empire's enemies who were assaulting it, Apokaukos made his first moves. Apokaukos also tried to kidnap the young John V, but was forced to flee to his house at Epibatai. However, when Kantakouzenos returned victorious against the counsel of his friends, he pardoned his protégé. However, the Patriarch and Apokaukos seized power. Friends were imprisoned, the Patriarch was declared regent, while Anna named Apokaukos as urban prefect of Constantinople. Kantakouzenos responded by having himself declared emperor in October 1341 while his opponents followed with the coronation of John V in November.Alexios Apokaukos – Donor portrait of the megas doux Alexios Apokaukos, from a collection of the "Works of Hippocrates " commissioned by him in the early 1340s. Alexios is depicted in the garb of his office, wearing a richly decorated kabbadion and the skaranikon, a ceremonial headdress depicting the reigning emperor.
127. Alexios Philanthropenos – Alexios Doukas Philanthropenos was a Byzantine nobleman and notable general. In 1295 he was betrayed and blinded. He was then named briefly governor of Lesbos in 1328, again in 1336, when he recovered the island's capital from Latin occupation. He ruled the island thereafter, probably until his death in the 1340s. Alexios was born circa 1270 as the second son of prōtovestiarios and megas domestikos Michael Tarchaneiotes. Maria, belonged to the noble family of the Philanthropenoi, which rose to prominence in the latter half of the 13th century. She was the daughter of prōtostratōr and megas doux Alexios Doukas Philanthropenos, after whom Alexios was named. Alexios married Theodora Akropolitissa, granddaughter of the historian George Akropolites. They had Michael Philanthropenos, who also became a general. A certain Libadarios deputized in the northern provinces. His successes made him popular with the locals, who reportedly began suggesting that he should make himself emperor. Philanthropenos at first even asked Andronikos to transfer him away from Anatolia, but in vain. In mid-1294, Philanthropenos was ordered by the emperor to transfer the region of Lydia to Libadarios's control. In the autumn of 1295, Alexios rose up against Andronikos. Around Christmas, Libadarios had him blinded, the punishment usually meted out to rebels.Alexios Philanthropenos – Miniature portrait of Andronikos II Palaiologos
128. Alexios Strategopoulos – Alexios Komnenos Strategopoulos was a Byzantine general during the reign of Michael VIII Palaiologos, rising to the rank of megas domestikos and Caesar. Of noble descent, Strategopoulos appears already at an advanced age in the early 1250s, leading armies for the Empire of Nicaea against Epirus. Released after a few months, Strategopoulos led the unexpected reconquest of Constantinople from the Latin Empire in July 1261, restoring the Byzantine Empire. Strategopoulos was spent several years in captivity in Italy, before being released. Strategopoulos died in the early 1270s. 1216, although his relation with Alexios is unknown. The campaign failed with heavy losses, due, according to George Akropolites, on behalf of both Strategopoulos and Tornikes. This failure enraged the Emperor Theodore II Laskaris, who removed both from their offices. He was probably released immediately after the death of Theodore II Laskaris in August 1258. In the same year he accompanied the army, sent, under Michael's brother, the megas domestikos John Palaiologos, to confront the Epirote designs on Macedonia. Strategopoulos succeeded him as megas domestikos. After the Nicaean victory, John Palaiologos invaded Thessaly, while John Raoul Petraliphas were tasked with reducing Epirus proper. At Arta they released many Nicaean prisoners, including the historian George Akropolites. For this success, Strategopoulos was raised to the rank of Caesar. The Epirote army clashed at the Trikorfon pass near Nafpaktos; the Nicaean army was routed, Alexios himself captured.Alexios Strategopoulos – Emperor John III Doukas Vatatzes, under whom Strategopoulos began his military career, and whose niece married his own son, Constantine
129. Artabanes (general) – Artabanes was an East Roman general of Armenian origin who served under Justinian I. Initially a rebel against Byzantine authority, he fled to the Sassanid Persians but soon returned to Byzantine allegiance. Artabanes served in Africa, where he won great fame by restoring the province to imperial allegiance. Artabanes did not eventually marry her due to the opposition of the Empress Theodora. Recalled to Constantinople, Artabanes was not severely punished after its revelation. Artabanes was soon sent to Italy to fight in the Gothic War, where he participated in the decisive Byzantine victory at Casilinum. He had a brother also named John. Artabanes himself killed Acacius. Artabanes's father was murdered by the latter. This act forced Artabanes and his followers to seek the aid of the Sassanid Persian ruler, Khosrau I. Crossing over to Persian territory, over the next few years Artabanes and those who followed him took part in Khosrau's campaigns against the Byzantines. At some time around 544, perhaps early as 542, Artabanes, his brother John and several other Armenians deserted back to the Byzantines. Along with his brother, he was sent to Africa in spring 545 under the senator Areobindus. There, the Byzantines were engaged in a protracted war with the Moorish tribes. Shortly after their arrival, John died at Sicca Veneria with the rebel forces of the renegade Stotzas.Artabanes (general) – Africa, with the provinces of Byzacena, Zeugitana and Numidia.
130. Bardas – Bardas was a Byzantine noble and high-ranking minister. As the brother of Empress Theodora, he rose under Theophilos. Although sidelined after Theophilos's death in 855 he engineered Theoktistos's murder and became the de facto regent for his nephew, Michael III. Bardas was the elder brother of Empress Theodora, the wife of Emperor Theophilos, of Petronas. Maria, Sophia, Irene, are recorded by Theophanes Continuatus. The family had settled in Paphlagonia. Some modern genealogists, including Nicholas Adontz, have suggested a link of Bardas' family with the Armenian noble clan of the Mamikonian. According to Nina Garsoïan in the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, however, "ttractive though it is, this thesis cannot be proven for want of sources." With the death of Theophilos, the young Michael III ascended the throne. As he was only two years old, a regency council was set up headed by Theodora. Following the death of Sergios, Theoktistos ruled supreme alongside Theodora for a decade. In 855, Michael III turned fifteen and thus came nominally of age. His mother and Theoktistos selected Eudokia Dekapolitissa as his bride, disregarding Michael's attachment to his mistress, Eudokia Ingerina. Bardas began to turn him against the regency. With Michael's backing, on 20 November 855, Theoktistos was murdered.Bardas – The assassination of Bardas, with Michael looking on, from the Madrid Skylitzes
131. Baths of Zeuxippus – The Baths of Zeuxippus were popular public baths in the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire. They were then rebuilt several years later. They were so called because they were built upon the site where a Temple of Jupiter had formerly existed. They were built around 500 yards south of the much older baths of Achilles of the earlier Greek Acropolis in Byzantion. The baths were famed primarily for the many statues that were built within, the famous people they each represented. However, they were later used for military purposes, during the seventh century. Excavations of the site and the Baths were made in 1928. These statues were taken from various places worldwide, including Rome, Greece and Asia Minor. For a relatively small fee, entrance could be gained by any member of the general public to the Bath complex. While the area was obviously primarily used for public bathing, one could exercise and enjoy a variety of recreational activities. Attendants were paid to oversee the happenings of the complex, enforcing the rules of conduct. Women were not allowed to bathe together; they would either bathe at different times of the day. Even the likes of clergy and monks were seen there, despite the insistence by their superiors that the baths were places of impious behaviour. Or if more manly sports his mind affects, Practice the rough diversions of the stadia. In addition to this, the Baths of Zeuxippus were also close to the Great Palace grounds.Baths of Zeuxippus – Byzantine Constantinople.
132. Battle of Akroinon – The battle resulted in a Byzantine victory. Following their failure to capture the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, for a time diverted their attention elsewhere. These were longer aimed at permanent conquest but rather large-scale raids, plundering and devastating the countryside and only occasionally attacking forts or major settlements. The raids of this period were also largely confined to the central Anatolian plateau, only rarely reached the peripheral coastlands. However, the Muslim successes became fewer, especially as their resources were drawn into the mounting conflict with the Khazars in the Caucasus. The Arab and Byzantine chroniclers mention fewer successful captures of forts or towns. Nevertheless, in 737 a major victory over the Khazars allowed the Arabs to intensify their campaigns against Byzantium. Thus in 739 Maslamah ibn Hisham led successful raids, including the capture of the town of Ancyra. For the year 740, Hisham assembled the largest expedition of his reign, placing it under his Sulayman. According to the chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor, the invading Umayyad force totalled 90,000 men. The Emperor Leo confronted the second force at Akroinon. The rest of the Arab troops managed to conduct an orderly retreat to Synnada, where they joined Sulayman. The other two Arab forces devastated the countryside failed to take any towns or forts. Akroinon was a major success for the Byzantines, as it was the large-scale victory they had scored in a pitched battle against the Arabs. As a result, the Arab attacks against the Byzantine Empire in the 740s soon ceased completely.Battle of Akroinon – Map of Anatolia (Asia Minor) in 740 AD. Akroinon is located at the center of the western edge of the central Anatolian plateau
133. Battle of Anzen – Theophilos with his army confronted the smaller Muslim army, at Dazimon. Coupled with a fierce counterattack by Afshin's Turkish horse-archers, the Byzantine army fled. His guard were besieged for a while in a hill, before making good their escape. In 829, as the young Theophilos ascended the Byzantine throne, the Arab -- Byzantine wars had continued off for almost two centuries. Throughout the 830s, Theophilos launched a series of campaigns against the Caliphate. These were only sufficient for the imperial propaganda to portray Theophilos in the traditional Roman manner as a "victorious emperor". In response, al-Mu ` tasim decided to launch a punitive expedition against Byzantium, aiming to capture the two major Byzantine cities of central Anatolia, Ancyra and Amorion. A vast army was gathered at Tarsus, then divided into two main forces. The main force, under the Caliph himself, would pass the Cilician Gates into Cappadocia and head to Ancyra. After the city was taken, the Arab armies would march to Amorion. On the Byzantine side, Theophilos set out from Constantinople in early June. Theophilos was informed of these movements in mid-July. Afshin's force also threatened to cut off his supply lines. Consequently, the Emperor marched east to confront Afshin. The Byzantine army initially made good progress: they drove back one wing of the opposite army, inflicting 3,000 casualties on the Arabs.Battle of Anzen – The Byzantine army and Theophilos retreat towards a mountain, miniature from the Madrid Skylitzes.
134. Battle of Arcadiopolis (970) – In the preceding years, the Rus' ruler Sviatoslav was now menacing Byzantium as well. The Rus' force had been advancing through Thrace towards Constantinople when it was met by Skleros' force. Having fewer men than the Rus', Skleros attacked the Rus' army with a portion of his force. The Byzantines then succeeded in drawing off the Pecheneg contingent into the ambush, routing it. The remainder of the Rus' army then panicked and suffered heavy casualties from the pursuing Byzantines. He followed this up by sending a small force to raze a number of Bulgarian border posts in Thrace. Nikephoros' forces were largely preoccupied in the East. Thus the emperor turned to the Byzantine expedient of turning one of the peoples living further north, in modern-day Ukraine, against Bulgaria. He sent the patrikios Kalokyros, to Sviatoslav, ruler of the Rus' with whom the Byzantines had maintained close relations. Sviatoslav enthusiastically invaded Bulgaria in 967 or 968 in a devastating raid, before returning home to defend his capital against a Pecheneg attack. This forced Peter I, to the negotiating table, agreeing to terms favourable to Byzantium. However, this brief sojourn also awakened in Sviatoslav the desire to establish his own realm there. He conquered the country within a few months. It fell to his successor, John I Tzimiskes, to deal with the Rus' threat. They were to raise an army, whilst sending spies to discover Sviatoslav's intentions.Battle of Arcadiopolis (970) – Sviatoslav invading Bulgaria. Miniature from the Manasses Chronicle.
135. Battle of Bathys Ryax – The Battle of Bathys Ryax was fought in 872 or 878 between the Byzantine Empire and the Paulicians. The battle was a Byzantine victory, resulting in the rout of the Paulician army and the death of its leader, Chrysocheir. The Paulicians were fiercely iconoclastic, rejected the authority and practices of the official Byzantine Church, following their own leaders. Consequently, they were persecuted by the Byzantine state despite the emperors' official support for iconoclasm. Basil I the Macedonian, sent an embassy for negotiations to Tephrike. Encouraged by this success, Chrysocheir then staged another deep raid into Anatolia, ravaging southern Galatia. Basil reacted by sending the Domestic of the Schools Christopher, against them. As the campaigning season drew to a close, they began retiring towards their own territory. They encamped at Agranai with the shadowing Byzantine army making their camp at nearby Siboron to the west. The Byzantines took up position in a wooded hill called Zogoloenos that overlooked the Paulician encampment, which further concealed them from their enemy. The ruse worked perfectly: the Paulicians, taken by surprise, dispersed without offering any serious resistance. The Paulician rout was completed as they fell upon the Byzantine army while fleeing. Their remnants were pursued up to a distance of 50 km. He was brought at bay at Konstantinou Bounos. In the ensuing engagement, he was wounded by a Byzantine soldier, formerly a captive of the Paulicians, fell from his horse.Battle of Bathys Ryax – Gold coin of the Emperor Basil I. The victory of Bathys Ryax and the subsequent dissolution of the Paulician state were among the major triumphs of his reign.
136. Battle of Kleidion – The Battle of Kleidion took place on July 29, 1014 between the Byzantine Empire and the Bulgarian Empire. The result was a Byzantine victory. The battle took place near the modern Bulgarian village of Klyuch. The ensuing battle was a major defeat for the Bulgarians. Bulgarian soldiers were reputedly blinded by order of Basil II, who would subsequently be known as the "Bulgar-Slayer". Samuel survived the battle, but reportedly brought on by the sight of his blind soldiers. In 1018 the Bulgarian Empire was finally destroyed by Basil II. As a result, the Bulgarian state was forced to fight a series of wars with Byzantium in order to secure its continued existence. In 968, Bulgaria was invaded by the Kievan Prince Sviatoslav. By that time, the Bulgarian Empire, which had once threatened the existence of Byzantium under the reign of Simeon, had lost much of its power. Eastern Bulgaria came under Byzantine rule. When the Byzantine emperor Basil II ascended the throne in 976, he made his first ambition. Opposing him were the Western Bulgarians, now led by Samuel of Bulgaria. However, his invasion of southern Greece, that reached far as Corinth, resulted in a major defeat in the Battle of Spercheios in 996. The next phase of the war began in 1000, when Basil, having secured his own position, launched a series of offensives against Bulgaria.Battle of Kleidion – The Byzantines defeat the Bulgarians at Kleidion, Madrid Skylitzes.
137. Battle of Kopidnadon – The Battle of Kopidnadon or Kopidnados took place in September 788 between the armies of the Abbasid Caliphate and the Byzantine Empire. The Abbasid army was confronted by a Byzantine force at Kopidnadon. The resulting battle was an Abbasid victory. Among the Byzantine losses was a certain Diogenes, identified by some scholars with the probable original source for the literary hero Digenes Akritas. In 785, warfare recommenced. The site of the battle is called "Kopidnadon" in Theophanes, a name otherwise unattested. Modern scholars, beginning with Henri Grégoire in 1932, have identified it on the western exit of the Cilician Gates. Theophanes also singles out the loss of a tourmarches of the Anatolics. In material terms, there is therefore little to distinguish the defeat at Kopidnadon from the "typical" Arab raid.Battle of Kopidnadon – Asia Minor and the Byzantine-Arab frontier ca. 780 AD
138. Battle of Krasos – Nikephoros' accession in 802 resulted between Byzantium and the Abbasid Caliphate. In late summer 804, Nikephoros set out to meet them. He was heavily defeated, barely escaping with his own life. A truce and exchange were afterwards arranged. Nikephoros, on the other hand, was more warlike and determined to refill the imperial treasury by, among other measures, ceasing the tribute. Harun retaliated at once, launching a raid under his al-Qasim. Nikephoros could not respond to this, as he faced an ultimately unsuccessful revolt of the Asian army under Bardanes Tourkos. After disposing of Bardanes, Nikephoros marched out himself to meet a second, larger invasion under the Caliph himself. In August 804, Harun dispatched another raid under his general Ibrahim ibn Jibril. The Arabs raided freely. Nikephoros was forced to return before he could do so, due to some unspecified event at his back. On his home, however, the Arabs launched a surprise attack at Krasos in Phrygia and defeated his army. According to al-Tabari, the Byzantines lost 4,000 pack animals, while the Emperor himself was wounded three times. Preoccupied with trouble in Khurasan, Harun made peace. During Harun's absence in Khurasan, however, Nikephoros used the opportunity to rebuild the destroyed walls of the towns of Safsaf, Thebasa, Ancyra.Battle of Krasos – Anatolia and the Byzantine-Arab frontier ca. 780 AD
139. Battle of Mauropotamos – The Battle of Mauropotamos was fought in 844, between the armies of the Byzantine Empire and the Abbasid Caliphate, at Mauropotamos. After a failed Byzantine attempt to recover the Emirate of Crete in the previous year, the Abbasids launched a raid into Asia Minor. Many of his officers defected to the Arabs. Internal unrest prevented the Abbasids from exploiting their victory, however. A prisoner exchange were consequently agreed in 845, followed by a six-year cessation of hostilities, as both powers focused their attention elsewhere. An attempted reconquest of the Emirate of Crete led by Theoktistos in person, made initial gains, but ultimately ended in disaster. After scoring a victory over the Arabs in Crete, Theoktistos learned of a rumour that Theodora intended to name a new emperor, possibly her brother Bardas. The Arab sources do not make explicit mention of this campaign. Umar al-Aqta's participation is likely, as he often aided the Abbasids against the Byzantines. According to Arab accounts, the troops led by Abu Sa'id comprised men from the border emirates of Qaliqala and Tarsus. The Arab forces united at Ardandun through the Byzantine themes of Cappadocia, Anatolikon, Boukellarion, Opsikion. Sa'id's troops even reached the shore of the Bosporus. Theoktistos was heavily defeated at Mauropotamos. Not only did the Byzantines suffer heavy casualties, but many Byzantine officials defected to the Arabs. Theoktistos returned to Constantinople, where he had him exiled from the capital.Battle of Mauropotamos – Map of Byzantine Asia Minor and the Byzantine-Arab frontier region ca. 842
140. Battle of the Gates of Trajan – The Battle of the Gates of Trajan was a battle between Byzantine and Bulgarian forces in the year 986. It took place in Sofia Province, Bulgaria. It was the largest defeat of the Byzantines under Emperor Basil II. The Byzantine army Basil himself barely escaped. Fifteen years after the fall of the Bulgarian Preslav, the victory at the Gates of Trajan extended the Bulgarian successes achieved since 976. On Tsar Samuil moved the capital from Preslav in the northeast to Ohrid in the southwest. The memory of the great victory over Basil II was preserved thirty years later in the Bitola inscription of the son of Aron. More details can be found in the commended sermon of Saint Photius of Thessaly. They ruled the free territories in a tetrarchy residing in four separate cities in order to fight the Byzantines with higher efficiency. They were unable to stop the Bulgarians. For one decade in offensive after 976 the Bulgarians achieved major successes. Samuil managed to liberate north-eastern Bulgaria. Between 986 the Bulgarians occupied the main city of Thessaly, Larissa. The Bulgarian attacks forced Basil II to take serious actions. In 986, Basil II led a campaign with 30,000 soldiers.Battle of the Gates of Trajan – Ruins of the fortress Gates of Trajan
141. Battle of the Olive Grove of Koundouros – In 1204, the capital city of the Byzantine Empire was taken by the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade and the Republic of Venice. This led to the establishment of the Latin Empire. In the Olive Grove of Kountouras in Messenia, they confronted an army of around 5,000 Peloponnesian Greeks under the command of a certain Michael. In the ensuing battle, the Crusaders emerged victorious, crushing resistance in the Peloponnese. This battle paved the way for the foundation of the Principality of Achaea. The army of the Fourth Crusade conquered April 1204. One of the main leaders of Boniface of Montferrat, having lost the opportunity to become Emperor, went on to found the Kingdom of Thessalonica. William of Champlitte followed him to Thessalonica but then continued south until he reached the Morea. There he was joined by Geoffrey I of Villehardouin, who had sailed on his way back from Palestine. In charge of around a hundred knights and several soldiers, Champlitte and Villehardouin set out together to conquer the Morea. From there the Franks moved along the coast, accompanied by a fleet, easily taking the fortress of Pontikon, which they repaired and garrisoned. Passing through Navarino, arrived at Modon. According to the Chronicle, the Franks had between 700 men, while the Greeks had 4,000, mounted and on foot. The elder Villehardouin states that the army of Michael numbered that of the Franks 500. Then they ordered their array with as many people as they had.Battle of the Olive Grove of Koundouros – Battle of the Olive Grove of Kountouras
142. Battle of Yarmouk – The Battle of Yarmouk was a major battle between the army of the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim Arab forces of the Rashidun Caliphate. The result of the battle was a Muslim victory which ended Byzantine rule in Syria. In order to recover lost territory, Emperor Heraclius had sent a massive expedition to the Levant in May 636. The battle is considered to be one of Khalid ibn al-Walid's greatest military victories. It cemented his reputation in history. During the last Byzantine–Sassanid Wars in 610, Heraclius became the emperor of the Byzantine Empire, after overthrowing Phocas. Meanwhile, in 611 they overran Syria and entered Anatolia, occupying Caesarea Mazaca. Over the following decade the Persians were able to conquer Palestine and Egypt. Meanwhile, Heraclius rebuilt his army. Nine years later in 622, Heraclius finally launched his offensive. Heraclius restored the True Cross with a majestic ceremony in 629. When Muhammad died in June 632, Abu Bakr was elected his political successor. Troubles emerged soon after Abu Bakr's succession, when Arab tribes openly revolted against Abu Bakr, who declared war against the rebels. In what became known as the Ridda wars, Abu Bakr managed to unite Arabia at Medina. Once the rebels had been subdued, Abu Bakr began a war of conquest, beginning with Iraq.Battle of Yarmouk – Across the ravines lies the battlefield of Yarmouk, this picture taken about 8 miles away, from Jordan.
143. Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty – Moreover, it was during the Komnenian period that the'Latin' Christian West, including the Crusader states, was at its most crucial stage. Above all, the cultural impact of Byzantine art on the west at this period was enormous and of lasting significance. The Komnenoi also made a significant contribution to the history of Asia Minor. By reconquering much of the region, the Komnenoi set back the advance of the Turks in Anatolia by more than two centuries. In the process, they planted the foundations of the Byzantine successor states of Nicaea, Epirus and Trebizond. Meanwhile, their extensive programme of fortifications has left an enduring mark upon the Anatolian landscape, which can still be appreciated today. The Komnenian era was born out for the Byzantine Empire. Meanwhile, the remnants of the armed forces were allowed to decay, to the point where they were no longer capable of functioning as an army. Elderly men with ill-maintained equipment mixed with new recruits who had never participated in a exercise. The simultaneous arrival of new enemies -- Turks in the east and Normans in the west -- was another contributory factor. In 1040, originally landless mercenaries from northern parts of Europe in search of plunder, began attacking Byzantine strongholds in southern Italy. In order to deal with them, a mixed force of conscripts under the formidable George Maniakes was sent to Italy in 1042. Before it could be concluded he was recalled to Constantinople. However, a mortal wound led to his death afterwards. With opposition thus absent in the Balkans, the Normans were able to complete the expulsion of the Byzantines by 1071.Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty – Nikephoros III Botaniates, Byzantine emperor from 1078 to 1081.
144. Byzantine Greeks – Throughout the Middle Ages, the Byzantine Greeks are referred to as "Byzantines" and "Byzantine Greeks" in modern historiography. The terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Byzantine Greeks" were first coined by British historian George Finlay. These peasants lived within three kinds of settlements: the proasteion or estate. Soldiers among the Byzantine Greeks were at trained on an annual basis. As the Byzantine Empire entered the 11th century, more of the soldiers within the army were either professional mercenaries. Success came easily to Greek merchants, who enjoyed a very strong position in international trade. Despite the challenges posed by Italian merchants, they held their own throughout the latter half of the Byzantine Empire's existence. The language of the Byzantine Greeks since the age of Constantine had been Greek, although Latin was the language of the administration. From the reign of Emperor Heraclius, Greek also replaced Latin in administration. Over time, the relationship between the West, particularly with Latin Europe, deteriorated. However, the Byzantine Empire continued the unbroken line of succession of the Roman emperors. During most of the Middle Ages, the Byzantine Greeks self-identified as a term which in the Greek language had become synonymous with Christian Greeks. The ancient name Hellenes was revived as an ethnonym in the Middle Byzantine period. "Byzantine Greeks" is an exonym applied by later historians like Hieronymus Wolf; the "Byzantines" continued to call themselves Romaioi in their language. Most historians agree that the defining features of their civilization were: 1) Greek language, culture, literature, science, 2) Roman law and tradition, 3) Christian faith.Byzantine Greeks – Byzantine culture
145. Chalke – The Chalke Gate, was the main ceremonial entrance to the Great Palace of Constantinople in the Byzantine period. The exterior façade featured a number of statues. The chapel survived until the early 19th century. Like much of the city's center, this structure was subsequently rebuilt by the Emperor Justinian I. This building was extensively described by the historian Procopius in his De Aedificiis. The main gatehouse, denuded of its bronze gates during his first reign, is not mentioned by Byzantine chroniclers after ca. 1200. 1200. The remains of the chapel are depicted in 18th-century drawings, until finally demolished in 1804. Literary descriptions of the gate survive. Accounts of the statues decorating the gatehouse's façade also come from the later Parastaseis syntomoi chronikai. The piers to the north were somewhat lower than those to the east and west. The central structure was adjoined to the south and north each again featuring a vaulted roof. 18th-century depictions locate it some 100 m southeast of the Hagia Sophia. The Parastaseis syntomoi record the existence of various statues, probably placed in niches above the central doorway. Above the main entrance of the Chalke, there stood an icon of the so-called Christ Chalkites.Chalke – Icon celebrating the " Triumph of Orthodoxy " and the restoration of icon worship in 843. Saint Theodosia, an iconodule martyr, is depicted first left on the lower row, carrying the icon of Christ Chalkites.
146. Chlemoutsi – Chlemoutsi is a medieval castle in the northwest of the Elis regional unit in the Peloponnese peninsula of southern Greece, in the Kastro-Kyllini municipality. The castle is largely preserved with only minor later modifications for the installation of artillery. During the Greek War of Independence, part of its outer wall was demolished to prevent the Greek rebels from using it. It is a preserved monument open to the public. When the clergy refused, claiming that they owed allegiance only to the Pope, Geoffrey began construction of Chlemoutsi with the new funds. The fortress was set with no previous structure identifiable on this site. Ca. 5 kilometres from the Principality's largest port and town, Glarentza. One of whom, Alexios Philes, died in captivity there. In 1280, Anna married the baron Nicholas II of Saint Omer, lord of one half of Thebes. In c. To this end, in February 1314 she wedded her only daughter, Isabel of Sabran, to Ferdinand of Majorca, passed her titles and claims to them. She then returned to Achaea, where she was imprisoned at Chlemoutsi, where she died in February or March 1315. Ferdinand landed in June 1315 claiming the Principality from the Angevin nominee, Louis of Burgundy. He was eventually defeated and killed in the Battle of Manolada in July 1316. The remaining Majorcan troops ceded the fortresses they set sail for home shortly after.Chlemoutsi – The walls of Chlemoutsi
147. Church of St. Polyeuctus – The Church of St. Polyeuctus was an ancient Byzantine church in Constantinople built by the noblewoman Anicia Juliana and dedicated to Saint Polyeuctus. Little is known after its construction. The building survived until the 11th century, after which it fell into decay, while architectural elements were removed and reused in Constantinople and other cities. After being built over in the Ottoman period, the site of the church was rediscovered during excavations in the 1960s. It was meant to replace an earlier church, built by Eudocia, Juliana's great-grandmother, to enshrine the relic skull of Saint Polyeuctus. The new church was thought to have been the largest in Constantinople by Justin's nephew and heir Justinian I. The church survived until the 11th century, when it was abandoned. The site in the Saraçhane quarter, was gradually occupied by houses and a mosque in the Ottoman period. In 1940, in 1960, during construction of the intersection of the Șehzadebași Caddesi and Atatürk Bulvari roads, excavations began. Brick pieces of Proconnesian marble sculpture were discovered, among them fragments of the monumental epigram adorning the church. Despite its architectural prominence, very little is known of its precise architecture. To the north of the atrium, remains of another building have been identified as Juliana's palace. Its shape remains unknown. From the epigram, we know that the interior featured two storeys with galleries. The spaces around the western bay would have been covered with barrel or cross-vaults.Church of St. Polyeuctus – Marble bust of Anicia Juliana, from the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.
148. Constantine Diogenes – Constantine Diogenes was a prominent Byzantine general of the early 11th century, active in the Balkans. Forced to enter a monastery, Diogenes committed suicide in 1032 during an inquest on a further conspiracy. Diogenes was the father of Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes. Constantine Diogenes is the notable member of the noble Cappadocian Diogenes family, which played an important role in 11th-century Byzantium. He began his career as a commander of one of the western tagmata in the latter's campaigns against Bulgaria. During this campaign, he constructed the fortress of Mylobos, as attested in a founder's inscription. The conquest of Moglena was completed in 1016. In 1017, Diogenes and David Arianites led troops to plunder the plain of Pelagonia, where they captured many prisoners and livestock. After Ivan Vladislav's death in February 1018, he was charged with mopping up the last remaining centres of Bulgarian resistance. He was named its commander; his authority extended over the vassal Serbian statelets of Raška. His title was possibly that of "strategos of Serbia", attested in a seal attributed to him. He was ordered by Basil II to subdue the ruler of Sirmium, to consolidate Byzantine control of the northern Balkans. Consequently, he invited Sermon at the estuary of the river Sava in the Danube where each would only be accompanied by three attendants. He struck Sermon down. Diogenes then marched his army into Sirmium, taking possession of the town.Constantine Diogenes – Map of the Byzantine–Bulgarian wars in the time of Emperor Basil II and Tsar Samuel of Bulgaria
149. Constantine Doukas (usurper) – Constantine Doukas was a prominent Byzantine general. In 904, he stopped the influential eunuch official Samonas from defecting to the Arabs. In return, Samonas manipulated Andronikos Doukas, into rebelling and fleeing to the Abbasid court in 906/7. Constantine Doukas was the son of Andronikos Doukas, the first prominent member of the Doukas family. Constantine first appears during the attempted flight of the Arab-born eunuch Samonas, one of the emperor's most trusted aides, to Syria. This grudge came in 906 when Samonas tricked Andronikos into refusing to participate in an imperial expedition. His father ended up in Baghdad, the Abbasid capital. He died there in ca. 910. Constantine however was warmly welcomed back by Leo in a ceremony in the throne room of the Chrysotriklinos. The date of his return to Byzantium must be placed between ca. 908 and ca. 911. 911. Despite his father's revolt, prophecies apparently circulated that predicted Constantine's rise to the throne. From both positions he fought victoriously against the Arabs. Leo VI was succeeded by his brother Alexander, who reigned for little over a year before dying in June 913.Constantine Doukas (usurper) – Constantine Doukas escapes from Arab captivity, throwing gold coins behind him to delay his pursuers. Miniature from the Madrid Skylitzes chronicle
150. Constantine Lekapenos – Constantine Lekapenos or Lecapenus was the third son of the Byzantine emperor Romanos I Lekapenos, co-emperor from 924 to 945. Constantine was exiled to the island of Samothrace, where he was killed while attempting to escape sometime between 948. Constantine was one of the youngest sons of his wife Theodora. His older brothers were Christopher Lekapenos and Stephen Lekapenos. It is unclear if Theophylact was slightly older than he was. His sisters included Helena, who married Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos, Agatha, who married Romanos Argyros. He also had at least two unnamed sisters, known only because of their marriages to the magistroi Romanos Mosele and Romanos Saronites. Within a year, he successively was eventually crowned senior emperor on 17 December 920. In 939, Constantine married a daughter of the patrikios Adrian, an Armenian. On 2 February of the same year, Constantine married his second wife, Theophano Mamas. It is not recorded by which of his two wives. This Romanos was castrated in 945, after the Lekapenoi lost power, to prevent him from claiming the Byzantine throne. He nevertheless pursued a career in the court, eventually reaching the post of Eparch of Constantinople. Constantine Lekapenos came to the fore in 943, when they opposed a dynastic marriage for their nephew, Romanos II. Their father wanted to have his eldest surviving grandson married to a daughter of his successful general John Kourkouas.Constantine Lekapenos – Miliaresion from 931–944, showing Romanos I 's bust on a cross on the obverse and listing the names of Romanos and his co-emperors, Constantine VII, Stephen Lekapenos and Constantine Lekapenos, on the reverse.
151. Cutzinas – Cutzinas was of mixed stock: his father was a Berber, while his mother came from the Romanized population of North Africa. Cutzinas opposed the revolt, brought his own people, the "Mastraciani" on the side of the Byzantine military. In 544, over the next year the Byzantine position in Africa crumbled before the rebels. In late 545, Cutzinas and Iaudas joined Antalas in Africa. After his plans were revealed to Antalas, Cutzinas changed sides once more and allied himself with Guntharis, giving his mother and son as hostages. Along with the Armenian commander Artabanes, he was sent to pursue a victory over the rebel forces near Hadrumetum. Shortly after, Cutzinas received the Roman military rank of magister militum from Troglita. In the summer of 547 Cutzinas accompanied Troglita under Carcasan. In the same winter, Cutzinas quarreled with Ifisdaias. This number possibly also includes Byzantine troops placed under Cutzinas' command well. During the campaign, the other Berber leaders were crucial in suppressing a near-mutiny of the Byzantine troops due to Antalas' scorched earth strategy. The Berbers' steadfast support enabled Troglita to lead his army against the forces of Carcasan and Antalas. After this, Cutzinas remained as a vassal chieftain, receiving regular pay from the Byzantine authorities. Bury, John Bagnell. History of the Later Roman Empire: From the Death of Theodosius I to the Death of Justinian, Volume 2.Cutzinas – Roman and Byzantine Africa, with the provinces of Byzacena, Zeugitana and Numidia
152. David III of Tao – Kuropalates was a Byzantine courtier title bestowed upon him in 978 and again in 990. Yet he was able to secure for his heir, Bagrat III, an opportunity to become the first ruler of a unified Georgian kingdom. He succeeded his brother, Bagrat II, as a duke of Tao in 966, through his expansionist policy and flexible diplomacy began assembling a larger state. However, the integrity of the empire itself was under serious threat after a full-scale rebellion, led by Bardas Skleros, broke out in 976. Following a series of successful battles the rebels swept across Asia Minor and threatened Constantinople itself. On this occasion, he was granted the high Byzantine court title of kouropalates. Basil II also rewarded the valor of David’s commander Tornikios by funding a Georgian Orthodox monastery on Mount Athos. Although populated now chiefly with Greek monks, it is to this day known as Iviron, "of the Iberians". These formidable acquisitions made David the most influential ruler in the Caucasus, enabling him to interfere in and arbitrate dynastic disputes in both Georgia and Armenia. For in his day it was as the prophecy states: everyone reposed under his vine and his fig tree. Being in control of highly important commercial centers, his principality profited from taxing the major trading routes running through southwestern Caucasus and eastern Anatolia. David invested these revenues in extensive building projects: constructing towns, forts and churches, promoting Georgian monastic communities and cultural activities both in Georgia and abroad. Having no children of his own, David adopted his kinsman, the young prince Bagrat, heir to the Bagratid throne of Kartli. He did so at the request of the energetic Georgian nobleman Iovane Marushis-dze. Through his fortunate bloodlines Bagrat was destined to sit upon two thrones.David III of Tao – David III the Great as depicted on a bas-relief from the Oshki Monastery. It was David’s use of Byzantine imagery that influenced the appearance of royal power of Georgia in the following two centuries.
153. Domestic of the Schools – The historian J.B. As the officiorum was gradually deprived in the 7th and 8th centuries, the Domestic apparently became an independent official. The ceremony for the Domestic's appointment is described in the De Ceremoniis; the same work describes his duties and role in court ceremonies. During the 10th century, the Domesticate of the Schools was dominated by members of the Phokas family, which produced six holders of the office. In Pseudo-Kodinos' work, the Domestic of the Schools ranks 31st in the imperial hierarchy, between the mystikos and the Grand Drungary of the Fleet. Note: the list does not include holders known only through their seals but otherwise unidentified. Bury, John Bagnell. The Imperial Administrative System of the Ninth Century - With a Revised Text of the Kletorologion of Philotheos. London: Oxford University Press. Garland, Lynda. Byzantine empresses: women and power in Byzantium, AD 527-1204. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-14688-3. Guilland, Rodolphe. "Le grand domestique".Domestic of the Schools – Lead seal of Alexios I Komnenos as "Grand Domestic of the West"
154. Emirate of Crete – Although the emirate maintained close ties with Tulunid Egypt, it was de facto independent. A group of Andalusian exiles conquered Crete in 827/828, quickly establishing an independent state. All accounts point to considerable prosperity deriving not only from piracy but also from extensive trade and agriculture. The emirate was brought by Nikephoros Phokas, who launched a huge campaign against it in 960 -- 961. Crete had been the target of Muslim attacks since the first wave of the Muslim conquests in the mid-7th century. These exiles had a long history of wanderings behind them. They were the survivors of a failed revolt against the Al-Hakam I of Córdoba in 818. In the aftermath of its suppression, the citizens of the Cordovan suburb of al-Rabad were exiled en masse. Others, numbering over 10,000, took to piracy, probably joined by other Andalusians. The exact chronology of their landing in Crete is uncertain. Following the Muslim sources, it is usually dated after the Andalusians' expulsion from Alexandria. Byzantine sources however seem to contradict this, placing their landing soon after the suppression of the large revolt of Thomas the Slav. 824. Under the terms of their agreement with Ibn Tahir, their families left Alexandria in 40 ships. Historian Warren Treadgold estimates them at some 12,000 people, of whom about 3,000 would be fighting men.Emirate of Crete – The Saracen fleet sails towards Crete. Miniature from the Madrid Skylitzes manuscript.
155. Eustathios Argyros (general under Leo VI) – Eustathios Argyros was a Byzantine aristocrat and one of the most prominent generals under Emperor Leo VI the Wise. The first member of the Argyros family to rise to high posts, he fought with distinction against the Arabs in the east, before being disgraced ca. 907, possibly in connection with the flight of Andronikos Doukas to the Arabs. Eustathios Argyros was the son of the founder of the noble Argyros family. Experts on Byzantine prosopography, consider him "the true founder of the family's glory". His life is only known after 904. Evidently after a succession of -- unknown -- military commands, Eustathios had reached, according to Theophanes Continuatus, the rank of patrikios and hypostrategos of the Anatolic Theme. He then was exiled. The Argyros family, however, had strong connections from which it hailed. About a year later, he was ordered to return to his family's estates at Charsianon. On the way, he was buried on Spynin, the summit of Mount Aran. Leo would go on to hold senior military commands, including the post of Domestic of the Schools. Romanos, is known only from his participation in the Battle of Achelous in 917. Leo Argyros was probably the grandfather or great-grandfather of Emperor Romanos III Argyros. This identification is rejected by other scholars like J.-F.Eustathios Argyros (general under Leo VI) – Map of the Arab–Byzantine frontier zone
156. Eustathios Daphnomeles – Eustathios Daphnomeles was a Byzantine strategos and patrician who distinguished himself in the Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria. Daphnomeles came from the landed aristocracy of Asia Minor, which for centuries provided the military elite. Daphnomeles, at the head of a fleet, took possession of the city. Given the chronologically unclear narrative of Skylitzes, however, it is possible that this episode reflects his later appointment as strategos of the city. Following the defeat at the Battle of Kleidion in 1015, Bulgarian resistance began to collapse. With only two escorts, he announced himself to Ibatzes. When the Bulgarians recovered, they gathered underneath the building crying for revenge. Daphnomeles, however, managed to convince them of the futility of further resistance, to lay down their arms and seek the emperor's pardon. Following his feat, Daphnomeles was given all of Ibatzes's movable wealth as a reward. The accused were then recalled to Constantinople, beaten, banished. Nothing further is known of him. Holmes, Catherine. Basil II and the Governance of Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-927968-5.Eustathios Daphnomeles – Map of the Byzantine–Bulgarian wars in the time of Emperor Basil II and Tsar Samuel of Bulgaria
157. Eutharic – Some time after the death of Eutharic, his son Athalaric died at the age of 18. After Athalaric's death, Eutharic's widow moved to Constantinople where further attempts at establishing a dynasty failed. Eutharic was born to a noble ostrogoth family of the Amali line. Eutharic's ancestry has been traced back through his father Veteric, son of Berismund, son of Thorismund, son of Hunimund, son of Achiulf. Eutharic grew up in Iberia where he had a reputation for being "a young man strong in wisdom and health of body". Hermanric was an Ostrogoth chief who ruled much of the north of the Black Sea. Eutharic was descended through five generations from Hermanric, whilst Theoderic was a descendant of Hermanric's older brother Vultwulf. By the 5th century Theoderic was king of the Ostrogoths, ruling from Ravenna in Italy and a close ally of the Roman Emperor Zeno. Having worked throughout his life to strengthen relations with both the church and Rome, Theoderic was keen to establish a dynasty. His marriage to Audofleda however had produced only Amalasuintha. Therefore, to achieve his ambitions Theoderic would have to ensure he chose a son-in-law to his own. His investigations into the royal lines, which were by this time widely distributed across Europe, led him to Iberia. Here he discovered the last heir of a related branch of the Amali, who had recently assumed the regency of Spain. According to Gesta Theoderici Eutharic belonged to the Gothic house of Alan rather than the house of Amal. Those qualities were recognised as requirements of ethnographic ideology, expressed in their code of civilitas.Eutharic – Cassiodorus (Woodcut from the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493).
158. Gabras – The Gabrades are attested for the first time in the late 10th century, when Constantine Gabras participated in the revolt of Bardas Skleros. The general Theodore Gabras ruled the theme of Chaldia as a virtually autonomous state. He was celebrated for his martial exploits, was later venerated as a saint in the region. Constantine Gabras, also ended up ruling it as a quasi-independent prince. A branch of the family also became rulers of the Principality of Theodoro in the Crimea. The family first appears in the northeastern corner of the Byzantine world, the province of Chaldia, centred on Trebizond. The family's ethnic origin is unknown. Persian and Aramaic origins for the name have been suggested, including a suggestion by Konstantinos Amantos that it is a corruption of the name "Gabriel". The known member of Constantine Gabras, participated in the 976 -- 979 revolt of Bardas Skleros, was killed in battle in 979. He too was blinded along with his fellow conspirators. The first important member of the family was Saint Theodore Gabras. A native of Chaldia, he was an energetic and valiant man. He recaptured Trebizond from the Turks in 1075, was appointed governor of Chaldia by Alexios I Komnenos in 1081. He was recognized as a martyr and saint. Theodore tried to kidnap him in 1091, but failed.Gabras – Copper follis minted at Trebizond under Theodore Gabras
159. Geoffrey of Briel – He led a turbulent life, narrated in detail in the Chronicle of the Morea. Henceforth held his title as a gift of the Prince. The Barony of Karytaina was split up. Geoffrey was the son of Hugh of Briel and Alice of Villehardouin, Geoffrey I of Villehardouin. Geoffrey's father inherited the Barony of Karytaina from his brother, Renaud of Briel. Geoffrey was born in Greece, possibly in Karytaina, soon after his father's arrival there. Hugh of Briel was succeeded by the young Geoffrey. The Chronicle credits Geoffrey with the construction of the castle of Karytaina, the "Greek Toledo" as William Miller calls it. Geoffrey was deemed to be the "best knight in the Morea". Geoffrey married Isabella de la Roche, Guy I de la Roche. However, he sided with his father-in-law Guy de la Roche and the other Frankish lords who opposed William's hegemonic ambitions. A parliament was assembled at Nikli to judge the defeated lords. In 1259, Geoffrey participated in the princely army that joined the Achaean–Epirote–Sicilian alliance opposing the Empire of Nicaea. The allied forces, riven by distrust between the Epirote Greeks, were dealt a crushing defeat in the Battle of Pelagonia. Most of his barons, including Geoffrey, were captured in the aftermath of the battle.Geoffrey of Briel – View of Karytaina and its castle
160. George Mouzalon – George Mouzalon was a high official of the Empire of Nicaea under Theodore II Laskaris. Of humble origin, he was raised to high state office upon the latter's assumption of power. This opposed Theodore's policies. Shortly before Theodore's death in 1258, he was appointed regent of Theodore's son John IV Laskaris. George Mouzalon was born on the Anatolian coast in circa 1220. It is assumed that they were also educated along with Theodore, sharing his classes under the scholar Nikephoros Blemmydes. There were also at least two sisters, one of whom was later married to a member of the Hagiotheodorites family. According to the contemporary chroniclers, the emperor loved George "above all others"; in some letters he calls "son" and "brother". During Theodore's reign, George was his most trusted advisor. George Mouzalon supported the opinion that Theodore himself should campaign against the invaders. During Theodore's absence on campaign in 1255, George was left behind as regent of the state. Upon his return, Theodore raised George further, instituting the new title of megas stratopedarches for him. Andronikos Mouzalon succeeded George as megas domestikos. After Mouzalon's murder, Theodora would marry the protovestiarios John Raoul Petraliphas. A staunch opponent of her uncle's religious policies, she was exiled and became a nun.George Mouzalon – Emperor Theodore II Laskaris (r. 1254–1258), George Mouzalon's friend and patron.
161. Germanus (cousin of Justinian I) – Germanus was an East Roman general, one of the leading commanders of Emperor Justinian I. Germanus was Emperor Justinian's cousin, a member of the ruling dynasty. He was slated to command the final Byzantine expedition against the Ostrogoths. According to a statement in Jordanes's Getica, Germanus was a descendant of the noble Roman clan of the Anicii. The exact nature of his connection, however, if indeed it is anything more than a literary device to indicate noble descent, is unclear. Theodor Mommsen hypothesized that his mother could have been a daughter of Anicia Juliana. During the reign of Emperor Justin I, he was raised to high office, eventually being appointed as militum per Thraciae. In this capacity, he scored a crushing victory over an invasion of the Antae. By 536, he was held the post of magister militum praesentalis. His tenure there, described by Procopius, was a thorough success. By paying the arrears, he won over a large part of the mutinous army. Germanus was sent to Antioch in 540 at the outbreak of the Lazic War with Sassanid Persia. Heavily outnumbered by the Persians, he was unable to prevent the catastrophic sack of Antioch in the same year. In the next year, as Belisarius assumed command in the East, Germanus returned to Constantinople. By 548, he was acknowledged as his heir apparent, although this was never formally recognized.Germanus (cousin of Justinian I) – The Emperor Justinian I (r. 527–565).
162. Glarentza – Glarentza is a medieval town located near the site of modern Kyllini in Elis, at the westernmost point of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece. The town began to decline as the Principality itself declined. Under Ottoman rule, it declined rapidly by the 16th century was falling into ruin. Little remains of the town today: traces of the city wall, of a church and a few other buildings, as well as the silted-up harbour. This was a site known since Antiquity as the best anchorage in all of Elis, was likely the site of the ancient city of Cyllene. Glarentza was established as the haven for the Principality's capital, located inland at Andravida, some 13 kilometres away. Along with the fortress of Clermont or Chlemoutsi, some 5 kilometres from Glarentza formed the administrative heart of the Principality of Achaea. It became the main port for traffic between the Morea and Italy. It was a cosmopolitan city, frequented by emissaries from Italy, soldiers and merchants, chiefly Venetians. Trade brought great prosperity, as evidenced by the fact that it used its own system of weights and measures in the 14th century. Glarentza featured a Franciscan monastery. Based on a 1391 list of fiefs, the town counted ca. 300 hearths, making it among the largest in the Principality. Glarentza was surrounded by a set of walls, but scholars have long disputed exactly when this was done. In the Battle of Manolada, fought on 5 July 1316, Ferdinand was killed. The town's decline began in the early 15th century, following the worsening fortunes of the Principality itself.Glarentza – Ruins of the town
163. Gubazes II of Lazica – Gubazes II was king of Lazica from circa 541 until his assassination in 555. He was one of the central personalities of the Lazic War. Gubazes eventually quarrelled with the Byzantine generals over the fruitless continuation of the war, was assassinated by them. Gubazes was through Valeriana. Tzathius' marriage to Valeriana seems to be the earliest recorded marriage between the Lazic and Byzantine elites. It is known that Gubazes had a younger brother, Tzath, who succeeded him on the throne, an unnamed sister. Gubazes was married and had children, but neither the name of his wife nor of any of his offspring is known. The name of Gubazes's father is not known from the ancient annals. Lazica had been a Byzantine state since 522, when Tzath I, had rejected Persian hegemony. However, during the rule of Emperor Justinian I, a series of heavy-handed Byzantine measures made them unpopular. In 540, Khosrau broke the "Eternal Peace" of 532 and invaded the Byzantine province of Mesopotamia. In spring 541, his troops, led by Lazi guides, marched into Lazica where Gubazes submitted to him. The fortress fell soon after. As a first step, the Persian ruler planned to assassinate Gubazes. Forewarned of Khosrau's intentions, Gubazes switched his allegiance back to Byzantium.Gubazes II of Lazica – Toumanoff's tentative reconstruction of the family tree of the kings of Lazica.
164. Harald Hardrada – Harald Sigurdsson, given the epithet Hardrada in the sagas, was King of Norway from 1046 to 1066. In addition, he unsuccessfully claimed the Danish throne until 1064 and the English throne in 1066. When he was fifteen years old, in 1030, Harald fought in the Battle of Stiklestad together with his half-brother Olaf Haraldsson. Olaf sought to reclaim the Norwegian throne, which he had lost to the Danish king Cnut the Great two years prior. In the battle, Olaf and Harald were defeated by forces loyal to Cnut, Harald was forced into exile to Kievan Rus'. Harald amassed considerable wealth during his time in the Byzantine Empire, which he shipped to Yaroslav in Kievan Rus' for safekeeping. He finally left the Byzantines in 1042, arrived back in Kievan Rus' in order to prepare his campaign of reclaiming the Norwegian throne. Possibly to Harald's knowledge, in his absence the Norwegian throne had been restored from the Danes to Olaf's illegitimate son Magnus the Good. In 1046, Harald joined forces with Magnus's rival in Denmark, the pretender Sweyn II of Denmark, started raiding the Danish coast. Magnus, unwilling to fight his uncle, agreed to share the kingship with Harald, since Harald in turn would share his wealth with him. The co-rule ended abruptly the next year as Magnus died, Harald thus became the sole ruler of Norway. Domestically, Harald crushed all local and regional opposition, outlined the territorial unification of Norway under a national governance. Harald's reign was probably one of relative peace and stability, he instituted a viable coin economy and foreign trade. Although the campaigns were successful, he was never able to conquer Denmark. Harald defeated regional forces near York.Harald Hardrada – 13th-century portrayal of Harald Hardrada, from The Life of King Edward the Confessor by the English chronicler Matthew Paris.
165. Heraclius the Elder – Heraclius the Elder was an East Roman general and the father of Byzantine emperor Heraclius. Of Armenian origin, Heraclius the Elder distinguished himself in the war against the Sassanid Persians in the 580s. As a subordinate general, Heraclius possibly served under Comentiolus during the Battle of Sisarbanon. In circa 600, in 608, Heraclius the Elder rebelled with his son against the usurper Phocas. Using North Africa as a base, the younger Heraclius managed to overthrow Phocas, beginning the Heraclian dynasty, which would rule Byzantium for a century. Heraclius the Elder died soon after receiving news of his son's accession to the Byzantine throne. Heraclius the Elder presumably bilingual at an early age. His origin is deduced by a passage of Theophylact Simocatta, which considers a native of Byzantine Armenia. Heraclius the Elder's own city is not specifically mentioned. Michael Whitby suggest that Heraclius the Elder was at the time the magister militum per Armeniam. If so, "his city" was the headquarters of the Roman forces in Armenia. Emperors Anastasius I and Justinian I both built new defenses during their reigns. This has not prevented modern historians from speculating on the matter. Cyril Mango has supported a theory which suggests that he was a descendant of Heraclius of Edessa, a 5th-century Roman general. A passage from Sebeos's History has been understood to suggest an Arsacid origin of Heraclius the Elder.Heraclius the Elder – Gold solidus struck during the revolt of the Heraclii, depicting them both wearing the consular robes
166. John Doukas (megas doux) – John Doukas was a member of the Doukas family, a relative of Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos and a senior military figure of his reign. As governor of Dyrrhachium, he secured the imperial possessions against the Serbs. John was thus the brother-in-law of Alexios I Komnenos, who had married his sister Irene Doukaina. Roussel demanded that the Caesar give up the two as hostages in return for releasing their wounded father, whom he held captive. After his father died in 1077, John was raised by him. Together, they joined Alexios's forces at Schiza, where the latter was officially proclaimed emperor. John remained there until 1092, when he was replaced by John Komnenos, the sebastokrator Isaac. His tenure was apparently very successful. Thus John managed to restore order in the region of Albania and Dalmatia, which had suffered greatly during the Byzantine–Norman wars of the previous years. After being recalled to Constantinople in 1092, John was appointed to the post of i.e. commander-in-chief of the Byzantine navy. As megas doux, John was tasked with countering the naval threat posed by the Turkish emir Tzachas of Smyrna. Formerly a Byzantine vassal, had built a fleet of his own and had seized several Aegean islands, raided others, even had himself proclaimed basileus. After participating in a synod that condemned Leo of Chalcedon, John set forth to take back the island of Mytilene. His troops marched along the Anatolian coast opposite the island whence they crossed over. The fleet, which under Constantine Dalassenos had already recovered Chios, was to meet him there.John Doukas (megas doux) – Miniature of the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118).
167. John Doukas (sebastokrator) – He served under Manuel I Komnenos and his nephew Isaac II Angelos, who raised him to the high rank of sebastokrator. He was the progenitor of the Komnenos Doukas line, which founded the Despotate of Epirus after the Fourth Crusade. The only reference to his age is that in 1185 he was already an old man. Konstantinos Varzos, put his birth date approximately in 1125/27. The rise of his nephew to the throne nevertheless brought John to the foremost ranks of Byzantine aristocracy, receiving the exalted title of sebastokrator. Despite his advanced age, John was active as a commander during the reign of Isaac Angelos. Niketas Choniates notes him attending the emperor during the campaign against the invasion of Sicilian Normans in 1185. In 1186, he assumed the overall command of the Byzantine army against the Vlach-Bulgarian rebellion. In 1191, John once more went to the field, accompanying his nephew as commander of the rear guard. John was able to extricate himself and the troops under his command without losses. In the same year, he was a participant in the synod that accepted the resignation of the Patriarch of Constantinople. He is recorded as the senior-most of the imperial relatives. John Doukas probably died soon after that, ca. 1200, at a very advanced age for his time. It is unclear whether John Doukas married twice.John Doukas (sebastokrator) – Killing of Hagiochristophorites, miniature by Jean Colombe in Les Passages d'outremer (fr) (c. 1473), BNF.
168. John Komnenos (Domestic of the Schools) – John Komnenos was a Byzantine aristocrat and military leader. The younger brother of Emperor Isaac I Komnenos, he served during Isaac's brief reign. When Isaac I abdicated, Constantine X Doukas became emperor and John withdrew until his death in 1067. He died as a monk on 12 July 1067. John Komnenos married the daughter of Alexios Charon, most likely in 1044. Anna, born ca. 1028, long outlived her husband and after his death ran the family as its undisputed matriarch. Anna became involved in conspiracies against the Doukas family, whom she never forgave for taking the throne in 1059. Later she also played a major role to the throne. For about fifteen years, she served as the virtual co-ruler of the empire along her son. She then retired to a monastery, where she died in 1102. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6. Kouroupou, Matoula; Vannier, Jean-François.John Komnenos (Domestic of the Schools) – Lead seal of John Komnenos as kouropalates and Domestic of the Schools
169. John Komnenos Asen – Perhaps in search of better opportunities, he emigrated to Serbia, where his sister was married. There, he was granted the title of despot by Stephen Dušan, who placed him in modern south Albania. As the despot of Valona, he became a citizen of the former in 1353. After the death of Dušan in 1355, he took the side of the unsuccessful Simeon Uroš in the ensuing conflict for the Serbian throne. With Venetian assistance, John maintained the essentially independent status of the Principality of Valona. He was succeeded by Alexander Komnenos Asen, likely his son from his unknown first wife. John's second marriage was to the Epirote queen-consort Anna Palaiologina. While the date of John Komnenos Asen is unknown, his origin is clearly documented in the sources. On both sides, he descended from the highest ranks of Bulgarian nobility. He was born to Keratsa Petritsa, Sratsimir, the despot of Kran. John's mother was a descendant of the Asen dynasty as a grand granddaughter of Tsar Ivan Asen II. His siblings were Helena, who married Serbian ruler Stephen Dušan in 1332. Even though John was commonly referred to as a Komnenos in the sources, his relations to that Byzantine family are rather scarce. He had rights to that name either through his mother's descent from the Asens, themselves related to the Komnenoi, or through his marriage to Anna Palaiologina. Bulgarian historian Ivan Bozhilov is of the opinion that John was not seeking political refuge in Serbia.John Komnenos Asen – Berat Castle (13th century) was under the rule of John Komnenos Asen in the mid-14th century
170. John Komnenos the Fat – With most of the urban mob dispersed for the night, the Varangians had little difficulty in suppressing the coup. John Komnenos with many of his followers were executed. John was the son of the distinguished protostrator Alexios Axouch. The Axouchoi were a prominent family of Turkish origin, closely provided a number of distinguished generals. The two families also intermarried: John's Maria was the daughter of Alexios Komnenos, eldest son and co-emperor of Emperor John II Komnenos. John was thus able to claim a pedigree comparable, if not superior, to the reigning Angeloi, albeit from the maternal side. However, the revolt was also fuelled by a general feeling of discontent and humiliation in terms of foreign policy. Then the conspirators marched towards the Great Palace. John's supporters indeed entered the palace through the Kareia Gate. Having gained control of the western portions of the palace, John sat on the imperial throne, which broke under his great weight. He took no further actions to consolidate his position, other than appoint his chief followers to the Empire's highest posts. At the same time, his supporters, who along with the urban mob included a sizeable group of Italian mercenaries, began to loot the buildings. His men managed to drive the looters back, until he was wounded in the skirmish and withdrew to the Pharos Church. In the meantime, Alexios III, who resided in the Blachernae Palace in the city's corner, rallied for a counter-strike. A small force was dispatched to the Hodegetria Monastery north of the Great Palace.John Komnenos the Fat – Alexios Doukas Mourtzouphlos, the probable mastermind behind John Komnenos' coup
171. John of Brienne – John of Brienne, also known as John I, was King of Jerusalem from 1210 to 1225 and Latin Emperor of Constantinople from 1229 to 1237. He was the youngest son of Erard II of a wealthy nobleman in Champagne. John, originally destined for an ecclesiastical career, owned small estates in Champagne around 1200. After the death of Walter III, he ruled the County of Brienne on behalf of his minor nephew Walter IV. The barons of the Kingdom of Jerusalem proposed that John marry Maria, Queen of Jerusalem. John was a leader of the Fifth Crusade. He claimed the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia in 1220. After their infant son died that year, John returned to Egypt. The Fifth Crusade ended in 1221. John was the first king of Jerusalem to visit Europe to seek assistance for the Holy Land. Frederick ended John's rule of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Although the popes tried to persuade Frederick to restore the kingdom to John, the Jerusalemite barons regarded Frederick as their lawful ruler. He was crowned in Constantinople in 1231. John died as a Franciscan friar. John was the youngest of the four sons of Erard II, Agnes of Montfaucon.John of Brienne – The coronation of John of Brienne as King of Jerusalem, with Maria of Montferrat, from a late 13th century MS of the Histoire d'Outremer, painted in Acre. (Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana, Florence).
172. John Palaiologos (brother of Michael VIII) – John Doukas Palaiologos was a Byzantine aristocrat, brother to Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos, who served as the commander-in-chief of the Byzantine army. He retired from active service after his defeat at Neopatras, died shortly after. John was their second son, after the future emperor Michael Palaiologos, the fourth child overall. After Mouzalon's murder, Michael placed the young emperor under the protection of their Constantine. Michael then ordered John to attack the ruler of the rival Greek state of Epirus. The Nicaean army advanced quickly that they forced it to flee in disorder. John then proceeded to retake the fortresses of Deabolis and Ochrid, only recently captured by the Epirotes. The plain of Pelagonia, around Lake Prespa, was subjugated. Further forces were provided by ruler of Thessaly. In addition, the allied army was divided by the hatred between Epirote Greeks and the Latins. A quarrel with William II led to the withdrawal of the Epirote army and the temporary defection of John Doukas to the Nicaean camp. He then continued on into Boeotia, the territory of the Duchy of Athens, where he took and plundered Levadeia and Thebes. At this point, however, John Doukas defected back to his father, upsetting the balance of power and John himself was soon after recalled to Lampsacus. Thus, his conquest of Greece remained incomplete and was soon reversed by the recovery of Epirus' fortunes. Then, or sometime after, he was also given the islands of Rhodes and Lesbos as personal domains.John Palaiologos (brother of Michael VIII) – Michael VIII Palaiologos (r. 1259–1282).
173. Justin (consul 540) – Flavius Mar Petrus Theodorus Valentinus Rusticius Boraides Germanus Iustinus, simply and commonly known as Justin, was an East Roman aristocrat and general. He supervised the Byzantine Empire's first contacts with the Avars. Justin was born around 525, his wife Passara. At this point, he already held the honorary office of comes domesticorum. In the same year, he saw no action. In 549, he was instrumental in the revelation of the plot to overthrow Emperor Justinian by his associates. The conspirators intended to raise Germanus to the Byzantine throne. Notified of their intentions, Justin informed his father, who then told the Count of the Excubitors, leading to the plotters' arrest. After this, John, led the army towards Salona, where the eunuch Narses assumed command in late 551. In early 551, Justin was attached under the eunuch Scholasticus that campaigned against a Slavic raid in the eastern Balkans. The Byzantines went on to score a victory, after which the Slavs left Byzantine lands. Instead, the brothers had to content themselves with harassing them. In 554, now experienced in military affairs, Justin was sent east to Lazica to join the Byzantine forces under Bessas, Buzes, Martin. His first encounter with the Persians was unsuccessful. Along with Bessas, his troops were encamped at the plain of Chytropolia, near the strategically important fortress of Telephis, held by Martin.Justin (consul 540) – The ivory consular diptych of Justin, Bode Museum.
174. Law School of Beirut – The law school of Beirut was a center for the study of Roman law in classical antiquity located in Beirut. It functioned as the Roman Empire's preeminent center of jurisprudence until its destruction in A.D. 551. The archiving of imperial constitutions facilitated the task of jurists in referring to legal precedents. The origins of the school of Beirut are obscure. The earliest written mention of the school dates to 239, when its reputation had already been established. Its professors made major contributions to the Codex of Justinian. The school achieved wide recognition throughout the Empire that Beirut was known as the "Mother of Laws". Beirut was one of the few schools allowed to continue jurisprudence when Byzantine emperor Justinian I shut down other provincial law schools. The school's facilities were destroyed in the aftermath of a massive earthquake that hit the Phoenician coastline. It did not survive the Arab conquest of 635. As the guarantor of justice, the Roman emperor was expected to devote substantial amounts of time to judicial matters. He was the chief magistrate whose major prerogative was the ordering of all public affairs, for which he could demand assistance at any time. From the reign of Augustus, juristic scholarship became an imperially sponsored function of administration. Every judicial decision was founded on archived legal precedents and earlier deliberations. It was chosen as a regional center instead of the more prominent Phoenician cities of Tyre and Sidon, which had a history of belligerence against Rome.Law School of Beirut – The school's exact location is uncertain, but it is thought to have lain just north of Nejmeh Square (pictured), next to the Saint George Greek Orthodox Cathedral.
175. Licario – Licario, called Ikarios by the Greek chroniclers, was a Byzantine admiral of Italian origin in the 13th century. Licario was born in Karystos from a Vicentian father and a local woman. He was of humble origin, but ambitious. The match was met by Felisa's family. The marriage was cancelled by her relatives. Fleeing from their wrath, Licario sought refuge near Cavo D'Oro. He repaired the strong fortress, belonging to the island's nobles. Along with the Principality of Achaea it presented the major obstacle to his complete recovery of Greece. Already in 1269/1270, a Byzantine fleet under Alexios Doukas Philanthropenos had captured one of the island's major Latin strongholds, the town of Oreos. In turn was strengthened with imperial troops. The Byzantine forces, under Licario's command, now launched a campaign that took the fortresses of Larmena, La Cuppa, Manducho. The Lombard triarchs then appealed to Dreux de Beaumont, marshal of the Angevin Kingdom of Sicily. De Beaumont was defeated in a pitched battle and was subsequently recalled by Charles of Anjou. Following their great victory over the Lombard triarchs of Negroponte at the Battle of Demetrias, the Byzantines renewed their offensive in Euboea. Licario took it, after a long siege, in the same year.Licario – Map of the Byzantine Empire and the Latin East in ca. 1265.
176. Manuel the Armenian – Manuel the Armenian was a prominent Byzantine general of Armenian origin, active from circa 810 until his death. After reaching the highest military ranks, a conspiracy forced him to seek refuge in the Abbasid court in 829. He returned to Byzantine service the next year, receiving the position of Domestic of the Schools from Emperor Theophilos, who had married his niece Theodora. Manuel reportedly saved the emperor's life in the Battle of Anzen in 838. Manuel was of the brother of Marinos, the father of the future Byzantine empress Theodora. Manuel first appears in the reign of Michael I Rangabe, when he held the post of protostrator. At the time, he must still have been young, probably in his twenties. Leo himself had held the office prior to his accession. According to historians John B. This appointment is, however, most likely a misreading of the primary source, according to the editors of the Prosopographie der Zeit. Michael II the Amorian, is unclear, as he is not mentioned in the sources during this period. It was probably the latter who raised him to the rank of magistros. In the summer of 830, Manuel participated in an Abbasid expedition alongside a contingent of Byzantine captives. After winning a modest successes, the army turned back south. Once across the mountains, the other Byzantine captives neutralized ` Abbas and his escort, took their arms and escaped.Manuel the Armenian – The embassy of John the Grammarian in 829 to Ma'mun (depicted left) from Theophilos (depicted right), as depicted in the Madrid Skylitzes.
177. Marianos Argyros – Marianos Argyros was a Byzantine aristocrat and member of the Argyros family. A monk, in 944 he was allowed to leave the monastery and enter imperial service. He held a succession of military commands, fighting in southern Italy against local rebels and the Fatimids, in the Balkans against the Magyars. During the ensuing clashes, he died on the next day, 16 August 963. Marianos was the eldest son of the general Leo Argyros, active in the first decades of the 10th century. He had Romanos Argyros, who in 921 married Agathe, a daughter of Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos. The Argyroi therefore were counted among the firmest supporters of the Lekapenos regime. Romanos Lekapenos had risen as regent over the young Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos, whom he married to his daughter Helena. By December 920, his position had become so unassailable that he was crowned senior emperor. However, in 943, the elderly Romanos drafted a will which would leave Constantine VII as the senior emperor following his death. It is in this context that Marianos Argyros is first mentioned in December 944. At the time, he was a confidant of Stephen Lekapenos. However, with the support of the populace, Constantine VII managed to sideline the Lekapenoi, who joined their father in exile. It appears that Marianos had changed sides in time, for he participated in the arrest of the Lekapenoi. His abandonment of the monastic habit earned the nickname "Apambas" or "Apabbas", whose etymology is unclear.Marianos Argyros – Gold solidus of Romanos I with Constantine VII
178. Martino Zaccaria – He was imprisoned in Constantinople until 1337. Martino then returned to Italy, where he was named the Genoese ambassador to the Holy See. He was killed, along with other of the crusade's leaders, in a Turkish attack on 17 January 1345. Martino Zaccaria was a scion of the Genoese Zaccaria family. Through Nicolino Zaccaria, he was a nephew to Benedetto I Zaccaria, lord of Chios and of Phocaea on the Anatolian coast. Benedetto I had captured Chios from the Byzantine Empire in 1304, citing the island's vulnerability to Turkish raids. Benedetto was succeeded in Chios by his son, Paleologo Zaccaria. When he died childless in 1314, the island passed to his brother, Benedetto II. Chios was a wealthy domain, with an annual income of 120,000 gold hyperpyra. The Zaccaria are reported to have maintained a thousand infantry, a couple of galleys on constant alert. In 1319, however, Martino Zaccaria participated with seven ships in a Hospitaller fleet that scored a crushing victory from Ephesus. Martino's prestige rose further when he also became one of the most important feudatories in the Principality of Achaea. In exchange, Martino promised expedition to recover Constantinople from the Byzantines. In 1328, Andronikos III Palaiologos, to the Byzantine throne, marked a turning-point in relations. Andronikos III readily agreed.Martino Zaccaria – Silver grosso minted by Martino Zaccaria
179. Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik – He was half-brother of the caliphs al-Walid I, Sulayman, Hisham. Maslama himself was excluded from the line of succession as his mother was a slave. Maslama is first mentioned along with the annual summer campaign against the Byzantine Empire in 705. In the same year, Maslama was appointed military governor of Armenia and Azerbaijan, succeeding his uncle Muhammad ibn Marwan. This he added to the post of governor of Jund Qinnasrin in northern Syria, which he already held. Together, command of these provinces effectively gave complete control of the Caliphate's entire border. From this position Maslama launched several campaigns against the Byzantines, taking Melitene in 714. He was also the first to establish the Caliphate's presence north of the Caucasus, leading to the commencement of direct conflict with the Khazars. In 710 and again in 714, he marched his army up to Bab al-Abwab, which he took and destroyed during the latter expedition. Maslama led a huge army, which sources report to have numbered 120,000 men and 1,800 ships. In late 715, the Arab vanguard crossed the Taurus Mountains following in spring 716 with the fleet. As a result, Maslama marched further west, to the coastlands of the Thracesian Theme. There he spent the winter, while Leo marched onto Constantinople, which he entered in March 717. In early summer 717, Maslama with his army proceeded to besiege Constantinople from sea. Umar II, ordered Maslama to retreat.Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik – The Arab attack on Constantinople, from the Manasses Chronicle
180. Michael I Komnenos Doukas – 1215. Born ca. 1170, Michael was a descendant of Alexios I Komnenos and a cousin of emperors Isaac II Angelos and Alexios III Angelos. 1200/1. During the latter tenure he was forced to flee to the Seljuk Turks. In the aftermath of the sack of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204, he attached himself to Boniface of Montferrat. Michael's domain in Epirus became a refuge and centre of resistance of the Greeks against the Latin Crusaders. In the meantime, his rule received a boost in legitimacy when he ransomed the deposed Alexios III from captivity. According to later chroniclers, Alexios III conferred the hereditary rule of Epirus to Michael and his descendants. By 1210, Michael was secure enough to launch an attack against the Latin Kingdom of Thessalonica, in conjunction with the Bulgarians. In 1212, he conquered most of Thessaly from the Lombard lords of Thessalonica. At about the same time, his troops briefly took over the Lordship of Salona. He was assassinated soon after in his sleep, was succeeded by his half-brother Theodore Komnenos Doukas. Michael was the illegitimate son of the sebastokrator John Doukas. His paternal grandparents were Constantine Angelos and Theodora, a daughter of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos.Michael I Komnenos Doukas – Early 14th-century miniature depicting the Crusader attack on Constantinople
181. Michael Bourtzes – Michael Bourtzes was a leading Byzantine general of the latter 10th century. He fell into disgrace by the Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas. Resentful at the slight, Bourtzes joined forces with the conspirators who assassinated Phokas a few weeks later. The name has been proposed as deriving either from the placename Bourtzo or Soterioupolis near Trebizond. The date of Michael Bourtzes's birth must be placed sometime between 930 and 935. Angered by this treatment, Bourtzes joined a conspiracy involving a number of prominent generals who were discontent at Nikephoros, chief amongst them John Tzimiskes. Despite his prominent role in the assassination of Nikephoros II, the historical sources barely mention Bourtzes for the duration of Tzimiskes's reign. At the point of Tzimiskes's death, imperial power reverted to the young brothers Basil II and Constantine VIII. In view of their inexperience, however, government essentially continued to be exercised by the powerful parakoimomenos, Basil Lekapenos. Immediately after his appointment, Bourtzes set out in a deep raid into Fatimid-controlled Syria, reaching Tripolis and returning with much booty. In spring, however, Bardas Skleros, now appointed doux of Mesopotamia, proclaimed himself emperor at his base in Melitene. Leaving his son in control of Antioch, Bourtzes marched north. After this, Bourtzes rejoined the imperial army, now led by Bardas Phokas. Nothing is known of Bourtzes's career for the next twelve years. In November 989, Bourtzes took the city from Leo Phokas, the son of Bardas, who himself had submitted to the emperor only months earlier.Michael Bourtzes – Emperor Basil II (r. 976–1025) with his younger brother and co-emperor, Constantine VIII.
182. Michael Dokeianos – Michael Dokeianos, erroneously called Doukeianos by some modern writers, was a Byzantine nobleman and military leader, who married into the Komnenos family. Dokeianos was active in Sicily before going to Southern Italy as Catepan of Italy in 1040 -- 41. Dokeianos was recalled after being twice defeated during the Lombard-Norman revolt of 1041 a decisive moment in the eventual Norman conquest of southern Italy. Dokeianos is next recorded in 1050, fighting in Thrace. Dokeianos was managed to maim the Pecheneg leader, after which he was put to death and mutilated. The name of Dokeianos is considered to derive from Dokia in the Armeniac Theme. The family only came into prominence with Michael one of the first to be mentioned. 1030. Together, they had Theodore Dokeianos. It possessed estates in Paphlagonia, possibly adjacent or part of the Komnenos family estates in the same region. Prior to that, Dokeianos was apparently a member of George Maniakes' expeditionary force sent to conquer Sicily in 1038. He also offered the rule of strategic fortress of Melfi with the title of topoteretes. Arduin's grudge against the Byzantines now bore fruit. Thus in March 1041 his men seized Melfi. The inhabitants initially eventually were won over by Arduin.Michael Dokeianos – Southern Italy ca. 1000, with the Byzantine provinces in yellow
183. Michael Lachanodrakon – Michael Lachanodrakon was a distinguished Byzantine general and fanatical supporter of Byzantine Iconoclasm under Emperor Constantine V. He also led a series of campaigns against the Arabs of the Abbasid Caliphate before being dismissed from office in about 782. Restored to imperial favour in 790, he fell at the Battle of Marcellae in 792. Nothing is known of Lachanodrakon's origins and early life. Their profoundly iconophile perspective means that reports of his actions, especially those relating to the suppression of worship, are potentially untrustworthy. Iconophile resistance grew, until from 765 on, Constantine began persecuting iconophiles, especially monks. Other officials were deposed, jailed, publicly humiliated, finally executed, replaced by new, uncompromisingly iconoclast officials. In addition, the veneration of sacred prayers to the saints and the Virgin Mary were condemned. According to the iconophile Life of St Stephen the Younger hagiography, Lachanodrakon had already distinguished himself by his iconoclast fervour. After burning down the monastery, he took the 38 captives to Ephesus, where they were executed. He soon began a harsh repression of the iconophiles. Although many resisted and "became martyrs" in Theophanes's words, many complied. Later reports of exiled monks in Cyprus becoming Arab captives seem to partly corroborate this story. Lachanodrakon allegedly had relics, holy scriptures, monks' beards set on fire, finally prohibited the tonsure. Although highly embellished, these reports probably reflect actual events.Michael Lachanodrakon – Gold coin of Emperor Leo III the Isaurian (r. 717–741), depicted with his son and successor, Constantine V. Leo first promoted iconoclasm, which became official policy under Constantine.
184. Momchil – Momchil was a 14th-century Bulgarian brigand and local ruler. Initially a member of a bandit gang in the borderlands of Bulgaria, Byzantium and Serbia, Momchil was recruited as a mercenary. Despite this, he was killed by a joint Byzantine -- Turkish army in 1345. Due to his opposition to the Turks, he is remembered as a fighter against the Turkish invasion of the Balkans. In any case, Momchil was born of humble origin. Persecuted by the Bulgarian authorities, some time before 1341 Momchil fled to Byzantium. He was tasked with the protection of the territories he previously plundered. However, his brigand activities did not cease. Momchil regularly raided Bulgarian lands, which negatively impacted Byzantine–Bulgarian relations. Undesired by "detestable to the Bulgarians", he deserted the Byzantine army and fled to Serbia to serve its ruler Stephen Dušan. In Serbia, he formed a company of both Bulgarians and Serbs. As the governor of Merope, Momchil gathered from different nationalities. At the time, Momchil was persuaded to turn against him. Afterwards, Momchil along with 1,000 horsemen attacked Kantakouzenos, who had set camp with only 60 horsemen to protect him. The Byzantines were thoroughly routed: he received a powerful hit to the head, which he survived thanks to his helmet.Momchil – Pirot Fortress from 3rd century, renovated in the 14th century by Momchil
185. Muslim conquest of Sicily – The Muslim conquest of Sicily began in June 827 and lasted until 902, when the last major Byzantine stronghold on the island, Taormina, fell. The opportunity for the Aghlabid emirs of Ifriqiya came in 827, when the commander of Euphemius, rose in revolt. Driven from the island, Euphemius sought the aid of the Aghlabids. Following the Arab landing on the island, Euphemius was quickly sidelined. In 831 they took Palermo, which became the capital of the new Muslim province. The strong fortress of Enna in the centre of the island was the Byzantine bulwark against Muslim expansion, until its capture in 859. Following its fall, the Muslims increased their pressure after a long siege captured Syracuse in 878. Taormina, in 902, is held to mark the completion of the Muslim conquest of Sicily. Under Muslim rule, Sicily eventually detached itself from Ifriqiya to form a semi-independent emirate. Throughout the imperial Roman period, Sicily was a prosperous backwater. Only in the 5th century did it suffer from raids by the Vandals operating from the coasts of North Africa. Calm returned thereafter. It was only the increasing threat of the Muslim expansion that thrust it into the limelight. Constituted as a theme around 690, its governing strategos also came to assume control over the imperial possessions in the southern Italian mainland. In 805, Ibrahim concluded a ten-year truce with the Byzantine governor of Sicily, renewed by Ibrahim's successor Abdallah I in 813.Muslim conquest of Sicily – Europe and the Mediterranean on the eve of the Muslim invasion of Sicily
186. Nikephoros (Caesar) – Nikephoros, also Latinized as Nicephorus or Nicephoros, was the second son of Byzantine emperor Constantine V and Caesar of the Byzantine Empire. He was exiled to a monastery for most of his life, probably dying in the island of Aphousia sometime after 812. Nikephoros was born to Emperor Constantine V and his third wife Eudokia. Either Christopher or Nikephoros were possibly twin brothers to Constantine's only daughter, Anthousa. Nikephoros had two other younger brothers, Anthimos and Eudokimos, who were also named Nobilissimi at later dates. When Constantine V died in 775, Leo IV ascended the Byzantine throne. Then, in spring 776, a conspiracy involving a number of middle-ranking courtiers was discovered. Nikephoros himself was stripped of his rank, but not harmed, while the other plotters were tonsured as monks and exiled to Cherson in the Crimea. When Leo IV died in October 780, his sole heir was his son by the Empress Irene of Athens. This was not well received among leading officials. The officials loyal to Constantine V's memory. A half after Leo's death, the plot was discovered. Nikephoros and his younger brothers were ordained as priests, removing them from the line of succession. To confirm this on Christmas Day 780, Nikephoros and his brothers were forced to perform the communion service in the Hagia Sophia. They were then imprisoned at a monastery in Therapia.Nikephoros (Caesar) – Gold solidus of Leo IV (r. 775–780), depicting Constantine VI (r. 780–797), as well as their ancestors Leo III the Isaurian (r. 717–741) and Constantine V (r. 741–775).
187. Nikephoros Phokas Barytrachelos – Nikephoros Phokas, surnamed Barytrachelos, was a Byzantine aristocrat and magnate, the last major member of the Phokas family to try and claim the imperial throne. After the death of his father, he received Basil's pardon. Nothing further is known until 1022 when, along with the general Nikephoros Xiphias, he launched another rebellion. Mistrust between the two leaders led to Phokas' assassination by Xiphias on 15 August 1022. The rebellion collapsed quickly after that. Nikephoros Phokas Barytrachelos had one older brother, Leo. Tzimiskes dispatched his lieutenant Bardas Skleros against Bardas Phokas. Skleros was able to lure away many of Phokas' supporters, until he was forced to surrender. In 987, however, Bardas Skleros was tried to raise another revolt. Bardas Phokas' demise led to the immediate collapse of the rebellion: Nikephoros' troops dispersed to their homes. Nikephoros fled to the fortress of Tyropoion, where the imprisoned Bardas Skleros was held. Like Bardas Skleros, Nikephoros was allowed to retain his privileges. The city's inhabitants surrendered him to Basil. Indeed, the conspirators are said to have been with George I for that purpose. Armenian sources however report, dubiously, that Phokas was killed by the former king of Vaspurakan, Senekerim-Hovhannes, or his son David, or one of their followers.Nikephoros Phokas Barytrachelos – Clash between the armies of Skleros and Phokas, miniature from the Madrid Skylitzes
188. Nikephoros Phokas the Elder – In ca. 886 he led a major expedition in southern Italy, where his victories laid the foundation in the peninsula. He died either in 895/6 or, less likely, sometime 900. 900. Later historians lauded him for his military ability and character. Both of his sons later succeeded him as Domestics of the Schools. His grandsons Nikephoros and Leo were likewise distinguished generals, while the former became emperor in 963 -- 969, spearheading the recovery of lost provinces from the Arabs. Nikephoros was the son of the founder of the Phokas family, a man called a native of Cappadocia. Still in his youth, was taken into the imperial retinue, was soon appointed to the guard corps of the manglabitai. He possibly participated against Samosata. This took place according to traditional dating. Nikephoros' command in Italy lasted in late 886. 887. Otranto was taken from Bari in 876. According to Skylitzes, the grateful Italians dedicated a church in his honour. By the time of his departure, he had extended Byzantine control over most of Apulia and Calabria.Nikephoros Phokas the Elder – Byzantine troops under Nikephoros Phokas capture the town of Amantia in Italy. Miniature from the Madrid Skylitzes
189. Nikephoros Xiphias – Nikephoros Xiphias was a Byzantine military commander during the reign of Emperor Basil II. He was instrumental in the decisive Byzantine victory at the Battle of Kleidion in 1014. In 1022 he was disgraced, tonsured and exiled. He is last mentioned in 1028, when he was retired to a monastery. Nikephoros appears for the first time in Emperor Basil II's Bulgarian wars, depending on the source. At the time he was a protospatharios, along with the patrikios Theodorokanos, he commanded a campaign deep into Bulgarian lands. Setting out from Mosynopolis, the two generals captured the old Bulgarian capitals of Pliska and Great Preslav, along with Little Preslav. They then plundered the Dobruja, returned to their base. Xiphias, still strategos of Philippopolis, suggested to the Emperor to strike them from the rear. In early 1015, Xiphias, along with Constantine Diogenes, subdued the region of Moglena, which had rebelled against imperial rule. Towards the end of the same year he campaigned to the region of Triaditza razing its environs and capturing the fort of Boyana. Finally, in the last year of the Bulgarian war, in 1018, starting from Kastoria he subdued the remaining Bulgarian strongholds in the region of Servia. Xiphias allied himself with the magnate Nikephoros Phokas Barytrachelos, whose father had risen in revolt in the early years of Basil II's reign. The conspiracy was apparently also supported by King George I of Georgia, who thus hoped to force Basil to abandon his invasion. Basil's ploy bore fruit very soon, on 15 August 1022, Xiphias assassinated Phokas.Nikephoros Xiphias – Map of the Byzantine–Bulgarian wars in the time of Emperor Basil II and Tsar Samuel of Bulgaria
190. Orphanotrophos – Orphanotrophos was a Byzantine title for the curator of an orphanage. In the spirit of Christian philanthropy, the Byzantine world showed particular care including widows, orphans, the sick or the elderly. Orphans were either sheltered in monasteries or in orphanages, the latter often run by monasteries. According to a novel by Emperor Leo I the Thracian in 469, Zotikos was the first to bear the title of orphanotrophos. Justin made its possessions inalienable. It was then that the capital's orphanotrophos began to be appointed by the emperors. Several holders of the office, however, combined it with other administrative offices. Alexios founded a school where the orphans could receive a free tuition. John II Komnenos, enlarged it further. It is likely that like most Byzantine public buildings it fell into disrepair. Despite the dissolution of the imperial orphanage, the office of the orphanotrophos survived in its fiscal capacity. A number of seals of otherwise unidentified holders of the office have also survived. One records a Datos, "vestarches", while the others can not be certainly dated. Bury, John Bagnell. The Imperial Administrative System of the Ninth Century - With a Revised Text of the Kletorologion of Philotheos.Orphanotrophos – Twenty- nummi coin showing Justin II and Sophia enthroned
191. Peter the Patrician – Peter the Patrician was a senior East Roman or Byzantine official, diplomat, historian. A successful lawyer, he was repeatedly sent as envoy to Ostrogothic Italy in the prelude to the Gothic War of 535 -- 554. Despite his diplomatic skill, he was imprisoned by the Goths in Ravenna for a few years. Upon his release, he was appointed to the post of head of the imperial secretariat, which he held for an unparalleled 26 years. His historical writings provide unique source material on early Byzantine ceremonies and diplomatic issues between Byzantium and the Sassanids. After studying law, he embarked as a lawyer in Constantinople, which brought him to the attention of Empress Theodora. On account of his rhetorical skills, he was employed as an imperial envoy to the Ostrogothic court at Ravenna. At the time, a struggle was developing there between Queen Amalasuntha, regent to the young king Athalaric, her cousin Theodahad. Following the death of Athalaric, Theodahad sent messages to Emperor Justinian hoping for recognition. Peter notified Constantinople, seeking new instructions. Emperor Justinian ordered him not to be harmed. A Byzantine offensive followed soon thereafter, attacking the outlying possessions of the Ostrogothic kingdom: Belisarius took Sicily, while Mundus invaded Dalmatia. In the event, Justinian was delighted to learn of the second one. It was not to be: in Ravenna, the Byzantine envoys found Theodahad in a changed disposition. Buoyed up by a success against Mundus in Dalmatia, he resolved to resist, imprisoned the ambassadors.Peter the Patrician – Emperor Justinian I (r. 527–565) and his entourage, mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna.
192. Protostrator – Prōtostratōr was a Byzantine court office, originating as the imperial stable master. From the mid-11th century, the post rose in importance, becoming more an honorific dignity for senior members of the court, than an actual office. From the 13th century on, the post ranked eighth in the overall hierarchy of the court. Throughout its history, it was a title often borne by military commanders. The female form given to the wives of the prōtostratores, was prōtostratorissa. A domestikos stratorōn appears under Justinian II and a prōtostratōr of the Opsikion named Rouphos in 712. The spatharios Constantine is also the first known holder of the post of "imperial prōtostratōr". In the Klētorologion of 899 he ranked 48th among the sixty most senior palace officials. Holders of the post could aspire to some such as anthypatos patrikios or prōtospatharios. The imperial prōtostratōr had a prominent place in imperial ceremonies, riding during the hunt. During campaigns, the Count of the Stable stood by near the imperial tent, along with three stratores with harnessed horses. On certain occasions, he even had the task of introducing foreign envoys at imperial audiences. The office continued to exist until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. Only his staff of office differed, with only the topmost carved the rest in silver. The knobs in the staff remained gold, bordered with silver braid.Protostrator – Basil I the Macedonian, founder of the Macedonian dynasty, held the post of prōtostratōr during his rise to the throne
193. Sack of Damietta (853) – The Sack of Damietta in 853 was a major success for the Byzantine Empire. On 22 the Byzantine navy attacked the port city of Damietta on the Nile Delta, whose garrison was absent at the time. The city was plundered, yielding not only many captives but also large quantities of weapons and supplies intended for the Emirate of Crete. These losses ushered an era where Saracen pirates raided the northern shores of the Mediterranean almost at will. Several Byzantine attempts to retake Crete in the immediate aftermath of the Andalusian conquest, well as a large-scale invasion in 842/843, failed with heavy losses. Various identifications have been without any firm evidence. Henri Grégoire originally suggested Sergios Niketiates, who however probably died in 843, later with the parakoimomenos Damian. Further suggestions include the strategos Photeinos. The Byzantine fleet arrived before the city on 22 May 853. At the time, the garrison was absent, attending a feast organized in Fustat. Damietta's inhabitants fled the undefended city, then torched by the Byzantines. The Byzantines carried off Arab and Coptic women, as well as large quantities of arms and other supplies intended for Crete. They then attacked the strong fortress of Ushtun. After taking it, they burned the many siege engines they found there and returned home. Consequently, the raid is known only by al-Tabari and Ya ` qubi.Sack of Damietta (853) – Map of the Arab–Byzantine naval conflict in the Mediterranean, 7th–11th centuries
194. Sa'd al-Dawla – In turn, Sa'd came to rely increasingly on Byzantine assistance, although he continued to fluctuate in his allegiance between Byzantium, the Fatimids. Sa'd al-Dawla was the son of Sayf al-Dawla, Sakhinah, the sister of Sayf al-Dawla's cousin and court poet, Abu Firas. In February 967, he was only fifteen, resided at the emirate's Jaziran capital, Mayyafariqin. Sa'd al-Dawla reached Aleppo, which for years had been governed in June/July 967. Sa'd al-Dawla, on the advice of Qarquya, left the city. Qarquya and his fellow ghilman seized the moment to claim the city for themselves. Finally, he found refuge at Homs. Immediately after Sayf al-Dawla's death, he by 971 extended his control over the provinces of Diyar Bakr and Diyar Mudar. Sa'd al-Dawla, unable to offer any resistance, tacitly accepted these losses well as his cousin's suzerainty. The year 969 was a crucial one in Syrian history, as it marked the climax of the Byzantine advance. In October, Peter captured Antioch, securing their control over the north Syrian littoral. In Egypt, the Fatimids defeated the Ikhshidids and gained control of the country, from where they advanced into southern Syria. Byzantium and the Fatimids, would shape the history of Syria and of Aleppo for the next fifty years. Aided by some of his father's ghilman, crucially, the powerful Banu Kilab living around Aleppo, Sa'd al-Dawla besieged Aleppo and captured it. At the same time, he also received from the Abbasid Caliph—, a puppet of the Buyids—the honorific laqab by which he is known.Sa'd al-Dawla – Family tree of the Hamdanid dynasty
195. Sayf al-Dawla – After that, the new Byzantine commander, Nikephoros Phokas, his lieutenants spearheaded an offensive that broke Hamdanid power. The Byzantines annexed Cilicia, even occupied Aleppo itself briefly in 962. The Hamdanids were a branch of the Banu Taghlib, an Arab tribe resident in the area of the Jazira since pre-Islamic times. The Taghlibs had traditionally controlled Mosul and its region until the late 9th century, when the Abbasid government tried to impose firmer control over the province. Hamdan ibn Hamdun was one of the most determined Taghlibi leaders in opposing this move. Family members intermarried with Kurds, who were also prominent in the Hamdanid military. Hamdan was defeated in 895 and imprisoned with his relatives, but his son Husayn ibn Hamdan managed to secure the family's future. Husayn was a successful general, distinguishing himself against the Kharijites and the Tulunids, but was disgraced after supporting the failed usurpation of Ibn al-Mu'tazz in 908. His younger brother Ibrahim was governor of Diyar Rabi'a in 919 and after his death in the next year he was succeeded by another brother, Dawud. Sayf al-Dawla's father Abdallah served as emir of Mosul in 905/6–913/4, was repeatedly disgraced and rehabilitated, until re-assuming control of Mosul in 925/6. Despite the coup's failure and his death, Abdallah had been able to consolidate his control over Mosul, becoming the virtual founder of a Hamdanid-ruled emirate there. During his long absences in Baghdad in his final years, Abdallah relegated authority over Mosul to his eldest son, al-Hasan, the future Nasir al-Dawla. The young Ali ibn Abdallah began his career under his brother. In the meantime, Hasan became involved in the intrigues of the Abbasid court. The Caliph al-Radi was reduced to a figurehead role, while the extensive old civil bureaucracy was drastically reduced both in size and power.Sayf al-Dawla – Gold dinar minted at Baghdad in the names of Nasir al-Dawla and Sayf al-Dawla, 943/944 CE
196. Shahrbaraz – Shahrbaraz or Shahrvaraz was king of the Sasanian Empire from 27 April 629 to 9 June 630. He was killed by Sasanian nobles after forty days. Before usurping the Sasanian throne he was a general under Khosrau II. He is furthermore noted for his important role during the climactic Byzantine -- Sasanian War of 602 -- the events that followed afterwards. Shahrbaraz belonged to the House of one of the Seven Parthian clans; he was the son of a certain Ardashir. During Shahrbaraz's later life, he joined the Sasanian army, where he was appointed as spahbed of Nēmrōz. He was married to the sister of Mirhran, whom Shahrbaraz had one boy with named Shapur-i Shahrvaraz. Shahrbaraz also had another son named Niketas the Persian, who may be from another. Shahrbaraz is first mentioned when Khosrau II started the most devastating of the Byzantine -- Sasanian wars, going to last 26 years. After reconquering lost territory, Khosrau II handed military operations to his best generals. Shahrbaraz was one of them. In 610, an Armenian of probable Arsacid descent, revolted against the Byzantine Emperor Phocas and killed him, crowning himself as Emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Furthermore, Shahrbaraz also defeated a Byzantine army near Adhri'at, important enough for the Arabs to write it down in Quran. After his conquest of Jerusalem the Holy Cross was carried away in triumph. In 618, by 619, Alexandria, the capital of Byzantine Egypt, was in Sasanian hands.Shahrbaraz
197. Siege of Constantinople (860) – The Siege of Constantinople of 860 was the only major military expedition of the Rus' Khaganate recorded in Byzantine and Western European sources. Accounts vary regarding the events, with discrepancies between later sources. The exact outcome is unknown. The event gave rise to a later Orthodox Christian tradition, which ascribed the deliverance of Constantinople by the Theotokos. The first mention of the Rus' near the Byzantine Empire comes from Life of St. George of a hagiographic work whose dating is debated. The Byzantines had come with the Rus' in 839. The empire was struggling to repel the Abbasid advance in Asia Minor. In March 860, the garrison of the key fortress Loulon unexpectedly surrendered to the Arabs. On June 860, at sunset, a fleet of about 200 Rus' vessels sailed into the Bosporus and started pillaging the suburbs of Constantinople. The attackers were drowning and stabbing the residents. Unable to do anything to repel the invaders, Patriarch Photius urged his flock to implore the Theotokos to save the city. The Rus' plundered the monasteries, slaughtering the captives. They cut them into pieces with axes. Emperor Michael III was absent from the city, as was his navy dreaded for its skill in using Greek fire. The Imperial army was fighting the Arabs in Asia Minor.Siege of Constantinople (860) – The Rus ' under the walls of Constantinople.
198. Siege of Damascus (634) – The Siege of Damascus lasted from 21 August to 19 September 634 AD before the city fell to the Rashidun Caliphate. Damascus was the major city of the Byzantine empire to fall in the Muslim conquest of Syria. The last of the Roman-Persian Wars ended in 627, when Heraclius concluded a successful campaign in Mesopotamia. At the same time, Mohammad united the Arabs under the banner of Islam. After his death in 632, Abu Bakr succeeded him as the first Rashidun Caliph. Suppressing internal revolts, Abu Bakr sought to expand the empire beyond the confines of the Arabian Peninsula. In April 634, Abu Bakr decisively defeated a Byzantine army at the Battle of Ajnadayn. The Muslim armies laid siege to Damascus. After the surrender of the city, the commanders disputed the terms of the agreement. The commanders finally agreed that the peace terms given by Abu Ubaidah would be met. The peace terms included an assurance that no pursuit will be undertaken against the departing Roman convoy for three days. During the Byzantine -- Sasanian War of 602 -- 628, Heraclius became the emperor of the Byzantine Empire after overthrowing Phocas. In 612, Heraclius expelled the Persians from Anatolia. In 613, he was decisively defeated. Over the next decade, the Persians conquered Egypt and Heraclius rebuilt his army, preparing for a new offensive, which he launched in 622.Siege of Damascus (634) – Kisan Gate, one of the six ancient gates of Damascus.
199. Siege of Jerusalem (637) – The Siege of Jerusalem was part of a military conflict which took place in the year 637 between the Byzantine Empire and the Rashidun Caliphate. It began when the Rashidun army, under the command of Abu Ubaidah, besieged Jerusalem in November 636. After six months, the Patriarch Sophronius agreed to surrender, on condition that he submit only to the Rashidun caliph. In April 637, Caliph Umar traveled in person to receive the submission of the city. The Patriarch thus surrendered to him. Thus, it came to be regarded as a holy site by Islam, well as by Christianity and Judaism. This stabilized control of Palestina Prima. Jerusalem was an important city of the Byzantine province of Palestina Prima. In 614, it fell to an invading Sassanid army under Shahrbaraz during the last of the Byzantine-Sassanid Wars. The Persians are said to have massacred its 90,000 Christian inhabitants. The Cross was later returned to Jerusalem after his final victory against the Persians in 628. It was believed that the Jews, who were persecuted in their Roman-controlled homeland, had aided the Persians. After the death of Muhammad in 632, Muslim leadership passed to Caliph Abu Bakr following a series of campaigns known as the Ridda Wars. In 634, Abu Bakr was succeeded by Umar, who continued his own war of conquest. Thereafter, the Muslim commander-in-chief of the Rashidun army in Syria, held a council of war in early October 636 to discuss future plans.Siege of Jerusalem (637) – The Al-Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem, is one of the most sacred sites for Muslims.
200. Siege of Kamacha (766) – Both enterprises failed, with the siege dragging on into winter before being abandoned and the raiding force being surrounded and heavily defeated by the Byzantines. In 754/755, was Kamacha. After the overthrow of the Umayyads, the new Abbasid regime quickly resumed their predecessors' attacks on the first being recorded in 756. In early 766 a exchange took place between the two states in western Cilicia, followed by a resumption of large-scale hostilities. The Abbasid force met no resistance as they pillaged their way to the fortress. Their progress was obstructed by the defenders' own artillery. The Arabs, who customarily did not take along many provisions, began suffering from lack of supplies. To solve their supply problems, they established a market from Mesopotamia and elsewhere. After looting the area, they made for Syria. On their way, they were encountered by a Byzantine force of 12,000, which swiftly called in reinforcements. The Byzantines then attacked at night, recovering its loot. The surviving Abbasid troops scattered, with some following one of their leaders, Radad, to Malatya, some 5,000 under Malik ibn Tawq finding refuge in Qaliqala. It was from the latter group that the Zuqnin chronicler drew his information. Despite this failure, Arab pressure gradually began to mount, especially after the sack of Laodicea Combusta in 770. Kamacha itself was surrendered by its Armenian garrison in 793, only to be recovered by the Byzantines in the years following Harun's death.Siege of Kamacha (766) – The Arab–Byzantine frontier zone along the eastern fringes of Asia Minor
201. Siege of Nicaea (727) – Ever since its failure to capture Constantinople, in 717 -- 718, the Caliphate had launched a series of raids into Byzantine Asia Minor. Despite constant attacks for 40 days, the city held the Arabs withdrew and returned to the Caliphate. When warfare on the Arab -- frontier recommenced in 720, the strategic focus of the Caliphate had shifted away from outright conquest. Byzantine reaction during these years was passive, as the Empire still nursed its strength against the vastly superior resources of the Caliphate. The Byzantines did not confront the raiding Arab armies, but rather retreated to well-fortified positions scattered throughout Asia Minor. After the accession of Caliph Hisham, the ambition of the Muslim raids grew. In summer 727, another large-scale invasion was led with Abdallah al-Battal heading the vanguard of the army. The Byzantine chronicler Theophanes the Confessor claims that the vanguard alone numbered the entire invasion force 100,000, clearly a grossly inflated number. Arab sources are unambiguous in this regard. During the attack on Tabya the Arabs, especially the Antiochene contingent, are said to have suffered heavy losses. From there, the Arabs turned west towards Nicaea, capital of the powerful Opsician Theme. The Arabs arrived before the city with al-Battal's vanguard preceding the main army. The Arabs assaulted the city for forty days, employing siege engines which eventually failed to take it. In late August, they departed, taking along many captives and much booty. The repulsion of the Arab assault on Nicaea was an important success for the Byzantines.Siege of Nicaea (727) – Map of Anatolia (Asia Minor) in 740 AD. Nicaea is located at the northwestern corner of the Anatolian peninsula
202. Siege of Patras (805 or 807) – The Siege of Patras in 805 or 807 was undertaken by the local Slavic tribes of the Peloponnese, reportedly with aid from an Arab fleet. It also marked the beginning of the ascendancy of the Metropolis of Patras in the peninsula's ecclesiastical affairs. The Slavs raided far as southern Greece and the coasts of Asia Minor. Only a few, including Thessalonica, remained occupied and in imperial hands. A large native Greek population also remained in the land, either mixed with the Slavs or in its own autonomous communities. 587/8 as a result of the Slavic depredations, its population fleeing to Rhegion in Calabria. This was followed by 218 years of independent Slavic rule until around 804/5. As food began growing short, the inhabitants gave thought to surrendering. The Slavs fled, abandoning the siege. The Chronicle of Monemvasia on the other hand does not mention any siege of the city. Nikephoros' resettlement program at least is also confirmed the Confessor, who puts it slightly later, in 810/1. According to this interpretation, the Slavic attack on Patras followed as a reaction a few years later, between 807 and 811. According to Constantine VII, the Slavs were defeated by strategos Theoktistos Bryennios. In the south, the two tribes of the Ezeritai and Melingoi held out longer. They retained their autonomy.Siege of Patras (805 or 807) – Byzantine Greece in the 9th/10th centuries
203. Siege of Tyana – 706. The Arab army laid siege to the city in summer 707 or 708. The date is uncertain, as virtually each of the extant Greek, Syriac parallel sources has in this respect a different date. Quarrels among the Byzantine generals, well as the inexperience of a large part of their army, contributed to a crushing Umayyads victory. Thereupon the inhabitants of the city were forced to surrender. Justinian, confident in his own strength based on his previous successes, responded in kind. Finally, the Umayyads invaded Byzantine territory, defeating the imperial army at the Battle of Sebastopolis in 693. Furthermore, Justinian was deposed in 695, beginning a twenty-year period of internal instability that almost brought the Byzantine state to its knees. As a result, Maslama launched another attack aimed at Tyana, with his al-Abbas ibn al-Walid as co-commander. As a result, the siege has been variously dated to 707 -- 708 -- 709 AD. The Arabs laid siege to the city, employing siege engines to bombard its fortifications. They were unable to enter the city. Despite launching several assaults, the defenders successfully drove them back. The Arabs began to suffer greatly from shortage of food, so that they began contemplating abandoning the siege altogether. The Byzantine chroniclers record that the regular troops were lacking in any military experience.Siege of Tyana – Map of the Arab-Byzantine frontier zone
204. Solomon (Byzantine general) – Solomon successfully was forced to flee following an army mutiny in spring of 536. It was marked by victories over the Moors, which led to the consolidation of the Byzantine position. Solomon was born, probably circa 480/490, in the fortress of Idriphthon in the district of Solachon, near Dara in the province of Mesopotamia. He was a eunuch not from deliberate castration. Solomon had Bacchus, who became a priest. Certainly by 527, when he came to the service of General Belisarius, Solomon was considered an experienced officer. Before the expedition sailed from Constantinople, Solomon was named as one of the nine commanders of the foederati regiments. Following the capture of Carthage, Belisarius sent Solomon back to Constantinople to inform Emperor Justinian I of the campaign's progress. Belisarius's departure coincided with a general uprising of the Moorish tribes of the interior, before the Byzantines had time to strengthen their hold on the province. As a result, Emperor Justinian sent additional reinforcements. Soon Emperor Justinian also invested Solomon as well replacing the aged Archelaus. In the meantime, the Moors had defeated the local Byzantine garrison, killing its commanders, Gainas and Rufinus. The Moors, under their chiefs Cutzinas, Esdilasas, Iourphouthes and Mesidinissas had encamped at a location called Mammes. Solomon defeated them. There news came that the Moors, reinforced, had again attacked and overrun Byzacena.Solomon (Byzantine general) – Roman Africa, with the provinces of Byzacena, Zeugitana and Numidia.
205. Staurakios (eunuch) – Staurakios was a Byzantine eunuch official, who rose to be one of the most important and influential associates of Byzantine empress Irene of Athens. Restored to power along with Irene in 792, Staurakios aided her in the eventual removal, blinding, possible murder of her son in 797. His own position thereafter was threatened by the rise of Aetios. Staurakios's own imperial ambitions, were only resolved by Staurakios's death. This was a critical blow to the Byzantines, who at that time had almost succeeded in encircling the invading army of the future Caliph Harun al-Rashid. When the imperial envoys, including Staurakios, arrived, they were seized and held as hostages. At this point, his men publicly went over to the Caliph. In the next year, Staurakios led an imperial expedition against the Slavic communities of Greece. Setting out from Constantinople, the imperial army followed the Thracian coast into Macedonia, south into Thessaly, Central Greece and the Peloponnese. This expedition collected booty and tribute from the locals. Empress Irene rewarded her loyal minister by allowing him to celebrate a triumph in the Hippodrome of Constantinople in January 784. A ecumenical council was convened. There, some 1,500 of the soldiers were dismissed while Staurakios brought thematic troops from Thrace to guard the capital. Irene then reconvened the council after dismissing the most recalcitrant iconoclast bishops. Predictably, the veneration of images was restored.Staurakios (eunuch) – 15th-century fresco showing Empress Irene and Emperor Constantine VI presiding over the final session of the Seventh Ecumenical Council (Second Council of Nicaea), which first overturned Iconoclasm.
206. Stephen Lekapenos – Stephen Lekapenos or Lecapenus was the second son of the Byzantine emperor Romanos I Lekapenos, co-emperor from 924 to 945. Stephen lived out his life on the island of Lesbos where he died on Easter 963. Stephen was the second son of his wife Theodora. His older siblings were his sisters Helena, who married Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos, Agatha, who married Romanos Argyros. His younger brothers were Constantine and Theophylact. He also had at least two unnamed younger sisters, known only because of their marriages to the magistroi Romanos Mosele and Romanos Saronites. Within a year, he successively was eventually crowned senior emperor on 17 December 920. In 933, Stephen was married to the daughter of a certain Gabalas, crowned Augusta on the same occasion. The couple had Romanos. According to the 11th-century chronicler George Kedrenos, he later became a sebastophoros. Constantine Lekapenos came to the fore in 943, when they opposed a dynastic marriage for their nephew, Romanos II. Their father wanted to have his eldest surviving grandson married to a daughter of his successful general John Kourkouas. Romanos II instead married an illegitimate daughter of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy, who changed her name to Eudokia after her marriage. With Romanos I approaching the end of his life, the matter of his succession became urgent. In 943, Romanos drafted a will which would leave Constantine VII as the senior emperor following his death.Stephen Lekapenos – Miliaresion from 931–944, showing Romanos I 's bust on a cross on the obverse and listing the names of Romanos and his co-emperors, Constantine VII, Stephen Lekapenos and Constantine Lekapenos on the reverse.
207. Stylianos Zaoutzes – Stylianos Zaoutzes was a high Byzantine official of Armenian origin. Stylianos Zaoutzes was awarded the unique title of basileopator. In 898, he became Leo's father-in-law when the Byzantine emperor married Zoe. He died in the same year as Zoe. Following an attempted coup by his relatives, the Zaoutzes clan was deprived of the considerable power it had amassed under Stylianos's tutelage. Zaoutzes was born in the thema of Macedonia. According to Steven Runciman, the surname Zaoutzes derives from "negro", reflecting Zaoutzes's particularly dark complexion. In the same vein, Zaoutzes was known as "the Ethiopian". Whether Zoe was actually his mistress is uncertain; Leo himself strenuously denied this in later accounts. At that point, Zaoutzes held the post of mikros hetaireiarches, i.e. commander of the junior regiment of the hetaireia. Leo spent three years in prison, until restored to his rank in late July 886. Here too Zaoutzes played a major role, as he personally pleaded with the Byzantine emperor to secure Leo's release. By that time, on August 12, 886, he was gravely wounded during a hunt. In the same period, Emperor Leo VI himself delivered a homily on a church built in Constantinople. Zaoutzes's rise to prominence was consolidated in 891–893, when he was given the newly created title of basileopator.Stylianos Zaoutzes – Basil I and Leo. Illumination from the Madrid Skylitzes manuscript.
208. Syrgiannes Palaiologos – Syrgiannes was born about 1290. He was named after a Cuman leader who became Megas Domestikos under Emperor Andronikos II. At the time there were many Cumans in the Empire, who settled during the reign of John III Doukas Vatatzes. The elder Syrgiannes's original name was Sytzigan; it was Hellenized to Syrgiannes when he was baptized. The elder Syrgiannes rose in the hierarchy of the Byzantine army, eventually reaching the supreme rank of megas domestikos. The younger Syrgiannes's mother was a member of the ruling Palaiologos niece of Emperor Michael VIII. Conscious of the prestige of his mother's family name, young Syrgiannes chose to use that in order to advance himself in the imperial hierarchy. Syrgiannes also had a sister, Theodora, who married Guy de Lusignan, later King of Armenian Cilicia as Constantine II. Syrgiannes makes his appearance in history in 1315, when he was placed as military governor of a Macedonian province near the Serbian border. Despite the existing treaties, against his instructions, he resolved to attack both Serbia and Epirus. Relieved of his post, he rebelled, was captured and imprisoned. However, he was eventually appointed to a command in Thrace. Following the death of Michael IX Palaiologos, his son Andronikos III was crowned by Andronikos II. Together with Alexios Apokaukos and Theodore Synadenos, they prepared to overthrow the aged Andronikos II in favour of his grandson. In Easter 1321, the younger Andronikos came to Adrianople, the uprising broke out.Syrgiannes Palaiologos – Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos (r. 1328–1341). In his turbulent career, Syrgiannes went from being one of his principal supporters to his foe.
209. Theodore Synadenos – Synadenos held various provincial governorships including Epirus and Thessalonica. He had a probably older brother also named John, at least Euphrosyne. After Michael's death, Synadenos became one of most important adherents of Michael IX's son, the young Andronikos III. Andronikos had been disinherited after Michael's death. The old emperor, distrusting Synadenos' loyalty, named governor of Prilep on the border with Serbia. Throughout the conflict, Synadenos was among the most uncompromising supporters of the younger Andronikos, favouring the eventual deposition of Andronikos II. Andronikos II was forced to retire to a monastery, with his grandson succeeding him as sole emperor. For his services, Synadenos was promoted to protostrator sometime during the civil war, perhaps early as 1321. Around 1330, Synadenos was sent to Mesembria while in 1336, after Andronikos III and John Kantakouzenos annexed Epirus, he became its governor. In late 1338, however, a revolt broke out in favour of Nikephoros II Orsini, the last descendant of the Epirote ruling dynasty. A relative of Kantakouzenos, was installed as the new governor, while Synadenos was moved to the governorship of Thessalonica. The dispute soon developed in outright conflict when the Patriarch, Apokaukos replaced Kantakouzenos as regent and imprisoned his family and supporters. In response, Kantakouzenos proclaimed himself emperor in October. The news of Kantakouzenos's proclamation sparked a wave of popular resistance across Macedonia and Thrace. Synadenos contacted his old friend Kantakouzenos with the intention of surrendering the city to him.Theodore Synadenos – Andronikos III Palaiologos
210. Theodosius (son of Maurice) – Theodosius was the eldest son of Byzantine Emperor Maurice and was co-emperor from 590 until his deposition and execution during a military revolt in November 602. The army eventually favoured Phocas instead. Theodosius was his wife, the Augusta Constantina. He was born on August 4, 585. He was the first son to be was accordingly named after the previous ruler. The future Pope Gregory the Great, acted as his godfather. The scholar Evagrius Scholasticus composed a work celebrating Theodosius' birth, for which he was rewarded with the rank of consul. In early February 602, Maurice married Theodosius to a daughter of the patrician Germanus, a leading member of the Byzantine Senate. Later in the same year, during the revolt of the Danubian armies in autumn, his father-in-law were hunting in the outskirts of Constantinople. They presented the letter to Maurice, who rejected the army's demands. The emperor however began suspecting Germanus of playing a part in the revolt. From there, Theodosius was dispatched along with the praetorian prefect Constantine Lardys to seek the aid of the ruler of Sassanid Persia. On his return Theodosius fell into the hands of Phocas' men and was executed at Chalcedon. His father and younger brothers had been executed a few days earlier on November 27. Subsequently, rumours emerged of Theodosius's spread far and wide.Theodosius (son of Maurice) – Copper follis from the Cherson mint, showing Maurice, the empress Constantina, and Theodosius holding a staff surmounted with the Chi-Rho.
211. Theoktistos – He assisted in the ascent of Michael II to the throne in 822, was rewarded with the titles of patrikios and later magistros. Theoktistos held the high posts of chartoularios tou kanikleiou and logothetēs dromou under Michael and his son Theophilos. Theoktistos also had mixed success in the wars against the Arabs. Nothing is known of Theoktistos' early life. By 820 Theoktistos held an unspecified position at the court of the Armenian, possibly as a member of the imperial guard. Following Theophilos' death, the regency council took over the conduct of affairs of state. Petronas and her relative Sergios Niketiates also played an important role in the early days of the regency. The regency moved quickly to end Byzantine Iconoclasm, which had dominated Byzantine political life for over a century with deleterious effects. In early 843, an assembly of selected clerics convened in the house of Theoktistos. The synod repudiated iconoclasm, re-affirmed the decisions of the 787 Second Council of Nicaea, deposed the pro-iconoclast patriarch John the Grammarian. In his stead was elected Methodios I, imprisoned by Theophilos for his iconophile beliefs. This event is commemorated by the Eastern Orthodox Church ever since. He played a major role in these events. Theoktistos is commemorated by the Orthodox Church on 20 October. A week after that, Sergios Niketiates were sent on a campaign to recover Crete, conquered in the 820s by Andalusian exiles.Theoktistos – Michael III with Theodora and Theoktistos (with the white cap), from the Madrid Skylitzes
212. Turahan Bey – Turahan Bey or Turakhan Beg was a prominent Ottoman military commander and governor of Thessaly from 1423 until his death in 1456. He participated in many Ottoman campaigns of the second quarter of the 15th century, fighting against the Byzantines as well as against the Crusade of Varna. His repeated raids into the Morea transformed the local Byzantine despotate into an Ottoman dependency and opened the way for its conquest. Turahan again in 1422, when he fought against the Byzantine governor of Lamia, Kantakouzenos Strabomytes. He was one of the supporters of Mustafa Çelebi during the latter's struggle against Mehmed I and Murad II. His cavalry ravaged the interior of the unopposed. He attacked some Byzantine towns and settlements like Mystras, Leontari, Gardiki and Dabia. Soon after, the Byzantine historian Doukas reports Turahan's presence on the shores of the Black Sea. At about the same time, Turahan also made them tributary to the Ottoman state. In November 1443 Turahan participated in the Battle of Niš against John Hunyadi, which ended in an Ottoman defeat. During their retreat from Niš, Turahan Bey and Kasim Pasha burned all villages between Niš and Sofia. He persuaded Sultan Murad II to follow a scorched earth strategy against the Hungarian advance. He was banished to a prison in Tokat. Nevertheless, he was soon restored to his position, as he was present in Murad's 1446 campaign against the Morea. Murad was reportedly disheartened by the strength of the Hexamilion, but Turahan insisted on an assault.Turahan Bey – Map of southeastern Europe ca. 1444
213. Tzachas – Tzachas, also known as Chaka Bey was an 11th-century Seljuk Turkish military commander who ruled an independent state based in Smyrna. Originally in Byzantine service, he seized Smyrna, much of the Aegean coastlands of Asia Minor and the islands lying off shore in 1088 -- 91. At the peak of his power, he sought to assault Constantinople in conjunction with the Pechenegs. The rest of Tzachas' former domain were recovered by the Byzantines a few years later, in c. 1097. 1097. It is not a very reliable source due to the semi-legendary nature of its material. According to the Alexiad, Tzachas was originally a raider, taken as a prisoner during the reign of Nikephoros III Botaneiates. Tzachas advanced rapidly through imperial favour, receiving the title of protonobilissimus and rich gifts. However, when Alexios I Komnenos deposed Botaneiates in 1081, Tzachas fled Byzantium. From ca. 1088 on, he used his base to wage war against the Byzantines. Employing Christian craftsmen, he built a fleet, with which he captured the eastern Aegean islands of Lesbos, Samos, Chios and Rhodes. Tzachas defeated it in battle. In 1090/91, the Byzantines under Constantine Dalassenos recovered Chios. In 1092, John Doukas, were sent against Tzachas, attacked the fortress of Mytilene on Lesbos. Tzachas resisted for three months, but finally had to negotiate a surrender of the fortress.Tzachas – Modern representation of Tzachas in the Istanbul Naval Museum
214. Umar al-Aqta – ʿUmar himself first appears in 838, in the Amorium campaign of the Caliph al-Mu ` tasim. During the Amorium campaign, ʿUmar took part with his men over Theophilos himself at the Battle of Dazimon in July 838. One of them reached up to the great Byzantine army base of Malagina in Bithynia. Three years later, he was part of a major Abbasid force that invaded Anatolia through the Cilician Gates. On his return, however, he was killed at the Battle of Lalakaon on September 3, 863. Only a splinter of his army was then defeated and captured by the commander of the Charsianon district. Like other protagonists of the Arab -- Byzantine Wars, ʿUmar figures in both Arab and Byzantine legend. Finally, the 10th-century scholar al-Mas'udi reports that ʿUmar was among the "illustrious Muslims" whose portraits were displayed in Byzantine churches in recognition of their valour.Umar al-Aqta – Map of Byzantine Asia Minor and the Arab–Byzantine borderlands in ʿUmar's time
215. Uprising of Ivaylo – The Uprising of Ivaylo was a rebellion of the Bulgarian peasantry against the incompetent rule of Emperor Constantine Tikh and the Bulgarian nobility. The revolt was fuelled mainly by the failure of the central authorities to confront the Mongol menace in north-eastern Bulgaria. The Mongols had looted and ravaged the Bulgarian population for decades, especially in the region of Dobrudzha. The weakness of the state institutions was a result of the accelerating process of feudalisation of the Bulgarian Empire. The peasants' Ivaylo, said to had been a swineherd by the Byzantine chroniclers, proved to be a successful general and charismatic leader. In the first months of the rebellion, he defeated the Mongols and the Tsar's armies, personally slaying Constantine Tikh in battle. The Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos tried to exploit this situation to his favour and intervened in Bulgaria. He sent son of the former Emperor Mitso Asen, to claim the Bulgarian throne at the head of a Byzantine army. Simultaneously, Michael VIII incited the Mongols to attack from the north, forcing Ivaylo to fight on two fronts. Ivaylo was defeated by the Mongols and besieged in important fortress of Drastar. In his absence the nobility in Tarnovo opened the gates to Ivan Asen III. However, Ivaylo managed to break the siege and Ivan Asen III fled back to the Byzantine Empire. In the meantime, the nobility in the capital had proclaimed as George Terter I. The legacy of the rebellion endured both in Bulgaria and in Byzantium. Years after the demise of two "Pseudo-Ivaylos" enjoyed wide support by the populace.Uprising of Ivaylo – Left: Emperor Constantine Tikh and his second wife Irene, fresco from the Boyana Church. Right: Constantine Tikh's third wife Maria, a modern fresco
216. Vandalic War – The Vandalic War was a conflict fought in North Africa between the forces of the Eastern Roman Empire and the Vandalic Kingdom of Carthage, in 533–534. It was the first of reconquest of the lost Western Roman Empire. The Vandals established an independent kingdom there. Under their first king, the formidable Vandal navy carried out pirate attacks across the Mediterranean, sacked Rome and defeated a massive Roman invasion in 468. In 530, a coup in Carthage overthrew the pro-Roman Hilderic and replaced him with his cousin Gelimer. Justinian took advantage of, or even instigated, rebellions in the remote Vandal provinces of Sardinia and Tripolitania. The Vandal king met the Roman army at the Battle of Ad Decimum, near Carthage, on 13 September. Gelimer withdrew to Bulla Regia, where he gathered his remaining strength, including the army of Tzazon, which returned from Sardinia. In December, Gelimer met the Romans at the Battle of Tricamarum. The battle resulted in the death of Tzazon. Gelimer fled to a remote mountain fortress, where he was blockaded until he surrendered in the spring. Thus, in May 429, Geiseric crossed the straits of Gibraltar with reportedly 80,000 in total. Geiseric's Alans, however, had their own plans, aimed to conquer the African provinces outright. In October 439, the capital of Africa, Carthage, fell to the Vandals. These events marked the foundation of the Vandalic Kingdom, as the Vandals settled around it.Vandalic War – A member of the retinue of Emperor Justinian I in the mosaic in the Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, which is usually identified with Belisarius
217. Walls of Constantinople – Initially built by Constantine the Great, the walls surrounded the new city on all sides, protecting it against attack from both sea and land. As the city grew, the famous double line of the Theodosian Walls was built in the 5th century. Ultimately the city fell from sheer weight of numbers of the Ottoman forces on 29 May 1453 after a six-week siege. Despite the subsequent lack of maintenance, many parts of the walls survived and are still standing today. A large-scale program has been since the 1980s. According to tradition, the city was founded as Byzantium by Greek colonists from Megara, led by the eponymous Byzas, around 658 BC. At the time the city consisted of a small region around an acropolis, located on the easternmost hill. On the seaward side, the wall was much lower. Byzantium was relatively unimportant during the early Roman period. The Patria also mention the existence of another wall during the siege of Byzantium in 324. Like Severus before him, Constantine began to punish the city for siding with his defeated rival, but soon he too realized the advantages of Byzantium's location. During 324–336 the city was thoroughly rebuilt and inaugurated on 11 May 330 under the name of "Second Rome". The name that eventually prevailed in common usage however was Constantinople, the "City of Constantine". The city of Constantine was protected by a new wall about 2.8 km west of the Severan wall. Already by the 5th century however, Constantinople had expanded in the extramural area known as the Exokionion or Exakionion.Walls of Constantinople – Map showing Constantinople and its walls during the Byzantine era
218. Byzantine art – A number of states contemporary with the Byzantine Empire were culturally influenced without actually being part of it. After the fall of the Byzantine capital of Constantinople in 1453, art produced by Eastern Orthodox Christians living in the Ottoman Empire was often called "post-Byzantine." Byzantine art never lost sight of this classical heritage. Constantinople, was adorned with a large number of classical sculptures, although they eventually became an object of some puzzlement for its inhabitants. The most salient feature of this new aesthetic was anti-naturalistic character. The nature and causes of this transformation, which largely took place during late antiquity, have been a subject of scholarly debate for centuries. Giorgio Vasari attributed it in artistic skills and standards, which had in turn been revived by his contemporaries in the Italian Renaissance. Alois Riegl and Josef Strzygowski, writing in the 20th century, were above all responsible for the revaluation of late antique art. Riegl saw it in Roman art whereas Strzygowski viewed it as a product of "oriental" influences. In any case, the debate is purely modern: it is clear that most Byzantine viewers did not consider their art to be unnaturalistic. Religious art was not, however, limited to the monumental decoration of church interiors. The illumination of manuscripts was another major genre of Byzantine art. The most commonly illustrated texts were religious, devotional or theological texts. Secular texts were also illuminated: important examples include the history of John Skylitzes. Small ivories were also mostly in relief.Byzantine art – The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople – the image of Christ Pantocrator on the walls of the upper southern gallery. Christ is flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist. The mosaics were made in the 12th century.
219. Byzantine architecture – Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Later Roman or Eastern Roman Empire. Early Byzantine architecture drew upon earlier elements of Roman architecture. Political and territorial changes meant that a distinct style gradually resulted in the Greek cross plan in church architecture. Most of the surviving structures are sacred with secular buildings mostly known only through contemporaneous descriptions. Prime examples of Byzantine architecture date from Justinian I's reign and survive in Ravenna and Istanbul, as well as in Sofia. Secular structures include the ruins of the Great Palace of the innovative walls of Constantinople and Basilica Cistern. A frieze in the Ostrogothic palace in Ravenna depicts an Byzantine palace. Remarkable engineering feats include the 430 m long the pointed arch of Karamagara Bridge. The period of the Macedonian dynasty, traditionally considered the epitome of Byzantine art, has not left a lasting legacy in architecture. The cross-in-square type also became predominant in the Slavic countries which were Christianized during the Macedonian period. Only national forms of architecture can be found in abundance due to this. Those styles can be also in Sicily and Veneto. The Paleologan period is well represented at Chora and St Mary Pammakaristos. Unlike their Slavic counterparts, the Paleologan architects never accented the vertical thrust of structures. As a result, there is little grandeur in the medieval architecture of Byzantium.Byzantine architecture – Hagia Sophia Church, Sofia, Bulgaria
220. List of Roman emperors – Roman Emperors were rulers of the Roman Empire, wielding power over its citizens and military. The empire was developed as the Roman Republic occupied most of Europe and portions of northern Africa and western Asia. Under the republic, regions of the empire were authorised by the "Senate and People of Rome". Its senate were ruled by a variety of magistrates -- of whom the consuls were the most powerful. The emperors were created, when these magistrates became legally and practically subservient to one citizen with power over all other magistrates. This style of government is thus called the Principate era. This was characterised in the person of the Emperor, the use of the style'Dominus Noster'. For nearly two centuries thereafter there was often more than one emperor at a time, frequently dividing the administration of the vast territories between them. As Henry Moss warned, "Yet it is important to indivisible. The chain of emperors continued until the death of Constantine XI and the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire in 1453. The emperors listed in this article are those generally agreed to have been'legitimate' emperors, who appear in published regnal lists. The word ` legitimate' is used by most authors, but usually without clear definition, perhaps not surprisingly, since the emperorship was itself vaguely defined legally. The coercion that frequently resulted was implied in this formulation. By the medieval period, the very definition of the Senate became vague well, adding to the complication. Lists of legitimate emperors are therefore partly influenced by the subjective views of those compiling them, also partly by historical convention.List of Roman emperors – Augustus (Octavian), the first Roman Emperor of the Principate Era whose ascension ended republic rule at Rome.
221. Principate – This reflects the principate emperors' assertion that they were merely "first among equals" among the citizens of Rome. Although dynastic pretences crept in from the start, formalizing this in a monarchic style remained politically unthinkable. Afterwards, Imperial rule in the Empire is designated as the dominate, subjectively more like an monarchy while the earlier Principate is still more'Republican'. Initially, the theory implied the ` first citizen' had to earn his extraordinary position in the style that Augustus himself had gained the position of auctoritas. With the fall of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, the principate was redefined under the Emperor Vespasian. The position of princeps became a distinct entity within the broader – formally still republican – Roman constitution. Under the Antonine dynasty, it was the norm for the Emperor to appoint a politically promising individual as his successor. This first phase was to be followed by, or rather evolved into, the so-called dominate. The reality is gradual development. Richard Alston: Aspects of Roman History. AD 14–117. London / New York 1998. Henning Börm, Wolfgang Havener: Octavians Rechtsstellung im Januar 27 v. Chr. und das Problem der „Übertragung“ der res publica. In: Historia 61, pp. 202–220. Jochen Bleicken: Prinzipat und Dominat.Principate – Ancient Rome
222. Augustus – Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an wealthy branch of the plebeian Octavii family. Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, those of tribune and censor. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He instead called Princeps Civitatis. The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, Raetia; expanding possessions in Africa; expanding into Germania; and completing the conquest of Hispania. Beyond the frontiers, he made peace through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD 14 at the age of 75. He probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.Augustus – The statue known as the Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century
223. Tiberius – Tiberius was a Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Born Tiberius Claudius Nero, a Claudian, Tiberius was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced Nero and married Octavian, later known as Augustus, in 39 BC, making a step-son of Octavian. The subsequent emperors after Tiberius would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the following thirty years; historians have named the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Tiberius was one of Rome's greatest generals; parts of Germania, laid the foundations for the northern frontier. After the death in 23 AD, he became more reclusive and aloof. Tiberius' grand-nephew and adopted grandson, succeeded Tiberius upon his death. Tiberius was born on 16 November 42 BC to Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. In 39 BC his mother divorced his biological father and remarried Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus thereafter, while still pregnant with Tiberius Nero's son. In 38 BC Nero Claudius Drusus, was born. Little is recorded of Tiberius's early life. In 32 BC Tiberius made his public appearance at the age of nine, delivering the eulogy for his biological father. His possible death threatened to plunge the Roman world into chaos again. In response, a series of potential heirs seem to have been selected, among his brother Drusus. Similar provisions were made for Drusus.Tiberius – Bust of the Emperor Tiberius
224. Caligula – Caligula, properly Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus was Roman emperor in AD 37–41. Born Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus, Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He was the great-nephew and adopted son of Emperor Tiberius. The young Gaius earned the nickname "Caligula" while accompanying him during his campaigns in Germania. The conflict eventually led to the destruction of her family, as the sole male survivor. With the death of Tiberius in AD 37, Caligula succeeded his grand uncle and adoptive grandfather as emperor. After this, the sources focus upon his cruelty, sadism, sexual perversity, presenting him as an insane tyrant. During his reign, the empire annexed the Kingdom of Mauretania as a province. In early AD 41, Caligula was assassinated by officers of the Praetorian Guard, senators, courtiers. See Julio-Claudian tree. Gaius had two older brothers, Drusus, as well as three younger sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla and Julia Livilla. He was also a nephew of Claudius, future emperor. Agrippina the Elder was the daughter of Julia the Elder. She was a granddaughter of Augustus and Scribonia on her mother's side. Through Agrippina, Augustus was the maternal great-grandfather of Gaius.Caligula – Bust of Caligula at the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek museum in Copenhagen
225. Claudius – He was Roman emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, Claudius was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. Claudius was born in Gaul, the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy. His survival led to his being declared Emperor after Caligula's assassination, at which point he was the last man of his family. Despite his lack of experience, he proved to be an efficient administrator. Claudius was also an ambitious builder, constructing many new roads, canals across the Empire. During his reign the Empire began the conquest of Britain. Having a personal interest in law, Claudius issued up to twenty edicts a day. Claudius was seen as vulnerable throughout his reign, particularly by elements of the nobility. Claudius was constantly forced to shore up his position; this resulted in the deaths of many senators. These events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised this opinion. Many authors contend that he was murdered by his own wife. After his death in 54 AD, his grand-nephew and adopted son Nero succeeded him as Emperor. He was born on August 10 BC at Lugdunum. Claudius had two older siblings, Livilla.Claudius – Bust of Claudius at the Naples National Archaeological Museum
226. Nero – Nero was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was acceded to the throne in 54 following Claudius' death. During his reign, the general Corbulo conducted a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire. His general Suetonius Paulinus crushed a revolt in Britain. Nero may have begun the First Jewish -- Roman War. In 64 AD, most of Rome was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome. In 68, the rebellion of later the acclamation of Galba in Hispania drove Nero from the throne. Facing a false report of being denounced as a public enemy, to be executed, he committed suicide on 9 June 68. His death ended the Julio-Claudian dynasty, sparking a brief period of civil wars known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Nero's rule is often associated with extravagance. He is known including that of his mother, the probable murder by poison of his stepbrother Britannicus. Nero was rumored to have had captured Christians set on fire in his garden at night as a source of light. Some sources, including some mentioned above, portray him as an emperor, popular with the Roman people, especially in the East. Some modern historians question the reliability of ancient sources when reporting on Nero's tyrannical acts. Nero, was born on 15 December 37 in Antium, near Rome.Nero – Bust of Nero at the Musei Capitolini, Rome
227. Galba – Galba, pron. /ˈsɜːrviəs sʌlˈpɪʃəs ˈɡælbə/, was Roman Emperor for seven months from 68 to 69. Galba made a bid for the throne during the rebellion of Julius Vindex. He was the first emperor of the last emperor born in the First Century BC. He was born as Servius Sulpicius Galba near Terracina, "on the left as you go towards Fundi" in the words of Suetonius. Through his paternal grandfather, he was descended from Servius Sulpicius Galba. Although he was short, hunchbacked and only an indifferent speaker, was an industrious pleader at the bar. His mother was Mummia Achaica, great-granddaughter of Lucius Mummius Achaicus. His father married a second wife, a distant kinswoman of the empress Livia. She later adopted Galba, so he took her names, remaining Lucius Livius Ocella Sulpicius Galba until becoming emperor. It is said that both Augustus and Tiberius prophesied his future eminence. Aemilia Lepida, however, was connected by the marriages of some of her relatives to some of the Julii-Claudii. They had two sons, probably Gaius and Servius, who died during their father's life. The elder son was born circa 25 AD. Hardly anything is known about his life as he died young.Galba – Bust of Galba
228. Otho – He was Roman Emperor for three months, from 15 January to 16 April 69. Otho was the second emperor of the Year of the Four Emperors. He belonged to an ancient and noble Etruscan family, settled at Ferentinum in Etruria. The future Emperor appears first as one of the most extravagant of the young nobles who surrounded Nero. This friendship was brought to an end in 58 AD because of the noblewoman Poppaea Sabina. He introduced his beautiful wife upon Poppaea's insistence, who then began an affair that would eventually lead to her premature death. After securely establishing this position as his mistress, she had the Emperor send him away as governor to the remote province of Lusitania. He remained for the next ten years administering the province with a moderation unusual at the time. When in his neighbor the future Emperor Galba, the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, rose in revolt against Nero, he accompanied him to Rome. Otho, encouraged by the predictions of astrologers, aspired to succeed him. Otho came with Galba's favourite, Titus Vinius, agreeing to marry Vinius' daughter in exchange for his support. After this, he decided to strike a bold blow. Otho was then escorted to the Praetorian camp, where, after a few moments of indecision, he was saluted as Imperator. The cohort, at the Palatine, which had accompanied the Emperor, instantly deserted him. His newly adopted son Piso and others were brutally murdered by the Praetorians.Otho – A bust depicting Otho
229. Vitellius – He was Roman Emperor for eight months, from 16 April to 22 December 69. His claim to the throne was soon challenged by legions stationed in the eastern provinces, who proclaimed their commander emperor instead. War ensued, leading to a crushing defeat for Vitellius at the Second Battle of Bedriacum in northern Italy. He was the son of his wife Sextilia, had one brother, Lucius Vitellius the Younger. Suetonius also recorded that when Vitellius was born his horoscope so horrified his parents that his father tried to prevent Aulus from becoming a consul. He married secondly, around the year 50, a woman named Galeria Fundana, perhaps the granddaughter of Gaius Galerius, Prefect of Egypt in 23. They had two children, a son called Aulus Vitellius Germanicus or Novis, a daughter, Vitellia, who married the Legatus Decimus Valerius Asiaticus. Vitellius owed his elevation to Caecina and Fabius Valens commanders of two legions on the Rhine. More accurately, Vitellius was proclaimed Emperor of the armies of Germania Inferior and Superior. The armies of Gaul, Brittania and Raetia sided with them afterwards. By the time that they marched on Rome, however, it was Otho, not Galba, whom they had to confront. To reward his victorious legionaries, he installed his own men instead. For these banquets, Vitellius had himself invited over for each one. Other writers, namely Tacitus and Cassius Dio, disagree with some of Suetonius' assertions, even though their own accounts of Vitellius are scarcely positive ones. Despite his short reign Vitellius made two important contributions to Roman government which outlasted him.Vitellius – Pseudo-bust of Emperor Vitellius, Louvre
230. Vespasian – He was Roman emperor from AD 69 to AD 79. He founded the Flavian dynasty that ruled the Empire for twenty-seven years. Vespasian was from an family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio -- Claudian emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became the third emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring July 69. Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, the following day Vespasian was declared Emperor by the Senate. Little information survives during Vespasian's ten-year rule. Vespasian reformed the financial system at Rome after the campaign against Judaea initiated several ambitious construction projects. Vespasian built the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68 -- 69, he forced in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, he increased imperial expansion in Britain. He was born in a north-east of Rome called Falacrinae. His family was relatively undistinguished and lacking in pedigree. Subsequently Vespasian became a collector.Vespasian – Vespasian sestertius, struck in 71 to celebrate the victory in the first Jewish-Roman war. The legend on the reverse says: IVDEA CAPTA, " Judaea conquered".
231. Titus – Titus was Roman emperor from 79 to 81. Prior to becoming Emperor, Titus gained renown as a military commander, serving during the First Jewish -- Roman War. When Vespasian was declared July 69, Titus was left in charge of ending the Jewish rebellion. In 70, he destroyed the city and the Second Temple. For this achievement Titus was awarded a triumph: the Arch of Titus commemorates his victory to this day. After barely two years in office, Titus died of a fever on 13 September 81. He was succeeded by his younger brother Domitian. Titus was born in Rome, probably on December 39 AD, as the eldest son of Titus Flavius Vespasianus -- commonly known as Vespasian -- and Domitilla the Elder. He had one younger sister, one younger brother, Titus Flavius Domitianus, commonly referred to as Domitian. Titus Flavius Petro, had served as a centurion under Pompey during Caesar's civil war. His military career ended in disgrace when he fled the battlefield in 48 BC. Sabinus himself amassed further wealth and possible status through his services as tax collector in Asia and banker in Helvetia. Culminated with a consulship in 51, the year Domitian was born. As a military commander, he gained early renown by participating in 43. From c. 57 to 59 he was a military tribune in Germania.Titus – Bust of Emperor Titus, in the Capitoline Museum, Rome.
232. Domitian – Domitian was Roman emperor from 81 to 96. Domitian was the last emperor of the Flavian dynasty. Early career were largely spent in the shadow of his brother Titus, who gained military renown during the First Jewish -- Roman War. While Titus held a many offices under the rule of his father, Domitian was left with honours but no responsibilities. By nominating himself perpetual censor, he sought to control public and private morals. As a consequence, Domitian considered a tyrant by members of the Roman Senate. Domitian's reign came to an end in 96 when he was assassinated by court officials. He was succeeded by his advisor Nerva. Modern revisionists have instead characterized Domitian as a efficient autocrat whose cultural, economic and political program provided the foundation of the peaceful 2nd century. Domitian was born in Flavia Domitilla Major. He had an older sister, brother, also named Titus Flavius Vespasianus. Titus Flavius Petro, had served as a centurion under Pompey during Caesar's civil war. His military career ended in disgrace when he fled the battlefield in 48 BC. Sabinus himself amassed further wealth and possible status through his services as tax collector in Asia and banker in Helvetia. The political career of Vespasian included the offices of culminated with a consulship in 51, the year of Domitian's birth.Domitian – Bust of Domitian, in the Musée du Louvre, Paris.
233. Nerva – Nerva was Roman Emperor from 96 to 98. Nerva became Emperor after a lifetime of imperial service under Nero and the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. Under Nero, he played a vital part in exposing the Pisonian conspiracy of 65. Later, as a loyalist to the Flavians, he attained consulships during the reigns of Vespasian and Domitian respectively. On 18 Domitian was assassinated in a palace conspiracy involving members of the Praetorian Guard and several of his freedmen. On the same day, Nerva was declared emperor by the Roman Senate. This was the first time the Senate elected a Roman Emperor. As the new ruler of the Roman Empire, he vowed to restore liberties, curtailed during the autocratic government of Domitian. Nerva's brief reign was marred by his inability to assert his authority over the Roman army. A revolt by the Praetorian Guard in October 97 essentially forced him to adopt an heir. After some deliberation Nerva adopted a young and popular general, as his successor. After barely fifteen months in office, Nerva died of natural causes on 27 January 98. Upon his death he was deified by Trajan. Although much of his life remains obscure, Nerva was considered a moderate emperor by ancient historians. Nerva's greatest success was his ability to ensure a peaceful transition of power after his death, thus founding the Nerva–Antonine dynasty.Nerva – Bust of emperor Nerva, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome
234. Trajan – Trajan was Roman emperor from 98 to 117 AD. Born in the province of Hispania Baetica, Trajan's non-patrician family was of Italian and perhaps Iberian origin. Trajan rose during the reign of emperor Domitian. Serving as a legatus legionis in 89 Trajan supported Domitian against a revolt on the Rhine led by Antonius Saturninus. In September 96, Domitian was succeeded by an old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army. He was succeeded by his adopted son without incident. Early in his reign, he annexed the Nabataean Kingdom, creating the province of Arabia Petraea. His conquest of Dacia enriched the empire greatly, as the new province possessed valuable gold mines. However, it was later abandoned by Emperor Aurelian. Trajan's war against the Parthian Empire ended with the annexation of Armenia and Mesopotamia. His campaigns expanded the Roman Empire to its greatest territorial extent. In late 117, while sailing back to Rome, Trajan died of a stroke in the city of Selinus. His ashes were laid to rest under Trajan's Column. He was succeeded by his adopted Hadrian. As an emperor, Trajan's reputation has endured – he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived nineteen centuries.Trajan – Marble bust of Trajan.
235. Hadrian – It was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. Hadrian is known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Britannia. He also constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. It was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus into a Hispano-Roman family. Although Italica near Santiponce is often considered his birthplace, his actual place of birth remains uncertain. However, Hadrian is generally accepted that he came in Hispania. Trajan, was a maternal cousin of Hadrian's father. According to his wife Pompeia Plotina, Trajan named Hadrian emperor immediately before his death. He may well have owed his succession to them. During his reign, it travelled to nearly every province of the Empire. He spent extensive amounts of time with the military; he even dined and slept amongst the soldiers. He ordered military drilling to be more rigorous and even made use of false reports of attack to keep the army alert. Upon his accession to the throne, it withdrew in Mesopotamia and Armenia, even considered abandoning Dacia. Late in his reign he suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea, renaming Syria Palaestina. The latter died suddenly two years later.Hadrian – Marble bust of Hadrian at the Palazzo dei Conservatori, Capitoline Museums.
236. Antoninus Pius – Antoninus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was one of the Five Good Emperors in the Nerva -- the Aurelii. He was succeeded by his adopted sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus as co-emperors. He was born as the only child of consul in 89 whose family came from Nemausus. The Aurelii Fulvii were therefore a relatively senatorial family from Gallia Narbonensis whose rise to prominence was supported by the Flavians. The link between their home province explains the increasing importance of the post of Proconsul of Gallia Narbonensis during the late Second Century. His mother was Arria Fadilla. The Arrii Antoninii were an older senatorial family from Italy, very influential during Nerva's reign. Some time between 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina the Elder. They are believed to have enjoyed a happy marriage. Faustina was the daughter of consul Marcus Annius Verus and Rupilia Faustina. Despite rumours about her character, it is clear that Antoninus cared for her deeply. Faustina bore Antoninus four children, two daughters. They were: Marcus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus; his sepulchral inscription has been found in Rome. Marcus Galerius Aurelius Antoninus; his sepulchral inscription has been found at the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome.Antoninus Pius – Bust of Antoninus Pius, at Glyptothek, Munich.
237. Marcus Aurelius – Marcus Aurelius was Roman Emperor from 161 to 180. He ruled with Lucius Verus as co-emperor from 161 until Verus' death in 169. Marcus Aurelius was the last of the so-called Five Good Emperors. During his reign, the Empire defeated a revitalized Parthian Empire in the East: Aurelius' general Avidius Cassius sacked the capital Ctesiphon in 164. A revolt in the East led by Avidius Cassius failed to gain momentum and was suppressed immediately. The major sources for the life and rule of Marcus Aurelius are patchy and frequently unreliable. Marcus' own Meditations offer a window on his inner life, but are largely undateable, make few specific references to worldly affairs. Dio is vital for the military history of the period, but his senatorial prejudices and strong opposition to imperial expansion obscure his perspective. Inscriptions and coin finds supplement the literary sources. Marcus' family originated in Ucubi, a small town southeast of Córdoba in Iberian Baetica. Verus' elder son—Marcus Aurelius' father—Marcus Annius Verus married Domitia Lucilla. Lucilla was the daughter of the patrician P. Calvisius Tullus Ruso and the elder Domitia Lucilla. The elder Domitia Lucilla had inherited a great fortune from her maternal grandfather and her paternal grandfather by adoption. Lucilla and Verus had two children: a son, Marcus, born on 26 April 121, a daughter, Annia Cornificia Faustina, probably born in 122 or 123. Verus probably died in 124, during his praetorship, when Marcus was only three years old.Marcus Aurelius – Bust of Marcus Aurelius in the Musée Saint-Raymond, Toulouse.
238. Lucius Verus – Lucius Verus was the Roman Emperor from 161 to 169. When he was adopted by Caesar Antoninus Pius in February 138, his name was changed to L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus. His name changed again following his ascension in 161. He ruled together with his adoptive brother Marcus Aurelius until his own death in 169. During his reign, the Roman Empire defeated a revitalized Parthia in the east: Avidius Cassius, sacked their capital, Ctesiphon, in 164. He was deified as the Divine Verus. Lucius Verus was the first-born son of Roman Emperor Hadrian. He was raised in Rome. Verus had another brother, two sisters, Ceionia Fabia and Ceionia Plautia. His maternal grandparents were the Roman senator, the unattested noblewoman Ignota Plautia. Although his paternal grandparent was the Roman Emperor Hadrian, his biological paternal grandparents were the consul Lucius Ceionius Commodus and noblewoman Aelia or Fundania Plautia. When his father died in early 138, Hadrian chose Antoninus Pius as his successor. Antoninus was adopted on the condition that Verus and Hadrian's great-nephew Marcus Aurelius be adopted by Antoninus as his sons and heirs. By this scheme, Verus, already Hadrian's adoptive grandson through his natural father, remained Hadrian's adoptive grandson through Antoninus. The adoption of Marcus Aurelius was probably a suggestion of Antoninus himself, since the Marcus was the nephew of the Antoninus' wife.Lucius Verus – Bust of Lucius Verus
239. Commodus – He was Roman Emperor from 180 to 192. Commodus also ruled as co-emperor until his father's death in 180. His accession as emperor was the first time a son had succeeded his biological father since Titus succeeded Vespasian in 79. Commodus was also the first emperor to have both a grandfather as the two preceding emperors. He was the first emperor "born in the purple", i.e. during his father's reign. He was assassinated in 192, succeeded by Pertinax whose reign did not last long during the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors. He was born on 31 August 161, as Commodus, in Lanuvium, near Rome. He had Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, who died in 165. On 12 October 166, he was made Caesar together with Marcus Annius Verus. The latter died in 169 having failed to recover from an operation, which left Commodus as Marcus Aurelius' sole son. Commodus was looked after by Galen, in order to keep Commodus healthy and alive. Galen treated many of Commodus' common illnesses. He received extensive tutoring with a focus on intellectual education. Among his Onesicrates, Antistius Capella, Titus Aius Sanctus, Pitholaus are mentioned. He is known to have been in 172.Commodus – Commodus as Hercules, Capitoline Museums
240. Pertinax – He was Roman Emperor for the first three months of 193. Successor to the assassinated Commodus, Pertinax was the first to serve during the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors. Born the son of a freed slave, he originally worked before becoming an officer in the army. Pertinax was also a member of the Roman Senate, where he was a contemporary of the historian Cassius Dio. Following the death of Commodus, he was acclaimed emperor. Pertinax attempted to institute several reform measures, although the short length of his time as emperor prevented the success of those attempts. The restoration of discipline among the Praetorian Guards, led to conflict that eventually culminated in Pertinax's murder by the Guard. After his death, the Praetorians auctioned off the imperial title, won by the wealthy senator Didius Julianus, whose reign would last sixty-six days. He would be deified by the successor of Julianus, Septimius Severus. His historical reputation has largely been a positive one, following the assessment of Dio. His career before becoming emperor is confirmed in many places by existing inscriptions. Pertinax was recalled to Britain, where the Roman army was in a state of mutiny. One legion mutinied and attacked his bodyguard, leaving Pertinax for dead. When he recovered, Pertinax punished the mutineers severely, which led to his growing reputation as a disciplinarian. When he was forced to resign in 187, the reason given was that the legions had grown hostile to him because of his harsh rule.Pertinax – Statue of Pertinax, National Museum of the Union, Alba-Iulia, Romania
241. Didius Julianus – Didius Julianus was Roman emperor for nine weeks during the year 193. Julianus ascended the throne after buying it from the Praetorian Guard, who had assassinated his predecessor Pertinax. This led to the Roman Civil War of 193–197. He was sentenced by his successor, Septimius Severus. Julianus was born to Quintus Petronius Didius Severus and Aemilia Clara. His mother was a African woman of Roman descent, from a family of consular rank. His brothers were Didius Proculus and Didius Nummius Albinus. His date of birth is given as 30 January 133 by Cassius Dio and 2 February 137 by the Historia Augusta. Didius Julianus was raised by Domitia Lucilla, mother of Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius. With Domitia's help, he was appointed at a very early age to the vigintivirate, the first step towards public distinction. Sometime around 153, Scantilla bore a daughter and only child Didia Clara. In succession Julianus held the offices of Quaestor and Aedile, then, around 162, was named as Praetor. He was nominated to the command of the Legio XXII Primigenia in Mogontiacum. In 170, he became praefectus of Gallia Belgica and served for five years. He governed Bithynia and succeeded Pertinax as the proconsul of Africa.Didius Julianus – Coin of Didius Julianus
242. Pescennius Niger – Pescennius Niger was Roman Emperor from 193 to 194 during the Year of the Five Emperors. During the late 180s, Niger was elected as a Suffect consul, after which Commodus made imperial legate of Syria in 191. As a consequence, it is alleged that Julianus dispatched a centurion to the east with orders to assassinate Niger at Antioch. The result of the unrest in Rome saw Niger proclaimed Emperor by the end of April 193. On his accession, Niger took Justus, or "the Just". Although Niger sent envoys to Rome to announce his elevation to the imperial throne, his messengers were intercepted by Severus. As Niger began bolstering his support in the eastern provinces, Severus marched on Rome which he entered in early June 193 after Julianus had been murdered. Although these lands contained great wealth, his military resources were inferior to Severus’. Niger therefore sent a force into Thrace where it defeated a part of Severus' army under Lucius Fabius Cilo at Perinthus. Severus now marched to the east sending his general Tiberius Claudius Candidus ahead of him. Niger, having made Byzantium his headquarters, gave the task of defending the southern shore of the Sea of Marmara. Niger refused, trusting in the outcome of a military encounter. Byzantium was now placed under siege, forcing Niger to retreat back to Nicaea. It would take Severus until the end of 195 to finally capture Byzantium. Another battle took outside of Nicea in later December 193, which also resulted in a defeat for Niger.Pescennius Niger – Coin of Pescennius Niger, bearing the inscription (IMPERATOR CAESAR GAIVS PESCENNIVS NIGER IVSTVS AVGVSTVS CONSVL II)
243. Clodius Albinus – For others with this cognomen, see Albinus. Albinus was born to an aristocratic Roman family of Ceionia origin. Ceionius, said his son received the name of Albinus because of the extraordinary whiteness of his complexion. The Emperor likewise declared that he intended to have him chosen consul. The Emperor Commodus gave a command in Gallia Belgica and afterwards in Britain. The Senate was very pleased with these sentiments, but not so the Emperor, who sent Junius Severus to relieve Albinus of his command. Despite this, Albinus kept his command in 193. In the civil war that followed, Albinus was initially allied with Septimius Severus, who had captured Rome. Albinus accepted the title of Caesar from him; the two shared a consulship in 194. Albinus remained effective ruler of much of the western part of the Empire, from three British legions and one Spanish. Albinus, seeing the danger of his position, prepared for resistance. In autumn 196, Albinus proclaimed himself crossed from Britain to Gaul, bringing a large part of the British garrison with him. On 19 February 197 Albinus met Severus' army at the Battle of Lugdunum. Albinus' headless body was thrown into the Rhône, together with the corpses of his murdered family. The adherents of Albinus were cruelly persecuted by Severus.Clodius Albinus – Cast in the Pushkin Museum of a marble bust in the Louvre
244. Septimius Severus – Septimius Severus, also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211. Severus was born in Leptis Magna in the Roman province of Africa. As a young man he advanced under the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. Severus seized power during the Year of the Five Emperors. After killing the incumbent emperor Didius Julianus, Severus fought his rival claimants, the generals Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus. Niger was defeated in 194 in Cilicia. Severus waged a short punitive campaign beyond the eastern frontier, annexing the Kingdom of Osroene as a new province. Severus defeated Albinus in Gaul. Furthermore, he fortified the Limes Arabicus in Arabia Petraea. Late in his reign he travelled to Britain, reoccupying the Antonine Wall. His ambitions were cut short when he fell fatally ill in late 210. Severus died in early 211 at Eboracum, succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta. With the succession of his sons, Severus founded the last dynasty of the empire before the Crisis of the Third Century. He had Roman ancestry on his mother's side and descended from Punic - and perhaps also Libyan - forebears on his father's side. His mother's ancestors had moved to North Africa: they belonged to the gens Fulvia, an Italian patrician family that originated in Tusculum.Septimius Severus – Alabaster bust of Septimius Severus at Musei Capitolini, Rome
245. Caracalla – Caracalla, formally Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus, was Roman emperor from AD 198 to 217. A member of the Severan Dynasty, he was the eldest son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. Caracalla reigned jointly until Severus' death in 211. Caracalla then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta, with whom he had a fraught relationship, until he had Geta murdered later that year. Caracalla's reign was marked by domestic instability and external invasions from the Germanic people. The edict gave Caracalla's adopted nomen: "Marcus Aurelius". Towards the end of his rule, Caracalla began a campaign against the Parthian Empire. He did not see this campaign through to completion due to his assassination by a disaffected soldier in 217. He was succeeded after three days. Caracalla is presented as an image which has survived into modernity. Dio Cassius and Herodian present Caracalla as a soldier first and emperor second. In the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth started the legend of Caracalla's role as the king of Britain. The modern portrayal of Caracalla is that of a psychopathic and evil ruler, among the worst of Roman emperors. Caracalla was born Lucius Septimius Bassianus. He may have begun wearing it during his campaigns on the Rhine and Danube.Caracalla – Caracalla
246. Macrinus – Macrinus was Roman Emperor from April 217 to 8 June 218. He reigned jointly with his young son Diadumenianus. Macrinus was by origin a Berber from Mauretania Caesariensis. A member of the class, he became the first emperor who did not hail from the senatorial class and was the first emperor from Mauretania. Before becoming emperor, Macrinus dealt with Rome's civil affairs. He later had him murdered in a bid to protect his own life, succeeding him as emperor. His predecessor's policies had the empire at war with several kingdoms, including Parthia, Armenia and Dacia. As emperor, Macrinus first attempted to enact reform to bring diplomatic stability to Rome. Julia Maesa, taking advantage of the unrest, instigated a rebellion to have Elagabalus, recognized as emperor. Elagabalus proclaimed himself emperor with support from the rebelling Roman legions. Macrinus fled the battlefield and was captured in Chaceldon and later executed in Cappadocia. Diadumenianus was also captured and executed. Their images destroyed. Macrinus was born to an equestrian family of Berber origins. He received an education which allowed him to ascend to the Roman political class.Macrinus – An aureus of Macrinus. Its elaborate symbolism celebrates the liberalitas ("prodigality") of Macrinus and his son Diadumenian.
247. Diadumenian – Diadumenian, was the son of the Roman Emperor Macrinus, served his father briefly as Caesar and as Augustus. He was so named due to being born with a caul that formed a'diadem'. Diadumenian was born on 14 September 208 or, according to Historia Augusta, on September 19 because he shared the same birthday with the Emperor Antoninus Pius. His mother was Empress Nonia Celsa, although little is known of her: she is only mentioned by the Historia Augusta. When Macrinus was defeated on 8 June 218, at Antioch, Diadumenian's death followed his father's. Life of Diadumenianus De imperatoribus Romanis: an on-line encyclopedia of Roman emperors.Diadumenian – Diadumenianus on a denarius.
248. Elagabalus – Elagabalus /ˌɛləˈɡæbələs/, also known as Heliogabalus, was Roman emperor from 218 to 222. A member of the Severan dynasty, he was Syrian, the second son of Julia Soaemias and Sextus Varius Marcellus. In his early youth Elagabalus served in the hometown of his mother's family, Emesa. As a private citizen, Elagabalus was probably named Sextus Varius Avitus Bassianus. Upon becoming emperor Elagabalus took Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus. Elagabalus was called Elagabalus only after his death. In 217, the emperor Caracalla was replaced by his Praetorian prefect, Marcus Opellius Macrinus. Julia Maesa, successfully instigated a revolt among the Legio III Gallica to have her eldest grandson, Elagabalus, declared emperor in his place. Macrinus was defeated on 8 June 218 at the Battle of Antioch. Elagabalus, barely 14 years old, became emperor, initiating a reign remembered mainly for religious controversy. Later historians suggest Elagabalus showed a disregard for sexual taboos. Elagabalus replaced the traditional head of Jupiter, with the deity of whom he was high priest, Elagabalus. Elagabalus forced leading members of Rome's government to participate in religious rites celebrating this deity, over which he personally presided. His behavior estranged the Praetorian Guard, the common people alike. He developed a reputation for extreme eccentricity, decadence, zealotry.Elagabalus – Bust of Elagabalus, from the Capitoline Museums
249. Severus Alexander – Severus Alexander was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235 and the last emperor of the Severan dynasty. It was the rumor of Alexander's death that triggered the assassination of his mother. As emperor, Alexander's peace reign was prosperous. However, militarily Rome was confronted with the rising Sassanid Empire. This led to a conspiracy to assassinate and replace him. Under the influence of his mother, he did much to enhance the dignity of the state. Alexander employed noted jurists to oversee the administration such as the famous jurist Ulpian. Alexander also created a municipal council of 14 who assisted the urban prefect in administering the affairs of the 14 districts of Rome. In religious matters, he preserved an open mind. It was dissuaded by the pagan priests. In legal matters, he did much to aid the rights of his soldiers. Alexander confirmed that soldiers could name anyone as heirs in their will, whereas civilians had strict restrictions over who could receive a legacy. He also confirmed that soldiers could free their slaves in their wills. On the whole, Alexander's reign was prosperous until the rise, in the east, of the Sassanids under Ardashir I. Of the war that followed there are various accounts.Severus Alexander – Bust of Severus Alexander
250. Crisis of the Third Century – Twenty-six men were officially accepted by the Roman Senate as emperor during this period, thus became legitimate emperors. Later, Aurelian reunited the empire; the Crisis ended with the ascension and reforms of Diocletian in 284. The situation of the Roman Empire became dire in 235 AD, when emperor Alexander Severus was murdered by his own troops. Leading his troops personally, Alexander Severus resorted to diplomacy and paying tribute in an attempt to pacify the Germanic chieftains quickly. Climate changes and a rise in sea levels ruined the agriculture of what is now the Low Countries forcing tribes to migrate. Additionally, in 251, the Plague of Cyprian broke out, causing large-scale death, possibly weakened the ability of the Empire to defend itself. After the loss of Valerian in 260, the Roman Empire was beset by usurpers, who broke it up into three competing states. The Roman provinces of Gaul, Britain and Hispania broke off to form the Gallic Empire. An invasion by a vast host of Goths was defeated in 269. This victory was significant as the point of the crisis, when a series of energetic soldier-emperors took power. Victories by the emperor Claudius II Gothicus over the next two years drove back the Alamanni and recovered Hispania from the Gallic Empire. Aurelian reigned through the worst of the crisis, defeating the Vandals, the Visigoths, then the remainder of the Gallic Empire. By late 274, the Roman Empire was reunited into a single entity, the frontier troops were back in place. More than a century would pass before Rome again lost military ascendancy over its external enemies. Major cities and towns, even Rome itself, had not needed fortifications for many centuries; many then surrounded themselves with thick walls.Crisis of the Third Century – The divided Empire in AD 271.
251. Maximinus Thrax – Maximinus Thrax, also known as Maximinus I, was Roman Emperor from 235 to 238. Maximinus is described by several ancient sources, though none are contemporary except Herodian's Roman History. He was a so-called barracks emperor of the 3rd century; his rule is often considered to mark the beginning of the Crisis of the Third Century. He died at Aquileia whilst attempting to put down a Senatorial revolt. Most likely Maximinus was of Thraco-Roman origin. He joined the army during the reign of Septimius Severus, but did not rise to a powerful position until promoted by Alexander Severus. The troops, among whom included the Legio XXII Primigenia, elected the stern Maximinus, killing young Alexander and his mother at Moguntiacum. The Praetorian Guard acclaimed him emperor, their choice was grudgingly confirmed by the Senate, who were displeased to have a peasant as emperor. His son Maximus became caesar. Maximinus hated the nobility and was ruthless towards those he suspected of plotting against him. He began by eliminating the close advisors of Alexander. His suspicions may have been justified; two plots against Maximinus were foiled. They planned to elect senator Magnus emperor, afterwards; but the conspiracy was discovered and the conspirators executed. The second plot involved Mesopotamian archers who were loyal to Alexander. They planned to elevate Quartinus, but their leader Macedo changed sides and murdered Quartinus instead, although this was not enough to save his own life.Maximinus Thrax – Bust of Maximinus Thrax in Capitoline Museums, Rome
252. Gordian I – Gordian I was Roman Emperor for one month with his son Gordian II in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. Caught up in a rebellion against the Emperor Maximinus Thrax, he was defeated by forces loyal to Maximinus before committing suicide. Little is known on the early background of Gordian. There is no reliable evidence on his family origins. His family were of Equestrian rank, who were modest and very wealthy. Gordian was said to be related to prominent senators. Gordian’s cognomen ‘Gordianus’ suggests that his family origins were from Anatolia, especially Galatia and Cappadocia. According to the Augustan History, his mother was a Roman woman called Roman Senator Maecius Marullus. While modern historians have dismissed his father's name as false, there may be some truth behind the identity of his mother. Gordian's family history can be guessed through inscriptions. The name Sempronianus in his name may indicate a connection to his mother or grandmother. In Ankara Turkey, a funeral inscription has been found that names a Sempronia Romana, daughter of a named Sempronius Aquila. Romana erected this undated funeral inscription to her husband who died as a praetor-designate. Gordian might have been related to the gens Sempronia. French historian Christian Settipani gives as his parents Marcus Antonius, tr. pl. praet.Gordian I – Bust of Gordian I
253. Gordian II – Gordian II, was Roman Emperor for one month with his father Gordian I in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. Seeking to overthrow the Emperor Maximinus Thrax, he died in battle outside of Carthage. Born c. 192, Gordian II was the only known son of Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus the Elder. His family were of Equestrian rank, who were modest and very wealthy. Gordian was said to be related to prominent senators. Gordian’s cognomen ‘Gordianus’ suggests that his family origins were from Anatolia, especially Galatia and Cappadocia. Modern historians have dismissed this name and her information as false. There is some evidence to suggest that Gordian's mother may have been the granddaughter of Greek tutor Herodes Atticus. His younger sister was Antonia Gordiana, the mother of Emperor Gordian III. According to this source, Gordian served as quaestor in Elagabalus' reign and as praetor and consul suffect with Emperor Alexander Severus. In 237, Gordian went under his father's command as a proconsular governor. Early in 235, his mother Julia Avita Mamaea were assassinated at Moguntiacum in Germania Inferior. The leader of Maximinus Thrax, became Emperor, despite the disapproval of the Roman Senate. Due to Gordian I's advanced age, the younger Gordian was attached to the imperial throne and acclaimed Augustus too.Gordian II – Denarius featuring Gordian II
254. Pupienus – Pupienus, also known as Pupienus Maximus, was Roman Emperor with Balbinus for three months in 238, during the Year of the Six Emperors. The sources for this period are scant, thus knowledge of the emperor is limited. In most contemporary texts Pupienus is referred by his agnomen "Maximus" rather than by his cognomen Pupienus. The Historia Augusta, whose testimony is not to be trusted unreservedly, paints Pupienus through the cursus honorum due to military success. He was in part of the aristocracy, albeit a minor one, possibly quite recently. Pupienus's career was impressive, serving a number of important posts throughout the late 2nd and early 3rd centuries. This included assignment as Proconsul of the propraetorial provinces of Bithynia et Pontus, Achaea, Gallia Narbonensis. He was later assigned as imperial legate after his first suffect consulship, circa 207 AD. During his time as governor, he scored military victories over the Sarmatians and German tribes. During the last years of Severus Alexander's reign, he was installed as Consul for the second time. Unlike the situation in 161 with Lucius Verus, both emperors were elected as pontifices maximi, chief priests of the official cults. According to Edward Gibbon, the choice was sensible, as: the mind of Maximus was formed in a rougher mould. By his valour and abilities he had raised himself to the first employments of the state and army. Balbinus, in the meantime, had failed to keep public order in the capital. This meant that they were in the Praetorians, who resented serving under Senate-appointed emperors, now plotted to kill them.Pupienus – Bust of Pupienus
255. Balbinus – Balbinus, was Roman Emperor with Pupienus for three months in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. Not much is known about Balbinus to emperor. It has been conjectured that he descended from the consul ordinarius of 136 or 137, wife Aquilia. If this were true, he was also related to the family of Q. He was born around 178. He was a patrician from birth, was the son of Caelius Calvinus, legate of Cappadocia in 184. He was one of the Salii priests of Mars. His birth was noble, his manners liberal and affable. In him, the love of pleasure had the habits of ease deprived him of a capacity for business. When the Gordians were proclaimed Emperors in Africa, the Senate appointed a committee of twenty men, including Balbinus, against Maximinus Thrax. Unlike the situation in 161, both emperors were elected as chief priests of the official cults. This would be unthinkable in Republican times. Balbinus was probably in his early seventies: his qualifications for rule are unknown, except presumably that he was a senior senator, well-connected. While Pupienus marched to Ravenna, where he oversaw the campaign against Maximinus, Balbinus failed to keep public order. The ` sarcophagus of Balbinus' has earned a niche in the history of Roman Imperial art.Balbinus – Bust of Balbinus
256. Gordian III – Gordian III was Roman Emperor from 238 AD to 244 AD. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian II. Very little is known on his early life before his acclamation. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238 AD. Following the murder of Emperor Alexander Severus in the capital of the Roman province Germania Inferior, Maximinus Thrax was acclaimed Emperor. In the following years, there was a growing opposition against Maximinus in the Roman senate and amongst the majority of the population of Rome. In 238 a rebellion broke out in the Africa Province, where Gordian I and II, were joint emperors. This revolt was suppressed within a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. Public opinion cherished their memory as victims of Maximinus' oppression. Meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions, particularly the II Parthica who assassinated Maximinus. But their joint reign was doomed from the start with an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. On July 29, Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian Guard and Gordian proclaimed sole emperor.Gordian III – Bust of Gordian III, between 242 and 244
257. Philip the Arab – Marcus Julius Philippus, also known commonly by his nickname Philip the Arab, also known as Philip, was Roman Emperor from 244 to 249. Philip was born in what is now present-day Jordan and parts of Sinai. Philip went on to become a major figure in the Roman Empire. Philip achieved power after the death of Gordian III, quickly negotiating peace with the Sassanid Empire. During his reign, Rome celebrated its millennium. Among Christian writers, he had the reputation of being sympathetic to the Christian faith. Probably for this reason it was even claimed by some that he had converted to Christianity, which would have made the first Christian emperor. The bishop Saint Babylas made him stand with the penitents. His wife received letters from Origen. He was killed following a rebellion led by his successor Decius. Little is known about political career. Philip was born in what is today about 55 miles southeast of Damascus, in the Trachonitis district. At the time this was in the Roman province of Arabia, earning the nickname "the Arab". Philip was the son of Julius Marinus, possibly of some importance. While the name of Philip's mother is unknown, he did have a brother, a member of the Praetorian Guard under Gordian III.Philip the Arab – Philip the Arab
258. Philippus II – When his father became emperor in 244, the younger Philip was appointed Caesar. In 247 he was later elevated by his father to the rank of Augustus and co-ruler. His father was killed in battle in 249. When news of this death reached Rome, Philip was murdered by the Praetorian Guard. He died in his mother's arms, aged eleven years. Roman-Emperors.orgPhilippus II – Coin depicting Philippus II
259. Decius – Trajan Decius was Roman Emperor from 249 to 251. In the last year of his reign, he co-ruled with his son Herennius Etruscus until they were both killed in the Battle of Abritus. Around 245, Philip I entrusted Decius on the Danube. After the collapse of the revolt, Decius let the troops proclaim Emperor. Philip was killed at Verona, Italy, in September 249. The Senate then recognized Decius as Emperor, giving the attribute Traianus as a reference to the good emperor Trajan. According to the Byzantine historian Zosimus, Decius was clothed in purple and forced to undertake the government, despite his unwillingness. The choice was left to the Senate, who unanimously selected Valerian. But Valerian, well aware of the difficulties attached to the office at such a time, declined the responsibility. The invasion of the Goths and Decius' death put an end to the abortive attempt. When they sacrificed they would obtain a certificate recording the fact that they had complied with the order. According to D. S. Potter, Decius did not try to impose the superiority of the Roman pantheon over any other gods. Measures were first taken demanding that the officers of the church make a sacrifice for the Emperor. The sacrifice was "on behalf of" the Emperor, not to the Emperor, since a living Emperor was not considered divine. Certificates were issued to those who satisfied the commissioners under Decius.Decius – Bust of Trajan Decius
260. Herennius Etruscus – Herennius Etruscus, was Roman emperor in 251, in a joint rule with his father Decius. Emperor Hostilian was his younger brother. Herennius was born in or near Sirmium during one of his father's military postings. His mother was a Roman lady of an important senatorial family. Decius felt confident to begin a rebellion of his own in the following year. Acclaimed emperor by his own troops, Decius defeated Philip near modern Verona. In Rome, Herennius received the title of princeps iuventutis. From the beginning of Herennius' accession, Gothic tribes raided across the provinces of Moesia and Dacia. At the beginning of 251, Decius elevated Herennius to the title of Augustus making his co-emperor. Moreover, Herennius was chosen to be one of the year's consuls. The son, now joint rulers, then embarked in an expedition against king Cniva of the Goths to punish the invaders for the raids. Hostilian remained in the empress Herennia Etruscilla was named regent. His men were returning to their lands with the booty, when the Roman army encountered them. Showing a very sophisticated military tactic, Cniva started to push back the Romans into a marshy swamp. Sometime during the first two weeks of June, both armies engaged in the battle of Abrittus.Herennius Etruscus – Herennius Etruscus as Caesar, celebrating his Pietas with its typical cult instruments.
261. Hostilian – Hostilian was Roman emperor in 251. He was born in Sirmium in Illyricum sometime after 230, as the son of the future emperor Decius by his wife Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla. He was the younger brother of emperor Herennius Etruscus. In the beginning of 251, Hostilian succeeded him in the title of princeps iuventutis. Herennius then set out on campaign against king Cniva of the Goths, to punish him for raids on the Danubian frontier. Empress Herennia was named regent. Rome acknowledged Hostilian's rights. But later in 251, Hostilian died in the epidemic. He was the first emperor in 40 years to die of one of only 13. His death opened the way with his natural son Volusianus. Media related to Hostilian at Wikimedia CommonsHostilian – A coin of Hostilian celebrating Securitas, the security of the Roman Empire.
262. Trebonianus Gallus – Trebonianus Gallus, also known as Gallus, was Roman Emperor from 251 to 253, in a joint rule with his son Volusianus. Gallus was born in a family with respected ancestry of Etruscan senatorial background. He had two children in his marriage with Afinia Gemina Baebiana: a daughter, Vibia Galla. His early career was a typical cursus honorum, with several appointments, both military. According to rumours supported by the Thirteenth Sibylline Oracle, Decius' failure was largely owing to Gallus, who had conspired with the invaders. In any case, when the army heard the news, the soldiers proclaimed Gallus emperor, despite Decius' surviving son, ascending the imperial throne in Rome. The fact that Gallus seems to have been on good terms with Decius' family, makes Dexippus' allegation improbable. Gallus accepted Hostilian as co-emperor, perhaps to avoid the damage of another civil war. Anxious to stabilize the situation on the Danube frontier, Gallus made peace with the Goths. Peace terms allowed the Goths to leave the Roman territory while keeping their captives and plunder. In addition, it was agreed that they would be paid an annual subsidy. Reaching Rome, Gallus' proclamation was formally confirmed with his son Volusianus being appointed Caesar. By July 15 Hostilian disappears from history -- he may have died in an outbreak of plague. Gallus may have also ordered a uncoordinated persecution of Christians. The latter was recalled during the reign of Valerian.Trebonianus Gallus – Bust of Trebonianus Gallus
263. Volusianus – Volusianus, also known as Volusian, was a Roman Emperor from 251 to 253. He was son to Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus by his wife Afinia Gemina Baebiana. He is known to have had Vibia Galla. The death of Decius in early June 251 led to the throne. Gallus made him co-ruler. Volusianus was named Princeps Juventutis. Later in 251 Hostilian died of the plague and Volusianus replaced him as Augustus and co-ruler. Son were both killed in 253 by mutinous troops in Interamna. Media related to Volusianus at Wikimedia CommonsVolusianus – Coin featuring Volusian
264. Aemilianus – Aemilianus, also known as Aemilian, was Roman Emperor for three months in 253. Commander of the Moesian troops, he obtained an important victory against the invading Goths and was, for this reason, acclaimed Emperor by his army. Aemilian was born in the Roman province of Africa. During the reign of Trebonianus Gallus and his son Volusianus, Aemilian was sent to the Balkans to command an army. His primary responsibility was to assure peace along the Danube frontier, subject to several attacks by the Goths led by king Cniva. According upon his appointment to the Moesian command, Aemilian plotted treachery against him. He was also an opponent of the Roman Senate, his seditious plans are confirmed by Jerome and Jordanes. In 253, the Goths, led by king Cniva, claimed they had not received the tribute due from the Romans according to the treaty of 251. They crossed the border and attacked Cappadocia, Pessinus, Ephesus. Aemilian had command of the army assigned to defend the area, but the recent defeat at the Battle of Abrittus put his troops on edge. Aemilian exhorted them, reminding them of Roman honor and promising tribute from the Goths. The Romans took the Goths by surprise, killing most of them, followed by an invasion of Goth territory resulting in booty and the liberation of prisoners. The Roman soldiers, gathered by Aemilian, acclaimed him Emperor. Jordanes claims, however, that Aemilian's troops plundered Roman territory, rather than keep the tribute of the Goths. With his few men, Aemilian left his province unguarded and moved quickly towards Rome to meet the legitimate emperor Gallus before the latter could receive reinforcements.Aemilianus – Coin featuring Aemilian.
265. Valerian (emperor) – Valerian, also known as Valerian the Elder, was Roman Emperor from 253 to 260 CE. He was Consul for the first time either before 238 CE as a Suffectus or in 238 as an Ordinarius. Gordian I negotiated through him as emperor. During the reign of Decius he was left in charge of affairs in Rome when that prince left for his ill-fated last campaign in Illyricum. Valerian headed south but was too late: Gallus was killed by his own troops, who joined Aemilianus before Valerian arrived. The Raetian soldiers then proclaimed Valerian emperor and continued their march towards Rome. Upon his arrival in late September, Aemilianus's legions defected, killing Aemilianus and proclaiming Valerian emperor. In Rome, the Senate quickly acknowledged Valerian, not only for fear of reprisals but also because he was one of their own. Valerian's first act as emperor on 22 October 253 was to make his son Gallienus his Caesar and colleague. Early in his reign, affairs in Europe went from bad to worse, the whole West fell into disorder. In the East, Antioch had fallen into the hands of a Sassanid vassal and Armenia was occupied by Shapur I. In 254, 255, 257, Valerian again became Consul Ordinarius. By 257, he had recovered Antioch and returned the province of Syria to Roman control. The following year, the Goths ravaged Asia Minor. At the beginning of 260, he arranged a meeting with Shapur to negotiate a settlement.Valerian (emperor) – Coin of Egnatia Mariniana, wife of Valerian and mother of Gallienus.
266. Gallienus – Gallienus was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260 and alone from 260 to 268. He ruled during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire. While he won a number of military victories, he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces. The exact date of Gallienus is unknown. Gallienus married Cornelia Salonina to the throne. When Valerian was proclaimed Emperor on 22 October 253, he asked the Senate to ratify the elevation of Gallienus to Caesar and Augustus. He was also designated Consul Ordinarius for 254. As his adopted brother Lucius Verus had done a century earlier, Gallienus and his father divided the Empire. Gallienus remained in Italy to repel the Germanic tribes on the Rhine and Danube. According to numismatic evidence, a victory in Roman Dacia might also be dated to that period. Even the Latin tradition attributes success to him at this time. In 257, Gallienus was made Consul again, suggesting that he briefly visited Rome on those occasions, although no record survives. Valerian II had apparently died in 258. Ingenuus may have been responsible for that calamity. Alternatively, the capture of Valerian at the battle of Edessa may have been the trigger for the subsequent revolts of Ingenuus, Regalianus, Postumus.Gallienus – Bust of Gallienus
267. Saloninus – Publius Licinius Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus was Roman Emperor in 260. Saloninus was born around the year 242. His father was the later emperor Gallienus, a Greek from Bithynia. In 258 Saloninus was appointed Caesar by his father and sent to Gaul to make sure his father's authority was respected there. . Bray suggests that Valerian's motive in making these appointments was establishing a lasting imperial dynasty. We do not know how Valerian envisaged his interacting with the existing governors and military commanders of the Gallic provinces. There is no reason to suppose that he ever thought the thing as Diocletian when he established the Tetrarchy some thirty years later. This was demonstrated by the circumstances in which he fell out with the usurper Postumus. It was probably at this time that Postumus was acclaimed emperor by his army. Riding the tiger of military discontent which he could barely control, Postumus then besieged Saloninus and Silvanus in Cologne. Gallienus, fully engaged elsewhere -- probably campaigning on the middle Danube -- could do nothing to save his son. . Postumus was then unable to prevent his army from murdering them. .Saloninus – Antoninianus of Saloninus.
268. Valerian II – Shortly after his acclamation as Emperor Valerian made Gallienus his co-Emperor and his grandson, Valerian, Caesar, in 256. . It is reported that Salonina was not happy with this arrangement. Despite this precaution, Valerian died for Gallienus to attempt to demote Ingenuus. It was this action that sparked the attempted usurpation of the Empire by Ingenuus, who had widespread support among the provincial establishment. Media related to Valerianus Caesar at Wikimedia CommonsValerian II – Antoninianus with a young Valerian II.
269. Claudius Gothicus – Claudius II, commonly known as Claudius Gothicus, was Roman emperor from 268 to 270. During his reign he scored a victory against the Goths at the Battle of Naissus. He died after succumbing to the Plague of Cyprian that ravaged the provinces of the Empire. Claudius' origin is Illyrian. Born on May 210, he was either from Sirmium in Pannonia Inferior or from Naissus Dardania. In September 268, he found himself assigned as a military tribune with the Imperial Army besieging the usurper Aureolus in Milan. His troops then proclaimed him Emperor amid charges, never proven, that he murdered his predecessor Gallienus. However, he soon proved to be less than bloodthirsty, as he asked the Roman Senate to spare the lives of Gallienus' family and supporters. It was to this that he owed his popularity. It is possible Claudius gained the respect of the soldiers by being physically strong and especially cruel. A legend tells of Claudius knocking out a horse's teeth with one punch. Claudius, like Maximinus Thrax before him, was of birth. During the 260s, the breakup of the Roman Empire into three distinct governing entities placed the whole Roman imperium into a precarious position. Upon the death of Odaenathus, power fell to his younger son, dominated by Zenobia. In the next three years, Gallienus' troubles would only get worse.Claudius Gothicus – Bust of Emperor Claudius II.
270. Quintillus – Quintillus was Roman Emperor for a few months in 270. Quintillus was born in Pannonia Inferior. Originating from a low-born family, Quintillus came to prominence to the imperial throne in 268. Quintillus was possibly made Procurator of Sardinia during his brother’s reign. He was declared emperor upon the latter's death in 270. Eutropius reports Quintillus to have been elected by soldiers of the Roman army immediately following the death of his brother. The choice was reportedly approved by the Roman Senate. Joannes Zonaras reports him elected by the Senate itself. Records however agree that the legions which had followed Claudius in campaigning along the Danube were either disapproving of Quintillus' elevation. They instead elevated their current Aurelian as emperor. The few records of Quintillus' reign are contradictory. They disagree on the length of his reign, variously reported to have lasted as few as 17 days and as many as 177 days. Records also disagree on the cause of his death. Historia Augusta reports him murdered by his own soldiers to his strict military discipline. Jerome reports him killed, with Aurelian.Quintillus – Quintillus
271. Aurelian – Aurelian was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275. Born in humble circumstances, he rose through the military ranks to become emperor. During his reign, he defeated the Alamanni after a devastating war. He also defeated Carpi. Aurelian restored the Empire's eastern provinces in 273. He conquered the Gallic Empire in the west, reuniting the Empire in its entirety. He was also responsible for the construction of the abandonment of the province of Dacia. His successes were instrumental in earning him the title Restitutor Orbis or ` Restorer of the World'. Aurelian was born on 9 September, most likely in 214 AD, although 215 AD is also possible. The ancient sources are not agreed on his place of birth, although he was generally accepted as being a native of Illyricum. Sirmium in Pannonia Inferior is the preferred location, created as Emperor when he abandoned the old trans-Danubian territory of Dacia. However, it seems that this pleasant extrapolation of dubious facts is now generally accepted as being that. It is commonly accepted that Aurelian probably joined the army at around age twenty. This could be a more expeditious route to senior procuratorial offices than that pursued by ex-rankers, although not necessarily less laborious. His suggestion has not been taken up by academic authorities.Aurelian – Aurelian
272. Tacitus (emperor) – Tacitus, was Roman Emperor from 275 to 276. During his short reign he campaigned against the Heruli, for which he received the title Gothicus Maximus. Tacitus was born in Italia. In the course of his long life he discharged the duties of civil offices, including that of consul in 273, with universal respect. After the assassination of Aurelian, the choice was cordially ratified by the army. This was the last time the Senate elected a Roman Emperor. At any rate, he quickly rushed to Rome. Next he moved against the barbarian mercenaries, gathered by Aurelian to supplement Roman forces for his Eastern campaign. The campaign cancelled. It was reported that he began acting strangely, before succumbing to a fever. In a account, Zosimus claims he was assassinated, after appointing one of his relatives to an important command in Syria. He appears in Harry Sidebottom's historical fiction novel Warrior Of Rome. Historia Augusta, Vita Taciti, Breviarium ab urbe condita, ix. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. I: AD260-395, Cambridge University Press, 1971 Southern, Pat.Tacitus (emperor) – Bust of the Emperor Tacitus
273. Florianus – Florianus, also known as Florian, was Roman Emperor for a few months in 276. Florian was reported be a maternal half-brother to the Emperor Marcus Claudius Tacitus. However he minted thus showing some bonds to the Senate. Florian was fighting the Heruli when the army in the East elected Probus. Florian had the support of Mauretania. The two rival emperors met in Cilicia; Florianus had the larger army, but Probus was a more experienced general and avoided a direct clash. Probus likely secured a small victory. Florian was assassinated by his own troops near Tarsus once their confidence was lost. He died in September 276, having been emperor for only eighty-eight days. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. I: AD260-395, Cambridge University Press, 1971 Southern, Pat. Edward Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire Media related to Florianus at Wikimedia Commons britannica.comFlorianus – Hercules crowning Florianus.
274. Marcus Aurelius Probus – Probus, was Roman Emperor from 276 to 282. Probus was born in Sirmium, Pannonia Inferior, the son of Dalmatius. Probus entered the army upon reaching adulthood. Appointed by the emperor Valerian, he later distinguished himself under the emperors Aurelian and Tacitus. He was appointed governor of the East by Tacitus, whose death in 276 prompted Probus' soldiers to proclaim him emperor. He was killed after an indecisive campaign. Probus travelled west, acquiring the title of Gothicus. His position as emperor was ratified around this time. Of a more lasting significance, Probus began the strategy of settling the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces of the empire. In 279–280, Probus was, according to Zosimus, in Raetia, Illyricum and Lycia, where he fought the Vandals. In the same years, Probus' generals defeated the Blemmyes in Egypt. Probus then ordered the reconstruction of canals along the Nile, where the production of grain for the Empire was centered. In 280 -- 281, Probus put down Julius Saturninus, Proculus and Bonosus. There are clues that they were not just local problems. In 281, the emperor was in Rome, where he celebrated his triumph.Marcus Aurelius Probus – Bust of Probus
275. Carus – Carus was Roman Emperor from 282 to 283, was 60 at ascension. During his short reign, Carus fought the Germanic tribes and Sarmatians with success. He died in 283 aged 61. During his campaign against the Sassanid Empire, he died shortly thereafter. He was succeeded by Numerian, creating a dynasty which, though short-lived, granted further stability to a resurgent empire. Carus, whose name before the accession may have been Marcus Numerius Carus, was educated in Rome. He was a senator and filled various military posts before being appointed prefect of the Praetorian Guard by the emperor Probus in 282. After the murder of Probus at Sirmium, Carus was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers. Although Carus severely avenged the death of Probus, he was suspected to the deed. He does not seem to have returned after his accession contenting himself with an announcement to the Senate. The Sassanid King Bahram II, limited by his troops occupied with a campaign in modern-day Afghanistan, could not effectively defend his territory. He received the title of Persicus Maximus. Carus' hopes of further conquest were cut short by his death, announced after a violent storm. His death was variously attributed to disease, a wound received in the campaign against the Persians. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol.Carus – Aureus of Emperor Carus
276. Carinus – Carinus was Roman Emperor from 283 to 285. Official accounts of his career have been filtered through the propaganda of his successful opponent, Diocletian. More certainly, he celebrated the annual ludi Romani on a scale of unexampled magnificence. After the death of Carus, Numerian, the younger son of Carus, was forced to comply. During a halt at Chalcedon, Numerian was found dead. He was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers. Carinus set out for the east to meet Diocletian. Historians differ on what then ensued. Another account claims that Carinus' army deserted him. This account may be confirmed by the fact that Diocletian kept in Titus Claudius Aurelius Aristobulus. Carinus has a reputation of the worst Roman emperors. This infamy may have been supported by Diocletian himself. After his death, Carinus' memory was officially condemned in the Roman proceeding known as Damnatio Memoriae. His name, along with that of his wife, was erased from inscriptions. "Carinus, Marcus Aurelius".Carinus – Bust of Carinus.
277. Numerian – Numerian was Roman Emperor from 283 to 284 with his older brother Carinus. They were sons of Carus, a general raised under Emperor Probus in 282. Probus' army, stationed in Sirmium, decided they assassinated Probus instead. Carus, already sixty, immediately elevated Carinus and Numerian to the rank of Caesar. The Sassanids were in no position to oppose Carus' advance. In celebration, Numerian, Carus, Carinus all took Persici maximi. Carus died in July or early August of 283, possibly due to a strike of lightning. The death of Carus left Numerian and Carinus as the new Augusti. Carinus quickly made his way from Gaul arriving in January 284, while Numerian lingered in the East. The Roman retreat from Persia was unopposed, for the Persian King, Bahram II, was still struggling to establish his authority. By March 284, Numerian had only reached Emesa in Syria; by November, only Asia Minor. In Emesa he was apparently in good health, as he issued the only extant rescript in his name there. After Emesa, Numerian's staff, including the prefect Aper, reported that Numerian had to travel in a closed coach. When the army reached Bithynia, some of Numerian's soldiers smelled an odor reminiscent of a decaying corpse emanating from the coach. They found Numerian dead.Numerian – Antoninianus of Numerian
278. Postumus – Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus was a Roman commander of provincial origin who ruled as emperor in the west. Postumus ruled for the better part of ten years before he was murdered by his own troops. Little is known about the early life of Postumus. He has been claimed as a Batavian; certainly his coinage honours deities -- Hercules Deusoniensis -- who would have been popular among the Batavians. Hercules Magusanus was probably an interpretatio translation of the Germanic deity Donar. And, according to König, was granted an honorary consulship. By 259, Valerian was campaigning against the Persians while his son and co-emperor Gallienus was preoccupied with the situation on the Danubian frontier. Consequently, Gallienus left his son, military commanders, including Postumus, to protect the Rhine. Saloninus, on the advice of his prefect Silvanus, demanded the transfer of the recovered booty to his residence at Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium. He made a show of reluctantly enforcing this command, thus inviting his troops to instead throw off their allegiance to Gallienus. The troops accordingly proceeded to besiege and attack Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, trapping Saloninus and Silvanus. Later Postumus erected a triumphal arch to celebrate his victory. He was immediately recognized in Gaul, the two Germanias, Raetia. By 261, Britannia, Gallia Narbonensis and Hispania had also acknowledged him possibly after an expedition to Britain in the winter of 260/261. Apart from the position of emperor, Postumus immediately assumed the office of consul alongside Honoratianus.Postumus – Coin featuring Postumus.
279. Laelianus – Ulpius Cornelius Laelianus was a usurper against Postumus, the emperor of the Gallic Empire. His revolt lasted from late February to early June 269. Little is known about Laelianus. He shares the same nomen as the Ulpii, that included Trajan among its members, may have been a relative. If he indeed was a relative, this may be the reason Spain allied itself with Claudius II, seemingly without a struggle. Laelianus declared himself emperor in February/March 269. After repulsing a Germanic invasion. Laelianus is listed in the Historia Augusta. Ulpia Aurelius Victor, Liber de Caesaribus Eutropius, Brevarium, Book 9 Historia Augusta, The Thirty Tyrants Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Routledge, 2001 Potter, David Stone, The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180-395, Routledge, A.H.M. Martindale, J.R.. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol.Laelianus – Laelianus on an aureus.
280. Marcus Aurelius Marius – Marcus Aurelius Marius was emperor of the Gallic Empire in 269 following the assassination of Postumus. According to later tradition, he was a blacksmith by trade, earning Mamurius Veturius, a legendary metalworker in the time of Numa. He rose through the ranks of the Roman army to become an officer. He was present with the army that revolted at Moguntiacum after the emperor Postumus refused to allow it to sack the city. In the confusion that followed, the army elected Marius to succeed Postumus. His first decision was in all likelihood to allow his troops to sack the city of Moguntiacum. Seeking to solidify his base, he then moved to Augusta Treverorum. This tradition is probably entirely incorrect. Based upon the number of coins he issued, a more accurate length for his reign would be three months. Marius is listed in the Historia Augusta. It is said that he was chosen because his names were evocative of two great Romans of the Past, Gaius Marius. Aurelius Victor, Epitome de Caesaribus Aurelius Victor, Liber de Caesaribus Eutropius, Brevarium, Book 9 Historia Augusta, Tyranni_XXX*.html The Thirty Tyrants Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Routledge, 2001 Potter, David Stone, The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180-395, Routledge, A.H.M. Martindale, J.R.. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol.Marcus Aurelius Marius – Coin featuring Marius
281. Victorinus – Marcus Piavonius Victorinus was emperor in the Gallic provinces from 268 to 270 or 269 to 271, following the brief reign of Marius. He was murdered by a jealous husband whose wife he tried to seduce. Hailing from Gaul, Victorinus was a soldier under Postumus, the first of the so-called Gallic emperors. He showed considerable ability, as he rose swiftly to become co-consul with Postumus in 268. It is also possible that Postumus then elevated him to the post of prefect. After engineering the death of Marius, Victorinus was declared emperor by the troops located at Augusta Treverorum in the fall of 269. Hispania declared its loyalty to Claudius Gothicus. Claudius then sent his trusted general Placidianus with instructions to bring over as many of the wavering cities as he could. Very quickly did not proceed any further. The presence of Placidianus inspired the city of Augustodunum Haeduorum to declare its intention to declare for Claudius Gothicus. This forced Victorinus to besiege it, where it fell after seven months, after which Victorinus' troops plundered and destroyed the city. Victorinus returned in triumph. There is evidence to suggest that Claudius was having some difficulties in the East, which also occupied his attention. Victorinus was murdered by Attitianus, one of his officers, whose wife Victorinus had supposedly seduced. Another military commander was soon eliminated.Victorinus – Ancient coin featuring Victorinus.
282. Domitianus II – The only evidence for the rule of an Imperial claimant named Domitianus derives from two coins. The first was part of a hoard discovered in the commune of Haute-Goulaine in the Loire area of France in 1900. The authenticity/significance of this particular item was as late as 1992 Domitianus was widely considered "at best a conjectural figure". The hoard was acquired by the Ashmolean Museum in 2004. The design of both coins is typical of those associated with the ‘Gallic Empire’. Both coins bear the same legend, i.e. IMP C DOMITIANUS P F AUG, an abbreviation for "Imperator Caesar Domitianus Pius Felix Augustus". An unusual feature here is the absence of "Praenomen". "Gallic Empire" coins usually bear the full nomina of the prince celebrated the better to carry out their propagandist function. On the reverse, the coins have the legend CONCORDIA MILITVM, a propagandistic claim that the army was united behind Domitianus. Again this is a standard slogan for the "Gallic emperors." The design of its Les Cléons counterpart is typical of others struck under the "Gallic Empire." It also suggests that the date of the coin was prior to 274 when the Emperor Aurelian suppressed the Gallic regime. There are only two literary references for Domitianus's existence, neither of which names him as an emperor: 1. The Byzantine historian Zosimus records that a certain Domitianus was punished for a revolt during the reign of Aurelian. The text is vague against whom it was directed.Domitianus II – Domitianus II
283. Tetricus I – Tetricus, who ruled with Tetricus II, was the last of the Gallic emperors. Tetricus was a senator born to a noble family of Gallic extraction. Tetricus took the purple at Burdigala in Gaul. The decisive battle took place in late February 274: Tetricus' army was cut to pieces in an event remembered as the Catalaunian catastrophe. By March 274, his son had surrendered to Aurelian. It was claimed that Tetricus quoted Virgil to Aurelian: "eripe me his, invicte, malis". Tetricus died in Italy; he is listed as one of Rome's Thirty Tyrants in the Historia Augusta. The antoninianii of Tetricus were the most frequently imitated prototypes for barbaric imitations of Roman coins. The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Routledge, 2001 Potter, David Stone, The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180-395, Routledge, A.H.M. Martindale, J.R.. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol.Tetricus I – Coin featuring Tetricus I
284. Tetricus IITetricus II – Antoninianus of Tetricus
285. Dominate – In form, the Dominate is considered to be more bureaucratic than the Principate from which it emerged. The Dominate is derived from the Latin dominus, which translates as lord or master. Augustus actively discouraged the practice, Tiberius in particular is said to have reviled it as sycophancy. The Dominate system of government emerged as a response to the 50 years of chaos, referred to as the Crisis of the Third Century. These bureaucratic machines worked moderately well, their success might have been extraordinary if the monarchs who directed them had always been men of superior ability. Blots of course and defects there were, especially in the fields of economy and finance. The political creation of the Illyrian Emperors was not unworthy of the genius of Rome." Under the Principate, the position of emperor saw the concentration of military offices within a single magistry. Under the Dominate, the burden of the imperial position was increasingly shared between colleagues, referred to as the Consortium imperii. This original model lasted from AD 289 through to AD 324, being undone during the Civil wars of the Tetrarchy. With Constantine I’s death in AD 337, the empire was again shared between multiple augusti, lasting until AD 350. During the Roman Republic, the office of Consul was the highest elected magistry in the Roman state, with two consuls elected annually. If they were especially skilled or valued, they may even have achieved a second consulate. The process began with the reforms of Gallienus, who removed senators from military commands, placing them in the hands of the Equites. Under Diocletian, the military transformation was taken a stage further, with the removal of hereditary senators from most administrative, well as military, posts.Dominate – Ancient Rome
286. Maximian – Maximian was Roman Emperor from 286 to 305. He was Caesar from 285 to 286, then Augustus from 286 to 305. He shared the latter title with superior, Diocletian, whose political brain complemented Maximian's military brawn. Maximian spent most of his time on campaign. In the late summer of 285, he suppressed rebels in Gaul known as the Bagaudae. From 285 to 288, he fought along the Rhine frontier. Together with Diocletian, he launched a scorched campaign deep into Alamannic territory in 288, temporarily relieving the Rhine provinces from the threat of Germanic invasion. Carausius, rebelled in 286, causing the secession of Britain and northwestern Gaul. His invasion fleet was destroyed by storms in 289 or 290. Constantius, campaigned against Carausius' successor, Allectus, while Maximian held the Rhine frontier. Maximian moved south to combat piracy near Hispania and Berber incursions in Mauretania. When these campaigns concluded in 298, he departed for Italy, where he lived until 305. At Diocletian's behest, Maximian abdicated on May 1, 305, retired to southern Italy. In late 306, Maximian aided his son Maxentius' rebellion in Italy. In April 307, he failed and fled to the court of Constantius' successor, Constantine, in Trier.Maximian – Bust of Emperor Maximian
287. Galerius – Galerius was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311. During his reign he aided by Diocletian, against the Sassanid Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 299. He also campaigned against the Carpi defeating them in 297 and 300. Although he was a staunch opponent of Christianity, Galerius ended the Diocletianic Persecution when he issued an edict of toleration in 311. His father was his mother Romula was a Dacian woman, who left Dacia because of the Carpians' attacks. He originally followed that of a herdsman, where he got his surname of Armentarius. After a few years campaigning against Sarmatians and Goths on the Danube, he received command of the legions on the Imperial limits. Soon after his appointment, Galerius would be dispatched to Egypt to fight Busiris and Coptos. In 294, a son of Shapur I, passed over for the Sassanid succession, came into power in Persia. Narseh probably moved to eliminate a young man installed by a noble named Vahunam in the wake of Bahram II's death in 293. He sought to identify himself with the warlike reigns of Ardashir and Shapur, who had captured Emperor Valerian. In 296, Narseh declared war on Rome. He appears to have first invaded western Armenia, retaking the lands delivered in the peace of 287. He would occupy the lands there until the following year. The late historian Ammianus Marcellinus is the only source detailing the initial invasion of Armenia.Galerius – Porphyry bust of Galerius
288. Constantius Chlorus – Constantius I was Roman Emperor from 293 to 306, commonly known as Constantius Chlorus. Constantius was the father of founder of the Constantinian dynasty. As Caesar, Constantius campaigned extensively along the Rhine frontier, defeating the Alamanni and Franks. Upon becoming Augustus in 305, he launched a successful punitive campaign beyond the Antonine Wall. However, he died suddenly in Eboracum the following year. His death sparked the collapse of the tetrarchic system of government inaugurated by the Emperor Diocletian. He fought in the east against the secessionist Palmyrene Empire. By 288, his period as governor over, Constantius had been made Praetorian Prefect in the west under Maximian. To strengthen the ties between his powerful military servant, in 289 Constantius divorced his wife Helena, married the emperor Maximian's daughter, Theodora. Diocletian divided the administration of the Roman Empire into two halves, an Eastern portion. Each would be ruled by an Augustus, supported by a Caesar. Both Caesars had the right of succession once the ruling Augustus died. At Milan on March 293, he was formally appointed as Maximian's Caesar. Constantius was given command of Gaul, Britannia and possibly Hispania. On official documents he always took precedence, being mentioned before Galerius.Constantius Chlorus – Constantius I Chlorus
289. Flavius Valerius Severus – Severus II, was a Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 307. After failing to besiege Rome, he fled to Ravenna. It is thought that he was executed near Rome. Severus was of humble birth, born in Northern Illyria around the middle of the third AD. He thus served to Constantius I, Augustus of the western half of empire. When the son of the retired emperor Maximian, revolted at Rome, Galerius sent Severus to suppress the rebellion. Severus moved towards Rome at the head of an army previously commanded by Maximian. Fearing the arrival of Severus, Maxentius offered the co-rule of the empire. When Severus arrived under the walls of Rome and besieged it, his men deserted to Maximian, their old commander. Severus fled to an impregnable position. Maximian offered to treat him humanely if he surrendered peaceably, which he did in March or April 307. Despite Maximian's assurance, Severus was nonetheless later imprisoned at Tres Tabernae. Another belief is that Severus II was killed in Ravenna. Severus was survived by his son Flavius Severianus.Flavius Valerius Severus – Flavius Valerius Severus as Caesar (305–306)
290. Maximinus II (Daia) – Maximinus II, also known as Maximinus Daia or Maximinus Daza, was Roman Emperor from 308 to 313. He became embroiled in the Civil wars of the Tetrarchy between rival claimants for control of the empire, in which he was defeated by Licinius. A committed pagan, he engaged in one of the last persecutions of Christians. He rose to high distinction after joining the army. On the death of Galerius in 311, Maximinus divided the Eastern Empire between Licinius and himself. When Licinius and Constantine began to make common cause, Maximinus entered into a secret alliance with the usurper Caesar Maxentius, who controlled Italy. He fled, first to Nicomedia and afterwards to Tarsus, where he died the following August. His death was variously ascribed "to despair, to poison, to the divine justice". The Christian writer Eusebius claims that Maximinus was consumed by avarice and superstition. He made an instructor in wickedness to those about subjects. Why need we relate the licentious, shameless deeds of the man, or enumerate the multitude with whom he committed adultery? For he could not pass through a city without continually corrupting women and ravishing virgins. According to Eusebius, only Christians resisted him. In all they showed patience in behalf of religion rather than transfer to idols the reverence due to God. And when they were dragged away for corrupt purposes, they surrendered their lives to death rather than their bodies to impurity.Maximinus II (Daia) – Maximinus Daia
291. Maxentius – For the saint of the same name see Saint Maxentius Maxentius was Roman Emperor from 306 to 312. He was the son of former Emperor Maximian and the son-in-law of Emperor Galerius. The latter part of his reign was preoccupied with civil war, allying with Maximinus II against Licinius and Constantine. Maxentius' exact date of birth is unknown; it was probably around 278. He was the son of his Eutropia. As his father became emperor in 285, he was regarded as crown prince who would eventually follow his father on the throne. He seems not to have served, however, in any important military or administrative position during the reign of Diocletian and his father. The exact date of his marriage to Valeria Maximilla, daughter of Galerius, is unknown. He had an unknown one. In 305, Constantius and Galerius became Augusti. Although two sons of emperors were available, Constantine and Maxentius, they were passed over for the new tetrarchy, Severus and Maximinus Daia were appointed Caesars. Maxentius retired to an estate some miles from Rome. When Constantius died in 306, his Constantine was subsequently accepted by Galerius into the tetrarchy as Caesar. This set the precedent for Maxentius' accession later in the same year. Maxentius was publicly acclaimed emperor on October 28, 306.Maxentius – Bust of Maxentius
292. Licinius – Licinius I was a Roman emperor from 308 to 324. He was finally defeated at the Battle of Chrysopolis, before being executed on the orders of Constantine I. Born to a Dacian peasant family in Moesia Superior, Licinius accompanied his close childhood friend, the future emperor Galerius, on the Persian expedition in 298. Galerius then trusted the eastern provinces to Licinius when he went to deal personally after the death of Flavius Valerius Severus. Upon his return to the east Galerius elevated Licinius in the West on November 11, 308. He received as his immediate command the provinces of Illyricum, Thrace and Pannonia. In 310 he took command of the war against the Sarmatians, emerging victorious. On the death of Galerius in May 311, Licinius entered into an agreement with Maximinus II to share the eastern provinces between them. An alliance between Maximinus and Maxentius forced the two remaining emperors to enter into a formal agreement with each other. So in March 313 Licinius married half-sister of Constantine I, at Mediolanum; they had a son, Licinius the Younger, in 315. Daia in the meantime decided to attack Licinius. Leaving Syria with 70,000 men, he reached Bithynia, although harsh weather he encountered along the way had gravely weakened his army. In April 313, he went to Byzantium, held by Licinius' troops. Undeterred, he took the town after an eleven-day siege. He moved before moving his forces to the first posting station.Licinius – Coin of Licinius I.
293. Valerius Valens – Aurelius Valerius Valens was Roman Emperor from late 316 to March 1, 317. Valens had previously been dux limitis in Dacia. In the civil war between Licinius and Constantine I, the latter won an overwhelming victory at the battle of Cibalae on October 8, 316. Licinius fled to Adrianople where, with the help of Valens, gathered a second army. There, early in December 316, he elevated Valens to the rank of Augustus, presumably in order to secure his loyalty. Later Licinius would use the same trick in the second civil war with Constantine, by appointing Martinian co-emperor. Despite the literary sources referring as a junior emperor, the numismatic evidence indicates his Augustan rank. The treaty was finalized at Serdica on 1 March, 317. Licinius also had Valens executed. Anonymus Valesianus. From Constantine to Julian: A Source History, Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0-415-09335-X Odahl, Charles M. Constantine and the Christian Empire, Routledge, 2004. ISBN 0-415-17485-6 Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay AD 180–395, Routledge, 2004. Michael, "Valens", DIR.Valerius Valens – Follis of Valerius Valens strucked in Alexandria
294. Licinius II – Licinius II or Licinius the Younger was the son of Roman emperor Licinius. He nominally served as Caesar in the eastern empire from 317 to 324 AD while his father was Augustus. His mother was Flavia Julia Constantia, also the half-sister of Constantine I. After his defeat by Constantine at the Battle of Chrysopolis, Licinius the elder was initially placed in captivity at Thessalonica. However, the former Emperor was hanged. Other reports relate that the younger was forced into slavery in the imperial textile factories in Africa, where he is noted in 336. No son of Constantine's sister would have been referred to in this manner. Dietmar Kienast: Römische Kaisertabelle. Grundzüge römischen Kaiserchronologie. Wiss. Buchgesellschaft, 3. Auflage, S. 296, ISBN 3-534-18240-5.Licinius II – Licinius II. The inscription "LICINIUS IUN NOB C" translates as 'Licinius Junior Most Noble Caesar'
295. Constantine II (emperor) – Constantine II was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340. On 1 he was made Caesar. At the age of seven, he took part in his father's campaign against the Sarmatians. At age ten, he became commander of Gaul, following the death of Crispus. An inscription dating to 330 records the title of Alamannicus, so it is probable that his generals won a victory over the Alamanni. His military career continued when Constantine I made him field commander during the 332 campaign against the Goths. This arrangement barely survived Constantine I’s death, as his sons arranged the slaughter of most of the rest of the family by the army. As a result, there, on 9 September 337, divided the Roman world between themselves. Constantine, proclaimed Augustus by the troops received Gaul, Britannia and Hispania. He was soon involved in the struggle between factions rupturing the unity of the Christian Church. This action aggravated Constantius II, a committed supporter of Arianism. Constantine was initially the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion of the empire was Italia, Africa and Illyricum. Constantine soon complained that he had not received the amount of territory, his due as the eldest son. However, they began quarreling over which parts of the African provinces belonged to Carthage, thus Constantine, which belonged to Italy, therefore Constans. Constantine, who had grown accustomed to dominating his younger brother, would not relinquish the guardianship.Constantine II (emperor) – Statue of Emperor Constantine II as caesar on top of the Cordonata (the monumental ladder climbing up to Piazza del Campidoglio), in Rome.
296. Crispus – Flavius Julius Crispus, also known as Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus, was a Caesar of the Roman Empire. He was the first-born son of Constantine I and Minervina. Crispus' place of birth are uncertain. His Minervina was either a concubine or a first wife to Constantine. Nothing else is known about Minervina. The marriage of Constantine to Fausta has caused modern historians to question the status of his relation to Minervina and Crispus. If Minervina was his legitimate wife, Constantine would have needed to secure a divorce before marrying Fausta. However, Minervina may have already been dead by 307. A widowed Constantine would need no divorce. Crispus was raised by his father in Gaul. This can be seen as evidence of a public relationship between Constantine and Minervina which gave him a reason to protect her son. The story of Minervina is quite similar to that of Constantine's Helena. Constantine in turn may have had to put aside Minervina in order to secure an alliance with the same man. Perhaps Constantine chose to follow the example of his father. Whatever the reason, Constantine kept Crispus at his side.Crispus – Crispus on a coin issued to celebrate Constantine I 's victory over Goths in 323
297. Caesar (title) – Caesar is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of the Roman dictator. The precedent was set: the Emperor designated his successor by giving him the name "Caesar." Galba helped solidify "Caesar" by giving it to his own adopted heir, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus. He was soon deposed by Marcus Otho. Otho did not at first use the title "Caesar" and later adopted the title "Caesar" as well. Otho was then defeated by Aulus Vitellius who acceded with the name "Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Imperator Augustus." Vitellius may have intended to replace it with "Germanicus". Titus Flavius Vespasianus became "Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus". On March 293, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus established the Tetrarchy, a system of rule by two senior Emperors and two junior sub-Emperors. The two senior emperors were styled identically to previous Emperors, as Imperator Caesar NN. Pius Felix Invictus were called the Augusti, while the two junior sub-Emperors were styled identically to previous Emperors-designate, as Nobilissimus Caesar. Likewise, the junior sub-Emperors retained the title "Caesar" to the senior position. The title was awarded in 1081. The title remained through the last centuries of the Empire.Caesar (title) – Bust of Julius Caesar from the Naples National Archaeological Museum.
298. Constans – Constans or Constans I was Roman Emperor from 337 to 350. Constans was the youngest son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, his father's second wife. He was educated at the court of his father under the tutelage of the poet Aemilius Magnus Arborius. On 25 December 333, Constantine I elevated Constans at Constantinople. The marriage never came to pass. The army proclaimed Augusti on September 9, 337. Immediately, Constans was required to deal with a Sarmatian invasion in late 337, over whom he won a resounding victory. Constans was initially under the guardianship of Constantine II. The original settlement assigned Constans the praetorian prefectures of Italy and Africa. Constans was unhappy with this division, so the brothers met in 338 to revise the boundaries. Constantine II soon complained that he had not received the amount of territory, his due as the eldest son. However, they began quarreling over which parts of the African provinces belonged to Carthage, thus Constantine, which belonged to Italy, therefore Constans. In 340 Constantine II invaded Italy. Constantine was eventually trapped at Aquileia, where he died, leaving Constans to inherit all of his brother’s former territories – Hispania, Britannia and Gaul. Constans began his reign in an energetic fashion.Constans – Bust of Constans
299. Magnentius – Magnentius was a usurper of the Roman Empire from 350 to 353. Born in Samarobriva, Gaul, Magnentius was the commander of the Imperial guard units. When the army grew dissatisfied with the behavior of Roman Emperor Constans, it elevated Magnentius on January 18, 350. He was slain shortly afterwards by a troop of light cavalry near the Pyrenees. His control on Italia and Africa was applied to the most important offices. Magnentius tried moving towards the Danube. Commander of the Pannonian army, had been elected Augustus by his troops in Mursa on 1 March. Constantius II himself recognized Vetranio, sending him the imperial diadem. The remaining emperor of the family of Constantius II broke off his war in Syria with Persia, marched west. Despite Magnentius' efforts to gain Vetranio to his cause, the elderly Vetranio reached Constantius with his army, went into retirement in Bithynia. Despite Magnentius' heroism, his troops were forced to retreat back to Gaul. As a result of Magnentius' defeat, Italy rejoined the loyalist cause. Magnentius made a final stand in the Battle of Mons Seleucus, after which he committed suicide by falling on his sword. Following the suppression of Magnentius' rebellion, Constantius commanded an investigation be made to find his followers. The most notorious agent in this search was the primicerius notariorum Paulus Catena.Magnentius – Golden multiplus by Magnentius
300. Decentius – For the magister officiorum under Constantius II, see Decentius. Magnus Decentius was a usurper of the Western Roman Empire against emperor Constantius II. American scholar Michael DiMaio speculates that Decentius possibly was the brother of Magnentius, who had revolted against Constantius on 18 January 350. Magnentius elevated Decentius by him that winter, to oversee the defence of Gaul and the Rhine frontier. He was appointed consul ordinarius in 352. When Magnentius was defeated at the Battle of Mons Seleucus and committed suicide, Decentius, leading reinforcements, hanged himself at Senonae. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae, XVI, 12,4 DiMaio, Michael, "Magnentius and Decentius", De Imperatoribus Romanis site Media related to Decentius at Wikimedia CommonsDecentius – Bronze coin of Decentius
301. Constantius II – Constantius II was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death. In 340, Constantius' brothers clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine II Constans as ruler of the west until he was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius. Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius defeated him at the battles of Mons Seleucus. Magnentius committed suicide after the latter battle, leaving Constantius as sole ruler of the empire. In contrast, the war in the east against the Sassanids continued with mixed results. Thereafter, in 355, Constantius promoted his last surviving cousin, Gallus' younger half-brother, Julian, to the rank of Caesar. However, Julian claimed the rank of Augustus in 360, leading to war between the two. Ultimately, no battle was fought as Constantius died late in 361, though not before naming Julian as his successor. Constantius was born at Sirmium, Pannonia. He was the third son of the Great, second by his second wife Fausta, the daughter of Maximian. Constantius was made Caesar by his father on 13 November 324. In 336, tense relations between Constantine and king Shapur II caused war to break out between Rome and Sassanid Persia. Though he made initial preparations for the war, Constantine sent Constantius east to take command of the eastern frontier.Constantius II – Bust of Constantius II
302. Vetranio – Vetranio, sometimes incorrectly referred to as Vetriano, was a Roman soldier and statesman, a native of the province of Moesia. He was an experienced officer when he was asked by Constantina, the sister of Roman Emperor Constantius II, to proclaim himself Caesar. She probably thought Vetranio could protect her family and herself against the usurper. Constantius first sent him money to raise an army. Vetranio frequently asked Constantius for military aid to fight Magnentius; he also sent letters to the emperor professing his loyalty to him. When negotiations deadlocked, Magnentius and Vetranio made an alliance; they sent an embassy to the emperor. The ambassadors met in Thrace. Magnentius offered to marry Constantia the emperor's sister, in turn. But first, they required that the emperor accept the honor as senior emperor. Constantius rejected their offer. Constantius was on a campaign against the Persians when Magnentius came to power. Both moved on to Naissus in Serbia. He then took the purple away from Vetranio. The emperor led the old man down the stairs of the platform, led him to the dinner table. He was allowed to live the remainder of his years as a private citizen on a pension in Prusa ad Olympum, Bithynia.Vetranio – On the reverse of this coin struck under Vetranio, the emperor is holding two labara, the ensigns introduced by Constantine I.
303. Julian (emperor) – Julian, also known as Julian the Apostate was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek. In 360 in Lutetia he was proclaimed Augustus by his soldiers, sparking a civil war between Julian and Constantius. Before the two could face each other in battle, however, Constantius died, after naming Julian as his rightful successor. In 363, Julian embarked on an ambitious campaign against the Sassanid Empire. Though initially successful, Julian was mortally wounded in battle and died shortly thereafter. Julian was a man of unusually complex character: he was "the man of letters". He purged the top-heavy state bureaucracy and attempted to revive traditional Roman religious practices at the cost of Christianity. His anti-Christian sentiment and promotion of Neoplatonic paganism caused him to be remembered as Julian the Apostate by the church. He was the last emperor of the Constantinian dynasty, the empire's first Christian dynasty. Both of his parents were Christians. His paternal grandparents were Western Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife, Flavia Maximiana Theodora. His maternal grandfather was Julius Julianus, praetorian prefect of the East under emperor Licinius from 315 to 324 and consul after 325. The name of Julian's maternal grandmother is unknown. Constantius II, Constans I, Constantine II were proclaimed joint emperors, each ruling a portion of Roman territory. Julian and Gallus were excluded from public life, were strictly guarded in their youth, given a Christian education.Julian (emperor) – Portrait of Emperor Julian on a bronze coin from Antioch minted in 360–363
304. Jovian (emperor) – Jovian was Roman Emperor from 363 to 364. Upon the death of emperor Julian the Apostate during his campaign against the Sassanid Empire, Jovian was hastily declared emperor by his soldiers. He reestablished Christianity as the state church. His reign lasted only eight months. Jovian was born in 331 AD, the son of Varronianus, the commander of Constantius II's imperial bodyguards. He also by 363 had risen to the same command that his father had once held. In this capacity, Jovian accompanied the Roman Emperor Julian against Shapur II, the Sassanid king. After the Battle of a small but decisive engagement, the Roman army was forced to retreat from the numerically superior Persian force. Julian, mortally wounded during the retreat, died on 26 June 363. The next day, after praetorian prefect of the Orient, had declined the purple, the choice of the army fell upon Jovian. A Christian, reestablished Christianity as the state church, ending the brief revival of paganism under his predecessor. Upon arriving at Antioch, he revoked the edicts of Julian against Christians. The Labarum of Constantine the Great again became the standard of the army. He extended the same punishment on 23 December to participation in any ceremony. Jovian entertained a great regard for Athanasius, whom he reinstated on the archiepiscopal throne, desiring him to draw up a statement of the orthodox faith.Jovian (emperor) – Solidus of emperor Jovian
305. Valentinian I – Valentinian I, also known as Valentinian the Great, was Roman emperor from 364 to 375. Upon becoming emperor he made his co-emperor giving him rule of the eastern provinces while Valentinian retained the west. During his reign, Valentinian fought successfully against the Alamanni, Sarmatians. Most notable was his victory over the Alamanni in 367 at the Battle of Solicinium. His general Count Theodosius defeated a revolt in Africa and the Great Conspiracy, a coordinated assault on Roman Britain by Picts, Scots, Saxons. Valentinian was also the last emperor to conduct campaigns across both the Rhine and Danube rivers. Valentinian improved the fortifications along the frontiers, even building fortresses in enemy territory. He founded the Valentinian Dynasty, with his sons Gratian and Valentinian II succeeding him in the western half of the empire. Valentinian was born at Cibalae in southern Pannonia. Valentinian and his younger brother Valens were the sons of Gratianus Major, Constans I. His brother grew up on the family estate where they were educated in a variety of subjects, including painting and sculpting. The young Valentinian accompanied his father to Africa. However, Gratian was forced to retire. Valentinian later probably acquired the position of protector domesticus. Gratian was made comes of Britannia.Valentinian I – Valentinian I
306. Valens – Valens, fully Flavius Julius Valens Augustus, was Eastern Roman Emperor from 364 to 378. He was given Valentinian I after the latter's accession to the throne. His brother Valentinian were both born in Cibalae into an Illyrian family in 328 and 321 respectively. They had grown up on estates purchased in Africa and Britain. While Valentinian had enjoyed a military career prior to his appointment as emperor, Valens apparently had not. Among Jovian's lieutenants was Valentinian, a tribunus scutariorum. He was proclaimed Augustus on 364. Valentinian went on to the West. Valens obtained the eastern half of the Empire Greece, Egypt, Syria and Anatolia far east as Persia. Valens was back by December 364. In 365, an earthquake between magnitudes 8 and 9 near Crete caused a tsunami that hit the coasts of the Eastern Mediterranean. Valens's first priority after the winter of 365 was to move east in hopes of shoring up the situation. By the autumn of 365 he had reached Cappadocian Caesarea when he learned that a usurper, named Procopius, had proclaimed himself in Constantinople. When he died, the emperor had left behind one surviving relative, a maternal cousin named Procopius. Though Jovian made accommodations to appease this potential claimant, Procopius fell increasingly in the first year of Valens' reign.Valens – A marble bust possibly representing Valens or Honorius
307. Gratian – For other figures with this name, including his paternal grandfather, see Gratian. Gratian was Roman emperor from 367 to 383. The eldest son of Valentinian I, during his youth Gratian accompanied his father along the Rhine and Danube frontiers. Upon the death of Valentinian in 375, Gratian's brother Valentinian II was declared emperor by his father's soldiers. In 378, Gratian's generals won a decisive victory at the Battle of Argentovaria. Gratian attacked the Lentienses, forcing the tribe to surrender. His uncle Valens was killed in the Battle of Adrianople against the Goths -- making Gratian essentially ruler of the entire Roman Empire. He favoured Christianity over Roman religion, refusing the divine attributes of the Emperors and removing the Altar of Victory from the Roman Senate. Gratian was born at Sirmium in Pannonia. He was named after his grandfather Gratian the Elder. Gratian was first married to daughter of Constantius II. His second wife was Laeta. Both marriages remained childless. His paternal half siblings were Emperor Valentinian II, Galla and Justa. On August 367 he received from his father the title of Augustus.Gratian – Gratian
308. Valentinian II – Valentinian II, was Roman Emperor from AD 375 to 392. Flavius Valentinianus was born to his second wife, Justina. He was the half-brother of Gratian, who had shared the imperial title with his father since 367. He had Galla, Grata and Justa. The elder Valentinian died in 375. Neither his uncle Valens were consulted by the army commanders on the scene. Instead of merely acknowledging Gratian as his father’s successor, Valentinian I’s generals acclaimed the four-year-old Valentinian augustus on 22 November 375. Justina used her influence over her young son to oppose the Nicean party, championed by Ambrose. In 385 Ambrose, backed by Milan's populace, refused an imperial request for the use of Arian troops. Ambrose was again ordered to hand over a church in Milan for Arian usage. The imperial order was rescinded. Even his eventual protector, Theodosius, cast aspersions on his Arianism. Valentinian also tried to restrain the despoiling of pagan temples in Rome. Valentinian, at the insistence of Ambrose, in so doing, rejected the traditions and rituals of pagan Rome to which Symmachus had appealed. In 383, commander of the armies in Britain, declared himself Emperor and established himself in Gaul and Hispania.Valentinian II – Bust of Valentinian II.
309. Magnus Maximus – Magnus Maximus was Western Roman Emperor from 383 to 388. In 387, Maximus' ambitions led resulting in his defeat by Theodosius I at the Battle of the Save in 388. In the view of some historians, his death marked the end of imperial presence in Northern Gaul and Britain. Near contemporaries described his dignity as offended when lesser men were promoted to high positions. Maximus was a distinguished general, who served in 373 and on the Danube in 376. It is likely he also may have been a junior officer in Britain in 368, during the quelling of the Great Conspiracy. Assigned in 380, he defeated an incursion of the Picts and Scots in 381. The western Gratian had become unpopular because of perceived favouritism toward Alans over Roman citizens. The Alans are an Iranian speaking people who migrated both east and west from their homeland. In 383 Maximus was proclaimed emperor by his troops. He went to Gaul taking a large portion of the British garrison troops with him. Following his landing in Gaul, Maximus went out to meet emperor Gratian, whom he defeated near Paris. Gratian, after fleeing, was killed on August 25, 383. Maximus ruled Britain, Gaul, Spain and Africa. He issued a number of edicts reorganizing Gaul's system of provinces.Magnus Maximus – Magnus Maximus
310. Flavius Victor – Flavius Victor was the son of Magnus Maximus. He was ruled nominally from 384 to his death in 388. Victor's father was considered a usurper of the Western Roman Empire. Maximus and Victor gained recognition of their legitimacy for their co-reign in 386. In 387, Maximus campaigned in Italy against Valentinian II. Victor was left behind in Trier. His father failed against a then hostile Theodosius in 388. Theodosius sent Arbogastes to slay Victor. Victor's death left Valentinian II, Theodosius and Arcadius as the sole Augusti in the Empire. Media related to Flavius Victor at Wikimedia Commons De Imperatoribus Romanis account Roman Empire accountFlavius Victor – Siliqua of Flavius Victor
311. Honorius (emperor) – Honorius was Western Roman Emperor from 393 to 423. Even by the standards of the rapidly declining Western Empire, Honorius's reign was chaotic. His reign was supported by Stilicho, successively Honorius's guardian and his father-in-law. With his execution in 408, the Western Roman Empire moved closer to collapse. When Theodosius died, in January 395, Honorius and Arcadius divided the Empire, so that Honorius became Western Roman Emperor at the age of ten. To strengthen his bonds with the young emperor, Stilicho married his daughter Maria to him. The epithalamion written by Stilicho's court poet Claudian survives. Honorius was also greatly influenced by the Popes of Rome, who sought to extend their influence through weak character. So it was that Pope Innocent I contrived condemning the deposition of John Chrysostom in 407. It was significant that the Emperor's residence remained until the overthrow of the last western Roman Emperor in 476. Honorius' reign was plagued into Gaul, Italy and Hispania. At the same time, a host of usurpers rose up due to the apparent inability of the Emperor to see to the Empire's defences. It was eventually subdued under the local command of Mascezel, the brother of Gildo. The next crisis was the Visigoth invasion of Italy in 402 under the formidable command of Alaric. Stilicho hurried back to protect the legions of Gaul and Britain were summoned to defend Italy.Honorius (emperor) – Honorius on the consular diptych of Anicius Petronius Probus (406)
312. Constantine III (Western Roman Emperor) – Recognised in 409, military setbacks saw him abdicate in 411. He was executed afterwards. This was a blow to the Western Empire from which it never recovered. Also, a contributing factor of major importance was the disunity among the Romans themselves. A common soldier, but one of some ability, Constantine moved quickly. Constantine garrisoned the passes that led into Italy. By May 408 he had made Arles his capital, where he appointed Apollinaris, the grandfather of Sidonius Apollinaris, as prefect. In the summer of 408, as the Roman forces in Italy assembled to counterattack, Constantine had other plans. Lagodius escaped to Rome whereas Theodosiolus escaped to Constantinople. Constans left his household under the care of Gerontius to return to report to Arles. Meanwhile, the loyalist Roman army mutinied on 13 August, followed on 22 August. That year was the high-water mark of Constantine's success. About the same time Saxon pirates raided Britain, which Constantine had left defenseless. But Constantine forced to retreat in the late spring of 410. Constantine's position grew even more untenable; his forces facing the rebel Gerontius were defeated at Vienne, where his son Constans was captured and executed.Constantine III (Western Roman Emperor) – Coin of Constantine III.
313. Constans II (usurper) – Constans II was the eldest son of the Western Roman Emperor Constantine III and was appointed co-emperor by him from 409 to 411. He was killed during the revolts and fighting that ended his father’s reign. Elder son of Claudius Constantine and brother of Julian, in his youth Constans was a monk. After some initial defeats, Constans captured two of his enemies, while the other two fled to Constantinople. In Autumn 409, barbarian invaders plundered Gaul, reached the Pyrenees, swept away Roman defences and entered into Hispania. With the support of the barbarians, Gerontius took over Constantine's territory; in 411, he captured the city of Vienne and put Constans to death. Whether Constans II was a usurper is open to debate: he was crowned after Constantine III had been recognised as co-emperor by Honorius. However, this recognition would not have included the right to extend the imperial power to Constantine's family. British legend, aided by Geoffrey of Monmouth, states that Constans was elected by the Britons as king after Constantine's death. This contradicts the known history of Constans, as does the remainder of his British story. The legend claims Constans, older brother to Aurelius Ambrosius and Uther Pendragon, spent his early life studying at a monastery. During the crisis following Constantine's murder, leader of the Gewissei tribe, convinced Constans to become king. The weak and unpopular former monk became a puppet, putting all but the title of his office into the hands of Vortigern. Vortigern eventually disposed of him by tricking some Picts, liaisons in his employ, into murdering him in his sleep. The treacherous Vortigern took the throne for himself.Constans II (usurper) – Siliqua of Constans II
314. Constantius III – Constantius, commonly known as Constantius III, was Western Roman Emperor for seven months in 421. Constantius was probably a career soldier, who reached the rank of magister militum under Honorius. In 411 he defeated Gerontius, Constantine III, another usurper, in Arles. Gerontius was then killed in Hispania. Before the walls of Arles, Constantius defeated Edobichus, later betrayed and killed by a friend. Constantine was forced to surrender to Constantius when his troops on the Rhine left him for Jovinus. Later he captured and killed him. In 412 he expelled under Ataulf. In 413 he held his first consulate. In 414 he began a military offensive against the Visigoths. In response, Ataulf appointed as emperor Priscus Attalus, who had already been a usurper against Honorius in 410. The blockade imposed on Gallic ports was so effective that the Visigoths fled from Gaul to Hispania in 415. Attalus too was captured by the forces of Constantius and sent to Ravenna. The agreement also provided for the release of Honorius' sister, captured during the sack of Rome in 410. The couple had two children, the future Emperor Valentinian III.Constantius III – Constantius on a solidus. The reverse shows Constantius as a general, holding Victory in one hand and a captive enemy in the other.
315. Joannes – Ioannes, known in English as Joannes or even John, was a Roman usurper against Valentinian III. On the death of the Emperor Honorius, the remaining ruler of the House of Theodosius hesitated in announcing his uncle's death. In the interregnum, Honorius's patrician at the time of Castinus, elevated Joannes as emperor. Joannes was a primicerius notariorum or civil servant at the time of his elevation. Procopius praised him with sagacity and thoroughly capable of valorous deeds." Unlike the Theodosian emperors, he tolerated all Christian sects. From the beginning, his control over the empire was insecure. In Gaul, his prefect was slain at Arles in an uprising of the soldiery there. And Comes of the Diocese of Africa, held back the grain fleet destined to Rome. Praetorian games were provided at the expense of a member of the gens Anicia. Johannes then moved his base of operations to Ravenna, knowing full well that the Eastern Empire would strike from that direction. Its fate, presumed unsuccessful, is unrecorded. In Gaul, he appears to have caused offense by submitting clerics to secular courts. And, all. Late in 424, he gave to most promising followers, Aëtius, an important mission.Joannes – Joannes on a solidus.
316. Ravenna – Ravenna is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. It was the city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476. It then served as the capital of the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths until it was re-conquered by the Eastern Roman Empire. Although an inland city, Ravenna is connected by the Candiano Canal. It has eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The origin of the Ravenna is unclear, although it is believed the name is Etruscan. There is no agreement on this point. The origins of Ravenna are uncertain. Ravenna consisted of houses built in a marshy lagoon -- a situation similar to Venice several centuries later. In 49 BC, it was the location where Julius Caesar gathered his forces before crossing the Rubicon. Later, after his battle against Mark Antony in 31 BC, Emperor Augustus founded the military harbor of Classe. This harbor, protected by its own walls, was an important station of the Roman Imperial Fleet. Ravenna remained an important seaport on the Adriatic until the early Middle Ages. During the German campaigns, widow of Arminius, Marbod, King of the Marcomanni, were confined at Ravenna. Ravenna greatly prospered under Roman rule.Ravenna – Collage of Ravenna
317. Valentinian III – Valentinian III was Western Roman Emperor from 425 to 455. His reign was marked by the ongoing dismemberment of the Western Empire. He was born in the western capital of the only son of Galla Placidia and Flavius Constantius. His mother was the younger half-sister of the western emperor Honorius, while his father was at the power behind the throne. He had Justa Grata Honoria, probably born in 417 or 418. When Valentinian was less than two years old, Honorius appointed a position he would hold until his death seven months later. As a result of all these family ties, he was the son, grandson, great-grandson, nephew of Roman Emperors. In 423, the usurper Joannes took the power in Rome. To counter this threat to his power, Theodosius belatedly nominated Valentinian Caesar of the West in October 23, 424. Theodosius also betrothed him to his own daughter Licinia Eudoxia. Her regency lasted until 437, for the duration, Theodosius II gave his full support. In 425, the court at Ravenna negotiated with the Huns who had accompanied Flavius Aëtius to Italy in support of Joannes. They agreed to evacuate the province of Pannonia Valeria, returned to the empire. This allowed the imperial government to restructure the defences along the Danubian provinces in 427 and 428. In addition, there were significant victories over the Visigoths in the Franks along the Rhine in 428 and 432.Valentinian III – Solidus of Emperor Valentinian III.
318. Petronius Maximus – Petronius Maximus was Western Roman Emperor for two and a half months in 455. Maximus was killed during the events culminating by the Vandals in 455. Petronius Maximus was born in about 396. Although he was of obscure origin, it is now believed that he belonged to the Anicii family. Maximus achieved a remarkable career early in life. From August 439 to February 441 he held the prefecture of Italy, then a second consulship in 443. Between 445 Maximus built a forum in Rome, on the Caelian Hill between via Labicana and the Basilica di San Clemente. John’s account has it that Valentinian and Maximus placed a wager on a game that Maximus ended up losing. As he did not have the money available, Maximus left his ring as a guarantee of his debt. Valentinian then used the ring to summon to court the chaste and beautiful wife of Maximus, whom Valentinian had long lusted after. Lucina went to the court, believing she had been summoned by her husband, but instead found herself at dinner with Valentinian. Although initially resisting his advances, the Emperor succeeded in raping her. Returning meeting Maximus, she accused him of betrayal, believing that he had handed her over to the Emperor. Although Maximus swore revenge, he was equally motivated by ambition to supplant "a despicable rival," so he decided to move against Valentinian. On March 16, 455 Valentinian, in Rome, went with some guards, accompanied by Optilia, Thraustila and their men.Petronius Maximus – Solidus of Emperor Petronius Maximus.
319. Avitus – Marcus Maecilius Flavius Eparchius Avitus c. 380/395 – after 17 October 456 or in 457) was Western Roman Emperor from 8 or 9 July 455 to 17 October 456. He was a high-ranking officer both in the civil and military administration, as well as Bishop of Piacenza. He opposed the reduction of the Western Roman Empire to Italy alone, both politically and from an administrative point of view. Avitus had a good relationship with the Visigoths, in particular with their king Theodoric II, who acclaimed Avitus Emperor. Avitus was born to a family of the Gallo-Roman nobility. His father was possibly consul in 421. Avitus followed a course of study typical for a young man of his rank, including law. Before 421 he was sent to the powerful patricius Flavius Constantius to ask for a reduction for his own country; this embassy was successful. Theodoric I. In 425/426 Avitus met him and the King, who let Avitus enter his own court. Here, around 439, Avitus met the son of Theodoric, Theodoric II, who later became King. Avitus inspired the young Theodoric to study Latin poets. He then started a military career serving in his campaign against the Juthungi and the Norics and against the Burgundians. After being elevated to the rank of vir illustris, he returned to Avernia, where he held a high office, probably magister militum per Gallias.Avitus – Tremissis of Emperor Avitus.
320. Majorian – Majorian was the Western Roman Emperor from 457 to 461. A prominent general of Majorian deposed Emperor Avitus in 457 and succeeded him. Majorian was one of the last emperors to make a concerted effort to restore the Western Roman Empire. Possessing some territory in northern Gaul, Majorian campaigned rigorously for three years against the Empire's enemies. Majorian was the last of the Western Roman Emperors, able to try to recover the Western Empire with its own forces. After defeating a Vandal attack on Italy, Majorian launched a campaign in southern Gaul. Majorian then attacked the Burgundian Kingdom, defeating them at the Siege of Lugdunum, reducing them to federate status. In 460, Majorian left Gaul to consolidate his hold on Hispania. His fleet for his campaign to restore Africa to the empire from the Vandals was destroyed due to treachery. Majorian sought to reform the imperial administration in order to make it more efficient and just. The general Ricimer deposed and killed Majorian, who had become unpopular with the senatorial aristocracy because of his reforms. The life of his reign are better known than those of the other Western Emperors of the same period. Majorian was probably born after 420, as in 458 he is defined a "young man". He belonged to the military aristocracy of the Roman Empire. The daughter of the militum then married an officer, probably called Donninus, who administered the finances of Aetius, the powerful magister militum of the West.Majorian – Coin of Emperor Majorian
321. Libius Severus – Libius Severus was Western Roman Emperor from November 19, 461 to his death. On August 461, the magister militum of the Western Roman army, Ricimer, had Emperor Majorian killed, thus leaving the western throne empty. A struggle for the succession thus ensured, with Eastern Emperor Leo I, Ricimer himself involved. The Eastern Emperor traditionally had the right to accept his "colleague," for the Empire was nominally still united. Ricimer needed a weak Emperor on the throne, in order to control him: his barbaric descent barred him from taking the throne for himself. Gaiseric's candidate to the Western throne was Olybrius, who had was thus a member of his family. Severus was elected Emperor by the Roman Senate in Ravenna. Severus had to face several problems during his reign, because of the presence of Ricimer and because his rule was not recognised in several provinces. This episode is also important because it marks the passage of Illyricum from the Western to the Eastern sphere of influence. To oppose Aegidius, Severus appointed his own supporter Agrippinus to the office of militum per Gallias, thus officially giving him power over Aegidius. Agrippinus asked for support from the Visigoths, with their help moved against Aegidius and his Frankish allies, led by King Childeric I. It is probably to this temporary control over Gaul that the limited issue of his coins by the mint of Arelate is to be dated. Ricimer put Libius Severus on the throne, though he retained actual power. The Vandals continued their raids during the reign of Severus. Severus sent him to the King of the Vandals, who, however, rejected the peace proposal.Libius Severus – Solidus of Emperor Libius Severus
322. Anthemius – Anthemius was Western Roman Emperor from 467 to 472. Anthemius was killed by his own general of Gothic descent, who contested power with him. Anthemius belonged to the gens Procopia, which gave several high officers, both civil and military, to the Eastern Roman Empire. His mother Lucina, born c. In 455 he received the honour of holding the consulate as colleague. Anthemius stayed under the new Emperor; as magister militum, his task was to defend the Empire from the barbaric populations pressing on its border. Around 460, he defeated the Ostrogoths of Valamir in Illyricum. During the winter of 466/467 he were pillaging Dacia. After the death of Libius Severus in 465, the Western Empire had no Emperor. With Olybrius on the throne, Gaiseric would become the real power behind the throne of the Western Empire. On April 12, Anthemius was proclaimed Emperor at the twelfth mile from Rome. Anthemius' election was celebrated in Constantinople by Dioscorus. Both courts collaborated in the choice of the yearly consuls, as each court accepted the other's choice. The two consuls were Anthemius' son, Marcian, Leo's son-in-law, Flavius Zeno. In 470 the consuls were Messius Phoebus Severus, Anthemius' old friend and the Magister militum per Orientem Flavius Iordanes.Anthemius – Tremissis of Emperor Anthemius. His title is Our Lord, Anthemius, Pious, Fortunate, Augustus.
323. Olybrius – Olybrius was Western Roman Emperor from April or May 472 to his death. Olybrius was born in Rome, in the powerful gens Anicia, of Italian descent. Possible fathers have therefore been proposed: either Flavius Anicius Probus or, according to some clues, Petronius Maximus. The year of their wedding is not recorded, although the historian Priscus implies it took place before the Vandal sack of Rome. Oost has pointed out that in his chronicle Hydatius wrote Placidia was unmarried as of 455. Aetius' death came 21 September 454, when the Emperor Valentinian provoked a quarrel with him that ended with his own sword. Valentinian was killed by some soldiers who had served under Aetius, probably instigated by the Patricius Petronius Maximus, who succeeded to the throne. Petronius, a member of a family belonging to the senatorial aristocracy, married Empress Licinia Eudoxia, widow of Valentinian. He also had him marry to Eudocia, elder daughter of Valentinian. Oost mentions this possibility in his book Galla Placidia Augusta. The surviving evidence is not sufficient to allow us to decide between these alternatives. Before returning to Africa, the Vandals took her two daughter as hostages. According to the 6th historian John Malalas, Olybrius was in Constantinople at the time. On the other hand, the chronicler Evagrius Scholasticus writes that Olybrius had fled Rome on the approach of Gaiseric's army. During his residence in the Eastern capital, Olybrius expressed his interest in religious matters.Olybrius – Gaiseric sacks Rome, by Karl Briullov. After the sack of Rome (455), the Vandals took Licinia Eudoxia and her two daughters, among which also Olybrius' wife Placidia, to Africa; at that time Olybrius was in Constantinople.
324. Glycerius – Glycerius was a Western Roman Emperor from 473 to 474. Elevated by his Magister militum Gundobad, Glycerius was ousted by Julius Nepos. He later served as the bishop of Salona. Sources on Glycerius are scanty. Previous to this posting, he had been the military commander in Dalmatia. In 472, the Western Roman Empire was plagued by his Magister militum, Ricimer. In a short time both Ricimer and Olybrius were dead. Little is known about the short reign of Glycerius. A single law issued by Glycerius survives, concerning simony, addressed to Himilco, the Praetorian Prefect of Italy. Ralph Mathisen speculates that Glycerius tried to stay with the Eastern Roman Empire. His commander Vincentius was defeated and killed by Glycerius' comites Alla and Sindila. Despite the victorious defence of Italy, Glycerius could do nothing to prevent the Visigoths in Gaul. At the same time, the Ostrogoths led by King Widimir began marching to Italy. The possibility that the two Gothic armies would merge was disastrous. While this strategy prevented Vincentius from receiving reinforcements, it also led against Gaul.Glycerius – Solidus of Emperor Glycerius
325. Julius Nepos – Julius Nepos was Western Roman Emperor de facto from 474 to 475 and de jure until 480. He was also the ruler of Roman Dalmatia from 468 to 480. Some historians consider Nepos to be the last Western Roman Emperor, while others consider the western line to have ended with Romulus Augustulus in 476. In contrast, its line of Emperors survived this period of history essentially intact. Nepos was elevated to Western Roman Emperor in 474 by the Eastern Roman Emperor Leo I in order to replace the usurper Glycerius. Romulus Augustulus was soon deposed by Odoacer. In practical terms his power did not extend beyond Dalmatia. Eastern Emperor Zeno formally abolished the Western division of the Empire. Julius Nepos was appointed Western Roman Emperor in early 474 by the Eastern Roman Emperor Leo I. Nepos was married to Leo's niece, hence his agnomen of nepos — "nephew". Leo intended to replace the western emperor Glycerius, who he regarded as a usurper. Glycerius had been raised by the Burgundian magister militum Gundobad in the western capital of Ravenna. Under Roman law, Leo had the right to select a new western counterpart. In June 474 Nepos secured the western throne for himself. Nepos appointed him bishop of Salona.Julius Nepos – Tremissis of Emperor Julius Nepos
326. Romulus Augustulus – Romulus Augustus was an emperor reigning over the Western Roman Empire from 31 October AD 475 until 4 September AD 476. He is mostly known by his nickname "Romulus Augustulus", though he ruled officially as Romulus Augustus. The Latin suffix -ulus is a diminutive; hence, Augustulus effectively means "Little Augustus". The historical record contains few details of Romulus's life. He was proclaimed as emperor after forcing Emperor Julius Nepos to leave Italy. Little more than a child, acted as a figurehead for his father's rule and reigned for only ten months. Romulus was soon deposed by Odoacer, who had defeated and executed Orestes. Odoacer sent Romulus to live in Campania, after which he disappears from the historical record. The future emperor was named Romulus after his maternal grandfather, a nobleman from Poetovio in Noricum. Orestes was appointed Magister militum by Julius Nepos in 475. Shortly after his appointment, Orestes captured Ravenna, the capital of the Western Roman Empire since 402, on 28 August 475. Nepos fled to Dalmatia, where his uncle had ruled a semi-autonomous state in the 460s. Orestes, however, refused to become emperor, "from some secret motive", said historian Edward Gibbon. Instead, he installed his son on 31 October 475. The empire Augustus had shrunk significantly over the previous 80 years.Romulus Augustulus – Tremissis of Romulus Augustus
327. Arcadius – Arcadius was Eastern Roman Emperor from 383 to 408. He was the eldest son of Theodosius I and brother of the Western Emperor Honorius. His reign was dominated by a series of powerful ministers and by his wife, Aelia Eudoxia. Arcadius was born in Hispania, brother of Honorius, who would become a Western Roman Emperor. His father declared an Augustus and co-ruler for the Eastern half of the Empire in January 383. His younger brother was also declared Augustus for the Western half. As emperors, Honorius was under the control of the Romanized Vandal militum Flavius Stilicho while Arcadius was dominated by one of his ministers, Rufinus. The eunuch Eutropius, simply took Rufinus' place as the power behind the Eastern imperial throne. That same year, on 13 Arcadius issued an edict ordering that all remaining non-Christian temples should be immediately demolished. She died later that year. Eudoxia gave to Arcadius Theodosius, the future Emperor Theodosius II. Arcadius was dominated by Anthemius, the Praetorian Prefect, who made peace with Stilicho in the West. The episode has been traditionally interpreted as a paroxysm of anti-barbarian reaction that served to stabilize the East. Synesius' De regno, which claims to be addressed to Arcadius himself, contains a tirade against Goths. No statue, base or inscription was found.Arcadius – Solidus of Arcadius.
328. Theodosius II – There were also a Theodosius II of Abkhazia, a Patriarch Theodosius II of Alexandria and a Theodosius II of Constantinople. Additionally, Pope Theodoros I of Alexandria is also known as Theodosius II in Coptic history. Commonly surnamed Theodosius the Younger, or Theodosius the Calligrapher, was Eastern Roman Emperor from 408 to 450. He is mostly known for the construction of the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople. He also presided over the outbreak of two great christological controversies, Eutychianism. Theodosius was born as the only son of Emperor Arcadius and his Frankish-born wife Aelia Eudoxia. Already in January AD 402 he was proclaimed co-Augustus by his father, thus becoming the youngest person ever to bear this title in Roman history. In 408, the seven-year-old boy became Emperor of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire. Government was by the Praetorian Prefect Anthemius, under whose supervision the Theodosian land walls of Constantinople were constructed. In 414, Theodosius' older sister Pulcheria was assumed the regency. His sister remained a strong influence on him. In June 421, Theodosius married a woman of Greek origin. The two had a daughter named Licinia Eudoxia. In 423, the primicerius notariorum Joannes was proclaimed Emperor. To strengthen the ties between the two parts of the Empire, Theodosius' daughter Licinia Eudoxia was betrothed to Valentinian.Theodosius II – Bust of Theodosius II
329. Pulcheria – St. Aelia Pulcheria /ˈiːliə pʌlˈkɪriə/ was the second child of Eastern Roman Emperor Arcadius and Empress Aelia Eudoxia. In 415, the old Pulcheria took over the reigns of government as the guardian of her younger brother Theodosius II and was also proclaimed "Augusta". Pulcheria had significant, though changing, political power during her brother's reign. She died three years later, in July 453. The Eastern Orthodox Church subsequently recognized her as a saint. Pulcheria was born into the royal House of Theodosius, ruling in Constantinople. Her parents were Empress Aelia Eudoxia. Flaccilla, was born in 397 but probably died young. Her younger siblings were Arcadia, Theodosius II, Marina. John declared that these proceedings reflected dishonor on the hurch." Also according to Sozomen, Chrysostom had resulted in Chrysostom's immediate deposition. Later in life, Pulcheria installed them for the Church, in gratitude for his pious life. Emperor Arcadius in 408. Two praetorian prefects named Anthemius and Antiochus at handled government affairs. At the same time, Pulcheria made a vow of virginity, probably to keep off pontential suitors.Pulcheria – Coin of Aelia Pulcheria
330. Marcian – Marcian was Eastern Roman Emperor from 450 to 457. Marcian's rule marked a recovery of the Eastern Empire, which the Emperor reformed economically and financially. The Eastern Orthodox Church recognizes Marcian as a saint for his role in convoking the Council of Chalcedon. Marcian was born in Illyricum or Thracia. The son of a soldier, he spent his early life as member of a military unit located at Philippopolis. After recovering from his illness, he went to Constantinople, where he served under the generals Ardaburius and Aspar. Through the influence of these generals he was later raised to the rank of senator. Marcian reformed the finances, repopulated the devastated districts. He repelled attacks in 452, quelled disturbances on the Armenian frontier in 456. The notable event of his reign is the Council of Chalcedon in 451, in which Marcian endeavored to mediate between the rival schools of theology. Marcian generally ignored the affairs of the Western Roman Empire, leaving that tottering half of the empire to its fate. Shortly before Attila's death in 453, conflict had begun again between Marcian. However, the powerful Hun king died before all-out war broke out. In a dream, a few days later, he got word that his great enemy was dead. Marcian died on 27 January 457 of a disease, possibly gangrene, contracted during a religious journey.Marcian – Solidus of Emperor Marcian
331. Leo I the Thracian – Leo I was Eastern Roman Emperor from 457 to 474. A native of Dacia Aureliana near historic Thrace, he was known as Leo the Thracian. Ruling the Eastern Empire for nearly 20 years, Leo proved to be a capable ruler. Leo oversaw ambitious military plans, aimed mostly for the aid of the faltering Western Roman Empire and recovering its former territories. He is notable for being the first Eastern Emperor to legislate in Greek rather than Latin. He is commemorated as a Saint in the Orthodox Church, with his feast day on January 20. Leo was born Leo Marcellus in Dacia Aureliana province to a Thraco-Roman family. His Dacian origin is mentioned by Candidus Isaurus, while John Malalas believes that he was of Bessian stock. He served in the Roman army, rising to the rank of comes. Instead, Leo became more and more independent from Aspar, causing tension that would culminate in the assassination of the latter. Leo's coronation as emperor on 7 February 457, was the first known to involve the Patriarch of Constantinople. Leo I made an alliance with the Isaurians and was thus able to eliminate Aspar. The price of the alliance was the marriage of Leo's daughter to Tarasicodissa, leader of the Isaurians who, as Zeno, became emperor in 474. In 469, Aspar attempted to assassinate Zeno and very nearly succeeded. Finally, in 471, Aspar's son Ardabur was implicated in a plot against Leo and Ardabur was killed by palace eunuchs acting on Leo's orders.Leo I the Thracian – Imperial portrait of Leo I at the Louvre Museum
332. Leo II (emperor) – Leo II was Eastern Roman Emperor for less than a year in 474. He was maternal grandson of Leo I and Verina. As Leo's closest male relative, he was named successor upon his grandfather's death. After taking his father as colleague, he died of an unknown disease in November, 474. It was widely rumored that he might have been poisoned by his Ariadne in order to bring her husband Zeno to the throne. He was indeed succeeded by his father, although his Verina took advantage of his death to conspire against Zeno. List of Byzantine emperors Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Meyendorff, John. Imperial unity and Christian divisions: The Church 450-680 A.D. The Church in history. 2. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88-141056-3.Leo II (emperor) – Coin issued during the joint rule of Leo II and Zeno.
333. Zeno (emperor) – Zeno the Isaurian, originally named Tarasis Kodisa Rousombladadiotes /ˈtærəsᵻs/, was Eastern Roman Emperor from 474 to 475 and again from 476 to 491. Domestic revolts and religious dissension plagued his reign, which nevertheless succeeded to some extent in foreign issues. His reign saw the end of the Western Roman Empire under Romulus Augustus, but he contributed much to stabilizing the eastern Empire. Zeno's original name was Tarasis, more accurately Tarasikodissa in his native Isaurian language. Tarasis was born in Isauria, at Rusumblada, later renamed Zenonopolis in Zeno's honour. His father was called his brother Longinus. The Isaurians were a people who lived inland from the Mediterranean coast of Anatolia, in the core of the Taurus Mountains. Like most borderland tribes, they were looked upon as barbarians by the Romans even though they had been Roman subjects for more than five centuries. However, being Orthodox Christians rather than Arians, as Germanic tribes were, they were not formally barred from the throne. He thought that Tarasis and his Isaurians could be that counterweight, called him, with many Isaurians, to Constantinople. This interpretation, however, has been contested. As reward for his loyalty, which Leo praised with Daniel the Stylite, Tarasis was appointed comes domesticorum, an office of great influence and prestige. This appointment could mean that Tarasis had been a protector domesticus, either at Leo's court in Constantinople, or attached at Ardabur's staff in Antioch. Zeno, however, was not present at the birth of his son, as in 467, he participated in a military campaign against the Goths. Zeno, as member of the protectores domestici, did not take part in the disastrous expedition against the Vandals, led in 468 by Leo's brother-in-law Basiliscus.Zeno (emperor) – Zeno depicted on a Tremissis; the coin's design celebrates Zeno's victories, and was issued during his second reign.
334. Marcus (son of Basiliscus) – Marcus was the son of the Byzantine general and usurper Basiliscus and Zenonis. Later promoted to Augustus, ruling to his father. Coins were issued in his and Leo II's names. When Zeno reoccupied Constantinople in late August 476, Marcus, with his parents, took refuge in a church. Zeno promised not to spill their blood, so he exiled them to Limnae in Cappadocia and subsequently starved them to death.Marcus (son of Basiliscus) – Solidus of Emperor Marcus with his father Basiliscus.
335. Anastasius I Dicorus – Anastasius I was Eastern Roman Emperor from 491 to 518. His reign was characterized by substantive accomplishments, which were representative of emerging patterns of bureaucracy in the Eastern Roman empire. Anastasius was born at Dyrrachium, the date is unknown, but he is thought to have been born later than 431. He was born into an Illyrian family, wife Anastasia Constantina. Before becoming emperor, Anastasius was a particularly successful administrator in the department of finance. Anastasius had one eye black and one eye blue, for that reason he was nicknamed Dicorus. Following the death of Zeno, there is strong evidence that many Roman citizens wanted both a Roman and an Orthodox Christian emperor. In the weeks following Zeno's death, crowds gathered in Constantinople exclaiming "Give the Empire an Orthodox Emperor! Give the Empire a Roman Emperor!" Under such pressure, Ariadne, Zeno's widow, turned to Anastasius I. Anastasius was in his sixties at the time of his ascension to the throne. Religiously, he was fairly overt in his sympathy for the Monophysites. Consequently, as a condition of his rule, the Patriarch of Constantinople required that he pledge not to repudiate the Council of Chalcedon. It is noteworthy that Ariadne chose Anastasius over Zeno's brother Longinus, arguably the more logical choice. It also was not appreciated by the Greens, patronized by Longinus.Anastasius I Dicorus – Semissis of Emperor Anastasius.
336. Justin I – Justin I was Eastern Roman Emperor from 518 to 527. His consort was Empress Euphemia. Justin was a peasant and a swineherd from the region of Dardania, part of the Prefecture of Illyricum. He was born in a hamlet Bederiana near Scupi. He was of Thraco-Roman or Illyro-Roman stock, bore, like his companions and members of his family, a Thracian name, Istok. Justin was able to secure election as emperor in 518. Justin wisely surrounded himself with trusted advisors. The most prominent of course, was his nephew Flavius Petrus Sabbatius, whom he adopted as his son and invested with the name Iustinianus. Justin's reign is noteworthy for the resolution of the Acacian Schism between the western branches of the Christian church. Justin endorsed Rome's view on the question of the more general principle of Roman supremacy. This eastern deferral to the western church did not endure. The information from the Secret History of Procopius was published posthumously. She became an equal to Justinian, participating in the governance with significant influence. The latter years of the reign of Justin were marked among the Empire, the Ostrogoths, the Persians. On 1 August of that year, Justin was succeeded by Justinian.Justin I – Tremissis of Emperor Justin I
337. Justin II – Justin II was Eastern Roman Emperor from 565 to 574. He was therefore a member of the Justinian Dynasty. His reign is marked with Sasanian Iran and the loss of the greater part of Italy. He presented the Cross of Justin II to Rome. He was a son of Vigilantia and Dulcidio, respectively the brother-in-law of Justinian. His siblings included Marcellus and Praejecta. Justinian I died on the night of 14 to 15 November 565. The clarification was needed because there was another candidate for the throne, Justin, son of Germanus. Modern historians suspect Callinicus may have fabricated the last words of Justinian to secure the succession for his political ally. As Robert Browning did Callinicus make it for him? Only Callinicus knew." In any case, Callinicus started alerting those most interested in the succession, originally various members of the Byzantine Senate. Then they jointly informed Justin and Vigilantia, offering the throne. With his wife Sophia, he was escorted to the Great Palace of Constantinople. Early in the morning, John Scholasticus, Patriarch of Constantinople, crowned the new Augustus.Justin II – Solidus of Justin II
338. Tiberius II Constantine – Tiberius II Constantine was Eastern Roman Emperor from 574 to 582. Under Justin’s patronage, Tiberius was promoted to the position of Comes excubitorum, which he held from approximately 565 through to 574. He was present during Justin’s Imperial accession on 14 November 565 and also attended the Emperor’s inauguration as Consul on 1 January 566. Justin ceased making payments to the Avars implemented by his predecessor Justinian. In 569, he appointed Tiberius to the post of Magister utriusque militiae with instructions to deal with the Avars and their demands. Justin, however, rejected this agreement, insisting on taking hostages from the family of the Avar Khan himself. This condition was rejected by the Avars, so Tiberius mobilized for war. In 570 he defeated an Avar army in Thrace and returned to Constantinople. Agreeing to a truce, Tiberius provided an escort to the Avar envoys to discuss the terms of a treaty with Justin. On their return, the Avar envoys were attacked and robbed by local tribesmen, prompting them to appeal to Tiberius for help. He tracked down the group responsible and returned the stolen goods. To achieve a measure of space, Tiberius and Sophia agreed at the cost of 45,000 nomismata. On December 7, 574, Justin, in one of his more lucid moments, had Tiberius proclaimed Caesar and adopted him as his own son. Tiberius added the name Constantine to his own. Although his position was now official, he was still subordinate to Justin.Tiberius II Constantine – Solidus of Tiberius II Constantine in consular uniform.
339. Phocas – He was Byzantine Emperor from 602 to 610. Phocas was himself overthrown by Heraclius after losing a civil war. He was a Greek-speaking native of Thrace. The name of his father is unknown. His mother was named Domentia. Phocas had Comentiolus and Domentziolus. Phocas was a member of a delegation sent by the army in that year to Constantinople to submit grievances to the government. The Avars had defeated the Byzantines in 598, demanded a ransom. All the prisoners were killed, causing consternation among the army. , according to several sources, Phocas himself was slapped and humiliated by prominent court officials at this time. The army immediately revolted and marched on the capital, with Phocas at its head. Within a month, Maurice's government had collapsed, the Emperor fled the city, the "Green" faction in Constantinople acclaimed Phocas as emperor. His wife Leontia was invested with the rank of Augusta. Maurice, who represented genuine threat, was dragged from his monastic sanctuary at Chalcedon, killed along with his six sons. It is said that he had to watch as his sons were executed in front of his eyes.Phocas – Phocas wearing consular uniform on a coin
340. Constantine III (Byzantine emperor) – Constantine III was Byzantine Emperor for four months in 641. He was the eldest son of his first wife Eudokia. Constantine's name was Heraclius Novus Constantinus, also the official name under which he reigned. The Constantine became established in later Byzantine texts as short for the Emperor and has become standard in modern historiography. In terms of imperial nomenclature, the style "Constantine III" would be more appropriate for his son Constans II. Furthermore, its illegality paled into insignificance to his niece Martina the same year. In comparison, Constantine's marriage was far less scandalous than that of his father's. Constantine and Gregoria married in that year their first child, Constans II was born. Their second child was Theodosius. They also had a daughter named Manyanh who later had issue. Constantine became senior Emperor when his father died in 641. He reigned together with the son of Martina. Indeed, he died after only four months leaving Heraklonas sole emperor. History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Constantine III (Byzantine emperor) – Byzantine coin depicting, on its face, Constantine with his father Heraclius and brother Heraklonas
341. Heraklonas – Heraklonas was probably born at Lazica while his father was on campaign against Khosrau II of the Sassanid Empire. The first one born free of physical deformity and eligible for the throne. The premature death in May 641, left Heraklonas sole ruler. Martina intended to balance this setback the Caesar David as emperor. Valentinus spread rumors that Martina and Heraklonas intended to eliminate Constans and his supporters. The revolt which ensued toppled his mother, who were subjected to mutilation and banishment. Nothing further is known about Heraklonas to Rhodes. He is presumed to have died later that year. The son of Constantine III, became sole emperor. List of This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991. Ostrogorsky, George.Heraklonas – Heraklonas with his father, Heraclius and brother, Constantine III
342. Constans II – Constans II; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded, was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. He was the last emperor to serve in 642. Constans is a diminutive nickname given to the Emperor, who reigned officially as Constantine. The nickname has become standard in modern historiography. Constans was the son of Constantine III and Gregoria. Due to the rumours that Heraklonas and Martina had poisoned Constantine III, he was named co-emperor in 641. Constans II was left as sole emperor. Constans owed his rise to a popular reaction against his uncle and to the protection of the soldiers led by the general Valentinus. In 644 Valentinus failed. Under Constans, Caliph Uthman launched numerous attacks on the islands of the Mediterranean Sea and Aegean Sea. After a Muslim victory the following year this had to be abandoned. Naturally, this live-and-let-live compromise satisfied passionate participants in the dispute. Meanwhile, the advance of the Caliphate continued unabated. In 647 they had entered sacked Caesarea Mazaca. In the same year, they killed Gregory.Constans II – Hexagram of Constans II
343. Constantine IV – Constantine IV, sometimes incorrectly called Pogonatos, "the Bearded", out of confusion with his father, was Byzantine Emperor from 668 to 685. The eldest son of Constantine IV had been named a co-emperor with his father in 654. His mother was daughter of patrician Valentinus. The first task before the new Emperor was the suppression of the military revolt in Sicily under Mezezius which had led to his father's death. Within seven months of his accession, Constantine IV had dealt with the insurgency with the support of Pope Vitalian. But this success was overshadowed by troubles in the east. He sent an army against the Eastern Roman Empire. Yazid took the important Byzantine center Amorion. While the city was quickly recovered, the Arabs next attacked Carthage and Sicily in 669. In 670 the Arabs set up a base from which to launch further attacks into the heart of the Empire. Their fleet captured other coastal cities in 672. Finally, in 672, the Arabs sent a large fleet to attack Constantinople by sea. While Constantine was distracted by this, the Slavs unsuccessfully attacked Thessalonika. Commencing in 674, the Arabs launched the long-awaited siege of Constantinople. Additional squadrons reinforced the forces of Abd ar-Rahman before they proceeded to the Hellespont, into which they sailed in about April 674.Constantine IV – Constantine IV and his retinue, mosaic in basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe (Ravenna)
344. Heraclius (son of Constans II) – Heraclius was Byzantine co-emperor from 659 to 681. He was eventually dethroned by his brother, the senior emperor Constantine IV. Heraclius was one of the sons of Constans II. His mother was daughter of the Patrician Valentinus. With Constans II’s death in 668, Constantine IV became the senior emperor. This provoked a military revolt in the Anatolic Theme. Happy with this apparently positive outcome, the army departed back into the interior of Anatolia, while the instigators of the movement entered the city. With the military threat now gone, Constantine moved against the leaders of the revolt, had them hung at Sycae. Also, the emperor was keen to raise up the future Justinian II. After 681, his brother disappear from the historical record.Heraclius (son of Constans II) – A solidus with Constantine IV on the obverse and the reverse displaying Heraclius and his brother Tiberius
345. Tiberius (son of Constans II) – Tiberius was Byzantine co-emperor from 659 to 681. He was eventually dethroned by his brother, the senior emperor Constantine IV. Tiberius was the youngest son of Constans II. His mother was daughter of the Patrician Valentinus. With Constans II’s death in 668, Constantine IV became the senior emperor. This provoked a military revolt in the Anatolic Theme. Happy with this apparently positive outcome, the army departed back into the interior of Anatolia, while the instigators of the movement entered the city. With the military threat now gone, Constantine moved against the leaders of the revolt, had them hanged at Sycae. After 681, his brother disappear from the historical record.Tiberius (son of Constans II) – A solidus with Constantine IV on the obverse and the reverse displaying Tiberius and his brother Heraclius
346. Justinian II – Justinian II was eldest son of Anastasia. His father raised him on the fall of his uncles Heraclius and Tiberius. At the age of sixteen, Justinian II succeeded his father as sole emperor. Due to Constantine IV's victories, the situation in the Eastern provinces of the Empire was stable when Justinian ascended the throne. The incomes of the provinces of Armenia and Iberia were divided among the two empires. As part of his agreements with the Caliphate, he removed from their native Lebanon 12,000 Christian Maronites, who continually resisted the Arabs. Additional resettlement efforts, aimed at the Mardaites and inhabitants of Cyprus allowed Justinian to reinforce naval forces depleted by earlier conflicts. In 687 he transferred cavalry troops to Thrace. The subdued Slavs were resettled in Anatolia, where they were to provide a military force of 30,000 men. Emboldened in Anatolia, he now renewed the war against the Arabs. Meanwhile, the Emperor's bloody persecution of the Manichaeans and suppression of popular traditions of non-Orthodox origin caused dissension within the Church. In 692 he convened the so-called Quinisext Council at Constantinople to put his religious policies into effect. The militias of Rome and Ravenna rebelled and took the Pope's side. If his land policies threatened the aristocracy, his policy was no more popular with the common people. Through Stephen and Theodotos, the emperor raised the funds to gratify his sumptuous tastes and his mania for erecting costly buildings.Justinian II – Justinian, on the reverse of this coin struck during his second reign, is holding a patriarchal globe with PAX, "peace"
347. Leontios – Leontios was Byzantine emperor from 695 to 698. He was overthrown in his turn by Tiberios III. He is known by the name used for him in Byzantine chronicles. Leontios was born in Isauria. In 686 Leontios was chosen by Justinian II to lead the Byzantine army against the Arabs in Georgia and Armenia. Ruthless even by the standards of the day, Leontios carried the war further into Caucasian Albania. Leontios was less successful when war against the Arabs was renewed in 692. Leading a Byzantine army, he was defeated at the Battle of Sebastopolis when a large Slavic contingent deserted and left his remaining forces exposed. Furious at the loss of the Emperor Justinian imprisoned Leontius for two years. The Emperor appointed him strategos of the Helladic theme. Instead he organized a revolt against the emperor, led largely by his former prison comrades. With the help of the Blue charioteers faction, his own military prowess, Leontios soon deposed Justinian and seized the throne himself. He was exiled to Cherson in the Crimea. During his unpopular reign, Leontios refrained instead attempting to consolidate the empire. This defensive posture led to Abd al-Malik dispatching an expedition to take Carthage which fell in 697.Leontios – Gold solidus with Leontios, showing the symbols of power: the crown, the globus cruciger, and the akakia. On the reverse, a potent cross on three steps.
348. Tiberios III – Tiberius III was Byzantine emperor from 698 to 21 August 705. Tiberius was a Germanic naval officer from the region of Pamphylia and originally named Apsimar, who rose to the position of droungarios of the Cibyrrhaeotic Theme. He participated in the failed campaign to regain Carthage in 698. As admiral John the Patrician retreated from Carthage to Crete, the fleet rebelled, deposed and murdered their commander, chose Apsimaros as his replacement. Changing his name to Tiberius, Apsimaros sailed on Constantinople, suffering from a plague and proceeded to besiege it. Leontios had also mutilated his predecessor Justinian II in the same fashion three years earlier. As emperor, Tiberius III made the tactical decision to ignore Africa, where Carthage was now definitively lost. Success in the military sphere was accompanied by Tiberius's attempt to strengthen the empire militarily by reorganizing its administration. Tiberius then turned his attention to the Island of Cyprus, underpopulated since the reign of Justinian II. He strengthened the defence of the island at the same time by increasing the garrison numbers with troops from the Taurus Mountains. He also reorganized the Cibyrrhaeotic Theme and repaired the sea walls of Constantinople. Domestically, his only known act of note was the banishment of Philippikos Bardanes, the son of a notable patrician, to the island of Cephalonia. Meanwhile, in 704 Justinian II escaped in Cherson leading an army with the Khazars to Constantinople. For three days, Justinian tried to convince the citizens of Constantinople to open the gates, but to no avail. Hearing that Justinian had approached Constantinople in the night, Tiberius fled to Bithynia where he evaded capture for several months.Tiberios III – Solidus displaying the cuirassed bust of Tiberius III, with spear & shield
349. Tiberius (son of Justinian II) – Tiberius was probably born during his father's absence in a bid to regain the Byzantine throne. Following Justinian's success, his mother were recalled to Constantinople, where the infant was raised to co-emperor. The only thing known of him thereafter is his participation in the festive reception of Pope Constantine I in early 711. Winkelmann, Friedhelm; Lilie, Ralph-Johannes, eds. "Tiberios", Prosopographie der mittelbyzantinischen Zeit: I. Abteilung - 5. Band: Theophylaktos – az-Zubair, Anonymi, Walter de Gruyter, p. 51, ISBN 978-3-11-016675-0Tiberius (son of Justinian II) – Justinian II and his son Tiberius
350. Philippikos Bardanes – Philippikos or Philippicus was Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 711 to 713. Philippicus was originally named Bardanes; he was the son of the patrician Nikephorus, of Armenian extraction from an Armenian colony in Pergamum. Here Bardanes, taking the name of Philippicus, successfully incited the inhabitants to revolt with the help of the Khazars. The successful rebels seized Constantinople, Justinian fled; Philippikos took the throne. In response the Roman Church refused to recognize the new Emperor and his patriarch. Meanwhile, Tervel of Bulgaria plundered up to the walls of Constantinople in 712. In late May 713 the Opsikion troops rebelled in Thrace. Several of their officers penetrated the city and blinded Philippicus on June 3, 713 while he was in the hippodrome. He was succeeded for a short while by his principal secretary, Artemius, raised to the purple as Emperor Anastasius II. He died in the same year. List of Byzantine emperors References Sources Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Theophanes; Translated by Harry Turtledove. The Chronicle of Theophanes: an English translation of anni mundi 6095–6305.Philippikos Bardanes – A coin of Philippikos
351. Anastasios II – Anastasius, known in English as Anastasios II or Anastasius II, was the Byzantine Emperor from 713 to 715. Anastasios had served as a bureaucrat and Imperial secretary for his predecessors. After the Opsician army in Thrace had overthrown Emperor Philippikos Bardanes, they acclaimed Artemius as Emperor. He chose Anastasius as his regnal name. Soon after his accession, Anastasius II executed those officers, directly involved in the conspiracy against Philippikos. This also put an end with the Catholic Church. Anastasios attempted to restore peace by diplomatic means. His emissaries having failed in Damascus, he undertook the rebuilding of the Roman fleet. However, the death of the al-Walid I in 715 gave Anastasius an opportunity to turn the tables on his rival. In 719, Anastasios headed a revolt including auxiliaries reportedly provided by Tervel of Bulgaria. In any case, the rebel forces advanced on Constantinople. Anastasios fell into Leo's hands and was put to death by his orders. List of Byzantine emperors Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Anastasios II – A coin of Anastasios II
352. Theodosius III – Theodosios III or Theodosius III was Byzantine Emperor from 715 to 25 March 717. Theodosius was a financial officer and collector in the southern portion of the theme of Opsikion. According to one theory, he was the son of the former Emperor Tiberius III. According to another theory, he was of low extraction. When the thematic troops rebelled against Emperor Anastasius II, Theodosius was chosen as emperor. According to the chronicler Theophanes the Confessor, even attempted to hide in the forests near Adramyttium. Eventually he was acclaimed emperor in May 715. His troops immediately laid siege to Constantinople. Six months later, in November, they gained entry to the city. Theodosius showed himself remarkably moderate in his treatment of his supporters. Through the intercession of Patriarch Germanus I of Constantinople, Anastasius II was convinced to become a monk in Thessalonica. Little is known of Theodosius' short reign. He immediately faced an Arab invasion deep into the advance of the Arab fleet. In 716 he concluded a treaty with Tervel of Bulgaria favorable in an effort to secure support against the Arab invasion. This policy paid off in 719 when they helped relieve the Arab siege of Constantinople.Theodosius III – A coin of Theodosios III
353. Leo III the Isaurian – He also forbade the veneration of icons. Leo, whose original name was Konon, was born in the Syrian province of Commagene. Konon was appointed commander of the Anatolic theme by Emperor Anastasius II. On his deposition, Konon joined with his colleague Artabasdus, the stratēgos of the Armeniac theme, in conspiring to overthrow the new Emperor Theodosius III. Artabasdus was betrothed as part of the agreement. Leo forced the abdication of Theodosios III, becoming emperor as Leo III. The new Emperor was immediately forced to attend to the Arab siege of Constantinople, which commenced in August of the same year. The Arabs were Umayyad forces serving under his brother Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik. The stubborn resistance put up by Leo wore out the invaders. An important factor in the victory of the Byzantines was their use of Greek fire. The Arab forces also fell victim to Bulgarian reinforcements arriving to aid the Byzantines. Sulayman himself had died his successor Umar II would not attempt another siege. The siege had lasted 12 months. Having thus preserved the Empire from extinction, Leo proceeded to consolidate its administration, which in the previous years of anarchy had become completely disorganized. In 718 he in 719 did the same on behalf of the deposed Emperor Anastasios II.Leo III the Isaurian – Leo III (left) and his son Constantine V
354. Constantine V – Constantine V was Byzantine Emperor from 741 to 775. Constantine was born in the son and successor of Emperor Leo III and Maria. In August 720 he was associated by his father, who had him marry Tzitzak, daughter of the Khazar khagan Bihar. His new bride was baptized in 732. Constantine V succeeded his father on 18 June 741. Artabasdos was the stratēgos of the Armeniac theme. Constantine was sought refuge in Amorion, while Artabasdos advanced on Constantinople and was accepted as Emperor. The rival emperors bided their time making military preparations. Artabasdos was defeated. Three months later Constantine headed for Constantinople. In early November Constantine was immediately turned on his opponents, having them blinded or executed. The usurpation of Artabasdos was connected with leading Constantine to become perhaps an even more fervent iconoclast than his father. Constantine's avowed enemies over the iconodules, applied to him the derogatory epithet Kopronymos. Constantine's position on Iconoclasm was clear: "He cannot be depicted. For what is depicted in he who circumscribes that person has plainly circumscribed the divine nature, incapable of being circumscribed."Constantine V – Constantine V and his father Leo III the Isaurian
355. Artabasdos – Artavasdos or Artabasdos, Latinized as Artabasdus, was a Byzantine general of Armenian descent who seized the throne from June 741 or 742 until November 743. His reign constitutes a usurpation against Constantine V, who had retained control of several themes in Asia Minor. After Anastasius' fall, Artabasdos made an agreement with the governor of the Anatolic theme, to overthrow the new Emperor Theodosius III. Artabasdos became commander of the Opsikion theme, while retaining control of his original command. While Constantine fled to Amorion, Artabasdus was crowned emperor. Artabasdos restored Orthodoxy with some support, including that of Pope Zacharias. The inevitable clash came in May 743, when Artabasdus was defeated. His sons were publicly blinded and relegated to the monastery of Chora on the outskirts of Constantinople. The date of his death is unknown. By his Anna, the daughter of Emperor Leo III, Artabasdos had nine children, including: Nikephoros, co-emperor from 742 to 743. Niketas, strategos of the Armeniac theme from 742 to 743. List of Byzantine emperors Notes References Garland, Lynda. Byzantine women: varieties of experience 800–1200. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-5737-X.Artabasdos – Seal of Artabasdos as kouropalates
356. Leo IV the Khazar – Leo IV the Khazar was Byzantine Emperor from 775 to 780 AD. Leo was the daughter of a Khagan of the Khazars. He was crowned co-emperor by his father in 751. Leo was betrothed to Gisela, daughter of Pepin the Short but the contract was broken. Leo then married Irene, an Athenian from a noble family, in December 769. In 775 Constantine V died, leaving Leo as sole emperor. On 24 April 776 Leo, following the precedent set by his father and grandfather, appointed his son, Constantine VI, co-emperor. This led including Caesar Nikephoros, who had hoped to gain themselves. The uprising was put quickly, with the conspirators being beaten, exiled to Cherson under guard. Leo IV was married to an iconodule. Realizing the division in his realm he pursued a path of conciliation towards the iconodules, previously declared heretical under imperial policy. At the end of his reign, Leo reversed his stance of toleration. Leo himself died on campaign. Leo’s death on 8 September 780 resulted in the accession of his wife, Irene, to the throne. Constantine VI succeeded him as emperor, ruling jointly with Irene.Leo IV the Khazar – Gold solidus of Leo IV and his son Constantine VI (obverse), with busts of his grandfather Leo III the Isaurian and his father Constantine V in the reverse
357. Constantine VI – Constantine VI was Byzantine Emperor from 780 to 797. Constantine VI was the only child of Irene. Constantine was succeeded as sole emperor in 780, at the age of nine. Due to his minority, her chief minister Staurakios exercised the regency for him. He appears to have had iconoclast sympathies. His mother did not relinquish executive authority to him. In 788, Irene herself broke off the engagement of Constantine with a daughter of Charlemagne. Turning against Charlemagne, the Byzantines now supported Lombard pretender Adalgis, forced after the Frankish invasion of Italy. After a conspiracy against Irene was suppressed in the spring of 790 she attempted to get official recognition as empress. With military support Constantine finally came to actual power in 790, after the Armeniacs rebelled against Irene. Nevertheless, she was allowed to keep the title of Empress, confirmed in 792. Once in control of the state, Constantine proved incapable of sound governance. A movement developed in favor of the Caesar Nikephoros. The tongues of his father's four other half-brothers cut off. His Armenian supporters revolted after he had blinded their general Alexios Mosele.Constantine VI – Constantine VI (right to the cross) presiding over the Second Council of Nicaea. Miniature from early 11th century.
358. Irene of Athens – Irene of Athens, also known as Irene Sarantapechaina, was Byzantine empress from 797 to 802. Before that, Irene was empress consort from empress dowager and regent from 780 to 797. She is best known for ending Iconoclasm. Irene was related to the Greek Sarantapechos family of Athens. She was married to his son Leo IV on 17 December. On 14 Irene gave birth to a son, the future Constantine VI. When Constantine V died in September 775, Leo succeeded at the age of twenty-five years. According to tradition, he discovered icons refused to share the marriage bed with her thereafter. Nevertheless, when Leo died on 8 September 780, Irene became regent for their nine-year-old Constantine. Irene was immediately confronted with a conspiracy that tried to raise Caesar Nikephoros, a half-brother of Leo IV, to the throne. To overcome this challenge, she had his co-conspirators ordained as priests, a status which disqualified them from ruling. As early as 781, Irene began to seek a closer relationship in Rome. She negotiated Rotrude, a daughter of Charlemagne by his third wife Hildegard. During this time Charlemagne would later become the new king of the Franks. Irene next had to subdue a rebellion led by the strategos of Sicily.Irene of Athens – Image from "Pala d'Oro", Venice, c. 10th century
359. Nikephoros I – Nikephoros I or Nicephorus I, also logothetēs tou genikou, was Byzantine Emperor from 802 to 811 AD, when he was killed in the Battle of Pliska. A patrician from Seleucia Sidera, Nikephoros was appointed minister by the Empress Irene. He crowned his son co-emperor in 803. A conspiracy headed by the Arsaber had a similar issue. Nikephoros embarked on a general reorganization of the Empire, strengthening the frontiers. Needing large sums to increase his military forces, he set himself with great energy to increase the Empire's revenue. By his rigorous tax imposts he alienated the favour of his subjects, especially of the clergy, whom he otherwise sought to control firmly. Although he appointed Nikephoros as patriarch, Emperor Nikephoros was portrayed as a villain by ecclesiastical historians like Theophanes the Confessor. In 803 Nikephoros refused to recognize the latter's imperial dignity. Relations deteriorated and -- 810. In the process Nikephoros suffered extensive losses to the Franks. By withholding the tribute which Irene had agreed to pay to the caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd, Nikephoros committed himself against the Arabs. Compelled by Bardanes' disloyalty to take himself, he sustained a severe defeat at the Battle of Krasos in Phrygia. In 806 a Muslim army of 135,000 men invaded the Empire. Unable to counter the Muslim numbers, Nikephoros agreed to make peace on a yearly tribute of 30,000 nomismata.Nikephoros I – Nikephoros I, from the Manasses Chronicle.
360. Staurakios – The son of Emperor Nikephoros I, Staurakios had been crowned as co-emperor by his father in December 803. The two were married that same day. During his father’s reign, he had been given command of the elite tagma of the Hikanatoi. Fleeing with him were his brother-in-law, the curopalates Michael Rangabe, the Domestic of the Schools Stephen, the magistros Theoktistos. Gathered around Staurakios’s bedside, they debated the succession. Because of his uncertain condition, he was hastily proclaimed Emperor by Stephen, who had the backing of the army. This was the first time an Emperor of the Eastern Empire had been crowned outside Constantinople. Michael however continued to support his brother-in-law. Staurakios was soon taken to Constantinople. Due to constant pain, it was quickly evident that Staurakios would be unable to exercise actual authority. As he had no children of his own to succeed him, it soon became evident that Staurakios intended to designate Theophano as his successor. This act was frustrated by the actions of Stephen. There was also a popular rumor that Staurakios planned to abolish the Empire and re-establish a republic. Hearing of the accession of his brother-in-law, Staurakios took Holy Orders. Staurakios retired to a monastery where he died on January 812.Staurakios – Staurakios (right) on a coin issued by his father Nikephoros I (left)
361. Michael I Rangabe – Michael I Rhangabe was Byzantine Emperor from 811 to 813. Michael was the son of the admiral of the Aegean fleet. He received the high court dignity of kouropalatēs after his father-in-law's accession in 802. Michael was considered a more appropriate candidate for the throne than his severely injured brother-in-law Staurakios. Michael I attempted abandoning the exacting taxation instituted by Nikephoros I. While reducing imperial income, Michael generously distributed money to the army, the Church. Michael's piety won a very positive estimation in the work of the chronicler Theophanes the Confessor. In 812 Michael I recognized Charlemagne as basileus. In exchange for that recognition, Venice was returned to the Byzantine Empire. However, under the influence of Theodore, Michael rejected the peace terms provoked the capture of Mesembria by the Bulgarians. After an initial success in spring 813, Michael's army prepared for a major engagement in June. The Emperor's position was seriously weakened. With conspiracy in the air, Michael preempted events by becoming a monk. His sons were relegated into monasteries, one of them, Niketas, eventually becoming Patriarch of Constantinople. Michael died peacefully on 11 January 844.Michael I Rangabe – Michael I Rangabe, from the Madrid Skylitzes.
362. Theophylact (son of Michael I) – Theophylact or Theophylaktos was the eldest son of the Byzantine emperor Michael I Rhangabe and grandson, on his mother's side, of Nikephoros I. He was tonsured, castrated, exiled to Plate Island after his overthrow. Theophylact was born to Prokopia circa 793. Despite a warm reception at Aachen, however, Charlemagne hesitated to agree to such a match. Nothing further is known until 11 July 813, when Michael, faced with a military revolt under Leo the Armenian, abdicated. The deposed imperial family was exiled to the Princes' Islands, where they were ordained as nuns. Theophylact, who like his brother Nicetas was also castrated to make them incapable of claiming the throne in the future, adopted the monastic name Eustratius. He was buried alongside him in a church on Plate Island.Theophylact (son of Michael I) – Gold solidus of Michael I, with Theophylact on the reverse
363. Leo V the Armenian – Leo V the Armenian was Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 813 to 820. He forced his predecessor, Michael I Rangabe, to abdicate and assumed the throne. He initiated the second period of Byzantine Iconoclasm. He was assassinated by supporters of one of his most trusted generals, who succeeded him on the throne. Leo was the son of the patrician Bardas, of Armenian descent. Leo served under the rebel general Bardanes Tourkos, whom he deserted in favor of Emperor Nikephoros I. The Emperor rewarded Leo with two palaces, but later exiled him for marrying the daughter of the patrician Arsaber. Punishment also included depriving of his military rank, hair cutting. In a diplomatist move, he wrote a letter to Patriarch Nikephoros in order to reassure him of his orthodoxy. One month later, during his entrance to the Palace quarter, he kneeled at the Chalke Gate. A further step in preventing future usurpations was the castration of Michael's sons. With Krum of Bulgaria blockading Constantinople by land, Leo V had inherited a precarious situation. He attempted to have him killed in an ambush. Although Krum abandoned his siege of the capital, he captured and depopulated Adrianople and Arkadioupolis. The two states concluded a 30-year peace in 815.Leo V the Armenian – Gold solidus of Leo V, with his son and co-emperor, Constantine
364. Constantine (son of Leo V) – Symbatios, variously also Sabbatios or Sambates in some sources, was the eldest son of the Byzantine emperor Leo V the Armenian. Soon after the coronation of his father, he was renamed Constantine. He reigned along with his father until the latter's deposition in 820, after which he was exiled to Prote as a monk. Symbatios was his wife, Theodosia. As he was a child at the time of his father's accession, he was born sometime between 810. Michael I Rhangabes, was likely the boy's godfather. After Leo ascended the throne on Christmas 813, he had the young Symbatios crowned co-emperor and renamed Constantine. In 815, Constantine nominally presided, over a Church Council in Constantinople, which reinstated the ban on the veneration of icons. After the assassination of his father on 25 December 820, Constantine was banished to the island of Prote along with three brothers. There, the four brothers were tonsured.Constantine (son of Leo V) – Gold solidus of Leo V, with Constantine on the reverse
365. Michael II – Born in Amorium, Michael was a soldier, rising to high rank along with the Armenian. He helped Leo take the place of Emperor Michael I Rangabe. However, Leo sentenced Michael to death. Michael then masterminded a conspiracy which resulted on Christmas 820. Immediately he faced the long revolt of Thomas the Slav, which almost was not completely suppressed until spring 824. His family belonged to the Judeo-Christian sect of the Athinganoi, whose members were Cappadocians who adopted Jewish rituals. The Athinganoi together with the Greeks and Armenians formed the backbone of the Byzantine army of that era. Michael first rose to prominence alongside his future antagonists Leo the Armenian and Thomas the Slav. He married Bardanes' Thekla, while Leo married another daughter. Michael was instrumental in Leo's overthrow of Michael I Rangabe in 813, after Rangabe’s continuing military defeats against the Bulgarians. Under Leo V, Michael was appointed to command the elite tagma of the Excubitors. He became disgruntled with Leo V, however, when the Emperor divorced Michael's sister-in-law. On Christmas Eve 820, Leo V accused him postponed the execution until after Christmas. Michael was immediately proclaimed Emperor, while still wearing prison chains on his legs. Later he was crowned by Patriarch Theodotos I of Constantinople.Michael II – Michael II and his son Theophilos, founders of the Amorian dynasty.
366. Theophilos (emperor) – Theophilos was the Byzantine Emperor from 829 until his death in 842. He was the second emperor of the Amorian dynasty and the last emperor to support iconoclasm. Theophilos personally led the armies beginning in 831. Theophilos was the godson of Emperor Leo V the Armenian. Michael II crowned Theophilos co-emperor in 822, shortly after his own accession. Unlike his father, Theophilos was a great admirer of art. On 2 October 829, Theophilos succeeded his father as sole emperor. Theophilos continued in his predecessors' iconoclasm, though without his father's more conciliatory tone, issuing an edict in 832 forbidding the veneration of icons. He also saw himself as the champion of justice, which he served most ostentatiously by executing his father's co-conspirators against Leo V immediately after his accession. His reputation as a judge endured, in the literary composition Timarion Theophilos is featured as one of the judges in the Netherworld. At the time of his accession, Theophilos was obliged to wage wars against the Arabs on two fronts. The Byzantines were lost several fortresses. In 831 Theophilos retaliated by leading a large army into Cilicia and capturing Tarsus. The Emperor returned to Constantinople in triumph, but in the autumn he was defeated in Cappadocia. Another defeat in the same province in 833 forced Theophilos to sue for peace, which he obtained the next year, after the death of Al-Ma'mun.Theophilos (emperor) – Theophilus, in the Chronicle of John Skylitzes
367. Michael III – Michael III was Byzantine Emperor from 842 to 867. Michael III was the third and traditionally last member of the Amorian dynasty. Michael was the youngest child of his empress Theodora. During his minority, the empire was governed by a regency headed by his mother Theodora, the minister Theoktistos. The empress had deposed Patriarch John VII of Constantinople, replacing him with the iconodule Patriarch Methodius I of Constantinople in 843. This put an end to the second spell of iconoclasm. As the emperor was growing up, the courtiers around him fought for influence. Increasingly fond of his uncle Bardas, Michael allowed him to murder Theoktistos in November 855. The internal stabilization of the state was not entirely matched along the frontiers. Off the Syrian coast by at least three more fleets, numbering 300 ships total. At the time of this campaign the Bulgarians were distracted under Louis the German and the Croatians. In 853 Boris had allied himself against the Franks. The Bulgarians then faced threats from Moravia. In 859, he personally led a siege on Samosata, but in 860 had to abandon the expedition to repel an attack by the Rus' on Constantinople. In 863, Petronas defeated and celebrated a triumph in the capital.Michael III – Michael III
368. Basil I – Basil I, called the Macedonian was a Byzantine Emperor who reigned from 867 to 886. Born a simple peasant in the Byzantine theme of Macedonia, he usurped the Imperial throne from Emperor Michael III. Basil was born to peasant parents in late 811 in the Byzantine theme of Macedonia. Contemporary Byzantine Thrace was inhabited by people of Slavic, Armenian origins. Claims have been made for an Armenian, Slavic, or indeed "Armeno-Slavonic" origin for Basil I. Basil lived there until 836, when he and several others escaped to Byzantine-held territory in Thrace. Basil was ultimately lucky enough to enter the service of a relative of the Caesar Bardas, as a groom. On Emperor Michael's orders, Basil married Eudokia Ingerina, Michael's favourite mistress, in around 865. Basil then was invested in the now vacant dignity of kaisar, before being crowned co-emperor on May 26, 866. This promotion may have included Basil's adoption by himself a much younger man. It was commonly believed that Basil's successor and reputed son, was really the son of Michael. When Michael III started to favour another courtier, Basiliskianos, Basil decided that his position was being undermined. Michael and Basiliskianos were insensibly drunk following a banquet at the palace of Anthimos when Basil, with a small group of companions, gained entry. The chamberlain had not posted guards; both victims were then put to the sword. On Michael III's death, Basil, as an already acclaimed co-emperor, automatically became the ruling basileus.Basil I – Basil, his son Constantine, and his second wife, Empress Eudokia Ingerina.
369. Leo VI the Wise – Leo VI, called the Wise or the Philosopher, was Byzantine Emperor from 886 to 912. The second ruler of the Macedonian dynasty, he was very well-read, leading to his surname. Eudokia was both Michael III's mistress and Basil’s wife. In 867, Michael was assassinated by Basil, who succeeded him as Emperor. Basil married Zoe off to an insignificant official, later almost had Leo blinded when he was accused of conspiring against him. This contributed to the suspicion that Leo was in truth Michael's son. His attempts to control the aristocratic families occasionally led to the most significant being the revolt of Andronikos Doukas in 906. Leo also attempted to control the church through his appointments to the patriarchate. He replaced him with his 19-year-old brother Stephen in December 886. On Stephen's death in 893, Leo replaced him with Zaoutzes' nominee, Antony II Kauleas, who died in 901. The church is one of the best examples of Byzantine architecture. According to one story, he was even captured by the city guards during one of his investigations. Late in the evening, he was walking alone and disguised. Though he moved on, a third patrol arrested him. Leo VI's fortune in war was more mixed than Basil's had been.Leo VI the Wise – A mosaic in Hagia Sophia showing Leo VI paying homage to Christ
370. Alexander (Byzantine emperor) – Alexander, sometimes numbered Alexander III, ruled as Emperor of the Byzantine Empire in 912–913. Alexander was the third son of Emperor Basil I and Eudokia Ingerina. As a child, Alexander was crowned by his father around 879. Upon the death of his brother Leo on 11 May 912, Alexander succeeded alongside Leo's young son Constantine VII. He was the Byzantine emperor to use the term "autocrator" on coinage to celebrate the ending of his thirty-three years as co-emperor. The patriarchate was again conferred on Nicholas Mystikos, removed from this position because he had opposed Leo's fourth marriage. Alexander died after a game of tzykanion on June 6, 913 allegedly fulfilling his brother's prophecy that he would reign for 13 months. Alexander left his successor a hostile regent and the beginning of a long war against Bulgaria. List of Byzantine emperors The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. 1991. John Julius Norwich. Byzantium, The Apogee. Penguin Books. ISBN 0140114483.Alexander (Byzantine emperor) – Byzantine Mosaic portrait of Emperor Alexander in the Hagia Sophia. In his left hand he holds a globus cruciger, and in his right the akakia.
371. Constantine VII – Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus, "the Purple-born", was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959. He was the son of the emperor Leo VI and the nephew of his predecessor, the emperor Alexander. Constantine VII is best known for his four books, De Administrando Imperio, De Ceremoniis, Vita Basilii. His nickname alludes to the Purple Room of the imperial palace, decorated with porphyry, where legitimate children of reigning emperors were normally born. Constantine was also born in this room, although his Zoe had not been married to Leo at that time. Nevertheless, the epithet allowed him to underline his position as the legitimized son, as opposed to all others who claimed the throne during his lifetime. Sons born to a reigning Emperor held precedence over elder sons not born "in the purple". Constantine was born at an illegitimate son born before an uncanonical fourth marriage. To help legitimize him, his mother gave birth in the Purple Room of the imperial palace hence his nickname Porphyrogennetos. He was symbolically elevated to the throne as a two-year-old child on May 15, 908. In June 913, as his uncle Alexander lay dying, he appointed a seven-man council for Constantine. Patriarch Nicholas was presently forced to make peace with Tsar Simeon of Bulgaria, whom he reluctantly recognized as Bulgarian emperor. Because of this unpopular concession, Patriarch Nicholas was driven out by Constantine's mother Zoe. She was no more successful with the Bulgarians, who defeated the general Leo Phokas, in 917. In 919 she was replaced by the admiral Romanos Lekapenos, who married his daughter Helena Lekapene to Constantine.Constantine VII – Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos
372. Romanos I Lekapenos – Romanos Lekapenos, born in Lakape between Melitene and Samosata, was the son of an Armenian peasant with the remarkable name of Theophylact the Unbearable. Although he did not receive any refined education, Romanos advanced through the ranks of the army during the reign of Emperor Leo VI the Wise. In 911 he was general of the naval theme of Samos and later served as admiral of the fleet. On 25 March 919, at the head of his fleet, Lekapenos seized the Boukoleon Palace and the reins of government. It is notable that, as he left Constantine untouched, he was called'the gentle usurper'. His early reign saw several conspiracies to topple him, which led to the successive dismissal of John Mystikos. From 925 and until the end of his reign, the post was occupied by the chamberlain Theophanes. The first major challenge faced by the new emperor was the war with Bulgaria, re-ignited by the regency of Zoe. Consequently, the first four years of Romanos' reign were spent in warfare against Bulgaria. Although Simeon generally had the upper hand, he was unable to gain a decisive advantage because of the impregnability of Constantinople's walls. In 924, when Simeon had once again blockaded the capital by land, Romanos succeeded in opening negotiations. In reality, this was accomplished by Romanos' tacit recognition of Simeon as emperor of Bulgaria. Relations were subsequently marred by continued wrangling over titles, but peace had been effectively established. In September 927 Peter arrived before married Maria, thus Romanos' granddaughter. From this point on, Romanos' government was free from direct military confrontation with Bulgaria.Romanos I Lekapenos – Miliaresion from 931–944, showing Romanos' bust on a cross on the obverse and listing the names of Romanos and his co-emperors, Constantine VII, Stephen Lekapenos and Constantine Lekapenos, on the reverse
373. Christopher Lekapenos – Christopher Lekapenos or Lecapenus was the eldest son of Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos and co-emperor from 921 until his death in 931. Christopher was the second-oldest child after his sister Helena. Younger siblings were Agatha, who married Romanos Argyros, Stephen and Constantine, two unnamed younger sisters. Nothing is known of Christopher's early life. He had a daughter of marriageable age in 927, hence he was probably born around 890 -- 895. Already before his father's rise to power, he had been married to Sophia, a Slav from the Peloponnese. Romanos soon crowned himself eventually advanced himself before the young Constantine in precedence. Furthermore, when the Augusta Theodora died in February 922, his wife Sophia was raised to the dignity of Augusta alongside Helena Lekapene. In 927, as part of a peace agreement, Christopher's daughter Maria, renamed Eirene for the occasion, was married to the Bulgarian emperor Peter I. Romanos used the occasion to advance Christopher before Constantine Porphyrogennetos, making him first among the rather large group of co-emperors. In 928, the patrikios Niketas, unsuccessfully tried to incite Christopher to depose his father, was banished. Soon after Christopher's death, Sophia entered a monastery, where she died. Through his marriage to Sophia, Christopher had three children: the Empress-consort of Peter I of Bulgaria. Romanos, still a child at the time of Christopher's death. An infant at the time of Christopher's death, he was made a cleric at the time of the family's fall from power in 945.Christopher Lekapenos – Gold solidus of Romanos I with Christopher
374. Romanos II – Romanos II was a Byzantine Emperor. He died suddenly in 963. Romanos II was a son of Emperor Constantine VII and Helena Lekapene, his wife Theodora. On January 945, Constantine VII succeeded in removing his brothers-in-law, the sons of Romanos Lekapenos, assuming the throne alone. On April 945, Constantine crowned his son Romanos co-emperor. Romanos chose an innkeeper's daughter named Anastaso, whom he renamed Theophano. In November 959, Romanos II succeeded his father on the amidst rumors that he or his wife had poisoned him. Romanos replaced them with friends. To appease his bespelling wife, he forced his five sisters into convents. Nevertheless, many of Romanos' appointees were able men, including the eunuch Joseph Bringas. The pleasure-loving sovereign could also leave military matters in particular the brothers Leo and Nikephoros Phokas. In 960 Nikephoros Phokas was sent with a fleet of 1,000 dromons, 308 transports carrying 50,000 men to recover Crete from the Muslims. After a difficult campaign and nine-month siege of Chandax, Nikephoros successfully re-established Byzantine control in 961. Nikephoros liberated Cilicia and even Aleppo in 962, taking possession of 390,000 silver dinars, 2,000 camels, 1,400 mules. In the meantime Leo Phokas and Marianos Argyros had countered Magyar incursions into the Byzantine Balkans.Romanos II – Gold solidus with Romanos II and his father, Constantine VII
375. Nikephoros II Phokas – Nikephoros II Phokas was Byzantine Emperor from 963 to 969. His military exploits contributed to the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire during the 10th century. His mother, whose name is unknown, was a member of the Maleinoi. Nikephoros joined the army at an early age. He was appointed the military governor of the Anatolikon Theme under Emperor Constantine VII. When his father was wounded in battle in 953, Nikephoros was promoted on the eastern frontier. In 960, marines were assembled to man a fleet of 308 ships carrying 50,000 troops. At the recommendation of the influential minister Joseph Bringas, Nikephoros was entrusted to lead this expedition against the Saracen Emirate of Crete. After a nine-month siege, Nikephoros stormed Chandax and wrested control of the entire island in 961. Upon returning to Constantinople, he was denied the usual honor of a triumph, permitted only a mere ovation in the Hippodrome. He soon returned with a large and well-equipped army. In the campaigns of 962 -- 963, he employed a brilliant strategy to advance into Syria. They made no permanent conquests. It was on these campaigns that he earned the sobriquet, "The Pale Death of the Saracens". During the capture of Aleppo, the Byzantine army took possession of 390,000 silver dinars, 1,400 mules.Nikephoros II Phokas – Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas
376. John I Tzimiskes – John I Tzimiskes was the senior Byzantine Emperor from 11 December 969 to 10 January 976. An intuitive and successful general, he strengthened the Empire and expanded its borders during his short reign. John I Tzimiskes was born into the Kourkouas clan, a family of Armenian origin. Scholars have speculated that his nickname "Tzimiskes" was derived either from the Armenian Chmushkik, meaning "red boot", or from an Armenian word for "short stature". Khozan was located in the region of Paghnatun, in the Byzantine province of Fourth Armenia. Tzimiskes was born sometime in 925 to an unnamed member of the Kourkouas family and the sister of the future Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas. Both the Kourkouai and the Phokadai were distinguished Cappadocian families, among the most prominent of the emerging military aristocracy of Asia Minor. Several of their members had served as prominent army generals, most notably the great John Kourkouas, who conquered Melitene and much of Armenia. Contemporary sources describe Tzimiskes as a well-built man, with blue eyes, attractive to women. He seems to have joined the army at an early age, originally under the command of his maternal uncle Nikephoros Phokas. The latter is also considered his instructor in the art of war. Partly because of his familial connections and partly because of his personal abilities, Tzimiskes quickly rose through the ranks. He was given the political and military command of the theme of Armenia before he turned twenty-five years old. His marriage to Maria Skleraina, daughter of Pantherios Skleros and sister of Bardas Skleros, linked him to the influential family of the Skleroi. Little is known about her; she died before his rise to the throne, the marriage was apparently childless.John I Tzimiskes – Gold histamenon of John Tzimiskes, showing him crowned by the Virgin Mary.
377. Zoe Porphyrogenita – Zoë reigned as Byzantine Empress alongside her sister Theodora from April 19 to June 11, 1042. Zoë was one of the few Byzantine empresses, Porphyrogenita, or "born into the purple". She was the second daughter of Constantine VIII and Helena, daughter of Alypius. Her father had become co-emperor in 962 and sole emperor in 1025. His reign as sole emperor lasted less than three years, from December 15, 1025 to November 15, 1028. As an eligible imperial princess she was considered as a possible bride for the Holy Roman Emperor, Otto III in 996. A second embassy sent in 1001, headed by Arnulf, Archbishop of Milan, was tasked with selecting Otto’s bride from among Constantine’s three daughters. The eldest, Eudocia, was disfigured by smallpox, while the youngest, Theodora, was a very plain girl. Arnulf therefore selected the attractive 23-year-old Zoë, to which her uncle Basil II agreed. Another opportunity arose in 1028, when an embassy from the Holy Roman Empire arrived in Constantinople with a proposal for an imperial marriage. Consequently, Zoë lived a life of virtual obscurity in the imperial gynaeceum until circumstances forced her into the centre of imperial politics. The first potential match for Zoë was the distinguished noble Constantine Dalassenos, the former dux of Antioch. He was eventually overlooked for Romanos III Argyros, the urban prefect of Constantinople. her third cousin. They married on November 10, 1028 in the imperial chapel of the palace, by November 12 they were seated on the imperial throne. Spending years in the same restrictive quarters with her sister, Zoë came to loathe Theodora.Zoe Porphyrogenita – Empress Zoe as depicted in a mosaic from the Hagia Sophia
378. Romanos III Argyros – Romanos III Argyros, or Romanus III Argyrus, was Byzantine emperor from 15 November 1028 until his death. Romanos' father was the son of another Romanos Argyros, who had married Agatha, a daughter of Romanos I Lekapenos. Romanos was born in 968. Romanos served as krites in Opsikion, with the rank of protospatharios. In this capacity he persecuted heretics at Akmoneia. He was then promoted to the post of quaestor, became one of the judges of the Hippodrome. In this role he is mentioned in the Peira, a compendium of legal decisions compiled by the notable jurist Eustathios Rhomaios. He was promoted further to the rank of patrikios and the post of oikonomos of the Great Church, while continuing to preside over a tribunal. At the time of the death of Basil II's successor, Emperor Constantine VIII, in 1028, he held the post of urban prefect of Constantinople. Romanos attracted the attention of Constantine VIII, who forced him to divorce his wife and to marry the emperor's daughter Zoe Porphyrogenita. Constantine VIII died, leaving Romanos III as emperor. The new emperor showed great eagerness to make his mark as a ruler, but was mostly unfortunate in his enterprises. He spent large sums upon new buildings and in endowing the monks. His endeavour to relieve the pressure of taxation disorganized the finances of the state. Idealizing Marcus Aurelius, Romanos aspired to be a new "philosopher king", similarly desired to imitate the military prowess of Trajan.Romanos III Argyros – Silver miliaresion of Romanos III
379. Michael IV the Paphlagonian – Michael IV the Paphlagonian was Byzantine Emperor from 11 April 1034 to his death on 10 December 1041. He owed his elevation to Empress Zoe, wife of Romanos III Argyros. There the empress Zoe became enamoured of the youngest, Michael, who became her chamberlain in 1033. It was believed that he was also secretly a forger of false coins. The two soon became lovers. Zoe spoke about making him emperor. He denied the accusations, swearing his innocence on some holy relics. Then, on Zoe's husband, Romanos III was found dead in his bath. Rumours soon began circulating that Zoe and Michael had decided to use a slow poison to kill him. However, had had him strangled or drowned. Adding weight to the rumours was the speed with which Zoe and Michael were married, on the very day that Romanos III died. April 12, 1034, the couple summoned the Patriarch Alexios I to officiate in the coronation of the new emperor. Although he initially refused to co-operate, the payment of 50 pounds of gold helped change his mind. He proceeded as the new emperor of the Romans. He was uneducated and suffered from epileptic fits.Michael IV the Paphlagonian – Histamenon from the reign of Michael IV. Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator (obverse) and facing bust of Michael, wearing crown and loros, holding labarum and globus cruciger (reverse).
380. Michael V Kalaphates – He was popularly called "the Caulker" in accordance with his father's original occupation. Michael V was the son of Stephen by Maria, a sister of Emperor Michael IV. His father had been a caulker before becoming an admiral under Michael IV and botching an expedition to Sicily. Shortly before his death, Michael IV granted Michael V the title of Kaisar, and, together with Zoe, adopted his nephew as a son. On 10 December 1041, Michael V succeeded to the throne. Determined to rule on his own, Michael V came with his uncle John the Orphanotrophos whom he immediately banished to a monastery. Maniakes was promptly sent back to Southern Italy in order to contain the advance of the Normans. On the night of April to 19 April 1042, Michael V banished his adoptive mother and Zoe as well, becoming sole Emperor. His announcement of the event in the morning led to a popular revolt; the palace was surrounded by a mob demanding Zoe's immediate restoration. Zoe was brought back with her sister Theodora. He fled to seek safety together with his remaining uncle. Although he had taken monastic vows, Michael was castrated. He died as a monk on 24 August 1042. List of This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, ed.. "article name needed".Michael V Kalaphates – Histamenon that may have been issued during the reign of Michael V: obverse (left) Christ Pantokrator; reverse (right) the Emperor (crowned by the hand of God) and the Archangel Michael holding a labarum.
381. Theodora (11th century) – Theodora Porphyrogenita was a Byzantine Empress born into the Macedonian dynasty that had ruled the Byzantine Empire for almost two hundred years. She was co-empress with her Zoe for two months in 1042 and sole empress regnant from 11 January 1055 to 31 August 1056. Theodora was Helena, daughter of Alypius. As an imperial princess, she was considered as a possible bride for the Holy Roman Emperor in the west, Otto III in 996. Otto III died before the wedding. From that onward, Theodora lived a life of obscurity in the imperial gynaeceum. However, her father died without siring any sons, she was forced to the centre of imperial politics. Theodora further claimed that since Romanos and she were third cousins, it was close a blood relationship for marriage to occur. Consequently, Constantine VIII chose Zoe, who married Romanos instead in 1028. Afterwards Theodora was accused of plotting to usurp the throne with Presian of Bulgaria. Accused of being part of Theodora was forcibly confined in the monastery of Petrion. Zoe later forced her to take Holy Orders. She would remain there for the next thirteen years, as Zoe managed the empire with her husbands, after his death, Michael IV. With Michael IV’s death in December 1041, Zoe adopted Michael’s nephew, crowned as Michael V. Although he promised to respect Zoe, he promptly banished her to a monastery on Princes' Islands on charges of attempted regicide.Theodora (11th century) – Byzantine coin showing Jesus Christ on the left and Empress Theodora on the right.
382. Constantine IX Monomachos – Constantine IX Monomachos, Latinized as Constantine IX Monomachus, reigned as Byzantine emperor from June 11, 1042 to January 11, 1055. They ruled together until Zoe died in 1050. Constantine Monomachos was the son of an important bureaucrat under Constantine VIII. At some point, Theodosios had been suspected of conspiracy and his son's career suffered accordingly. Constantine's position improved after he married his second wife, a niece of Emperor Romanos III Argyros. Catching the eye of Empress Zoe, Constantine was exiled to Mytilene by Michael IV. After her second died under mysterious circumstances, Zoe remembered the urbane Constantine. The pair were married on June 11, 1042, without the participation of Patriarch Alexius I of Constantinople, who refused to officiate over a third marriage. On the following day, Constantine was formally proclaimed emperor together with Zoe and her sister Theodora. Constantine continued the purge instituted by Zoe and Theodora, removing the relatives of Michael V from the court. The new emperor was pleasure-loving and prone to violent outbursts on suspicion of conspiracy. He was heavily influenced by his mistress, Maria's relatives. Immediately after the victory, Constantine was attacked by a fleet from Kievan Rus'; it is "incontrovertible that a Rus' detachment took part in the Maniakes rebellion". They too were defeated, with the help of Greek fire. Constantine IX’s preferential treatment of Maria Skleraina in the early part of his reign led to rumours that she was planning to murder Zoe and Theodora.Constantine IX Monomachos – A mosaic in Hagia Sophia showing Constantine IX Monomachos.
383. Michael VI Bringas – Michael VI Bringas, called Stratiotikos or Stratioticus or Gerontas, reigned as Byzantine emperor from 1056 to 1057. Michael Bringas was chosen shortly before her death in early September, 1056. The appointment had been secured through the influence of Theodora's most trusted adviser. Aft