1. Medieval Greek – From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire. This stage of language is described as Byzantine Greek. The study of the Medieval Greek language and literature is a branch of Byzantine Studies, or Byzantinology, however, this approach is rather arbitrary as it is more an assumption of political as opposed to cultural and linguistic developments. Indeed, by time the spoken language, particularly pronunciation, had already shifted towards modern forms. Medieval Greek is the link between this vernacular, known as Koine Greek, and the Modern Greek language. With the transfer of the Roman imperial court to Byzantium between 324 and 330, the centre of the Roman Empire was moved into an area where Greek was the dominant language. At first, Latin remained the language of both the court and the army and it was used for documents, but its influence soon waned. From the beginning of the 6th century, amendments to the law were written in Greek. Furthermore, parts of the Roman Corpus Iuris Civilis were gradually translated into Greek, under the rule of Emperor Heraclius, who also assumed the Greek title Basileus in 629, Greek became the official language of the Eastern Roman Empire. This was in spite of the fact that the inhabitants of the empire still considered themselves Romaioi until its end in 1453, the number of those who were able to communicate in Greek may have been far higher. In any case, all cities of the Eastern Roman Empire were strongly influenced by the Greek language, alexandria, a center of Greek culture and language, fell to the Arabs in 642. During the seventh and eighth centuries, Greek was replaced by Arabic as a language in conquered territories such as Egypt. Thus, the use of Greek declined early on in Syria, Egypt, from the late 11th century onwards, the interior of Anatolia was invaded by Seljuq Turks, who advanced westwards. Language varieties after 1453 are referred to as Modern Greek, as early as in the Hellenistic period, there was a tendency towards a state of diglossia between the Attic literary language and the constantly developing vernacular Koiné. By late antiquity, the gap had become impossible to ignore, written literature reflecting this demotic Greek begins to appear around 1100. Among the preserved literature in the Attic literary language, various forms of historiography take a prominent place and they comprise chronicles as well as classicist, contemporary works of historiography, theological documents, and saints lives. Poetry can be found in the form of hymns and ecclesiastical poetry, many of the Byzantine emperors were active writers themselves and wrote chronicles or works on the running of the Byzantine state and strategic or philological works. Furthermore, letters, legal texts, and numerous registers and lists in Medieval Greek exist and these are influenced by the vernacular language of their time in choice of words and idiom, but largely follow the models of written Koine in their morphology and syntaxMedieval Greek – Manuscript of the Anthology of Planudes (c.1300)
2. Roman Empire – Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was then unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperorRoman Empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
3. Middle Ages – In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired later in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the later 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy, heresy, and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and later argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient, Medieval, and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the periodMiddle Ages – The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The body of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
4. Byzantium – Byzantium was an ancient Greek colony that later became Constantinople, and later still Istanbul. Byzantium was colonised by the Greeks from Megara in c. 657 BC, the etymology of Byzantion is unknown. It has been suggested that the name is of Thraco-Illyrian origin and it may be derived from a Thracian or Illyrian personal name, Byzas. Ancient Greek legend refers to a king Byzas, the leader of the Megarian colonists, the form Byzantium is a Latinisation of the original name. Much later, the name Byzantium became common in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and this usage was introduced only in 1555 by the historian Hieronymus Wolf, a century after the empire had ceased to exist. During the time of the empire, the term Byzantium was restricted to just the city, the European side featured only two fishing settlements, Lygos and Semistra. The origins of Byzantium are shrouded in legend, the traditional legend has it that Byzas from Megara founded Byzantium in 667 BC when he sailed northeast across the Aegean Sea. The tradition tells that Byzas, son of King Nisos, planned to found a colony of the Dorian Greek city of Megara, Byzas consulted the oracle of Apollo at Delphi, which instructed Byzas to settle opposite the Land of the Blind. Leading a group of Megarian colonists, Byzas found a location where the Golden Horn and he adjudged the Chalcedonians blind not to have recognized the advantages the land on the European side of the Bosphorus had over the Asiatic side. In 667 BC he founded Byzantium at their location, thus fulfilling the oracles requirement and it was mainly a trading city due to its location at the Black Seas only entrance. Byzantium later conquered Chalcedon, across the Bosporus on the Asiatic side, Byzantium was besieged by Greek forces during the Peloponnesian War. As part of Spartas strategy for cutting off supplies to Athens. The Athenian military later took the city in 408 BC, after siding with Pescennius Niger against the victorious Septimius Severus, the city was besieged by Roman forces and suffered extensive damage in 196 AD. Byzantium was rebuilt by Septimius Severus, now emperor, and quickly regained its previous prosperity and it was bound to Perinthos during the period of Septimius Severus. The location of Byzantium attracted Roman Emperor Constantine I who, in 330 AD, after his death the city was called Constantinople. This combination of imperialism and location would affect Constantinoples role as the nexus between the continents of Europe and Asia and it was a commercial, cultural, and diplomatic centre. With its strategic position, Constantinople controlled the trade routes between Asia and Europe, as well as the passage from the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea. On May 29,1453, the city fell to the Ottoman Turks, and again became the capital of a powerful state, the Turks called the city Istanbul, the name derives from eis-tin-polinByzantium – O: Head of Alexander the Great with Amun's horns.
5. Latin language – Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, Latin was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language, Latin and Ancient Greek roots are used in theology, biology, and medicine. By the late Roman Republic, Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin, Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence. Late Latin is the language from the 3rd century. Later, Early Modern Latin and Modern Latin evolved, Latin was used as the language of international communication, scholarship, and science until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the language of the Holy See and the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Today, many students, scholars and members of the Catholic clergy speak Latin fluently and it is taught in primary, secondary and postsecondary educational institutions around the world. The language has been passed down through various forms, some inscriptions have been published in an internationally agreed, monumental, multivolume series, the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Authors and publishers vary, but the format is about the same, volumes detailing inscriptions with a critical apparatus stating the provenance, the reading and interpretation of these inscriptions is the subject matter of the field of epigraphy. The works of several hundred ancient authors who wrote in Latin have survived in whole or in part and they are in part the subject matter of the field of classics. The Cat in the Hat, and a book of fairy tales, additional resources include phrasebooks and resources for rendering everyday phrases and concepts into Latin, such as Meissners Latin Phrasebook. The Latin influence in English has been significant at all stages of its insular development. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, English writers cobbled together huge numbers of new words from Latin and Greek words, dubbed inkhorn terms, as if they had spilled from a pot of ink. Many of these words were used once by the author and then forgotten, many of the most common polysyllabic English words are of Latin origin through the medium of Old French. Romance words make respectively 59%, 20% and 14% of English, German and those figures can rise dramatically when only non-compound and non-derived words are included. Accordingly, Romance words make roughly 35% of the vocabulary of Dutch, Roman engineering had the same effect on scientific terminology as a wholeLatin language – Latin inscription, in the Colosseum
6. Religion in ancient Rome – The Romans thought of themselves as highly religious, and attributed their success as a world power to their collective piety in maintaining good relations with the gods. According to legends, most of Romes religious institutions could be traced to its founders, particularly Numa Pompilius, the Sabine second king of Rome, who negotiated directly with the gods. This archaic religion was the foundation of the mos maiorum, the way of the ancestors or simply tradition, as Rome came into contact with foreign cultures, and conquered them, foreign religions increasingly attracted devotees among Romans, who increasingly had ancestry from elsewhere in the Empire. The emperors promoted the Imperial cult around the empire, and this, ultimately, Roman polytheism was brought to an end with the adoption of Christianity as the official religion of the empire. The priesthoods of public religion were held by members of the elite classes, there was no principle analogous to separation of church and state in ancient Rome. During the Roman Republic, the men who were elected public officials might also serve as augurs. Priests married, raised families, and led politically active lives, Julius Caesar became pontifex maximus before he was elected consul. The augurs read the will of the gods and supervised the marking of boundaries as a reflection of universal order, Roman religion was thus practical and contractual, based on the principle of do ut des, I give that you might give. Even the most skeptical among Romes intellectual elite such as Cicero, for ordinary Romans, religion was a part of daily life. Each home had a shrine at which prayers and libations to the familys domestic deities were offered. Neighborhood shrines and sacred such as springs and groves dotted the city. The Roman calendar was structured around religious observances, women, slaves, and children all participated in a range of religious activities. The Romans are known for the number of deities they honored. The Romans looked for common ground between their major gods and those of the Greeks, adapting Greek myths and iconography for Latin literature, etruscan religion was also a major influence, particularly on the practice of augury. The mysteries, however, involved exclusive oaths and secrecy, conditions that conservative Romans viewed with suspicion as characteristic of magic, conspiratorial, or subversive activity. Sporadic and sometimes brutal attempts were made to suppress religionists who seemed to threaten traditional morality and unity, one way that Rome incorporated diverse peoples was by supporting their religious heritage, building temples to local deities that framed their theology within the hierarchy of Roman religion. Inscriptions throughout the Empire record the worship of local and Roman deities. Because Romans had never been obligated to one god or one cult onlyReligion in ancient Rome – Marcus Aurelius (head covered) sacrificing at the Temple of Jupiter
7. Heraclius – Heraclius was the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 610 to 641. He was responsible for introducing Greek as the Eastern Roman Empires official language and his rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Africa, led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas. Heracliuss reign was marked by military campaigns. The year Heraclius came to power, the empire was threatened on multiple frontiers, Heraclius immediately took charge of the Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628. Soon after, he initiated reforms to rebuild and strengthen the military, Heraclius drove the Persians out of Asia Minor and pushed deep into their territory, defeating them decisively in 627 at the Battle of Nineveh. The Persian king Khosrau II was overthrown and executed by his son Kavadh II and this way peaceful relations were restored to the two deeply strained empires. Heraclius soon experienced a new event, the Muslim conquests, emerging from the Arabian Peninsula, the Muslims quickly conquered the Sassanid empire. In 634 the Muslims marched into Roman Syria, defeating Heracliuss brother Theodore, within a short period of time, the Arabs conquered Mesopotamia, Armenia and Egypt. Heraclius entered diplomatic relations with the Croats and Serbs in the Balkans and he tried to repair the schism in the Christian church in regard to the Monophysites, by promoting a compromise doctrine called Monothelitism. The Church of the East was also involved in the process, eventually, however, this project of unity was rejected by all sides of the dispute. Heraclius was the eldest son of Heraclius the Elder and Epiphania, of an Armenian family from Cappadocia, beyond that, there is little specific information known about his ancestry. His father was a key general during Emperor Maurices war with Bahrām Chobin, usurper of the Sassanid Empire, after the war, Maurice appointed Heraclius the Elder to the position of Exarch of Africa. In 608, Heraclius the Elder renounced his loyalty to the Emperor Phocas, the rebels issued coins showing both Heraclii dressed as consuls, though neither of them explicitly claimed the imperial title at this time. Heracliuss younger cousin Nicetas launched an invasion of Egypt, by 609, he had defeated Phocass general Bonosus. Meanwhile, the younger Heraclius sailed eastward with another force via Sicily, when he reached the capital, the Excubitors, an elite Imperial Guard unit led by Phocass son-in-law Priscus, deserted to Heraclius, and he entered the city without serious resistance. When Heraclius captured Phocas, he asked him Is this how you have ruled, Phocass reply—And will you rule better. —so enraged Heraclius that he beheaded Phocas on the spot. He later had the genitalia removed from the body because Phocas had raped the wife of Photius, a powerful politician in the city. On October 5,610, Heraclius was crowned for a time, this time in the Chapel of St. Stephen within the Great Palace, at the same time he married FabiaHeraclius – Tremissis of Emperor Heraclius.
8. Justinian I – Justinian I, traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was a Byzantine emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empires greatness, because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been called the last Roman in modern historiography. This ambition was expressed by the recovery of the territories of the defunct western Roman Empire. His general, Belisarius, swiftly conquered the Vandal kingdom in North Africa, the prefect Liberius reclaimed the south of the Iberian peninsula, establishing the province of Spania. These campaigns re-established Roman control over the western Mediterranean, increasing the Empires annual revenue by over a million solidi, during his reign Justinian also subdued the Tzani, a people on the east coast of the Black Sea that had never been under Roman rule before. A still more resonant aspect of his legacy was the rewriting of Roman law, the Corpus Juris Civilis. His reign also marked a blossoming of Byzantine culture, and his building program yielded such masterpieces as the church of Hagia Sophia, a devastating outbreak of bubonic plague in the early 540s marked the end of an age of splendour. Justinian was born in Tauresium around 482, a native speaker of Latin, he came from a peasant family believed to have been of Illyro-Roman or Thraco-Roman origins. The cognomen Iustinianus, which he later, is indicative of adoption by his uncle Justin. During his reign, he founded Justiniana Prima not far from his birthplace and his mother was Vigilantia, the sister of Justin. Justin, who was in the guard before he became emperor, adopted Justinian, brought him to Constantinople. As a result, Justinian was well educated in jurisprudence, theology, Justinian served for some time with the Excubitors but the details of his early career are unknown. Chronicler John Malalas, who lived during the reign of Justinian, tells of his appearance that he was short, fair skinned, curly haired, round faced, another contemporary chronicler, Procopius, compares Justinians appearance to that of tyrannical Emperor Domitian, although this is probably slander. When Emperor Anastasius died in 518, Justin was proclaimed the new emperor, during Justins reign, Justinian was the emperors close confidant. As Justin became senile near the end of his reign, Justinian became the de facto ruler, Justinian was appointed consul in 521 and later commander of the army of the east. Upon Justins death on 1 August 527, Justinian became the sole sovereign, as a ruler, Justinian showed great energy. He was known as the emperor who never sleeps on account of his work habits, nevertheless, he seems to have been amiable and easy to approach. Around 525, he married his mistress, Theodora, in Constantinople and she was by profession a courtesan and some twenty years his juniorJustinian I – Detail of a contemporary portrait mosaic in the Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna.
9. Mediterranean Sea – The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning inland or in the middle of land and it covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, but its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar. In oceanography, it is called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The Mediterranean Sea has a depth of 1,500 m. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia and it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, the seas average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has an area of approximately 2,510,000 square km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade, the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri, the term Mediterranean derives from the Latin word mediterraneus, meaning amid the earth or between land, as it is between the continents of Africa, Asia and Europe. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, between + γη, land, earth) and it can be compared with the Ancient Greek name Mesopotamia, meaning between rivers. The Mediterranean Sea has historically had several names, for example, the Carthaginians called it the Syrian Sea and latter Romans commonly called it Mare Nostrum, and occasionally Mare Internum. Another name was the Sea of the Philistines, from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites, the sea is also called the Great Sea in the General Prologue by Geoffrey Chaucer. In Ottoman Turkish, it has also been called Bahr-i Sefid, in Modern Hebrew, it has been called HaYam HaTikhon, the Middle Sea, reflecting the Seas name in ancient Greek, Latin, and modern languages in both Europe and the Middle East. Similarly, in Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ, in Turkish, it is known as Akdeniz, the White Sea since among Turks the white colour represents the west. Several ancient civilisations were located around the Mediterranean shores, and were influenced by their proximity to the sea. It provided routes for trade, colonisation, and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages, due to the shared climate, geology, and access to the sea, cultures centered on the Mediterranean tended to have some extent of intertwined culture and history. Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilisations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states, later, when Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Romans referred to the Mediterranean as Mare NostrumMediterranean Sea – Circa the 6th century BCE: In ancient times the Mediterranean provided sources of food and local commerce and direct routes for trade and communications, colonisation, and war. Numerous cities and colonies were situated at its shores or within the basin: Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity; and other cities (grey), including the provincial "Rom".
10. Muslim conquests – The early Muslim conquests also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic Prophet Muhammad in the 7th century. He established a new unified polity in the Arabian Peninsula which under the subsequent Rashidun, the resulting empire stretched from the borders of China and the Indian subcontinent, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily, and the Iberian Peninsula, to the Pyrenees. The Muslim conquests brought about the collapse of the Sassanid Empire, the reasons for the Muslim success are hard to reconstruct in hindsight, primarily because only fragmentary sources from the period have survived. Most historians agree that the Sassanid Persian and Byzantine Roman empires were militarily and economically exhausted from decades of fighting one another, in the case of Byzantine Egypt, Palestine and Syria, these lands had only a few years before being reclaimed from the Persians. The estimates for the size of the Islamic Caliphate suggest it was more than thirteen million square kilometers, the last of these wars ended with victory for the Byzantines, Emperor Heraclius regained all lost territories, and restored the True Cross to Jerusalem in 629. According to George Liska, the unnecessarily prolonged Byzantine–Persian conflict opened the way for Islam, in late 620s Muhammad had already managed to conquer and unify much of Arabia under Muslim rule, and it was under his leadership that the first Muslim-Byzantine skirmishes took place. The province of Syria was the first to be wrested from Byzantine control, on the heels of their victory, the Arab armies took Damascus in 636, with Baalbek, Homs, and Hama to follow soon afterwards. However, other fortified towns continued to resist despite the rout of the army and had to be conquered individually. Jerusalem fell in 638, Caesarea in 640, while others held out until 641, the Byzantine province of Egypt held strategic importance for its grain production, naval yards, and as a base for further conquests in Africa. The Muslim general Amr ibn al-As began the conquest of the province on his own initiative in 639, nevertheless, the province was scarcely urbanized and the defenders lost hope of receiving reinforcements from Constantinople when the emperor Heraclius died in 641. The last major center to fall into Arab hands was Alexandria, according to Hugh Kennedy, Of all the early Muslim conquests, that of Egypt was the swiftest and most complete. Seldom in history can so massive a political change have happened so swiftly, after an Arab incursion into Sasanian territories, the energetic king Yazdgerd III, who had just ascended the Persian throne, raised an army to resist the invasion. However, the Persians suffered a defeat at the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah in 636. As a result, the Arab-Muslims gained control over the whole of Iraq, including Ctesiphon, the Persian forces withdrew over the Zagros mountains and the Arab army pursued them across the Iranian plateau, where the fate of the Sasanian empire was sealed at the Battle of Nahavand. In the aftermath of their victory over the army, the invaders still had to contend with a collection of militarily weak. It took decades to bring all under control of the caliphate. The rapidity of the early conquests has received various explanations, contemporary Christian writers conceived them as Gods punishment visited on their fellow Christians for their sins. Early Muslim historians viewed them as a reflection of religious zeal of the conquerors, according to Chase F. Robinson, it is likely that Muslim forces were often outnumbered, but, unlike their opponents, they were fast, well coordinated and highly motivatedMuslim conquests – Expansion from 622-750, with modern borders overlaid
11. Seljuq dynasty – The Seljuqs established both the Seljuk Empire and Sultanate of Rum, which at their heights stretched from Anatolia through Iran and were targets of the First Crusade. During the 10th century, due to events, the Oghuz had come into close contact with Muslim cities. Around 985, Seljuq converted to Islam, in the 11th century the Seljuqs migrated from their ancestral homelands into mainland Persia, in the province of Khurasan, where they encountered the Ghaznavid empire. In 1025,40,000 families of Oghuz Turks migrated to the area of Caucasian Albania, the Seljuqs defeated the Ghaznavids at the battle of Nasa plains in 1035. Tughril, Chaghri, and Yabghu received the insignias of governor, grants of land, at the battle of Dandanaqan they defeated a Ghaznavid army, and after a successful siege of Isfahan by Tughril in 1050/51, they established an empire later called the Great Seljuk Empire. The Seljuqs mixed with the population and adopted the Persian culture. The Great Seljuqs were heads of the family, in theory their authority extended over all the other Seljuq lines, turkish custom called for the senior member of the family to be the Great Seljuq, although usually the position was associated with the ruler of western Persia. Muhammads son Mahmud II succeeded him in western Persia, but Ahmad Sanjar, the rulers of western Persia, who maintained a very loose grip on the Abbasids of Baghdad. Several Turkic emirs gained a level of influence in the region. Kerman was a province in southern Persia, between 1053 and 1154, the territory also included Umman. Kerman was eventually annexed by the Khwarezmid Empire in 1196, the Empire of the Steppes, a History of Central Asia. Early Seljuq History, A New Interpretation, New York, NY, Routledge,2010 Previté-Orton, C. WSeljuq dynasty – History of the Turkic peoples Pre-14th century
12. Romanos IV Diogenes – While still captive he was overthrown in a palace coup, and when released he was quickly defeated and detained by members of the Doukas family. In 1072, he was blinded and sent to a monastery, Romanos Diogenes was the son of Constantine Diogenes and a member of a prominent and powerful Cappadocian family, connected by birth to most of the great aristocratic nobles in Asia Minor. His mother was a daughter of Basil Argyros, brother of the emperor Romanos III, courageous and generous, but also impetuous, Romanos rose with distinction in the army due to his military talents, and he served on the Danubian frontier. However, he was convicted of attempting to usurp the throne of the sons of Constantine X Doukas in 1067. The problem Romanos and Eudokia had in executing this plan was that Eudokias deceased husband, the Senate agreed, and on January 1,1068 Romanos married the empress and was crowned Emperor of the Romans. Romanos IV was now the emperor and guardian of his stepsons and junior co-emperors, Michael VII, Konstantios Doukas. By 1067, the Turks had been making incursions at will into Mesopotamia, Melitene, Syria, Cilicia, and Cappadocia, culminating with the sack of Caesarea and that winter they camped on the frontiers of the empire and waited for the next years campaigning season. Romanos was confident of Byzantine superiority on the field of battle and he did not take into account the degraded state of the Byzantine forces, which had suffered years of neglect from his predecessors, in particular Constantine X. It was soon evident that while Romanos possessed military talent, his impetuosity was a serious flaw, the first military operations of Romanos did achieve a measure of success, reinforcing his opinions about the outcome of the war. Antioch was exposed to the Saracens of Aleppo who, with help from Turkish troops, returning south, Romanos rejoined the main army, and they continued their advance through the passes of Mount Taurus to the north of Germanicia and proceeded to invade the Emirate of Aleppo. Romanos captured Hierapolis, which he fortified to provide protection against further incursions into the provinces of the empire. He then engaged in fighting against the Saracens of Aleppo. With the campaigning season reaching its end, Romanos returned north via Alexandretta, here he was advised of another Seljuk raid into Asia Minor in which they sacked Amorium but returned to their base so fast that Romanos was in no position to give chase. He eventually reached Constantinople by January 1069, possibly due to Romanos not paying them on time, they began plundering the countryside near where they were stationed at Edessa, and attacking the imperial tax collectors. Although Crispin was captured and exiled to Abydos, the Franks continued to ravage the Armeniac Theme for some time, in the meantime, the land around Caesarea was again overrun by the Turks, forcing Romanos to spend precious time and energy in expelling the Turks from Cappadocia. Desperate to begin his campaign proper, he ordered the execution of all prisoners, philaretos was soon defeated by the Turks, whose sack of Iconium forced Romanos to abandon his plans and return to Sebaste. He sent orders to the Dux of Antioch to secure the passes at Mopsuestia, the Turks were soon hemmed in in the mountains of Cilicia, but they managed to escape to Aleppo after abandoning their plunder. Romanos once again returned to Constantinople without the great victory he was hoping for, Romanos was detained at Constantinople in 1070, while he dealt with many outstanding administrative issues, including the imminent fall of Bari into Norman handsRomanos IV Diogenes – Diptych of the boy Emperor Romanus II and his child wife Bertha-Eudokia, the daughter of Hugh of Italy, c. 944-946. This Diptych is often used erroneously to show Emperor Romanus IV (Bibliothèque nationale de France).
13. Eastern Anatolia – The Eastern Anatolia Region is a geographical region of Turkey. The region and the name Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi were first defined at the First Geography Congress in 1941 and it has the highest average altitude, largest geographical area, and lowest population density of all regions of Turkey. Prior to getting its current name by the Turkish state, most of the region was part of the Six Armenian provinces in the known as the Armenian Highlands. After the Armenian Genocide, the geopolitical term Eastern Anatolia was created to replace what had historically been known as Western Armenia, starting from 1880 the name Armenia was forbidden to be used in official Ottoman documents. The government of Sultan Abdul Hamid II replaced the name Armenia with such terms as Kurdistan or Anatolia, the Sublime Porte was trying to cover up the Armenian Question, if there was no Armenia, then there was no Armenian Question. The process of “nationalization” of toponyms was continued by the Kemalists, who were the successors of the Young Turks. Starting from 1923 the entire territory of Western Armenia was officially renamed “Eastern Anatolia”, in the 17th century when the Armenian Question was not as yet included into the international diplomacy agenda, the terms Anatolia or Eastern Anatolia were never used to indicate Armenia. Furthermore, the Islamic World Map of the 16th century and other Ottoman maps of the 18th and 19th centuries have clearly indicated Armenia on a territory as well as its cities. Armenia, together with its boundaries, was mentioned in the works of earlier Ottoman historians. Kâtip Çelebi, a famous Ottoman chronicler of the 17th century, had a chapter titled “About the Country Called Armenia” in his book Jihan Numa. When, however, this book was republished in 1957, its modern Turkish editor H. Selen changed this title into “Eastern Anatolia”. Osman Nuri, a historian of the half of the 19th century, mentions Armenia repeatedly in his three-volume Abdul Hamid. The word Anatolia means “sunrise” or “east” in Greek and this name was given to the Asia Minor peninsula approximately in the 5th or 4th centuries B. C. During the Ottoman era, the term Anadolou included the vilayets of Asia Minor with Kyotahia as its center. The numerous European, Ottoman, Armenian, Russian, Persian, Arabic and this testifies, inter alia, to the fact that even after the loss of its statehood the Armenian nation still constituted a majority in its homeland, which was recognized by Ottoman occupiers as well. The area of the region is 146,330 km², which comprises 18. 7% of the area of Turkey. The total population of the region is 6,100,000 and 5,906,565, the region has the second most rural population of Turkey after the Black Sea region. The migration level is high and population density is lower than the average for Turkey, the migration toward other Turkeys regions and toward foreign countries is higher than the natural population increase, a fact which is leading to a slight decline of the Regions populationEastern Anatolia – 1895 map making a clear distinction between Armenia and Anatolia
14. Komnenian restoration – At the onset of the reign of Alexios I, the empire was reeling from its defeat by the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. The empire was also being threatened by the Normans of Robert Guiscard, all this occurred as the empires military institution was in disarray and had grown increasingly reliant on mercenaries. Previous emperors had also squandered the large deposits of Constantinople, so the defense of the empire had broken down. The Komnenoi nevertheless managed to reassert Byzantine pre-eminence in the Mediterranean world, relations between the Byzantine East and Western Europe flourished, epitomized by the collaboration of Alexios I and later emperors with the Crusaders. The scattered and disorganized Byzantine army was restructured into a competent fighting force that became known as the Komnenian Byzantine army, meanwhile, on the Anatolian front, Byzantine frontier defenses fell into decay as successive emperors disbanded the large standing armies of previous eras in order to save money. Instead of an army, they relied on mercenaries and aging conscripts to defend the tenuous frontier. After his capture the empire descended into war as many grappled for the Imperial purple in Constantinople. The reign of Alexios is well-documented due to the survival of the Alexiad, written by his daughter Anna Komnene, upon ascension, Alexios inherited a much-weakened empire that was almost immediately beset by a serious invasion from the Normans of Southern Italy. The Normans used the deposition of the previous emperor Michael as the casus belli to invade the Balkans, the Normans took Dyrrhachium in February 1082 and advanced inland, capturing most of Macedonia and Thessaly. Robert was then forced to leave Greece to deal with an attack on his ally, Robert left his son Bohemond in charge of the army in Greece. Bohemond was initially successful, defeating Alexios in several battles, forced to retreat to Italy, Bohemond lost all the territory gained by the Normans in the campaign. This victory began the Komnenian restoration, shortly after the death of Robert in 1085, the Pechenegs, a nomadic group from north of the Danube, invaded the empire with a force 80,000 strong. Alexios I soon took perhaps his most important action as Emperor when he called on Pope Urban II for help in combating the Muslims of Anatolia, Alexios particularly hoped to recover Syria and other areas that had been part of the Byzantine Empire in previous centuries. Between 1097 and 1101 Alexios managed to recover Nicaea, Rhodes and this brought the Empire to its largest extent since before Manzikert in 1071. In order to achieve these important military victories, however, Alexios had to resort to drastic measures in order to keep the empire financially afloat amidst so many military expeditions. He did this by melting down many Church artifacts and selling Church lands and this led to a diminution of his popularity, but he was nonetheless successful in resurrecting the Byzantine Empire by the time of his death in 1118. Instead, he methodically retook fortresses throughout Anatolia during his reign, progress was slow and gradual, however, because the Turks in the area were strong and the Byzantine military was not yet at its former heights. Nevertheless, John made steady progress throughout his reign on the Anatolian front, on the Balkan front John achieved a crushing victory over the Pechenegs at the Battle of Beroia in 1122Komnenian restoration – The Byzantine Empire before the First Crusade.
15. First Crusade – The First Crusade was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to capture the Holy Land, called by Pope Urban II in 1095. An additional goal became the principal objective—the Christian reconquest of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land. During the crusades, nobility, knights, peasants and serfs from many regions of Western Europe travelled over land and by sea, first to Constantinople and then on towards Jerusalem. The Crusaders arrived at Jerusalem, launched an assault on the city and they also established the crusader states of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Tripoli, the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Edessa. The First Crusade was followed by the Second to the Ninth Crusades and it was also the first major step towards reopening international trade in the West since the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The majority view is that it had elements of both in its nature, the origin of the Crusades in general, and particularly that of the First Crusade, is widely debated among historians. The confusion is due to the numerous armies in the first crusade. The similar ideologies held the armies to similar goals, but the connections were rarely strong, the Umayyad Caliphate had conquered Syria, Egypt, and North Africa from the predominantly Christian Byzantine Empire, and Hispania from the Visigothic Kingdom. In North Africa, the Umayyad empire eventually collapsed and a number of smaller Muslim kingdoms emerged, such as the Aghlabids, who attacked Italy in the 9th century. Pisa, Genoa, and the Principality of Catalonia began to battle various Muslim kingdoms for control of the Mediterranean Basin, exemplified by the Mahdia campaign and battles at Majorca and Sardinia. Essentially, between the years 1096 and 1101 the Byzantine Greeks experienced the crusade as it arrived at Constantinople in three separate waves, in the early summer of 1096, the first large unruly group arrived on the outskirts of Constantinople. This wave was reported to be undisciplined and ill-equipped as an army and this first group is often called the Peasants’ or People’s Crusade. It was led by Peter the Hermit and Walter Sans Avoir and had no knowledge of or respect for the wishes of Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. The second wave was not under the command of the Emperor and was made up of a number of armies with their own commanders. Together, this group and the first wave numbered an estimated 60,000, the second wave was led by Hugh I, Count of Vermandois, the brother of King Philip I of France. Also among the wave were Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse. It was this wave of crusaders which later passed through Asia Minor, captured Antioch in 1098 and finally took Jerusalem 15 July 1099. ”The third wave, composed of contingents from Lombardy, France. At the western edge of Europe and of Islamic expansion, the Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula was well underway by the 11th century and it was intermittently ideological, as evidenced by the Codex Vigilanus compiled in 881First Crusade – The Capture of Jerusalem marked the First Crusade's success
16. Massacre of the Latins – The Roman Catholics of Constantinople at that time dominated the citys maritime trade and financial sector. Although precise numbers are unavailable, the bulk of the Latin community, the Genoese and Pisan communities especially were decimated, and some 4,000 survivors were sold as slaves to the Sultanate of Rum. The massacre further worsened relations and increased enmity between the Western and Eastern Christian churches, and a sequence of hostilities between the two followed. Since the late 11th century, Western merchants, primarily from the Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa, the first had been the Venetians, who had secured large-scale trading concessions from Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos. Subsequent extensions of these privileges and Byzantiums own naval impotence at the time resulted in a virtual maritime monopoly and stranglehold over the Empire by the Venetians. Alexios grandson, Manuel I Komnenos, wishing to reduce their influence, began to reduce the privileges of Venice while concluding agreements with her rivals, Pisa, Genoa and Amalfi. Gradually, all four Italian cities were allowed to establish their own quarters in the northern part of Constantinople itself. Together with the arrogance of the Italians, it fueled popular resentment amongst the middle. The religious differences between the two sides, who viewed each other as schismatics, further exacerbated the problem, the Italians proved uncontrollable by imperial authority, in 1162, for instance, the Pisans together with a few Venetians raided the Genoese quarter in Constantinople, causing much damage. Emperor Manuel subsequently expelled most of the Genoese and Pisans from the city, as talks dragged on through the winter, the Venetian fleet waited at Chios, until an outbreak of the plague forced them to withdraw. Relations were only gradually normalized, there is evidence of a treaty in 1179, meanwhile, the Genoese and Pisans profited from the dispute with Venice, and by 1180, it is estimated that up to 60,000 Latins lived in Constantinople. Following the death of Manuel I in 1180, his widow, almost immediately, the celebrations spilled over into violence towards the hated Latins, and after entering the citys Latin quarter a mob began attacking the inhabitants. Many had anticipated the events and escaped by sea, the ensuing massacre was indiscriminate, neither women nor children were spared, and Latin patients lying in hospital beds were murdered. Houses, churches, and charities were looted, Latin clergymen received special attention, and Cardinal John, the papal legate, was beheaded and his head was dragged through the streets at the tail of a dog. Although Andronikos himself had no particular anti-Latin attitude, he allowed the massacre to proceed unchecked, a few years later, Andronikos I himself was deposed and handed over to the mob of Constantinople citizenry, and was tortured and summarily executed in the Hippodrome by Latin soldiers. The worsening relationship culminated with the sack of the city of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204. Rarely if ever mention the massacre of the Westerners inMassacre of the Latins – Map of Constantinople in the Byzantine period. The Latin quarters are captioned in purple.
17. Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae – The Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae was a treaty signed amongst the crusaders after the sack of the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, by the Fourth Crusade in 1204. The Latin Empire itself, consisting of the area surrounding Constantinople, Thrace, Latin rule became most firmly established and lasted longest in southern Greece, as well as the Aegean islands, which came largely under the control of Venice. 1203, as well as the areas controlled by the Byzantine central government at the time. Alexander Kazhdan, ed. Oxford Dictionary of ByzantiumPartitio terrarum imperii Romaniae – The actual partition of the Byzantine Empire after the Fourth Crusade
18. Frankokratia – The term derives from the fact that the Orthodox Greeks called the Western European Catholics Latins, most of whom were of French or Venetian origin. The Latin Empire, centered in Constantinople and encompassing Thrace and Bithynia and its territories were gradually reduced to little more than the capital, which was eventually captured by the Empire of Nicaea in 1261. Duchy of Philippopolis, fief of the Latin Empire in northern Thrace, lemnos formed a fief of the Latin Empire under the Venetian Navigajoso family from 1207 until conquered by the Byzantines in 1278. Its rulers bore the title of megadux of the Latin Empire, the Kingdom of Thessalonica, encompassing Macedonia and Thessaly. The brief existence of the Kingdom was almost continuously troubled by warfare with the Second Bulgarian Empire, eventually, it was conquered by the Despotate of Epirus. The County of Salona, centred at Salona, like Bodonitsa, was formed as a state of the Kingdom of Thessalonica. It came under Catalan and later Navarrese rule in the 14th century and it was finally conquered by the Ottomans in 1410. The Marquisate of Bodonitsa, like Salona, was created as a vassal state of the Kingdom of Thessalonica. In 1335, the Venetian Giorgi family took control, and ruled until the Ottoman conquest in 1414, the Principality of Achaea, encompassing the Morea or Peloponnese peninsula. It quickly emerged as the strongest Crusader state, and prospered even after the demise of the Latin Empire and its main rival was the Byzantine Despotate of the Morea, which eventually succeeded in conquering the Principality. It also exercised suzerainty over the Lordship of Argos and Nauplia, the Duchy of Athens, with its two capitals Thebes and Athens, and encompassing Attica, Boeotia, and parts of southern Thessaly. In 1311, the Duchy was conquered by the Catalan Company, and in 1388, it passed into the hands of the Florentine Acciaiuoli family, the Duchy of Naxos or of the Archipelago, founded by the Sanudo family, it encompassed most of the Cyclades. In 1383, it passed under the control of the Crispo family, the Duchy became an Ottoman vassal in 1537, and was finally annexed to the Ottoman Empire in 1579. The Triarchy of Negroponte, encompassing the island of Negroponte, originally a vassal of Thessalonica and it was fragmented into three baronies run each by two barons. This fragmentation enabled Venice to gain influence acting as mediators, by 1390 Venice had established direct control of the entire island, which remained in Venetian hands until 1470, when it was captured by the Ottomans. The County palatine of Cephalonia and Zakynthos and it encompassed the Ionian Islands of Cephalonia, Zakynthos, Ithaca, and, from ca. Created as a vassal to the Kingdom of Sicily, it was ruled by the Orsini family from 1195 to 1335, the county was split between Venice and the Ottomans in 1479. Rhodes became the headquarters of the monastic order of the Knights Hospitaller of Saint John in 1310Frankokratia – The Greek and Latin states in southern Greece, ca. 1214.
19. Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty – From the start, the régime faced numerous problems. The Turks of Asia Minor had since 1263 been raiding and expanding into Byzantine territory in Asia Minor, Anatolia, which had formed the very heart of the shrinking empire, was systematically lost to numerous Turkic ghazis, whose raids evolved into conquering expeditions inspired by Islamic zeal. By 1380, the Byzantine Empire consisted of the capital Constantinople and a few other isolated exclaves, the last remnants of the Byzantine Empire, the Despotate of the Morea and the Empire of Trebizond, fell shortly afterwards. However, the Palaiologan period witnessed a flourishing in art. The migration of Byzantine scholars to the West also helped to spark the Renaissance in Italy, in addition, the disintegration of the Byzantine Empire allowed the Bulgarians, the Serbs and the various Turcoman emirates of Anatolia to make gains. Although Epirus was initially the strongest of the three Greek states, the Nicaeans were the ones who succeeded in taking back the city of Constantinople from the Latin Empire, the Nicaean Empire was successful in holding its own against its Latin and Seljuk opponents. At the Battle of Meander Valley, a Turkic force was repelled, in the west, the Latins were unable to expand into Anatolia, consolidating Thrace against Bulgaria was a challenge that kept the Latins occupied for the duration of the Latin Empire. In 1261, the Empire of Nicaea was ruled by John IV Laskaris, however, John IV was overshadowed by his co-emperor, Michael VIII Palaiologos. In 1261, while the bulk of the Latin Empires military forces were absent from Constantinople, Thrace, Macedonia and Thessalonica had already been taken by Nicaea in 1246. Following the capture of Constantinople, Michael ordered the blinding of John IV in December 1261, as a result, Patriarch Arsenios excommunicated Michael, but he was deposed and replaced by Joseph I. The Fourth Crusade and their successors, the Latin Empire, had much to reduce Byzantiums finest city to an underpopulated wreck. Michael VIII began the task of restoring many monasteries, public buildings, the Hagia Sophia, horribly looted in the Crusade of 1204, was refurbished to Greek Orthodox tradition. The Kontoskalion harbour and the walls of Constantinople were all strengthened against a new expedition by the Latin West. Many hospitals, hospices, markets, baths, streets and churches were built, even a new Mosque was built to compensate for the one burnt during the Fourth Crusade. These attempts were costly and crippling taxes were placed on the peasantry, nonetheless, the city grew new cultural and diplomatic contacts, notably with the Mamelukes. Both had common enemies, Latin aggression, and later on, the Sultanate of Rum was in chaos and decentralized ever since the Mongol invasions in ca. The situation became worse when Charles of Anjou, brother of the King of France, in 1267, Pope Clement IV arranged a pact, whereby Charles would receive land in the East in return for assisting a new military expedition to Constantinople. Unfortunately for Michael VIII, the new union was seen as a fake by the Clements successor, the Greek Church was excommunicated, and Charles was given renewed Papal support for the invasion of ConstantinopleByzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty – The Byzantine Empire ca. 1265
20. Byzantine Empire – It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empires Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empires official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empires military, the borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the Empires eastern frontier was expanded, in a matter of years the Empire lost its richest provinces, Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia, the Empire recovered again during the Komnenian restoration, such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence. Its remaining territories were annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire, the term comes from Byzantium, the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantines capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. The publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, and in 1680 of Du Canges Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of Byzantine among French authors, however, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world. The Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the Roman Empire, the Empire of the Romans, Romania, the Roman Republic, Graikia, and also as Rhōmais. The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and Graikoi, and even as late as the 19th century Greeks typically referred to modern Greek as Romaika and Graikika. The authority of the Byzantine emperor as the legitimate Roman emperor was challenged by the coronation of Charlemagne as Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III in the year 800. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known primarily as Rûm, the Roman army succeeded in conquering many territories covering the entire Mediterranean region and coastal regions in southwestern Europe and north Africa. These territories were home to different cultural groups, both urban populations and rural populations. The West also suffered heavily from the instability of the 3rd century ADByzantine Empire – Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great (r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
21. Eurasia – Eurasia /jʊˈreɪʒə/ is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia. The term is a portmanteau of its constituent continents, in geology, Eurasia is often considered as a single rigid megablock. However, the rigidity of Eurasia is debated based on the paleomagnet data, Eurasia covers around 55,000,000 square kilometres, or around 36. 2% of the Earths total land area. The landmass contains around 5.0 billion people, equating to approximately 70% of the human population, humans first settled in Eurasia between 60,000 and 125,000 years ago. Physiographically, Eurasia is a single continent, the concepts of Europe and Asia as distinct continents date back to antiquity and their borders are geologically arbitrary. Eurasia is connected to Africa at the Suez Canal, and Eurasia is sometimes combined with Africa as the largest contiguous landmass on Earth called Afro-Eurasia. Eurasia formed 375 to 325 million years ago with the merging of Siberia, Kazakhstania, and Baltica, chinese cratons collided with Siberias southern coast. Eurasia has been the host of ancient civilizations, including those based in Mesopotamia. In the Axial Age, a belt of civilizations stretched through the Eurasian subtropical zone from the Atlantic to the Pacific. This belt became the mainstream of world history for two millennia, originally, “Eurasia” is a geographical notion, in this sense, it is simply the biggest continent, the combined landmass of Europe and Asia. However, geopolitically, the word has different meanings, reflecting the specific geopolitical interests of each nation. “Eurasia” is one of the most important geopolitical concepts, as Zbigniew Brzezinski observed, how America manages Eurasia is critical. A power that dominates “Eurasia” would control two of the three most advanced and economically productive regions. About 75 per cent of the people live in “Eurasia”. “Eurasia” accounts for about three-fourths of the known energy resources. ”At the moment one of the most prominent projects of the European Union is the Russia - EU Four Common Spaces Initiative. A political and economic union of former Soviet states named the Eurasian Economic Union was established in 2015, the Russian concept of “Eurasia” corresponded initially more or less to the land area of Imperial Russia in 1914, including parts of Eastern Europe. One of Russias main geopolitical interests lies in ever closer integration with those countries that it considers part of “Eurasia. ”Every two years since 1996 a meeting of most Asian and European countries is organised as the Asia-Europe Meeting. In ancient times, the Greeks classified Europe and Asia as separate lands, where to draw the dividing line between the two regions is still a matter of discussionEurasia – Eurasia with surrounding areas of Africa and Australasia visible
22. Palaiologoi – Founded by the 11th-century general Nikephoros Palaiologos and his son George, the family rose to the highest aristocratic circles through its marriage into the Doukas and Komnenos dynasties. A branch of the Palaiologos became the lords of Montferrat. This inheritance was eventually incorporated by marriage to the Gonzaga family, rulers of the Duchy of Mantua, the origins of the Palaiologoi are unknown. Later traditions sometimes tied them to the Italian city of Viterbo or to the Romans who immigrated east with Constantine the Great during the founding of his new capital, both were probably fabrications created to help legitimize the dynasty. The family are first attested as local lords in Asia Minor, particularly Anatolikon and he supported the revolt of Nikephoros Botaneiates, while his son George married Anna Doukaina and therefore supported his sister-in-laws husband Alexios Komnenos during his rise to power. As commander of Dyrrhachium, George faced the Norman Duke Robert Guiscard in battle, the Palaiologoi held military offices and further united their family to the Doukai and Komnenoi during the 12th century. They followed Theodore Laskaris to Nicaea and began to assume high-ranking political offices as well, Alexios Palaiologos, whose wife was a granddaughter of Zoe Doukaina and her husband Adrianos Komnenos. Another Alexios Palaiologos married Irene Angelina, eldest daughter of Alexios III Angelos, the latter couples daughter Theodora Palaiologina married her cousin Andronikos Palaiologos, who was descended from Zoe. The couple were the progenitors of the imperial dynasty and their son was Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos. Michael VIIIs son Andronikos II Palaiologos married Anne of Hungary and fathered Michael Palaiologos, Michael IX married Rita of Armenia. Their son, the grandson of Andronikos II, was Andronikos III Palaiologos, Andronikos III married Anna of Savoy. Their son was John V Palaiologos, John V married Helena Kantakouzene, a daughter of his co-ruler John VI Kantakuzenos. Their sons included Andronikos IV Palaiologos and Manuel II Palaiologos and they were the parents of John VIII Palaiologos and Constantine XI Palaiologos, the last Byzantine emperor, as well as the despots of Morea Demetrios Palaiologos and Thomas Palaiologos. Demetrios, after giving Mehmed II a pretext to invade Morea, was kept from his throne and his daughter Helen was a member of the sultans harem for a time. Thomas, in exile in Venice, sold the title to Charles VIII of France. Thomas daughter Zoe married Ivan III of Russia and, on rejoining the Orthodox faith and her influence on the court curtailed the power of the boyars and eventually led to the proclamation of the Grand Prince of Muscovy as the Tsar of all the Russias. Though Thomass male-line descendants soon became extinct, his descent lives on through a daughter, one such female descendant, Princess dArenberg, married at the beginning of the 19th century a Pfalzgraf of Zweibrücken, whereby the Dukes of Bavaria descend from Byzantine emperors. Also Queen Anne, consort of former king Michael of Romania descends from these Arenbergs, reportedly Herina, the first wife of Emperor Isaac II Angelos who reigned from 1185 to 1195, was of the Palaiologos familyPalaiologoi – The double-headed eagle was adopted as a symbol for high-ranking members of the imperial family (including the Emperor), during the Palaiologos dynasty period.
23. Byzantine Emperor – This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Eastern Roman Empire, to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD. Emperors listed below up to Theodosius I in 395 were sole or joint rulers of the entire Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire was the direct legal continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire following the division of the Roman Empire in 395. All Byzantine emperors considered themselves to be the rightful Roman emperor in direct succession from Augustus, the title of all Emperors preceding Heraclius was officially Augustus, although other titles such as Dominus were also used. Their names were preceded by Imperator Caesar and followed by Augustus, following Heraclius, the title commonly became the Greek Basileus, which had formerly meant sovereign but was then used in place of Augustus. Following the establishment of the rival Holy Roman Empire in Western Europe, in later centuries, the Emperor could be referred to by Western Christians as the Emperor of the Greeks. Towards the end of the Empire, the standard formula of the Byzantine ruler was in Christ, Emperor. For Roman emperors before Constantine I, see List of Roman emperors, family tree of the Byzantine emperors List of Roman emperors List of Roman usurpers List of Byzantine usurpers List of Roman and Byzantine empressesByzantine Emperor – Constantine XI
24. Philologist – Philology is the study of language in written historical sources, it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics. It is more defined as the study of literary texts and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form. A person who pursues this kind of study is known as a philologist, in older usage, especially British, philology is more general, covering comparative and historical linguistics. Indo-European studies involves the comparative philology of all Indo-European languages, Philology, with its focus on historical development, is contrasted with linguistics due to Ferdinand de Saussures insistence on the importance of synchronic analysis. The contrast continued with the emergence of structuralism and Chomskyan linguistics alongside its emphasis on syntax, the term changed little with the Latin philologia, and later entered the English language in the 16th century, from the Middle French philologie, in the sense of love of literature. The adjective φιλόλογος meant fond of discussion or argument, talkative, in Hellenistic Greek also implying an excessive preference of argument over the love of true wisdom, as an allegory of literary erudition, Philologia appears in 5th-century post-classical literature, an idea revived in Late Medieval literature. The meaning of love of learning and literature was narrowed to the study of the development of languages in 19th-century usage of the term. Most continental European countries still maintain the term to designate departments, colleges, position titles, J. R. R. Tolkien opposed the nationalist reaction against philological practices, claiming that the philological instinct was universal as is the use of language. Based on the critique of Friedrich Nietzsche, US scholars since the 1980s have viewed philology as responsible for a narrowly scientistic study of language. The comparative linguistics branch of philology studies the relationship between languages, similarities between Sanskrit and European languages were first noted in the early 16th century and led to speculation of a common ancestor language from which all these descended. Philology also includes the study of texts and their history and it includes elements of textual criticism, trying to reconstruct an authors original text based on variant copies of manuscripts. Since that time, the principles of textual criticism have been improved and applied to other widely distributed texts such as the Bible. Scholars have tried to reconstruct the original readings of the Bible from the manuscript variants and this method was applied to Classical Studies and to medieval texts as a way to reconstruct the authors original work. A related study method known as higher criticism studies the authorship, date, as these philological issues are often inseparable from issues of interpretation, there is no clear-cut boundary between philology and hermeneutics. When text has a significant political or religious influence, scholars have difficulty reaching objective conclusions, some scholars avoid all critical methods of textual philology, especially in historical linguistics, where it is important to study the actual recorded materials. Supporters of New Philology insist on a diplomatic approach, a faithful rendering of the text exactly as found in the manuscript. Another branch of philology, cognitive philology, studies written and oral texts and this science compares the results of textual science with the results of experimental research of both psychology and artificial intelligence production systems. In the case of Bronze Age literature, philology includes the prior decipherment of the language under study and this has notably been the case with the Egyptian, Sumerian, Assyrian, Hittite, Ugaritic and Luwian languagesPhilologist – Cover of Indo-European philology historical and comparative by William Burley Lockwood
25. Mathematics – Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope, Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof, when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry, rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclids Elements. Galileo Galilei said, The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and it is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth, carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Sciences. Benjamin Peirce called mathematics the science that draws necessary conclusions, David Hilbert said of mathematics, We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules, rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. Albert Einstein stated that as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics, Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns, in Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have many and diverse. Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. Mathematics has since been extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today, the overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs. The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω, while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω, in Greece, the word for mathematics came to have the narrower and more technical meaning mathematical study even in Classical timesMathematics – Euclid (holding calipers), Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens.
26. Philosophy – Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. The term was coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument and systematic presentation, classic philosophical questions include, Is it possible to know anything and to prove it. However, philosophers might also pose more practical and concrete questions such as, is it better to be just or unjust. Historically, philosophy encompassed any body of knowledge, from the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, natural philosophy encompassed astronomy, medicine and physics. For example, Newtons 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy later became classified as a book of physics, in the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era, some investigations that were part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology. Other investigations closely related to art, science, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy, for example, is beauty objective or subjective. Are there many scientific methods or just one, is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy. Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic, philosophy of science, since the 20th century, professional philosophers contribute to society primarily as professors, researchers and writers. Traditionally, the term referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is related to religion, mathematics, natural science, education. This division is not obsolete but has changed, Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences, especially astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology and cosmology. Moral philosophy has birthed the social sciences, but still includes value theory, metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic, mathematics and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology, cosmology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today, colin McGinn and others claim that no philosophical progress has occurred during that interval. Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, in one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as how are we to live, a broad and impartial conception of philosophy then, finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality, morality and life in all world civilizations. Socrates was an influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdomPhilosophy – René Descartes
27. Vatatzes – The feminine form of the name is Vatatzina. According to the Greek scholar Konstantinos Amantos, the name Βατάτζης is a form of βάτος, bramble, briar. Another possible origin is βατάκι, ray fish, the first member of the family, known simply by his surname, is attested around the year 1000. Over the next centuries, the family remained associated with Adrianople and the surrounding region, likewise the 13th-century chronicler Ephraim the Monk mentions Didymoteichon/Orestias as the familys native city. Michael Psellos records that in 1047, a John Vatatzes, relative of Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos, the family became prominent in the 12th century, when several members rose to high offices. Theodore Vatatzes married Eudokia, the sister of Emperor Manuel I Komnenos and was named despotes, his sons were Andronikos, Alexios, and John Komnenos Vatatzes and this is most likely the result of a confusion by the hagiographer. Another Basil Vatatzes, a man of undistinguished birth according to Choniates, married into the Angelos family and it is possibly due to this connection that the 14th-century Chronicle of the Morea calls Isaac II Sakes Vatatzes. Modern scholars consider Basil as the father of John III Doukas Vatatzes, Basil had two further sons, the sebastokrator Isaac and an anonymous third son. Isaac had a son named John and a daughter who married Constantine Strategopoulos. 1192, John married Irene, daughter of the founder of the Empire of Nicaea, Theodore I Laskaris, John proved a capable ruler, defeating the Latin Empire at the Battle of Poimanenon, and expanding his realm into Europe, where he captured Thessalonica in 1246. Remembered for his kindness as well a shis ability, he was venerated as a saint after his death by the Greeks of Asia Minor, John III was succeeded as Emperor of Nicaea by his only son Theodore II, who however preferred his mothers surname, Laskaris. With his wife Helena, he had five children, the last prominent member was John Vatatzes, who occupied a succession of high offices in 1333–1345. Finally, in the 17th century, Vasileios Vatatzes from Adrianople, a variant of the family name, Diplovatatzes, was used from the mid-13th century on for family members who descended from the Vatatzai on both sides. They too ranked among the nobility of the late Byzantine Empire. New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press, the Doukai, A Contribution to Byzantine Prosopography. Vienna, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Thessaloniki, Centre for Byzantine Studies, University of Thessaloniki. Wortley, John, ed. John Skylitzes, A Synopsis of Byzantine History, 811-1057Vatatzes – 15th-century miniature portrait of Emperor John III Doukas Vatatzes
28. Shibl al-Dawla Nasr – Abu Kamil Nasr ibn Salih ibn Mirdas, also known by his laqab of Shibl al-Dawla, was the second Mirdasid emir of Aleppo, ruling between 1029/30 until his death. He was the eldest son of Salih ibn Mirdas, founder of the Mirdasid dynasty, Nasr fought alongside his father in the battle of al-Uqhuwanah, where Salih was killed by a Fatimid army. Afterward, Nasr ruled the emirate jointly with his brother Thimal, the young emirs soon faced a large scale Byzantine offensive led by Emperor Romanos III. Commanding a much smaller force of Bedouin horsemen, Nasr routed the Byzantines at the Battle of Azaz, following his victory, he ousted Thimal from Aleppo and entered into Byzantine vassalage, while attempting to maintain ties with the Fatimids. He nominally recognized Fatimid suzerainty in 1037 and was given control of Hims. Thimal succeeded Nasr, but Aleppo fell to al-Dizbari weeks later, Mirdasid rule was restored and continued with some interruption until 1080. Nasr renovated the Aleppo Citadel and made it his seat of power, under the direction of his local Christian vizier, Aleppo was expanded and urbanized to accommodate an influx of Muslims from the countryside. Nasrs rule was limited to the northern Syrian portion of the emirate, though relations with his Banu Kilab tribe were strained at times, Nasr secured strong ties with the Banu Numayr by marrying the Numayri princess al-Sayyida Alawiyya. With her, he had his only son, Mahmud. Nasr was the eldest son of Salih ibn Mirdas, the emir of the Banu Kilab tribe. By 1025, Salihs Aleppo-based Mirdasid emirate covered much of northern Syria, western Upper Mesopotamia, though he ruled independently, Salih nominally recognized Fatimid suzerainty over his emirate. However, in 1029, he supported his ally, Hassan ibn Mufarrij, Nasr fought alongside his father, but escaped al-Uqhuwanah and returned to Aleppo, where his younger brother, Thimal, had been left to administer affairs in his fathers absence. It is evidenced by the two surviving coins minted during Salihs reign that Thimal had been designated as Salihs walī al-ʿahd as late as 1028/29, the year before Salihs death. However, in the aftermath of al-Uqhuwanah, Nasr and Thimal apparently ruled Aleppo jointly, with Nasr based in the city and Thimal in the citadel. In the aftermath of their defeat at al-Uqhuwanah, the Mirdasids lost Sidon, Baalbek, Hims, Hisn Ibn Akkar and Rafaniyya, and concentrated their forces in Jund Qinnasrin and western Diyar Mudar. Spondyles sent an expedition against Aleppo, however, Nasr and Thimal, leading their Kilabi tribesmen, ambushed and routed the Byzantine force at Qaybar in July 1029. Romanos III arrived at Antioch with a 20, 000-strong army, composed mostly of mercenaries, on 20 July 1030, and sent a messenger to Nasr and Thimal demanding they cede Aleppo to him. Nasr rejected the demand, detained the envoy and sent his own mission, led by his cousin Muqallid ibn KamilShibl al-Dawla Nasr – Battle of Azaz
29. Sino-Roman relations – These empires inched progressively closer in the course of the Roman expansion into the ancient Near East and simultaneous Han Chinese military incursions into Central Asia. Mutual awareness remained low and firm knowledge about each other was limited, only a few attempts at direct contact are known from records. Intermediate empires such as the Parthians and Kushans, seeking to maintain control over the silk trade. In 97 AD, the Chinese general Ban Chao tried to send his envoy Gan Ying to Rome, several alleged Roman emissaries to China were recorded by ancient Chinese historians. The first one on record, supposedly from either the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius or his adopted son Marcus Aurelius, others are recorded as arriving in 226 and 284 AD, with a long absence until the first recorded Byzantine embassy in 643 AD. The indirect exchange of goods on land along the Silk Road and sea routes included Chinese silk, Roman glassware, Roman glasswares and silverwares have been discovered at Chinese archaeological sites dated to the Han period. Roman coins and glass beads have also found in Japan. In Chinese records, the Roman Empire came to be known as Daqin or Great Qin, Daqin was directly associated with the later Fulin in Chinese sources, which has been identified by scholars such as Friedrich Hirth as the Byzantine Empire. Chinese sources describe several embassies of Fulin arriving in China during the Tang dynasty, geographers in the Roman Empire such as Ptolemy provided a rough sketch of the eastern Indian Ocean, including the Malay Peninsula and beyond this the Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea. Ptolemys Cattigara was most likely Óc Eo, Vietnam, where Antonine-era Roman items have been found, ancient Chinese geographers demonstrated a general knowledge of West Asia and Romes eastern provinces. The 7th-century AD Byzantine historian Theophylact Simocatta wrote of the reunification of northern and southern China. Roman authors generally seem to have demonstrated some confusion as to where the Seres were located precisely, the historian Ammianus Marcellinus wrote that the land of the Seres was enclosed by great natural walls around a river called Bautis, possibly a description of the Yellow River. While the existence of China was clearly known to Roman cartographers, Ptolemys 2nd-century AD Geography separates the Land of Silk at the end of the overland Silk Road from the land of the Qin reached by sea. The Sinae are placed on the shore of the Great Gulf east of the Golden Peninsula. Their chief port, Cattigara, seems to have been in the lower Mekong Delta, much of this is simply given as unknown lands, but the northeastern area is placed under the Sinae. The Periplus also mentions a great city, Thinae in a country called This that perhaps stretched as far as the Caspian. The text notes that silk produced there traveled to neighboring India via the Ganges River, marinus and Ptolemy had relied on the testimony of a Greek sailor named Alexander, probably a merchant, for how to reach Cattigara. Alexandros claimed that it took twenty days to sail from Thailand to a port called Zabia in southern Vietnam, according to him, one could continue along the coast from Zabia until reaching the trade port of Cattigara after an unspecified number of daysSino-Roman relations – The Roman Empire and the Chinese Han dynasty occupied the opposite ends of Eurasia.
30. Byzantine Bath (Thessaloniki) – The Byzantine Bath of the Upper Town in Thesaloniki is one of the few and best preserved of the Byzantine baths that have survived from the Byzantine period in Greece. It is located on the Theotokopoulou Street in the Upper Old Town of Thessaloniki, the baths date to the late 12th/early 13th century, and functioned continuously until 1940, when they shut down probably due to World War II and the German occupation of Greece. The Byzantine sources do not mention it, hence it is likely that it belonged to a monastery complex. In Ottoman times, it was known as Kule Hammam, i. e. bath of the citadel, the baths long use led to numerous alterations of the original structure over time. The original architecture follows the conventions of Roman baths. The original entrance in the leads to the rectangular frigidarium rooms. Then came two vaulted rooms and finally two caldarium rooms. The latter were square in shape and featured hypocausts below the floor, one was covered by a dome supported by an octagonal base with eight windows, the other had a domed ceiling. To the north of the baths was the cistern that provided it with water, in 1988, it was included among the Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki on the list of World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. Following four years of work, the bath was re-opened to the public as a museum. Wandering in Byzantine Thessaloniki, Kapon Editions, ISBN 960-7254-47-3Byzantine Bath (Thessaloniki) – UNESCO World Heritage Site
31. Byzantine navy – The Byzantine navy was the naval force of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire. Like the empire it served, it was a continuation from its Imperial Roman predecessor. The first threat to Roman hegemony in the Mediterranean was posed by the Vandals in the 5th century and this process would be furthered with the onset of the Muslim conquests in the 7th century. Following the loss of the Levant and later Africa, the Mediterranean Sea was transformed from a Roman lake into a battleground between Byzantines and Arabs, initially, the defence of the Byzantine coasts and the approaches to Constantinople was borne by the great fleet of the Karabisianoi. Progressively however it was split up into several regional fleets, while a central Imperial Fleet was maintained at Constantinople, guarding the city, by the late 8th century, the Byzantine navy, a well-organized and maintained force, was again the dominant maritime power in the Mediterranean. The antagonism with the Muslim navies continued with alternating success, but in the 10th century, during the 11th century, the navy, like the Empire itself, began to decline. A period of recovery under the Komnenians was followed by period of decline. After the Empire was restored in 1261, several emperors of the Palaiologan dynasty tried to revive the navy, the diminished navy, however, continued to be active until the fall of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottomans in 1453. The Byzantine navy, like the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire itself, was a continuation of the Roman Empire, after the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, in the absence of any external threat in the Mediterranean, the Roman navy performed mostly policing and escort duties. Massive sea battles, like those fought in the Punic Wars, no longer occurred, the civil wars of the 4th and early 5th centuries, however, did spur a revival of naval activity, with fleets mostly employed to transport armies. The new Vandalic Kingdom of Carthage, under the capable king Geiseric, immediately launched raids against the coasts of Italy and Greece, the Vandal raids continued unabated over the next two decades, despite repeated Roman attempts to defeat them. The Western Empire was impotent, its navy having dwindled to almost nothing, a first Eastern expedition in 448, however, went no further than Sicily, and in 460, the Vandals attacked and destroyed a Western Roman invasion fleet at Cartagena in Spain. Finally, in 468, a huge Eastern expedition was assembled under Basiliscus, reputedly numbering 1,113 ships and 100,000 men, but it failed disastrously. About 600 ships were lost to ships, and the financial cost of 130,000 pounds of gold and 700000 pounds of silver nearly bankrupted the Empire. This forced the Romans to come to terms with Geiseric and sign a peace treaty, after Geiserics death in 477, however, the Vandal threat receded. The 6th century marked the rebirth of Roman naval power, in 508, as antagonism with the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Theodoric flared up, the Emperor Anastasius I is reported to have sent a fleet of 100 warships to raid the coasts of Italy. In 513, the general Vitalian revolted against Anastasius, the rebels assembled a fleet of 200 ships which, despite some initial successes, were destroyed by admiral Marinus, who employed a sulphur-based incendiary substance to defeat them. This fact was not lost on the Byzantines enemies, already in the 520s, Theodoric had planned to build a massive fleet directed against the Byzantines and the Vandals, but his death in 526 limited the extent to which these plans were realizedByzantine navy – By the late 5th century, the Western Mediterranean had fallen into the hands of barbarian kingdoms. The conquests of Justinian I restored Roman control over the entire sea, which would last until the Muslim conquests in the latter half of the 7th century.
32. Greece runestones – The Greece runestones are about 30 runestones containing information related to voyages made by Norsemen to the Byzantine Empire. They were made during the Viking Age until about 1100 and were engraved in the Old Norse language with Scandinavian runes, all the stones have been found in modern-day Sweden, the majority in Uppland and Södermanland. On these runestones the word Grikkland appears in three inscriptions, the word Grikkar appears in 25 inscriptions, two stones refer to men as grikkfari and one refers to Grikkhafnir. The stones vary in size from the small whetstone from Timans which measures 8.5 cm ×4.5 cm ×3.3 cm to the boulder in Ed which is 18 m in circumference. Most of them are adorned with various styles that were in use during the 11th century, and especially styles that were part of the Ringerike style. Several stones were documented by Richard Dybeck in the 19th century, the latest stone to be found was in Nolinge, near Stockholm, in 1952. Swedish Viking ships were common on the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea, Greece was home to the Varangian Guard, the elite bodyguard of the Byzantine Emperor, and until the Komnenos dynasty in the late 11th century, most members of the Varangian Guard were Swedes. As late as 1195, Emperor Alexios Angelos sent emissaries to Denmark, Norway, stationed in Constantinople, which the Scandinavians referred to as Miklagarðr, the Guard attracted young Scandinavians of the sort that had composed it since its creation in the late 10th century. The later version, which was written down from 1250 to 1300, also the old Norwegian Gulaþingslög contains a similar law, but if goes to Greece, then he who is next in line to inherit shall hold his property. About 3,000 runestones from the Viking Age have been discovered in Scandinavia of which c.2,700 were raised within what today is Sweden, as many as 1,277 of them were raised in the province of Uppland alone. The Viking Age coincided with the Christianisation of Scandinavia, and in many districts c. 50% of the inscriptions have traces of Christianity. In Uppland, c. 70% of the inscriptions are explicitly Christian, the runestone tradition probably died out before 1100, and at the latest by 1125. Among the runestones of the Viking Age,9. 1–10% report that they were raised in memory of people who went abroad, and the runestones that mention Greece constitute the largest group of them. In addition, there is a group of three or four runestones that commemorate men who died in southern Italy, and who were members of the Varangian Guard. These two provinces are those that have the greatest concentrations of runic inscriptions, still, some runestones tell of men who returned with increased wealth, and an inscription on a boulder in Ed was commissioned by a former captain of the Guard, Ragnvaldr. The reasons for the tradition are a matter of debate but they include inheritance issues, status. Several runestones explicitly commemorate inheritance such as the Ulunda stone and the Hansta stone, a common view held by scholars such as Erik Moltke and Sven B. F. They may be called the monuments of the Viking voyages, Sawyer, on the other hand, reacts against this commonly held view and comments that the vast majority of the runestones were raised in memory of people who are not reported to have died abroadGreece runestones – The Piraeus Lion with a runic inscription, now in Venice
33. Gregory of Nazianzus – Gregory of Nazianzus, also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople, and theologian. He is widely considered the most accomplished rhetorical stylist of the patristic age, as a classically trained orator and philosopher he infused Hellenism into the early church, establishing the paradigm of Byzantine theologians and church officials. Gregory made a significant impact on the shape of Trinitarian theology among both Greek- and Latin-speaking theologians, and he is remembered as the Trinitarian Theologian, much of his theological work continues to influence modern theologians, especially in regard to the relationship among the three Persons of the Trinity. Along with the brothers Basil the Great and Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory is a saint in both Eastern and Western Christianity. Gregory was born of Greek parentage in the estate of Karbala outside the village of Arianzus, near Nazianzus. His parents, Gregory and Nonna, were wealthy land-owners, in AD325 Nonna converted her husband, a Hypsistarian, to Christianity, he was subsequently ordained as bishop of Nazianzus in 328 or 329. The young Gregory and his brother, Caesarius, first studied at home with their uncle Amphylokhios, Gregory went on to study advanced rhetoric and philosophy in Nazianzus, Caesarea, Alexandria and Athens. On the way to Athens his ship encountered a violent storm, in Athens, Gregory studied under the famous rhetoricians Himerius and Proaeresius. Upon finishing his education, he taught rhetoric in Athens for a short time, in 361 Gregory returned to Nazianzus and was ordained a presbyter by his father, who wanted him to assist with caring for local Christians. Leaving home after a few days, he met his friend Basil at Annesoi, however, Basil urged him to return home to assist his father, which he did for the next year. Arriving at Nazianzus, Gregory found the local Christian community split by theological differences, Gregory helped to heal the division through a combination of personal diplomacy and oratory. By this time Emperor Julian had publicly declared himself in opposition to Christianity, in response to the emperors rejection of the Christian faith, Gregory composed his Invectives Against Julian between 362 and 363. Invectives asserts that Christianity will overcome imperfect rulers such as Julian through love and this process as described by Gregory is the public manifestation of the process of deification, which leads to a spiritual elevation and mystical union with God. Julian resolved, in late 362, to vigorously prosecute Gregory and his other Christian critics, however, the emperor perished the following year during a campaign against the Persians. With the death of the emperor, Gregory and the Eastern churches were no longer under the threat of persecution, as the new emperor Jovian was an avowed Christian, Gregory spent the next few years combating Arianism, which threatened to divide the region of Cappadocia. In this tense environment, Gregory interceded on behalf of his friend Basil with Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea, in the subsequent public debates, presided over by agents of the Emperor Valens, Gregory and Basil emerged triumphant. This success confirmed for both Gregory and Basil that their futures lay in administration of the Church, Basil, who had long displayed inclinations to the episcopacy, was elected bishop of the see of Caesarea in Cappadocia in 370. Gregory was ordained Bishop of Sasima in 372 by Basil, Basil created this see in order to strengthen his position in his dispute with Anthimus, bishop of TyanaGregory of Nazianzus – Icon of St. Gregory the Theologian Fresco from Kariye Camii, Istanbul, Turkey
34. Maximus the Confessor – Maximus the Confessor, also known as Maximus the Theologian and Maximus of Constantinople, was a Christian monk, theologian, and scholar. In his early life, Maximus was a servant. However, he gave up this life in the sphere to enter into the monastic life. Maximus is venerated in both Eastern Christianity and Western Christianity and he was eventually persecuted for his Christological positions, following a trial, his tongue and right hand were mutilated. He was then exiled and died on August 13,662 in Tsageri, however, his theology was upheld by the Third Council of Constantinople and he was venerated as a saint soon after his death. It is highly uncommon among the saints that he has two feast days, the 13th of August and the 21st of January and his title of Confessor means that he suffered for the Christian faith, but was not directly martyred. Very little is known about the details of Maximus life prior to his involvement in the theological and political conflicts of the Monothelite controversy. Numerous Maximian scholars call substantial portions of the Maronite biography into question, including Maximus birth in Palestine and it is more likely that Maximus was born of an aristocratic family and received an unparalleled education in philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, etc. It is true, however, that Maximus did not study rhetoric as he notes in the prologue to his Earlier Ambigua to John. Maximus was elevated to the position of abbot of the monastery, theology without practice is the theology of demons. When the Persians conquered Anatolia, Maximus was forced to flee to a monastery near Carthage and it was there that he came under the tutelage of Saint Sophronius, and began studying in detail with him the Christological writings of Gregory of Nazianzus and Dionysius the Areopagite. Maximus continued his career as a theological and spiritual writer while his stay in Carthage. While Maximus was in Carthage, a controversy broke out regarding how to understand the interaction between the human and divine natures within the person of Jesus. This Christological debate was the latest development in disagreements that began following the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the Monothelite position was developed as a compromise between the dyophysitists and the miaphysists, who believed dyophysitism is conceptually indistinguishable from Nestorianism. The Monothelites adhered to the Chalcedonian definition of the hypostatic union, however, they went on to say that Christ had only a divine will and no human will, which led some to charge them with Apollinarian monophysitism. The Monothelite position was promulgated by Patriarch Sergius I of Constantinople and by Maximus friend and successor as the Abbot of Chrysopolis, following the death of Sergius in 638, Pyrrhus succeeded him as Patriarch, but was shortly deposed due to political circumstances. During Pyrrhus exile from Constantinople, Maximus and the deposed Patriarch held a debate on the issue of Monothelitism. In the debate, which was held in the presence of many North African bishops, the result of the debate was that Pyrrhus admitted the error of the Monothelite position, and Maximus accompanied him to Rome in 645Maximus the Confessor – Icon of St. Maximus
35. Paul Palaiologos Tagaris – Paul Palaiologos Tagaris was a Byzantine Greek monk and impostor. A scion of the Tagaris family, Paul also claimed a—somewhat dubious—connection with the Palaiologos dynasty that ruled the Byzantine Empire at the time and he fled his marriage as a teenager and became a monk, but soon his fraudulent practices embroiled him in scandal. Fleeing Constantinople, he travelled widely, from Palestine to Persia and Georgia and eventually, via Ukraine and Hungary to Italy, Latin Greece, Cyprus and France. In the end, his deceptions unmasked, he returned to Constantinople, the main source on Pauls life is the document of his confession before the patriarchal synod in Constantinople, which is undated, but included among documents of the years 1394–95. It was published in modern times by Franz Ritter von Miklosich and Joseph Muller, Acta et Diplomata Graeca medii aevi sacra et profana, Vol. II, Acta Patriarchatus Constantinopolitanae, Vienna 1860. Paul Tagaris was apparently a scion of the Tagaris family, a lineage which first appears in the early 14th century, Tagaris himself also claimed to be related to the ruling imperial dynasty of the Palaiologoi and adopted the surname for himself. His parents arranged his marriage at the age of 14 or 15 and this affair scandalized his family, but Patriarch Kallistos I declined to take action against him. It was not until the patriarch went on a visit to Serbia in July 1363 that his locum tenens, in Palestine, Paul was able to secure his ordination as a deacon by the Patriarch of Jerusalem Lazaros, who took him under his protection. Shortly after, Lazaros left for Constantinople, and his locum tenens Damianos brought charges against Paul and it was not long before Paul began abusing his authority, he sacked serving bishops and put their sees up for sale, threatening to report those who complained to the Turkish authorities. Soon he claimed the title of Patriarch of Jerusalem for himself and began to ordain bishops, Paul accepted, and was apparently consecrated by the Bishop of Tyre and Sidon. Reluctant to face the Patriarchs wrath, Paul once more decided to flee, to avoid passing near Constantinople, Paul was forced to make a broad detour. He took ship, probably from Trebizond, to the Crimea, in exchange, he received an escort through the Horde lands to the Kingdom of Hungary, and thence to Rome. There he secured an audience with Pope Urban VI, claiming to be the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, Paul presented himself to the Pope as a penitent, offered a confession, and embraced the Catholic faith. Urban also named Paul apostolic legate for all countries east of Durazzo, since Constantinople had been recovered by the Byzantines in 1261, the seat of the Latin Patriarch of Constantinople had been since 1314 at Negroponte, which still remained in Latin hands. Soon after his investment, Paul stopped in Ancona on his way to Greece, as Nicol comments, one may be tempted to question the authenticity, and still more the provenance, of his donation. From 1380 until 1384, Paul remained at his see in Negroponte, a relative of his, George Tagaris—probably a different person than Manuel Tagaris son—was called in to help with the administration of the patriarchal domains. Paul had apparently left his diocese before his denunciation, and resumed his wanderings, in 1388 he returned to Rome, possibly hoping that the accusations against him had been forgotten in the meanwhile. He was arrested, tried and imprisoned, but was released after Urban VIs death in October 1389, leaving Rome, Paul went to the court of Amadeus VII of SavoyPaul Palaiologos Tagaris – Pope Urban VI
36. Sack of Amorium – The Sack of Amorium by the Abbasid Caliphate in mid-August 838 was one of the major events in the long history of the Arab–Byzantine Wars. Mutasim targeted Amorium, a Byzantine city in western Asia Minor, because it was the birthplace of the ruling Byzantine dynasty and, at the time, the caliph gathered an exceptionally large army, which he divided in two parts, which invaded from the northeast and the south. After sacking the city, they turned south to Amorium, where arrived on 1 August. Faced with intrigues at Constantinople and the rebellion of the large Khurramite contingent of his army, Amorium was strongly fortified and garrisoned, but a traitor revealed a weak spot in the wall, where the Abbasids concentrated their attack, effecting a breach. Unable to break through the army, Boiditzes, the commander of the breached section privately attempted to negotiate with the Caliph without notifying his superiors. He concluded a truce and left his post, which allowed the Arabs to take advantage, enter the city. Amorium was systematically destroyed, never to recover its former prosperity, many of its inhabitants were slaughtered, and the remainder driven off as slaves. The conquest of Amorium was not only a military disaster and a heavy personal blow for Theophilos. As Iconoclasm relied heavily on military success for its legitimization, the fall of Amorium contributed decisively to its abandonment shortly after Theophiloss death in 842. By 829, when the young emperor Theophilos ascended the Byzantine throne, Theophilos was an ambitious man and also a convinced adherent of Byzantine Iconoclasm, which prohibited the depiction of divine figures and the veneration of icons. He sought to bolster his regime and support his religious policies by military success against the Abbasid Caliphate, the Empires major antagonist. He assembled a large army, some 70,000 fighting men and 100,000 in total according to al-Tabari. Theophiloss campaign was unable, however, to save Babak and his followers, Babak fled to Armenia, but was betrayed to the Abbasids and died of torture. With the Khurramite threat over, the caliph began marshalling his forces for a campaign against Byzantium. A huge Arab army gathered at Tarsus, according to the most reliable account, other writers give far larger numbers, ranging from 200,000 to 500,000 according to al-Masudi. Unlike earlier campaigns, which did not go far beyond attacking the forts of the frontier zone, the great city of Amorium in particular was the intended prize. It is the eye and foundation of Christendom, among the Byzantines, according to Byzantine sources, the caliph had the citys name written on the shields and banners of his soldiers. The capital of the powerful Anatolic Theme, the city was located at the western edge of the Anatolian plateauSack of Amorium – Follis of a new type, minted in large quantities in celebration of Theophilos's victories against the Arabs from ca. 835 on. On the obverse, he is represented in triumphal attire, wearing the toupha, and on the reverse the traditional acclamation "Theophilos Augustus, you conquer".
37. Jovan Vladimir – Jovan Vladimir or John Vladimir was the ruler of Duklja, the most powerful Serbian principality of the time, from around 1000 to 1016. He ruled during the war between the Byzantine Empire and the First Bulgarian Empire. Vladimir was acknowledged as a pious, just, and peaceful ruler and he is recognized as a martyr and saint, with his feast day being celebrated on 22 May. A medieval chronicle asserts that Samuels daughter, Theodora Kosara, fell in love with Vladimir, the tsar allowed the marriage and returned Duklja to Vladimir, who ruled as his vassal. Vladimir took no part in his father-in-laws war efforts, the warfare culminated with Tsar Samuels defeat by the Byzantines in 1014 and death soon after. In 1016, Vladimir fell victim to a plot by Ivan Vladislav and he was beheaded in front of a church in Prespa, the empires capital, and was buried there. He was soon recognized as a martyr and saint and his widow, Kosara, reburied him in the Prečista Krajinska Church, near his court in southeastern Duklja. In 1381, his remains were preserved in the Church of St Jovan Vladimir near Elbasan, the saints remains are considered Christian relics, and attract many believers, especially on his feast day, when the relics are taken to the church near Elbasan for a celebration. The cross Vladimir held when he was beheaded is also regarded as a relic, Jovan Vladimir is regarded as the first Serbian saint and the patron saint of the town of Bar in Montenegro. His earliest, lost hagiography was written sometime between 1075 and 1089, a shortened version, written in Latin, is preserved in the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja. His hagiographies in Greek and Church Slavonic were first published, respectively, the saint is classically depicted in icons as a monarch wearing a crown and regal clothes, with a cross in his right hand and his own head in his left hand. He is fabled to have carried his head to his place of burial. Duklja was an early medieval Serbian principality whose borders coincided for the most part with those of present-day Montenegro, the state rose greatly in power after the disintegration of Serbia that followed the death of its ruler, Prince Časlav, around 943. Though the extent of Časlavs Serbia is uncertain, it is known that it included at least Raška, Raška had subsequently come under Dukljas political dominance, along with the neighboring Serbian principalities of Travunia and Zachlumia. The Byzantines often referred to Duklja as Serbia, around 1000, Vladimir, still a boy, succeeded his father Petrislav as the ruler of Duklja. Petrislav is regarded as the earliest ruler of Duklja whose existence can be confirmed by primary sources, the principality consisted of two provinces, Zenta in the south and Podgoria in the north. A local tradition has it that Vladimirs court was situated on the hillock called Kraljič, at the village of Koštanjica near Lake Skadar, near Kraljič lie the ruins of the Prečista Krajinska Church, which already existed in Vladimirs time. According to Daniele Farlati, an 18th-century ecclesiastical historian, the court, Vladimirs reign is recounted in Chapter 36 of the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, completed between 1299 and 1301, Chapters 34 and 35 deal with his father and unclesJovan Vladimir – A Serbian Orthodox icon of Prince Jovan Vladimir, who was recognized as a saint shortly after his death
38. Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor (782) – The Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor in 782 was one of the largest operations launched by the Abbasid Caliphate against the Byzantine Empire. The invasion was launched as a display of Abbasid military might in the aftermath of a series of Byzantine successes, as Harun did not intend to assault Constantinople and lacked ships to do so, he turned back. The Byzantines, who in the meantime had neutralized the detachment left to secure the Abbasid armys rear in Phrygia, were able to trap Haruns army between their own converging forces, the defection of the Armenian general Tatzates, however, allowed Harun to regain the upper hand. The Abbasid prince sent for a truce and detained the high-ranking Byzantine envoys and this forced Irene to agree to a three-year truce and pay a heavy annual tribute. Irene then focused her attention to the Balkans, but warfare with the Arabs resumed in 786, until mounting Arab pressure led to another truce in 798, on terms similar to those of 782. In the next year, the Byzantines took and razed the city of Hadath. In response to these Byzantine successes, Caliph al-Mahdi now resolved to take the field in person, on 12 March 780, Mahdi departed Baghdad and via Aleppo marched to Hadath, which he refortified. He then advanced to Arabissus, where he left the army and his son and heir Harun—better known by his laqab, or regnal name, al-Rashid—was left in charge of one half of the army, which raided the Armeniac Theme and took the small fort of Semaluos. Thumama, who had entrusted with the other half, penetrated deeper into Asia Minor. He marched west as far as the Thracesian Theme, but was defeated there by Lachanodrakon. The Muslims crossed into Byzantine Cappadocia over the Pass of Hadath, the ensuing battle resulted in a costly Arab defeat, forcing Abd al-Kabir to abandon his campaign and retreat to Syria. This defeat infuriated the Caliph, who prepared a new expedition.6 million nomismata, Harun was the nominal leader, but the Caliph took care to send experienced officers to accompany him. On 9 February 782, Harun departed Baghdad, the Arabs crossed the Taurus Mountains by the Cilician Gates and they then advanced along the military roads across the plateau into Phrygia. Harun himself, with the army, advanced to the Opsician Theme. The accounts of subsequent events in the sources differ on the details. The Thracesians under Lachanodrakon confronted al-Barmaki at a place called Darenos, al-Tabari reports that part of the main army under Yazid ibn Mazyad al-Shaybani met a Byzantine force led by a certain Niketas who was count of counts, probably somewhere near Nicaea. Harun did not bother them, and advanced to the town of Chrysopolis. Lacking ships to cross the Bosporus, and with no intention of assaulting Constantinople in the first place, furthermore, despite his success so far, Haruns position was precarious, as the defeat of al-Rabi threatened his lines of communication with the CaliphateAbbasid invasion of Asia Minor (782) – Map of Byzantine Asia Minor and the Byzantine-Arab frontier region ca. 780
39. Abu'l-Aswar Shavur ibn Fadl – Abul-Aswar or Abul-Asvar Shavur ibn Fadl ibn Muhammad ibn Shaddad was a member of the Shaddadid dynasty. Between 1049 and 1067 he was the eighth Shaddadid ruler of Arran from Ganja, prior to that, he ruled the city of Dvin from 1022 as an autonomous lord. A capable warrior, and a wise and cunning ruler, Abul-Aswar was engaged in conflicts with most of his neighbours. During his rule over Dvin, he was involved in the affairs of the Armenian principalities. In 1049, a revolt in Ganja overthrew his infant great-great-nephew, the rebels invited him to take up the familys emirate, and he moved from Dvin to Ganja. Under his rule, the Shaddadid dynasty reached its zenith, at the same time, his reign witnessed the rapid rise of the Seljuk Empire and the extension of its control over the Transcaucasian principalities. Abul-Aswar became a Seljuk vassal in 1054/5, although he gained control over the former Armenian capital of Ani through Seljuk patronage in 1065, this association also paved the way for the dynastys decline after his death in November 1067. The main historical source on the Shaddadids is the work of the Ottoman historian Münejjim Bashi, Münejjim Bashi considered the family to be of Kurdish origin, a view widely accepted by modern scholars. The familys founder, Muhammad ibn Shaddad, briefly seized control of Dvin in the early 950s, the family then moved to Ganja, the main Muslim town of Arran, which was seized by Muhammads sons Lashkari, Marzuban, and Fadl c. 970. The brothers successively ruled the city as emirs after that, Abul-Aswar Shavur was the second son of the youngest of the three brothers, and fourth Shaddadid ruler, Fadl. In his long reign, Fadl expanded the control over much of Arran as well as parts of Armenia. Fadl was succeeded as emir at Ganja by his eldest son Musa who was in turn murdered by his own son Abul-Hasan Lashkari. Abul-Aswar Shavurs name is an Arabic–Persian hybrid, Shavur is the old Persian name Shapur, Münejjim Bashi records that at the time of his death in 1067, Abul-Aswars total reign, both in Ganja and before that over some territories, had lasted 46 years. Some territories clearly refers to his rule over Dvin, known from other sources, in the aftermath, the city appears to have sought the protection of the Shaddadids, and Abul-Aswar became its ruler. From this base, he pursued an independent course from his brother. Abul-Aswar was intimately connected with the Armenian princely houses, having married a sister of David I Anhoghin and his second son even bore the typically Armenian name of Ashot. Due to his focus on the affairs of his domain, he is not mentioned by Münejjim Bashi until his takeover of the family seat at Ganja in 1049. For his activities in the period 1022–49, the main sources derive from his opponents, the Armenians, fearful of the latters displeasure, Abirat with 12,000 horsemen sought Abul-Aswars protectionAbu'l-Aswar Shavur ibn Fadl – The defeat of the Byzantines before Dvin, miniature from the Madrid Skylitzes
40. Ahmad ibn Tulun – Ahmad ibn Tulun was the founder of the Tulunid dynasty that ruled Egypt and Syria between 868 and 905. Originally a Turkic slave-soldier, in 868 Ibn Tulun was sent to Egypt as governor by the Abbasid caliph, Ibn Tulun also took care to establish an efficient administration in Egypt. After reforms to the tax system, repairs to the system, and other measures. As a symbol of his new regime, he built a new capital, al-Qatai, after 875/6 he entered into open conflict with al-Muwaffaq, who tried unsuccessfully to unseat him. The defection in 882 of a commander, Lulu, to al-Muwaffaq. His attempt in autumn 883 to bring Tarsus to heel failed, returning to Egypt, he died in May 884 and was succeeded by Khumarawayh. Several medieval authors wrote about Ahmad ibn Tulun, the two major sources are two biographies by two 10th-century authors, Ibn al-Daya and al-Balawi. Both are called Sirat Ahmad ibn Tulun, and al-Balawis work relies to an extent on Ibn al-Dayas. Ibn al-Daya also wrote a book with anecdotes from the Tulunid-era Egyptian society, Ahmad ibn Tulun was born on the 23rd day of the month of Ramadan 220 AH or slightly later, probably in Baghdad. His father, Tulun, was a Turk from a locality known in Arabic sources as Tagharghar or Toghuzghuz, after al-Mamun returned to Baghdad in 819, these Turkish slaves were formed into a guard corps of slave soldiers entrusted to al-Mamuns brother and eventual successor, al-Mutasim. Tulun did well for himself, eventually coming to command the Caliphs private guard, ahmads mother, called Qasim, was one of his fathers slaves. In 854/5, Tulun died, and Qasim is commonly held to have married a second time and this report, however, does not appear in Ibn al-Daya or al-Balawi, and may be spurious. According to al-Balawi, after his fathers death Ahmad came under the tutelage of Yalbakh, a companion of Tulun. At his deathbed, Tulun urged his friend to care of his wife and son. He became popular among his fellow Turks, who would confide secrets and entrust their money, while at Tarsus, Ibn Tulun fought in the frontier wars with the Byzantine Empire. There he also met another senior Turkish leader, Yarjukh, whose daughter, variously given as Majur or Khatun, became his first wife and the mother of his eldest son, Abbas, and his daughter Fatimah. The sources also report that during his time at Tarus, Ibn Tulun had ties to Caliph al-Mutawakkils vizier Ubayd Allah ibn Yahya ibn Khaqan, and the latters cousin Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khaqan. On one occasion, while returning to Samarra, he saved a caravan bearing a caliphal envoy returning from Constantinople from a Bedouin raiding party, and accompanied it to SamarraAhmad ibn Tulun – Gold dinar of Ahmad ibn Tulun minted in Fustat in 881/2
41. Al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith – Al-Mundhir ibn al-Ḥārith, known in Greek sources as Alamoundaros, was the king of the Ghassanid Arabs from 569 to circa 581. A son of Al-Harith ibn Jabalah, he succeeded his father both in the kingship over his tribe and as the chief of the Byzantine Empires Arab clients and allies in the East, with the rank of patricius. Despite his victories over the rival Persian-backed Lakhmids, throughout Mundhirs reign his relations with Byzantium were lukewarm due to his staunch Monophysitism and this led to a complete breakdown of the alliance in 572, after Mundhir discovered Byzantine plans to assassinate him. Relations were restored in 575 and Mundhir secured from the Byzantine emperor both recognition of his status and a pledge of tolerance towards the Monophysite Church. In 580 or 581, Mundhir participated in a campaign against the Persian capital, Ctesiphon. The failure of the led to a quarrel between the two and Maurice accused Mundhir of treason. Byzantine agents captured Mundhir, who was brought to Constantinople but never faced trial and his arrest provoked an uprising among the Ghassanids under Mundhirs son al-Numan VI. When Maurice ascended the throne in 582, Mundhir was exiled to Sicily although, according to one source, Mundhir was the last important Ghassanid ruler, in 584, the Byzantines would break up the Ghassanid federation. A capable and successful leader, his rule also saw the strengthening of Monophysitism. Mundhir was the son of al-Harith ibn Jabalah, ruler of the Ghassanid tribe, harith had been raised to the kingship and to the position of supreme phylarch by the Byzantine emperor Justinian I, who wished thereby to create a strong counterpart to the Lakhmid rulers. Mundhir had been confirmed as his fathers heir as early as 563, during the visit to Constantinople. Soon after Hariths death, Ghassanid territory was attacked by Qabus ibn al-Mundhir, the new Lakhmid ruler, qabuss forces were repulsed and Mundhir invaded Lakhmid territory in turn, seizing much plunder. As he turned back, the Lakhmids again confronted the Ghassanid army, after this success, Mundhir wrote to the Byzantine emperor Justin II asking for gold for his men. This request reportedly angered Justin, who sent instructions to his commander to lure the Ghassanid ruler into a trap and have him killed. But the letter fell into Mundhirs hands, who severed his relations with the Empire. The city was sacked, plundered, and put to the torch, according to John of Ephesus, Mundhir donated much of his booty from this expedition to monasteries and the poor. The same year, Mundhir visited Constantinople, where he was awarded a crown or diadem, the war with Persia was interrupted by a three-year truce agreed in 575. In 578, hostilities were renewed, but the sources on the period, fragmentary as they are, in 580, Mundhir was invited by Emperor Tiberius II to visit the capital againAl-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith – The Byzantine Diocese of the East, where the Ghassanids were active.
42. Bardanes Tourkos – Bardanes, nicknamed Tourkos, the Turk, was a Byzantine general of Armenian origin who launched an unsuccessful rebellion against Emperor Nikephoros I in 803. Although a major supporter of Byzantine empress Irene of Athens, soon after her overthrow he was appointed by Nikephoros as commander-in-chief of the Anatolian armies, from this position, he launched a revolt in July 803, probably in opposition to Nikephoross economic and religious policies. His troops marched towards Constantinople, but failed to win popular support, at this point, some of his major supporters deserted him and, reluctant to engage the loyalist forces in battle, Bardanes gave up and chose to surrender himself. He retired as a monk to a monastery he had founded, there he was blinded, possibly on Nikephoross orders. Nothing is known of the life of Bardanes. Bardanes is probably identical with the patrikios Bardanios who appears in the Chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor in the mid-790s. In 795, he was Domestic of the Schools, and was dispatched to arrest the monk Plato of Sakkoudion for his opposition to the second marriage of Emperor Constantine VI to Platos niece Theodote. In 797, as strategos of the Thracesian Theme, this same Bardanios supported the Empress-mother Irene of Athens when she usurped the throne from her son, Irene herself was overthrown and exiled by the logothetes tou genikou Nikephoros on 31 October 802. At the time, Bardanes was still patrikios and strategos of the Thracesians, however, this appointment is by no means certain, he is mentioned as monostrategos only by later sources, while near-contemporary ones mention him only as strategos of the Anatolics. It is possible that later sources misinterpreted his title to mean general of all the East, in July 803, an Abbasid army under al-Qasim, a son of the Caliph Harun al-Rashid, began advancing towards the Byzantine frontier. As Nikephoros had broken his foot in early May, it fell to Bardanes to lead the Byzantine army against the Arabs and he therefore ordered the thematic armies of Anatolia assembled in the Anatolic Theme. In mid-July 803, Bardanes was proclaimed emperor by the troops of the Anatolic. Crucially, the Armeniac Theme, either because of its rivalry with the Anatolics, or because it had not yet joined up with the rest of the army. It has also hypothesized that Bardanes may have participated in the suppression of the Armeniacs revolt in 793. Nikephoros had initiated a strict policy to shore up the Empires finances. The Emperor had revoked the exemption on inheritance tax for the soldiers, Bardanes, on the other hand, had a good reputation in this regard, fairly dividing the booty won from the campaigns against the Arabs amongst the soldiers. For the motives of Bardanes himself, the situation is less clear, according to the Byzantine chroniclers, he accepted the acclamation only reluctantly, after vainly entreating the soldiers to allow him to leave. The monk correctly prophesied that his rebellion would fail, that Thomas too would begin a revolt, although possibly a later invention, this story may suggest that Bardanes planned his revolt beforehandBardanes Tourkos – Gold solidus of Empress Irene, during the period of her sole rule (797–802).
43. Battle of Solachon – The Battle of Solachon was fought in 586 CE in northern Mesopotamia between the East Roman forces, led by Philippicus, and the Sassanid Persians under Kardarigan. The engagement was part of the long and inconclusive Byzantine–Sassanid War of 572–591, the Battle of Solachon ended in a major Byzantine victory which improved the Byzantine position in Mesopotamia, but it was not in the end decisive. The war dragged on until 591, when it ended with a settlement between Maurice and the Persian shah Khosrau II. In the days before the battle, Philippicus, newly assigned to the Persian front and he chose to deploy his army at Solachon, controlling the various routes of the Mesopotamian plain, and especially access to the main local watering source, the Arzamon river. Kardarigan, confident of victory, advanced against the Byzantines, the Persians deployed as well and attacked, gaining the upper hand in the centre, but the Byzantine right wing broke through the Persian left flank. The successful Byzantine wing was thrown into disarray as its men headed off to loot the Persian camp, then, while the Byzantine centre was forced to form a shield wall to withstand the Persian pressure, the Byzantine left flank also managed to turn the Persians right. Under threat of an envelopment, the Persian army collapsed and fled. Kardarigan himself survived and, with a part of his army, thus the Byzantines initiated contacts with the Central Asian Göktürks for a joint effort against Persia, while the Persians intervened in Yemen against the Christian Axumites, allies of Byzantium. Justins refusal was tantamount to a declaration of war, the fourth fought between the two powers of Late Antiquity in the 6th century. Philippicus raided the region around the major Persian fortress of Nisibis in 584, the Persian commander, Kardarigan—black hawk, an honorific title rather than a proper name—responded with an unsuccessful siege of Philippicus main base, Monokarton. In spring 586 Maurice rejected new Persian proposals involving the conclusion of peace in exchange for renewed payments in gold, on the Persian side, Kardarigan was also eager to fight and confident of victory. His movements, however, were detected when the Byzantines Arab foederati captured a few of his men and this early warning was of particular importance since Kardarigan intended to attack on Sunday, a day of rest for the Christian Byzantines. Both armies appear to have been composed exclusively of cavalry, comprising a mix of lancers and horse-archers, the Byzantines appear to have been arranged in a single battle line with three divisions. The left division was commanded by Eiliphredas, the dux of Phoenice Libanensis, the centre was commanded by the general Heraclius the Elder, later Exarch of Africa and father of Emperor Heraclius, while the right wing was commanded by the taxiarchos Vitalius. This arrangement was adopted by the Persians as soon as they came into view of the Byzantine army. On the Persian side, the division was under Mebodes, the centre under Kardarigan himself. Unlike the Persian general, Philippicus remained with a force at some distance behind the main battle line. After a short halt to leave their train behind and form a battle line the Persian army quickly advanced on the ByzantinesBattle of Solachon – Map of the Roman-Persian frontier in Late Antiquity.
44. John Troglita – John Troglita was a 6th-century Byzantine general. He participated in the Vandalic War and served in North Africa as a military governor during the years 533–538. As dux Mesopotamiae, Troglita distinguished himself in battles, and was noticed by agents of the Byzantine emperor. Troglita reorganized his army and secured the assistance of some tribal leaders and this victory spelled the end of the Moorish revolt, and heralded an era of peace for Africa. Troglita was also involved in the Gothic War, twice sending some of his troops to Italy to assist against the Ostrogoths, the exact origins of John Troglita are unclear. He may have born in Thrace, but his peculiar surname might indicate provenance from Trogilos in Macedonia. Troglita himself married a daughter of a king, probably a barbarian chieftain, Troglita remained in the province of Africa after Belisariuss departure in 534, and participated in the expeditions of Solomon against the Moors in 534–535. At the time, he was probably the military governor in either Byzacena or, more probably, Tripolitania. Nevertheless, the resulted in an imperial victory. In 538, Troglita distinguished himself in the Battle of Autenti, at some point after 538, Troglita was sent to the Eastern frontier, where by 541 he was appointed dux Mesopotamiae, one of the most important military commands of the region. From this position, he arrested a member of the embassy sent by the Ostrogothic king Witiges to the Persians to incite them to attack Byzantium. Nevertheless, Corippus maintains that John was congratulated for his performance by Urbicius, during Troglitas absence from Africa, the situation had been turbulent. Germanus had remained in the province until 539, and succeeded in restoring discipline in the army and pacifying the core territories of Africa Proconsularis and Byzacena. He was succeeded by Solomon, who began his tenure with great success, defeating the Moors of the Aurès Mountains. However, the Moorish revolt flared up again in 543 and Solomon was killed in the Battle of Cillium in 544 and his successor, his nephew Sergius, was incompetent. He was defeated by the Moors, recalled and replaced with the senator Areobindus, the latter intended to declare himself independent of Constantinople, but was soon murdered by the Armenian Artabanes. The need for a new and capable leader in Africa was apparent to Constantinople, after a truce was signed with Persia in 546, Emperor Justinian, perhaps, as Corippus implies, acting on Urbiciuss advice, recalled Troglita from the East. After having him report on the situation there in Constantinople, the Emperor placed him at the head of a new army and sent him to Africa as the new magister militum per Africam in late summer 546John Troglita – Roman Africa, with the provinces of Byzacena, Zeugitana and Numidia.
45. Alexios Apokaukos – Alexios Apokaukos was a leading Byzantine statesman and high-ranking military officer during the reigns of emperors Andronikos III Palaiologos and John V Palaiologos. Apokaukos died when he was lynched by political prisoners during an inspection of a new prison, alexios was of humble origin, and was born in the late 13th century somewhere in Bithynia. He nevertheless studied under the scholar Theodore Hyrtakenos, and became a tax official, by 1320 he was director of the salt pans, from which he later advanced to the position of domestikos of the themes of the West. He rose in the hierarchy until, in 1321, he was appointed the imperial parakoimōmenos. Under the threat of war, the Emperor surrendered Thrace and some districts in Macedonia to the rule of his grandson, in early 1341, shortly before Andronikoss death, he was rewarded with the high office of megas doux, giving him the high command over the Byzantine navy. He re-equipped the fleet, paying from his own pocket 100,000 hyperpyra, Kantakouzenos did not claim the throne for himself, but demanded the regency, based on his close association with the deceased emperor, and with the support of the capitals troops secured it. As soon as Kantakouzenos left Constantinople in July 1341 to campaign against the Empires enemies who were assaulting it, Apokaukos also tried to kidnap the young John V, but failed and was forced to flee to his house at Epibatai. However, when Kantakouzenos returned victorious to the capital, instead of depriving Apokaukos of his offices, Apokaukos put on an exaggerated display of deference to Kantakouzenos, who allowed him to resume his offices and return to Constantinople, while Kantakouzenos left on yet another campaign. Once back in the city, however, the Patriarch and Apokaukos seized power, Kantakouzenoss family and friends were imprisoned, the Patriarch was declared regent, while Anna named Apokaukos as urban prefect of Constantinople. Kantakouzenos responded by having himself declared emperor at Didymoteicho in October 1341, the two coronations finalized the split, and ushered in a civil war that would embroil the Byzantine Empire and all of its neighbours until 1347 with Kantakouzenoss victory. In a similar development in 1342, Thessalonica, the Empires second-largest city, was seized by a known as the Zealots. Their anti-aristocratic beliefs made them enemies of Kantakouzenism, and earned them the support of the regency, Apokaukos himself arrived with a fleet of 70 ships to aid them, and appointed his elder son John Apokaukos as the citys governor, although the latters authority would remain only nominal. In the first years of the war, the tide was in favour of the regency, until, in the summer of 1342, however, from 1343 onwards, with the aid of his friend, Umur Beg of Aydin, Kantakouzenos began to reverse the situation. Gradually, Apokaukoss supporters abandoned him, including his son Manuel, in early 1345, Apokaukos and Kalekas rejected offers of reconciliation conveyed by two Franciscan monks. Trying to bolster his power, Apokaukos began a series of proscriptions in the capital. On 11 June 1345, Apokaukos suddenly decided to inspect the new prison, the prisoners immediately rose up and lynched him, and his head was severed and stuck on a pole. The prisoners believed that by getting rid of the hated Apokaukos, as a result, all prisoners, some 200 in total, were massacred, even though some attempted to seek refuge in a nearby monastery. As such, it marked the beginning of the wars end, alexios Apokaukos had two brothers, John and Nikephoros, of whom very little is knownAlexios Apokaukos – Donor portrait of the megas doux Alexios Apokaukos, from a collection of the "Works of Hippocrates " commissioned by him in the early 1340s. Alexios is depicted in the garb of his office, wearing a richly decorated kabbadion and the skaranikon, a ceremonial headdress depicting the reigning emperor.
46. Battle of Bathys Ryax – The Battle of Bathys Ryax was fought in 872 or 878 between the Byzantine Empire and the Paulicians. The battle was a decisive Byzantine victory, resulting in the rout of the Paulician army and this event destroyed the power of the Paulician state and removed a major threat to Byzantium, heralding the fall of Tephrike itself and the annexation of the Paulician principality shortly after. The Paulicians were fiercely iconoclastic, adhered to a very distinct Christology and rejected the authority and practices of the official Byzantine Church, consequently, they were persecuted by the Byzantine state as early as 813, despite the emperors official support for iconoclasm. The new Byzantine emperor, Basil I the Macedonian, sent an embassy for negotiations to Tephrike, after the talks failed, Basil led a campaign against the Paulician state in the spring of 871, but was defeated and only narrowly managed to escape himself. Encouraged by this success, Chrysocheir then staged another deep raid into Anatolia, reaching Ancyra, Basil reacted by sending his relative, the Domestic of the Schools Christopher, against them. The Paulicians managed to avoid a clash, and as the season drew to a close. They encamped at Agranai in the theme of Charsianon, with the shadowing Byzantine army making their camp at nearby Siboron to the west. e. Whether it intended to double back westwards to resume raiding Byzantine territory or whether it headed back to Tephrike, in which case they would have to rejoin the Domestics forces. When the two generals with their men reached the pass, night had fallen, and the Paulicians, the Byzantines took up position in a wooded hill called Zogoloenos that overlooked the Paulician encampment, which further concealed them from their enemy. The ruse worked perfectly, the Paulicians, taken by surprise, the Paulician rout was completed as they fell upon the main Byzantine army while fleeing. Their remnants were pursued by the victorious Byzantines up to a distance of 50 km, Chrysocheir himself managed to escape with a small detachment of bodyguards, but he was brought at bay at Konstantinou Bounos. In the ensuing engagement, he was wounded by Poulades, a Byzantine soldier who had formerly a captive of the Paulicians. He was then captured and beheaded by the advancing Byzantines, the defeat at Bathys Ryax signalled the end of the Paulicians as a military power and a threat to Byzantium. Basil followed this success by a series of campaigns in the East against the Paulician strongholds, Tephrike itself was taken in 878 and razed to the ground. The remaining Paulicians were resettled in the Balkans, while a contingent was shipped off to Southern Italy to fight for the Empire under Nikephoros Phokas the Elder. Thus Alexander Vasiliev proposed a first victorious battle for the Byzantines, followed by the sack of Tephrike, most recent historians place the battle before the sack of the city, but disagree in the dates of the two eventsBattle of Bathys Ryax – Gold coin of the Emperor Basil I. The victory of Bathys Ryax and the subsequent dissolution of the Paulician state were among the major triumphs of his reign.
47. Battle of Krasos – The Battle of Krasos was a battle in the Arab–Byzantine Wars that took place in August 804, between the Byzantines under Emperor Nikephoros I and an Abbasid army under Ibrahim ibn Jibril. Nikephoros accession in 802 resulted in a resumption of warfare between Byzantium and the Abbasid Caliphate, in late summer 804, the Abbasids had invaded Byzantine Asia Minor for one of their customary raids, and Nikephoros set out to meet them. He was surprised, however, at Krasos and heavily defeated, a truce and prisoner exchange were afterwards arranged. Despite his defeat, and a massive Abbasid invasion the next year, the deposition of Empress Irene of Athens, in October 802, and subsequent accession of Nikephoros I signalled a more violent phase in the long history of the Arab–Byzantine Wars. Nikephoros, on the hand, was more warlike and determined to refill the imperial treasury by, among other measures. Harun retaliated at once, launching a raid under his son al-Qasim, Nikephoros could not respond to this, as he faced an ultimately unsuccessful revolt of the Asian army under its commander-in-chief, Bardanes Tourkos. After disposing of Bardanes, Nikephoros assembled his army and marched out himself to meet a second, in August 804, Harun dispatched another raid under his general Ibrahim ibn Jibril. The Arabs crossed into Asia Minor through the Cilician Gates and raided freely, Nikephoros set out to meet them, but was forced to return before he could do so, due to some unspecified event at his back. On his march home, however, the Arabs launched an attack at Krasos in Phrygia. According to al-Tabari, the Byzantines lost 40,700 men and 4,000 pack animals, the Byzantine chronicler Theophanes the Confessor confirms that the imperial army lost many men and that Nikephoros was almost killed himself, saved only by the bravery of his officers. Preoccupied with trouble in Khurasan, Harun now accepted tribute and made peace, during Haruns absence in Khurasan, however, Nikephoros used the opportunity to rebuild the destroyed walls of the towns of Safsaf, Thebasa, and Ancyra. The following summer he launched the first Byzantine raid for two decades, into the Arab frontier district in Cilicia, the Byzantine army raided and took prisoners as it went, even capturing the major Abbasid stronghold of Tarsus. Following renewed trouble in Khurasan, a treaty was signed in 808 which left the Byzantine frontier zone intactBattle of Krasos – Anatolia and the Byzantine-Arab frontier ca. 780 AD
48. Battle of Mauropotamos – The Battle of Mauropotamos was fought in 844, between the armies of the Byzantine Empire and the Abbasid Caliphate, at Mauropotamos. After a failed Byzantine attempt to recover the Emirate of Crete in the previous year, the Byzantine regent, Theoktistos, headed the army that went to meet the invasion but was heavily defeated, and many of his officers defected to the Arabs. Internal unrest prevented the Abbasids from exploiting their victory, however, a truce and a prisoner exchange were consequently agreed in 845, followed by a six-year cessation of hostilities, as both powers focused their attention elsewhere. The first such campaign, an attempted reconquest of the Emirate of Crete led by Theoktistos in person, made initial gains, after scoring a victory over the Arabs in Crete, Theoktistos learned of a rumour that Theodora intended to name a new emperor, possibly her brother Bardas. Theoktistos hurried back to Constantinople, where he discovered that the rumour was false, but in his absence, the Byzantine army in Crete was routed by the Arabs. In 844, according to Byzantine sources, Theoktistos learned of an Arab invasion of Byzantine Asia Minor, led by a certain Amr, probably the semi-autonomous emir of Malatya, the Arab sources do not make explicit mention of this campaign. Umar al-Aqtas participation is likely, as he aided the Abbasids in their raids against the Byzantines. According to Arab accounts, the led by Abu Said comprised men from the border emirates of Qaliqala. The Arab forces united at Ardandun before raiding through the Byzantine themes of Cappadocia, Anatolikon, Boukellarion, saids troops sacked Dorylaion and even reached the shore of the Bosporus. Theoktistos led the Byzantine army in against the invaders, but was defeated at Mauropotamos. The location of the latter, if indeed it is a river and not a simple toponym, is disputed, not only did the Byzantines suffer heavy casualties, but many senior Byzantine officials defected to the Arabs. Theoktistos returned to Constantinople, where he blamed Bardas for the recent defeats and had him exiled from the capital, the Abbasids were unable to exploit their success due to the internal instability of the Caliphate. Likewise, the Byzantines preferred to focus their strength against the ongoing conquest of Sicily by the Aghlabids, thus, a Byzantine embassy was sent to Baghdad in 845, which was warmly received. The Abbasids reciprocated with an embassy to Constantinople, where the two agreed on a truce and a prisoner exchange, which was held at the river Lamos on 16 September 845. A winter raid by the Arab governor of Tarsus shortly after failed disastrously, after which the Arab-Byzantine frontier remained quiet for six yearsBattle of Mauropotamos – Map of Byzantine Asia Minor and the Byzantine-Arab frontier region ca. 842
49. Battle of Yarmouk – The Battle of Yarmouk was a major battle between the army of the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim Arab forces of the Rashidun Caliphate. The result of the battle was a complete Muslim victory which ended Byzantine rule in Syria, in order to check the Arab advance and to recover lost territory, Emperor Heraclius had sent a massive expedition to the Levant in May 636. The battle is considered to be one of Khalid ibn al-Walids greatest military victories and it cemented his reputation as one of the greatest tacticians and cavalry commanders in history. During the last Byzantine–Sassanid Wars in 610, Heraclius became the emperor of the Byzantine Empire, meanwhile, the Sassanid Persians conquered Mesopotamia and in 611 they overran Syria and entered Anatolia, occupying Caesarea Mazaca. Heraclius, in 612, managed to expel the Persians from Anatolia, over the following decade the Persians were able to conquer Palestine and Egypt. Meanwhile, Heraclius prepared for a counterattack and rebuilt his army, nine years later in 622, Heraclius finally launched his offensive. Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem with a ceremony in 629. Meanwhile, there had been rapid development in Arabia, where Muhammad had been preaching Islam and by 630. When Muhammad died in June 632, Abu Bakr was elected Caliph, troubles emerged soon after Abu Bakrs succession, when several Arab tribes openly revolted against Abu Bakr, who declared war against the rebels. In what became known as the Ridda wars, Abu Bakr managed to unite Arabia under the authority of the Caliph at Medina. Once the rebels had been subdued, Abu Bakr began a war of conquest, sending his most brilliant general, Khalid ibn al-Walid, Iraq was conquered in a series of successful campaigns against the Sassanid Persians. Abu Bakrs confidence grew, and once Khalid established his stronghold in Iraq, the Muslim invasion of Syria was a series of carefully planned and well coordinated military operations that employed strategy instead of pure strength to deal with Byzantine defensive measures. The Muslim armies, however proved to be too small to handle the Byzantine response. Khalid was sent by Abu Bakr from Iraq to Syria with reinforcements, in July 634, the Byzantines were decisively defeated at Ajnadayn. Damascus fell in September 634, followed by the Battle of Fahl where the last significant garrison of Palestine was defeated and routed, Caliph Abu Bakr died in 634. His successor, Umar, was determined to continue the Caliphate Empires expansion deeper into Syria, though previous campaigns led by Khalid were successful, he was replaced by Abu Ubaidah. Having secured southern Palestine, Muslim forces now advanced up the route, where Tiberias and Baalbek fell without much struggle. From thereon, the Muslims continued their conquest across the Levant, having seized Emesa, the Muslims were just a march away from Aleppo, a Byzantine stronghold, and Antioch, where Heraclius residedBattle of Yarmouk – Across the ravines lies the battlefield of Yarmouk, this picture taken about 8 miles away, from Jordan.
50. Chlemoutsi – Chlemoutsi is a medieval castle in the northwest of the Elis regional unit in the Peloponnese peninsula of southern Greece, in the Kastro-Kyllini municipality. The castle is preserved in its original 13th-century state, with only minor later modifications for the installation of artillery. Located near the Principalitys capital of Andravida and the port of Glarentza, Chlemoutsi played a central role in the Principalitys history. After coming under Byzantine rule in 1427, it was captured in 1460 by the Ottoman Empire, in Ottoman times, minor additions were made to provide platforms for artillery, but the castle progressively lost its significance and was completely deserted by the late 18th century. In 1825, during the Greek War of Independence, part of its wall was demolished to prevent the Greek rebels from using it. Today it is a preserved monument open to the public, the castle was built between 1220 and 1223, during the rule of the Prince of Achaea Geoffrey I of Villehardouin, as a result of a dispute between the Prince and the clergy of the Principality. Geoffrey had asked the clergy, which owned almost a third of the Principalitys lands but was not obliged to render military service, for additional donations to help defend the realm. When the clergy refused, claiming that they owed allegiance only to the Pope, Geoffrey confiscated Church property, the fortress was set on a new foundation, with no previous structure identifiable on this site. The new fortress was near the capital of Andravida, some 13 kilometres away. 1263, one of whom, Alexios Philes, died in captivity there, Chlemoutsi, however, had been granted by William to his wife, Anna Komnene Doukaina, and she retained it, along with the Villehardouins hereditary Barony of Kalamata in Messenia. In 1280, Anna married the baron Nicholas II of Saint Omer, in the early 1290s, Thomas Komnenos Doukas, son and successor of the Despot of Epirus Nikephoros I Komnenos Doukas, was held at Chlemoutsi as a hostage for his fathers behaviour. To this end, in February 1314 she wedded her daughter, Isabel of Sabran, to Ferdinand of Majorca. She then returned to Achaea, where she was imprisoned by the Angevin bailli at Chlemoutsi, Ferdinand landed at Glarentza in June 1315, claiming the Principality from the Angevin nominee, Louis of Burgundy. Chlemoutsi and most of Elis fell rapidly under Ferdinands control, the remaining Majorcan troops ceded the fortresses they held in Elis and set sail for home shortly after. In 1418, Glarentza and Chlemoutsi passed into the hands of Carlo I Tocco, Chlemoutsi now became Constantines residence and his base of operations against the last major Latin stronghold, the city of Patras, in 1428–30. The castle remained in Byzantine hands until it was captured, along with the rest of the Morea, by the Ottoman Empire in 1460. The bastard son of Centurione II, John Asen Zaccaria, was imprisoned at Chlemoutsi. During the period of Venetian rule in the Peloponnese after the Morean War, the reports of the Venetian governors at the time, however, dismiss Chlemoutsi as small in size and barely inhabitedChlemoutsi – The walls of Chlemoutsi
51. Constantine Doukas (usurper) – Constantine Doukas was a prominent Byzantine general. In 904, he stopped the influential court official Samonas from defecting to the Arabs. In return, Samonas manipulated his father, Andronikos Doukas, into rebelling and fleeing to the Abbasid court in 906/7. Constantine followed his father to Baghdad, but soon escaped and returned to Byzantium, Constantine Doukas was the son of Andronikos Doukas, a prominent general under Emperor Leo VI the Wise and the first prominent member of the Doukas family. Constantine first appears in the sources in 904, during the flight of the Arab-born eunuch Samonas, one of the emperors most trusted aides. Constantine captured Samonas at the Monastery of the Holy Cross at Siricha, near the river Halys, and escorted him back to Constantinople, where an enquiry into the matter was held before the Senate. Leo, who was attached to his servant, enjoined Constantine to maintain that Samonas had in fact been making a pilgrimage to the shrine of Siricha. When the senators however asked Constantine to verify the truth of claim by swearing on God. Samonas was punished by house arrest, and although he was pardoned by Leo after only four months and restored to his offices and this grudge came to the fore in 906, when Samonas tricked Andronikos into refusing to participate in an imperial expedition. Constantine and his father ended up in Baghdad, the Abbasid capital, Constantine however managed to escape Baghdad, and was warmly welcomed back by Leo in a ceremony in the throne room of the Chrysotriklinos. The date of his return to Byzantium is unclear, but must be placed between ca.908 and ca, despite his fathers revolt, the Doukai remained very popular due to their military successes, and prophecies apparently circulated that predicted Constantines rise to the throne. As a result, according to Theophanes Continuatus, Leo warned the man from trying to become emperor. From both positions he fought victoriously against the Arabs, Leo VI died in May 912 and was succeeded by his brother Alexander, who reigned for little over a year before dying in June 913. Thus, at the death of Alexander, with Constantine VII not even eight years old and it was at this point that Constantine Doukas launched a rebellion aiming for the throne. Doukas, enjoying wide support among both the aristocrats and the populace, accepted the summons and headed to Constantinople with a few trusted friends. Already before dawn on the morning, Constantine and his supporters, bearing torches, marched to the Hippodrome. Constantine was duly proclaimed emperor before the people at the Hippodrome, a clash followed, in which many were killed, including Constantines son Gregory, his nephew Michael and his friend Kourtikes. Disheartened, Constantine turned and tried to flee, but his horse slipped, Constantine was killed by an arrow, according to the Life of Euthymius cursing the Patriarch Nicholas as he diedConstantine Doukas (usurper) – Constantine Doukas escapes from Arab captivity, throwing gold coins behind him to delay his pursuers. Miniature from the Madrid Skylitzes chronicle
52. Constantine Lekapenos – Constantine Lekapenos or Lecapenus was the third son of the Byzantine emperor Romanos I Lekapenos, and co-emperor from 924 to 945. With his elder brother Stephen, he deposed Romanos I in December 944, Constantine was exiled to the island of Samothrace, where he was killed while attempting to escape sometime between 946 and 948. Constantine was one of the youngest sons of Romanos I and his wife Theodora, theophanes Continuatus mentions him as the youngest son of the imperial couple, while the 11th-century chronicler George Kedrenos mentions him as the third of four known sons. His older brothers were Christopher Lekapenos and Stephen Lekapenos and it is unclear if Theophylact was his younger brother or slightly older than he was. His sisters included Helena, who married Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos, and Agatha and he probably also had at least two unnamed sisters, known only because of their marriages to the magistroi Romanos Mosele and Romanos Saronites. Romanos Lekapenos had risen to power in 919, when he had managed to appoint himself regent over the young Constantine VII, within a year, he successively rose from basileopator to Caesar, and was eventually crowned senior emperor on 17 December 920. In 939, Constantine married his first wife Helena, a daughter of the patrikios Adrian, symeon Magister records the death of Helena on 14 January 940, and on 2 February of the same year, Constantine married his second wife, Theophano Mamas. Constantine had a son, named Romanos, but it is not recorded by which of his two wives and this Romanos was castrated in 945, after the Lekapenoi lost power, to prevent him from claiming the Byzantine throne. He nevertheless pursued a career in the court, eventually reaching the rank of patrikios, Stephen and Constantine Lekapenos came to the fore in 943, when they opposed a dynastic marriage for their nephew, Romanos II. Their father wanted to have his eldest surviving grandson married to Euphrosyne, predictably, Stephen and Constantine opposed this decision, and prevailed upon their father, who was by this time ill and old, to dismiss Kourkouas in the autumn of 944. Romanos II instead married Bertha, a daughter of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy. With Romanos I approaching the end of his life, the matter of his succession became urgent, in 943, Romanos drafted a will which would leave Constantine VII as the senior emperor following his death. This greatly upset his two sons, who feared that their brother-in-law would have them deposed and force them to take monastic vows and their fellow conspirators included Marianos Argyros, the protospatharios Basil Peteinos, Manuel Kourtikes, the strategos Diogenes, Clado, and Philip. Kedrenos, however, considers Peteinos to have served as an agent of Constantine VII among the conspirators, on 20 December 944, the conspirators set their plans in motion. The two brothers smuggled their supporters in the Great Palace of Constantinople during the break in palace activities. They then led their men into the chamber of Romanos I and they were able to transport him to the nearest harbour and from there to Prote, one of the Princes Islands and a popular place of exile. There, Romanos agreed to take vows and retire from the throne. Having managed to depose their father, the brothers now had to deal with Constantine VIIConstantine Lekapenos – Miliaresion from 931–944, showing Romanos I 's bust on a cross on the obverse and listing the names of Romanos and his co-emperors, Constantine VII, Stephen Lekapenos and Constantine Lekapenos, on the reverse.
53. Domestic of the Schools – The office of the Domestic of the Schools was a senior military post of the Byzantine Empire, extant from the 8th century until at least the early 14th century. The office was eclipsed in the 12th century by that of the Grand Domestic, the first holder of the office of Domestic of the Schools first appears in the sources for the year 767, shortly after the creation of the tagmata. The Schools was the senior tagma, tracing their origin to the Scholae Palatinae established by Constantine the Great, as the magister officiorum was gradually deprived of some of his functions in the 7th and 8th centuries, the Domestic apparently became an independent official. In the 9th century, the office of the Domestic, or Domesticate, of the Schools rose in importance and its holder was often appointed as the head of the army in the absence of the emperor. However, this role was not yet enshrined, it depended rather on the abilities of the current Domestic, from the time of Michael III on, the Domestic ranked in the imperial hierarchy above all other military commanders except for the stratēgos of the Anatolic Theme. In the reign of Romanos II the post was split, with a Domestic of the West, the ceremony for the Domestics appointment is described in the De Ceremoniis, the same work describes his duties and role in court ceremonies. With some exceptions, most notably the unparalleled 22-year tenure of John Kourkouas, or in times of domestic instability, during the 10th century, the Domesticate of the Schools was dominated by members of the Phokas family, which produced six holders of the office. In the words of the mid-14th century Book of Offices of Pseudo-Kodinos, the Domestic of the Schools once had a similar to that of the Grand Domestic currently. In Pseudo-Kodinos work, the Domestic of the Schools ranks 31st in the imperial hierarchy, between the mystikos and the Grand Drungary of the Fleet. The Domestics distinctive court dress, as reported by Pseudo-Kodinos, consisted of a hat, a plain silk kabbadion tunic. Note, the list does not include holders known only through their seals, the Imperial Administrative System of the Ninth Century - With a Revised Text of the Kletorologion of Philotheos. Byzantine empresses, women and power in Byzantium, AD 527-1204, recherches sur les institutions byzantines, Tome I. Recherches sur les institutions byzantines, Tome I, Oxford and New York, Oxford University Press. The Decline of the Opsikian Domesticates and the Rise of the Domesticate of the Scholae, athens, Institute for Byzantine Research, 27–36. Les listes de préséance byzantines des IXe et Xe siècles, paris, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. The Perfect Servant, Eunuchs and the Social Construction of Gender in Byzantium, the Reign of Leo VI, Politics and People. Verpeaux, Jean, ed. Pseudo-Kodinos, Traité des Offices, paris, Centre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueDomestic of the Schools – Lead seal of Alexios I Komnenos as "Grand Domestic of the West"
54. Emirate of Crete – The Emirate of Crete was a Muslim state that existed on the Mediterranean island of Crete from the late 820s to the Byzantine reconquest of the island in 961. Although the emirate recognized the suzerainty of the Abbasid Caliphate and maintained ties with Tulunid Egypt. A group of Andalusian exiles conquered Crete in c.824 or in 827/828, the Byzantines launched a campaign that took most of the island back in 842 and 843 under Theoktistos, but the reconquest was not completed and was soon reversed. Later attempts by the Byzantine Empire to recover the island failed, and for the approximately 135 years of its existence, the emirate was one of the major foes of Byzantium. Crete commanded the sea lanes of the Eastern Mediterranean and functioned as a forward base, the emirates internal history is less well-known, but all accounts point to considerable prosperity deriving not only from piracy but also from extensive trade and agriculture. The emirate was brought to an end by Nikephoros Phokas, who launched a campaign against it in 960–961. Crete had been the target of Muslim attacks since the first wave of the Muslim conquests in the mid-7th century and it had suffered a first raid in 654 and again in 674/675, and parts of the island were temporarily occupied during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph al-Walid I. At some point in the half of the reign of Byzantine Emperor Michael II. These exiles had a history of wanderings behind them. Traditionally they have described as the survivors of a failed revolt against the emir al-Hakam I of Córdoba in 818. In the aftermath of its suppression, the citizens of the Córdoban suburb of al-Rabad were exiled en masse, the exact chronology of the Andalusians landing in Crete is uncertain. Following the Muslim sources, it is dated to 827 or 828. Byzantine sources however seem to contradict this, placing their landing soon after the suppression of the revolt of Thomas the Slav. Under the terms of their agreement with Ibn Tahir, the Andalusians, historian Warren Treadgold estimates them at some 12,000 people, of whom about 3,000 would be fighting men. According to Byzantine historians, the Andalusians were already familiar with Crete and they also claim that the Muslim landing was initially intended as a raid, and was transformed into a bid for conquest when Abu Hafs himself set fire to their ships. However, as the Andalusian exiles had brought their families along, the first expedition, under Photeinos, strategos of the Anatolic Theme, and Damian, Count of the Stable, was defeated in open battle, where Damian was killed. The next expedition was sent a year later and comprised 70 ships under the strategos of the Cibyrrhaeots Krateros and it was initially victorious, but the overconfident Byzantines were then routed in a night attack. Krateros managed to flee to Kos, but there he was captured by the Arabs, makrypoulias suggests that these campaigns must have taken place before the Andalusians completed their construction of Chandax, where they transferred the capital from the inland site of GortynEmirate of Crete – The Saracen fleet sails towards Crete. Miniature from the Madrid Skylitzes manuscript.
55. Eustathios Argyros (general under Leo VI) – Eustathios Argyros was a Byzantine aristocrat and one of the most prominent generals under Emperor Leo VI the Wise. The first member of the Argyros family to rise to high posts, he fought with distinction against the Arabs in the east,907, possibly in connection with the flight of Andronikos Doukas to the Arabs. Rehabilitated soon after, he was appointed as strategos of Charsianon, promoted to commander of the imperial bodyguard in late 908, he again fell into disgrace shortly after and died of poison on his way to his estates. Eustathios Argyros was the son of the tourmarches Leo Argyros, the founder of the noble Argyros family. The Byzantine historians praise Eustathios Argyros as an intelligent, valiant, prudent and just man, the historians Jean-Claude Cheynet and Jean-François Vannier, experts on Byzantine prosopography, consider him the true founder of the familys glory. Although he is identified with an admiral active in ca. 902–904, his life is only securely attested after 904, at this time, evidently after a succession of—unknown—military commands, Eustathios had reached, according to Theophanes Continuatus, the rank of patrikios and hypostrategos of the Anatolic Theme. He then fell into disgrace and was exiled, Eustathios was then appointed as strategos of the border theme of Charsianon, a position notably inferior in rank to that of the Anatolics that he had held previously. The Argyros family, however, had connections with Charsianon. Of them, Melias in particular would go on to become the founder of the theme of Lykandos, about a year later, he fell again under Leos suspicion, and was ordered to return to his familys estates at Charsianon. On the way, he died after taking poison by one of his servants, and was buried on Spynin, while historian Romilly James Heald Jenkins has suggested that Argyros poisoning was done through an agent of the powerful and scheming court eunuch Samonas, it more likely was suicide. Eustathios sons Pothos and Leo would go on to senior military commands. Another son, Romanos, is only from his participation in the Battle of Achelous in 917. Leo Argyros married a daughter of Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos, and was probably the grandfather or great-grandfather of Emperor Romanos III Argyros, some modern scholars like R. J. H. Jenkins, R. H. This identification is rejected by scholars like J. -F. Furthermore, the admiral is given the surname Argyros in some works that distinguish him from the general. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23, les patrices byzantins sous le règne de Constantin VII Porphyrogénète. Le Drongaire et le Grand drongaire de la Veille, recherches sur les institutions byzantines, Tome IEustathios Argyros (general under Leo VI) – Map of the Arab–Byzantine frontier zone
56. Gabras – The Gabrades are attested for the first time in the late 10th century, when Constantine Gabras participated in the revolt of Bardas Skleros. The general Theodore Gabras captured Trebizond and ruled it and the theme of Chaldia as an autonomous state. He was celebrated for his exploits, and was later venerated as a saint in the region. His son, Constantine Gabras, also became governor of Chaldia, a branch of the family also became rulers of the Principality of Theodoro in the Crimea. The family first appears in the corner of the Byzantine world. The familys ethnic origin is unknown, some scholars like Alexander Vasiliev and Alexander Kazhdan suggested an Armenian origin, as with many other aristocratic families of the time, but the surname Gabras is neither Armenian nor Greek. Persian and Aramaic origins for the name have suggested, including a suggestion by Konstantinos Amantos that it is a corruption of the name Gabriel. The first known member of the family, Constantine Gabras, participated in the 976–979 revolt of Bardas Skleros, in 1040, a Michael Gabras was one of the leaders of a failed aristocratic conspiracy against the Domestic of the Schools Constantine, a brother of Emperor Michael IV. He too was blinded along with his fellow conspirators, the first important member of the family was Saint Theodore Gabras. A native of Chaldia, he was an energetic and valiant man and he recaptured Trebizond from the Turks in 1075, and was appointed governor of Chaldia by Alexios I Komnenos in 1081. Gabras ruled Chaldia as an independent ruler, and until his death in battle in 1098, he fought with success against the Danishmend Turks. He became a figure in both Pontic Greek and Turkoman poetry, and was recognized by the Orthodox Church as a martyr. Theodore tried to kidnap him in 1091, but failed, nothing further is known of Gregory Gabras, but he may be identical to Gregory Taronites, who as doux of Chaldia in 1103–1106 also led a rebellion against Alexios. Another member of the family, Constantine Gabras, whose relation to Theodore is unknown, was also appointed doux of Chaldia by John II Komnenos ca. He ruled it independently from 1126 until 1140, when John II subdued him. His exploits also formed part of an oral tradition in the Pontus. 1900, has shown to be a modern work drawing from other medieval sources. The Gabrades Turkish counterpart and main rivals were the Danishmendid emirs of Neokaisareia and Sebasteia, already in the 1140s, a nameless member of the family fought on the side of the Seljuks and was captured and executed by Manuel I Komnenos in 1146Gabras – Copper follis minted at Trebizond under Theodore Gabras
57. Glarentza – Glarentza is a medieval town located near the site of modern Kyllini in Elis, at the westernmost point of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece. Commerce with Italy brought great prosperity, but the town began to decline in the early 15th century as the Principality itself declined. In 1428, Glarentza was ceded to the Byzantine Despotate of the Morea, under Ottoman rule, Glarentza declined rapidly as the commercial links with Italy were broken, and by the 16th century was abandoned and falling into ruin. Little remains of the town today, traces of the city wall, of a church, the medieval town was located a bit further west of the modern village of Kyllini, on the northern tip of a headland that forms the westernmost point of the Peloponnese. This was a site known since Antiquity as the best anchorage in all of Elis, Glarentza was established as the haven for the Principalitys capital, located inland at Andravida, some 13 kilometres away. Along with Andravida and the fortress of Clermont or Chlemoutsi, some 5 kilometres from the port, Glarentza profited from its location and became the main port for communication and traffic between the Morea and Italy. It was a city, frequented by emissaries from Italy, soldiers and merchants. Trade brought great prosperity, as evidenced by the fact that it used its own system of weights and it featured a hospital as well as banks, lodgings for the mariners, and a Franciscan monastery. Based on a 1391 list of fiefs, the town counted ca.300 hearths, Glarentza was surrounded by a set of walls, but scholars have long disputed exactly when this was done. Ferdinand made Glarentza his residence, and soon seized all of Elis, Ferdinand began minting coins with his name—the rarest issues of the Glarentza mint—but his reign was cut short with the arrival of the legitimate claimants, Matilda of Hainaut and Louis of Burgundy. In the Battle of Manolada, fought to the northeast of Glarentza on 5 July 1316, the remainder of his army fled to Glarentza, and soon handed over the town and the other fortresses they had occupied and departed the Peloponnese, taking the corpse of Ferdinand with them. The towns decline began in the early 15th century, following the fortunes of the Principality itself. In late 1407, Centuriones own brother-in-law Leonardo II Tocco seized Glarentza and reaped an enormous booty and it took several years of conflicts and diplomatic manoeuvrings before a Venetian-mediated deal restored the city to Centurione in July 1414. In 1417, the Byzantines under the Despot Theodore II Palaiologos and his brother John VIII Palaiologos, the brothers made swift progress, forcing Prince Centurione to retire to Glarentza, which was unsuccessfully attacked by the Byzantines. A truce was concluded in 1418, but in the year, an Italian adventurer, Olivier Franco, seized the town. In 1427, the Byzantines, led by emperor John VIII in person, when Constantine besieged Patras in 1429, a Catalan fleet that came to the citys aid captured Glarentza, forcing Constantine to ransom it back. He then destroyed its fortifications, so that it could no longer be seized and used by a western power, in 1430, following the final subjugation of the Principality of Achaea by the Byzantines, the Peloponnese was divided into appanages among the various Palaiologos princes. Glarentza became the residence of Thomas Palaiologos until 1432, when he exchanged his portion with Constantine, who had originally settled at KalavrytaGlarentza – Ruins of the town
58. Gubazes II of Lazica – Gubazes II was king of Lazica from circa 541 until his assassination in 555. He was one of the personalities of the Lazic War. Gubazes remained a Byzantine ally during the few years, as the two empires fought for control of Lazica, with the fortress of Petra as the focal point of the struggle. Gubazes eventually quarrelled with the Byzantine generals over the continuation of the war. Gubazes was of Byzantine descent through his mother, Valeriana, tzathius marriage to Valeriana seems to be the earliest recorded marriage between the Lazic and Byzantine elites. The custom of marrying Byzantine women, usually from the aristocracy, was common among the Lazic royalty, his uncle. It is known that Gubazes had a brother, Tzath, who succeeded him on the throne. Gubazes was married and had children, but neither the name of his wife nor of any of his offspring is known, the name of Gubazess father is not known from the ancient annals. The exact date of Gubazess accession is unknown, but it must not have much earlier than 541. Lazica had been a Byzantine client state since 522, when its king, however, during the rule of Emperor Justinian I, a series of heavy-handed Byzantine measures made them unpopular. In 540, Khosrau broke the Eternal Peace of 532 and invaded the Byzantine province of Mesopotamia, in spring 541, Khosrau and his troops, led by Lazi guides, marched over the mountain passes into Lazica, where Gubazes submitted to him. The Byzantines under John Tzibus resisted valiantly from Petra, but Tzibus was killed, as a first step, the Persian ruler planned to assassinate Gubazes. Forewarned of Khosraus intentions, Gubazes switched his allegiance back to Byzantium, in 548, Emperor Justinian dispatched 8,000 men under Dagisthaeus, who together with a Lazic force set siege to the Persian garrison at Petra. As the Persians were well provisioned, the siege dragged on, Dagisthaeus had neglected to keep watch over the mountain passes that led into Lazica, and a far larger Persian relief force under Mihr-Mihroe arrived and raised the siege. Yet, the Persians lacked sufficient supplies, and so, after strengthening the garrison at Petra and leaving further 5,000 men under Phabrizus to secure its supply routes, Mihr-Mihroe left. In the spring of the year, Gubazes and Dagisthaeus combined their forces, destroyed Phabrizuss army in a surprise attack. In the same summer, they won another victory against a new Persian army, the allies failed, however, to prevent another Persian army from reinforcing Petra, and Dagisthaeus was recalled and replaced by Bessas. In 550, a revolt broke out among the AbasgiansGubazes II of Lazica – Toumanoff's tentative reconstruction of the family tree of the kings of Lazica.
59. John Doukas (sebastokrator) – He served as a military commander under Manuel I Komnenos and his nephew Isaac II Angelos, who raised him to the high rank of sebastokrator. Despite his advanced age, he continued to be a general in the 1180s and 1190s. He was the progenitor of the Komnenos Doukas line, which founded the Despotate of Epirus after the Fourth Crusade, the date of Johns birth is unknown, and the only reference to his age is that in 1185 he was already an old man. The genealogist of the Komnenian family, Konstantinos Varzos, put his birth approximately in 1125/27. Like most of his relatives, John opposed the tyrannical regime of Andronikos I Komnenos. By the next day, a popular uprising provoked by Isaac Angelos act of defiance had brought down the regime of Andronikos I, the rise of his nephew to the throne nevertheless brought John to the foremost ranks of Byzantine aristocracy, receiving the exalted title of sebastokrator. Despite his advanced age, John was active as a commander during the reign of Isaac Angelos. Niketas Choniates notes him attending the emperor at the court at Cypsele during the campaign against the invasion of Sicilian Normans in 1185, in 1186, he assumed the overall command of the Byzantine army against the Vlach-Bulgarian rebellion. In 1191, John once more went to the field, accompanying his nephew in an expedition against the Bulgarian rebels as commander of the rear guard, the campaign was a disastrous failure, but John was able to extricate himself and the troops under his command without losses. In the same year, he was a participant in the synod that accepted the resignation of Dositheus and he is recorded in the synodal acts as the senior-most of the imperial relatives. Despite his age, John Doukas apparently still hoped to rise on the throne, and quarrelled with another of his nephews, Manuel Kamytzes, John Doukas probably died soon after that, c. 1200, at an advanced age for his time. It is unclear whether John Doukas married once or twice, only one wife, Zoe Doukaina, daughter of Constantine Doukas and Anna Doukaina, whose exact identity is unclear, is known. If he married twice, then the marriage took place c,1150, and his unknown first wife died c. 1165, followed by the second marriage c.1170 with Zoe Doukaina, John Doukas had five legitimate sons, of whom the first two may have been the result of his first marriage, while the latter were certainly the sons of Zoe Doukaina. He also had three daughters, in all likelihood with Zoe Doukaina, and a son with a concubine. These children were, Isaac Angelos, married the daughter of Alexios Branas, Alexios Komnenos Doukas, blinded by Andronikos I, entrusted with a campaign against Isaac Komnenos of Cyprus in 1187, but taken prisoner by Isaac and the Sicilian admiral Margaritus of Brindisi. He died a captive at the court of the Empire of Nicaea, Manuel Doukas, named Despot by his brother Theodore, ruler of Thessalonica 1230–37, and of Thessaly 1239–41John Doukas (sebastokrator) – Killing of Hagiochristophorites, miniature by Jean Colombe in Les Passages d'outremer (fr) (c. 1473), BNF.
60. John Palaiologos (brother of Michael VIII) – John Doukas Palaiologos was a Byzantine aristocrat, brother to Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos, who served as the commander-in-chief of the Byzantine army. He retired from service after his defeat at Neopatras. John Doukas Palaiologos was born sometime after 1225 and before 1230, the son of Andronikos Palaiologos, the megas domestikos of the Empire of Nicaea, John was their second son, after the future emperor Michael Palaiologos, and the fourth child overall. After Mouzalons murder, Michael placed the emperor under the protection of John. After his coronation as co-emperor in early 1259, Michael raised his brother further to the rank of sebastokrator, Michael then ordered John to attack Michael II, the ruler of the rival Byzantine Greek state of Epirus. The Nicaean army advanced so quickly that they caught the Epirote army by surprise at its camp at Kastoria, John then proceeded to retake the fortresses of Deabolis and Ochrid, only recently captured by the Epirotes. The cities fell after short sieges, and the plain of Pelagonia, with the town of Bitola, further forces were provided by Michael IIs bastard son, John Doukas, ruler of Thessaly. In addition, the army was divided by conflicting aims. A quarrel with William II led to the withdrawal of the Epirote army and he then continued on into Boeotia, the territory of the Duchy of Athens, where he took and plundered Levadeia and Thebes. At this point, however, John Doukas defected back to his father, upsetting the balance of power, thus, his conquest of Greece remained incomplete and was soon reversed by the recovery of Epirus fortunes. Then, or sometime after, he was given the islands of Rhodes. In July 1261, Constantinople was recovered and the Byzantine Empire restored with Michael VIII as sole emperor, in the meantime, however, things had been going badly in Epirus, where Michael II had recovered his realm and was once again threatening imperial possessions in Macedonia. In 1261, John was sent on campaign against the Epirotes, after this success, he was sent to Asia Minor, where the Turkish raids on the Byzantine borderlands had become a menace, and where Turkish settlers had begun encroaching upon imperial territory. He remained there until 1267 and achieved success, securing the lands around the valley of the Maeander River. The historian George Pachymeres certainly praised his conduct of these operations, in the late 1260s, John returned to Europe, and there is evidence of his activity in Macedonia and Thessaly. John Doukas of Thessaly, however, remained one of the Empires chief opponents, the campaign was initially crowned with success, as the Byzantine army advanced quickly through Thessaly and besieged John Doukas at his capital Neopatras. The latter, however, was able to escape in secret, procure aid from the Duchy of Athens, with his forces scattered, John Palaiologos retreated to the north, on his way, he learned of an attack by the Latin fleet on the Byzantine navy at Demetrias. Assembling whatever men he could find, the despotes led his troops in a ride, through the nightJohn Palaiologos (brother of Michael VIII) – Michael VIII Palaiologos (r. 1259–1282).
61. Manuel the Armenian – Manuel the Armenian was a prominent Byzantine general of Armenian origin, active from circa 810 until his death. After reaching the highest military ranks, a palace conspiracy forced him to refuge in the Abbasid court in 829. He returned to Byzantine service the year, receiving the position of Domestic of the Schools from Emperor Theophilos. Manuel remained in the post throughout Theophiloss reign, and reportedly saved the life in the Battle of Anzen in 838. Manuel was of Armenian origin, and the brother of Marinos, Manuel first appears in the reign of Michael I Rangabe, when he held the post of protostrator. At the time, he must still have young, probably in his twenties. The latter post was the most senior of the Byzantine Empires thematic governors and this appointment is, however, most likely a misreading of the primary source, according to the editors of the Prosopographie der mittelbyzantinischen Zeit. Manuels career under Leos successor, Michael II the Amorian, is unclear, certainly at the time of the outbreak of the great rebellion of Thomas the Slav, the strategos of the Armeniacs was Olbianos, while the Anatolics joined the rebellion. Manuel himself, however, evidently remained loyal to Michael, brooks, and not around 830, as suggested by Treadgold. Using the carriages of the imperial post, he crossed Asia Minor in haste and offered his services to Caliph al-Mamun, on condition that he would not be forced to convert to Islam. Theophilos, in turn, was hesitant to believe the accusations, and was convinced by the protovestiarios Leo Chamodrakon. He therefore resolved to get Manuel to return, and sent John the Grammarian to Baghdad on a mission in the winter of 829/830. In the summer of 830, Manuel participated in an Abbasid expedition against the Khurramite rebels of Babak Khorramdin in Adharbayjan, after winning a few modest successes, the army turned back south. Manuel, who by then had won the confidence of his Arab minders, suggested that he and Abbas take a part of the army. Once across the mountains, he and the other Byzantine captives neutralized Abbas and his escort, took their arms, Abbas and his companions were left behind unmolested, and allowed to return to Abbasid territory. Theophilos welcomed Manuel with open arms, and named him Domestic of the Schools, commander of the tagma of the Scholae. Manuel would remain Theophiloss leading general for the remainder of his reign, furthermore, as the uncle of Theophiloss wife, the Empress Theodora, his position at court was now unassailable, as shown by the fact that the Emperor later served as godfather for Manuels children. The Syriac sources even report that Theophilos made Manuel governor of the regions of the EmpireManuel the Armenian – The embassy of John the Grammarian in 829 to Ma'mun (depicted left) from Theophilos (depicted right), as depicted in the Madrid Skylitzes.
62. Martino Zaccaria – Martino Zaccaria was the Lord of Chios from 1314 to 1329, ruler of several other Aegean islands, and baron of Veligosti–Damala and Chalandritsa in the Principality of Achaea. He distinguished himself in the fight against Turkish corsairs in the Aegean Sea and he was deposed from his rule of Chios by a Byzantine expedition in 1329, and imprisoned in Constantinople until 1337. Martino then returned to Italy, where he was named the Genoese ambassador to the Holy See. In 1343 he was named commander of the Papal squadron in the Smyrniote crusade against Umur Bey, ruler of the Emirate of Aydin and he was killed, along with several other of the crusades leaders, in a Turkish attack on 17 January 1345. Martino Zaccaria was a scion of the Genoese Zaccaria family, through his father, Nicolino Zaccaria, he was a nephew to Benedetto I Zaccaria, lord of Chios and of Phocaea on the Anatolian coast. Benedetto I had captured Chios from the Byzantine Empire in 1304 and his occupation was acknowledged by the impotent Byzantine emperor, Andronikos II Palaiologos, initially for a period of 10 years, but which was then renewed at five-year intervals. Benedetto died in 1307 and was succeeded in Chios by his son, when he died childless in 1314, the island passed to Martino and his brother, Benedetto II. Chios was a small but wealthy domain, with an income of 120,000 gold hyperpyra. Over the next few years, Martino made it the core of a small realm encompassing several islands off the shore of Asia Minor, including Samos and Kos. As lord of Chios, Martino and Benedetto fought with distinction against the Turkish pirates, in 1304, the capture of Ephesus by the emirate of Menteshe had sparked the Genoese occupation of Chios, and raids against the Aegean islands intensified over the next years. The Zaccaria are reported to have maintained an infantry, a hundred horsemen. In 1317, they lost the citadel of Smyrna on the Anatolian coast to the Aydinids, but continued to hold on to the city until 1329. In 1319, however, Martino Zaccaria participated with seven ships in a Hospitaller fleet that scored a victory over an Aydinid fleet from Ephesus. By the end of his rule on Chios, Martino is said to have taken captive or slain more than 10,000 Turks, Martino also intervened to stop the slave trade carried out by the Genoese of Alexandria, for which he was praised by Pope John XXII. Martinos prestige rose further when he became one of the most important feudatories in the Principality of Achaea. Martino added to his domains when he married Jacqueline de la Roche, related to the De la Roche dukes of Athens and heiress of the Barony of Veligosti–Damala. This award was mostly symbolic, as except for the first three, which the Zaccaria already controlled, the others were in the hands of the Byzantines or the Turks. In exchange, Martino promised to aid with 500 horsemen in Philips hoped-for, at the same time, however, Martinos behaviour became increasingly assertive, ca.1325 he ousted his brother as co-ruler of Chios and began minting coins in his own nameMartino Zaccaria – Silver grosso minted by Martino Zaccaria
63. Michael Dokeianos – Michael Dokeianos, erroneously called Doukeianos by some modern writers, was a Byzantine nobleman and military leader, who married into the Komnenos family. He was active in Sicily under George Maniakes before going to Southern Italy as Catepan of Italy in 1040–41 and he was recalled after being twice defeated in battle during the Lombard-Norman revolt of 1041, a decisive moment in the eventual Norman conquest of southern Italy. He is next recorded in 1050, fighting against a Pecheneg raid in Thrace and he was captured during battle but managed to maim the Pecheneg leader, after which he was put to death and mutilated. The family name of Dokeianos is considered to derive from Dokia in the Armeniac Theme, the family only came into prominence in the mid-11th century, with Michael one of the first to be mentioned. He is generally considered as the Dokeianos who married a daughter of Manuel Erotikos Komnenos and sister of the future emperor Isaac I Komnenos. Together, they had a son, Theodore Dokeianos and it is known that he was wealthy, and possessed estates in Paphlagonia, possibly adjacent or part of the Komnenos family estates in the same region. Michael Dokeianos is first mentioned in 1040, as protospatharios and doux, prior to that, he was apparently a member of George Maniakes expeditionary force sent to conquer Sicily in 1038. Dokeianos also offered the rule of strategic fortress of Melfi to the Milanese mercenary Arduin, Arduin had served under previous Byzantine commanders as part of a Norman contingent, but had been flogged in a dispute about the distribution of booty taken from the Muslims in Sicily. Arduins grudge against the Byzantines now bore fruit and he sought the aid of the Normans who had been established at nearby Aversa since 1030, and received a contingent of 300 men, upon a promise to share his gains equally with them. Thus in March 1041 he and his men seized Melfi, the inhabitants initially opposed him, but eventually were won over by Arduin. The rebels quickly extended their control over the towns of Venosa, Ascoli. The two armies met at the Olivento river, where Dokeianos was defeated in a battle fought on 17 March, Dokeianos himself fell from his horse during the battle and was almost captured, until rescued by a squire. In the aftermath of the battle, both sides remained quiescent, the withdrawal of the imperial forces from Sicily resulted in the rapid collapse of the imperial position there. Under Maniakes, the Byzantines had conquered the eastern portion of the island, on the mainland, Boioannes did not fare better than his predecessor, as he was defeated and taken prisoner at the Battle of Montepeloso in September. Dokeianos re-appears in 1050, when he held the titles of patrikios and vestarches, histoire de la domination normande en Italie et en Sicile. The Age of Robert Guiscard, Southern Italy and the Northern Conquest, dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Volume 74. A. Thessaloniki, Centre for Byzantine Studies, University of Thessaloniki, wortley, John, ed. John Skylitzes, A Synopsis of Byzantine History, 811-1057Michael Dokeianos – Southern Italy ca. 1000, with the Byzantine provinces in yellow
64. Orphanotrophos – Orphanotrophos was a Byzantine title for the curator of an orphanage. In the spirit of Christian philanthropy, the Byzantine world showed particular care towards the members of society, including widows, orphans. Orphans were either adopted by parents, or sheltered in monasteries or in orphanages. According to a novel by Emperor Leo I the Thracian in 469, justin bequeathed an annual stipend of 443 nomismata to the orphanage and made its possessions inalienable. It was probably then that the capitals orphanotrophos began to be appointed by the emperors, the De ceremoniis describes the orphanotrophos role in certain imperial ceremonies, often along with his wards, who were led to the Emperors presence, sung chants and received gifts from him. Several holders of the office, however, combined it with other administrative offices. John was named orphanotrophos already under Romanos III, and after becoming a monk soon after, he divested himself of his secular titles and maintained only the former. Alexios endowed the institution with revenue, and founded a school where the orphans could receive a free tuition. Alexios son and successor, John II Komnenos, enlarged it further, during the period of the Latin Empire, its fate is unknown, but it is likely that like most Byzantine public buildings it fell into disrepair. Despite the dissolution of the orphanage, the office of the orphanotrophos survived into the Palaiologan period in its fiscal capacity. According to Kodinos, his dress consisted of a long silk kabbadion. A number of seals of otherwise unidentified holders of the office have also survived, one records a Datos, orphanotrophos and vestarches, while the others cannot be certainly dated. The Imperial Administrative System of the Ninth Century - With a Revised Text of the Kletorologion of Philotheos, Étude sur lhistoire administrative de lempire byzantin, Lorphanotrophe. New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press, new York and Oxford, Oxford University PressOrphanotrophos – Twenty- nummi coin showing Justin II and Sophia enthroned
65. Sack of Damietta (853) – The Sack of Damietta was a successful raid on the port city of Damietta on the Nile Delta by the Byzantine navy on 22–24 May 853. The city, whose garrison was absent at the time, was sacked and plundered, yielding not only many captives but also large quantities of weapons and these losses ushered in an era where Saracen pirates raided the Christian northern shores of the Mediterranean almost at will. Several Byzantine attempts to retake Crete in the aftermath of the Andalusian conquest, as well as a large-scale invasion in 842/43. The Arab historian al-Tabari reports that three fleets, totalling almost 300 ships, were prepared and sent on simultaneous raids of Muslim naval bases in the Eastern Mediterranean. The precise targets of two fleets are unknown, but the third, comprising 85 ships and 5,000 men under a commander known from Arab sources only as Ibn Qaṭūnā, various identifications have been proposed by modern scholars for Ibn Qaṭūnā, but without any firm evidence. Based on the similarity of consonants in their names, Henri Grégoire variously suggested an identification with Sergios Niketiates, who probably died in 843. In a later work in 1952 he suggested that he might be identified with the parakoimomenos Damian, previously, in 1913, the Syriac scholar E. W. Brooks had suggested an identification with the strategos Photeinos. The Egyptian fleet had declined from its Umayyad-era peak and was employed in the Nile rather than in the Mediterranean. Fortifications along the marshes, which had been manned by volunteer garrisons, had been abandoned in the later 8th century. The Byzantines had exploited this in 811/12 and again in ca.815 launching raids against the coasts of Egypt, the Byzantine fleet arrived at Damietta on 22 May 853. The city garrison were absent at a feast for the Day of Arafah organized by the governor Anbasah ibn Ishaq al-Dabbi in Fustat, damiettas inhabitants fled the undefended city, which was plundered for two days and then torched by the Byzantines. The Byzantines carried off some six hundred Arab and Coptic women as well as quantities of arms. The fleet then sailed east and attacked the fortress of Ushtun. Upon taking it, they burned the many artillery and siege engines found there before returning home, as a result, the raid is referred to only through two Arab accounts, by al-Tabari and Yaqubi. The Byzantines returned and raided Damietta again in 854, another raid possibly took place in 855, as the Arabic sources indicate that the arrival of a Byzantine fleet in Egypt was anticipated by the Abbasid authorities. In 859, the Byzantine fleet attacked Farama and it would not be until 961 that the Byzantines reconquered Crete, and secured control of the Aegean. Within nine months of the raid, Damietta was refortified along with Tinnis, various works were undertaken at Rosetta, Borollos, Ashmun, at-Tina, and Nastarawwa. Ships were constructed and new crews were raised, most seamen were forcibly conscripted from among the Copts and the Arabs of the interior, earning Anbasah a bad reputation in contemporary sourcesSack of Damietta (853) – Map of the Arab–Byzantine naval conflict in the Mediterranean, 7th–11th centuries
66. Sayf al-Dawla – After the failure of these endeavours, the ambitious Sayf al-Dawla turned towards Syria, where he confronted the ambitions of the Ikhshidids of Egypt to control the province. After two wars with them, his authority over northern Syria, centred at Aleppo, and the western Jazira, centred at Mayyafariqin, was recognized by the Ikhshidids and the Caliph. A series of tribal rebellions plagued his realm until 955, but he was successful in overcoming them and maintaining the allegiance of the most important Arab tribes. Sayf al-Dawlas court at Aleppo became the centre of a vibrant cultural life, Sayf al-Dawla was widely celebrated for his role in the Arab–Byzantine Wars, facing a resurgent Byzantine Empire that in the early 10th century had begun to reconquer Muslim territories. In this struggle against a superior enemy, he launched raids deep into Byzantine territory and managed to score a few successes. After that, the new Byzantine commander, Nikephoros Phokas, the Byzantines annexed Cilicia, and even occupied Aleppo itself briefly in 962. Sayf al-Dawlas final years were marked by military defeats, his own growing disability as a result of disease, and he died in early 967, leaving a much weakened realm, which by 969 had lost Antioch and the Syrian littoral to the Byzantines and become a Byzantine tributary. Sayf al-Dawla was born Ali ibn Abdallah, the son of Abdallah Abul-Hayja ibn Hamdan, son of Hamdan ibn Hamdun ibn al-Harith. The Hamdanids were a branch of the Banu Taghlib, an Arab tribe resident in the area of the Jazira since pre-Islamic times, the Taghlibs had traditionally controlled Mosul and its region until the late 9th century, when the Abbasid government tried to impose firmer control over the province. Hamdan ibn Hamdun was one of the most determined Taghlibi leaders in opposing this move, family members intermarried with Kurds, who were also prominent in the Hamdanid military. Hamdan was defeated in 895 and imprisoned with his relatives, and it was this strong local base which allowed the family to survive its often strained relationship with the central Abbasid government in Baghdad during the early 10th century. Husayn was a general, distinguishing himself against the Kharijites and the Tulunids. His younger brother Ibrahim was governor of Diyar Rabia in 919 and after his death in the year he was succeeded by another brother. Sayf al-Dawlas father Abdallah served as emir of Mosul in 905/6–913/4, was disgraced and rehabilitated. Despite the coups failure and his death, Abdallah had been able to consolidate his control over Mosul, during his long absences in Baghdad in his final years, Abdallah relegated authority over Mosul to his eldest son, al-Hasan, the future Nasir al-Dawla. The young Ali ibn Abdallah began his career under his brother, in 936, Hasan invited his younger brother to his service, promising him the governorship of Diyar Bakr in exchange for his help against Ali ibn Jafar, the rebellious governor of Mayyafariqin. In the meantime, Hasan became involved in the intrigues of the Abbasid court, the Caliph al-Radi was reduced to a figurehead role, while the extensive old civil bureaucracy was drastically reduced both in size and power. Hasan initially supported Ibn Raiq, but in 942 he had him assassinated and secured for himself the post of amir al-umara, receiving the honorific laqab of Nasir al-DawlaSayf al-Dawla – Gold dinar minted at Baghdad in the names of Nasir al-Dawla and Sayf al-Dawla, 943/944 CE
67. Siege of Jerusalem (637) – The Siege of Jerusalem was part of a military conflict which took place in the year 637 between the Byzantine Empire and the Rashidun Caliphate. It began when the Rashidun army, under the command of Abu Ubaidah, after six months, the Patriarch Sophronius agreed to surrender, on condition that he submit only to the Rashidun caliph. In April 637, Caliph Umar traveled to Jerusalem in person to receive the submission of the city, the Patriarch thus surrendered to him. The Muslim conquest of the city solidified the Arab control over Palestine, thus, it came to be regarded as a holy site by Islam, as well as by Christianity and Judaism. This stabilized control of Palestina Prima, in 613, the Jewish revolt against the Byzantine Heraclius culminated with the conquest of Jerusalem in 614 by Persian and Jewish forces and establishment of Jewish autonomy. The revolt ended with the departure of the Persians and a massacre of the Jews in 629 by the Byzantines ending 15 years of Jewish autonomy. He said, Count six signs that indicate the approach of the Hour, my death, the conquest of Jerusalem, a plague that will afflict you as the plague that afflicts sheep. It is agreed among Muslim scholars that the conquest referred to in the hadith happened during the reign of Umar in the earliest period of Islam as well as the Plague of Emmaus, the epidemic is famous in Muslim sources because of the death of many prominent companions of Muhammad. Jerusalem was an important city of the Byzantine province of Palestina Prima, just 23 years prior to the Muslim conquest, in 614, it fell to an invading Sassanid army under Shahrbaraz during the last of the Byzantine-Sassanid Wars. The Persians looted the city, and are said to have massacred its 90,000 Christian inhabitants, as part of the looting, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was destroyed and the True Cross captured and taken to Ctesiphon as a battle-captured holy relic. The Cross was later returned to Jerusalem by Emperor Heraclius after his victory against the Persians in 628. It was believed that the Jews, who were persecuted in their Roman-controlled homeland, had aided the Persians, after the death of Muhammad in 632, Muslim leadership passed to Caliph Abu Bakr following a series of campaigns known as the Ridda Wars. In 634, Abu Bakr died and was succeeded by Umar, in May 636, Emperor Heraclius launched a major expedition to regain the lost territory, but his army was defeated decisively at the Battle of Yarmouk in August 636. Thereafter, Abu Ubaidah, the Muslim commander-in-chief of the Rashidun army in Syria, opinions of objectives varied between the coastal city of Caesarea and Jerusalem. Abu Ubaidah could see the importance of both cities, which had resisted all Muslim attempts at capture. Unable to decide on the matter, he wrote to Caliph Umar for instructions, in his reply, the caliph ordered them to capture the latter. Accordingly, Abu Ubaidah marched towards Jerusalem from Jabiya, with Khalid ibn Walid, the Muslims arrived at Jerusalem around early November, and the Byzantine garrison withdrew into the fortified city. Jerusalem had been well-fortified after Heraclius recaptured it from the Persians, after the Byzantine defeat at Yarmouk, the Patriarch of Jerusalem Sophronius repaired its defensesSiege of Jerusalem (637) – The Al-Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem, is one of the most sacred sites for Muslims.
68. Siege of Kamacha (766) – Both enterprises failed, with the siege dragging on into winter before being abandoned and the raiding force being surrounded and heavily defeated by the Byzantines. Among the fortresses captured by the Byzantines, in 754/755, was Kamacha, after the overthrow of the Umayyads, the new Abbasid regime quickly resumed their predecessors attacks on the Byzantine Empire, the first being recorded in 756. In early 766 a prisoner exchange took place between the two states in western Cilicia, followed by a resumption of large-scale hostilities, the Abbasid force met no resistance as they pillaged their way to the fortress. Once there, they began constructing siege engines and trying to fill its moat, the siege continued through the autumn, and the Arabs, who customarily did not take along many provisions, began suffering from lack of supplies. To solve their problems, they established a market for merchants from Mesopotamia. In the end, with winter approaching, Abbas was forced to raise the siege and retreat south, after looting the area, they turned south and made for Syria. On their way, they were encountered by a Byzantine force of 12,000, the Byzantines then attacked at night, defeating the Abbasid army and recovering its loot. The surviving Abbasid troops scattered, with some following one of their leaders, Radad, to Malatya and it was from the latter group that the Zuqnin chronicler drew his information. The campaign is one of the few such border raids to be known in detail, despite this failure, Arab pressure gradually began to mount, especially after the sack of Laodicea Combusta in 770. Kamacha itself was surrendered to the Arabs by its Armenian garrison in 793 and it fell again in Muslim hands in 822, and was not finally taken by the Byzantines until 851Siege of Kamacha (766) – The Arab–Byzantine frontier zone along the eastern fringes of Asia Minor
69. Siege of Patras (805 or 807) – The Siege of Patras in 805 or 807 was undertaken by the local Slavic tribes of the Peloponnese, reportedly with aid from an Arab fleet. It also marked the beginning of the ascendancy of the Metropolis of Patras in the ecclesiastical affairs. The Slavs raided as far as southern Greece and the coasts of Asia Minor, most of the regions cities were sacked or abandoned and only a few, including Thessalonica, remained occupied and in imperial hands. In Greece, the coasts of the Peloponnese and Central Greece remained in Byzantine hands as the theme of Hellas, while in the interior. A large native Greek population probably also remained in the land, as elsewhere, a mostly peaceful modus vivendi soon emerged between the Slavs and the remaining Byzantine strongholds, with the mainly agricultural Slavs trading with the Byzantine-held coastal towns. 587/8 as a result of the Slavic depredations, its population fleeing to Rhegion in Calabria and this was followed by 218 years of independent Slavic rule in the Peloponnese, until around 804/5. The archaeological record on the hand shows Patras to have remained in Byzantine control throughout the period. The city held out for a while, but as food began growing short, first, however, they dispatched a rider to the direction of Corinth, the seat of the military governor, to find out whether he was coming to their aid or not. The envoy had been instructed on his return to give a signal through a flag he carried, if help was on its way, he was to dip the flag, otherwise to hold it erect. The inhabitants of Patras interpreted this as a sign that aid was near, the Slavs panicked at the sudden assault and fled, abandoning the siege. As a punishment, Constantine VII records that the Slavs were thereafter obligated to maintain at their own cost all officials or envoys passing through Patras, the Chronicle of Monemvasia on the other hand does not mention any siege of the city. Nikephoros resettlement program at least is also confirmed by the chronicler Theophanes the Confessor, according to this interpretation, the Slavic revolt and attack on Patras followed as a reaction a few years later, between 807 and 811. According to Constantine VII, the Slavs rose up again in the early 840s, in the south, the two tribes of the Ezeritai and Melingoi held out longer. They were eventually subdued and forced to pay tribute. These two tribes rose up again a later, in 921. Again they were subdued, this time by the strategos Krenites Arotras. Henceforth the metropolitan of Patras rivalled with his superior in Corinth over control of the other sees of the Peloponnese. Η Πελοπόννησος από τον 4ο ως τον 8ο αιώνα, Αλλαγές και συνέχεια, athens, National Bank of Greece Cultural FoundationSiege of Patras (805 or 807) – Byzantine Greece in the 9th/10th centuries
70. Stephen Lekapenos – Stephen Lekapenos or Lecapenus was the second son of the Byzantine emperor Romanos I Lekapenos, and co-emperor from 924 to 945. With his younger brother Constantine, he deposed Romanos I in December 944, Stephen lived out his life in exile on the island of Lesbos, where he died on Easter 963. Stephen was the son of Romanos I and his wife Theodora. His older siblings were Christopher and his sisters Helena, who married Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos, and Agatha and his younger brothers were Constantine and Theophylact. He probably also had at least two unnamed sisters, known only because of their marriages to the magistroi Romanos Mosele. Romanos Lekapenos had risen to power in 919, when he had managed to appoint himself regent over the young Constantine VII, within a year, he successively rose from basileopator to Caesar, and was eventually crowned senior emperor on 17 December 920. In 933, Stephen was married to Anna, the daughter of a certain Gabalas, the couple had one known son, Romanos. According to the 11th-century chronicler George Kedrenos, he was castrated in 945, Stephen and Constantine Lekapenos came to the fore in 943, when they opposed a dynastic marriage for their nephew, Romanos II. Their father wanted to have his eldest surviving grandson married to Euphrosyne, predictably, Stephen and Constantine opposed this decision, and prevailed upon their father, who was by this time ill and old, to dismiss Kourkouas in the autumn of 944. Romanos II instead married Bertha, a daughter of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy. With Romanos I approaching the end of his life, the matter of his succession became urgent, in 943, Romanos drafted a will which would leave Constantine VII as the senior emperor following his death. This greatly upset his two sons, who feared that their brother-in-law would have them deposed and force them to take monastic vows and their fellow conspirators included Marianos Argyros, the protospatharios Basil Peteinos, Manuel Kourtikes, the strategos Diogenes, Clado, and Philip. Kedrenos, however, considers Peteinos to have served as an agent of Constantine VII among the conspirators, on 20 December 944, the conspirators set their plans in motion. The two brothers smuggled their supporters in the Great Palace of Constantinople during the break in palace activities. They then led their men into the chamber of Romanos I and they were able to transport him to the nearest harbour and from there to Prote, one of the Princes Islands and a popular place of exile. There, Romanos agreed to take vows and retire from the throne. Having managed to depose their father, the brothers now had to deal with Constantine VII. Unfortunately for them, rumours spread around Constantinople, to the effect that, following Romanoss depositionStephen Lekapenos – Miliaresion from 931–944, showing Romanos I 's bust on a cross on the obverse and listing the names of Romanos and his co-emperors, Constantine VII, Stephen Lekapenos and Constantine Lekapenos on the reverse.
71. Stylianos Zaoutzes – Stylianos Zaoutzes was a high Byzantine official of Armenian origin. Stylianos Zaoutzes was Leos leading minister during the first half of his reign and his standing and influence declined after 895, but in 898, he became Leos father-in-law when the Byzantine emperor married Zoe. He died in 899, in the year as Zoe. Following an attempted coup by his relatives, the Zaoutzes clan was deprived of the power it had amassed under Stylianoss tutelage. Zaoutzes was of Armenian descent, and was born in the thema of Macedonia, according to Steven Runciman, the surname Zaoutzes derives from the Armenian word Zaoutch, negro, reflecting Zaoutzess particularly dark complexion. In the same vein, Zaoutzes was known among Byzantines as the Ethiopian, in late 882, the young Leo, Basils second son and heir after the death of his elder brother Constantine in 879, was wedded to Theophano, a member of the Martinakes family. The bride was the choice of empress Eudokia Ingerina, and did not please Leo, who preferred the company of Zoe Zaoutzaina. Whether Zoe was actually his mistress is uncertain, Leo himself strenuously denied this in later accounts, at that point, Zaoutzes held the post of mikros hetaireiarches, i. e. commander of the junior regiment of the Byzantine emperors mercenary bodyguard, the hetaireia. Furthermore, in 883, Leo was denounced as plotting against Basil and was imprisoned and this affair does not seem to have hurt Zaoutzess own standing with Basil or his career, for by the end of Basils reign he was protospatharios and megas hetaireiarches. Leo spent three years in prison, until released and restored to his rank in late July 886, here too Zaoutzes played a major role, as he personally pleaded with the Byzantine emperor to secure Leos release. By that time, Basil was ailing, and on August 12,886, Zaoutzess participation in the hunt raised suspicions of a conspiracy, but his complicity is generally rejected, as Basil survived for nine days, during which he did not punish Zaoutzes. One tradition, based on the Vita Euthymii, holds that Basil himself appointed Zaoutzes as regent, but other sources indicate that his ascent to power was more gradual. It is indicative of his authority that most of Leos ordinances are directed to him in person, in the same period, Emperor Leo VI himself delivered a homily on a church built on Zaoutzess orders in Constantinople. Zaoutzess rise to prominence was consolidated in 891–893, when he was given the newly created title of basileopator and his promotion to this new and enigmatic title has been a subject of controversy, as neither the reasons for the creation of the title nor its exact functions are known. The early date of his elevation precludes a relation to the rise of his daughter Zoe to the imperial throne as Leos empress. Gratitude for Zaoutzess support against Basil may have played a role, the office certainly confirmed Zaoutzes as the senior secular official of the Byzantine Empire. An assessment of his record as the Byzantine Empires first minister is difficult, the account of the Vita is further colored by the fierce rivalry between Zaoutzes and Euthymios, then a synkellos and Leos spiritual father, over influence on the Byzantine emperor. When Leo, at the behest of Zaoutzes, rejected the merchants protests, nevertheless, all this has led to the enduring image of an ineffectual leadership in foreign and military affairs under ZaoutzesStylianos Zaoutzes – Basil I and Leo. Illumination from the Madrid Skylitzes manuscript.
72. Theodosius (son of Maurice) – Theodosius was the eldest son of Byzantine Emperor Maurice and was co-emperor from 590 until his deposition and execution during a military revolt in November 602. Along with his father-in-law Germanus, he was proposed as successor to Maurice by the troops. Sent in a mission to secure aid from Sassanid Persia by his father. Theodosius was the first child of Maurice and his wife, the Augusta Constantina and he was born on August 4,583 or 585. He was the first son to be born to a reigning emperor since Theodosius II in 401, the papal envoy, or apocrisiarius, to Constantinople, the future Pope Gregory the Great, acted as his godfather. The scholar Evagrius Scholasticus composed a work celebrating Theodosius birth, for which he was rewarded by Maurice with the rank of consul. A few years after his birth, possibly in 587, Theodosius was raised to the rank of Caesar and thus became his fathers heir-apparent, while on March 26,590, he was publicly proclaimed as co-emperor. In November 601 or early February 602, Maurice married Theodosius to a daughter of the patrician Germanus, the historian Theophylact Simocatta, the major chronicler of Maurices reign, also records that on February 2,602, Germanus saved Theodosius from harm during food riots in Constantinople. Later in the year, during the revolt of the Danubian armies in autumn, Theodosius. There they received a letter from the troops, in which they demanded Maurices resignation, a redress of their grievances. They presented the letter to Maurice, who rejected the armys demands, the emperor however began suspecting Germanus of playing a part in the revolt. On the very next day however, Maurice and his family and closest associates fled the capital before the rebel army under Phocas. From there, Theodosius was dispatched along with the praetorian prefect Constantine Lardys to seek the aid of Khosrau II, Maurice however soon recalled him, and on his return Theodosius fell into the hands of Phocas men and was executed at Chalcedon. His father and younger brothers had been executed a few days earlier on November 27, subsequently, rumours emerged of Theodosiuss survival and spread far and wide. It was alleged that his father-in-law Germanus had bribed his executioner, in this story, Theodosius then fled, eventually reaching Lazica, where he died. Theophylact Simocatta reports that he thoroughly investigated these rumours and found them false, however, the general Narses, who rose against Phocas in Mesopotamia, exploited these rumours, he produced a false Theodosius, and claimed to be fighting in his name. The imposter was then presented to Khosrau II by Narses, ^ a, Germanuss identity is unclearTheodosius (son of Maurice) – Copper follis from the Cherson mint, showing Maurice, the empress Constantina, and Theodosius holding a staff surmounted with the Chi-Rho.
73. Turahan Bey – Turahan Bey or Turakhan Beg was a prominent Ottoman military commander and governor of Thessaly from 1423 until his death in 1456. He participated in many Ottoman campaigns of the quarter of the 15th century. His repeated raids into the Morea transformed the local Byzantine despotate into an Ottoman dependency and opened the way for its conquest. Nothing is known of his birth date or early life, except that he was the son of Pasha Yiğit Bey and he is first mentioned in 1413 as governor of Vidin, and then again in 1422, when he fought against the Byzantine governor of Lamia, Kantakouzenos Strabomytes. He was one of the supporters of Mustafa Çelebi during the struggle against Mehmed I. He became governor of Thessaly in early 1423, and led his first major expedition in May–June of the same year and his cavalry breached the recently rebuilt Hexamilion wall on 21/22 May and ravaged the interior of the peninsula unopposed. He attacked some Byzantine towns and settlements like Mystras, Leontari, Gardiki, soon after, the Byzantine historian Doukas reports Turahans presence on the shores of the Black Sea. At about the time, he also campaigned in Epirus, defeated local Albanian tribes. In the 1430s along with Ali Bey and Ishak Bey he participated in the campaigns that suppressed an Albanian revolt, led by Gjergj Arianiti and Andrew Thopia. In 1431 however Turahan again breached and destroyed the Hexamilion and took Thebes in 1435, the Despotate of the Morea, under the constant threat of renewed Turkish invasion clung on to a precarious independence only through continuous gifts and tribute to Turahan. In November 1443 Turahan participated in the Battle of Niš against John Hunyadi, during their retreat from Niš, Turahan Bey and Kasim Pasha burned all villages between Niš and Sofia. Turahan persuaded Sultan Murad II to abandon Sofia as well, Turahan fell from favour as a result and was banished by the Sultan to a prison in Tokat. Nevertheless, he was restored to his position, as he was present in Murads 1446 campaign against the Morea. Murad was reportedly disheartened by the strength of the Hexamilion, aided by an artillery bombardment, the Ottomans again breached the Byzantine defences and ravaged the Peloponnese at will. As a result, the Morea was now reduced to an Ottoman vassal state. In early October 1452, Turahan and his sons Ahmed and Ömer led a force into the Peloponnese. Turahan again stormed the Hexamilion and penetrated into the Morea, raiding from Corinth through the Argolid, the Byzantines put up little resistance after Hexamilion, although Turahans son Ahmed was captured in an ambush at Dervenakia and imprisoned in Mystras. The fall of Constantinople on 29 May 1453 had great repercussions in the Morea, the two despots, the brothers Demetrios and Thomas, heartily detested each other and were unpopular among their own subjectsTurahan Bey – Map of southeastern Europe ca. 1444
74. Uprising of Ivaylo – The Uprising of Ivaylo was a rebellion of the Bulgarian peasantry against the incompetent rule of Emperor Constantine Tikh and the Bulgarian nobility. The revolt was fuelled mainly by the failure of the authorities to confront the Mongol menace in north-eastern Bulgaria. The Mongols had looted and ravaged the Bulgarian population for decades, the weakness of the state institutions was a result of the accelerating process of feudalisation of the Bulgarian Empire. The peasants leader Ivaylo, said to had been a swineherd by the contemporary Byzantine chroniclers, proved to be a successful general, in the first months of the rebellion, he defeated the Mongols and the Tsars armies, personally slaying Constantine Tikh in battle. Later, he made a triumphant entry in the capital Tarnovo, married Maria, the emperors widow, the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos tried to exploit this situation to his favour and intervened in Bulgaria. He sent Ivan Asen III, son of the former Emperor Mitso Asen, simultaneously, Michael VIII incited the Mongols to attack from the north, forcing Ivaylo to fight on two fronts. Ivaylo was defeated by the Mongols and besieged in important fortress of Drastar, in his absence the nobility in Tarnovo opened the gates to Ivan Asen III. However, Ivaylo managed to break the siege and Ivan Asen III fled back to the Byzantine Empire, Michael VIII sent two large armies in an attempt to turn the fortunes of the war, but they were both defeated by the Bulgarian rebels in the Balkan mountains. In the meantime, the nobility in the capital had proclaimed as one of their own. Surrounded by enemies and with diminishing support due to the constant warfare, Ivaylo fled to the court of the Mongol warlord Nogai Khan to seek aid, the legacy of the rebellion endured both in Bulgaria and in Byzantium. Years after the demise of the peasant emperor, two Pseudo-Ivaylos appeared in the Byzantine Empire and enjoyed support by the populace. Following the demise of Ivan Asen II, the large Bulgarian Empire began to decline as a result of a succession of infant emperors, to the north the country faced constant Mongol invasions after the 1240s. Although Ivan Asen II defeated the Mongols shortly before his death, the Mongol invasion led to the collapse of the loosely held Cuman confederation in the western part of the Eurasian Steppe and the foundation of the Mongol Golden Horde. To the south, Bulgaria lost large portions of Thrace and Macedonia to the Nicaean Empire, the lands to the north-west, including Belgrade, Braničevo and Severin Banat, were conquered by the Kingdom of Hungary. That same year Michael VIII Palaiologos seized Constantinople and restored the Byzantine Empire as an adversary of Bulgaria to the south. In the 1260s Constantine Tikh broke his leg in an incident and was paralysed from the waist down. Later, he left the affairs to his third wife. The internal political development and feudalisation of Bulgaria in the 13th century resulted in a number of serfsUprising of Ivaylo – Left: Emperor Constantine Tikh and his second wife Irene, fresco from the Boyana Church. Right: Constantine Tikh's third wife Maria, a modern fresco
75. Byzantine architecture – Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Later Roman or Eastern Roman Empire. Byzantine architecture was influenced by Roman and Greek architecture and later Sassanian. Early Byzantine architecture drew upon earlier elements of Roman architecture, stylistic drift, technological advancement, and political and territorial changes meant that a distinct style gradually resulted in the Greek cross plan in church architecture. Most of the structures are sacred in nature, with secular buildings mostly known only through contemporaneous descriptions. Prime examples of early Byzantine architecture date from Justinian Is reign and survive in Ravenna and Istanbul, secular structures include the ruins of the Great Palace of Constantinople, the innovative walls of Constantinople and Basilica Cistern. A frieze in the Ostrogothic palace in Ravenna depicts an early Byzantine palace, remarkable engineering feats include the 430 m long Sangarius Bridge and the pointed arch of Karamagara Bridge. The period of the Macedonian dynasty, traditionally considered the epitome of Byzantine art, has not left a legacy in architecture. The cross-in-square type also became predominant in the Slavic countries which were Christianized by Salonikas missionaries during the Macedonian period, only national forms of architecture can be found in abundance due to this. Those styles can be found in many Transcaucasian countries, such as Russia, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia and other Slavic lands, the Paleologan period is well represented in a dozen former churches in Istanbul, notably St Saviour at Chora and St Mary Pammakaristos. Unlike their Slavic counterparts, the Paleologan architects never accented the vertical thrust of structures, as a result, there is little grandeur in the late medieval architecture of Byzantium. Other churches from the years predating the fall of Constantinople survive on Mount Athos. Those of the type we must suppose were nearly always vaulted. The most famous church of this type was that of the Holy Apostles, vaults appear to have been early applied to the basilican type of plan, for instance, at Hagia Irene, Constantinople, the long body of the church is covered by two domes. At Saint Sergius, Constantinople, and San Vitale, Ravenna, churches of the central type, finally, at Hagia Sophia a combination was made which is perhaps the most remarkable piece of planning ever contrived. This unbroken area, about 260 ft long, the part of which is over 100 ft wide, is entirely covered by a system of domical surfaces. Above the conchs of the small apses rise the two great semi-domes which cover the hemicycles, and between these bursts out the vast dome over the central square. On the two sides, to the north and south of the dome, it is supported by vaulted aisles in two storeys which bring the form to a general square. At the Holy Apostles five domes were applied to a cruciform plan, after the 6th century there were no churches built which in any way competed in scale with these great works of Justinian, and the plans more or less tended to approximate to one typeByzantine architecture – Hagia Sophia Church, Sofia, Bulgaria
76. Claudius – Claudius was Roman emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and he was born at Lugdunum in Gaul, the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy. Claudius infirmity probably saved him from the fate of other nobles during the purges of Tiberius and Caligulas reigns. His survival led to his being declared Emperor by the Praetorian Guard after Caligulas assassination, despite his lack of experience, Claudius proved to be an able and efficient administrator. He was also a builder, constructing many new roads, aqueducts. During his reign the Empire began the conquest of Britain, having a personal interest in law, he presided at public trials, and issued up to twenty edicts a day. He was seen as vulnerable throughout his reign, particularly by elements of the nobility, Claudius was constantly forced to shore up his position, this resulted in the deaths of many senators. These events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised this opinion, many authors contend that he was murdered by his own wife. After his death in 54 AD, his grand-nephew and adopted son Nero succeeded him as Emperor, Claudius was born on 1 August 10 BC at Lugdunum. He had two siblings, Germanicus and Livilla. His mother, Antonia, may have had two children who died young. His maternal grandparents were Mark Antony and Octavia Minor, Augustus sister and his paternal grandparents were Livia, Augustus third wife, and Tiberius Claudius Nero. During his reign, Claudius revived the rumor that his father Drusus was actually the son of Augustus. In 9 BC, his father Drusus unexpectedly died on campaign in Germania, Claudius was then left to be raised by his mother, who never remarried. When Claudius disability became evident, the relationship with his family turned sour, Antonia referred to him as a monster, and used him as a standard for stupidity. She seems to have passed her son off on his grandmother Livia for a number of years, Livia was a little kinder, but nevertheless often sent him short, angry letters of reproof. He was put under the care of a former mule-driver to keep him disciplined, under the logic that his condition was due to laziness, however, by the time he reached his teenage years his symptoms apparently waned and his family took some notice of his scholarly interests. In 7 AD, Livy was hired to tutor him in history and he spent a lot of his time with the latter and the philosopher AthenodorusClaudius – Bust of Claudius at the Naples National Archaeological Museum
77. Nero – Nero was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, during his reign, the redoubtable general Corbulo conducted a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire. His general Suetonius Paulinus crushed a revolt in Britain, Nero annexed the Bosporan Kingdom to the empire and may have begun the First Jewish–Roman War. In 64 AD, most of Rome was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome, Suetonius, writing a generation later, claims that many Romans believed Nero himself had started the fire, in order to clear land for his planned palatial complex, the Domus Aurea. In 68, the rebellion of Vindex in Gaul and later the acclamation of Galba in Hispania drove Nero from the throne, facing a false report of being denounced as a public enemy who was to be executed, he committed suicide on 9 June 68. His death ended the Julio-Claudian dynasty, sparking a period of civil wars known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Neros rule is often associated with tyranny and extravagance and he is known for many executions, including that of his mother, and the probable murder by poison of his stepbrother Britannicus. Nero was rumored to have had captured Christians dipped in oil and this view is based on the writings of Tacitus, Suetonius and Cassius Dio, the main surviving sources for Neros reign, but a few sources paint Nero in a more favourable light. Some sources, including some mentioned above, portray him as an emperor who was popular with the common Roman people, some modern historians question the reliability of ancient sources when reporting on Neros tyrannical acts. Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, Nero, was born on 15 December 37 in Antium and he was the only son of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Agrippina the Younger, sister of Emperor Caligula. Neros father, Gnaeus, was the son of Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, Gnaeus was thus the grandson of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and probably Aemilia Lepida on his fathers side, and the grandson of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor on his mothers side. Thus, Nero had as his paternal grandmother Antonia Major, through Octavia, Nero was the great-nephew of Caesar Augustus. Neros father had employed as a praetor and was a member of Caligulas staff when the latter travelled to the East. Neros father was described by Suetonius as a murderer and a cheat who was charged by Emperor Tiberius with treason, adultery, Tiberius died, allowing him to escape these charges. Neros father died of edema in 39 when Nero was two, Neros mother was Agrippina the Younger, a great-granddaughter of Caesar Augustus and his wife Scribonia through their daughter Julia the Elder and her husband Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. Agrippinas father, Germanicus, was a grandson of Augustuss wife, Livia, on one side and Mark Antony, Germanicus mother Antonia Minor was a daughter of Octavia Minor and Mark Antony. Germanicus was also the son of Tiberius. Agrippina poisoned her second husband Passienus Crispus, so many ancient historians also accuse her of murdering her third husband, the emperor ClaudiusNero – Bust of Nero at the Musei Capitolini, Rome
78. Titus – Titus was Roman emperor from 79 to 81. A member of the Flavian dynasty, Titus succeeded his father Vespasian upon his death, prior to becoming Emperor, Titus gained renown as a military commander, serving under his father in Judea during the First Jewish–Roman War. The campaign came to a halt with the death of emperor Nero in 68. When Vespasian was declared Emperor on 1 July 69, Titus was left in charge of ending the Jewish rebellion, in 70, he besieged and captured Jerusalem, and destroyed the city and the Second Temple. For this achievement Titus was awarded a triumph, the Arch of Titus commemorates his victory to this day. Under the rule of his father, Titus gained notoriety in Rome serving as prefect of the Praetorian Guard, despite concerns over his character, Titus ruled to great acclaim following the death of Vespasian in 79, and was considered a good emperor by Suetonius and other contemporary historians. As emperor, he is best known for completing the Colosseum, after barely two years in office, Titus died of a fever on 13 September 81. He was deified by the Roman Senate and succeeded by his younger brother Domitian, Titus was born in Rome, probably on 30 December 39 AD, as the eldest son of Titus Flavius Vespasianus—commonly known as Vespasian—and Domitilla the Elder. He had one sister, Domitilla the Younger, and one younger brother, Titus Flavius Domitianus. One such family was the gens Flavia, which rose from obscurity to prominence in just four generations, acquiring wealth. Tituss great-grandfather, Titus Flavius Petro, had served as a centurion under Pompey during Caesars civil war and his military career ended in disgrace when he fled the battlefield at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC. Nevertheless, Petro managed to improve his status by marrying the extremely wealthy Tertulla, whose fortune guaranteed the upwards mobility of Petros son Titus Flavius Sabinus I, Sabinus himself amassed further wealth and possible equestrian status through his services as tax collector in Asia and banker in Helvetia. By marrying Vespasia Polla he allied himself to the prestigious patrician gens Vespasia, ensuring the elevation of his sons Titus Flavius Sabinus II. The political career of Vespasian included the offices of quaestor, aedile and praetor, and culminated with a consulship in 51, as a military commander, he gained early renown by participating in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43. The story was told that Titus was reclining next to Britannicus, the night he was murdered. Further details on his education are scarce, but it seems he showed promise in the military arts and was a skilled poet. From c.57 to 59 he was a tribune in Germania. He also served in Britannia, perhaps arriving c.60 with reinforcements needed after the revolt of Boudica, in c.63 he returned to Rome and married Arrecina Tertulla, daughter of a former Prefect of the Praetorian GuardTitus – Bust of Emperor Titus, in the Capitoline Museum, Rome.
79. Marcus Aurelius – Marcus Aurelius was Emperor of Rome from 161 to 180. He ruled with Lucius Verus as co-emperor from 161 until Verus death in 169, Marcus Aurelius was the last of the so-called Five Good Emperors. He was a practitioner of Stoicism, and his untitled writing, during his reign, the Roman Empire defeated a revitalized Parthian Empire in the East, Aurelius general Avidius Cassius sacked the capital Ctesiphon in 164. A revolt in the East led by Avidius Cassius failed to gain momentum and was suppressed immediately, the major sources for the life and rule of Marcus Aurelius are patchy and frequently unreliable. For Marcus life and rule, the biographies of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus and Lucius Verus are largely reliable, a body of correspondence between Marcus tutor Fronto and various Antonine officials survives in a series of patchy manuscripts, covering the period from c.138 to 166. Marcus own Meditations offer a window on his life, but are largely undateable. The main narrative source for the period is Cassius Dio, a Greek senator from Bithynian Nicaea who wrote a history of Rome from its founding to 229 in eighty books. Dio is vital for the history of the period, but his senatorial prejudices. Inscriptions and coin finds supplement the literary sources, Marcus family originated in Ucubi, a small town southeast of Córdoba in Iberian Baetica. Verus elder son—Marcus Aurelius father—Marcus Annius Verus married Domitia Lucilla, Lucilla was the daughter of the patrician P. Calvisius Tullus Ruso and the elder Domitia Lucilla. The elder Domitia Lucilla had inherited a fortune from her maternal grandfather and her paternal grandfather by adoption. Lucilla and Verus had two children, a son, Marcus, born on 26 April 121 AD, and a daughter, Annia Cornificia Faustina, Verus probably died in 124 AD, during his praetorship, when Marcus was only three years old. Though he can hardly have known him, Marcus Aurelius wrote in his Meditations that he had learned modesty and manliness from his memories of his father, Lucilla, following prevailing aristocratic customs, probably did not spend much time with her son. Marcus was in the care of nurses, even so, Marcus credits his mother with teaching him religious piety, simplicity in diet and how to avoid the ways of the rich. In his letters, Marcus makes frequent and affectionate reference to her, he was grateful that, although she was fated to die young, yet she spent her last years with me. After his fathers death, Aurelius was raised by his paternal grandfather Marcus Annius Verus who, technically this was not an adoption, since an adoption would be the legal creation of a new and different patria potestas. Another man, Lucius Catilius Severus, also participated in his upbringing, Severus is described as Marcus maternal great-grandfather, he is probably the stepfather of the elder Lucilla. Marcus was raised in his parents home on the Caelian Hill and it was an upscale region, with few public buildings but many aristocratic villasMarcus Aurelius – Bust of Marcus Aurelius in the Musée Saint-Raymond, Toulouse.
80. Pescennius Niger – Pescennius Niger was Roman Emperor from 193 to 194 during the Year of the Five Emperors. Although Niger was born into an old Italian equestrian family, around the year 135, not much is known of his early career, it is possible that he held an administrative position in Egypt, and that he served in a military campaign in Dacia early in Commodus’ reign. During the late 180s, Niger was elected as a Suffect consul and he was still serving in Syria when news came through firstly of the murder of Pertinax, followed by the auctioning off of the imperial title to Didius Julianus. As a consequence, it is alleged that Julianus dispatched a centurion to the east with orders to assassinate Niger at Antioch, the result of the unrest in Rome saw Niger proclaimed Emperor by the eastern legions by the end of April 193. On his accession, Niger took the additional cognomen Justus, or the Just, although Niger sent envoys to Rome to announce his elevation to the imperial throne, his messengers were intercepted by Severus. As Niger began bolstering his support in the provinces, Severus marched on Rome which he entered in early June 193 after Julianus had been murdered. Severus wasted no time consolidating his hold on Rome, and ordered his newly appointed prefect of the watch, Gaius Fulvius Plautianus to capture Niger’s children, although these lands contained great wealth, his military resources were inferior to Severus’. While Severus had the sixteen Danubian legions at his disposal, Niger possessed only six, Niger therefore decided to act aggressively, and sent a force into Thrace where it defeated a part of Severus’ army under Lucius Fabius Cilo at Perinthus. Severus now marched from Rome to the east, sending his general Tiberius Claudius Candidus ahead of him, Niger, having made Byzantium his headquarters, gave Asellius Aemilianus the task of defending the southern shore of the Sea of Marmara. As Severus approached, he offered Niger the opportunity to surrender and go into exile, in the fall of 193, Candidus met Aemilianus in battle at Cyzicus, resulting in Niger’s forces being defeated as well as the capture and death of Aemilianus. Byzantium was now placed under siege, forcing Niger to abandon the city, the city remained loyal to Niger, and it would take Severus until the end of 195 to finally capture Byzantium. Another battle took place outside of Nicea in later December 193, nevertheless, he was able to withdraw the bulk of his army intact to the Taurus Mountains, where he was able to hold the passes for a few months as Niger returned to Antioch. However, the problem now for Niger was that his support in Asia was falling, some cities previously loyal to him decided that it was time to change their allegiance, in particular Laodicea and Tyre. By February 13,194, Egypt had declared for Severus, as had the imperial legate of Arabia, forced to retreat to Antioch, Niger was captured while attempting to flee to Parthia. He was beheaded, and his head was taken to Byzantium. Eventually, Severus stormed and completely destroyed Byzantium before he had it rebuilt, Niger’s head eventually found its way to Rome where it was displayed. After his victory in the east, Severus punished all of Niger’s supporters and he also had Niger’s wife and children put to death, while his estates were confiscated. The name Niger means black, which incidentally, contrasts him with one of his rivals for the throne in 194, Clodius Albinus, according to the notoriously unreliable Historia Augusta, his cognomen of Niger was given due to the fact that his neck was blackPescennius Niger – Coin of Pescennius Niger, bearing the inscription (IMPERATOR CAESAR GAIVS PESCENNIVS NIGER IVSTVS AVGVSTVS CONSVL II)
81. Diadumenian – Diadumenian, was the son of the Roman Emperor Macrinus, and served his father briefly as Caesar and as Augustus. He was so named due to being born with a caul that formed a diadem, diadumenian was born on 14 September 208 or, according to Historia Augusta, on September 19 because he shared the same birthday with the Emperor Antoninus Pius. His mother was Empress Nonia Celsa, although little is known of her and he was born Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus, but his name was changed and added Antoninus to solidify connection to the family of Marcus Aurelius as done by Caracalla. Diadumenian had little time to enjoy his position or to anything from its opportunities because the legions of Syria revolted and declared Elagabalus ruler of the Roman Empire. When Macrinus was defeated on 8 June 218, at Antioch, life of Diadumenianus De imperatoribus Romanis, an on-line encyclopedia of Roman emperorsDiadumenian – Diadumenianus on a denarius.
82. Crisis of the Third Century – The same number of men became accepted by the Roman Senate as emperor during this period and so became legitimate emperors. Later, Aurelian reunited the empire, the crisis ended with the ascension, the situation of the Roman Empire became dire in 235 AD, when emperor Alexander Severus was murdered by his own troops. Many Roman legions had been defeated during a campaign against Germanic peoples raiding across the borders, leading his troops personally, Alexander Severus resorted to diplomacy and paying tribute in an attempt to pacify the Germanic chieftains quickly. According to Herodian this cost him the respect of his troops, in the years following the emperors death, generals of the Roman army fought each other for control of the Empire and neglected their duties of defending the empire from invasion. Climate changes and a rise in sea levels ruined the agriculture of what is now the Low Countries forcing tribes to migrate, additionally, in 251, the Plague of Cyprian broke out, causing large-scale death, possibly weakened the ability of the Empire to defend itself. After the loss of Valerian in 260, the Roman Empire was beset by usurpers, the Roman provinces of Gaul, Britain and Hispania broke off to form the Gallic Empire. An invasion by a vast host of Goths was defeated at the Battle of Naissus in 268 or 269 and this victory was significant as the turning point of the crisis, when a series of tough, energetic soldier-emperors took power. Victories by the emperor Claudius II Gothicus over the two years drove back the Alamanni and recovered Hispania from the Gallic Empire. When Claudius died in 270 of the plague, Aurelian, who had commanded the cavalry at Naissus, succeeded him as the emperor and continued the restoration of the Empire. Aurelian reigned through the worst of the crisis, defeating the Vandals, the Visigoths, the Palmyrenes, the Persians, by late 274, the Roman Empire was reunited into a single entity, and the frontier troops were back in place. More than a century would pass before Rome again lost military ascendancy over its external enemies. However, dozens of formerly thriving cities, especially in the Western Empire, had ruined, their populations dispersed and, with the breakdown of the economic system. Major cities and towns, even Rome itself, had not needed fortifications for many centuries, finally, although Aurelian had played a significant role in restoring the Empires borders from external threat, more fundamental problems remained. Another issue was the size of the Empire, which made it difficult for a single autocratic ruler to effectively manage multiple threats at the same time. These continuing problems would be addressed by Diocletian, allowing the Empire to continue to survive in the West for over a century. Several emperors who rose to power through acclamation of their troops attempted to create stability by appointing their descendants as Caesar and these generally failed to maintain any form of coherence beyond one generation, although there were exceptions. Internally, the empire faced hyperinflation caused by years of coinage devaluation and this had started earlier under the Severan emperors who enlarged the army by one quarter and doubled the legionaries base pay. This resulted in runaway rises in prices, and by the time Diocletian came to power, some taxes were collected in kind and values were often notional in bullion or bronze coinageCrisis of the Third Century – The divided Empire in AD 271.
83. Pupienus – Pupienus, also known as Pupienus Maximus, was Roman Emperor with Balbinus for three months in 238, during the Year of the Six Emperors. The sources for this period are scant, and thus knowledge of the emperor is limited, in most contemporary texts Pupienus is referred by his cognomen Maximus rather than by his second nomen Pupienus. The Historia Augusta, whose testimony is not to be trusted unreservedly and it claims he was the son of a blacksmith, was adopted by one Pescennia Marcellina, and who started his career as a Centurio primus pilus before becoming a Tribunus Militum, and then a Praetor. He was in part of the aristocracy, albeit a minor one. Pupienus’s career was impressive, serving a number of important posts during the reign of the Severan dynasty throughout the late 2nd and this included assignment as Proconsul of the senatorial propraetorial provinces of Bithynia et Pontus, Achaea, and Gallia Narbonensis. He was later assigned as imperial legate to one of the German provinces, most probably after his first suffect consulship, during his time as governor, he was quite popular and scored military victories over the Sarmatians and German tribes. In 234, during the last years of Severus Alexander’s reign, in that same year he was also appointed Urban Prefect of Rome and gained a reputation for severity, to the extent that he became unpopular with the Roman mob. Unlike the situation in 161 with Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, according to Edward Gibbon, the choice was sensible, as, the mind of Maximus was formed in a rougher mould. By his valour and abilities he had raised himself from the meanest origin to the first employments of the state, the two colleagues had both been consul. And, since the one was sixty and the other seventy-four years old, Balbinus, in the meantime, had failed to keep public order in the capital. The sources suggest that Balbinus suspected Pupienus of using his newly acquired German bodyguard to supplant him and this meant that they were at the mercy of disaffected elements in the Praetorians, who resented serving under Senate-appointed emperors, and now plotted to kill them. Pupienus, becoming aware of the threat, begged Balbinus to call for the German bodyguard, Balbinus, believing that this news was part of a plot by Pupienus to have him assassinated, refused, and the two began to argue just as the Praetorians burst into the room. Both emperors were seized and dragged back to the Praetorian barracks where they were tortured, Pupienus had at least three children. His eldest son, Tiberius Clodius Pupienus Pulcher Maximus, was a Consul Suffectus c,235, and patron of the town of Tibur outside Rome. His youngest son, Marcus Pupienus Africanus Maximus, was Consul Ordinarius in 236 as colleague of the Emperor Maximinus Thrax and this run of consulships in the family, across the reigns of Severus Alexander and Maximinus Thrax, show that the family was influential and in high favour. Pupienus also had a daughter, named Pupiena Sextia Paulina Cethegilla, wife of Marcus Ulpius Eubiotus LeurusPupienus – Bust of Pupienus
84. Gordian III – Gordian III was Roman Emperor from 238 AD to 244 AD. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire, Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian II, very little is known on his early life before his acclamation. Gordian had assumed the name of his grandfather in 238 AD. In 235, following the murder of Emperor Alexander Severus in Moguntiacum, in the following years, there was a growing opposition against Maximinus in the Roman senate and amongst the majority of the population of Rome. In 238 a rebellion broke out in the Africa Province, where Gordians grandfather and uncle, Gordian I and this revolt was suppressed within a month by Cappellianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. The elder Gordians died, but public opinion cherished their memory as peace-loving and literate men, meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions, but their joint reign was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. On July 29, Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian Guard, due to Gordians age, the imperial government was surrendered to the aristocratic families, who controlled the affairs of Rome through the Senate. In 240, Sabinianus revolted in the African province, but the situation was brought under control. In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina, daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, as chief of the Praetorian Guard and father in law of the Emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman Empire. In the 3rd century, the Roman frontiers weakened against the Germanic tribes across the Rhine and Danube, and the Sassanid Empire across the Euphrates increased its own attacks. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, the Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena. The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemys territory, without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the Emperors security, were at risk. Gaius Julius Priscus and, later on, his own brother Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab, stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefects, around February 244, the Persians fought back fiercely to halt the Roman advance to Ctesiphon. Persian sources claim that a battle occurred near modern Fallujah and resulted in a major Roman defeat, Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away from Misiche, at Zaitha in northern Mesopotamia. Modern scholarship does not unanimously accept this course of the events, one view holds that Gordian died at Zaitha, murdered by his frustrated army, while the role of Philip is unknown. Other scholars, such as Kettenhofen, Hartman and Winter have concluded that Gordian died in battle against the Sassanids, Philip transferred the body of the deceased emperor to Rome and arranged for his deiﬁcationGordian III – Bust of Gordian III, between 242 and 244
85. Herennius Etruscus – Herennius Etruscus, was Roman emperor in 251, in a joint rule with his father Decius. Emperor Hostilian was his younger brother, Herennius was born in or near Sirmium in Pannonia, during one of his fathers military postings. His mother was Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla, a Roman lady of an important senatorial family. Herennius was very close to his father and accompanied him in 248, as a military tribune, Decius was successful in defeating this usurper and felt confident to begin a rebellion of his own in the following year. Acclaimed emperor by his own troops, Decius marched into Italy, in Rome, Herennius was declared heir to the throne and received the title of princeps iuventutis. From the beginning of Herennius accession, Gothic tribes raided across the Danube frontier, at the beginning of 251, Decius elevated Herennius to the title of Augustus making him his co-emperor. Moreover, Herennius was chosen to be one of the years consuls, the father and son, now joint rulers, then embarked in an expedition against king Cniva of the Goths to punish the invaders for the raids. Hostilian remained in Rome and the empress Herennia Etruscilla was named regent, Cniva and his men were returning to their lands with the booty, when the Roman army encountered them. Showing a very sophisticated military tactic, Cniva divided his army in smaller, more manageable groups, sometime during the first two weeks of June, both armies engaged in the battle of Abrittus. Herennius died in battle, struck by an enemy arrow, Decius survived the initial confrontation, only to be slain with the rest of the army before the end of the day. Herennius and Decius were the first two emperors to be killed by an army in battle. With the news of the death of the emperors, the army proclaimed Trebonianus Gallus emperor, but in Rome they were succeeded by Hostilian, media related to Herennius Etruscus at Wikimedia CommonsHerennius Etruscus – Herennius Etruscus as Caesar, celebrating his Pietas with its typical cult instruments.
86. Hostilian – Hostilian was Roman emperor in 251. He was born in Sirmium in Illyricum sometime after 230, as the son of the future emperor Decius by his wife Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla and he was the younger brother of emperor Herennius Etruscus. In the beginning of 251, Decius elevated his son Herennius to co-emperor, Decius and Herennius then set out on campaign against king Cniva of the Goths, to punish him for raids on the Danubian frontier. Hostilian remained in Rome due to his inexperience, and empress Herennia was named regent, the campaign proved to be a disaster, both Herennius and Decius died in the Battle of Abrittus and became the first two emperors to be killed by a foreign army in battle. The armies in the Danube acclaimed Trebonianus Gallus emperor, but Rome acknowledged Hostilians rights, since Trebonianus was a respected general, there was fear of another civil war of succession, despite the fact that he chose to respect the will of Rome and adopted Hostilian. But later in 251, the Plague of Cyprian broke out in the Empire and he was the first emperor in 40 years to die of natural causes, one of only 13. His death opened the way for the rule of Trebonianus with his natural son Volusianus, media related to Hostilian at Wikimedia CommonsHostilian – A coin of Hostilian celebrating Securitas, the security of the Roman Empire.
87. Trebonianus Gallus – Trebonianus Gallus, also known as Gallus, was Roman Emperor from 251 to 253, in a joint rule with his son Volusianus. Gallus was born in Italy, in a family with respected ancestry of Etruscan senatorial background and he had two children in his marriage with Afinia Gemina Baebiana, Gaius Vibius Volusianus, later Emperor, and a daughter, Vibia Galla. His early career was a typical cursus honorum, with several appointments and he was suffect consul and in 250 was nominated governor of the Roman province of Moesia Superior, an appointment that showed the confidence of Emperor Trajan Decius in him. In June 251, Decius and his co-emperor and son Herennius Etruscus died in the Battle of Abrittus at the hands of the Goths they were supposed to punish for raids into the empire. According to rumours supported by Dexippus and the Thirteenth Sibylline Oracle, Decius failure was owing to Gallus. In any case, when the heard the news, the soldiers proclaimed Gallus emperor, despite Hostilian, Decius surviving son. This action of the army, and the fact that Gallus seems to have been on terms with Decius family. Gallus did not back down from his intention to become emperor, anxious to secure his position at Rome and stabilize the situation on the Danube frontier, Gallus made peace with the Goths. Peace terms allowed the Goths to leave the Roman territory while keeping their captives, in addition, it was agreed that they would be paid an annual subsidy. Reaching Rome, Gallus proclamation was formally confirmed by the Senate, on June 24,251, Decius was deified, but by July 15 Hostilian disappears from history—he may have died in an outbreak of plague. Gallus may have ordered a localized and uncoordinated persecution of Christians. However, only two incidents are known to us, the Pope Cornelius exile to Centumcellae, where he died in 253, the latter was recalled to Rome during the reign of Valerian. Like his predecessors, Gallus did not have an easy reign, in the East, an Antiochene nobleman, Mariades, revolted and began ravaging Syria and Cappadocia, then fled to the Persians. Gallus ordered his troops to attack the Persians, but Persian Emperor Shapur I invaded Armenia and destroyed a large Roman army, Shapur I then invaded the defenseless Syrian provinces, captured all of its legionary posts and ravaged its cities, including Antioch, without any response. Persian invasions were repeated in the year, but now Uranius Antoninus. He proclaimed himself emperor, however, and minted coins with his image upon them, on the Danube, Scythian tribes were once again on the loose, despite the peace treaty signed in 251. They invaded Asia Minor by sea, burned the great Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, lower Moesia was also invaded in early 253. Aemilianus, governor of Moesia Superior and Pannonia, took the initiative of battle, since the army was no longer pleased with the Emperor, the soldiers proclaimed Aemilianus emperorTrebonianus Gallus – Bust of Trebonianus Gallus
88. Saloninus – Publius Licinius Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus was Roman Emperor in 260. Saloninus was born around the year 242 and his father was the later emperor Gallienus, his mother Cornelia Salonina, a Greek from Bithynia. In 258 Saloninus was appointed Caesar by his father and sent to Gaul to make sure his fathers authority was respected there, bray suggests that Valerians motive in making these appointments was securing the succession and establishing a lasting imperial dynasty. We do not know how Valerian envisaged his grandson interacting with the existing governors, there is no reason to suppose that he ever thought the thing through as systematically as Diocletian when he established the Tetrarchy some thirty years later. However, Silvanus must have been a soldier and administrator. This was demonstrated by the circumstances in which he fell out with the usurper Postumus, in 260 Silvanus ordered Postumus to hand over some booty that Postumuss troops had seized from a German warband which had been on its way home from a successful raid into Gaul. However, Postumuss men took violent exception to this attempt to enforce the rights of the representative of a distant emperor who was failing in his duty to protect the Gallic provinces. Asserting what was probably the prevailing custom of the frontier, they turned on Saloninus and Silvanus and it was probably at this time that Postumus was acclaimed emperor by his army. Riding the tiger of military discontent which he could barely control, Gallienus, who was fully engaged elsewhere – probably campaigning on the middle Danube – could do nothing to save his son. Postumus was then unable to prevent his army from murdering them, whether or not Gallienus ever concurred with Valerians dynastic experiment is not known. Certainly the murder of Saloninus, so soon after the death of Valerian IISaloninus – Antoninianus of Saloninus.
89. Tacitus (emperor) – Tacitus, was Roman Emperor from 275 to 276. During his short reign he campaigned against the Goths and the Heruli, Tacitus was born in Interamna, in Italia. In the course of his life he discharged the duties of various civil offices, including that of consul in 273. After the assassination of Aurelian, Tacitus was chosen by the Senate to succeed him, and this was the last time the Senate elected a Roman Emperor. There was an interregnum between Aurelian and Tacitus, and there is evidence that Aurelians wife, Ulpia Severina. At any rate, Tacitus was situated at Campania when he heard the news of his election and he decided to re-involve the Senate in some consultative manner in the mechanisms of government and asked the Senate to deify Aurelian, before arresting and executing Aurelians murderers. Next he moved against the mercenaries that had been gathered by Aurelian to supplement Roman forces for his Eastern campaign. These mercenaries had plundered several towns in the Eastern Roman provinces after Aurelian had been murdered and his half-brother, the Praetorian Prefect Florianus, and Tacitus himself won a victory against these tribes, among which were the Heruli, gaining the emperor the title Gothicus Maximus. It was reported that he began acting strangely, declaring that he would alter the names of the months to honor himself, in a contrary account, Zosimus claims he was assassinated, after appointing one of his relatives to an important command in Syria. He appears in Harry Sidebottoms historical fiction novel series Warrior Of Rome, Historia Augusta, Vita Taciti, English version of Historia Augusta Eutropius, Breviarium ab urbe condita, ix. H. M. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. I, AD260-395, Cambridge University Press,1971 Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Routledge,2001 Canduci, Alexander, Triumph & Tragedy, The Rise and Fall of Romes Immortal Emperors, Pier 9, edward Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Tacitus, Marcus Claudius. Constantine P. Cavafy, The Complete Poems, Harcourt, Brace & World, p.201 Alan Dugan, Poems 2, Yale University Press, p.33Tacitus (emperor) – Bust of the Emperor Tacitus
90. Domitianus II – Domitianus was probably a Roman soldier of the mid-third century AD who was acclaimed emperor, probably in northern Gaul in late 270 or early 271 AD, and struck coins to advertise his elevation. His attempted ‘’coup’’ should also be understood in the context of the later history of the ‘Gallic Empire’ rather than that of the Empire as a whole. The only evidence for the existence and rule of an Imperial claimant named Domitianus derives from two coins, the first was part of a hoard discovered at Les Cléons, in the commune of Haute-Goulaine in the Loire area of France in 1900. The authenticity/significance of this item was much debated and as late as 1992 Domitianus was widely considered at best a conjectural figure. The other coin was found fused in a pot with some 5,000 other coins of the period 250-275 — thus providing incontrovertible provenance — in the village of Chalgrove in Oxfordshire, England, the hoard was acquired by the Ashmolean Museum in 2004. The design of coins is typical of those associated with the ‘Gallic Empire’. They are of the type and depict Domitianus as a bearded figure wearing a spiky or radiate crown representing the rays of the sun. Both coins bear the legend, i. e. IMP C DOMITIANUS P F AUG. An unusual feature here is the absence of any reference to Domitianuss Nomen or Praenomen, Gallic Empire coins usually bear the full tria nomina of the prince celebrated the better to carry out their propagandist function. On the reverse, the coins show Concordia, and have the legend CONCORDIA MILITVM, again this is a standard slogan for the Gallic emperors. The design of the Chalgrove coin and its Les Cléons counterpart is typical of others struck under the Gallic Empire and it also suggests that the date of the coin was prior to 274 when the Emperor Aurelian suppressed the Gallic regime. There are only two literary references for Domitianuss existence, neither of which names him as an emperor,1, the 6th-century Byzantine historian Zosimus records that a certain Domitianus was punished for a revolt during the reign of Aurelian. The text is vague as to the nature of his disloyalty and those provinces not controlled by either the ‘Gallic Emperors’ in the west or Zenobia in the east. The notoriously unreliable Historia Augusta, hereafter HA, mentions a Domitianus as an involved in the suppression of the revolt of Macrianus Major in 261. HA asserts that in this operation Domitianus was an associate of Gallienus’s Hipparchos Aureolus who is credited with the victory over Macrianus. However, the reference is made in terms that suggest that Domitianus was already a distinguished commander in his own right, there is nowhere in HA any suggestion that this Domitianus or any other man of that name was involved in any anti-regime activities during Aurelians reign. HA also suggests that Domitianus was descendant of the Emperor Domitian, the intention here may be to suggest that Domitianus was of senatorial rank. It is possible that his motive in doing this was to some of the glory accruing to the low-born Aureolus from his suppression of the Macrianic rebellionDomitianus II – Domitianus II
91. Tetricus I – Gaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus was Emperor of the Gallic Empire, reigning 271-274, succeeding the murdered Victorinus and ending with his surrender on the battlefield to the Roman emperor Aurelian. Tetricus, who ruled with his son, Tetricus II, was the last of the Gallic emperors, Tetricus was a senator born to a noble family of Gallic extraction. He was appointed to the position of praeses provinciae of Gallia Aquitania in 270. Tetricus accepted the nomination and took the purple at Burdigala in Gaul. Moving from Burdigala, he was on his way to Augusta Treverorum when Tetricus was forced to repel Germanic tribes that took advantage of the following the death of Victorinus to invade Gaul. However, continued invasions across the Rhine and along the coasts forced Tetricus to abandon the frontier forts, nevertheless, his regime was destabilised by attempts of certain areas to declare their allegiance to the Roman emperor Aurelian, such as the city of Argentoratum in 272. It was to shore up his support that Tetricus eventually appointed his son, Tetricus II, as Caesar sometime in 273. It did little to stem his faltering regime as in late 273 or early 274, Faustinus, provincial governor of Gallia Belgica, rebelled against him in Augusta Treverorum. To add to his woes, by the middle of 273, preparing for his advance, Tetricus and his son celebrated their joint consulship on 1 January 274 before marching southward from his capital to meet Aurelian, who was advancing into northern Gaul. The decisive battle took place near Châlons-sur-Marne, in late February 274, by March 274, both Tetricus and his son had surrendered to Aurelian. It was claimed that Tetricus quoted Virgil in his letter to Aurelian, eripe me his, invicte, Tetricus died at an unknown date in Italy, he is listed as one of Romes Thirty Tyrants in the Historia Augusta. The antoninianii of Tetricus were the most frequently imitated prototypes for barbarous radiates, the Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Routledge,2001 Potter, David Stone, The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180-395, Routledge,2004 Jones, A. H. M. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, VolTetricus I – Coin featuring Tetricus I
92. Dominate – The Dominate or late Roman Empire was the despotic later phase of imperial government, following the earlier period known as the Principate, in the ancient Roman Empire. In form, the Dominate is considered to have been more authoritarian, less collegiate, the term Dominate is derived from the Latin dominus, which translates into English as lord or master. Augustus actively discouraged the practice, and Tiberius in particular is said to have reviled it as sycophancy, the Dominate system of government emerged as a response to the 50 years of chaos that is referred to as the Crisis of the Third Century. Further, not all the changes resulted in the Dominate were complete by the time of Diocletian’s abdication in AD305. Consequently, just as the Principate emerged over the period 31 BC through to 14 AD and these bureaucratic machines worked moderately well, and their success might have been extraordinary if the monarchs who directed them had always been men of superior ability. Blots of course and defects there were, especially in the fields of economy, the political creation of the Illyrian Emperors was not unworthy of the genius of Rome. Under the Principate, the position of emperor saw the concentration of various civil and this role was almost always filled by a single individual, and the date that the Potestas tribunicia was conferred onto that person was the point when imperial authority could be exercised. Over the course of the Principate, it common for the emperor to nominate an heir. Further, it was their absence which caused usurpations to occur in response to a local or provincial crisis that traditionally would have dealt with by the emperor. Under the Dominate, the burden of the position was increasingly shared between colleagues, referred to as the Consortium imperii. This original power sharing model lasted from AD289 through to AD324, with Constantine I’s death in AD337, the empire was again shared between multiple augusti, lasting until AD350. The model became a permanent feature of the empire in AD364 with the accession of Valentinian I, barring the 3-year period of solitary rule by Theodosius I from AD 392–395, this approach would last until the overthrow of the last western emperor in AD476. While each augustus was autonomous within each portion of the empire they managed, during the Roman Republic, the office of Consul was the highest elected magistry in the Roman state, with two consuls elected annually. It was a post that would be occupied by a man halfway through his career, in his early thirties for a patrician, if they were especially skilled or valued, they may even have achieved a second consulate. Prior to achieving the consulate, these already had a significant career behind them. This had the effect of seeing a suffect consulship granted at an age, to the point that by the 4th century, it was being held by men in their early twenties. As time progressed, second consulates, usually ordinary, became far more common than had been the case during the first two centuries, while the first consulship was usually a suffect consulate, II when they were later granted an ordinary consulship by the emperor. One of the key changes in the management of the empire during the Dominate was the large scale removal of old-style senatorial participation in administrative, the process began with the reforms of Gallienus, who removed senators from military commands, placing them in the hands of the EquitesDominate – Ancient Rome
93. Galerius – Galerius was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311. During his reign he campaigned, aided by Diocletian, against the Sassanid Empire and he also campaigned across the Danube against the Carpi, defeating them in 297 and 300. Although he was an opponent of Christianity, Galerius ended the Diocletianic Persecution when he issued an edict of toleration in 311. Galerius was born in Serdica, though modern scholars consider the strategic site where he later built his palace named after his mother – Felix Romuliana – his birth. His father was a Thracian and his mother Romula was a Dacian woman and he originally followed his fathers occupation, that of a herdsman, where he got his surname of Armentarius. After a few years campaigning against Sarmatians and Goths on the Danube, soon after his appointment, Galerius would be dispatched to Egypt to fight the rebellious cities Busiris and Coptos. In 294, Narseh, a son of Shapur I who had passed over for the Sassanid succession. Narseh probably moved to eliminate Bahram III, a man installed by a noble named Vahunam in the wake of Bahram IIs death in 293. In early 294, Narseh sent Diocletian the customary package of gifts and he sought to identify himself with the warlike reigns of Ardashir and Shapur, who had sacked Roman Antioch and captured Emperor Valerian. In 295 or 296, Narseh declared war on Rome and he appears to have first invaded western Armenia, retaking the lands delivered to Tiridates in the peace of 287. He would occupy the lands there until the following year, the late historian Ammianus Marcellinus is the only source detailing the initial invasion of Armenia. Narseh then moved south into Roman Mesopotamia, where he inflicted a defeat on Galerius, then commander of the Eastern forces. In Antioch, Diocletian forced Galerius to walk a mile in advance of his imperial cart while still clad in the robes of an emperor. The message conveyed was clear, the loss at Carrhae was not due to the failings of the soldiers, but due to the failings of their commander. It is also possible that Galerius position at the head of the caravan was merely the conventional organization of an imperial progression, Galerius had been reinforced, probably in the spring of 298, by a new contingent collected from the empires Danubian holdings. Narseh did not advance from Armenia and Mesopotamia, leaving Galerius to lead the offensive in 298 with an attack on northern Mesopotamia via Armenia, Diocletian may or may not have been present to assist the campaign. Narseh retreated to Armenia to fight Galerius force, to Narsehs disadvantage, the rugged Armenian terrain was favorable to Roman infantry, local aid gave Galerius the advantage of surprise over the Persian forces, and, in two successive battles, Galerius secured victories over Narseh. During the second encounter, the Battle of Satala in 298, Roman forces seized Narsehs camp, his treasury, his harem, and his wifeGalerius – Porphyry bust of Galerius
94. Constantius Chlorus – Constantius I was Roman Emperor from 293 to 306, commonly known as Constantius Chlorus. He was the father of Constantine the Great and founder of the Constantinian dynasty, as Caesar, he defeated the usurper Allectus in Britain and campaigned extensively along the Rhine frontier, defeating the Alamanni and Franks. Upon becoming Augustus in 305, Constantius launched a punitive campaign against the Picts beyond the Antonine Wall. However, Constantius died suddenly in Eboracum the following year and his death sparked the collapse of the tetrarchic system of government inaugurated by the Emperor Diocletian. Constantius was a member of the Protectores Augusti Nostri under the emperor Aurelian, by 288, his period as governor now over, Constantius had been made Praetorian Prefect in the west under Maximian. To strengthen the ties between the emperor and his powerful military servant, in 289 Constantius divorced his wife Helena, and married the emperor Maximian’s daughter, Theodora. By 293, Diocletian, conscious of the ambitions of his co-emperor for his new son-in-law, Diocletian divided the administration of the Roman Empire into two halves, a Western and an Eastern portion. Each would be ruled by an Augustus, supported by a Caesar, both Caesars had the right of succession once the ruling Augustus died. At Milan on March 1,293, Constantius was formally appointed as Maximian’s Caesar and he adopted the names Flavius Valerius and was given command of Gaul, Britannia and possibly Hispania. Diocletian, the eastern Augustus, in order to keep the balance of power in the imperium elevated Galerius as his Caesar, Constantius was the more senior of the two Caesars, and on official documents he always took precedence, being mentioned before Galerius. Constantius’ capital was to be located at Augusta Treverorum, Constantius’ first task on becoming Caesar was to deal with the Roman usurper Carausius who had declared himself emperor in Britannia and northern Gaul in 286. In late 293, Constantius defeated the forces of Carausius in Gaul and this precipitated the assassination of Carausius by his rationalis Allectus, who assumed command of the British provinces until his death in 296. Constantius spent the two years neutralising the threat of the Franks who were the allies of Allectus, as northern Gaul remained under the control of the British usurper until at least 295. He also battled against the Alamanni, achieving victories at the mouth of the Rhine in 295. Administrative concerns meant he made at least one trip to Italy during this time as well, only when he felt ready did he assemble two invasion fleets with the intent of crossing the English Channel. The fleet under Asclepiodotus landed near the Isle of Wight, and his army encountered the forces of Allectus, resulting in the defeat, Constantius in the meantime occupied London, saving the city from an attack by Frankish mercenaries who were now roaming the province without a paymaster. The result was the division of Upper Britannia into Maxima Caesariensis and Britannia Prima, while Flavia Caesariensis and he also restored Hadrian’s Wall and its forts. Later in 298, Constantius fought in the Battle of Lingones against the Alamanni and he was shut up in the city, but was relieved by his army after six hours and defeated the enemyConstantius Chlorus – Constantius I Chlorus
95. Licinius – Licinius I was a Roman emperor from 308 to 324. For most of his reign he was the colleague and rival of Constantine I and he was finally defeated at the Battle of Chrysopolis, before being executed on the orders of Constantine I. Born to a Dacian peasant family in Moesia Superior, Licinius accompanied his close childhood friend and he was trusted enough by Galerius that in 307 he was sent as an envoy to Maxentius in Italy to attempt to reach some agreement about the latters illegitimate political position. Galerius then trusted the eastern provinces to Licinius when he went to deal with Maxentius personally after the death of Flavius Valerius Severus, upon his return to the east Galerius elevated Licinius to the rank of Augustus in the West on November 11,308. He received as his command the provinces of Illyricum, Thrace. In 310 he took command of the war against the Sarmatians, inflicting a defeat on them. On the death of Galerius in May 311, Licinius entered into an agreement with Maximinus II to share the eastern provinces between them, an alliance between Maximinus and Maxentius forced the two remaining emperors to enter into a formal agreement with each other. So in March 313 Licinius married Flavia Julia Constantia, half-sister of Constantine I, at Mediolanum, they had a son, Licinius the Younger, Daia in the meantime decided to attack Licinius. Leaving Syria with 70,000 men, he reached Bithynia, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which was held by Licinius troops. Undeterred, he took the town after an eleven-day siege and he moved to Heraclea, which he captured after a short siege, before moving his forces to the first posting station. With a much smaller body of men, possibly around 30,000, before the decisive engagement, Licinius allegedly had a vision in which an angel recited him a generic prayer that could be adopted by all cults and which Licinius then repeated to his soldiers. On 30 April 313, the two clashed at the Battle of Tzirallum, and in the ensuing battle Daias forces were crushed. Ridding himself of the purple and dressing like a slave. Believing he still had a chance to come out victorious, Daia attempted to stop the advance of Licinius at the Cilician Gates by establishing fortifications there. Unfortunately for Daia, Licinius army succeeded in breaking through, forcing Daia to retreat to Tarsus where Licinius continued to him on land. The war between them ended with Daia’s death in August 313. Given that Constantine had already crushed his rival Maxentius in 312, as a result of this settlement, Licinius became sole Augustus in the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was supreme in the West. Licinius immediately rushed to the east to deal with another threat, in 314, a civil war erupted between Licinius and Constantine, in which Constantine used the pretext that Licinius was harbouring Senecio, whom Constantine accused of plotting to overthrow himLicinius – Coin of Licinius I.
96. Constans – Constans or Constans I was Roman Emperor from 337 to 350. Constans was the third and youngest son of Constantine the Great and Fausta and he was educated at the court of his father at Constantinople under the tutelage of the poet Aemilius Magnus Arborius. On 25 December 333, Constantine I elevated Constans to the rank of Caesar at Constantinople, Constans became engaged to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, but the marriage never came to pass. The army proclaimed them Augusti on September 9,337, almost immediately, Constans was required to deal with a Sarmatian invasion in late 337, over whom he won a resounding victory. Constans was initially under the guardianship of Constantine II, the original settlement assigned Constans the praetorian prefectures of Italy and Africa. Constans was unhappy with this division, so the brothers met at Viminacium in 338 to revise the boundaries, Constantine II soon complained that he had not received the amount of territory that was his due as the eldest son. Soon, however, they began quarreling over which parts of the African provinces belonged to Carthage, and thus Constantine, and which belonged to Italy, and therefore Constans. This led to growing tensions between the two brothers, which were heightened by Constans finally coming of age and Constantine refusing to give up his guardianship. In 340 Constantine II invaded Italy, Constans, at that time in Dacia, detached and sent a select and disciplined body of his Illyrian troops, stating that he would follow them in person with the remainder of his forces. Constantine was eventually trapped at Aquileia, where he died, leaving Constans to inherit all of his brother’s former territories – Hispania, Britannia, Constans began his reign in an energetic fashion. In 341-42, he led a campaign against the Franks. Regarding religion, Constans was tolerant of Judaism and promulgated an edict banning pagan sacrifices in 341 and he suppressed Donatism in Africa and supported Nicene orthodoxy against Arianism, which was championed by his brother Constantius. Although Constans called the Council of Sardica in 343 to settle the conflict, it was a complete failure, the conflict was only resolved by an interim agreement which allowed each emperor to support their preferred clergy within their own spheres of influence. Nevertheless, Constans did sponsor a decree alongside Constantius II that ruled that based on unnatural sex should be punished meticulously. However, Boswell believed the decree outlawed homosexual marriages only and it may also be that Constans was not expressing his own feeling when promulgating the legislation but was rather trying to placate public outrage at his own perceived indecencies. In the final years of his reign, Constans developed a reputation for cruelty, dominated by favourites and openly preferring his select bodyguard, he lost the support of the legions. In 350, the general Magnentius declared himself emperor at Augustodunum with the support of the troops on the Rhine frontier and, later, Constans was enjoying himself nearby when he was notified of the elevation of Magnentius. Lacking any support beyond his immediate household, he was forced to flee for his life, a prophecy at his birth had said Constans would die in the arms of his grandmotherConstans – Bust of Constans
97. Julian (emperor) – Julian, also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek. A member of the Constantinian dynasty, Julian became Caesar over the provinces by order of Constantius II in 355 and in this role campaigned successfully against the Alamanni. Most notable was his victory over the Alamanni in 357 at the Battle of Argentoratum. In 360 in Lutetia he was proclaimed Augustus by his soldiers, before the two could face each other in battle, however, Constantius died, after naming Julian as his rightful successor. In 363, Julian embarked on an campaign against the Sassanid Empire. Though initially successful, Julian was mortally wounded in battle and died shortly thereafter, Julian was a man of unusually complex character, he was the military commander, the theosophist, the social reformer, and the man of letters. He was the last non-Christian ruler of the Roman Empire, and it was his desire to bring the Empire back to its ancient Roman values in order to, as he saw it, save it from dissolution. He purged the state bureaucracy and attempted to revive traditional Roman religious practices at the expense of Christianity. His anti-Christian sentiment and promotion of Neoplatonic paganism caused him to be remembered as Julian the Apostate by the church and he was the last emperor of the Constantinian dynasty, the empires first Christian dynasty. Both of his parents were Christians and his paternal grandparents were Western Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife, Flavia Maximiana Theodora. His maternal grandfather was Julius Julianus, praetorian prefect of the East under emperor Licinius from 315 to 324, the name of Julians maternal grandmother is unknown. Constantius II, Constans I, and Constantine II were proclaimed joint emperors, Julian and Gallus were excluded from public life, were strictly guarded in their youth, and given a Christian education. They were likely saved by their youth and at the urging of the Empress Eusebia, if Julians later writings are to be believed, Constantius would later be tormented with guilt at the massacre of 337. After Eusebius died in 342, both Julian and Gallus were exiled to the estate of Macellum in Cappadocia. Here Julian met the Christian bishop George of Cappadocia, who lent him books from the classical tradition, at the age of 18, the exile was lifted and he dwelt briefly in Constantinople and Nicomedia. He became a lector, an office in the Christian church. Julian studied Neoplatonism in Asia Minor in 351, at first under Aedesius, the philosopher and he was summoned to Constantius court in Mediolanum in 354 and kept there for a year, in the summer and fall of 355, he was permitted to study in Athens. While there, Julian became acquainted with two men who became both bishops and saints, Gregory of Nazianzus and Basil the GreatJulian (emperor) – Portrait of Emperor Julian on a bronze coin from Antioch minted in 360–363
98. Jovian (emperor) – Jovian was Roman Emperor from 363 to 364. Upon the death of emperor Julian the Apostate during his campaign against the Sassanid Empire and he sought peace with the Persians on humiliating terms and reestablished Christianity as the state church. His reign lasted only eight months, Jovian was born at Singidunum in 331 AD, the son of Varronianus, the commander of Constantius IIs imperial bodyguards. He also joined the guards and by 363 had risen to the command that his father had once held. In this capacity, Jovian accompanied the Roman Emperor Julian on the Mesopotamian campaign of the year against Shapur II. After the Battle of Samarra, a small but decisive engagement, Julian, mortally wounded during the retreat, died on 26 June 363. The next day, after the aged Saturninius Secundus Salutius, praetorian prefect of the Orient, had declined the purple, Jovian, a Christian, reestablished Christianity as the state church, ending the brief revival of paganism under his predecessor. Upon arriving at Antioch, he revoked the edicts of Julian against Christians, the Labarum of Constantine the Great again became the standard of the army. He issued an edict of toleration, to the effect that, while the exercise of magical rites would be punished, his subjects should enjoy full liberty of conscience. In 363, however, he issued an edict ordering the Library of Antioch to be burnt down and he extended the same punishment on 23 December to participation in any pagan ceremony. Jovian entertained a great regard for Athanasius, whom he reinstated on the archiepiscopal throne, in Syriac literature, Jovian became the hero of a Christian romance. From Jovians reign until the 15th century Christianity remained the dominant religion of both the Western and Eastern Roman Empires, until the Fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453, Jovian continued the retreat begun by Julian. Though harassed by the Persians, the army succeeded in reaching the banks of the Tigris, there, deep inside Sassanid territory, he was forced to sue for a peace treaty on humiliating terms. The Romans also surrendered their interests in the Kingdom of Armenia to the Persians, the Christian king of Armenia, Arsaces II, was to stay neutral in future conflicts between the two empires and was forced to cede part of his kingdom to Shapur. The treaty was seen as a disgrace and Jovian rapidly lost popularity. After arriving at Antioch, Jovian decided to rush to Constantinople to consolidate his position there. While en route, he was dead in bed in his tent at Dadastana. His death has been attributed to either a surfeit of mushrooms or the carbon monoxide fumes of a charcoal warming fireJovian (emperor) – Solidus of emperor Jovian
99. Constantine III (Western Roman Emperor) – Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine III was a Roman general who declared himself Western Roman Emperor in Britannia in 407 and established himself in Gaul. Recognised by the Emperor Honorius in 409, Constantine suffered a collapse of support and he was captured and executed shortly afterwards. This was a blow to the Western Empire from which it never recovered, also, a contributing factor of major importance was the disunity among the Romans themselves. At the time of invasion, the provinces of Britain were in revolt, setting up and pulling down a series of usurpers. A common soldier, but one of some ability, Constantine moved quickly, Constantine secured the Rhine frontier, and garrisoned the passes that led from Gaul into Italy. By May 408 he had made Arles his capital, where he appointed Apollinaris, in the summer of 408, as the Roman forces in Italy assembled to counterattack, Constantine had other plans. He summoned his eldest son Constans from the monastery where he was dwelling, elevated him to Caesar, or co-emperor, the cousins of Honorius were defeated without much difficulty and two— Didymus and Verinianus — were captured, while two others — Lagodius and Theodosiolus — managed to escape. Lagodius escaped to Rome whereas Theodosiolus escaped to Constantinople, Constans left his wife and household at Saragossa under the care of Gerontius to return to report to Arles. Meanwhile, the loyalist Roman army mutinied at Ticinum on 13 August, so, when Constantines envoys arrived to parley at Ravenna, the fearful Honorius eagerly recognized Constantine as co-emperor, and the two were joint consuls for the year 409. That year was the mark of Constantines success. Despite Constantines best efforts, his fear of an attack from Hispania did come to pass the following year, about the same time Saxon pirates raided Britain, which Constantine had left defenseless. But this invasion ended in defeat, with Allobich losing his life, Constantines position grew even more untenable, his forces facing the rebel Gerontius were defeated at Vienne, where his son Constans was captured and executed. Constantines Praetorian prefect Decimus Rusticus, who had replaced Apollinaris a year earlier, abandoned Constantine, Gerontius trapped Constantine inside Arles and besieged him. At the same time a new general was found to support Honorius, the future Constantius III, who arrived at Arles, put Gerontius to flight and then took over the siege of Constantine in Arles. Constantine held out, hoping for the return of his general Edobichus who was raising troops in northern Gaul amongst the Franks, Constantines last slender hope faded when his last troops guarding the Rhine abandoned him to support Jovinus and he was forced to surrender. Constantine III is also known as Constantine II of Britain and this has led to much confusion among modern scholars, but beyond their names, Geoffreys fictional Constantine does not resemble the historical one. In some versions of the legend, Vortigern was Constantines seneschal. End of Roman rule in Britain Zosimus, Historia Nova, Books 5 &6 Historia Nova Orosius, Historiae adversum Paganos,7. I. R. ]Canduci, Alexander, Triumph & Tragedy, The Rise and Fall of Romes Immortal Emperors, Pier 9, ISBN 978-1-74196-598-8 C. E. Stevens, Marcus, Gratian, Constantine, Athenaeum,35, pp. 316–47 E. AConstantine III (Western Roman Emperor) – Coin of Constantine III.
100. Ravenna – Ravenna is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. It was the city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476. It then served as the capital of the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths until it was re-conquered in 540 by the Eastern Roman Empire. Afterwards, the city formed the centre of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna until the invasion of the Lombards in 751, although an inland city, Ravenna is connected to the Adriatic Sea by the Candiano Canal. It is known for its well-preserved late Roman and Byzantine architecture, the origin of the name Ravenna is unclear, although it is believed the name is Etruscan. Some have speculated that ravenna is related to Rasenna, the term that the Etruscans used for themselves, the origins of Ravenna are uncertain. Ravenna consisted of houses built on piles on a series of islands in a marshy lagoon – a situation similar to Venice several centuries later. The Romans ignored it during their conquest of the Po River Delta, in 49 BC, it was the location where Julius Caesar gathered his forces before crossing the Rubicon. Later, after his battle against Mark Antony in 31 BC and this harbor, protected at first by its own walls, was an important station of the Roman Imperial Fleet. Nowadays the city is landlocked, but Ravenna remained an important seaport on the Adriatic until the early Middle Ages, during the German campaigns, Thusnelda, widow of Arminius, and Marbod, King of the Marcomanni, were confined at Ravenna. Ravenna greatly prospered under Roman rule, Emperor Trajan built a 70 km long aqueduct at the beginning of the 2nd century. During the Marcomannic Wars, Germanic settlers in Ravenna revolted and managed to seize possession of the city, for this reason, Marcus Aurelius decided not only against bringing more barbarians into Italy, but even banished those who had previously been brought there. In AD402, Emperor Honorius transferred the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Milan to Ravenna, at that time it was home to 50,000 people. However, in 409, King Alaric I of the Visigoths simply bypassed Ravenna, after many vicissitudes, Galla Placidia returned to Ravenna with her son, Emperor Valentinian III and the support of her nephew Theodosius II. The late 5th century saw the dissolution of Roman authority in the west, Odoacer ruled as King of Italy for 13 years, but in 489 the Eastern Emperor Zeno sent the Ostrogoth King Theoderic the Great to re-take the Italian peninsula. After losing the Battle of Verona, Odoacer retreated to Ravenna, Theoderic took Ravenna in 493, supposedly slew Odoacer with his own hands, and Ravenna became the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy. Both Odoacer and Theoderic and their followers were Arian Christians, but co-existed peacefully with the Latins, Ravennas Orthodox bishops carried out notable building projects, of which the sole surviving one is the Capella Arcivescovile. Theoderic allowed Roman citizens within his kingdom to be subject to Roman law, the Goths, meanwhile, lived under their own laws and customsRavenna – Collage of Ravenna
101. Valentinian III – Valentinian III was Western Roman Emperor from 425 to 455. His reign was marked by the dismemberment of the Western Empire. Valentinian was born in the capital of Ravenna, the only son of Galla Placidia. His mother was the younger half-sister of the western emperor Honorius, while his father was at the time a Patrician and the power behind the throne. Through his mother, Valentinian was a descendant both of Theodosius I, who was his grandfather, and of Valentinian I, who was the father of his maternal grandmother. It was also through his mothers side of the family that he was the nephew of Honorius and first cousin to Theodosius II, Valentinian had a full sister, Justa Grata Honoria, who was probably born in 417 or 418. When Valentinian was less than two years old, Honorius appointed Constantius co-emperor, a position he would hold until his death seven months later, as a result of all these family ties, Valentinian was the son, grandson, great-grandson, cousin, and nephew of Roman Emperors. In either 421 or 423, Valentinian was given the title of Nobilissimus by Honorius, in 423, Honorius died, and the usurper Joannes took the power in Rome. To counter this threat to his power, Theodosius belatedly recognised Valentinian’s father as Augustus, Theodosius also betrothed him to his own daughter Licinia Eudoxia. Given his minority status, the new Augustus ruled under the regency of his mother Galla Placidia and her regency lasted until 437, and, for the duration, Theodosius II gave her his full support. This period was marked with an imperial policy and an attempt to stabilize the western provinces as far as the stretched resources of the empire could manage. In 425, the court at Ravenna negotiated with the Huns who had accompanied Flavius Aëtius to Italy in support of Joannes and they agreed to leave Italy, and to evacuate the province of Pannonia Valeria, which was returned to the empire. This allowed Felix and the government to restructure the defences along the Danubian provinces in 427 and 428. In addition, there were significant victories over the Visigoths in Gaul in 426/7 and 430, nevertheless, there were significant problems that threatened the viability of the Roman state in the west. The Visigoths were a constant presence in south-eastern Gaul and could not be dislodged, the Vandals in Hispania continued their incursions, and, in 429, they commenced their invasion of Mauretania Tingitana. The loss of these territories seriously impacted the ability to function. The burden of taxation became more and more intolerable as Romes power decreased, in 427, Felix accused Bonifacius of being a traitor and demanded that he return to Italy. Bonifacius refused and defeated an army sent by Felix to capture him, weakened, Felix was unable to resist Aëtius who, with the support of Galla Placidia, replaced him as Magister militum praesentalis in 429, before having him killed in 430Valentinian III – Solidus of Emperor Valentinian III.
102. Petronius Maximus – Petronius Maximus was Western Roman Emperor for two and a half months in 455. A wealthy senator and a prominent aristocrat, he was instrumental in the murders of the Western Roman magister militum, Flavius Aëtius, Maximus was killed during the events culminating in the sack of Rome by the Vandals in 455. Petronius Maximus was born in about 396, although he was of obscure origin, it is now believed that he belonged to the Anicii family. Maximus achieved a remarkable career early in life, from January/February 420 to August/September 421 he was praefectus urbi of Rome, an office he held again sometime before 439, as praefectus he restored the Old St. Peters Basilica. He was also appointed praetorian prefect sometime between 421 and 439, it was either while holding this post or during his second urban prefecture that he was appointed consul for the year 433. From August 439 to February 441 he held the prefecture of Italy. Between 443 and 445 Maximus built a forum in Rome, on the Caelian Hill between via Labicana and the Basilica di San Clemente. During this year, he was briefly the most honored of all non-Imperial Romans, until the consulate of Flavius Aëtius, generalissimo of the Western empire. The enmity between Petronius Maximus and the powerful Patricius and magister militum of the West Aëtius clearly led to the events that brought down the Western Roman Empire. Initially however, the beneficiary of this was Maximus, who came to the throne as a result of the murders of Aëtius in 454. According to the historian John of Antioch, Maximus poisoned the mind of the Emperor against Aëtius, john’s account has it that Valentinian and Maximus placed a wager on a game that Maximus ended up losing. As he did not have the available, Maximus left his ring as a guarantee of his debt. Valentinian then used the ring to summon to court Lucina, the chaste and beautiful wife of Maximus, Lucina went to the court, believing she had been summoned by her husband, but instead found herself at dinner with Valentinian. Although initially resisting his advances, the Emperor managed to wear her down, returning home and meeting Maximus, she accused him of betrayal, believing that he had handed her over to the Emperor. Although Maximus swore revenge, he was motivated by ambition to supplant a detested and despicable rival. According to John of Antioch, Maximus was acutely aware that while Aëtius was alive he could not exact vengeance on Valentinian, so Aëtius had to be removed. He therefore allied himself with a eunuch of Valentinians, the primicerius sacri cubiculi Heraclius, according to John of Antioch, Maximus was so irritated by Valentinian’s refusal to appoint him as his magister militum that he decided to have Valentinian assassinated as well. He chose as accomplices Optilia and Thraustila, two Scythians who had fought under the command of Aetius and who, after the death of their general, had appointed as Valentinian’s escortPetronius Maximus – Solidus of Emperor Petronius Maximus.
103. Avitus – Marcus Maecilius Flavius Eparchius Avitus c. 380/395 – after 17 October 456 or in 457) was Western Roman Emperor from 8 or 9 July 455 to 17 October 456 and he was a senator and a high-ranking officer both in the civil and military administration, as well as Bishop of Piacenza. A Gallo-Roman aristocrat, he opposed the reduction of the Western Roman Empire to Italy alone, Avitus had a good relationship with the Visigoths, in particular with their king Theodoric II, who was a friend of his and who acclaimed Avitus Emperor. Avitus was born in Clermont to a family of the Gallo-Roman nobility and his father was possibly Flavius Julius Agricola, consul in 421. Avitus had two sons, Agricola and Ecdicius Avitus and a daughter Papianilla, she married Sidonius Apollinaris, whose letters and panegyrics remain an important source for Avitus life, Avitus followed a course of study typical for a young man of his rank, including law. Before 421 he was sent to the powerful patricius Flavius Constantius to ask for a tax reduction for his own country and his relative Theodorus was hostage at the court of the King of Visigoths, Theodoric I. In 425/426 Avitus went and met him and the King, who let Avitus enter his own court, here, around 439, Avitus met the son of Theodoric, Theodoric II, who later became King. Avitus inspired the young Theodoric to study Latin poets and he then started a military career serving under the magister militum Aetius in his campaign against the Juthungi and the Norics and against the Burgundians. In 437, after being elevated to the rank of vir illustris, he returned to Avernia, in the same year he defeated a group of Hunnic raiders near Clermont and obliged Theodoric to lift the siege of Narbonne. In 439 he became Praetorian prefect of Gaul and renewed the treaty with the Visigoths. Before the summer of 440, he retired to life at his estate, Avitacum. This embassy probably confirmed to the new king and his people the condition of foederati of the Empire, while Avitus was at Theodorics court, news came of the death of Petronius Maximus and of the sack of Rome by the Vandals of Gaiseric. Avitus stayed in Gaul for three months, to consolidate his power in the region that was the center of his support, on 21 September, finally, he entered Rome. The effective power of Avitus depended on the support of all the players in the Western Roman Empire in the mid-5th century. The new Emperor needed the support of both the institutions, the Roman senate and the Eastern Roman Emperor Marcian, as well as that of the army and its commanders. On 1 January 456, Avitus took the consulate, as traditionally the Emperors held the consulate in the first year upon assuming the purple, however, his consulate sine collega was not recognised by the Eastern court, which nominated two consuls, Iohannes and Varanes. Treaties under Marcian and a treaty of 442 between emperor Valentinian III and the Vandal king Gaiseric had failed to reduce Vandal incursions and raids along the Italian coast, Avitus own efforts secured a temporary winter truce with them, but in March 456, Vandals destroyed Capua. Avitus sent Ricimer to defend Sicily, and the Romans defeated the Vandals twice, once in a battle near AgrigentoAvitus – Tremissis of Emperor Avitus.
104. Anthemius – Anthemius was Western Roman Emperor from 467 to 472. Anthemius was killed by Ricimer, his own general of Gothic descent, Anthemius belonged to a noble family, the gens Procopia, which gave several high officers, both civil and military, to the Eastern Roman Empire. 400, descended from Flavius Philippus, Praetorian prefect of the East in 346, in 454 he was recalled to Constantinople, where he received the title of patricius in 454 or 455 and became one of the two magistri militum or magister utriusque militiae of the East. In 455 he received the honour of holding the consulate with the Western Emperor Valentinian III as colleague. Therefore, both empires had no Emperor, and the power was in the hands of the Western generals, Ricimer and Majorian, and of the Eastern Magister militum, the Alan Aspar. Anthemius stayed in service under the new Emperor, as magister militum, around 460, he defeated the Ostrogoths of Valamir in Illyricum. During the winter of 466/467 he defeated a group of Huns, led by Hormidac, the newly elected Eastern Roman Emperor, Leo I the Thracian, had a major foreign affairs problem, the Vandals of King Geiseric and their raids on the Italian coasts. After the death of Libius Severus in 465, the Western Empire had no Emperor, Gaiseric had his own candidate, Olybrius, who was related to Gaiseric because both Olybrius and a son of Gaiserics had married the two daughters of Emperor Valentinian III. With Olybrius on the throne, Gaiseric would become the power behind the throne of the Western Empire. Leo, on the hand, wanted to keep Gaiseric as far as possible from the imperial court at Ravenna. On 25 March 467, Leo I, with the consent of Ricimer, designated Anthemius Western Emperor as Caesar, on April 12, Anthemius was proclaimed Emperor at the third or twelfth mile from Rome. Anthemius election was celebrated in Constantinople with a panegyric by Dioscorus, the reign of Anthemius was characterised by a good diplomatic relationship with the Eastern Empire, for example, Anthemius is the last Western Emperor to be recorded in an Eastern law. Both courts collaborated in the choice of the consuls, as each court chose a consul. Anthemius had the honour of holding the consulate sine collega in 468, the following year the two consuls were Anthemius son, Marcian, and Leos son-in-law, Flavius Zeno. In 470 the consuls were Messius Phoebus Severus, Anthemius old friend and fellow student at Proclus school, Anthemius matrimonial policy also included the marriage of his only daughter, Alypia, and the powerful Magister militum Ricimer. The Vandals were the problem of the Western Empire. In 468, Leo the Thracian, Anthemius and Marcellinus organised an operation against the Vandal kingdom in Africa. The commander-in-chief of the operation was Leos brother-in-law Basiliscus, the fleet was defeated in the Battle of Cape Bon, however, with Marcellinus killed at Roman hands in its wakeAnthemius – Tremissis of Emperor Anthemius. His title is Our Lord, Anthemius, Pious, Fortunate, Augustus.
105. Glycerius – Glycerius was a Western Roman Emperor from 473 to 474. Elevated by his Magister militum Gundobad, Glycerius was rejected by the court at Constantinople and he later served as the bishop of Salona. Sources on Glycerius are scarce and scanty and it is known that at the time of his elevation to the throne he was the comes domesticorum, the commander of the Imperial guard of the court at Ravenna. Previous to this posting, he had been the commander in Dalmatia. In 472, the Western Roman Empire was plagued by a war between Emperor Anthemius and his Magister militum, Ricimer. Ricimer killed the Emperor and put Olybrius on the throne, little is known about the short reign of Glycerius. A single law issued by Glycerius survives, concerning simony, dated 11 March 473 and addressed to Himilco, ralph Mathisen speculates that Glycerius tried to stay on good terms with the Eastern Roman Empire. For most of his rule, Glycerius lived in Northern Italy, evidenced by the fact that the coins issued in his name bear the mintmarks of Milan. In 473, Euric, King of the Visigoths, ordered the invasion of Italy, despite the victorious defence of Italy, Glycerius could do nothing to prevent the Visigoths from conquering Arelate and Marseille, in Gaul. At the same time, the Ostrogoths led by King Widimir began marching to Italy, the possibility that the two Gothic armies would merge was disastrous. While this strategy prevented Vincentius from receiving reinforcements, it led to the convergence of both Gothic armies against Gaul. Therefore, Leo chose a candidate on his own, Julius Nepos, Magister militum in Dalmatia, the election was delayed, however, so Julius Nepos could not leave immediately, as the ports were closed for the winter. Leo I died in January 474 and was succeeded by his grandson, the young Leo II, Zeno continued the official position of Constantinople to deny any recognition of Glycerius, whom the court continued to view as a usurper. Regardless, Glycerius tried to reconcile with the Eastern court or, at least, for example, he did not choose a second Consul in order to allow Leo II to be Consul alone for the year 474. In spring 474, the ports re-opened and Julius Nepos crossed the Adriatic Sea to Italy to depose Glycerius. Glycerius probably left Ravenna for Rome to resist the invader, he had a coin minted in Rome, claiming himself as Emperor together with Leo II and Zeno. However, Julius Nepos disembarked at Portus in July 474 AD, Glycerius was sent to Dalmatia as Bishop of Salona, serving a religious life until his death. Glycerius deposition was thus without any bloodshed, and historians investigated the reasons why the Western EmperorGlycerius – Solidus of Emperor Glycerius
106. Pulcheria – St. Aelia Pulcheria /ˈiːliə pʌlˈkɪriə/ was the second child of Eastern Roman Emperor Arcadius and Empress Aelia Eudoxia. In 415, the fifteen-year old Pulcheria took over the reigns of government as the guardian of her younger brother Theodosius II and was also proclaimed Augusta, Pulcheria had significant, though changing, political power during her brothers reign. When Theodosius II died on 26 July 450, Pulcheria provided a successor by marrying Marcian on 25 November 450 and she died three years later, in July 453. The Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church subsequently recognized her as a saint, Pulcheria was born into the royal House of Theodosius, a dynasty of the later Roman Empire, ruling in Constantinople. Her parents were Eastern Roman Emperor Arcadius and Empress Aelia Eudoxia, Pulcherias older sister, Flaccilla, was born in 397 but probably died young. Her younger siblings were Arcadia, Theodosius II, the future emperor, John declared that these proceedings reflected dishonor on the hurch. Also according to Sozomen, Chrysostom had condemned the Empress for her style in his sermons. Later in life, Pulcheria returned the relics of St. John Chrysostom and installed them for the Church, Eudoxia died in 404, and Emperor Arcadius in 408. They left behind four children, including Theodosius II, then 7 years of age, who had been his fathers nominal co-Emperor since 402. Two praetorian prefects named Anthemius and Antiochus at first handled government affairs, at the same time, Pulcheria made a vow of virginity, probably to keep off pontential suitors. After this, the imperial palace assumed a monastic tone in comparison with her mothers palace. and pass their days, rituals within the imperial palace included chanting and reciting passages of sacred scripture and fasting twice per week. The sisters relinquished luxurious jewelry and apparel which most women of the court wore. Pulcheria also provided all the necessary for Theodosius to be a successful emperor when he would come of age. In fact it can be said without exaggeration that Pulcheria gave the identity to her brothers reign, by no means must he yield to loud laughter. Not only did Pulcheria train her brother in the duties and customs of imperial office, according to many historians, upon coming of age to rule as sole Emperor, Theodosius ignored the teachings of his sister. He was by nature kind, affable, easily led, not only was he foolishly kind, he was careless, and often he was to neglect his duty in the administration of his Empire. The lack of determined leadership by Theodosius motivated Pulcheria to assume greater authority, at the time Pulcheria proclaimed herself guardian of her brother, in an act of piety she also took a vow of virginity, and her sisters followed her example. Sozomen explains that, She devoted her virginity to God, to avoid cause of scandal and opportunities for intrigue, she permitted no man to enter her palacePulcheria – Coin of Aelia Pulcheria
107. Leo II (emperor) – Leo II was Eastern Roman Emperor for less than a year in 474. He was the son of Zeno and Ariadne, and maternal grandson of Leo I, as Leos closest male relative, he was named successor upon his grandfathers death. After taking his father as colleague, he died of a disease about 10 months into his reign in November,474. It was widely rumored that he might have been poisoned by his mother Ariadne in order to bring her husband Zeno to the throne and he was indeed succeeded by his father, although his grandmother Verina took advantage of his death to conspire against Zeno. List of Byzantine emperors Ostrogorsky, George, imperial unity and Christian divisions, The Church 450-680 A. D. Crestwood, NY, St. Vladimirs Seminary PressLeo II (emperor) – Coin issued during the joint rule of Leo II and Zeno.
108. Constantine III (Byzantine emperor) – Constantine III was Eastern Roman Emperor for four months in 641. He was the eldest son of the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius and his first wife Eudokia, Constantines birth name was Heraclius Novus Constantinus, which was also the official name under which he reigned. The name Constantine became established in later Byzantine texts as short for the Emperor and has become standard in modern historiography, in terms of official imperial nomenclature, the style Constantine III would be more appropriate for his son Constans II. Constantine was crowned co-emperor by his father on 22 January 613 and shortly after was betrothed to his cousin, Gregoria, a daughter of his fathers first cousin, Nicetas. As the couple were cousins, the marriage was technically incestuous. Furthermore, its illegality paled into insignificance beside Heraclius marriage to his niece Martina the same year, in comparison, Constantines marriage was far less scandalous than that of his fathers. Constantine and Gregoria married in 629 or perhaps early 630 and in that year their first child and their second child was another son, Theodosius. They also had a daughter named Manyanh who later married the last Sassanid King of Persia, Constantine became senior Emperor when his father died in 641. He reigned together with his younger half-brother Heraklonas, the son of Martina, indeed, he died of tuberculosis after only four months, leaving Heraklonas sole emperor. A rumor that Martina had him poisoned led first to the imposition of Constans II as co-emperor and then to the deposition, mutilation, the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press,1991Constantine III (Byzantine emperor) – Byzantine coin depicting, on its face, Constantine with his father Heraclius and brother Heraklonas
109. Justinian II – Justinian II, surnamed the Rhinotmetos or Rhinotmetus, was the last Byzantine Emperor of the Heraclian Dynasty, reigning from 685 to 695 and again from 705 to 711. His second reign was even more despotic than the first, and it too saw his eventual overthrow in 711, Justinian II was eldest son of Emperor Constantine IV and Anastasia. His father raised him to the throne as joint emperor in 681 on the fall of his uncles Heraclius and Tiberius, in 685, at the age of sixteen, Justinian II succeeded his father as sole emperor. Due to Constantine IVs victories, the situation in the Eastern provinces of the Empire was stable when Justinian ascended the throne. After a preliminary strike against the Arabs in Armenia, Justinian managed to augment the sum paid by the Umayyad Caliphs as an annual tribute, the incomes of the provinces of Armenia and Iberia were divided among the two empires. In 687, as part of his agreements with the Caliphate, Justinian removed from their native Lebanon 12,000 Christian Maronites, additional resettlement efforts, aimed at the Mardaites and inhabitants of Cyprus allowed Justinian to reinforce naval forces depleted by earlier conflicts. Justinian took advantage of the peace in the East to regain possession of the Balkans, in 687 Justinian transferred cavalry troops from Anatolia to Thrace. With a great campaign in 688–689, Justinian defeated the Bulgars of Macedonia and was finally able to enter Thessalonica. The subdued Slavs were resettled in Anatolia, where they were to provide a force of 30,000 men. Emboldened by the increase of his forces in Anatolia, Justinian now renewed the war against the Arabs, with the help of his new troops, Justinian won a battle against the enemy in Armenia in 693, but they were soon bribed to revolt by the Arabs. The result was that Justinian was comprehensively defeated at the Battle of Sebastopolis, caused by the defection of most of his Slavic troops, while he himself was forced to flee to the Propontis. There, according to Theophanes, he took out his frustration by slaughtering as many of the Slavs in and around Opsikion as he could lay his hands on. In the meantime, a Patrician by the name of Symbatius proceeded to rebel in Armenia, and opened up the province to the Arabs, meanwhile, the Emperors bloody persecution of the Manichaeans and suppression of popular traditions of non-Orthodox origin caused dissension within the Church. In 692 Justinian convened the so-called Quinisext Council at Constantinople to put his religious policies into effect, the emperor ordered Pope Sergius I arrested, but the militias of Rome and Ravenna rebelled and took the Popes side. If his land policies threatened the aristocracy, his tax policy was no more popular with the common people, through his agents Stephen and Theodotos, the emperor raised the funds to gratify his sumptuous tastes and his mania for erecting costly buildings. This, ongoing religious discontent, conflicts with the aristocracy, in 695 the population rose under Leontios, the strategos of Hellas, and proclaimed him Emperor. Justinian was deposed and his nose was cut off to prevent his again seeking the throne and he was exiled to Cherson in the Crimea. Leontius, after a reign of three years, was in turn dethroned and imprisoned by Tiberius Apsimarus, who assumed the throneJustinian II – Justinian, on the reverse of this coin struck during his second reign, is holding a patriarchal globe with PAX, "peace"
110. Leontios – Leontios was Byzantine emperor from 695 to 698. He came to power by overthrowing the Emperor Justinian II, but was overthrown in his turn by Tiberios III and his actual and official name was Leo, but he is known by the name used for him in Byzantine chronicles. A professional soldier from an age, he rose swiftly through the ranks and was appointed strategos of the Anatolic theme during the reign of Emperor Constantine IV. In 686 Leontios was chosen by Justinian II to lead the Byzantine army against the Arabs in Georgia and Armenia, ruthless even by the standards of the day, Leontios carried the war further into Iranian Azerbaijan and Caucasian Albania. His successes eventually forced the negotiation of a treaty between Byzantium and the Arabic Caliph Abd al-Malik with substantial Arabic concessions and tributes to the Byzantine Emperor, Leontios was less successful when war against the Arabs was renewed in 692. Leading a substantial Byzantine army, he was defeated at the Battle of Sebastopolis when a large Slavic contingent deserted, furious at the loss of the army, the Emperor Justinian imprisoned Leontius for two years. The Emperor freed Leontios in 695 and appointed him strategos of the Helladic theme, instead he organized a revolt against the emperor, led largely by his former prison comrades. With the help of the Blue charioteers faction, the Patriarch Kallinikos, justinians nose and tongue were slit and he was exiled to Cherson in the Crimea. During his unpopular reign, Leontios refrained from most military operations and this inactivity and defensive posture led to Abd al-Malik dispatching an expedition to take Carthage which fell in 697. Leontios had sent a fleet to retake the city but it failed at the Battle of Carthage, rather than return to report their failure, the Byzantine army rebelled, overthrowing their admiral and naming a Germanic sailor named Apsimaros as their leader. Apsimaros hastily changed his name to Tiberios III and the returned to Constantinople where, with the support of the Green faction. In what had by now become a tradition for deposed emperors, Leontios had his nose, when the previous Emperor Justinian returned to the throne in 705, both Tiberios and Leontios were paraded through the streets while the citizenry pelted them with ordure. They were then led to the Hippodrome where they were sentenced to death, kazhdan, Alexander, ed. Scott, Leontius, De Imperatoribus Romanis Warren Treadgold, A History of the Byzantine State and Society ISBN 0-8047-2630-2 Bury, J. B. A History of the Later Roman Empire from Arcadius to Irene, Vol. II, MacMillan & Co.1889 List of Byzantine emperorsLeontios – Gold solidus with Leontios, showing the symbols of power: the crown, the globus cruciger, and the akakia. On the reverse, a potent cross on three steps.
111. Anastasios II – Anastasius, known in English as Anastasios II or Anastasius II, was the Byzantine Emperor from 713 to 715. Anastasios was originally named Artemius and had served as a bureaucrat, after the Opsician army in Thrace had overthrown Emperor Philippikos Bardanes, they acclaimed Artemius as Emperor. He chose Anastasius as his regnal name, soon after his accession, Anastasius II imposed discipline on the army and executed those officers who had been directly involved in the conspiracy against Philippikos. Anastasios upheld the decisions of the Sixth Ecumenical Council and deposed the Monothelete Patriarch John VI of Constantinople and this also put an end to the short-lived local schism with the Catholic Church. The advancing Umayyad Caliphate surrounded the Empire by land and sea and his emissaries having failed in Damascus, he undertook the restoration of Constantinoples walls and the rebuilding of the Roman fleet. However, the death of the Caliph al-Walid I in 715 gave Anastasius an opportunity to turn the tables on his rival. These troops of the Opsician theme, resenting the Emperors strict measures, mutinied, slew the admiral John, and proclaimed as emperor Theodosius III, a tax-collector of low extraction. In 719, Anastasios headed a revolt against Leo III, who had succeeded Theodosius, receiving considerable support, however the chronicler Theophanes the Confessor, who offers this information elsewhere, confuses Tervel with his eventual successor Kormesiy, so perhaps Anastasios was allied with the younger ruler. In any case, the rebel forces advanced on Constantinople, the enterprise failed, and Anastasios fell into Leos hands and was put to death by his orders. List of Byzantine emperors Ostrogorsky, George, the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press,1991. Media related to Anastasius II at Wikimedia CommonsAnastasios II – A coin of Anastasios II
112. Theodosius III – Theodosios III or Theodosius III was Byzantine Emperor from 715 to 25 March 717. Theodosius was an officer and tax collector in the southern portion of the theme of Opsikion. According to one theory, he was the son of the former Emperor Tiberius III, according to another theory, he was of low extraction. When the thematic troops rebelled against Emperor Anastasius II, Theodosius was chosen as emperor and he did not readily accept this choice and, according to the chronicler Theophanes the Confessor, even attempted to hide in the forests near Adramyttium. Eventually he was found and was acclaimed emperor in May 715, Theodosius and his troops immediately laid siege to Constantinople. Six months later, in November, they gained entry to the city, Theodosius showed himself remarkably moderate in his treatment of his predecessor and his supporters. Through the intercession of Patriarch Germanus I of Constantinople, Anastasius II was convinced to abdicate, little is known of Theodosius short reign. He immediately faced an Arab invasion deep into Anatolia and the advance of the Arab fleet, in 716 he concluded a treaty with Tervel of Bulgaria favorable to the Bulgarians in an effort to secure support against the Arab invasion. This policy paid off in 719 when they helped relieve the Second Arab siege of Constantinople, in 717, the strategos of the Anatolic Theme, Leo the Isaurian, rebelled against Theodosius rule in collusion with Artabasdos, the strategos of the Armeniac Theme. Theodosius son was captured by Leo in Nicomedia, and Theodosius chose to resign the throne on 25 March 717 and he and his son subsequently entered the clergy. The resignation of Theodosius III ended a string of short-lived and ineffective rulers often skipped over in history books, in his History of the Byzantine Empire, Vol.1, A. A. By 729 Theodosius is believed to have become bishop of Ephesus, modern historians however suspect the bishop was actually his son. Either way, this bishop was last recorded alive on 24 July 754, by his unnamed wife, Theodosius III was the father of at least one son, Theodosius, perhaps the bishop in question. List of Byzantine emperors Ostrogorsky, George, the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press,1991Theodosius III – A coin of Theodosios III
113. Constantine V – Constantine V was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775. Constantine was born in Constantinople, the son and successor of Emperor Leo III, in August 720 he was associated on the throne by his father, who had him marry Tzitzak, daughter of the Khazar khagan Bihar. His new bride was baptized as Irene in 732, Constantine V succeeded his father as sole emperor on 18 June 741. Artabasdos was the stratēgos of the Armeniac theme, Constantine was defeated and sought refuge in Amorion, while Artabasdos advanced on Constantinople and was accepted as Emperor. Constantine received the support of the Anatolic and Thracesian themes, Artabasdos secured the support of the themes of Thrace and Opsikion, the rival emperors bided their time making military preparations. Artabasdos marched against Constantine in May 743 but was defeated, three months later Constantine defeated Artabasdos son Niketas and headed for Constantinople. In early November Constantine was admitted into the capital and immediately turned on his opponents, the usurpation of Artabasdos was connected with restoring the veneration of images, leading Constantine to become perhaps an even more fervent iconoclast than his father. Constantines avowed enemies over this extremely emotional issue, the iconodules, using this obscene name, they spread the rumour that as an infant he had defecated in his baptismal font, or on the imperial purple cloth with which he was swaddled. Constantines position on Iconoclasm was clear, He cannot be depicted, for what is depicted in one person, and he who circumscribes that person has plainly circumscribed the divine nature which is incapable of being circumscribed. In February 754 Constantine convened a synod at Hieria, which was attended entirely by Iconoclast bishops, the council approved of Constantines religious policy and secured the election of a new Iconoclast patriarch, but refused to follow in all of Constantines views. The synod was followed by a campaign to remove images from the walls of churches and to purge the court, the repressions against the monks were largely led by the Emperors general Michael Lachanodrakon, who threatened resistant monks with blinding and exile. An iconodule abbot, Stephen Neos, was lynched by a mob at the behest of the authorities. As a result, many fled to southern Italy and Sicily. By the end of Constantines reign, Iconoclasm had gone as far as to brand relics, ultimately, iconophiles considered his death a divine punishment. In the 9th century he was disinterred, and his remains were thrown into the sea, Constantine was an able general and administrator. He reorganised the themes, the districts of the Empire. This organization was intended to minimize the threat of conspiracies and to enhance the capabilities of the Empire. With this reorganized army he embarked on campaigns on the three major frontiers, in 746, profiting by the unstable conditions in the Umayyad Caliphate, which was falling apart under Marwan II, Constantine invaded Syria and captured GermanikeiaConstantine V – Constantine V and his father Leo III the Isaurian
114. Artabasdos – Artavasdos or Artabasdos, Latinized as Artabasdus, was a Byzantine general of Armenian descent who seized the throne from June 741 or 742 until November 743. His reign constitutes a usurpation against Constantine V, who had retained control of several themes in Asia Minor, after Anastasius fall, Artabasdos made an agreement with his colleague Leo, the governor of the Anatolic theme, to overthrow the new Emperor Theodosius III. This agreement was sealed with the engagement of Leos daughter Anna to Artabasdos, Artabasdos was awarded the rank of kouropalates and became commander of the Opsikion theme, while retaining control of his original command. While Constantine fled to Amorion, Artabasdus seized Constantinople amid popular support and was crowned emperor, Artabasdos abandoned his predecessors religious policy of Iconoclasm and restored Orthodoxy with some support, including that of Pope Zacharias. Soon after his accession, Artabasdus crowned his wife Anna as Augusta and his son Nikephoros as co-emperor, but while Artabasdus could rely also on the support of the themes of Thrace and Opsikion, Constantine secured for himself the support of the Anatolic and Thracesian themes. The inevitable clash came in May 743, when Artabasdus led the offensive against Constantine but was defeated, later the same year Constantine defeated Nicetas, and on November 2,743 Artabasdus reign came to an end as Constantine V entered Constantinople and apprehended his rival. Artabasdus and his sons were blinded and relegated to the monastery of Chora on the outskirts of Constantinople. The date of his death is unknown, by his wife Anna, the daughter of Emperor Leo III, Artabasdos had nine children, including, Nikephoros, who was co-emperor from 742 to 743. Niketas, who was strategos of the Armeniac theme from 742 to 743, list of Byzantine emperors Notes References Garland, Lynda. Byzantine women, varieties of experience 800–1200, - Total pages,226 Venetis, Evangelos. Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia MinorArtabasdos – Seal of Artabasdos as kouropalates
115. Leo IV the Khazar – Leo IV the Khazar was Byzantine Emperor from 775 to 780 AD. Leo was the son of Emperor Constantine V by his first wife, Irene of Khazaria and he was crowned co-emperor by his father in 751. Leo was betrothed to Gisela, daughter of Pepin the Short, Leo then married Irene, an Athenian from a noble family, in December 769. In 775 Constantine V died, leaving Leo as sole emperor, on 24 April 776 Leo, following the precedent set by his father and grandfather, appointed his son, Constantine VI, co-emperor. This led to an uprising of Leo’s five half-brothers, including Caesar Nikephoros, the uprising was put down quickly, with the conspirators being beaten, tonsured, and exiled to Cherson under guard. Leo IV was raised as an iconoclast under his father but was married to Irene, realizing the division in his realm he pursued a path of conciliation towards the iconodules, previously declared heretical under imperial policy. In addition to the concessionary actions Leo also appointed an iconophile sympathizer, Paul of Cyprus, at the end of his reign, Leo reversed his stance of toleration. Leo himself set out with his army against the Bulgars but died of fever while on campaign, Leo’s death on 8 September 780 resulted in the accession of his wife, Irene, to the throne. Constantine VI was the son of Leo IV and succeeded him as emperor, ruling jointly with his mother. List of Byzantine emperors Ostrogorsky, George, Garland, Lynda, Irene of Athens, at roman-emperors. org Garland, Lynda, Leo IV, at roman-emperors. org Jenkins, Romilly, Byzantium, The Imperial Centuries, Weidenfeld and Nicoloson,1966. Treadgold, Warren, The Byzantine Revival, Stanford University Press,1988, the Chronicle of Theophanes Anni Mundi 6095–6305, Tr. Harry Turtledove University of Pennsylvania Press,1982Leo IV the Khazar – Gold solidus of Leo IV and his son Constantine VI (obverse), with busts of his grandfather Leo III the Isaurian and his father Constantine V in the reverse
116. Constantine VI – Constantine VI was Byzantine Emperor from 780 to 797. Constantine VI was the child of Emperor Leo IV and Irene. Constantine was crowned co-emperor by his father in 776, and succeeded as emperor in 780. Due to his minority, Irene and her chief minister Staurakios exercised the regency for him, in 787 Constantine had signed the decrees of the Second Council of Nicaea, but he appears to have had iconoclast sympathies. By then Constantine had turned 16 years old, but his mother did not relinquish authority to him. In 788, Irene herself broke off the engagement of Constantine with Rotrude, turning against Charlemagne, the Byzantines now supported Lombard pretender Adalgis, who had been forced into exile after the Frankish invasion of Italy. After a conspiracy against Irene was suppressed in the spring of 790 she attempted to get recognition as empress. This backfired and with military support Constantine finally came to power in 790. Nevertheless, she was allowed to keep the title of Empress, once in control of the state, Constantine proved incapable of sound governance. His army was defeated by the Arabs, and Constantine himself suffered a defeat at the hands of Kardam of Bulgaria in the 792 Battle of Marcellae. A movement developed in favor of his uncle, the Caesar Nikephoros, Constantine had his uncles eyes put out and the tongues of his fathers four other half-brothers cut off. His former Armenian supporters revolted after he had blinded their general Alexios Mosele and he crushed this revolt with extreme cruelty in 793. Although the Patriarch Tarasios did not publicly speak against it, he did refuse to officiate the marriage, popular disapproval was expressed by Theodotes uncle, Plato of Sakkoudion, who even broke communion with Tarasios for his passive stance. Platos intransigence led to his own imprisonment, while his supporters were persecuted and exiled to Thessalonica. The Moechian Controversy cost Constantine what popularity he had left, especially in the church establishment and it is unknown when exactly Constantine died, it was certainly before 805, but he very likely died of his wounds shortly after being blinded. He was buried in the Monastery of St. Euphrosyne, which Irene had founded, in the early 820s, the rebel Thomas the Slav claimed to be Constantine VI in an effort to gain support against Michael II. Cutler, Anthony, Hollingsworth, Paul A. Constantine VI, Oxford and New York, Oxford University Press. Byzantine Empresses, Women and Power in Byzantium, AD 527–1204, a History of the Byzantine State and SocietyConstantine VI – Constantine VI (right to the cross) presiding over the Second Council of Nicaea. Miniature from early 11th century.
117. Irene of Athens – Irene of Athens, also known as Irene Sarantapechaina, was Byzantine empress from 797 to 802. Before that, Irene was empress consort from 775 to 780 and she is best known for ending Iconoclasm. Irene was related to the noble Greek Sarantapechos family of Athens, although she was an orphan, her uncle or cousin Constantine Sarantapechos was a patrician and was possibly strategos of the theme of Hellas at the end of the 8th century. She was brought to Constantinople by Emperor Constantine V on 1 November 768 and was married to his son Leo IV on 17 December, on 14 January 771, Irene gave birth to a son, the future Constantine VI. When Constantine V died in September 775, Leo succeeded to the throne at the age of twenty-five years. Leo, though an iconoclast, pursued a policy of moderation towards iconodules, but his policies became much harsher in August 780, according to tradition, he discovered icons concealed among Irenes possessions and refused to share the marriage bed with her thereafter. Nevertheless, when Leo died on 8 September 780, Irene became regent for their nine-year-old son Constantine, Irene was almost immediately confronted with a conspiracy that tried to raise Caesar Nikephoros, a half-brother of Leo IV, to the throne. To overcome this challenge, she had Nikephoros and his co-conspirators ordained as priests, as early as 781, Irene began to seek a closer relationship with the Carolingian dynasty and the Papacy in Rome. She negotiated a marriage between her son Constantine and Rotrude, a daughter of Charlemagne by his third wife Hildegard, during this time Charlemagne was at war with the Saxons, and would later become the new king of the Franks. Irene went as far as to send an official to instruct the Frankish princess in Greek, however, Irene herself broke off the engagement in 787, Irene next had to subdue a rebellion led by Elpidius, the strategos of Sicily. Irene sent a fleet, which succeeded in defeating the Sicilians, Elpidius fled to Africa, where he defected to the Abbasid Caliphate. After the success of Constantine Vs general, Michael Lachanodrakon, who foiled an Abbasid attack on the eastern frontiers, Irenes most notable act was the restoration of the veneration of icons. Having chosen Tarasios, one of her partisans and her secretary, as Patriarch of Constantinople in 784. The first of these, held in 786 at Constantinople, was frustrated by the opposition of the iconoclast soldiers, the second, convened at Nicaea in 787, formally revived the veneration of icons and reunited the Eastern church with that of Rome. While this greatly improved relations with the Papacy, it did not prevent the outbreak of a war with the Franks, nevertheless, Irene was constantly harried by the Abbasids, and in 782 and 798 had to accept the terms of the respective Caliphs Al-Mahdi and Harun al-Rashid. As Constantine approached maturity he began to grow restless under her autocratic sway, an attempt to free himself by force was met and crushed by the Empress, who demanded that the oath of fidelity should thenceforward be taken in her name alone. The discontent which this occasioned swelled in 790 into open resistance, Constantine could only flee for aid to the provinces, but even there participants in the plot surrounded him. Seized by his attendants on the Asiatic shore of the Bosphorus and his eyes were gouged out, and he died from his wounds several days laterIrene of Athens – Image from "Pala d'Oro", Venice, c. 10th century
118. Nikephoros I – Nikephoros I or Nicephorus I, also logothetēs tou genikou, was Byzantine Emperor from 802 to 811 AD, when he was killed in the Battle of Pliska. A patrician from Seleucia Sidera, Nikephoros was appointed minister by the Empress Irene. With the help of the patricians and eunuchs he contrived to dethrone and exile Irene and he crowned his son Staurakios co-emperor in 803. But Nikephoros gained over the two, and by inducing the rebel army to disperse achieved the submission of Bardanes, who was blinded and relegated to a monastery. A conspiracy headed by the patrician Arsaber had a similar issue, Nikephoros embarked on a general reorganization of the Empire, creating new themes in the Balkans and strengthening the frontiers. Needing large sums to increase his forces, he set himself with great energy to increase the Empires revenue. By his rigorous tax imposts he alienated the favour of his subjects, and especially of the clergy, although he appointed an iconodule, Nikephoros as patriarch, Emperor Nikephoros was portrayed as a villain by ecclesiastical historians like Theophanes the Confessor. In 803 Nikephoros concluded a treaty, called the Pax Nicephori, with Charlemagne, relations deteriorated and led to a war over Venice in 806–810. In the process Nikephoros had quelled a Venetian rebellion in 807, by withholding the tribute which Irene had agreed to pay to the caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd, Nikephoros committed himself to a war against the Arabs. Compelled by Bardanes disloyalty to take the field himself, he sustained a defeat at the Battle of Krasos in Phrygia. In 806 a Muslim army of 135,000 men invaded the Empire, unable to counter the Muslim numbers, Nikephoros agreed to make peace on condition of paying 50,000 nomismata immediately and a yearly tribute of 30,000 nomismata. Nikephoros was captured during the battle and sent to Pliska, where Krum ordered his decapitation, Krum is said to have made a drinking-cup of Nikephoros skull. By an unknown wife Nikephoros I had at least two children, Staurakios, who succeeded as emperor, prokopia, who married Michael I Rangabe, emperor 811–813. List of Byzantine emperors The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, ed. by Alexander Kazhdan and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. article name needed. Norwich, John J. Byzantium, The ApogeeNikephoros I – Nikephoros I, from the Manasses Chronicle.
119. Constantine (son of Leo V) – Symbatios, variously also Sabbatios or Sambates in some sources, was the eldest son of the Byzantine emperor Leo V the Armenian. Soon after the coronation of his father, he was crowned co-emperor and he reigned nominally along with his father until the latters deposition in 820, after which he was exiled to Prote as a monk. Symbatios was the eldest son of Leo and his wife, Theodosia, as he was a child at the time of his fathers accession, he was born sometime between 800 and 810. The previous emperor, Michael I Rhangabes, was likely the boys godfather, after Leo deposed Michael I and ascended the throne on Christmas 813, he had the young Symbatios crowned co-emperor and renamed Constantine. In 815, Constantine nominally presided, as his fathers representative, over a Church Council in Constantinople, after the assassination of his father on 25 December 820, Constantine was banished to the island of Prote along with his mother and three brothers. There, the four brothers were castrated and tonsured and they spent the rest of their days there as monks, although Emperor Michael II the Amorian allowed them to keep part of the proceeds from their confiscated estates for their and their servants upkeepConstantine (son of Leo V) – Gold solidus of Leo V, with Constantine on the reverse
120. Basil I – Basil I, called the Macedonian was a Byzantine Emperor who reigned from 867 to 886. Born a simple peasant in the Byzantine theme of Macedonia, he rose in the Imperial court, despite his humble origins, he showed great ability in running the affairs of state, leading to a revival of Imperial power and a renaissance of Byzantine art. Basil was born to peasant parents in late 811 at Charioupolis in the Byzantine theme of Macedonia, the name of his father is unknown, but the name of his grandfather was Maïktes, his mother was named Pankalo, and her father was called Leo. His ethnic origin is unknown, and has been a subject of debate, the Armenian historians Samuel of Ani and Stephen of Taron record that he hailed from the village of Thil in Taron. Claims have therefore been made for an Armenian, Slavic, or indeed Armeno-Slavonic origin for Basil I, the name of his mother, Pankalo, points to a Greek origin on the maternal side. The general scholarly consensus is that Basils father was probably of Armenian origin, one story asserts that he had spent a part of his childhood in captivity in Bulgaria, where his family had, allegedly, been carried off as captives of the Khan Krum in 813. Basil lived there until 836, when he and several others escaped to Byzantine-held territory in Thrace, Basil was ultimately lucky enough to enter the service of Theophilitzes, a relative of the Caesar Bardas, as a groom. While serving Theophilitzes, he visited the city of Patras, where he gained the favour of Danielis, on Emperor Michaels orders, Basil divorced his wife Maria and married Eudokia Ingerina, Michaels favourite mistress, in around 865. During an expedition against the Arabs, Basil convinced Michael III that his uncle Bardas coveted the Byzantine throne, Basil then became the leading personality at court and was invested in the now vacant dignity of kaisar, before being crowned co-emperor on May 26,866. This promotion may have included Basils adoption by Michael III, himself a younger man. It was commonly believed that Leo VI, Basils successor and reputed son, was really the son of Michael. It is notable that when Leo was born, Michael III celebrated the event with public chariot races, when Michael III started to favour another courtier, Basiliskianos, Basil decided that his position was being undermined. Michael threatened to invest Basiliskianos with the Imperial title and this induced Basil to pre-empt events by organizing the assassination of Michael on the night of September 23/24,867. Michael and Basiliskianos were insensibly drunk following a banquet at the palace of Anthimos when Basil, with a group of companions. The locks to the doors had been tampered with and the chamberlain had not posted guards. On Michael IIIs death, Basil, as an already acclaimed co-emperor, Basil I inaugurated a new age in the history of the Byzantine Empire, associated with the dynasty which he founded, the so-called Macedonian dynasty. This dynasty oversaw a period of expansion, during which Byzantium was the strongest power in Europe. It is remarkable that Basil I became an effective and respected monarch, ruling for 19 years, despite being a man with no formal education, moreover, he had been the boon companion of a debauched monarch and had achieved power through a series of calculated murdersBasil I – Basil, his son Constantine, and his second wife, Empress Eudokia Ingerina.
121. Zoe Porphyrogenita – Zoë reigned as Byzantine Empress alongside her sister Theodora from April 19 to June 11,1042. She was also enthroned as the Empress Consort to a series of co-rulers beginning with Romanos III in 1028 until her death in 1050 while married to Constantine IX, Zoë was one of the few Byzantine empresses who was Porphyrogenita, or born into the purple. She was the daughter of Constantine VIII and Helena, daughter of Alypius. Her father had become co-emperor in 962 and sole emperor in 1025 and his reign as sole emperor lasted less than three years, from December 15,1025 to November 15,1028. As an eligible imperial princess she was considered as a bride for the Holy Roman Emperor. A second embassy sent in 1001, headed by Arnulf, Archbishop of Milan, was tasked with selecting Otto’s bride from among Constantine’s three daughters, the eldest, Eudocia, was disfigured by smallpox, while the youngest, Theodora, was a very plain girl. Arnulf therefore selected the attractive 23-year-old Zoë, to which her uncle Basil II agreed, in January 1002 she accompanied Arnulf back to Italy, only to discover when the ship reached Bari that Otto III had died, forcing her to return home. Another opportunity arose in 1028, when an embassy from the Holy Roman Empire arrived in Constantinople with a proposal for an imperial marriage. Constantine VIII and the fifty-year-old Zoë rejected the idea out of hand when it was revealed that the intended groom Henry, the son of Conrad II, was only ten years old. Worried by the prospect of associating another man with the imperial house, consequently, Zoë lived a life of virtual obscurity in the imperial gynaeceum until circumstances forced her into the centre of imperial politics. The first potential match for Zoë was the distinguished noble Constantine Dalassenos and he was eventually overlooked for Romanos III Argyros, the urban prefect of Constantinople. They married on November 10,1028 in the chapel of the palace. Spending years in the same quarters with her sister, Zoë came to loathe Theodora. Shortly afterwards, Theodora was accused of plotting to usurp the throne, first with Presian of Bulgaria, followed by Constantine Diogenes, Zoë accused her of being part of the conspiracy, and Theodora was forcibly confined in the monastery of Petrion. Zoë later visited her sister and forced her to take religious vows, Zoë was similarly obsessed with continuing the Macedonian dynasty. Almost immediately upon marrying Romanos, the fifty-year-old Zoë tried desperately to become pregnant and she tried using magic charms, amulets, and potions, all without effect. This failure to conceive helped alienate the couple, and soon Romanos refused to share the bed with her, Romanos incurred his wifes animosity by paying little attention to her and limiting her spending, while he tolerated her various affairs. Eventually however, in 1033, Zoë became enamoured of her courtier Michael, flaunted her lover openly, hearing the rumours, Romanos was concerned and confronted Michael, but he denied the accusationsZoe Porphyrogenita – Empress Zoe as depicted in a mosaic from the Hagia Sophia
122. Theodora (11th century) – Theodora Porphyrogenita was a Byzantine Empress born into the Macedonian dynasty that had ruled the Byzantine Empire for almost two hundred years. She was co-empress with her sister Zoe for two months in 1042 and sole empress regnant from 11 January 1055 to 31 August 1056. She was the last of the Macedonian line, and upon her death the empire entered a period of decline that lasted until the ascension of Alexios I Komnenos in 1081, Theodora was the youngest daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VIII and Helena, daughter of Alypius. As an eligible princess, she was considered as a possible bride for the Holy Roman Emperor in the west. However, Theodora was overlooked in favour of her sister Zoe, who was selected as the potential bride, from that point onward, Theodora lived a life of obscurity in the imperial gynaeceum. However, after her uncle Basil II died childless, and her father died without siring any sons, Theodora further claimed that since Romanos and she were third cousins, it was too close a blood relationship for marriage to occur. Consequently, Constantine VIII chose Theodora’s sister, Zoe, who married Romanos instead in 1028, with the accession of Romanos, Theodora prudently retreated back into the gynaeceum, with its daily religious routines, but this did not save her from her sister’s envy. Never having forgiven Theodora for being their father’s first choice, Zoe persuaded her husband to appoint one of his own men as the chief of Theodora’s household, shortly afterwards, Theodora was accused of plotting to usurp the throne with Presian of Bulgaria. Accused of being part of the conspiracy, Theodora was forcibly confined in the monastery of Petrion, Zoe later visited her sister and forced her to take Holy Orders. She would remain there for the thirteen years, as Zoe managed the empire with her husbands, Romanos III and, after his death. With Michael IV’s death in December 1041, Zoe adopted Michael’s nephew, although he promised to respect Zoe, he promptly banished her to a monastery on the Princes Islands on charges of attempted regicide. Michael V, desperate to keep his throne, initially brought Zoe back from Princes Island and displayed her to the people, key members of the court decided that flighty Zoe needed a co-ruler, and that it should be her sister Theodora. A delegation headed by the Patrician Constantine Cabasilas went to the monastery at Petrion to convince Theodora to become co-empress alongside her sister, Theodora rejected their pleas out of hand, and fled to the convent chapel to seek sanctuary. Constantine and his retinue pursued her, forcibly dragged her out, at an assembly at Hagia Sophia, the people escorted a furious Theodora from Petrion, and proclaimed her empress along with Zoe. After crowning Theodora, the mob stormed the palace, forcing Michael V to escape to a monastery, Zoe immediately assumed power and tried to force Theodora back to her monastery, but the Senate and the people demanded that the two sisters should jointly reign. She initially guaranteed Michael’s safety before ordering that Michael be blinded, with Michael V dealt with, Theodora refused to leave Hagia Sophia until she had received word from Zoe, some 24 hours after Theodora had been crowned. Officially, while Theodora was the empress, and her throne was situated slightly behind Zoe’s in all public occasions. Both sisters then proceeded to administer the empire, focusing on curbing the sale of public offices, although Michael Psellus claimed the joint reign was a complete failure, John Scylitzes stated that they were very conscientious in rectifying the abuses of the previous reignsTheodora (11th century) – Byzantine coin showing Jesus Christ on the left and Empress Theodora on the right.
123. Michael VII Doukas – Michael VII Doukas or Dukas/Ducas, nicknamed Parapinakēs, was Byzantine emperor from 1071 to 1078. Michael VII was born c.1050 in Constantinople, the eldest son of Constantine X Doukas and he was associated with his father on the throne late in 1059, together with or shortly before his newly born brother Konstantios Doukas. When Constantine X died in 1067, Michael VII was 17 years old and should have been able to rule by himself and he exhibited little interest in politics, however, and his mother Eudokia and uncle John Doukas governed the empire as effective regents. On January 1,1068, Eudokia married the general Romanos Diogenes, who now became senior co-emperor alongside Michael VII, Konstantios, and another brother, Andronikos. They conspired to keep Romanos from regaining power after his release from captivity, after the dispatch of Eudokia to a monastery, Michael VII was crowned again on October 24,1071 as senior emperor. Although still advised by Michael Psellos and John Doukas, Michael VII became increasingly reliant on his finance minister Nikephoritzes, the emperors chief interests, shaped by Psellos, were in academic pursuits, and he allowed Nikephoritzes to increase both taxation and luxury spending without properly financing the army. As an emperor he was incompetent, surrounded by sycophantic court officials, in dire straits, imperial officials resorted to property confiscations and even expropriated some of the wealth of the church. The underpaid army tended to mutiny, and the Byzantines lost Bari, their last possession in Italy, simultaneously, they faced a serious revolt in the Balkans, where they faced an attempt for the restoration of the Bulgarian state. Although this revolt was suppressed by the general Nikephoros Bryennios, the Byzantine Empire was unable to recover its losses in Asia Minor. The problem was made worse by the desertion of the Byzantines western mercenaries and this campaign also ended in failure, and its commander was likewise captured by the enemy. The victorious mercenaries now forced John Doukas to stand as pretender to the throne, the government of Michael VII was forced to recognize the conquests of the Seljuks in Asia Minor in 1074, and to seek their support. A new army under Alexios Komnenos, reinforced by Seljuk troops sent by Malik Shah I, finally defeated the mercenaries and these misfortunes caused widespread dissatisfaction, exacerbated by the devaluation of the currency, which gave the emperor his nickname Parapinakēs, minus a quarter. In 1078 two generals, Nikephoros Bryennios and Nikephoros Botaneiates, simultaneously revolted in the Balkans and Anatolia, Botaneiates gained the support of the Seljuk Turks, and he reached Constantinople first. Michael VII resigned the throne with hardly a struggle on March 31,1078 and he later became metropolitan of Ephesus and died in Constantinople in c. Before his resignation from the throne, Michael VII may have sent an embassy to Song China, the History of Song mentions how the Byzantine diplomat and official named Ni-si-tu-ling-si-meng-pan offered saddled horses, sword-blades, and real pearls as tributary gifts to the Song court. Various usurpers attempted to overthrow Michael VII or rule parts of the empire and these included, Nestor – A former slave of Constantine X, Nestor had been promoted to become the dux of Paradounavon, a region bordering the Danube. The troops were eager to plunder the Bulgarians, and Nestor obtained the assistance of one of the chiefs of the Patzinaks before marching onto Constantinople, defeated by Alexios Komnenos in 1078, Nestor remained with the Patzinaks, and retreated with them back to Paradunavum. Philaretos Brachamios Caesar John Doukas Nikephoros Bryennios Nikephoros Botaneiates Michael VII Doukas married Maria of Alania, by her he had at least one son, Constantine Doukas, co-emperor from c.1075 to 1078 and from 1081 to 1087/8Michael VII Doukas – Nomisma histamenon of Michael VII Doukas. Emperor with attributes.
124. Konstantios Doukas – Konstantios Doukas, Latinized as Constantius Ducas, was the son of Byzantine Emperor Constantine X Doukas and younger brother of Byzantine Emperor Michael VII Doukas. He reigned as junior co-emperor from his birth, but was unable to establish himself as sole emperor against Nikephoros III when Michael VII abdicated in 1078, Konstantios was the youngest son of Constantine X Doukas and was born a porphyrogennetos. Upon his birth he was made co-emperor, alongside his brother Michael VII Doukas and his other brother, Andronikos Doukas, was also elevated some eight years later. He retained the title during the reigns of Romanos IV Diogenes and his elder brother, Michael VII. In 1078, when Michaels reign came to an end by an insurrection at Constantinople, he abdicated in favour of Konstantios and his only rival was Nikephoros III, who was on his way to Constantinople when news arrived of Michaels overthrow. It was soon evident that Konstantios was completely incapable of leading the empire. By 1081, he was recalled into service by Alexios I Komnenos. Sent to the war against the Normans, he perished while fighting them at Dyrrhachium in 1082Konstantios Doukas – Gold histamenon of Romanos IV: Michael VII flanked by his brothers Andronikos and Konstantios on the obverse, Romanos IV and Eudokia Makrembolitissa crowned by Christ on the reverse
125. Alexios Komnenos (co-emperor) – Alexios Komnenos, latinised as Alexius Comnenus, was the eldest son of the Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos and his wife Eirene of Hungary. He was born in February 1106 at Balabista in Macedonia, was made co-emperor with his father at 16 or 17 years of age and he was an elder brother of the emperor Manuel I Komnenos, and had a twin sister, Maria Komnene. Alexios was made co-emperor by his father in 1122, but died in 1142 and this was the year before his fathers death as the result of a hunting accident. The reign of John II is less well chronicled than those of his father, Alexios I, or successor, Manuel I, a panegyrical poem by Theodore Prodromos was addressed to John and his son on the occasion of the coronation of Alexios. His final illness is described. of the severest kind and of short duration, took the form of a rushing fever attacking the head as though it were an acropolis. The location of Alexios death, at Attalia, suggests that he was on campaign with his father, Alexios younger brother Andronikos was charged with escorting the body back to Constantinople, however, while discharging this duty, he too was taken ill and died. The identity of his wife is uncertain and it is possible he was married twice, the first wife being Dobrodjeja Mstislavna of Kiev, a daughter of Mstislav I of Kiev, and the second being Kata of Georgia, a daughter of David IV of Georgia. While both women are known to have married members of the Komnenoi family, several theories have suggested as to the identities of their husband or husbands. His daughter Maria Komnene married the pansebastos Alexios Axuch and he was the son of John Axuch, the megas domestikos, who was a close friend of John II. Alexios Axuch served as Duke of Cilicia and protostrator, however he eventually fell out of favor with Manuel I Komnenos in 1167. John Kinnamos and Niketas Choniates report that the accusations against him included practice of witchcraft and he and an unnamed Latin wizard were accused of causing the pregnancy of Maria of Antioch, the Empress consort, to result in a miscarriage. They supposedly managed to do so by providing drugs to Maria, Alexios ended his life as a monk. Maria Komnene, wife of Alexios the protostrator was mentioned in a seal and they were the parents of John Komnenos the Fat, a short-lived rival emperor to Alexios III Angelos. Theodora Axuchina, wife of Alexios I of Trebizond, is considered a daughter of John the Fat. O City of Byzantium, Annals of Niketas Choniates, the Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143–1180. A. Thessaloniki, Centre for Byzantine Studies, University of ThessalonikiAlexios Komnenos (co-emperor) – Mosaic of Alexios Komnenos in Hagia Sophia. He is depicted as a beardless youth, probably at the time of his coronation at 16 or 17 years of age.
126. Isaac II Angelos – Isaac II Angelos or Angelus was Byzantine Emperor from 1185 to 1195, and again from 1203 to 1204. His father Andronikos Doukas Angelos was a leader in Asia Minor who married Euphrosyne Kastamonitissa. Andronikos Doukas Angelos was the son of Constantine Angelos and Theodora Komnene, thus Isaac was a member of the extended imperial clan of the Komnenoi. During the brief reign of Andronikos I Komnenos, Isaac was involved in the revolt of Nicaea, atypically, the Emperor did not punish him for this disloyalty, and Isaac remained at Constantinople. On September 11,1185, while Andronikos was absent from the capital, Isaac killed Hagiochristophorites and took refuge in the church of Hagia Sophia. Andronikos was a ruler in some ways but was hated for his cruelty. Isaac appealed to the populace, and a tumult arose that spread rapidly over the whole city, when Andronikos returned he found that he had lost popular support, and that Isaac had been proclaimed emperor. Andronikos attempted to flee by boat but was apprehended, Isaac handed him over to the people of the City, and he was killed on 12 September 1185. Isaac II Angelos strengthened his position as emperor with dynastic marriages in 1185 and 1186 and his niece Eudokia Angelina was married to Stefan, son of Stefan Nemanja of Serbia. Isaacs sister Theodora was married to the Italian marquis Conrad of Montferrat, in January 1186 Isaac himself married Margaret of Hungary, daughter of King Béla III. Isaac inaugurated his reign with a victory over the Norman King of Sicily, William II. William had invaded the Balkans with 80,000 men and 200 ships towards the end of Andronikos Is reign, elsewhere Isaacs policy was less successful. In late 1185, he sent a fleet of 80 galleys to liberate his brother Alexius III from Acre and he then sent a fleet of 70 ships, but it failed to recover Cyprus from the rebellious noble Isaac Komnenos, thanks to Norman interference. The oppressiveness of his taxes, increased to pay his armies and finance his marriage, the rebellion led to the establishment of the Second Bulgarian Empire under the Asen dynasty. Also in 1187 an agreement was made with Venice, in which the Venetian Republic would provide between 40 and 100 galleys at six months notice in exchange for favorable trading concessions. Because each Venetian galley was manned by 140 oarsmen, there were about 18,000 Venetians still in the Empire even after Manuel Is arrests, the Emperors attention was next demanded in the east, where several claimants to the throne successively rose and fell. In 1189 the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa sought and obtained permission to lead his troops on the Third Crusade through the Byzantine Empire and he had no sooner crossed the border than Isaac, who had meanwhile sought an alliance with Saladin, threw every impediment in his way. In retaliation Barbarossas army occupied the city of Philippopolis and defeated a Byzantine army of 3,000 men that attempted to recapture the city, thus compelled by force of arms, Isaac II was forced to fulfill his engagements in 1190Isaac II Angelos – Isaac II Angelos Ισαάκιος Β’ Άγγελος
127. Empire of Nicaea – Founded by the Laskaris family, it lasted from 1204 to 1261, when the Nicaeans restored the Byzantine Empire in Constantinople. In 1204, Byzantine emperor Alexios V Ducas Murtzouphlos fled Constantinople after crusaders invaded the city. Theodore I Lascaris, the son-in-law of Emperor Alexios III Angelos, was proclaimed emperor but he too, realizing the situation in Constantinople was hopeless, fled to the city of Nicaea in Bithynia. The Latin Empire, established by the Crusaders in Constantinople, had control over former Byzantine territory, and Byzantine successor states sprang up in Epirus, Trebizond. Trebizond had broken away as an independent state a few weeks before the fall of Constantinople, Nicaea, however, was the closest to the Latin Empire and was in the best position to attempt to re-establish the Byzantine Empire. Theodore also defeated an army from Trebizond, as well as minor rivals. In 1206, Theodore proclaimed himself emperor at Nicaea, numerous truces and alliances were formed and broken over the next few years, as the Byzantine successor states, the Latin Empire, the Bulgarians, and the Seljuks of Iconium fought each other. In 1211, at Antioch on the Meander, Theodore defeated an invasion by the Seljuks. The Nicaeans were compensated for this loss when, in 1212. Theodore consolidated his claim to the throne by naming a new Patriarch of Constantinople in Nicaea. In 1219, he married the daughter of Latin Empress Yolanda of Flanders, the accession of Vatatzes was initially challenged by the Laskarids, with the sebastokratores Isaac and Alexios, brothers of Theodore I, seeking the aid of the Latin Empire. Vatatzes prevailed over their forces, however, in the Battle of Poimanenon, securing his throne. It proved short-lived, as it came under Bulgarian control after the Battle of Klokotnitsa in 1230, with Trebizond lacking any real power, Nicaea was the only Byzantine state left, and John III expanded his territory across the Aegean Sea. In 1235, he allied with Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria, allowing him to extend his influence over Thessalonica and Epirus. In 1242, the Mongols invaded Seljuk territory to the east of Nicaea, in 1245, John allied with the Holy Roman Empire by marrying Constance II of Hohenstaufen, daughter of Frederick II. In 1246, John attacked Bulgaria and recovered most of Thrace and Macedonia, by 1248, John had defeated the Bulgarians and surrounded the Latin Empire. He continued to land from the Latins until his death in 1254. Theodore II Lascaris, John IIIs son, faced invasions from the Bulgarians in Thrace, a conflict between Nicaea and Epirus broke out in 1257Empire of Nicaea – Nicaea city wall, Lefke gate; Iznik, Turkey
128. Theodore II Laskaris – Theodore II Doukas Laskaris or Ducas Lascaris was Emperor of Nicaea from 1254 to 1258. Theodore was born in late 1221 or early 1222, reportedly on the day his father ascended the throne. Theodore II received an education by George Akropolites and Nicephorus Blemmydes the latter who would become a tutor to him. In contrast with earlier practice, Theodore II was not crowned co-emperor with his father, the succession of Theodore was exploited by the Bulgarians, who invaded Thrace under the leadership of the young and inexperienced Michael Asen I of Bulgaria in 1255. In spite of his own scholarly predisposition, Theodore immediately marched against the Bulgarians, during his second expedition in 1256, he managed to conclude a favorable peace with Bulgaria, which may have plunged the latter into a crisis of leadership. Theodore followed up his victory against Bulgaria by expanding his control in the west, internally, Theodore favored bureaucrats from the middle classes instead of members of the great aristocratic families. Michael Angold explains this as in part, a matter of his temperament, He was happier in the company of a circle of friends. He clearly disliked what he considered the philistinism prevalent among a section of the men at his fathers court. The conflict led to the exile of one of the leaders of the faction, the future Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus. John IV Doukas Laskaris List of Byzantine emperors Rosser, John H, the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press,1991. Dimiter G. Angelov, The Moral Pieces by Theodore II Laskaris, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 65/66, pp. 237–269Theodore II Laskaris – Portrait of Theodore II from a 15th-century manuscript
129. John IV Laskaris – John IV Doukas Laskaris was emperor of Nicaea from August 18,1258 to December 25,1261. This empire was one of the Greek states formed from the fragments of the Byzantine Empire. John was a son of Theodore II Doukas Laskaris and Elena of Bulgaria and his maternal grandparents were Emperor Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria and his second wife Anna Maria of Hungary. Anna was originally named Mária and was the eldest daughter of Andrew II of Hungary, John IV was only seven years old when he inherited the throne on the death of his father. The young monarch was the last member of the Laskarid dynasty and his regent was originally the bureaucrat George Mouzalon, but Mouzalon was murdered by the nobility, and the nobles leader Michael Palaiologos usurped the post. Soon, on January 1,1259, Palaiologos made himself co-emperor as Michael VIII, Michael was, in fact, Johns second cousin once removed, since they were both descended from Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamatera. This made him ineligible for the throne, and he was exiled and imprisoned in a fortress in Bithynia and this action led to the excommunication of Michael VIII Palaiologos by the Patriarch Arsenius Autoreianus, and a later revolt led by a Pseudo-John IV near Nicaea. John IV spent the remainder of his life as monk in Dacibyza, there is a rescript of Charles of Anjou, dated 9 May 1273, which refers to a report that John escaped from his imprisonment and invites him to come to his court. Further documents attest to his arrival and receiving a pension from the Angevin arch-enemy of Michael Palailogos, however, this contradicts the evidence of the historians George Pachymeres and Nikephoros Gregoras, who record that John remained in Dacbyza until long after Michaels death. In 1290 John was visited by Michael VIIIs son and successor Andronikos II Palaiologos, as Donald Nicol notes, The occasion must have been embarrassing for both parties, but especial for Andronikos who, after all, was the beneficiary of his fathers crimes against John Laskaris. The deposed emperor died about 1305 and was recognized as a saint. List of Byzantine emperors Notes References Hackel, Sergei, - Total pages,245 The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press,1991John IV Laskaris – Portrait of John IV from a 15th-century manuscript
130. Michael IX Palaiologos – Michael IX Palaiologos or Palaeologus, (17 April 1277 –12 October 1320, Thessalonica, reigned as Byzantine co-emperor with full imperial style 1294/1295–1320. Michael IX was the eldest son of Andronikos II Palaiologos and Anna of Hungary, Michael IX Palaiologos was acclaimed co-emperor in 1281 and was crowned in 1294 or 1295. In 1300, he was sent at the head of Alanian mercenaries against the Turks in Asia Minor and he was also heavily injured during that battle, a Catalan soldier named Bernad Ferrer seized him, whipped him and slashed his face. Michael IX Palaiologos married Rita of Armenia, daughter of King Leo III of Armenia, by this marriage, Michael IX had several children, including, Andronikos III Palaiologos Manuel Palaiologos, despotēs Anna Palaiologina, who married Thomas I Komnenos Doukas and then Nicholas Orsini. Theodora Palaiologina, who married Theodore Svetoslav of Bulgaria and then Michael Asen III of Bulgaria, Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press,1991Michael IX Palaiologos – Michael IX Palaiologos
131. John VI Kantakouzenos – John VI Kantakouzenos, Cantacuzenus, or Cantacuzene was a Greek nobleman, statesman, and general. He served as Grand Domestic under Andronikos III Palaiologos and regent for John V Palaiologos before reigning as Byzantine emperor in his own right from 1347 to 1354. Usurped by his ward, he retired to a monastery under the name Joasaph Christodoulos and spent the remainder of his life as a monk. Through his mother Theodora Palaiologina Angelina, he was related to the house of Palaiologos. He was also related to the dynasty through his wife Eirene Asanina. Kantakouzenos became a friend to Andronikos III and was one of his principal supporters in Andronikoss struggle against his grandfather. On the accession of Andronikos III in 1328, he was entrusted with the administration of affairs. He was named regent to Andronikoss successor, the 9-year-old John V, Kantakouzenos apparently began with no imperial ambitions of his own, having refused several times to be crowned co-emperor by Andronikos III. Whether he would have remained loyal is unknowable but, despite his devotion to John V and his mother Anna. He attempted to negotiate with the usurpers, but this was rebuffed, further, his relatives in Constantinople were driven into exile or imprisoned, with their property confiscated by the new regents. His mother Theodora died owing to the mistreatment she suffered while under house arrest and his army ignored the new regents orders and proclaimed Kantakouzenos emperor at Didymoteichon in Thrace as John VI. He accepted this, while continuing to style himself as the ruler to John V. The ensuing civil war lasted six years, calling in foreign allies and mercenaries of every description, at first, John VI was obliged to flee to Serbia, where Stefan Dušan protected his men and helped them secure areas of the Balkans. The Greco-Turkish force prevailed and John VI entered Constantinople in triumph in 1346 or 1347 and his opponents—including the patriarch—were deposed from their positions and his status as co-emperor was legitimized. During Johns reign, the fragmented, impoverished, and weakened—continued to be assailed on every side. The Genovese, disregarding the terms of the treaty which permitted their colony at Galata and their customs dues undercut the Byzantines and meant that as much as 87% of the revenue from control of the Bosphorus went to them instead of the empire. John VI attempted to rebuild the shattered Byzantine navy in preparation for the war he expected to follow a reduction of Constantinoples own customs dues. He was able to borrow enough to construct 9 fair-sized ships and about 100 smaller ones before he lowered the rates, when they did declare war, however, they were able to sink or capture his fleet by early 1349John VI Kantakouzenos – John VI presiding over a synod
132. Andronikos IV Palaiologos – Andronikos IV Palaiologos was Byzantine Emperor from 1376 to 1379. Andronikos IV Palaiologos was the eldest son of Emperor John V Palaiologos by his wife Helena Kantakouzene and his maternal grandparents were John VI Kantakouzenos and Irene Asanina. Although associated as co-emperor with his father since the early 1350s, Andronikos IV had allied with Murads son Savcı Bey, who was rebelling against his own father, but both rebellions failed. Murad I blinded and executed his son and demanded that John V have Andronikos IV blinded as well, in July 1376, the Genoese helped Andronikos to escape from prison, whence he went straight to sultan Murad I, and agreed to return Gallipoli in return for his support. Gallipoli had been retaken by the Byzantines ten years before, with the assistance of Amadeus VI, the sultan duly provided a mixed force of cavalry and infantry and with these, Andronikos was able to take control of Constantinople. Here he was able to capture and imprison both John V and his son Manuel, however, he made the mistake of favouring the Genoese too highly by awarding it Tenedos. The governor there refused to hand it over, and passed it on to Venice, in the same year,1377, he crowned his young son John VII as co-emperor. However, in 1379 John and Manuel escaped to sultan Murad, the Venetians restored John V to the throne, and Manuel II. Andronikos fled to Galata, staying there until 1381, when he was again made co-emperor. Andronikos IV was also given the city of Selymbria as his personal domain, however, he predeceased his father there in 1385, never to rule as legitimate emperor. List of Byzantine emperors Harris, Jonathan, The End of Byzantium, cambridge University Press,1993, 2nd edition. ISBN 0-521-43991-4 Oxford Dictionary of ByzantiumAndronikos IV Palaiologos – Andronikos IV
133. Andronikos V Palaiologos – Andronikos V Palaiologos was co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire with his father John VII Palaiologos. Andronikos V Palaiologos was the only son of Emperor John VII Palaiologos and Irene Gattilusio. At the time of his birth John VII was Regent of the Byzantine Empire for his uncle Manuel II Palaiologos, at an unknown date, probably after his father settled in Thessalonica, Andronikos V was proclaimed nominal co-emperor, probably by 1403/1404. He predeceased his father, dying probably in 1407, the imperial status of both John VII and Andronikos V was purely honorary and they were not full-fledged co-emperorsAndronikos V Palaiologos – The coat of arms attributed to the Palaiologoi.
134. Manuel II Palaiologos – Manuel II Palaiologos or Palaeologus was Byzantine Emperor from 1391 to 1425. Shortly before his death he was tonsured a monk and received the name Matthew and he is commemorated on July 21. Manuel II Palaiologos was the son of Emperor John V Palaiologos. His maternal grandparents were Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos and Irene Asanina, granted the title of despotēs by his father, the future Manuel II traveled west to seek support for the Byzantine Empire in 1365 and in 1370, serving as governor in Thessalonica from 1369. The failed attempt at usurpation by his older brother Andronikos IV Palaiologos in 1373 led to Manuels being proclaimed heir and co-emperor of his father. In 1376–1379 and again in 1390 they were supplanted by Andronikos IV and then his son John VII, although John V had been restored, Manuel was forced to go as an honorary hostage to the court of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I at Prousa. During his stay, Manuel was forced to participate in the Ottoman campaign that reduced Philadelpheia, hearing of his fathers death in February 1391, Manuel II Palaiologos fled the Ottoman court and secured the capital against any potential claim by his nephew John VII. Although relations with John VII improved, Sultan Bayezid I besieged Constantinople from 1394 to 1402, Manuel II had sent 10 ships to help in the Crusade of Nicopolis. When Manuel II returned home in 1403, his nephew duly surrendered control of Constantinople, Manuel also regained from the Ottomans Nesebar, Varna, and the Marmara coast from Scutari to Nicomedia between 1403–1421. Here Manuel supervised the building of the Hexamilion across the Isthmus of Corinth, sigismund never rejected the possibility of fighting against the Ottoman Empire. However, with the Hussite wars in Bohemia, it was impossible to count on the Czech or German armies, Manuel II died on 21 July 1425. This mirror of prince has special value, because it is the last sample of this literary genre bequeathed to us by Byzantines, by his wife Helena Dragas, the daughter of the Serbian prince Constantine Dragas, Manuel II Palaiologos had several children, including, A daughter. Mentioned as the eldest daughter but not named, possibly confused with Isabella Palaiologina, an illegitimate daughter of Manuel II known to have married Ilario Doria. 1393/8, died before 1405 in Monemvasia, also not named in the text. Theodore II Palaiologos, Lord of Morea, born 1406/7, died 1409/10 of the plague. Despotēs in the Morea and subsequently the last Byzantine emperor, 1448–1453, many Muslims were offended by this denigration of Muhammad, and many protested against it. For others it may simply have been false indignation or the assumption of offence by non-Muslims, in his book, Manuel II then continues, claiming that, God is not pleased by blood – and not acting reasonably is contrary to Gods nature. Faith is born of the soul, not the body, whoever would lead someone to faith needs the ability to speak well and to reason properly, without violence and threatsManuel II Palaiologos – Manuel II Palaiologos
135. Constantine XI Palaiologos – Following his death, he became a legendary figure in Greek folklore as the Marble Emperor who would awaken and recover the Empire and Constantinople from the Ottomans. His death marked the end of the Roman Empire, which had continued in the East for 977 years after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Constantine was born in Constantinople, as the eighth of ten children to Manuel II Palaiologos and Helena Dragaš and he was extremely fond of his mother and added her surname next to his own dynastic one when he ascended the imperial throne. He spent most of his childhood in Constantinople under the supervision of his parents and he was governor of Selymbria for a time, until surrendering the role to his brother Theodore in 1443. During the absence of his older brother John at the Council of Florence in Italy, Constantine became the Despotes of the Morea in October 1443. He ruled from the fortress and palace in Mistra, a town also called Sparta or Lacedaemon due to its proximity to the ancient city. Mistra was a center of arts and culture rivalling Constantinople, in summer 1444, Constantine marched out of the Morea, invading the Latin Duchy of Athens. He swiftly conquered Thebes and Athens, forcing its Florentine duke, Nerio II Acciaioli, a vassal of the Ottoman Sultan, to pay him tribute. Two years later, the Sultan Murad II, who had out of retirement, led an army of 50. His purpose was not to conquer Morea but rather to teach the Greeks, the Ottoman army reached the Hexamilion on 27 November 1446. Constantine and his brother Thomas braced for the attack at the Hexamilion, while the wall could hold against medieval attacks, Sultan Murad used bombards to supplement the usual siege engines and scaling ladders, the bombards breached the wall on 10 December 1446. Murads janissaries poured through the opening, and the panicked and fled. Constantine and Thomas attempted to rally their soldiers, and failing, Murad split his forces, giving one part to his advisor Turahan while leading the other part along the southern shore of the Gulf of Corinth, plundering and destroying as his troops advanced. While neither Patras or Mistra fell to the Ottoman troops, the province was devastated, Constantine and his brother Thomas were forced to make themselves vassals of the Ottoman sultan and pay tribute. The first time was on 1 July 1428 to Theodora Tocco and she died while giving birth to a stillborn daughter in November 1429. His second marriage was on 27 July 1441 to Caterina Gattilusio, daughter of Dorino of Lesbos and he had no children by either marriage. By then Mara was the widow of Murad II, she had allowed to return to her parents in Serbia after the death of Murad. Accordingly, the failed and Sphrantzes took steps to arrange for a marriage with a princess either from the Empire of Trebizond or the Kingdom of GeorgiaConstantine XI Palaiologos – Constantine XI Palaiologos
136. Byzantium under the Theodosian dynasty – This history of the Byzantine Empire covers the history of the Eastern Roman Empire from late antiquity until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD. Several events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period during which the Roman Empires east and west divided. In 285, the emperor Diocletian partitioned the Roman Empires administration into eastern and western halves, between 324 and 330, Constantine I transferred the main capital from Rome to Byzantium, later known as Constantinople and Nova Roma. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empires official state religion, and finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empires military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin. The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through cycles of decline. During the reign of Maurice, the Empires eastern frontier was expanded, in a matter of years the Empire lost its richest provinces, Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia as a homeland, the final centuries of the Empire exhibited a general trend of decline. Its remaining territories were annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Roman Empire, during the 3rd century, three crises threatened the Roman Empire, external invasions, internal civil wars and an economy riddled with weaknesses and problems. The city of Rome gradually became important as an administrative centre. The crisis of the 3rd century displayed the defects of the system of government that Augustus had established to administer his immense dominion. His successors had introduced some modifications, but events made it clearer that a new, more centralized, Diocletian was responsible for creating a new administrative system. He associated himself with a co-emperor, or Augustus, each Augustus was then to adopt a young colleague, or Caesar, to share in the rule and eventually to succeed the senior partner. After the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian, however, the tetrachy collapsed, Constantine moved the seat of the Empire, and introduced important changes into its civil and religious constitution. Constantine also began the building of the fortified walls, which were expanded. Constantine built upon the administrative reforms introduced by Diocletian and he stabilized the coinage, and made changes to the structure of the army. Under Constantine, the Empire had recovered much of its military strength and he also reconquered southern parts of Dacia, after defeating the Visigoths in 332, and he was planning a campaign against Sassanid Persia as well. In the course of the 4th century, four great sections emerged from these Constantinian beginnings, Constantine established the principle that emperors should not settle questions of doctrine, but should summon general ecclesiastical councils for that purposeByzantium under the Theodosian dynasty – Map of the Roman Empire showing the four Tetrarchs' zones of influence after Diocletian's reforms.
137. Byzantine Empire under the Justinian dynasty – The Byzantine Empire had its first golden age under the Justinian Dynasty, which began in 518 AD with the Accession of Justin I. The Justinian Dynasty ended in 602 with the deposition of Maurice, the Justinian Dynasty began with the accession of its namesake Justin I to the throne. Justin I was born in a village, Bederiana, in the 450s AD. Like many country youths, he went to Constantinople and enlisted in the army, where, due to his abilities, he became a part of the Excubitors. He fought in the Isaurian and Persian wars, and rose through the ranks to become the commander of the Excubitors, in this time, he also achieved the rank of senator. After the death of the Emperor Anastasius, who had no clear heir. To decide who would ascend the throne, a meeting was called in the hippodrome. The Byzantine Senate, meanwhile, gathered in the hall of the palace. As the senate wanted to avoid outside involvement and influence, they were pressed to select a candidate, however. Several candidates were nominated, but were rejected for various reasons, after much arguing, the senate chose to nominate Justin, and he was crowned by the Patriarch of Constantinople John of Cappadocia on 10 July. Justin, who was from a Latin speaking province, spoke little Greek, as such, he surrounded himself with intelligent advisers, the most notable of which was his nephew, Justinian. Justinian may have exerted influence on his uncle, and is considered by some historians, such as Procopius. After his accession, Justin removed the candidates to the throne. Unlike most emperors before him, who were Monophysite, Justin was a devout Orthodox Christian, Monophysites and the Orthodox were in conflict over the divinity of Jesus Christ. Past emperors had supported the Monophysites position, which was in conflict with the Orthodox teachings of the Papacy. Justin, as an Orthodox, and the new patriarch, John of Cappadocia, after delicate negotiations, the Acacian Schism ended in late March,519. After this initial ecclesiastical overhaul, the rest of Justins reign was relatively quiet, in 525, perhaps at the insistence of Justinian, Justin repealed a law which effectively forbade court officials from marrying people of low class. This allowed Justinian to marry Theodora, who was of low social standing, in his last years, conflict increased around the EmpireByzantine Empire under the Justinian dynasty – A coin showing the bust of Justin I.
138. Twenty Years' Anarchy – Justinian II set in motion a chain of events by embarking on a despotic and increasingly violent course. Leontios proved equally unpopular and was in turn overthrown by Tiberios III, justinian then continued to reign for a further six years. His treatment of Tiberios and his supporters had been brutal and he continued to rule in a manner that was despotic and he lost the ground regained by Tiberios in the east, and imposed his views on the Pope. However, before long he faced a rebellion led by Philippikos Bardanes, justinian was captured and executed as was his son and co-emperor, Tiberius, thus extinguishing the Heraclian line. Justinian had taken the Byzantine empire yet further from its origins and he effectively abolished the historical role of Consul, merging it with Emperor, thus strengthening the Emperors constitutional position as absolute monarch. Militarily the Bulgars reached the walls of Constantinople, and moving troops to defend the capital allowed the Arabs to make incursions in the east and his reign ended abruptly when an army rebellion deposed him and replaced him with Anastasius II. Anastasius reversed his predecessors religious policies and responded to Arab attacks by sea and land, however the very army that had placed him on the throne rose against him, proclaimed a new emperor and besieged Constantinople for six months, eventually forcing Anastasius to flee. He in turn faced rebellion from two other themata, Anatolikon and Armeniakon in 717, and chose to resign, being succeeded by Leo III bringing an end to the cycle of violence and instability. However the strength of the organization within the empire. Byzantine–Arab Wars Byzantium under the Isaurians Byzantine–Bulgarian Wars#Tervels wars Kaegi, Walter Emil, Byzantium and the Early Islamic Conquests. Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press, bellinger, Alfred Raymond, Grierson, Philip, eds. Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection, Phocas to Theodosius III, Byzantium The Imperial centuries AD 610-1071Twenty Years' Anarchy – Justinian II
139. Byzantine Empire under the Isaurian dynasty – The Byzantine Empire was ruled by the Isaurian or Syrian dynasty from 717 to 802. The Heraclian dynasty faced some of the greatest challenges in history, after successfully overcoming the Sassanid Persians, the Emperor Heraclius and his exhausted realm were faced with the sudden onset of the Muslim expansion from Arabia into the Levant. Following the Muslim conquest of Syria, the province of Egypt. These three areas would be the fields of Byzantine-Arab contention during the next half-century. The Arabs continued to make headway, most notably constructing a navy that successfully challenged Byzantine supremacy in the Mediterranean, the outbreak of the Muslim civil war in 656 bought the Byzantines time, and emperor Constans II reinforced his position in the Balkans and Italy. At the same however, he was defeated by the Bulgar khan Asparukh. Carthage finally fell in 697 and a Byzantine recovery attempt defeated next year, finally, the Umayyad caliph Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik began preparing another huge expedition to conquer Constantinople. The loss of the Empires richest provinces, coupled with successive invasions, reduced the economy to a relatively impoverished state. The monetary economy persisted, but the economy experienced a revival as well. At the same time, the bureaucracy in Constantinople also rose in importance. After Justinian IIs second overthrow, the Byzantine Empire spiralled into another era of chaos matched only by Phocas mishandling of the last Persian War, philippikos Bardanes, the Crimean rebel who seized the throne proved to be totally incompetent for rule. Rather than face the threat of the Bulgars or the Arabs. When King Tervel of Bulgaria invaded Thrace, Bardanes had no choice, unfortunately for the Emperor, the troops had no loyalty whatsoever to him and after the ritual blinding he was replaced in June 713 by the chief secretary of the Emperor, Artemios. Artemios was crowned as Anastasios II, every citizen was told to gather enough food for three years for if the Arabs were to reach the straits it would undoubtedly be a lengthy siege. However, Anastasios proved too good for the Empire, in an effort to avert the Arab siege of the Capital, Anastasios planned a strike against the invaders. However the Opsician Theme once more revolted and Anastasios found himself in a Thessalonika monastery by 715, the Opsicians chose Theodosios, an unwilling tax-collector, to rule the Empire. Leo III, who would become the founder of the so-called Isaurian dynasty, was born in Germanikeia in northern Syria c. 685, his origin from Isauria derives from a reference in Theophanes the ConfessorByzantine Empire under the Isaurian dynasty – The emperors of the Isaurian Dynasty on a gold solidus from ca. 775–780. Leo IV with his son Constantine VI on the obverse, Leo III with his son Constantine V on the reverse
140. Latin Empire – It was established after the capture of Constantinople in 1204 and lasted until 1261. Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders, was crowned the first Latin emperor as Baldwin I on 16 May 1204, the last Latin emperor, Baldwin II, went into exile, but the imperial title survived, with several pretenders to it, until the 14th century. The original name of state in the Latin language was Imperium Romaniae. This name was used based on the fact that the name for the Eastern Roman Empire in this period had been Romania. The names Byzantine and Latin were not contemporaneous terms, the term Latin has been used because the crusaders were Roman Catholic and used Latin as their liturgical and scholarly language. It is used in contrast to the Eastern Orthodox locals who used Greek in both liturgy and common speech, after the fall of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade, the crusaders agreed to divide up Byzantine territory. In the Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae, signed on 1 October 1204, none of these polities actually controlled the city of Rome, which remained under the temporal authority of the Pope. The initial campaigns of the crusaders in Asia Minor resulted in the capture of most of Bithynia by 1205, with the defeat of the forces of Theodore I Laskaris at Poemanenum and Prusa. Latin successes continued, and in 1207 a truce was signed with Theodore, the Latins inflicted a further defeat on Nicaean forces at the Rhyndakos river in October 1211, and three years later the Treaty of Nymphaeum recognized their control of most of Bithynia and Mysia. The peace was maintained until 1222, when the resurgent power of Nicaea felt sufficiently strong to challenge the Latin Empire, Nicaea turned also to the Aegean, capturing the islands awarded to the empire. In 1235, finally, the last Latin possessions fell to Nicaea, unlike in Asia, where the Latin Empire faced only an initially weak Nicaea, in Europe it was immediately confronted with a powerful enemy, the Bulgarian tsar Kaloyan. When Baldwin campaigned against the Byzantine lords of Thrace, they called upon Kaloyan for help, at the Battle of Adrianople on 14 April 1205, the Latin heavy cavalry and knights were crushed by Kaloyans troops and Cuman allies, and Emperor Baldwin was captured. He was imprisoned in the Bulgarian capital Tarnovo until his later in 1205. At the same time, another Greek successor state, the Despotate of Epirus, under Michael I Komnenos Doukas, posed a threat to the vassals in Thessalonica. Henry demanded his submission, which Michael provided, giving off his daughter to Henrys brother Eustace in the summer of 1209 and this alliance allowed Henry to launch a campaign in Macedonia, Thessaly and Central Greece against the rebellious Lombard lords of Thessalonica. However, Michaels attack on the Kingdom of Thessalonica in 1210 forced him to north to relieve the city. In 1214 however, Michael died, and was succeeded by Theodore Komnenos Doukas, on 11 June 1216, while supervising repairs to the walls of Thessalonica, Henry died, and was succeeded by Peter of Courtenay, who himself was captured and executed by Theodore the following year. A regency was set up in Constantinople, headed by Peters widow, Yolanda of Flanders, epirote armies then conquered Thrace in 1225–26, appearing before Constantinople itselfLatin Empire – Capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade in 1204.
141. Despotate of the Morea – The Despotate of the Morea or Despotate of Mystras was a province of the Byzantine Empire which existed between the mid-14th and mid-15th centuries. The territory was ruled by one or more sons of the current Byzantine emperor. Its capital was the city of Mystras, near ancient Sparta. The Despotate of the Morea was created out of territory seized from the Frankish Principality of Achaea and this had been organized from former Byzantine territory after the Fourth Crusade. In 1259, the Principalitys ruler William II Villehardouin lost the Battle of Pelagonia against the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus, William was forced to ransom himself by surrendering most of the eastern part of Morea and his newly built strongholds. The surrendered territory became the nucleus of the Despotate of Morea, a later Byzantine emperor, John VI Kantakouzenos, reorganized the territory during the mid-14th century to establish it as an appanage for his son, the Despot Manuel Kantakouzenos. The rival Palaiologos dynasty seized the Morea after Manuels death in 1380, Theodore ruled until 1407, consolidating Byzantine rule and coming to terms with his more powerful neighbours—particularly the expansionist Ottoman Empire, whose suzerainty he recognised. He also sought to reinvigorate the economy by inviting Albanians to settle in the territory. Subsequent despots were the sons of the Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos, brother of the despot Theodore, Constantine, Demetrios, however, in 1446 the Ottoman Sultan Murad II destroyed the Byzantine defences—the Hexamilion wall at the Isthmus of Corinth. His attack opened the peninsula to invasion, though Murad died before he could exploit this and his successor Mehmed II the Conqueror captured the Byzantine capital Constantinople in 1453. The despots, Demetrios Palaiologos and Thomas Palaiologos, brothers of the last emperor, failed to send him any aid and their own incompetence resulted in an Albanian–Greek revolt against them, during which they invited in Ottoman troops to help them put down the revolt. At this time, a number of influential Moreote Greeks and Albanians made private peace with Mehmed, Demetrios ended up a prisoner of the Ottomans and his younger brother Thomas fled. By the end of the summer the Ottomans had achieved the submission of all cities possessed by the Greeks. A few holdouts remained for a time, the rocky peninsula of Monemvasia refused to surrender and it was first ruled for a brief time by a Catalan corsair. When the population drove him out they obtained the consent of Thomas to submit to the Popes protection before the end of 1460, the Mani Peninsula, on the Moreas south end, resisted under a loose coalition of the local clans and then that area came under Venices rule. The very last holdout was Salmeniko, in the Moreas northwest, Graitzas Palaiologos was the military commander there, stationed at Salmeniko Castle. While the town surrendered, Graitzas and his garrison and some town residents held out in the castle until July 1461. Thus ended the last of the Byzantine Empire proper, after 1461 the only non-Ottoman territories were possessed by Venice, the port cities of Modon and Koroni at the southern end of the Morea, the Argolid with Argos, and the port of NafplionDespotate of the Morea – The Byzantine Empire and the Latin and other states resulting from the Fourth Crusade, as they were in 1265. The Byzantine province of the Morea is also shown. (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911).
142. Basileus – Basileus is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history. In the English-speaking world it is perhaps most widely understood to mean king or emperor. The title was used by the Byzantine emperors, and has a history of use by sovereigns and other persons of authority in ancient Greece. The feminine forms are basilissa, basileia, basilis, or the archaic basilinna, the etymology of basileus is unclear. The Mycenaean form was *gʷasileus, denoting some sort of official or local chieftain. Its hypothetical earlier Proto-Greek form would be *gʷatileus, most linguists assume that it is a non-Greek word that was adopted by Bronze Age Greeks from a pre-existing linguistic Pre-Greek substrate of the Eastern Mediterranean. Schindler argues for an innovation of the -eus inflection type from Indo-European material rather than a Mediterranean loan. The first written instance of this word is found on the clay tablets discovered in excavations of Mycenaean palaces originally destroyed by fire. The word basileus is written as qa-si-re-u and its meaning was chieftain. Here the initial letter q- represents the PIE labiovelar consonant */gʷ/, linear B uses the same glyph for /l/ and /r/, now uniformly written with a Latin r by convention. Linear B only depicts syllables of single vowel or consonant-vowel form, the word can be contrasted with wanax, another word used more specifically for king and usually meaning High King or overlord. With the collapse of Mycenaean society, the position of wanax ceases to be mentioned, in the works of Homer wanax appears, in the form ánax, mostly in descriptions of Zeus and of very few human monarchs, most notably Agamemnon. Otherwise the term survived almost exclusively as a component in compound personal names and is still in use in Modern Greek in the description of the anáktoron/anáktora, most of the Greek leaders in Homers works are described as basileís, which is conventionally rendered in English as kings. However, an accurate translation may be princes or chieftains, which would better reflect conditions in Greek society in Homers time. Agamemnon tries to give orders to Achilles among many others, while another serves as his charioteer. His will, however, is not to be automatically obeyed, a study by Robert Drews has demonstrated that even at the apex of Geometric and Archaic Greek society, basileus does not automatically translate to king. In a number of authority was exercised by a college of basileis drawn from a particular clan or group. However, basileus could also be applied to the leaders of tribal states, like those of the ArcadiansBasileus – A silver coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (of the king Antiochus).
143. Comes rerum privatarum – In the late Roman Empire, the comes rerum privatarum, literally count of the private fortune, was the official charged with administering the estates of the emperor. He did not administer public lands, although the distinction between the private property and state property was not always clear or consistently applied. Vacant lands and heirless property both escheated to the emperor, the office was probably created around 318, at the same time as that of the comes sacrarum largitionum, although it is not explicitly mentioned until the period 342–45. The comes was one of the comites consistoriales and he held by virtue of his office the rank of vir illustris and was automatically a member of the senate of Rome or the senate of Constantinople. The title comes indicates that he was a member of the emperors entourage, the two offices were the highest in the imperial bureaucracy in the fourth through sixth centuries. The department of the rerum privatarum was slightly smaller and it had five sub-departments at court and also officers at the diocesan and provincial levels. In the capital, the scrinia were staffed by the palatini rerum privatarum—the term palatini being common for serving at court. These were sent out annually to oversee the work of the diocesan, according to the Codex Theodosianus, in 399 there were three hundred such officials under the comes rerum privatarum. The comes sometimes grouped together to form a domus divinae. By 414, the domus divinae of Cappadocia had been transferred from the competence of the rerum privatarum to that of the praepositus sacri cubiculi. Before 509, probably in the 490s, Anastasius I copied Glycerius reform in the eastern Empire, gradually, the office lost its fiscal remit and acquired even broader judicial competence, finally dealing even with cases involving of grave robbery and marriage. Before the seventh century was over, the office had disappeared altogether, during the reign of Justinian I, most of the domus divinae had been placed in the hands of curators independent of the comes rerum privatarumComes rerum privatarum – Constantine I SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Comes to Sol Invictus
144. Mesazon – The mesazōn was a high dignitary and official during the last centuries of the Byzantine Empire, who acted as the chief minister and principal aide of the Byzantine emperor. The terms origins lie in the 10th century, when senior ministers were sometimes referred to as the mesiteuontes, the title first became official in the mid-11th century, when it was conferred to Constantine Leichoudes, the future Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. Rather, it was a title bestowed on the imperial secretary of the moment. The office of mesazōn became formally institutionalized in the Empire of Nicaea, as the emperor and historian John Kantakouzenos records, the mesazōn was needed by the emperor day and night. This arrangement was inherited by the restored Palaiologan Empire and continued in use until the Fall of Constantinople in May 1453, the office was also used in the same function in the Byzantine courts of Epirus, Morea, and Trebizond. In the latter case, it acquired the epithet megas, Theodore Styppeiotes, under Emperor Manuel I Komnenos. John Doukas Kamateros, under Emperor Manuel I Komnenos, michael Hagiotheodorites, under Emperor Manuel I Komnenos. Theodore Maurozomes, under Emperor Manuel I Komnenos, demetrios Komnenos Tornikes, under Emperor John III Vatatzes. Nikephoros Choumnos, 1294–1305, under Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos, Theodore Metochites, 1305–1328, under Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos. Alexios Apokaukos, 1328–1345, under Emperors Andronikos III Palaiologos and John V Palaiologos, demetrios Kydones, 1347–1354, under Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos, 1369–1383 under Emperor John V Palaiologos, 1391–1396 under Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos. George Goudelis, late 1390s under Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos, demetrios Chrysoloras, 1403–1408 in Thessalonica under Emperor John VII Palaiologos. John Phrangopoulos, 1428/9 in Morea under despot Theodore II Palaiologos George Doukas Philanthropenos, demetrios Palaiologos Kantakouzenos, 1434/5–1448 under Emperor John VIII Palaiologos. George Doukas Philanthropenos and Manuel Iagaris Palaiologos, 1438–1439, while accompanying Emperor John VIII Palaiologos to Italy, loukas Notaras, 1434–1453, last mesazōn of the Byzantine Empire under Emperors John VIII Palaiologos and Constantine XI Palaiologos. A Byzantine Government in Exile, Government and Society under the Laskarids of Nicaea, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford University Press. The Late Byzantine Army, Arms and Society 1204–1453, philadelphia, Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania Press. In Jeffreys, Elizabeth, Haldon, John, Cormack, Robin, the Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford University Press, New York, New York and Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford University Press. The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143–1180, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge University PressMesazon – Mosaic portraying Theodore Metochites (left), mesazon to Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos (r. 1261-1328), presenting the model of the renovated Chora Church to Christ Pantocrator.
145. Exarchate of Africa – It was created by emperor Maurice in the late 580s and survived until the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in the late 7th century. It included the provinces of Africa Proconsularis, Byzacena, Tripolitania, Numidia, Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Sitifensis, in the 560s, a Roman expedition succeeded in regaining parts of southern Spain, which were administered as the new province of Spania. Under Justinian I, the process was reversed for provinces which were judged to be especially vulnerable or in internal disorder. Two exarchates were established, one in Italy, with seat at Ravenna, the first African exarch was the patricius Gennadius. The Visigothic Kingdom was also a continuous threat, the African exarch was in possession of Mauretania II, which was little more than a tiny outpost in southern Spain. The conflict continued until the final conquest of the last Spanish strongholds in c.624 by the Visigoths, the Byzantines retained only the fort of Septum, across the Strait of Gibraltar. Due to religious and political ambitions, the Exarch Gregory the Patrician declared himself independent of Constantinople in 647, the first Islamic expeditions began with an initiative from Egypt under the emir Amr ibn al-As and his nephew Uqba ibn Nafi. Sensing Roman weakness they conquered Barca, in Cyrenaica, then successively on to Tripolitania where they encountered resistance, due to the unrest caused by theological disputes concerning Monothelitism and Monoenergism the Exarchate under Gregory the Patrician distanced itself from the empire in open revolt. Carthage being flooded with refugees from Egypt, Palestine and Syria exacerbated religious tensions, afterwards the Exarchate became a semi-client state under a new Exarch called Gennadius. Attempting to maintain tributary status with Constantinople and Damascus strained the resources of the Exarchate, the peak of resistance reached by the Exarchate with assistance from the Berber allies of king Kusaila was the victory over the forces of Uqba ibn Nafi at the Battle of Vescera in 682. This victory caused the Muslim forces to retreat to Egypt, giving the Exarchate a decades respite, the repeated confrontations took their toll on the dwindling and ever-divided resources of the Exarchate. In 698, the Muslim commander Hasan ibn al-Numan and a force of 40,000 men crushed Roman Carthage, many of its defenders were Visigoths sent to defend the Exarchate by their king, who also feared Muslim expansion. Many Visigoths fought to the death, in the ensuing battle Roman Carthage was again reduced to rubble and it was also an enormous blow because it permanently ended Roman presence in Africa. Histoire de la Domination Byzantine en Afrique, Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century. Histoire de lAfrique du Nord, vol.1 - Des origines a la conquête arabe,1961 edition, Paris, Payot Pringle, Denys. The Defence of Byzantine Africa from Justinian to the Arab Conquest, An Account of the Military History, oxford, United Kingdom, British Archaeological ReportsExarchate of Africa – The conquests of Justinian I overextended the resources of the Eastern Roman Empire, and led to the establishment of the Exarchates
146. Katepano – The katepánō was a senior Byzantine military rank and office. The word was Latinized as capetanus/catepan, and its meaning seems to have merged with that of the Italian capitaneus, in the wake of the great eastern conquests of the 960s, however, the title acquired a more specific meaning. The newly acquired frontier zones were divided into smaller themata, and grouped together to form large regional commands and these were the ducates/katepanates of Antioch, covering the south-eastern frontier in northern Syria, of Mesopotamia in the east around the Euphrates, and of Chaldia in the north-east. During the reign of Emperor Basil II, the border was further expanded. A Serbian catepanate is also attested, which was known as the katepano of Ras and these were small subdivisions of the earlier themata, and consisted of little more than a fortified capital and its surrounding territory. In the Palaiologan era, the katepanikion was governed by a kephalē, like many other Byzantine institutions, the katepanikion as an administrative subdivision was also adopted in the Second Bulgarian EmpireKatepano – Map of the administrative structure of the Byzantine Empire in 1025. The regional eastern commands, variously under doukes or katepano, are outlined. Southern Italy was under the authority of the katepano of Italy, while Bulgaria, Serbia and Paristrion were often under the authority of a single katepano.
147. Byzantine diplomacy – All these neighbors lacked a key resource that Byzantium had taken over from Rome, namely a formalized legal structure. When they set about forging formal political institutions, they were dependent on the empire, whereas classical writers are fond of making a sharp distinction between peace and war, for the Byzantines diplomacy was a form of war by other means. With a regular army of 120, 000-140,000 men after the losses of the seventh century, byzantiums Bureau of Barbarians was the first foreign intelligence agency, gathering information on the empire’s rivals from every imaginable source. On Strategy, from the 6th century, offers advice about foreign embassies and their attendants, however, should be kept under surveillance to keep them from obtaining any information by asking questions of our people. Byzantine diplomacy drew its neighbors into a network of international and interstate relations and this process revolved around treaty making. In order to drive this process, the Byzantines availed themselves of a number of diplomatic practices. For example, embassies to Constantinople would often stay on for years, another key practice was to overwhelm visitors by sumptuous displays. Constantinoples riches served the states diplomatic purposes as a means of propaganda, when Liutprand of Cremona was sent as an ambassador to the Byzantine capital, he was overwhelmed by the imperial residence, the luxurious meals, and acrobatic entertainment. The fact that Byzantium in its dealings with the generally preferred diplomacy to war is not surprising. The Byzantines were skilled at using diplomacy as a weapon of war, if the Bulgars threatened, subsidies could be given to the Kiev Rus. A Rus threat could be countered by subsidies to the Patzinaks, if the Patzinaks proved troublesome, the Cumans or Uzès could be contacted. There was always someone to the rear in a position to appreciate the emperors largesse. Another innovative principle of Byzantine diplomacy was effective interference in the affairs of other states. In 1282, Michael VIII sponsored a revolt in Sicily against Charles of Anjou called the Sicilian Vespers, emperor Heraclius once intercepted a message from Persian rival Khosrau II which ordered the execution of a general. Heraclius added 400 names to the message and diverted the messenger, the emperor maintained a stable of pretenders to almost every foreign throne. These could be given funds and released to wreak havoc if their homeland threatened attackByzantine diplomacy – Olga, ruler of Kievan Rus', along with her escort in Constantinople (Madrid Skylitzes, Biblioteca Nacional de España, Madrid)
148. Late Roman army – The Imperial Roman army of the Principate underwent a significant transformation as a result of the chaotic 3rd century. Unlike the army of the Principate, the army of the 4th century was heavily dependent on conscription, scholarly estimates of the size of the 4th-century army diverge widely, ranging from ca.400,000 to over one million effectives. This is due to evidence, unlike the much better-documented 2nd-century army. The main change in structure from the 2nd-century army was the establishment of large armies, typically containing 20. These were normally based near the capitals, thus far from the Empires borders. These armies primary function was to deter usurpers, and they campaigned under the personal command of their emperors. The legions were split up into smaller units comparable in size to the regiments of the Principate. Infantry adopted the more protective equipment of the Principate cavalry, the role of cavalry in the late army does not appear to have been greatly enhanced as compared with the army of the Principate. The evidence is that cavalry was much the same proportion of overall army numbers as in the 2nd century, however, the cavalry of the Late Roman army was endowed with greater numbers of specialised units, such as extra-heavy shock cavalry and mounted archers. During the later 4th century, the cavalry acquired a reputation for incompetence and cowardice for their role in three major battles, in contrast, the infantry retained its traditional reputation for excellence. The 3rd and 4th centuries saw the upgrading of many existing border forts to make more defensible. The interpretation of this trend has fuelled a debate whether the army adopted a defence-in-depth strategy or continued the same posture of forward defence as in the early Principate. Whatever the defence strategy, it was less successful in preventing barbarian incursions than in the 1st. This may have due to heavier barbarian pressure, and/or to the practice of keeping large armies of the best troops in the interior. Much of our evidence for 4th century army unit deployments is contained in a single document, 395–420, a manual of all late Roman public offices, military and civil. The main deficiency with the Notitia is that it lacks any personnel figures so as to estimates of army size impossible. Also, it was compiled at the end of the 4th century. However, the Notitia remains the source on the late Armys structure due to the dearth of other evidenceLate Roman army
149. East Roman army – The East Roman army is the continuation of the Late Roman army of the 4th century until the Byzantine army of the 7th century onwards. The East Roman army was a continuation of the eastern portion of the late Roman army. In the 6th century, the emperor Justinian I, who reigned from 527 to 565, in these wars, the East Roman empire reconquered parts of North Africa from the Vandal kingdom and Italy from the Ostrogothic Kingdom, as well as parts of southern Spain. Much of our evidence for the East Roman armys deployments at the end of the 4th century is contained in a single document, 395-420, a manual of all late Roman public offices, military and civil. The main deficiency with the Notitia is that it lacks any personnel figures so as to estimates of army size impossible. However, the Notitia remains the source on the late Armys structure due to the dearth of other evidence. The Strategikon of the Emperor Maurikios, from the end of the 6th century, describes the cavalry tactics, organization, and equipment of the East Roman army towards the end of this period. The De re Militari of Vegetius, probably from the beginning of the 5th century, calls for reform of the West Roman army, which was similar to the east Roman army. However, the De re Militari emphasizes the revival of earlier Roman practices, and does not provide a view of the tactics, organization. The histories of Ammianus Marcellinus provide a glimpse of the late Roman army before the division of the Roman empire, the histories of Agathias and Menander continue those of Procopius. Another major source for the East Roman army includes the legal codes published in the East Roman empire in the 5th and 6th centuries, the Theodosian code and the Corpus Iuris Civilis. These compilations of Roman laws dating from the 4th century contain numerous imperial decrees relating to the regulation and administration of the late army. In 395, the death of the last sole Roman emperor, Theodosius I, the system of dual emperors had been instituted a century earlier by the great reforming emperor Diocletian. But it had never been envisaged as a separation, purely as an administrative. Decrees issued by either emperor were valid in both halves and the successor of each Augustus required the recognition of the other. The empire was reunited under one emperor under Constantine I, after 324, under Constantius II, after 353, under Julian, after 361, the division into two sections recognized a growing cultural divergence. The common language of the East had always been Greek, while that of the West was Latin and this was not per se a significant division, as the empire had long been a fusion of Greek and Roman cultures and the Roman ruling class was entirely bilingual. But the rise of Christianity strained that unity, as the cult was always much more widespread in the East than in the West, which was still largely pagan in 395East Roman army
150. Excubitors – The Excubitors were founded in c.460 as the imperial guards of the early Byzantine emperors. Their commanders soon acquired great influence and provided a series of emperors in the 6th century. The Excubitors fade from the record in the late 7th century, but in the century, they were reformed into one of the elite tagmatic units. The Excubitors are last attested in 1081, the Excubitors were founded by Emperor Leo I c. Their high status is illustrated by the fact that both officers and ordinary Excubitors were often sent for special missions by the emperors, including diplomatic assignments. The unit was headed by the Count of the Excubitors, who, by virtue of his proximity to the emperor and this post, which can be traced up to c. 680, was held by close members of the imperial family. Thus it was the support of his men that secured Justin I, similarly, Justin II relied on the support of the Excubitors for his unchallenged accession, their count, Tiberius, was a close friend who had been appointed to the post through Justins intervention. Tiberius was to be the Emperors right-hand man throughout his reign and he too would be succeeded by his own comes excubitorum, Maurice. Under Maurice, the post was held by his brother-in-law Philippicus, valentinus dominated the new regime, but his attempt to become emperor in 644 ended in his being lynched by the mob. As one of the tagmata, the Excubitors were no longer a palace guard, by the 780s, however, following years of imperial favour and military victories under Constantine V and his son Leo IV the Khazar, the tagmata had become firm adherents to the iconoclast cause. The Domestics were originally of strikingly low court rank, but they gradually rose to importance, at the same time, the court dignities they held rose to those of prōtospatharios and even patrikios. The most prominent Domestic of the Excubitors of the period was Michael II the Amorian, whose supporters overthrew Emperor Leo V the Armenian and raised him to the throne. The Excubitors took part in the failed Azaz campaign of 1030, where they were ambushed and dispersed by the Mirdasids, while their commander, the patrikios Leo Choirosphaktes, was taken captive. The internal structure of the original excubitores regiment is unknown, other than that it was a unit. The historian Warren Treadgold speculates that they fulfilled a similar to the regular cavalry decurions, commanding troops of 30 men each. Bury suggested that the scribones, though associated with the excubitores, were a separate corps, in its later incarnation as a tagma, the regiment was structured along standardized lines followed by the other tagmata, with a few variations. The domestikos was assisted by a topotērētēs and a chartoularios, the regiment itself was divided into at least eighteen banda, probably each commanded by a skribōnExcubitors – Tremissis of Emperor Justin I, the first commander of the Excubitors to rise to the throne.
151. Varangian Guard – The Varangian Guard was an elite unit of the Byzantine Army, from the 10th to the 14th centuries, whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Byzantine Emperors. They are known for being composed of Germanic peoples, specifically Norsemen. The Rus provided the earliest members of the Varangian Guard and they were in Byzantine service from as early as 874. The Guard was first formally constituted under Emperor Basil II in 988, Vladimir, who had recently usurped power in Kiev with an army of Varangian warriors, sent 6,000 men to Basil as part of a military assistance agreement. Immigrants from Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Iceland kept a predominantly Norse cast to the organization until the late 11th century, composed primarily of Norsemen and Rus for the first 100 years, the Guard began to see increased numbers of Anglo-Saxons after the Norman conquest of England. By the late 13th century, Varangians were mostly assimilated by the Byzantine Greeks. In 1400, there were some people identifying themselves as Varangians in Constantinople. The earliest members of the Varangian guard came from Kievan Rus, a treaty between Rus and the Byzantine empire under Basil I was agreed in 874 after a period of hostilities. A clause in the treaty obliged Rus to provide men for Byzantine service, renewed hostilities between 907 and 911 ended with a new treaty under which any Rus who chose could serve Byzantium as a right. As early as 911, Varangians are mentioned as fighting as mercenaries for the Byzantines, a unit of 415 Varangians was involved in the Italian expedition of 936. It is also recorded there were Varangian contingents among the forces that fought the Arabs in Syria in 955. During this period, the Varangian mercenaries were included in the Great Companions, in 988, Basil II requested military assistance from Vladimir I of Kiev to help defend his throne. In compliance with the treaty made by his father after the Siege of Dorostolon, Vladimir took the opportunity to rid himself of his most unruly warriors which in any case he was unable to pay. This is the date for the formal, permanent institution of an elite guard. In exchange for the warriors, Vladimir was given Basils sister, Anna, Vladimir also agreed to convert to Christianity and to bring his people into the Christian faith. In 989, these Varangians, led by Basil II himself, on the field of battle, Phokas died of a stroke in full view of his opponent, upon the death of their leader, Phokas troops turned and fled. The brutality of the Varangians was noted when they pursued the fleeing army and these men formed the nucleus of the Varangian Guard, which saw extensive service in southern Italy in the eleventh century, as the Normans and Lombards worked to extinguish Byzantine authority there. In 1018, Basil II received a request from his catepan of Italy, Basil Boioannes, a detachment of the Varangian Guard was sent and in the Battle of Cannae, the Byzantines achieved a decisive victoryVarangian Guard – Varangian Guardsmen, an illumination from the Skylitzis Chronicle
152. Grand Domestic – The title of Grand Domestic was given in the 11th–15th centuries to the commander-in-chief of the Byzantine army, directly below the Byzantine Emperor. It evolved from the office of the Domestic of the Schools. From Byzantium, it was adopted by the breakaway Empire of Trebizond. Nevertheless, the office was sometimes referred to in the sources as the Grand Domestic of the Schools or of the army. For most of its existence, the office of Grand Domestic was by its nature confined to a single holder, the office varied in importance in the court hierarchy. Under the Komnenian emperors, it immediately after the imperial titles of Caesar, sebastokratōr. In the 13th century, it rose and fell according to the desire to honour its holder, but was usually at seventh place, below the prōtovestiarios. Like all Byzantine offices, it was neither hereditary nor transferable, the office also included various ceremonial functions, as detailed in the mid-14th century account of offices of pseudo-Kodinos. Alternatively, a domed skaranikon hat could be worn, again in red and gold, with a portrait of the emperor, standing crowned and flanked by angels, within a circle of pearls, the skaranikon itself was also bordered with pearls. A rich silk tunic, the kabbadion, of two colours, decorated with stripes of gold braid. A staff of office with carved knobs, with the first of plain gold, the second of gold bordered with silver braid, the third like the first, the Late Byzantine Army, Arms and Society 1204–1453. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania Press, recherches sur les institutions byzantines, Tome I. Recherches sur les institutions byzantines, Tome I, haldon, John F. Warfare, State and Society in the Byzantine World, 565-1204. New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press, george Akropolites, The History – Introduction, Translation and Commentary. The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453, vienna, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. The Latin Renovatio of Byzantium, The Empire of Constantinople, verpeaux, Jean, ed. Pseudo-Kodinos, Traité des Offices. Paris, Centre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueGrand Domestic – Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos held the office of Grand Domestic during the reign of his close friend, Andronikos III Palaiologos
153. Cibyrrhaeot Theme – The Cibyrrhaeot Theme, more properly the Theme of the Cibyrrhaeots, was a Byzantine theme encompassing the southern coast of Asia Minor from the early 8th to the late 12th centuries. As the Byzantine Empires first and most important naval theme, it served chiefly to provide ships and troops for the Byzantine navy, the Cibyrrhaeots derive their name from the city of Cibyrrha. At the time, the Cibyrrhaeots were subordinate to the naval corps of the Karabisianoi. After the Karabisianoi were disbanded, the Cibyrrhaeots were constituted as a regular theme, until the 9th century, when the themes of the Aegean Sea and Samos were elevated from droungarios-level commands, the Cibyrrhaeot Theme was the only dedicated naval theme of the Empire. The land, which was known for its fertility, suffered from the frequent and devastating Arab raids, the seat of the strategos was most probably Attaleia. Like its other counterparts, the Cibyrrhaeot Theme was divided into droungoi and tourmai, among the most important subordinates of the strategos were the imperial ek prosopou at Syllaion, the droungarioi of Attaleia and Kos and the katepano who commanded the themes Mardaites. These were the descendants of several thousand people transplanted from the area of Lebanon and settled there by Emperor Justinian II in the 680s to provide crews, most of its territory was lost to the Seljuk Turks after 1071, but partly recovered under Alexios I Komnenos. The rump theme was finally abolished by Manuel I Komnenos, and the remaining territory in Caria subordinated to the theme Mylasa and MelanoudionCibyrrhaeot Theme – The Asian themes of the Byzantine Empire circa 842. The Cibyrrhaeots encompassed the southern shore of Asia Minor.
154. Greek fire – Greek fire was an incendiary weapon used by the Eastern Roman Empire. The Byzantines typically used it in battles to great effect. The impression made by Greek fire on the western European Crusaders was such that the name was applied to any sort of weapon, including those used by Arabs, the Chinese. These, however, were different mixtures and not the Byzantine formula, Byzantine use of incendiary mixtures was distinguished by the use of pressurized nozzles or siphōn to project the liquid onto the enemy. The composition of Greek fire is unknown and it remains a matter of speculation and debate, with various proposals including combinations of pine resin, naphtha, quicklime, calcium phosphide, sulfur, or niter. Incendiary and flaming weapons were used in warfare for centuries prior to the invention of Greek fire and they included a number of sulfur-, petroleum-, and bitumen-based mixtures. Incendiary arrows and pots containing combustible substances were used as early as the 9th century BC by the Assyrians and were used in the Greco-Roman world as well. Furthermore, Thucydides mentions that in the siege of Delium in 424 BC a long tube on wheels was used which blew flames forward using a large bellows, Greek fire proper, however, was developed in c. He had devised a sea fire which ignited the Arab ships, thus it was that the Romans returned with victory and discovered the sea fire. If this is not due to confusion of the events of the siege. Indeed, the 11th-century chronicler George Kedrenos records that Kallinikos came from Heliopolis in Egypt, within a generation, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt had fallen to the Arabs, who in c. 672 set out to conquer the imperial capital of Constantinople. Greek fire was used to great effect against the Muslim fleets, helping to repel the Muslims at the first and second Arab sieges of the city. Utilisation of the substance was prominent in Byzantine civil wars, chiefly the revolt of the fleets in 727. In both cases, the fleets were defeated by the Constantinopolitan Imperial Fleet through the use of Greek fire. The importance placed on Greek fire during the Empires struggle against the Arabs would lead to its discovery being ascribed to divine intervention. As a warning, he adds that one official, who was bribed into handing some of it over to the Empires enemies, was struck down by a flame from heaven as he was about to enter a church. This, however, was not enough to allow their enemies to copy it. Greek fire continued to be mentioned during the 12th century, however, although the use of hastily improvised fireships is mentioned during the 1203 siege of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade, no report confirms the use of the actual Greek fireGreek fire – Greek fire in use against another ship
155. Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople – The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church. It is headed by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, currently Bartholomew I, from that time, the importance of the church there grew, along with the influence of its bishop. With the development of the structure of the Church, the bishop of Constantinople came to be styled as exarch. Constantinople was recognized as the patriarchate at the First Council of Constantinople in 381, after Antioch, Alexandria. The patriarch was usually appointed by Antioch, in turn, the affairs of the Constantinopolitan church were overseen not just by the patriarch, but also by synods held including visiting bishops. This pan-Orthodox synod came to be referred to as the ενδημουσα συνοδος, the resident synod not only governed the business of the patriarchate but also examined questions pertinent to the whole Church as well as the eastern half of the old empire. As the Roman Empire stabilized and grew, so did the influence of the patriarchate at its capital, the council resulted in a schism with the Patriarchate of Alexandria. The cathedral church of Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, was the center of life in the eastern Christian world. In history and in literature, the Ecumenical Patriarchate has been granted certain prerogatives which other autocephalous Orthodox churches do not have. Not all of these prerogatives are today universally acknowledged, though all do have precedents in history and canonical references. The emperor Leo III issued a decree in 726 against images, and ordered the destruction of an image of Christ over one of the doors of the Chalke, an act which was fiercely resisted by the citizens. Following the death of his son Leo IV in 780, the empress Irene restored the veneration of images through the agency of the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. The iconoclast controversy returned in the early 9th century, only to be resolved once more in 843 during the regency of Empress Theodora and these controversies contributed to the deterioration of relations between the Western and the Eastern Churches. Most of the causes of the Great Schism, however, are far less grandiose than the famous Filioque. The relations between the papacy and the Byzantine court were good in the leading up to 1054. The emperor Constantine IX and the Pope Leo IX were allied through the mediation of the Lombard catepan of Italy, Argyrus, who had spent years in Constantinople, originally as a political prisoner. Patriarch Michael I ordered a letter to be written to the bishop of Trani in which he attacked the Judaistic practices of the West, the letter was to be sent by John to all the bishops of the West, including the Pope. Although he was hot-headed, Michael was convinced to cool the debate, however, Humbert and the pope made no concessions and the former was sent with legatine powers to the imperial capital to solve the questions raised once and for allEcumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople – The Church of Hagia Irene, seat of the Patriarchate before Hagia Sophia was completed in 360
156. Arianism – Arian teachings were first attributed to Arius, a Christian presbyter in Alexandria, Egypt. The teachings of Arius and his supporters were opposed to the views held by Homoousian Christians, regarding the nature of the Trinity. The Arian concept of Christ is that the Son of God did not always exist but was begotten by God the Father, there was a dispute between two interpretations based upon the theological orthodoxy of the time, both of them attempted to solve its theological dilemmas. So there were, initially, two equally orthodox interpretations which initiated a conflict in order to attract adepts and define the new orthodoxy, homoousianism was formally affirmed by the first two Ecumenical Councils. All mainstream branches of Christianity now consider Arianism to be heterodox, the Ecumenical First Council of Nicaea of 325 deemed it to be a heresy. According to Everett Ferguson, The great majority of Christians had no clear views on the Trinity, at the regional First Synod of Tyre in 335, Arius was exonerated. Constantine the Great was baptized by the Arian bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia, after the deaths of both Arius and Constantine, Arius was again anathemised and pronounced a heretic again at the Ecumenical First Council of Constantinople of 381. The Roman Emperors Constantius II and Valens were Arians or Semi-Arians, as was the first King of Italy, Odoacer, and the Lombards till the 7th century. Arius had been a pupil of Lucian of Antioch at Lucians private academy in Antioch and he taught that God the Father and the Son of God did not always exist together eternally. A verse from Proverbs was also used, The Lord created me at the beginning of his work, therefore, the Son was rather the very first and the most perfect of Gods creatures, and he was made God only by the Fathers permission and power. Controversy over Arianism arose in the late 3rd century and persisted throughout most of the 4th century and it involved most church members—from simple believers, priests, and monks to bishops, emperors, and members of Romes imperial family. Two Roman emperors, Constantius II and Valens, became Arians or Semi-Arians, as did prominent Gothic, Vandal, such a deep controversy within the Church during this period of its development could not have materialized without significant historical influences providing a basis for the Arian doctrines. Of the roughly three hundred bishops in attendance at the Council of Nicea, two bishops did not sign the Nicene Creed, which condemned Arianism, Arians do not believe in the traditional doctrine of the Trinity. The letter of Arian Auxentius regarding the Arian missionary Ulfilas gives a picture of Arian beliefs. Arian Ulfilas, who was ordained a bishop by Arian Eusebius of Nicomedia and returned to his people to work as a missionary, believed, God, the Father, always existing, the Son of God, Jesus Christ, begotten before time began and who is Lord/Master. By the 8th century it had ceased to be the tribes mainstream belief as the tribal rulers gradually came to adopt Nicene orthodoxy. This trend began in 496 with Clovis I of the Franks, then Reccared I of the Visigoths in 587, the remaining tribes – the Vandals and the Ostrogoths – did not convert as a people nor did they maintain territorial cohesion. Having been militarily defeated by the armies of Emperor Justinian I, the Vandalic War of 533–534 dispersed the defeated VandalsArianism – Constantine burning Arian books, illustration from a compendium of canon law, c. 825
157. Ecloga – Byzantine law was essentially a continuation of Roman law with increased Christian influence. Most sources define Byzantine law as the Roman legal traditions starting after the reign of Justinian I in the 6th century, the most important work of Byzantine law was the Ecloga, issued by Leo III, the first major Roman-Byzantine legal code issued in Greek rather than Latin. Soon after the Farmers Law was established regulating legal standards outside the cities, Byzantine law was effectively devolved into two spheres, Ecclesiastical law and secular law. Byzantium inherited its main political, cultural and social institutions from Rome, similarly, Roman law constituted the basis for the Byzantine legal system. For many centuries, the two great codifications of Roman law, carried out by Theodosius II and Justinian respectively, were the cornerstones of Byzantine legislation. Of course, over the years these Roman codes were adjusted to the current circumstances, however, the influence of Roman law persisted, and it is obvious in codifications, such as Basilika, which was based on Corpus Juris Civilis. In the 11th century, Michael Psellos prides himself for being acquainted with the Roman legal legacy, in accordance with the late Roman legal tradition, the main source of law in Byzantium remained the enactments of the emperors. The latter initiated some major codifications of the Roman law, but they issued their own new laws. In early Byzantine era the legislative interest of the emperors intensified, for example, Constantine I was the first to regulate divorce and Theodosius I intervened in faith issues, imposing a specific version of the Creed. From Diocletian to Theodosius I, namely during approximately 100 years, Justinian alone promulgated approximately 600 laws. Gradually, the legislative enthusiasm receded, but still some of the laws of later emperors, custom continued to play a limited role as a secondary source of law, but written legislation had a precedence. There is no established date for when the so-called Byzantine period of Roman history begins. During the 4th, 5th, and 6th centuries the Empire was split, but it was during this period that Constantinople was first established and the East gained its own identity administratively, thus, it is often considered the early Byzantine period. These developments, nevertheless, were key steps in the formation of Byzantine Law, in 438, Emperor Theodosius published the Codex Theodosianus, which consisted of 16 books, containing all standing laws from the age of Constantine I till then. Soon after his accession in 527, Justinian appointed a commission to collect, a second commission, headed by the jurist Tribonian, was appointed in 530 to select matter of permanent value from the works of the jurists, to edit it and to arrange it into 50 books. In 533 this commission produced the Digesta, although Law as practiced in Rome had grown up as a type of case law, this was not the Roman Law known to the Medieval, or modern world. Now Roman law claims to be based on principles of justice that were made into actual rules of law by legislative authority of the emperor or the Roman people. These ideas were transmitted to the Middle Ages in the codification of Roman law carried throughout by the emperor JustinianEcloga – Byzantine culture
158. History of Roman and Byzantine domes – The History of Roman and Byzantine domes traces the architecture of domes throughout the ancient Roman Empire and its medieval continuation, today called the Byzantine Empire. The domes were customarily hemispherical, although octagonal and segmented shapes are known, and they developed in form, use. Early examples rested directly on the walls of round rooms and featured a central oculus for ventilation. Pendentives became common in the Byzantine period, provided support for domes over square spaces, Nero introduced the dome into Roman palace architecture in the 1st century and such rooms served as state banqueting halls, audience rooms, or throne rooms. The Pantheons dome, the largest and most famous example, was built of concrete in the 2nd century, Imperial mausolea, such as the Mausoleum of Diocletian, were domed beginning in the 3rd century. Brick ribs allowed for a structure and facilitated the use of windows in the supporting walls. Christian baptisteries and shrines were domed in the 4th century, such as the Lateran Baptistery, Constantines octagonal palace church in Antioch may have been the precedent for similar buildings for centuries afterward. His Hagia Sophia and Church of the Holy Apostles inspired copies in later centuries, domes over windowed drums of cylindrical or polygonal shape were standard after the 9th century. In the empires later period, smaller churches were built with smaller domes, exceptions include the 11th century domed-octagons of Hosios Loukas and Nea Moni, and the 12th century Chora Church, among others. Rounded arches, vaults, and domes distinguish Roman architecture from that of Ancient Greece and were facilitated by the use of concrete and brick. By varying the weight of the material in the concrete. But concrete domes also required expensive wooden formwork, also called shuttering, to be built and kept in place during the curing process, formwork for brick domes need not be kept in place as long and could be more easily reused. Roman domes were used in baths, villas, palaces, and they were customarily hemispherical in shape and partially or totally concealed on the exterior. A variety of shapes, including shallow saucer domes, segmental domes. The audience halls of many imperial palaces were domed, domes were also very common over polygonal garden pavilions. Construction and development of domes declined in the west with the decline, in the Byzantine period, a supporting structure of four arches with pendentives between them allowed the spaces below domes to be opened up. Pendentives allowed for weight loads to be concentrated at just four points on a more practical square plan, domes were important elements of baptisteries, churches, and tombs. They were normally hemispherical and had, with exceptions, windowed drumsHistory of Roman and Byzantine domes – The circular oculus of the Pantheon, at the center of the domed ceiling
159. Thessaloniki – Its nickname is η Συμπρωτεύουσα, literally the co-capital, a reference to its historical status as the Συμβασιλεύουσα or co-reigning city of the Eastern Roman Empire, alongside Constantinople. The city is renowned for its festivals, events and vibrant cultural life in general, Thessaloniki was the 2014 European Youth Capital. The city of Thessaloniki was founded in 315 BC by Cassander of Macedon, an important metropolis by the Roman period, Thessaloniki was the second largest and wealthiest city of the Byzantine Empire. It was conquered by the Ottomans in 1430, and passed from the Ottoman Empire to modern Greece on November 8,1912, the citys main university, Aristotle University, is the largest in Greece and the Balkans. Thessaloniki is a popular tourist destination in Greece, among street photographers, the center of Thessaloniki is also considered the most popular destination for street photography in Greece. All variations of the name derive from the original appellation in Ancient Greek, i. e. Θεσσαλονίκη. The alternative name Salonica derives from the variant form Σαλονίκη in colloquial Greek speech, in local speech, the citys name is typically pronounced with a dark and deep L characteristic of Macedonian Greek accent. The name often appears in writing in the abbreviated form Θεσ/νίκη, the city was founded around 315 BC by the King Cassander of Macedon, on or near the site of the ancient town of Therma and 26 other local villages. He named it after his wife Thessalonike, a half-sister of Alexander the Great, under the kingdom of Macedon the city retained its own autonomy and parliament and evolved to become the most important city in Macedon. After the fall of the kingdom of Macedon in 168 BC, the city later became the capital of one of the four Roman districts of Macedonia. Later it became the capital of all the Greek provinces of the Roman Empire because of the importance in the Balkan peninsula. At the time of the Roman Empire, about 50 A. D. Later, Paul wrote two letters to the new church at Thessaloniki, preserved in the Biblical canon as First and Second Thessalonians. Some scholars hold that the First Epistle to the Thessalonians is the first written book of the New Testament, in 306 AD, Thessaloniki acquired a patron saint, St. Demetrius, a native of Thessalonica whom Galerius put to death. A basilical church was first built in the 5th century AD dedicated to St. Demetrius, in 379, when the Roman Prefecture of Illyricum was divided between the East and West Roman Empires, Thessaloniki became the capital of the new Prefecture of Illyricum. In 390, Gothic troops under the Roman Emperor Theodosius I, led a massacre against the inhabitants of Thessalonica, by the time of the Fall of Rome in 476, Thessaloniki was the second-largest city of the Eastern Roman Empire. From the first years of the Byzantine Empire, Thessaloniki was considered the city in the Empire after Constantinople. With a population of 150,000 in the mid-12th century, the city held this status until its transfer to Venetian control in 1423. In the 14th century, the population exceeded 100,000 to 150,000Thessaloniki – The 4th-century AD Rotunda of Galerius, one of several Roman monuments in the city and a UNESCO World Heritage Site
160. Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe – The Basilica of Sant Apollinare in Classe is an important monument of Byzantine art near Ravenna, Italy. The imposing brick structure was erected at the beginning of 6th century by order of Bishop Ursicinus and it was certainly located next to a Christian cemetery, and quite possibly on top of a pre-existing pagan one, as some of the ancient tombstones were re-used in its construction. SantApollinare in Classe was consecrated on May 9,549 by Bishop Maximian and dedicated to Saint Apollinaris, first bishop of Ravenna, the Basilica is thus contemporary with the Basilica of San Vitale of Ravenna. In 856, the relics of Saint Apollinaris were transferred from the Basilica of SantApollinare in Classe to the Basilica of Sant Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna, the exterior has a large façade with two simple uprights and one mullioned window with three openings. The narthex and building to the right of the entry are later additions, the church is on a nave and two aisles. An ancient altar in the mid of the covers the place of the saints martyrdom. The church ends with an apse, sided by two chapels with apses. The nave contains 24 columns of Greek marble, the carved capitals of the columns depict acanthus leaves, but unlike most such carvings the leaves appear twisted as if being buffeted by the wind. The faded frescos depict some of the archbishops of Ravenna, the lateral walls are bare, but were certainly once covered with gorgeous mosaics. These were likely demolished by the Venetians in 1449, although left the mosaic decoration in the apse and on the triumphal arch. The upper section of the triumphal arch depicts, inside a medallion, at the sides, within a sea of clouds, are the winged symbols of the four Evangelists, the Eagle, the Winged Man, the Lion, the Calf. The lower section has, at its two edges, the walls showing precious gems from which twelve lambs exit. The sides of the show two palms which, in the Bibles symbolism, represent justice, under them are the archangels Michael and Gabriel, with the bust of St. Matthew. The decoration of the date to the 6th century, and can be divided into two parts, in the upper one, a large disc encloses a starry sky in which is a cross with gems. Over the cross is a hand protruding from the clouds, the theme of the Hand of God, at the side of the disc are the figures of Elijah and Moses. In the middle is the figure of Saint Apollinaris, portrayed in the act of praying God to give grace to his faithful, symbolized by twelve white lambs. In the spaces between the windows are the four bishops who founded the main basilicas in Ravenna, Ursicinus, Ursus, Severus and Ecclesius, in the right panel are Abraham, Abel and Melchisedek around an altar, on which they offer a sacrifice to God. The choice of the subject is closely linked to the fight against Arianism, the Basilicas walls are lined by numerous sarcophagi from different centuriesBasilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe – The Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe
161. Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo – The Basilica of Sant Apollinare Nuovo is a basilica church in Ravenna, Italy. It was erected by Ostrogoth King Theodoric the Great as his palace chapel during the first quarter of the 6th century and this Arian church was originally dedicated in 504 AD to Christ the Redeemer. It was reconsecrated in 561 AD, under the rule of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I, suppressing the Arian cult, the church was dedicated to Saint Martin of Tours, a foe of Arianism. According to legend, Pope Gregory the Great ordered that the mosaics in the church be blackened, on some columns, images of arms and hands can be seen, which are parts of figures once representing praying Goths and Theodorics court, deleted in Byzantine times. Renovations were done to the mosaics in the century by Felice Kibel. The present apse is a reconstruction after being damaged during World War I, on the upper band of the left lateral wall are 13 small mosaics, depicting Jesus miracles and parables, and on the right wall are 13 mosaics depicting the Passion and Resurrection. However, the flagellation and crucifixion are lacking and they describe the parts of the Bible that were read aloud in the church during Lent under the rule of Theodoric the Great. On the left, Jesus is always depicted as young, beardless man, on the right, Jesus is depicted with a beard. For the Arians, this emphasized that Jesus grew older and became a man of sorrows and these mosaics are separated by decorative mosaic panels depicting a shell-shaped niche with a tapestry, cross, and two doves. These mosaics were executed by at least two artists, the next row of mosaics are a scheme of haloed saints, prophets and evangelists, sixteen on each side. The figures are executed in a Hellenistic-Roman tradition and show a certain individuality of expression as compared to the figures in the basilica. Each individual depicted holds a book, in either scroll or codex format and they were executed in the time of Theodoric. The row below contains large mosaics in Byzantine style, lacking any individuality and these were executed about 50 years after the time of bishop Agnellus, when the church had already become a Orthodox church. To the left is a procession of the 22 Virgins of the Byzantine period, led by the Three Magi, moving from the city of Classe towards the group of the Madonna and Child surrounded by four angels. In another part of the church there is a rough mosaic containing the portrait of the Emperor Justinian, the entrance of the church is preceded by a marble portico built in the 16th century. Next to the church, on the side of the portico. This is one of the most important buildings from the period of cultural significance in European religious art. Some art historians claim that one of the mosaics contains the first depiction of Satan in western art, in the mosaic, a blue angel appears to the left hand side of Jesus behind three goatsBasilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo – New Basilica of Saint Apollinaris Basilica di Sant'Apollinare Nuovo (Italian)
162. Hosios Loukas – Hosios Loukas is a historic walled monastery situated near the town of Distomo, in Boeotia, Greece. It is one of the most important monuments of Middle Byzantine architecture and art, the monastery of Hosios Loukas is situated at a scenic site on the slopes of Mount Helicon. It was founded in the early 10th century AD by the hermit, Venerable St. Luke, the hermit was famous for having predicted the conquest of Crete by Emperor Romanos. It was unclear if he was referring to Romanos I, the emperor at the time, however the island was actually reconquered by Nicephorus Phocas under Romanos II. It is believed that it was during the reign that the monasterys Church of the Theotokos was constructed. The main shrine of the monastery is the tomb of St. Luke, originally situated in the vault, the monastery derived its wealth from the fact that the relics of St. Luke were said to have exuded myron, a sort of perfumed oil which produced healing miracles. Pilgrims hoping for help were encouraged to sleep by the side of the tomb in order to be healed by incubation. The mosaics around the tomb represent not only St. Luke himself, the Church of the Theotokos, the oldest in the complex, is the only church known with certainty to have been built in mainland Greece in the tenth century. This centralized parallelogram-shaped building is the oldest example of the type in the country. The walls are opus mixtum and display curious pseudo-kufic patterns, the Church of the Theotokos adjoins a larger cathedral church, or Katholikon, tentatively dated to 1011-12. The Katholikon is the earliest extant domed-octagon church, with eight piers arranged around the perimeter of the naos, the hemispherical dome rests upon four squinches which make a transition from the octagonal base under the dome to the square defined by the walls below. The main cube of the church is surrounded by galleries and chapels on all four sides, Hosios Loukas is the largest of three monasteries surviving from the Middle Byzantine period in Greece. It differs from the Daphnion and Nea Moni in that it is dedicated to a military saint. The Katholikon contains the best preserved complex of mosaics from the period of the Macedonian Renaissance, however, the complex is not complete, the original image of Christ Pantocrator inside the dome is missing, as are the figures of archangels normally placed between the upper windows. There is evidence that the monastery was reputed all over Byzantium for its lavish decoration, apart from revetment, carving, gold and silver plate, murals, and mosaics, the interior featured a choice assortment of icons, chandeliers, silk curtains, and altar cloths. Only a fraction of items are still in situ, most notably colored marble facings. Notwithstanding the losses, the Katholikon gives the best impression available anywhere today of the character of an interior in the first centuries after the end of Iconoclasm. Beneath the great domed Katholikon is a crypt, accessible only by a stairwell on the southern sideHosios Loukas – UNESCO World Heritage Site
163. Saint Catherine's Monastery – The monastery is controlled by the autocephalous Church of Sinai, part of the wider Eastern Orthodox Church, and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Built between 548 and 565, the monastery is one of the oldest working Christian monasteries in the world, the site contains the worlds oldest continually operating library, possessing many unique books including the Syriac Sinaiticus and, until 1859, the Codex Sinaiticus. A small town with hotels and swimming pools, called Saint Katherine City, has grown around the monastery, according to tradition, Catherine of Alexandria was a Christian martyr sentenced to death on the wheel. When this failed to kill her, she was beheaded, according to tradition, angels took her remains to Mount Sinai. Around the year 800, monks from the Sinai Monastery found her remains, although it is commonly known as Saint Catherines, the monasterys full official name is the Sacred Monastery of the God-Trodden Mount Sinai. The patronal feast of the monastery is the Transfiguration, the monastery has become a favorite site of pilgrimage. The oldest record of life at Sinai comes from the travel journal written in Latin by a woman named Egeria about 381-384. She visited many places around the Holy Land and Mount Sinai, the living bush on the grounds is purportedly the one seen by Moses. Structurally the monasterys king post truss is the oldest known surviving roof truss in the world, the site is sacred to Christianity, Islam and Judaism. During the Ottoman Empire, the mosque was in desolate condition, during the seventh century, the isolated Christian anchorites of the Sinai were eliminated, only the fortified monastery remained. The monastery is surrounded by the massive fortifications that have preserved it. Until the twentieth century, access was through a high in the outer walls. The monastery was supported by its dependencies in Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Crete, Cyprus, the monastery, along with several dependencies in the area, constitute the entire Church of Sinai, which is headed by an archbishop, who is also the abbot of the monastery. The archbishop is traditionally consecrated by the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, the monastery library preserves the second largest collection of early codices and manuscripts in the world, outnumbered only by the Vatican Library. It contains Greek, Arabic, Armenian, Coptic, Hebrew, Georgian, the finding from 1859 left the monastery in the 19th century for Russia, in circumstances that had been long disputed. But in 2003 Russian scholars discovered the donation act for the manuscript signed by the Council of Cairo Metochion, the monastery received 9000 rubles as a gift from Tsar Alexander II of Russia. The Codex was sold by Stalin in 1933 to the British Museum and is now in the British Library, London, prior to September 1,2009, a previously unseen fragment of Codex Sinaiticus was discovered in the monasterys library. In February 1892, Agnes Smith Lewis identified a palimpsest in St Catherines library that became known as the Syriac Sinaiticus and is still in the Monasterys possessionSaint Catherine's Monastery – St. Catherine's monastery
164. Byzantine silk – Byzantine silk is silk woven in the Byzantine Empire from about the fourth century until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. The Byzantine capital of Constantinople was the first significant silk-weaving center in Europe, Silk was one of the most important commodities in the Byzantine economy, used by the state both as a means of payment and of diplomacy. Raw silk was bought from China and made up into fine fabrics that commanded high prices throughout the world, later, silkworms were smuggled into the Empire and the overland silk trade gradually became less important. After the reign of Justinian I, the manufacture and sale of silk became a monopoly, only processed in imperial factories. Byzantine silks are significant for their brilliant colours, use of gold thread, istämi refused the first request, but when he sanctioned the second one and had the Sogdian embassy sent to the Sassanid king, the latter had the members of the embassy poisoned to death. Justin II agreed and sent an embassy to the Turkic Khaganate, contemporary Chinese sources, namely the Old and New Book of Tang, also depicted the city of Constantinople and how it was besieged by Muawiyah I, who exacted tribute afterwards. New types of looms and weaving techniques also played a part, plain-woven or tabby silks had circulated in the Roman world, and patterned damask silks in increasingly complex geometric designs appear from the mid-3rd century. Weft-faced compound twills were developed not later than 600, and polychrome compound twills became the standard weave for Byzantine silks for the several centuries. Monochrome lampas weaves became fashionable around 1000 in both Byzantine and Islamic weaving centres, these rely on contrasting textures rather than colour to render patterns. A small number of tapestry-woven Byzantine silks also survive, other dyes used in Byzantine silk workshops were madder, kermes, indigo, weld, and brazilwood. Gold thread was made with silver-gilt strips wrapped around a silk core, figured Byzantine silks of the 6th centuries show overall designs of small motifs such as hearts, swastikas, palmettes and leaves worked in two weft colours. Later, recognizable plant motifs and human figures appear, designs of the 8th and 9th centuries show rows of roundels or medallions populated with pairs of human or animal figures reversed in mirror-image on a vertical axis. Fashionable patterns evoked the activities and interests of the royal court, in samite, the main warp threads are hidden on both sides of the fabric by the ground and patterning wefts, with only the binding warps that hold the wefts in place visible. These rich silks – literally worth their weight in gold – were powerful political weapons of the Byzantine Empire between the 4th and 12th centuries, diplomatic gifts of Byzantine silks cemented alliances with the Franks. Byzantium granted silk-trading concessions to the sea powers of Venice, Pisa, Genoa and Amalfi to secure naval, the influence exerted by Byzantine silk weaving was profound. Byzantine silk court ritual and ecclesiastical practices were adopted by the Franks, just as Byzantine court furnishing styles, Byzantium developed elaborate silk court attire and set the style for use of silk in civil and military uniforms and for rich religious vestments. These silks served as a form of wealth that could be profitably disposed of in times of need. Silks survive in Western Europe from the graves of important figures, used in book bindings, but it is clear they had a number of uses as hangings and drapes in churches and the houses of the wealthy, as well as for clothing and vestmentsByzantine silk – David, between personifications of Wisdom and Prophecy, is depicted in a chlamys of patterned Byzantine silk. Paris Psalter, 10th century.
165. Silk Road – While the term is of modern coinage, the Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk carried out along its length, beginning during the Han dynasty. The Han dynasty expanded Central Asian sections of the routes around 114 BCE, largely through missions and explorations of the Chinese imperial envoy. The Chinese took great interest in the safety of their trade products, though silk was certainly the major trade item exported from China, many other goods were traded, as well as religions, syncretic philosophies, and various technologies. Diseases, most notably plague, also spread along the Silk Routes, in addition to economic trade, the Silk Road was a route for cultural trade among the civilizations along its network. The main traders during antiquity included the Chinese, Arabs, Turkmens, Indians, Persians, Somalis, Greeks, Syrians, Romans, Georgians, Armenians, Bactrians, in June 2014, UNESCO designated the Changan-Tianshan corridor of the Silk Road as a World Heritage Site. The Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative Eurasian silk and horse trade, the German terms Seidenstraße and Seidenstraßen were coined by Ferdinand von Richthofen, who made seven expeditions to China from 1868 to 1872. The term Silk Route is also used, although the term was coined in the 19th century, it did not gain widespread acceptance in academia or popularity among the public until the 20th century. The first book entitled The Silk Road was by Swedish geographer Sven Hedin in 1938, the fall of the Soviet Union and Iron Curtain in 1989 led to a surge of public and academic interest in Silk Road sites and studies in the former Soviet republics of Central Asia. Use of the term Silk Road is not without its detractors and he notes that traditional authors discussing East-West trade such as Marco Polo and Edward Gibbon never labelled any route as a silk one in particular. From the 2nd millennium BCE, nephrite jade was being traded from mines in the region of Yarkand, some remnants of what was probably Chinese silk dating from 1070 BCE have been found in Ancient Egypt. The Great Oasis cities of Central Asia played a role in the effective functioning of the Silk Road trade. This style is reflected in the rectangular belt plaques made of gold and bronze, with other versions in jade. The tomb of a Scythian prince near Stuttgart, Germany, dated to the 6th century BCE, was excavated and found to have not only Greek bronzes but also Chinese silks. Scythians accompanied the Assyrian Esarhaddon on his invasion of Egypt, soghdian Scythian merchants played a vital role in later periods in the development of the Silk Road. By the time of Herodotus, the Royal Road of the Persian Empire ran some 2,857 km from the city of Susa on the Karun to the port of Smyrna on the Aegean Sea. It was maintained and protected by the Achaemenid Empire and had postal stations, by having fresh horses and riders ready at each relay, royal couriers could carry messages the entire distance in nine days, while normal travellers took about three months. The next major step in the development of the Silk Road was the expansion of the Greek empire of Alexander the Great into Central Asia and this later became a major staging point on the northern Silk Route. They continued to expand eastward, especially during the reign of Euthydemus, there are indications that he may have led expeditions as far as Kashgar in Chinese Turkestan, leading to the first known contacts between [China and the West around 200 BCESilk Road – Main routes of the Silk Road
166. Alexander romance – The Romance of Alexander is any of several collections of legends concerning the mythical exploits of Alexander the Great. The earliest version is in the Greek language, dating to the 3rd century, several late manuscripts attribute the work to Alexanders court historian Callisthenes, but the historical person died before Alexander and could not have written a full account of his life. The unknown author is sometimes known as Pseudo-Callisthenes. The text was transformed into various versions between the 4th and the 16th centuries, in Medieval Greek, Latin, Armenian, Syriac, Hebrew, Alexander was a legend during his own time. In a now-lost history of the king, the historical Callisthenes described the sea in Cilicia as drawing back from him in proskynesis, writing after Alexanders death, another participant, Onesicritus, invented a tryst between Alexander and Thalestris, queen of the mythical Amazons. Throughout Antiquity and the Middle Ages, the Romance experienced numerous expansions and revisions exhibiting a variability unknown for more formal literary forms, Latin, Armenian, Georgian and Syriac translations were made in Late Antiquity. The Celticist Kuno Meyer received his doctorate for his thesis Eine irische Version der Alexandersage, the Latin Alexandreis of Walter of Châtillon was one of the most popular medieval romances. The Syriac version generated Middle Eastern recensions, including Arabic, Persian, Ethiopic, Hebrew, Ottoman Turkish, the story of Dhul-Qarnayn in the Quran matches the Gog and Magog episode of the Romance, which has caused some controversy among Islamic scholars. Islamic accounts of the Alexander legend, particularly in Persia, combined the Pseudo-Callisthenes material with indigenous Sasanian Middle Persian ideas about Alexander, the oldest version of the Greek text, the Historia Alexandri Magni, can be dated to the 3rd century. It was subjected to various revisions during the Byzantine Empire, some of them recasting it into poetical form in Medieval Greek vernacular, Recensio α is the source of a Latin version by Julius Valerius Alexander Polemius, and an Armenian version. Most of the content of the Romance is fantastical, including many miraculous tales, Recensio α sive Recensio vetusta, W. Kroll, Historia Alexandri Magni, vol. Berlin, Weidmann,1926 Recensio β, L. Bergson, stockholm, Almqvist & Wiksell,1965 Recensio β L. Bergson, Der griechische Alexanderroman. Stockholm, Almqvist & Wiksell,1965 Recensio β, L. Bergson, stockholm, Almqvist & Wiksell,1965 Recensio γ, U. von Lauenstein, Der griechische Alexanderroman. Recensio γ, H. Engelmann, Der griechische Alexanderroman, Recensio γ, F. Parthe, Der griechische Alexanderroman. Recensio δ, G. Trumpf, Anonymi Byzantini vita Alexandri regis Macedonum, konstantinopulos and A. C. Lolos, Ps. -Kallisthenes‑ Zwei mittelgriechische Prosa-Fassungen des Alexanderromans,2 vols Recensio φ, G. Veloudis, Ἡ φυλλάδα τοῦ Μεγαλέξαντρου. Διήγησις Ἀλεξάνδρου τοῦ Μακεδόνος Recensio Byzantina poetica, S. Reichmann, Das byzantinische Alexandergedicht nach dem codex Marcianus 408 herausgegeben Recensio E, vernacular, V. L. Konstantinopulos and A. C. Lolos, Ps. -Kallisthenes, Zwei mittelgriechische Prosa. Fassungen des Alexanderromans,2 vols Recensio V, K. Mitsakis, Der byzantinische Alexanderroman nach dem Codex Vind. The rhymed version There are several Old and Middle French and one Anglo-Norman Alexander romances, fuerre de Gadres by a certain Eustache, later used by Alexandre de Bernay and Thomas de Kent Decasyllabic Alexander, anonymous from 1160–70Alexander romance – 17th-century manuscript of an Alexandrine novel (Russia): Alexander exploring the depths of sea.
167. Byzantine cuisine – Byzantine cuisine was marked by a merger of Greek and Roman gastronomy. The development of the Byzantine Empire and trade brought in spices, sugar, cooks experimented with new combinations of food, creating two styles in the process. These were the Eastern, consisting of Byzantine cuisine supplemented by trade items, Byzantine food consumption varied by class. The Imperial Palace was a metropolis of spices and exotic recipes, guests were entertained with fruits, honey-cakes, the core diet consisted of bread, vegetables, pulses, and cereals prepared in varied ways. Salad was very popular, to the amazement of the Florentines, the Byzantines produced various cheeses, including anthotiro or kefalintzin. They also relished shellfish and fish, both fresh and salt-water and they prepared eggs to make famous omelettes — called sphoungata, i. e. spongy — mentioned by Theodore Prodromos. Every household also kept a supply of poultry, Byzantine elites obtained other kinds of meat by hunting, a favourite and distinguished occupation of men. They usually hunted with dogs and hawks, though sometimes employed trapping, netting, larger animals were a more expensive and rare food. Citizens slaughtered pigs at the beginning of winter and provided their families with sausages, salt pork, only upper middle and higher Byzantines could afford lamb. They seldom ate beef, as they used cattle to cultivate the fields, middle and lower class citizens in cities such as Constantinople and Thessaloniki consumed the offerings of the taverna. The most common form of cooking was boiling, a tendency which sparked a derisive Byzantine maxim—The lazy cook prepares everything by boiling. Liutprand of Cremona, the ambassador to Constantinople from Otto I, described being served food covered in an exceedingly bad fish liquor, many scholars state that Byzantine koptoplakous and plakountas tetyromenous are the ancestors of modern baklava and tiropita respectively. Both variants descended from the ancient Roman Placenta cake, the resulting melting pot continued during Ottoman times and therefore modern Turkish cuisine, Greek cuisine and Balkans cuisine are all almost identical, and use a very wide range of ingredients. Macedonia was renowned for its wines, served for upper class Byzantines, during the crusades and after, western Europeans valued costly Byzantine wines. The most famous example is the still extant Commandaria wine from Cyprus served at the wedding of King Richard the Lionheart, other renowned varieties were Cretan wines from muscat grapes, Romania or Rumney, and Malvasia or Malmsey. grByzantine cuisine – Byzantine culture
168. Byzantine dress – Byzantine dress changed considerably over the thousand years of the Empire, but was essentially conservative. A different border or trimming round the edges was very common, taste for the middle and upper classes followed the latest fashions at the Imperial Court. In the early stages of the Byzantine Empire the traditional Roman toga was still used as formal or official dress. The hems often curve down to a sharp point, in general, except for military and presumably riding-dress, men of higher status, and all women, had clothes that came down to the ankles, or nearly so. Women often wore a top layer of the stola, for the rich in brocade, all of these, except the stola, might be belted or not. The chlamys, a semicircular cloak fastened to the shoulder continued throughout the period. The length fell sometimes only to the hips or as far as the ankles, much longer than the version worn in Ancient Greece. As well as his courtiers, Emperor Justinian wears one, with a huge brooch, a paragauda or border of thick cloth, usually including gold, was also an indicator of rank. Sometimes an oblong cloak would be worn, especially by the military and ordinary people, cloaks were pinned on the right shoulder for ease of movement, and access to a sword. Leggings and hose were worn, but are not prominent in depictions of the wealthy, they were associated with barbarians. Even basic clothes appear to have been expensive for the poor. Others, when engaged in activity, are shown with the sides of their tunic tied up to the waist for ease of movement, the most common images surviving from the Byzantine period are not relevant as references for actual dress worn in the period. Sandals are worn on the feet and this costume is not commonly seen in secular contexts, although possibly this is deliberate, to avoid confusing secular with divine subjects. The Theotokos is shown wearing a maphorion, a more shaped mantle with a hood and this probably is close to actual typical dress for widows, and for married women when in public. The Virgins underdress may be visible, especially at the sleeves, there are also conventions for Old Testament prophets and other Biblical figures. Apart from Christ and the Virgin, much iconographic dress is white or relatively muted in colour especially when on walls and in manuscripts, many other figures in Biblical scenes, especially if unnamed, are usually depicted wearing contemporary Byzantine clothing. Modesty was important for all except the very rich, and most women appear almost entirely covered by rather shapeless clothes, the basic garment in the early Empire comes down to the ankles, with a high round collar and tight sleeves to the wrist. The fringes and cuffs might be decorated with embroidery, with a band around the arm as wellByzantine dress – A 14th-century military martyr wears four layers, all patterned and richly trimmed: a cloak with tablion over a short dalmatic, another layer (?), and a tunic
169. Byzantine flags and insignia – For most of its history, the Eastern Roman Empire did not know or use heraldry in the West European sense. Various emblems were used in official occasions and for military purposes, the use of the cross, and of icons of Christ, the Theotokos and various saints is also attested on seals of officials, but these were often personal rather than family emblems. The single-headed Roman imperial eagle continued to be used in Byzantium, on coins, the eagle ceases to appear after the early 7th century, but it is still occasionally found on seals of officials and on stone reliefs. In the last centuries of the Empire it is recorded as being sewn on imperial garments, the emblem mostly associated with the Byzantine Empire, however, is the double-headed eagle. It is not of Byzantine invention, but a traditional Anatolian motif dating to Hittite times, the adoption of the double-headed eagle has sometimes been dated to the mid-11th century, when the Komnenoi supposedly adopted it from Hittite rock-carvings in their native Paphlagonia. The Palaiologan emperors used the eagle as a symbol of the senior members of the imperial family. It was mostly used on clothes and other accoutrements, as recorded in the century by pseudo-Kodinos in his Book of Offices. Similarly, the sebastokrator wore blue boots with golden wire-embroidered eagles on a red background, within the Byzantine world, the eagle was also used by the semi-autonomous Despots of the Morea and by the Gattilusi of Lesbos, who were Palaiologan vassals. The double-headed eagle was used in the breakaway Empire of Trebizond as well, being attested imperial clothes, indeed, Western portolans of the 14th–15th centuries use the double-headed eagle as the symbol of Trebizond rather than Constantinople. Single-headed eagles are also attested in Trapezuntine coins, and a 1421 source depicts the Trapezuntine flag as yellow with a red single-headed eagle, apparently, just as in the metropolitan Byzantine state, the use of both motifs continued side by side. In Western Europe, the Holy Roman Empire likewise adopted the eagle in the mid-13th century, under Frederick II Hohenstaufen. As an insigne, the cross was already in frequent use in Byzantium since Late Antiquity, images of flags with crosses quartered with golden discs survive from the 10th century, and a depiction of a flag almost identical to the Palaiologan design is known from the early 13th century. On coins, the Bs were often accompanied by circles or stars up to the end of the Empire, while Western sources sometimes depict the Byzantine flag as a gold cross on red. The symbol was adopted by Byzantine vassals, like the Gattilusi who ruled Lesbos after 1355, or the Latin lords of Rhodes Vignolo dei Vignoli. It was placed on the walls of Galata, apparently as a sign of the Byzantine emperors—largely theoretical—suzerainty over the Genoese colony. Along with the eagle, the tetragrammic cross was also adopted as part of their family coat of arms by the cadet line of the Palaiologos dynasty ruling in Montferrat. Tipaldos rejected Svoronos reading and suggested that they represented a repetition of the motto Σταυρέ, unlike the Western feudal lords, Byzantine aristocratic families did not, as far as is known, use specific symbols to designate themselves and their followers. Only from the 12th century onwards, when the Empire came in increased contact with Westerners because of the Crusades, even then however, the thematology was largely derived from the symbols employed in earlier ages, and its use was limited to the major families of the EmpireByzantine flags and insignia – The double-headed eagle with the Palaiologos family cipher
170. Byzantine music – Byzantine music, in a narrow sense, is the music of the Byzantine Empire. Originally it consisted of songs and hymns composed to Greek texts used for courtly ceremonials, during festivals, Byzantine music did not disappear after the fall of Constantinople. During the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century, the new self-declared patriarchates were independent nations defined by their religion. It was imitated by musicians of the 7th century to create Arab music as a synthesis of Byzantine and Persian music, the term Byzantine music is sometimes associated with the medieval sacred chant of Christian Churches following the Constantinopolitan Rite. The triodion created during the reform of Theodore was also translated into Slavonic which required also the adaption of melodic models to the prosody of the language. It is being discussed that in the Narthex of the Hagia Sophia an organ was placed for use in processions of the Emperor’s entourage. Nevertheless, both schools have in common a set of 4 octaves, each of them had a kyrios echos with the finalis on the degree V of the mode, and a plagios echos with the final note on the degree I. The Pythagorean sect and music as part of the four cyclical exercises which preceded the Latin quadrivium and science based on mathematics. Greek anachoretes of the early Middle Ages did still follow this education, according to him philosophy was divided into theory and practice, and the Pythagorean heritage was part of the former, while only the ethic effects of music were relevant in practice. The mathematic science harmonics was usually not mixed with the topics of a chant manual. Nevertheless, Byzantine music is modal and entirely dependent on the Ancient Greek concept of harmonics and its tonal system is based on a synthesis with ancient Greek models, but we have no sources left which explain us, how this synthesis was done. It seems that the fixed degrees became part of a new concept of the echos as melodic mode, after the echoi had been called by the ethnic names of the tropes. The bowed lyra is played in former Byzantine regions, where it is known as the Politiki lyra in Greece, the Calabrian lira in Southern Italy. The second instrument, the organ, originated in the Hellenistic world and was used in the Hippodrome in Constantinople during races, a pipe organ with great leaden pipes was sent by the emperor Constantine V to Pepin the Short King of the Franks in 757. Pepins son Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen in 812, the final Byzantine instrument, the aulos, was a double reeded woodwind like the modern oboe or Armenian duduk. Other forms include the plagiaulos, which resembled the flute, and the askaulos and these bagpipes, also known as Dankiyo, had been played even in Roman times. Dio Chrysostom wrote in the 1st century of a sovereign who could play a pipe with his mouth as well as by tucking a bladder beneath his armpit. The bagpipes continued to be played throughout the former realms down to the presentByzantine music – Music of Greece
171. Slavery in the Byzantine Empire – Slavery in the Byzantine Empire was widespread and common throughout its history. Slavery was already common in Classical Greece and in the earlier Roman Empire, the military campaigns and expansion of the empire in the 10th century resulted in a large numbers of slaves. A main source of slaves were prisoners of war, of which there was a profit to be made. The Skylitzes Chronicle mentions that after the Battle of Adrassos many prisoners of war were sent to Constantinople and they were so numerous that they filled all the mansions and rural regions. Most of the menials in large Byzantine homes were slaves and were very numerous, danelis of Patras, a wealthy widow in the 9th century, gave a gift of 3,000 slaves to Emperor Basil I. The eunuch Basil, chancellor during the reign of Basil II, was said to have owned 3,000 slaves, some slaves worked the landed estates of their masters, which declined in later ages. A medieval Arab historian estimates that 200,000 women and children were taken as slaves after the Byzantine reconquest of Crete from the Muslims. Yet parents, living in the Byzantine empire, were forced to sell their children to pay their debts, after the 10th century the major source of slaves were often Slavs and Bulgars, which resulted from campaigns in the Balkans and lands north of the Black Sea. At the eastern shore of the Adriatic many Slav slaves were exported to parts of Europe. Slaves were one of the articles that Russian traders dealt in their yearly visit to Constantinople. After the 12th century, the old Greek word δοῦλος obtained a synonym in σκλάβος, slavery was mostly an urban phenomenon with most of the slaves working in households. The Farmers Law of the 7th/8th centuries and the 10th century Book of the Prefect deals with slavery, slaves were not allowed to marry until it was legalized by an emperor in 1095. However, they did not gain freedom if they did, the children of slaves remained slaves even if the father was their master. Many of the slaves became drafted in the army, eunuchs were a special group among the slaves. Young boys were castrated before or after puberty and used as eunuchs, castration was outlawed but the law was poorly enforced. They were imported and exported to the empire by traders, eunuchs became very popular at some times, could rise to high posts and fetch high prices. In rich Byzantine families they were accepted as part of the household, eunuchs played an important role in the Byzantine palace and court. Slave markets were present in many Byzantine cities and towns, the slave market of Constantinople was found in the valley of the LamentationsSlavery in the Byzantine Empire – Slavery
172. List of Byzantine inventions – This is a list of Byzantine inventions. The Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire represented the continuation of the Roman Empire after a part of it collapsed and its main characteristics were Roman state traditions, Greek culture and Christian faith. Cross-in-square, The cross-in-square was the dominant architectural form of middle Byzantine churches, marking a decided departure from the oblong ground plan of the basilica, it has been described as a type of church that was, in its own way, perfect. The earliest extant example being the Theotokos church in Constantinople, its development can be traced back with a degree of certainty at least to the Nea Ekklesia. Pendentive dome, Generally speaking, a pendentive is a solution which allows a circular dome to be built atop a rectangular floor plan. While preliminary forms already evolved in Roman dome construction, the first fully developed pendentive dome dates to the reconstruction of the Hagia Sophia in 563. Devised by Isodorus the Younger, the nephew of the first architect Isidore of Miletus, the Hagia Sophia became the paradigmatic Orthodox church form and its architectural style was emulated by Turkish mosques a thousand years later. Pointed arch bridge, The earliest known bridge resting on an arch is the 5th or 6th century AD Karamagara Bridge in Cappadocia. Its single arch of 17 m spanned an affluent of the Euphrates, a Greek inscription, citing from the Bible, runs along one side of its arch rib. The structure is today submerged by the Keban Reservoir, niketas describes a stone projector used by future emperor Andronikos I Komnenos at the siege of Zevgminon in 1165. This was equipped with a windlass, an apparatus required neither for the traction nor hybrid trebuchet to launch missiles, hand-trebuchet, The hand-trebuchet was a staff sling mounted on a pole using a lever mechanism to propel projectiles. Basically a portable trebuchet which could be operated by a single man and it was also mentioned in the Taktika of general Nikephoros Ouranos, and listed in the Anonymus De obsidione toleranda as a form of artillery. Greek fire, The invention and military employment of Greek fire played a role in the defense of the empire against the early onslaught of the Muslim Arabs. Greek fire, referred to by Byzantine chroniclers as sea fire or liquid fire, was primarily a naval weapon, alternatively, it could be poured down from swivel cranes or hurled in pottery grenades. Greek fire held a reputation among Byzantiums numerous enemies who began to field – probably differently composed – combustibles of their own. It was, however, no weapon, but dependent on favourable conditions such as a calm sea. When and how the use of Greek fire was discontinued is not exactly known, according to one theory, the Byzantines lost the secret due to over-compartmentalization long before the 1204 sack of Constantinople. Larger containers were hurled by catapults or trebuchets at the enemy, flamethrower, for ship-borne flamethrowers, see Greek fire aboveList of Byzantine inventions – The characteristic multi-domed profile of the Byzantine Hagia Sophia, the first pendentive dome in history, has shaped Orthodox and Islamic architecture alike.
173. Byzantine medicine – Byzantine medicine encompasses the common medical practices of the Byzantine Empire from about 400 AD to 1453 AD. Byzantine medicine was notable for building upon the base developed by its Greco-Roman predecessors. In preserving medical practices from antiquity, Byzantine medicine influenced Islamic medicine as well as fostering the Western rebirth of medicine during the Renaissance, Byzantine physicians often compiled and standardized medical knowledge into textbooks. Their records tended to include both diagnostic explanations and technical drawings, the Medical Compendium in Seven Books, written by the leading physician Paul of Aegina, survived as a particularly thorough source of medical knowledge. This compendium, written in the seventh century, remained in use as a standard textbook for the following 800 years. Late antiquity ushered in a revolution in science, and historical records often mention civilian hospitals. Constantinople stood out as a center of medicine during the Middle Ages, which was aided by its crossroads location, wealth, arguably, the first Byzantine physician was the author of the Vienna Dioscurides manuscript, created circa 515 AD for the daughter of Emperor Olybrius. Oribasius, arguably the most prolific Byzantine compiler of medical knowledge, several of his works, along with those of other Byzantine physicians, were translated into Latin, and eventually, during the Enlightenment and Age of Reason, into English and French. Therefore, it could be argued that previous misrepresentations about Byzantium being simply a carrier of Ancient Medical knowledge to the Renaissance are wrong. It is known, for example, that the late twelfth-century Italian physician was influenced by the treatises of the Byzantine doctors Aëtius, the last great Byzantine physician was John Actuarius, who lived in the early 14th Century in Constantinople. His works on urine laid much of the foundation for later study in urology, the Byzantine Empire was one of the first empires to have flourishing medical establishments. Prior to the Byzantine Empire the Roman Empire had hospitals specifically for soldiers, however, none of these establishments were for the public. The hospitals in Byzantium were originally started by the church to act as a place for the poor to have access to basic amenities, hospitals were usually separated between men and women. The establishments of the Byzantine Empire resembled the beginning of what we now know as modern hospitals, the first hospital was erected by Leontius of Antioch between the years 344 to 358 and was a place for strangers and migrants to find refuge. Around the same time, a deacon named Marathonius was in charge of hospitals and his main objective was to improve urban aesthetics, illustrating hospitals as a main part of Byzantine cities. These early hospitals were designed for the poor, in fact, most hospitals throughout the Byzantine Empire were almost exclusively utilized by the poor. There is debate between scholars as to why these institutions were started by the church, many scholars believe that the church founded hospitals in order to receive additional donations. Whatever the case for these hospitals, they began to diffuse across the empire, soon after, St. Basil of Caesarea developed a place for the sick in which provided refuge for the sick and homelessByzantine medicine – Byzantine culture
174. Greek scholars in the Renaissance – These emigres were grammarians, humanists, poets, writers, printers, lecturers, musicians, astronomers, architects, academics, artists, scribes, philosophers, scientists, politicians and theologians. They brought to Western Europe the relatively well-preserved remnants and accumulated knowledge of their own civilization and their main role within the Renaissance humanism was the teaching of the Greek language to their western counterparts in universities or privately together with the spread of ancient texts. Their forerunners were Barlaam of Calabria and Leonzio Pilato, both drawn from culturally Byzantine Calabria in southern Italy, the impact of these two scholars on the very first Renaissance humanists was indisputable. These young men had to study the sciences, in order to spread later sacred and profane learning among their fellow-countrymen. The construction of the College and Church of S. Atanasio, the same year the first students arrived, and until the completion of the college were housed elsewhere. Crete was especially notable for the Cretan School of icon-painting, which after 1453 became the most important in the Greek world, while Greek learning affected all the subjects of the studia humanitatis, history and philosophy in particular were profoundly affected by the texts and ideas brought from Byzantium. The effects of this knowledge of Greek history can be seen in the writings of humanists on virtue. Specifically, these effects are shown in the examples provided from Greek antiquity that displayed virtue as well as vice, the flourishing of philosophical writings in the 15th century revealed the impact of Greek philosophy and science on the Renaissance. Geanakoplos, Byzantine East and Latin West, Two worlds of Christendom in Middle Ages, the Academy Library Harper & Row Publishers, New York,1966. Deno J. Geanakoplos, A Byzantine looks at the renaissance, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 1, pp, jonathan Harris, Greek Émigrés in the West, 1400-1520, Camberley, Porphyrogenitus,1995. Louise Ropes Loomis The Greek Renaissance in Italy The American Historical Review,13, pp, john Monfasani Byzantine Scholars in Renaissance Italy, Cardinal Bessarion and Other Émigrés, Selected Essays, Aldershot, Hampshire, Variorum,1995. Steven Runciman, The fall of Constantinople,1453, fotis Vassileiou & Barbara Saribalidou, Short Biographical Lexicon of Byzantine Academics Immigrants to Western Europe,2007. Dimitri Tselos A Greco-Italian School of Illuminators and Fresco Painters, Its Relation to the Principal Reims Nigel G. Wilson, from Byzantium to Italy, Greek Studies in the Italian Renaissance. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press,1992, michael D. Reeve, On the role of Greek in Renaissance scholarship. Jonathan Harris, Byzantines in Renaissance Italy, bilingual excerpts from Gennadios Scholarios Epistle to Orators. Paul Botley, Renaissance Scholarship and the Athenian Calendar, karl Krumbacher, The History of Byzantine Literature, from Justinian to the end of the Eastern Roman Empire. San Giorgio dei Greci and the Greek community of Venice Istituto Ellenico di Studi Byzantini and Postbyzantini di VeneziaGreek scholars in the Renaissance – Demetrius Chalcondyles (brother of Laonikos Chalkokondyles) (1424–1511) was a Greek Renaissance scholar, Humanist and teacher of Greek and Platonic philosophy.