1. Cornish language – Cornish is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language native to Cornwall. The language has undergone a revival in recent decades and is considered to be an important part of Cornish identity, culture and heritage. It is a minority language of the United Kingdom, protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Along with Welsh and Breton, Cornish is descended directly from the Common Brittonic language spoken throughout much of Britain before the English language came to dominate. A process to revive the language was begun in the early 20th century, in 2010 UNESCO announced that its former classification of the language as extinct was no longer accurate. Since the revival of the language, many Cornish textbooks and works of literature have been published, recent developments include Cornish music, independent films, and childrens books. A small number of people in Cornwall have been brought up to be native speakers. The first Cornish language crèche opened in 2010, Cornish is one of the Brittonic languages, which constitute a branch of the Insular Celtic section of the Celtic language family. Brittonic also includes Welsh, Breton and the Cumbric language, the last is extinct, scottish Gaelic, Irish and Manx are part of the separate Goidelic branch of Insular Celtic. Cornish evolved from the Common Brittonic spoken throughout Britain south of the Firth of Forth during the British Iron Age, as a result of westward Anglo-Saxon expansion, the Britons of the southwest were separated from those in modern-day Wales and Cumbria. Some scholars have proposed that this took place after the Battle of Deorham in about 577. The area controlled by the southwestern Britons was progressively reduced by the expansion of Wessex over the few centuries. The earliest written record of the Cornish language comes from period, a 9th-century gloss in a Latin manuscript of De Consolatione Philosophiae by Boethius. The phrase means it hated the gloomy places, a much more substantial survival from Old Cornish is a Cornish-Latin glossary containing translations of around 300 words. The manuscript was thought to be in Old Welsh until the 1700s when it was identified as Cornish. The Cornish language continued to flourish well through the Middle Cornish period, reaching a peak of about 39,000 speakers in the 13th century and this period provided the bulk of traditional Cornish literature, which was used to reconstruct the language during its revival. Most important is the Ordinalia, a cycle of three plays, Origo Mundi, Passio Christi and Resurrexio Domini. Together these provide about 20,000 lines of text, various plays were written by the canons of Glasney College, intended to educate the Cornish people about the Bible and the Celtic saintsCornish language – The opening verses of Origo Mundi, the first play of the Ordinalia (the magnum opus of medieval Cornish literature), written by an unknown monk in the late 14th century
2. England – England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 yearsEngland – Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument
3. Great Britain – Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, Great Britain is the largest European island, in 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the worlds third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan. The island of Ireland is situated to the west of it, the island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, the island is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, most of England, Scotland, and Wales are on the island. The term Great Britain often extends to surrounding islands that form part of England, Scotland, and Wales. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England, the archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years, the term British Isles derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, the oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or possibly by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles, Albion and Ierne. The name Britain descends from the Latin name for Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Breoten, Bryten, Breten, Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together. It is derived from the writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι. The peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Πρεττανοί, Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, Britain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland. The latter were later called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans, the Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. The name Albion appears to have out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a term only. It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself King of Great Brittaine, France, Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, politically to England, Scotland and Wales in combinationGreat Britain – Satellite image of Great Britain in April 2002
4. English Channel – The English Channel, also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France, and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. It is about 560 km long and varies in width from 240 km at its widest to 33.3 km in the Strait of Dover and it is the smallest of the shallow seas around the continental shelf of Europe, covering an area of some 75,000 km2. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the English Channel as follows, a line joining Isle Vierge to Lands End. The southwestern limit of the North Sea, the IHO defines the southwestern limit of the North Sea as a line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. The Walde Lighthouse is 6 km east of Calais, and Leathercoat Point is at the end of St Margarets Bay. The Strait of Dover, at the Channels eastern end, is its narrowest point and it is relatively shallow, with an average depth of about 120 m at its widest part, reducing to a depth of about 45 m between Dover and Calais. Eastwards from there the adjoining North Sea reduces to about 26 m in the Broad Fourteens where it lies over the watershed of the land bridge between East Anglia and the Low Countries. It reaches a depth of 180 m in the submerged valley of Hurds Deep,48 km west-northwest of Guernsey. The eastern region along the French coast between Cherbourg and the mouth of the Seine river at Le Havre is frequently referred to as the Bay of the Seine. There are several islands in the Channel, the most notable being the Isle of Wight off the English coast. The coastline, particularly on the French shore, is indented, several small islands close to the coastline, including Chausey. The Cotentin Peninsula in France juts out into the Channel, whilst on the English side there is a parallel channel known as the Solent between the Isle of Wight and the mainland. The Celtic Sea is to the west of the Channel, the Channel is of geologically recent origins, having been dry land for most of the Pleistocene period. The first flood would have lasted for months, releasing as much as one million cubic metres of water per second. The flood started with large but localized waterfalls over the ridge, the flow eroded the retaining ridge, causing the rock dam to fail and releasing lake water into the English Channel. The erosion of the Lobourg Channel was probably the final opening of the Strait, the time difference of about six hours between high water at the eastern and western limits of the Channel is indicative of the tidal range being amplified further by resonance. It was never defined as a border and the names were more or less descriptive. It was not considered as the property of a nation, strangely, before the development of the modern nations, British scholars very often referred to it as Gaulish and the French one as British or EnglishEnglish Channel – English Channel
5. River Tamar – The Tamar is a river in south west England, that forms most of the border between Devon and Cornwall. The area is a World Heritage Site due to its mining activities. The Tamars source is less than 6 km from the north Cornish coast, the total length of the river is 61 miles. At its mouth, the Tamar flows into the Hamoaze before entering Plymouth Sound, tributaries of the river include the rivers Inny, Ottery, Kensey and Lynher on the Cornish side, and the Deer and Tavy on the Devon side. The name Tamar was mentioned by Ptolemy in the century in his Geography. The name is said to mean Great Water, the Tamar is one of several British rivers whose ancient name is assumed by some to be derived from a prehistoric river word apparently meaning dark flowing and which it shares with the River Thames. The seventh century Ravenna Cosmography mentions a Roman settlement named Tamaris, Plymouth, Launceston and the Roman fort at Calstock have been variously suggested. The river is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest, a European Special Area of Conservation, and it is also designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape. In November 2013, South West Water was fined £50,000 after it admitted permitting the discharge of sewage from its Camels Head treatment plant into a tributary of the River Tamar for eight years. Together, the Tamar, Tavy and Lynher form the Tamar Valley, the Tamar Valley Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty covers around 195 km2 around the lower Tamar and its tributaries the Tavy and the Lynher. It was first proposed in 1963, but was not designated until 1995, the highest point in the AONB is Kit Hill,334 metres above sea level. The Plymouth Sound and Estuaries are a European Special Area of Conservation, rocky reefs in low salinity estuarine conditions far inland on the Tamar are very unusual and support species such as the hydroid Cordylophora caspia. The Tamar is one of few estuaries where zonation of rocky habitats can be observed along an estuarine gradient, the Tamar–Tavy Estuary is a Site of Special Scientific Interest covering the tidal estuaries of the River Tamar and the River Tavy. Part of the Tamar estuary also forms the Tamar Estuary Nature Reserve, the site was designated in 1991 for its biodiversity and varying habitats that support a large number of wader and wildfowl species, as well as the special interest of its marine biology. The site supports an important wintering population of avocet and supports species such as black-tailed godwit, whimbrel, greenshank, spotted redshank, green sandpiper. The valley, with the town of Tavistock was added to the World Heritage List during the 30th Session of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee in Vilnius. According to Ordnance Survey mapping, the source of the Tamar is at Woolley Moor, approximately 3.5 miles from the north Cornish coast, at 50. 9235°N4. 4622°W /50.9235, -4.4622. The location of the spring is a windswept plateau largely devoid of farmlandRiver Tamar – The Tamar near Bohetherick
6. Celts – The history of pre-Celtic Europe remains very uncertain. According to one theory, the root of the Celtic languages, the Proto-Celtic language, arose in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of Central Europe. Thus this area is called the Celtic homeland. The earliest undisputed examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions beginning in the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested almost exclusively through inscriptions and place-names, Insular Celtic languages are attested beginning around the 4th century in Ogham inscriptions, although it was clearly being spoken much earlier. Celtic literary tradition begins with Old Irish texts around the 8th century, coherent texts of Early Irish literature, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge, survive in 12th century recensions. Between the 5th and 8th centuries, the Celtic-speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a cohesive cultural entity. They had a linguistic, religious and artistic heritage that distinguished them from the culture of the surrounding polities. By the 6th century, however, the Continental Celtic languages were no longer in wide use, Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels and the Celtic Britons of the medieval and modern periods. A modern Celtic identity was constructed as part of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain, Ireland, today, Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, and Breton are still spoken in parts of their historical territories, and Cornish and Manx are undergoing a revival. The first recorded use of the name of Celts – as Κελτοί – to refer to a group was by Hecataeus of Miletus, the Greek geographer, in 517 BC. In the fifth century BC Herodotus referred to Keltoi living around the head of the Danube, the etymology of the term Keltoi is unclear. Possible roots include Indo-European *kʲel ‘to hide’, IE *kʲel ‘to heat’ or *kel ‘to impel’, several authors have supposed it to be Celtic in origin, while others view it as a name coined by Greeks. Linguist Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel falls in the group. Yet he reports Celtic peoples in Iberia, and also uses the ethnic names Celtiberi and Celtici for peoples there, as distinct from Lusitani, pliny the Elder cited the use of Celtici in Lusitania as a tribal surname, which epigraphic findings have confirmed. Latin Gallus might stem from a Celtic ethnic or tribal name originally and its root may be the Proto-Celtic *galno, meaning “power, strength”, hence Old Irish gal “boldness, ferocity” and Welsh gallu “to be able, power”. The tribal names of Gallaeci and the Greek Γαλάται most probably have the same origin, the suffix -atai might be an Ancient Greek inflection. Proto-Germanic *walha is derived ultimately from the name of the Volcae and this means that English Gaul, despite its superficial similarity, is not actually derived from Latin Gallia, though it does refer to the same ancient regionCelts – Celtic stele from Galicia, 2nd century AD: “APANA·AMBO / LLI· F(ilia)·CELTICA / SUPERTAM(arica) · / (j) MIOBRI· / AN(norum)· XXV·H(ic)·S(ita)·E(st)· / APANUS·FR(ater)· F(aciendum)·C(uravit)”
7. Battle of Deorham – The Battle of Deorham was a decisive military encounter between the West Saxons and the Britons of the West Country in 577. The battle, which was a victory for the Wessex forces led by Ceawlin and his son, Cuthwine, resulted in the capture of the Brythonic cities of Glevum, Corinium Dobunnorum. It also led to the permanent cultural and ethnic separation of Dumnonia from Wales, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is the only source that carries a mention of the battle. Although it gives few details, it describes it as a major engagement, the location of the Deorham is Hinton Hill near to Dyrham in South Gloucestershire. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for 577 records that that year King Ceawlin of Wessex and this is generally taken to be Dyrham in what is now South Gloucestershire, on the Cotswolds escarpment a few miles north of Bath. The West Saxons carried the day, and three kings of the Britons, whose names are given as Conmail, and Condidan, and Farinmail, were slain. The Severn Valley has always one of the military keys of Britain. In 577 Ceawlin advanced from the Thames Valley across the Cotswolds to seize the area, once the Saxons were in occupation of the site the Britons of those three towns were compelled to unite and make a combined attempt to dislodge them. Their attempt failed and the three opposing British kings were killed, the military historian Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Burne, employing his theory of Inherent Military Probability opted for a simpler explanation for the battle than Baddeley. In his view Ceawlin was methodically advancing towards the Severn and the three forces of Britons concentrated to stop him, a last stand in this position would explain why none of the three Briton leaders was able to escape. Archaeological research has found many of the villas in the post-Roman era were still occupied around these cities. This suggests the area was controlled by relatively sophisticated and wealthy Britons, however they were eventually abandoned or destroyed as the territory came under the control of Wessex. This quickly happened after the battle around the Cirencester region but the Saxons took many years to colonise Gloucester, some academics believe the battle was also the starting point when Welsh and Cornish began to become two separate languages. H. P. R. Finberg, The Formation of England, 550–1042, London, Hart-Davis, MacGibbon, 1974/Paladin,1976. John Morris, The Age of Arthur, A History of the British Isles from 350 to 650, London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson,1973, myres, The Oxford History of England, The English Settlements, Oxford, Clarendon,1986, ISBN0198217196Battle of Deorham – Earthworks around Hinton Hill just north of Dyrham
8. Kingdom of Cornwall – The history of Cornwall begins with the pre-Roman inhabitants, including speakers of a Celtic language, Common Brittonic, that would develop into Southwestern Brittonic and then the Cornish language. Cornwall was part of the territory of the tribe of the Dumnonii that included modern-day Devon, after the collapse of Dumnonia, the remaining territory of Cornwall came into conflict with neighbouring Wessex. By the middle of the century, Cornwall had fallen under the control of Wessex. In 1337, the title Duke of Cornwall was created by the English monarchy, to be held by the kings eldest son, conflicts with the centre took place with the Cornish Rebellion of 1497 and Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549. By the 18th century, Cornwall was incorporated into the Kingdom of Great Britain along with the rest of England, the Industrial Revolution brought huge change to Cornwall, as well as the adoption of methodism among the general populace, turning the area nonconformist. The present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age, the inhabitants may have been related to the Iberians who occupied Spain and Portugal. The upland areas of Cornwall were the parts first open to settlement as the vegetation required little in the way of clearance, many megaliths of this period exist in Cornwall and prehistoric remains in general are more numerous in Cornwall than in any other English county except Wiltshire. The remains are of various kinds and include menhirs, barrows, Cornwall and neighbouring Devon had large reserves of tin, which was mined extensively during the Bronze Age by people associated with the Beaker culture. Tin is necessary to make bronze from copper, and by about 1600 BCE the West Country was experiencing a trade boom driven by the export of tin across Europe and this prosperity helped feed the skilfully wrought gold ornaments recovered from Wessex culture sites. There is evidence of a relatively large-scale disruption of cultural practices around the 12th century BCE that some think may indicate an invasion or migration into southern Britain. Around 750 BCE the Iron Age reached Britain, permitting greater scope of agriculture through the use of new iron ploughs, the building of hill forts also peaked during the British Iron Age. During broadly the same time, Celtic cultures and peoples spread across the British Isles, during the British Iron Age Cornwall, like all of Britain south of the Firth of Forth, was inhabited by Celts known as the Britons. The Celtic language spoken at the time, Common Brittonic, eventually developed several distinct tongues. By the time that Classical written sources appear, Cornwall was inhabited by tribes speaking Celtic languages, the tribal name is therefore likely to be the origin of Kernow or later Curnow used for Cornwall in the Cornish language. The Cornish Cornovii may even be a separate tribe, taking their name from the horn shape of the peninsula. The English name, Cornwall, comes from the Celtic name, in pre-Roman times, Cornwall was part of the kingdom of Dumnonia, and was later known to the Anglo-Saxons as West Wales, to distinguish it from North Wales. During the time of Roman dominance in Britain, Cornwall was rather remote from the centres of Romanisation. A Roman style villa was found at Magor Farm near Camborne, pottery and other evidence suggesting the presence of an ironworks have been found at the undisclosed location near St Austell, CornwallKingdom of Cornwall – Boscawen-Un stone circle looking north
9. Wessex – Wessex was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century. The Anglo-Saxons believed that Wessex was founded by Cerdic and Cynric, the two main sources for the history of Wessex are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List, which sometimes conflict. Wessex became a Christian kingdom after Cenwalh was baptised and was expanded under his rule, cædwalla later conquered Sussex, Kent and the Isle of Wight. His successor, Ine, issued one of the oldest surviving English law codes, the throne subsequently passed to a series of kings with unknown genealogies. During the 8th century, as the hegemony of Mercia grew and it was during this period that the system of shires was established. Under Egbert, Surrey, Sussex, Kent, Essex, and Mercia and he also obtained the overlordship of the Northumbrian king. However, Mercian independence was restored in 830, during the reign of his successor, Æthelwulf, a Danish army arrived in the Thames estuary, but was decisively defeated. When Æthelwulfs son, Æthelbald, usurped the throne, the kingdom was divided to avoid war, Æthelwulf was succeeded in turn by his four sons, the youngest being Alfred the Great. Wessex was invaded by the Danes in 871, and Alfred was compelled to pay them to leave and they returned in 876, but were forced to withdraw. In 878 they forced Alfred to flee to the Somerset Levels, during his reign Alfred issued a new law code, gathered scholars to his court and was able to devote funds to building ships, organising an army and establishing a system of burhs. Alfreds son, Edward, captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of his sister, Edwards son, Æthelstan, conquered Northumbria in 927, and England became a unified kingdom for the first time. Cnut the Great, who conquered England in 1016, created the wealthy and powerful earldom of Wessex, modern archaeologists use the term Wessex culture for a Middle Bronze Age culture in this area. Although agriculture and hunting were pursued during this period, there is little archaeological evidence of human settlements. During the Roman occupation numerous country villas with attached farms were established across Wessex, the Romans, or rather the Romano-British, built another major road that integrated Wessex, running eastwards from Exeter through Dorchester to Winchester and Silchester and on to London. The early 4th century CE was a time in Roman Britain. However, following a previous incursion in 360 that was stopped by Roman forces and they devastated many parts of Britain and laid siege to London. The Romans responded promptly, and Count Theodosius had recovered the land up to the Wall by 368, the Romans temporarily ceased to rule Britain on the death of Magnus Maximus in 388. Stilicho attempted to restore Roman authority in the late 390s, two subsequent Roman rulers of Britain, appointed by the remaining troops, were murderedWessex – Imaginary depiction of Cerdic from John Speed 's 1611 "Saxon Heptarchy"
10. Cornish people – Many in the county today continue to assert a distinct identity separate from or in addition to English or British identities. Cornish identity has been adopted by migrants into Cornwall, as well as by emigrant and descendant communities from Cornwall, although not included as an explicit option in the UK census, the numbers of those claiming Cornish ethnic and national identity are officially recognised and recorded. The name Cornwall and its demonym Cornish are derived from the Celtic Cornovii tribe, the Anglo-Saxon invasion and settlement of Britain in the 5th to 6th centuries pushed Celtic culture and some Celtic peoples to the northern and western fringes of Britain. The Cornish people, who shared the Brythonic language with the Welsh, the Battle of Deorham between the Britons and Anglo-Saxons is thought to have resulted in a loss of landlinks with the people of Wales. The Cornish people and their Brythonic Cornish language experienced a process of anglicisation and attrition during the Medieval, by the 18th century, and following the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Cornish language and identity had faded, replaced by the English language and British identity. A Celtic revival during the early-20th century enabled a cultural self-consciousness in Cornwall that revitalised the Cornish language, in the 2011 census, the population of Cornwall, including the Isles of Scilly was estimated to be 532,300. Weighting of the 2001 Census data gives a figure of 154,791 people with Cornish ethnicity living in Cornwall, the Cornish have been described as a special case in England, with an ethnic rather than regional identity. The British are the citizens of the United Kingdom, a people who by convention consist of four national groups, meanwhile, another international rugby union player, Josh Matavesi, describes himself as Cornish-Fijian and Cornish not English. A survey by Plymouth University in 2000 found that 30% of children in Cornwall felt Cornish, a 2004 survey on national identity by the finance firm Morgan Stanley found that 44% of respondents in Cornwall saw themselves as Cornish rather than British or English. A2008 study by the University of Edinburgh of 15- and 16-year-old schoolchildren in Cornwall found that 58% of respondents felt themselves to be either ‘Fairly’ or ‘Very much’ Cornish, the other 42% may be the result of in-migration to the area during the second half of the twentieth century. A2010 study by the University of Exeter into the meaning of contemporary Cornish identity across Cornwall found that there was a west-east distance decay in the strength of the Cornish identity. The study was conducted amongst the community as they were deemed to be the socio-professional group most objectively representative of Cornishness. All participants categorised themselves as Cornish and identified Cornish as their ethnic group orientation. Those in the west primarily thought of themselves as Cornish and British/Celtic, all participants in West Cornwall who identified as Cornish and not English described people in East Cornwall, without hesitation, as equally Cornish as themselves. Those who identified as Cornish and English stressed the primacy of their Cornishness, ancestry was seen as the most important criterion for being categorised as Cornish, above place of birth or growing up in Cornwall. This study supports a 1988 study by Mary McArthur that had found that the meanings of Cornishness varied substantially, both studies also observed that the Cornish were less materialistic than the English. The Cornish generally saw the English, or city people, as being friendly and more aggressively self-promoting. The Cornish saw themselves as friendly, welcoming and caring, a campaign for the inclusion of a Cornish tick-box in the nationality section of the 2011 census failed to win the support of parliament in 2009Cornish people – The Union and Cornish flags.
11. Cornish diaspora – The Cornish diaspora consists of Cornish people and their descendants who emigrated from Cornwall, Britain. The diaspora is found in such as the United States, Canada, Australia, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa. A driving force for some emigrants was the opportunity for skilled miners to work abroad, later in combination with the decline of the tin. It is estimated that 250,000 Cornish migrated abroad between 1861 and 1901 and these emigrants included farmers, merchants and tradesmen, but miners made up most of the numbers. There is a saying in Cornwall that a mine is a hole anywhere in the world with at least one Cornishman at the bottom of it, the Cornish economy profited from the miners’ work abroad. Some men sent back “home pay”, which helped to keep their families out of the workhouse, as well as their mining skills, the Cornish emigrants carried their culture and way of life with them when they travelled. They formed tight-knit communities, and did not lose contact with either the people or the customs of their homeland. The passion for Rugby union was exported overseas by the Cornish miners and this is evidenced by the existence of both Cornish societies and Cornish festivals in these countries, as well as a growing overseas interest in the Cornish language. Many of those with Cornish ancestry are now reviving their heritage, in Moonta, South Australia, the Kernewek Lowender is the largest Cornish festival in the world and attracts tens of thousands of visitors each year. In its heyday Moonta was South Australias second largest town after Adelaide and was settled by Cornish miners. Today it is known as Australias Little Cornwall, today Moonta is most famous for its traditional Cornish pasties and its Cornish style miners cottages and mine engine houses such as Richmans and Hughes engines houses built in the 1860s. Many streets and houses have Cornish names, many descendants of these Cornish families bearing their Cornish surnames still live in the Copper Triangle and the area is intensely proud of its Cornish heritage. Many of the miners cottages made from wattle and daub still stand and are still lived in by local residents. An example of the extent of the Cornish diaspora are the miners who worked at the Geraldine mine in Western Australia and had an influence on the town of Northampton. In South Australia, the town of Burra has Cornish connections and this former copper mining town is listed on the National Estate Register and also declared a State Heritage Area. The great Burra Jinker holds pride of place in Market Square and it was once pulled by some 40 bullocks, four abreast. Straining to the exhortations of six bullock drivers under the leadership of William Woollacott. In April 2001 the Jinker was included in the BankSA Heritage Icons List, Burra began with the discovery of copper in 1845, by shepherds Thomas Pickett and William StreairCornish diaspora – A statue commemorating Cornish and German miners in Bendigo, Victoria, Australia
12. Celtic nations – The Celtic nations are territories in western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived. The term nation is used in its original sense to mean a people who share a common identity, the six territories widely considered Celtic nations are Brittany, Cornwall, Wales, Scotland, Ireland and the Isle of Man, commonly referred to as the Celtic fringe. In each of the six nations a Celtic language is spoken, before the expansions of Ancient Rome and the Germanic and Slavic tribes, a significant part of Europe was dominated by Celts, leaving behind a legacy of Celtic cultural traits. Unlike the others, however, no Celtic language has been there in modern times. Each of the six nations has its own Celtic language, in the latter two regions, however, language revitalization movements have led to the adoption of these languages by adults and produced a number of native speakers. Generally these communities are in the west of their countries and in isolated upland or island areas. The term Gàidhealtachd historically distinguished the Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland from the Lowland Scots areas, more recently, this term has also been adopted as the Gaelic name of the Highland council area, which includes non-Gaelic speaking areas. Hence, more terms such as sgìre Ghàidhlig are now used. In Wales, the Welsh language is a curriculum subject. Additionally, 20% of school children in Wales go to Welsh medium schools, parts of the northern Iberian Peninsula, namely Galicia, Cantabria, Asturias and Northern Portugal, also lay claim to this heritage. Notably, the music features extensive use of bagpipes, an instrument common in Celtic music. Musicians from Galicia and Asturias have participated in Celtic music festivals, such as the Breton Festival Interceltique de Lorient, Northern Portugal, part of ancient Gallaecia, also has traditions quite similar to Galicia. However, no Celtic language has been spoken in northern Iberia since probably the Early Middle Ages, Irish was once widely spoken on the island of Newfoundland before largely disappearing there by the early 20th century. Vestiges remain in some words found in Newfoundland English, such as scrob for scratch, knowledge seems to be largely restricted to memorized passages, such as traditional tales and songs. Canadian Gaelic dialects of Scottish Gaelic are still spoken by Gaels in other parts of Atlantic Canada, primarily on Cape Breton Island and adjacent areas of Nova Scotia. In 2011, there were 1,275 Gaelic speakers in Nova Scotia, patagonian Welsh is spoken principally in Y Wladfa in the Chubut Province of Patagonia with sporadic speakers throughout Argentina by Welsh Argentines. Estimates of the number of Welsh speakers range from 1,500 to 5,000, the chart below shows the population of each Celtic nation and the number of people in each nation who can speak Celtic languages. The total number of residing in the Celtic nations is 19,596,000 people and, of theseCeltic nations – Pipers at the Festival Interceltique de Lorient
13. History of Cornwall – The history of Cornwall begins with the pre-Roman inhabitants, including speakers of a Celtic language, Common Brittonic, that would develop into Southwestern Brittonic and then the Cornish language. Cornwall was part of the territory of the tribe of the Dumnonii that included modern-day Devon, after the collapse of Dumnonia, the remaining territory of Cornwall came into conflict with neighbouring Wessex. By the middle of the century, Cornwall had fallen under the control of Wessex. In 1337, the title Duke of Cornwall was created by the English monarchy, to be held by the kings eldest son, conflicts with the centre took place with the Cornish Rebellion of 1497 and Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549. By the 18th century, Cornwall was incorporated into the Kingdom of Great Britain along with the rest of England, the Industrial Revolution brought huge change to Cornwall, as well as the adoption of methodism among the general populace, turning the area nonconformist. The present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age, the inhabitants may have been related to the Iberians who occupied Spain and Portugal. The upland areas of Cornwall were the parts first open to settlement as the vegetation required little in the way of clearance, many megaliths of this period exist in Cornwall and prehistoric remains in general are more numerous in Cornwall than in any other English county except Wiltshire. The remains are of various kinds and include menhirs, barrows, Cornwall and neighbouring Devon had large reserves of tin, which was mined extensively during the Bronze Age by people associated with the Beaker culture. Tin is necessary to make bronze from copper, and by about 1600 BCE the West Country was experiencing a trade boom driven by the export of tin across Europe and this prosperity helped feed the skilfully wrought gold ornaments recovered from Wessex culture sites. There is evidence of a relatively large-scale disruption of cultural practices around the 12th century BCE that some think may indicate an invasion or migration into southern Britain. Around 750 BCE the Iron Age reached Britain, permitting greater scope of agriculture through the use of new iron ploughs, the building of hill forts also peaked during the British Iron Age. During broadly the same time, Celtic cultures and peoples spread across the British Isles, during the British Iron Age Cornwall, like all of Britain south of the Firth of Forth, was inhabited by Celts known as the Britons. The Celtic language spoken at the time, Common Brittonic, eventually developed several distinct tongues. By the time that Classical written sources appear, Cornwall was inhabited by tribes speaking Celtic languages, the tribal name is therefore likely to be the origin of Kernow or later Curnow used for Cornwall in the Cornish language. The Cornish Cornovii may even be a separate tribe, taking their name from the horn shape of the peninsula. The English name, Cornwall, comes from the Celtic name, in pre-Roman times, Cornwall was part of the kingdom of Dumnonia, and was later known to the Anglo-Saxons as West Wales, to distinguish it from North Wales. During the time of Roman dominance in Britain, Cornwall was rather remote from the centres of Romanisation. A Roman style villa was found at Magor Farm near Camborne, pottery and other evidence suggesting the presence of an ironworks have been found at the undisclosed location near St Austell, CornwallHistory of Cornwall – Boscawen-Un stone circle looking north
14. Culture of Cornwall – The culture of Cornwall forms part of the culture of the United Kingdom, but has distinct customs, traditions and peculiarities. Cornwall, a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county of England, a duchy, after many years of decline, Cornish culture has undergone a strong revival, and many groups exist to promote Cornwalls culture and language today. The Cornish language is a Celtic language related to Breton and Welsh, all of these are directly descended from the British language which was once spoken throughout most of Britain. Some events will use Cornish, in phrases, openings, greetings or names. There is a tradition of music in the language, which can also be enjoyed by non-speakers. The vast majority of names in Cornwall are derived from the language. A sign of this role is that two of Cornwalls five MPs once swore their oaths to the Queen in Cornish, the ancient Brythonic country shares much of its cultural history with neighbouring Devon and Somerset in England and Wales and Brittany further afield. Cornish grievances against the policies of the English government led to the uprisings of the Cornish Rebellion of 1497. The earliest Cornish literature is in the Cornish language and Cornwall produced a number of passion plays during the Middle Ages. Many are still extant, and provide information about the language. Writing in the Cornish dialect has generally been overshadowed by the Cornish language, however, from the 19th century onwards poems and short stories have been published, often with a typically Cornish humour. Some Cornish newspapers have featured a column written in Cornish dialect, then there are literary works in standard English including conversations between dialect speakers. Cornish World, a magazine produced in Cornwall and covering all aspects of Cornish life has proved popular with the descendants of Cornish emigrants as well as Cornish residents. It includes a column in the Cornish language, Charles Causley was born in Launceston and is perhaps the best known of Cornish poets. The Nobel-prizewinning novelist William Golding who was born in St Columb Minor in 1911, the late Poet Laureate Sir John Betjeman was famously fond of Cornwall and it featured prominently in his poetry. He is buried in the churchyard at St Enodocs Church, Trebetherick, the poet Laurence Binyon wrote For the Fallen while sitting on the cliffs between Pentire Point and The Rumps and a stone plaque was erected in 2001 to commemorate the fact. She is also noted for writing Vanishing Cornwall, Cornwall provided the inspiration for The Birds, one of her terrifying series of short stories, made famous as a film by Alfred Hitchcock. Conan Doyles The Adventure of the Devils Foot featuring Sherlock Holmes is set in Cornwall, howard Spring lived in Cornwall from 1939 and set part or all of various novels in the CountyCulture of Cornwall – Entrance at Truro Cathedral has welcome sign in several languages, including Cornish
15. Economy of Cornwall – The economy of Cornwall in South West England, is largely dependent upon agriculture followed by tourism. Farming and food processing contributed £366 million to the county, equal to 5. 3% of Cornwall’s total GVA, tourism contributed £1.85 billion to the Cornish economy in 2011. An updated overview of the Cornish economy can be found here Cornwall qualified for Objective One European funding in 1999, prior to this the Government had, for statistical purposes, incorporated it with Devon, under the Devonwall concept. Due to Cornwall producing less than 75% of the average European GDP, the Combined Universities Campus at Tremough was one result of this funding. Objective One funding has been used in supporting and developing an indigenous food. Other sectors have also benefited, including the creative industries, which have benefited from publicity, tourism also gained from the funding, and broadband provision was made a priority. There have been complaints of fund mismanagement, for example. In 2005, Cornwall was estimated to have a GDP of 70% of the European average and this tranche was known as Convergence funding, and was due to last between the beginning of 2008 and 2013, and be worth £445 million. Priorities for the 2008–13 tranche have an emphasis on information and communication technologies, competitiveness, enterprise and a providing a skilled workforce. One of the first projects, a £3.5 million factory was built by the South West Regional Development Agency at St Columb Major with £1.7 million of Objective One funding in January 2002. It was occupied by the American-owned book, video and CD distribution company Borders Books, creating 90 jobs, in March 2008 it was announced that the depot was to close. The Gaia Energy Centre at Delabole, opened in 2001 as a tourist attraction and it cost £5m and was expected to attract 150,000 visitors a year. It closed after three years, having only welcomed one tenth of the visitor numbers. The majority of the funding for the centre came from Europe, with £300,000 grants from Objective One and SWDRA, the South West Regional Development Agency. According to the European Commission, the Gross Domestic Deposit Product of Cornwall and the Scillies was 64% of the European average in 2011, the latest available figures. A report in 2015 found European Union funding failed to create an expected 10,000 new jobs in Cornwall, Cornwalls unique culture, spectacular landscape and mild climate make it a popular tourist destination, despite being somewhat distant from the United Kingdoms main population centres. Surrounded by the Celtic Sea and English Channel, Cornwall has miles of beaches, other tourist attractions include moorland, country gardens and wooded valleys, and tourism is a significant sector of the economy. In 2003, five million tourists were visiting Cornwall each year, mostly drawn from within the UK, in particular, Newquay is a popular destination for surfersEconomy of Cornwall – The Eden Project, constructed in a used kaolin pit
16. Mining in Cornwall – Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south west of England began in the early Bronze Age, approximately 2150 BC, and ended with the closure of South Crofty tin mine in Cornwall in 1998. Tin and, later, copper were the most commonly extracted metals, some tin mining continued long after the mining of other metals had become unprofitable. Historically, tin and copper as well as a few other metals have been mined in Cornwall, as of 2007 there are no active metalliferous mines remaining. However, tin deposits still exist in Cornwall, and there has been talk of reopening the South Crofty tin mine, in addition, work on re-opening the Hemerdon tungsten and tin mine in south-west Devon has begun. Geological studies were conducted owing to the importance of mines and quarries. Quarrying of the igneous and metamorphic rocks has also been a significant industry, in the 20th century the extraction of kaolin was important economically. The intrusion of granite into the sedimentary rocks gave rise to extensive metamorphism. As a result, Cornwall became one of the most important mining areas in Europe until the early 20th century and it is thought that tin ore was mined in Cornwall as early as the Bronze Age. Over the years, many other metals have been mined in Cornwall, alquifou is a lead ore found in Cornwall, and used by potters to give pottery a green glaze. Cornwall and Devon provided most of the United Kingdoms tin, copper, originally tin was found as alluvial deposits of cassiterite in the gravels of stream beds. Eventually tin was mined under ground, underground mines sprang up as early as the 16th century, Tin lodes were also found in outcroppings of cliffs. Tin is one of the earliest metals to have been exploited in Britain, chalcolithic metal workers discovered that by putting a small amount of tin in molten copper the alloy bronze was produced. The alloy is harder than copper, the strategic importance of tin in forging bronze weapons brought the southwest of Britain into the Mediterranean economy at an early date. Later tin was used in the production of pewter. Mining in Cornwall has existed from the early Bronze Age Britain around 2150 BC, Britain is one of the places proposed for the Cassiterides, that is Tin Islands, first mentioned by Herodotus. Originally it is likely that alluvial deposits in the gravels of streams were exploited, shallow cuttings were then used to extract ore. As demand for bronze grew in the Middle East, the local supplies of tin ore were exhausted and searches for new supplies were made over all the known world. Control of the tin trade seems to have been in Phoenician hands, the Greeks understood that tin came from the Cassiterides, the tin islands, of which the geographical identity is debatedMining in Cornwall – Openworks near the Warren House Inn, Dartmoor – looking down one gully towards a group of them in the middle distance, and more on the left side of the ridge beyond
17. Fishing – Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild, techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping. Fishing may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods, crustaceans, the term is not normally applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. According to United Nations FAO statistics, the number of commercial fishermen. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries, in 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms. In addition to providing food, modern fishing is also a recreational pastime, Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the remains of Tianyuan man, a 40. Archaeology features such as middens, discarded fish bones, and cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival. During this period, most people lived a lifestyle and were, of necessity. However, where there are examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir. The British dogger was a type of sailing trawler from the 17th century. The Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a build and had a tall gaff rig. They were also sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water, the great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries. The small village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port in the world by the mid 19th century, an Act of Parliament was first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper. It was only in the 1846, with the expansion in the fishing industry. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849, the dock covered 25 acres and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port. The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world, influencing fishing fleets everywhere, by the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with almost 1,000 at Grimsby. These trawlers were sold to fishermen around Europe, including from the Netherlands, twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleetFishing – Stilts fishermen, Sri Lanka
18. Moorland – Moorland nowadays generally means uncultivated hill land, but includes low-lying wetlands. It is closely related to heath although experts disagree on precisely what distinguishes the types of vegetation, generally, moor refers to highland, high rainfall zones, whereas heath refers to lowland zones which are more likely to be the result of human activity. Most of the worlds moorlands are very diverse ecosystems, in the extensive moorlands of the tropics biodiversity can be extremely high. Moorland also bears a relationship to tundra, appearing as the tundra retreats, the boundary between tundra and moorland constantly shifts with climate change. Heathland and moorland are the most extensive areas of vegetation in the British Isles. The eastern British moorlands are similar to heaths but are differentiated by having a covering of peat, on western moors the peat layer may be several metres thick. There is uncertainty about how many moors were created by human activity, how much the deforestation was caused by climatic changes and how much by human activity is uncertain. A variety of habitat types are found in different world regions of moorland. The wildlife and vegetation forms often lead to high endemism because of the severe soil, for example, in Englands Exmoor is found the rare horse breed the Exmoor Pony, which has adapted to the harsh conditions of that environment. In Europe, the fauna consists of bird species such as red grouse, hen harrier, merlin, golden plover, curlew, skylark, meadow pipit, whinchat, ring ouzel. Other species dominate in moorlands elsewhere, reptiles are few due to the cooler conditions. In Europe, only the common viper is frequent, though in other regions moorlands are commonly home to dozens of reptile species, amphibians such as frogs are well represented in moorlands. When moorland is overgrazed, woody vegetation is often lost, being replaced by coarse, unpalatable grasses and bracken, some hill sheep breeds, such as Scottish Blackface and the Lonk, thrive on the austere conditions of heather moors. Burning of moorland has been practised for a number of reasons and this is recorded in Britain in the fourteenth century. Uncontrolled burning frequently caused problems, and was forbidden by statute in 1607, with the rise of sheep and grouse management in the nineteenth century it again became common practice. Heather is burnt at about 10 or 12 years old when it will regenerate easily, left longer, the woodier stems will burn more aggressively and will hinder regrowth. Burning of moorland vegetation needs to be carefully controlled as the peat itself can catch fire. In addition, uncontrolled burning of heather can promote alternative bracken, as a result, burning is now a controversial practice, Rackham calls it second-best land managementMoorland – Extensive moorland in the Desert of Wales
19. Flora and fauna of Cornwall – Cornwall is the county that forms the tip of the southwestern peninsula of England, this area has a mild and warm climate regulated by the Gulf Stream. The mild climate allows rich plant cover, such as trees in the far south and west of the county and in the Isles of Scilly. On Cornwalls moors and high ground areas the high elevation makes tree cover impossible because of the wind, so these areas are populated by shrubs and bushes such as gorse, ferns, mosses, liverworts, lichens and fungi can all be found in the county. In the wettest areas of Bodmin Moor, sphagnum or bog moss can be found, Cornwall is home to many rare flower species, especially at the southern end of the Lizard, due to its unique soil and geology. The north coast of Cornwall features maritime grassland, heathland and stunted woodland, the countys coastal waters are home to large populations of seals. Porpoises, whales and sharks are not uncommonly seen, St Ives recently made newspaper headlines after a reported sighting of a great white shark. Porbeagles inhabit the waters but the etymology of the word is obscure. A common suggestion is that it combines porpoise and beagle, referencing this sharks shape, another is that it is derived from the Cornish porth, meaning harbour, and bugel, meaning shepherd. Squalus cornubicus, Squalus cornubiensis and Lamna cornubica are other Latin names for the porbeagle, swanpool is the only location in the British Isles in which the bryozoan Victorella pavida is found. The sea cliffs host many marine species with the Cornish chough recently returning to the county after a long absence. This rare bird holds the honour of appearing on the Cornish coat of arms, the tidal estuaries along the coasts contain large numbers of wading birds, while marshland bird species frequently settle in the bogs and mires inland. Bodmin Moor is a ground for species such as lapwing, snipe. On and around the rivers, sand martins and kingfishers are seen, while after a decline in the 1960s and 1970s. The Camel Valley is one of the habitats for otters, bude Canal offers an ideal habitat for water voles, although the population is declining because of habitat degradation and pollution, like in other parts of the country. Mousehole Wild Bird Hospital and Sanctuary is a hospital based near Mousehole. The hospital was founded in 1928 by Dorothy and Phyllis Yglesias, Cornish Seal Sanctuary, Gweek The Tamar Valley Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty covers around 195 km2 around the lower Tamar and its tributaries the Tavy and the Lynher. It was first proposed in 1963, but was not designated until 1995, the Tamar Otter and Wildlife Centre has European and Asian short-clawed otters and a medium-sized duck pond, a nature trail including snowy and barn owls and other birds along it. It has a pond, a restaurant area and a gift shopFlora and fauna of Cornwall – Some of the plants in Trebah garden
20. Celtic languages – The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. Modern Celtic languages are spoken on the north-western edge of Europe, notably in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall. There are also a number of Welsh speakers in the Patagonia area of Argentina. Some people speak Celtic languages in the other Celtic diaspora areas of the United States, Canada, Australia, in all these areas, the Celtic languages are now only spoken by minorities though there are continuing efforts at revitalisation. Welsh is the only Celtic language not classified as endangered by UNESCO, the spread to Cape Breton and Patagonia occurred in modern times. SIL Ethnologue lists six living Celtic languages, of four have retained a substantial number of native speakers. These are the Goidelic languages and the Brittonic languages, the other two, Cornish and Manx, died in modern times with their presumed last native speakers in 1777 and 1974 respectively. For both these languages, however, revitalisation movements have led to the adoption of these languages by adults and children, taken together, there were roughly one million native speakers of Celtic languages as of the 2000s. In 2010, there were more than 1.4 million speakers of Celtic languages, shelta, based largely on Irish with influence from an undocumented source. Some forms of Welsh-Romani or Kååle also combined Romany itself with Welsh language, beurla-reagaird, Highland travellers language Celtic divided into various branches, Lepontic, the oldest attested Celtic language. Anciently spoken in Switzerland and in Northern-Central Italy, from the Alps to Umbria, coins with Lepontic inscriptions have been found in Noricum and Gallia Narbonensis. Celtiberian, anciently spoken in the Iberian peninsula, in parts of modern Galicia, Asturias, La Rioja, Aragón, Cantabria, Old Castile, the relationship of Celtiberian with Gallaecian, in the northwest of the peninsula, is uncertain. Gallaecian, anciently spoken in the former Gallaecia, northwest of the peninsula, Gaulish languages, including Galatian and possibly Noric. These languages were spoken in a wide arc from Belgium to Turkey. Brittonic, including the living languages Breton, Cornish, and Welsh, before the arrival of Scotti on the Isle of Man in the 9th century, there may have been a Brittonic language in the Isle of Man. Goidelic, including the living languages Irish, Manx, and Scottish Gaelic, scholarly handling of the Celtic languages has been rather argumentative owing to scarceness of primary source data. Other scholars distinguish between P-Celtic and Q-Celtic, putting most of the Gaulish and Brittonic languages in the former group, the P-Celtic languages are sometimes seen as a central innovating area as opposed to the more conservative peripheral Q-Celtic languages. In the P/Q classification schema, the first language to split off from Proto-Celtic was Gaelic and it has characteristics that some scholars see as archaic, but others see as also being in the Brittonic languagesCeltic languages – Classification of Indo-European languages. (click to enlarge)
21. Cornish literature – Cornish literature refers to written works in the Cornish language. The earliest surviving texts are in verse and date from the 14th century, there are virtually none from the 18th and 19th centuries but writing in revived forms of Cornish began in the early 20th century. The Prophecy of Ambrosius Merlin concerning the Seven Kings is a 12th-century poem written ca.1144 by John of Cornwall in Latin, John stated that the work was a translation based on an earlier document written in the Cornish language. The manuscript of the poem, on a codex currently held at the Vatican Library, is unique and it attracted little attention from the scholarly world until 1876, when Whitley Stokes undertook a brief analysis of the Cornish and Welsh vocabulary found in Johns marginal commentary. These notes are among the earliest known writings in the Cornish language, in 2001 this important work was translated back into Cornish by Julyan Holmes. Pascon agan Arluth, a poem of 259 eight-line verses probably composed around 1375, is one of the earliest surviving works of Cornish literature. The most important work of literature surviving from the Middle Cornish period is the Cornish Ordinalia, the Ordinalia consists of three mystery plays, Origo Mundi, Passio Christi and Resurrexio Domini, meant to be performed on successive days. Such plays were performed in a Plain an Gwarry, in 1981, the Breton library Preder edited it in modern scripture under the name of Passyon agan arluth. The longest single surviving work of Cornish literature is Beunans Meriasek, a verse drama dated 1504. The first two are the known surviving Cornish prose texts from the 17th century. Bosons work is collected, along with that of his son John Boson, fragments of Cornish writing continued to appear as the language was becoming extinct during the 18th century. However, in the late 19th century a few works by non-native speakers were produced, of the early pieces the most significant is the so-called Cranken Rhyme produced by John Davey of Boswednack, one of the last people with some traditional knowledge of the language. The poem, published by John Hobson Matthews in 1892, may be the last piece of traditional Cornish literature, in 1865 German language enthusiast Georg Sauerwein composed two poems in the language. Both of these works are characterised by a specifically revivalist mode. These efforts were followed in the early 20th century by further works of revivalist literature by Cornish language enthusiasts, the literary output of the Cornish revival has largely been poetry. Another significant early text is Peggy Pollards 1941 play Beunans Alysaryn and this is an example of Cornish written by the hand of a native speaker. The text is interesting from a sociolinguistic point of view in that Bodinar speaks about the contemporary state of the Cornish language in 1776. The dearth of Cornish readers has made the production of novels difficult, the earliest was Melville Bennettos An Gurun Wosek a Geltya in 1984, subsequently Michael Palmer published Jory and DyroansCornish literature – The opening verses of Origo Mundi, the first play of the Ordinalia (the magnum opus of mediaeval Cornish literature), written by an unknown monk in the late 14th century
22. Music of Cornwall – Cornwall is a culturally Celtic nation, though Celtic-derived musical traditions had been moribund for some time before being revived during a late-20th-century roots revival. In medieval Cornwall there are records of performances of ‘Miracle Plays’ in the Cornish language, also minstrels were hired to play for saints day celebrations. The richest families retained their own minstrels, and many others employed minstrels on a casual basis, there were vigorous traditions of Morris dancing, mumming, guising, and social dance. The consequences of these events disadvantaged many gentry who had employed their own minstrels or patronised itinerant performers. Over the same period in art music the use of modes was largely supplanted by use of major and minor keys, altogether it was an extended cultural revolution, and it is unlikely that there were not musical casualties. Seasonal and community festivals, mumming and guising all flourished, some traditional tunes were used for hymns and carols. Church Feast Days and Sunday School treats were widespread—a whole village processing behind a band of musicians leading them to a picnic site and this left a legacy of marches and polkas. Records exist of dancing in farmhouse kitchens, and in fish cellars Cornish ceilidhs called troyls were common, thousands converge on Helston to witness the spectacle. The Sans Day Carol or St Day Carol is one of the many Cornish Christmas carols written in the 19th century. This carol and its melody were first transcribed from the singing of a villager in St Day in the parish of Gwennap, the lyrics are similar to those of The Holly, in Anglican churches the church bands were replaced by keyboard instruments and singing in unison became more usual. Folk songs include Sweet Nightingale, Little Eyes, and Lamorna, few traditional Cornish lyrics survived the decline of the language. In some cases lyrics of common English songs became attached to older Cornish tunes, some folk tunes have Cornish lyrics written since the language revival of the 1920s. The Cornish anthem that has been used by Gorseth Kernow for the last 75 plus years is Bro Goth Agan Tasow with a tune to the Welsh national anthem. Bro Goth Agan Tasow is not heard so often, as it is sung in Cornish, another popular Cornish anthem is Hail to the Homeland. Sabine Baring-Gould compiled Songs of the West, which contains songs from Devon and Cornwall, in collaboration with Henry Fleetwood Sheppard. Songs of the West was published by Methuen in conjunction with Watey and Willis, in a new edition songs omitted from the first edition were listed, and the music was edited by Cecil Sharp. The second edition mentions the third collaborator, the Rev. Dr. F. W. Bussell, Sheppard was Rector of Thurnscoe, Yorkshire, and his parochial duties limited the amount of time he could spend on the work. In Plymouth City Library are two volumes containing the material as collected, in all 202 songs with musicMusic of Cornwall – Brenda Wootton, "The Voice of Cornwall", during a performance
23. Humphry Davy – He also studied the forces involved in these separations, inventing the new field of electrochemistry. Berzelius called Davys 1806 Bakerian Lecture On Some Chemical Agencies of Electricity one of the best memoirs which has ever enriched the theory of chemistry and he was a Baronet, President of the Royal Society, Member of the Royal Irish Academy, and Fellow of the Geological Society. He also invented the Davy Lamp and an early form of incandescent light bulb. Davy was born in Penzance in Cornwall in England on 17 December 1778 and his family moved to Varfell, near Ludgvan, when he was nine, and in term-time Davy boarded with John Tonkin, his mothers godfather. Davy said, I consider it fortunate I was left much to myself as a child, after Davys father died in 1794, Tonkin apprenticed him to John Bingham Borlase, a surgeon with a practice in Penzance. Davys indenture is dated 10 February 1795, in the apothecarys dispensary, Davy became a chemist, and a garret in Tonkins house was where he conducted his earliest chemical experiments. Davys friends said, This boy Humphry is incorrigible and he will blow us all into the air. His elder sister complained of the ravages made on her dresses by corrosive substances, John Ayrton Paris remarked that poetry written by the young Davy bear the stamp of lofty genius. Davys first preserved poem entitled The Sons of Genius is dated 1795, other poems written in the following years, especially On the Mounts Bay and St Michaels Mount, are descriptive verses, showing sensibility but no true poetic imagination. Three of Davys paintings from around 1796 have been donated to the Penlee House museum at Penzance, one is of the view from above Gulval showing the church, Mounts Bay and the Mount, while the other two depict Loch Lomond in Scotland. While writing verses at the age of 17 in honour of his first love, he was discussing the question of the materiality of heat with his Quaker friend. Dunkin remarked, I tell thee what, Humphry, thou art the most quibbling hand at a dispute I ever met with in my life and it was a crude form of analogous experiment exhibited by Davy in the lecture-room of the Royal Institution that elicited considerable attention. As professor at the Royal Institution, Davy repeated many of the experiments he learned from his friend and mentor. Davies Giddy met Davy in Penzance carelessly swinging on the half-gate of Dr Borlases house and this led to an introduction to Dr Edwards, who lived at Hayle Copper House. Edwards was a lecturer in chemistry in the school of St. Bartholomews Hospital, galvanic corrosion was not understood at that time, but the phenomenon prepared Davys mind for subsequent experiments on ships copper sheathing. Gregory Watt, son of James Watt, visited Penzance for his healths sake, Davy was acquainted with the Wedgwood family, who spent a winter at Penzance. Thomas Beddoes and John Hailstone were engaged in a controversy on the rival merits of the Plutonian. They travelled together to examine the Cornish coast accompanied by Davies Gilbert, Beddoes, who had established at Bristol a Pneumatic Institution, needed an assistant to superintend the laboratoryHumphry Davy – Sir Humphry Davy, Bt by Thomas Phillips National Portrait Gallery, London
24. Alkali metal – The alkali metals are a group in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium, and francium. Indeed, the alkali metals provide the best example of trends in properties in the periodic table. The alkali metals are all shiny, soft, highly reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure and they can all be cut easily with a knife due to their softness, exposing a shiny surface that tarnishes rapidly in air due to oxidation by atmospheric moisture and oxygen. Because of their reactivity, they must be stored under oil to prevent reaction with air. Caesium, the alkali metal, is the most reactive of all the metals. All the alkali metals react with water, with the alkali metals reacting more vigorously than the lighter ones. Experiments have been conducted to attempt the synthesis of ununennium, which is likely to be the member of the group. Most alkali metals have different applications. One of the applications of the pure elements is the use of rubidium and caesium in atomic clocks, of which caesium atomic clocks are the most accurate. A common application of the compounds of sodium is the sodium-vapour lamp, table salt, or sodium chloride, has been used since antiquity. The physical and chemical properties of the alkali metals can be explained by their having an ns1 valence electron configuration. Hence, all the metals are soft and have low densities, melting and boiling points, as well as heats of sublimation, vaporisation. They all crystallise in the cubic crystal structure, and have distinctive flame colours because their outer s electron is very easily excited. The ns1 configuration also results in the alkali metals having very large atomic and ionic radii, most of the chemistry has been observed only for the first five members of the group. The chemistry of francium is not well established due to its radioactivity, thus. What little is known about francium shows that it is close in behaviour to caesium. The physical properties of francium are even sketchier because the element has never been observed. The alkali metals are more similar to other than the elements in any other group are to each otherAlkali metal – Lithium (Li) 3
25. Alkaline earth element – The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in column 2 of the Periodic table. They are beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, the elements have very similar properties, they are all shiny, silvery-white, somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure. All the discovered alkaline earth metals occur in nature, experiments have been conducted to attempt the synthesis of element 120, the next potential member of the group, but they have all met with failure. The chemistry of radium is not well-established due to its radioactivity, thus, the alkaline earth metals are all silver-colored and soft, and have relatively low densities, melting points, and boiling points. In chemical terms, all of the alkaline metals react with the halogens to form the earth metal halides. All the alkaline earth metals except beryllium also react with water to form strongly alkaline hydroxides and, thus, the heavier alkaline earth metals react more vigorously than the lighter ones. The second ionization energy of all of the metals is also somewhat low. Beryllium is an exception, It does not react with water or steam, all compounds that include beryllium have a covalent bond. Even the compound beryllium fluoride, which is the most ionic beryllium compound, has a low melting point and a low electrical conductivity when melted. The alkaline earth metals all react with the halogens to form ionic halides, such as calcium chloride, calcium, strontium, and barium react with water to produce hydrogen gas and their respective hydroxides, and also undergo transmetalation reactions to exchange ligands. The table below is a summary of the key physical and atomic properties of the alkaline earth metals, calcium-48 is the lightest nuclide to undergo double beta decay. The natural radioisotope of calcium, calcium-48, makes up about 0. 1874% of natural calcium, barium-130 makes up approximately 0. 1062% of natural barium, and, thus, barium is weakly radioactive, as well. The alkaline earth metals are named after their oxides, the alkaline earths, whose old-fashioned names were beryllia, magnesia, lime, strontia and these oxides are basic when combined with water. Earth is an old term applied by early chemists to nonmetallic substances that are insoluble in water, the realization that these earths were not elements but compounds is attributed to the chemist Antoine Lavoisier. In his Traité Élémentaire de Chimie of 1789 he called them salt-forming earth elements, later, he suggested that the alkaline earths might be metal oxides, but admitted that this was mere conjecture. The calcium compounds calcite and lime have been known and used since prehistoric times, the same is true for the beryllium compounds beryl and emerald. The other compounds of the alkaline earth metals were discovered starting in the early 15th century, the magnesium compound magnesium sulfate was first discovered in 1618 by a farmer at Epsom in England. Strontium carbonate was discovered in minerals in the Scottish village of Strontian in 1790, the last element is the least abundant, radioactive radium, which was extracted from uraninite in 1898Alkaline earth element – Beryllium (Be) 4
26. Davy lamp – The Davy lamp is a safety lamp for use in flammable atmospheres, invented in 1815 by Sir Humphry Davy. It consists of a lamp with the flame enclosed inside a mesh screen. It was created for use in mines, to reduce the danger of explosions due to the presence of methane and other flammable gases. Davys invention was preceded by that of William Reid Clanny, an Irish doctor at Bishopwearmouth, the more cumbersome Clanny safety lamp was successfully tested at Herrington Mill, and he won medals, from the Royal Society of Arts. Despite his lack of knowledge, engine-wright George Stephenson devised a lamp in which the air entered via tiny holes. The first trial of a Davy lamp with a wire sieve was at Hebburn Colliery on 9 January 1816. The news about Davys lamp was made public at a Royal Society meeting in Newcastle on 3 November 1815, for it, Davy was awarded the Societys Rumford Medal. Davys lamp differed from Stephensons in that the flame was surrounded by a screen of gauze, in 1833 a House of Commons committee found that Stephenson had equal claim to having invented the safety lamp. Davy went to his believing that Stephenson had stolen his idea. The Stephenson lamp was used almost exclusively in North East England, the experience gave Stephenson a lifelong distrust of London-based, theoretical, scientific experts. The lamp consists of a lamp with the flame enclosed inside a mesh screen. It originally burned a heavy vegetable oil, the lamp also provided a test for the presence of gases. If flammable gas mixtures were present, the flame of the Davy lamp burned higher with a blue tinge, Lamps were equipped with a metal gauge to measure the height of the flame. A methane-air flame is extinguished at about 17% oxygen content, so the lamp gave an indication of an unhealthy atmosphere. Men continued to work in conditions which were due to the presence of methane gas. A legal requirement for minimum air-quality standards eventually led to the introduction of more ventilation, the lamps also had to be provided by the miners themselves, not the owners, as traditionally the miners bought their own candles from the company store. Another reason for the increase in accidents was the unreliability of the lamps themselves, the bare gauze was easily damaged, and once just a single wire broke or rusted away, the lamp became unsafe. Even when new and clean, illumination from the safety lamps was poorDavy lamp – A type of Davy lamp with apertures for gauging flame height
27. Mont Saint-Michel – Le Mont-Saint-Michel is an island commune in Normandy, France. It is located one kilometre off the countrys northwestern coast. As of 2009, the island has a population of 44, the island has held strategic fortifications since ancient times and since the 8th century AD has been the seat of the monastery from which it draws its name. The Mont remained unconquered during the Hundred Years War, a small garrison fended off an attack by the English in 1433. The reverse benefits of its defence were not lost on Louis XI. Thereafter the abbey began to be used regularly as a jail during the Ancien Régime. One of Frances most recognizable landmarks, visited by more than 3 million people each year, Mont Saint-Michel, over 60 buildings within the commune are protected in France as monuments historiques. Now a rocky island, the Mont occupied dry land in prehistoric times. As sea levels rose, erosion reshaped the landscape, and several outcrops of granite emerged in the bay. These included Lillemer, the Mont-Dol, Tombelaine, and Mont Tombe, the Mont has a circumference of about 960 metres and its highest point is 92 metres above sea level. The tides can vary greatly, at roughly 14 metres between high and low water marks, popularly nicknamed St. Polderisation and occasional flooding have created salt marsh meadows that were found to be ideally suited to grazing sheep. The connection between Mont Saint-Michel and the mainland has changed over the centuries, previously connected by a tidal causeway, this was converted into a raised causeway in 1879, preventing the tide from scouring the silt around the mount. These factors all encouraged silting-up of the bay, the construction of the dam began in 2009. The project also includes the removal of the causeway and its car park. Since 28 April 2012 the new car park on the mainland has been located 2.5 kilometres from the island, visitors can walk or use shuttles to cross the causeway. On 22 July 2014 the new bridge by architect Dietmar Feichtinger was opened to the public, the light bridge allows the waters to flow freely around the island and improves the efficiency of the now operational dam. The project which cost €209 million was opened by President François Hollande. On rare occasions tidal circumstances produce an extremely high supertide, the new bridge was completely submerged on 21 March 2015, by the highest sea level for at least 18 years, as crowds gathered to snap photosMont Saint-Michel – Le Mont Saint-Michel
28. List of places in Cornwall – Map of places in Cornwall compiled from this list See List of places in England for lists of settlements in other counties and List of settlements in Cornwall by population. This is a list of all the towns and villages of Cornwall and this also includes places in the Isles of Scilly. Some of these form part of larger conurbations, the largest being Camborne/Carn Brea/Illogan/Redruth/Lanner/Carharrack/St Day. The second largest is St Austell/St Austell Bay/Carlyon/St Blaise/Tywardreath and Par, the third largest is Falmouth/Penryn/Mabe with 33,000List of places in Cornwall – Falmouth (Aberfala) 21,797
29. Perranwell – Perranarworthal is a civil parish and village in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The village is four miles northwest of Falmouth and five miles southwest of Truro. Perranarworthal parish is bordered on the north by Kea parish, on the east by Restronguet Creek and Mylor parish, on the south by St Gluvias and Stithians parishes, the parish population at the 2011 census was 1,496. The name derives from the Manor of Arworthal which has had a number of spellings in the past including Hareworthal, by the 18th-century two names appear on maps Perran Arworthal meaning St Pirans by the creek or estuary. William Penaluna described the settlement in 1838, Perran Wharf is the area of the parish beside the River Kennall where there were wharves and a quay. This is currently being developed into Perran Foundry where there will be new homes, the other settlements in the parish are Perranwell and Perranwell Station. It was the home of the Perran Iron Foundry, a concern, run by the Fox family of Falmouth. It was set up on the site of a tin smelting works in 1791, the foundry was later operated in partnership with the Williams family, and in 1858, it was sold to them. The creek serving the factory silted up and mining in Cornwall declined, the wharf had been used to import timber for the mining industry from Scandinavia. The slump in the industry during the 1870s hit Perran Foundry badly and it closed in March 1879 with the loss of 400 jobs. In April 1879, the Royal Cornwall Gazette reported that a soup kitchen had been open since January, in July 1880 a preliminary notice of an intended auction for Perran Foundry was planned for mid-August. Williamss Perran Foundry covered an area of over 4 acres and had a lease of 99 years from Colonel Tremayne, the property contained a number of workshops, including blacksmith and engineers, a hammermill and a quay at Restronguet with access for 200 ton vessels. Over the years there have been ambitious plans which have come and gone, the site has been used for various purposes since but closed in 1986. In 2005, the owners, North Hill Estates Ltd. applied for planning permission to redevelop the site, the proposal was for a mix of live/work units and residential accommodation. Further consultation on their proposal was ongoing and this will be the first opportunity for people to acquire a home in this historic setting, as the show home opens for private viewings on 24 June 2013 with Heather & Lay and Savills. Perran Foundry is being revived by North Hill Estates Ltd with sensitive renovation and regeneration, acknowledging its immense value to Cornish history. The Hammer Mill is the most iconic building on site, converted from what was originally the heart of the old foundry. The lofts, apartments and riverside homes being developed at the Perran Foundry commemorate the buildings iconic past, as each building has adopted its name from its original purposePerranwell – Perranarworthal Church
30. Linkinhorne – Linkinhorne is a civil parish and village in southeast Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The village itself is situated at grid reference SX320736 and is four miles northwest of Callington. The area is bordered by the River Inny in the north-east, the valley of the River Lynher runs through the parish. The name Linkinhorne means church site of Kenhoarn, in the Domesday Book, the manor is referred to as Resleston. The parish is largely rural but west of the B3254 road from Launceston to Liskeard, the parish church of St Melor is built of granite and dates from the 15th century. The tower is 120 ft high and the features of the church include a medieval altar slab. The north aisle and lofty tower are said to have built at the expense of Henry Trecarrel. Daniel Gumb, stonemason, lived in a cottage near the Cheesewring, in medieval times there were chapels at Trefrize and Caradon. Arthur Langdon records a Cornish cross and a base at North Coombe. Also in the parish are the Holy Well of St Melor, a 15th-century bridge over the Lynher at Plushabridge, the Hurlers are a group of three stone circles near Upton Cross. The manor of Rillaton was the manor of the Hundred of EastLinkinhorne – Sharp Tor
31. King Arthur – King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries AD. The details of Arthurs story are mainly composed of folklore and literary invention, the sparse historical background of Arthur is gleaned from various sources, including the Annales Cambriae, the Historia Brittonum, and the writings of Gildas. Arthurs name also occurs in early sources such as Y Gododdin. Arthur is a figure in the legends making up the so-called Matter of Britain. The legendary Arthur developed as a figure of international interest largely through the popularity of Geoffrey of Monmouths fanciful, how much of Geoffreys Historia was adapted from such earlier sources, rather than invented by Geoffrey himself, is unknown. Geoffrey depicted Arthur as a king of Britain who defeated the Saxons and established an empire over Britain, Ireland, Iceland, Norway and Gaul. The 12th-century French writer Chrétien de Troyes, who added Lancelot, in these French stories, the narrative focus often shifts from King Arthur himself to other characters, such as various Knights of the Round Table. Arthurian literature thrived during the Middle Ages but waned in the centuries that followed until it experienced a resurgence in the 19th century. In the 21st century, the lives on, not only in literature but also in adaptations for theatre, film, television, comics. The historical basis for the King Arthur legend has long debated by scholars. These culminate in the Battle of Badon, where he is said to have single-handedly killed 960 men, recent studies, however, question the reliability of the Historia Brittonum. The other text that seems to support the case for Arthurs historical existence is the 10th-century Annales Cambriae, the Annales date this battle to 516–518, and also mention the Battle of Camlann, in which Arthur and Medraut were both killed, dated to 537–539. These details have often used to bolster confidence in the Historias account. Problems have been identified, however, with using this source to support the Historia Brittonums account, the latest research shows that the Annales Cambriae was based on a chronicle begun in the late 8th century in Wales. Additionally, the textual history of the Annales Cambriae precludes any certainty that the Arthurian annals were added to it even that early. They were more likely added at point in the 10th century. The Badon entry probably derived from the Historia Brittonum and this lack of convincing early evidence is the reason many recent historians exclude Arthur from their accounts of sub-Roman Britain. These modern admissions of ignorance are a recent trend, earlier generations of historians were less scepticalKing Arthur – Tapestry showing Arthur as one of the Nine Worthies, wearing a coat of arms often attributed to him (c. 1385)
32. Doom Bar – The Doom Bar is a sandbar at the mouth of the estuary of the River Camel, where it meets the Celtic Sea on the north coast of Cornwall, England. Like two other permanent sandbanks further up the estuary, the Doom Bar is composed mainly of sand that is continually being carried up from the seabed. The estuary mouth, exposed to the Atlantic Ocean, is a dynamic environment. According to tradition, the Doom Bar formed in the reign of Henry VIII, many ships were wrecked on the Doom Bar, despite the installation of mooring rings and capstans on the cliffs and quarrying away part of Stepper Point to improve the wind. In the early twentieth century the channel moved away from the cliffs, and continued dredging has made it much safer for boats. A Cornish folklore legend relates that a mermaid created the bar as a curse on the harbour after she was shot by a local man. The Doom Bar has been used in poetry to symbolise feelings of melancholy, the Doom Bar is a sandbar at the mouth of the Camel estuary on the north coast of Cornwall. The bar is composed mostly of sediment carried up from the seabed by bed load processes. This inflow is aided by wave and tidal processes, but the patterns of sediment transport within the estuary are complex and are not fully understood. There is only a small sediment contribution from the River Camel itself. The high calcium content of the sand has meant that it has been used for hundreds of years to improve agricultural soil by liming. This use is known to back to before 1600. High calcium carbonate levels combined with sea salt made the sand valuable to farmers as an alkaline fertiliser when mixed with manure. In a report published in 1839, Henry De la Beche estimated that the sand from the Doom Bar accounted for between a fifth and a quarter of the used for agriculture in Devon and Cornwall. Another report, published twenty years earlier by Samuel Drew, stated, however. An estimated ten tons of sediment was removed from the estuary between 1836 and 1989, mostly for agricultural purposes and mostly from the Doom Bar. Sand is still regularly dredged from the area, in 2009 an estimated 120,000 tons of sand were removed from the bar, there is a submerged forest beneath the eastern part of the Doom Bar, off Daymer Bay. Exposed as they are to the Atlantic Ocean, the sands of the area have always been prone to sudden shifts, according to tradition one such shift led to the formation of the Doom Bar during the reign of Henry VIII, causing a decline in the prosperity of PadstowDoom Bar – Waves breaking on the Doom Bar at high water
33. Climate of south-west England – The climate of south-west England is classed as oceanic according to the Köppen climate classification. The oceanic climate is typified by cool winters with warmer summers and precipitation all year round, annual rainfall is about 1,000 millimetres and up to 2,000 millimetres on higher ground. Summer maxima averages range from 18 °C to 22 °C and winter averages range from 1 °C to 4 °C across the south-west. It is the second windiest area of the United Kingdom, the majority of winds coming from the south-west and north-east, government organisations predict the area will experience a rise in temperature and become the hottest region in the United Kingdom. Inland areas of low altitude experience the least amount of precipitation and they have the highest summer maxima temperatures, but winter minima are lower than those of the coast. Snowfalls are more frequent in comparison to the coast, but less so in comparison to higher ground and they experience the lowest wind speeds and the total sunshine hours are between those of the coast and the moors. This typical climate of areas is more noticeable the further north-east into the region. In comparison to areas, the coast experiences high minimum temperatures, especially in winter. Rainfall is lowest at the coast and snowfall there is rarer than the rest of the region, coastal areas are the windiest parts of the peninsula and they receive the most sunshine. The general coastal climate becomes more prevalent further south-west into the region, the south-west has areas of moorland inland such as Bodmin Moor, Dartmoor and Exmoor. Because of their high altitude they experience lower temperatures and more precipitation than the rest of the south west, both of these factors also result in the highest levels of snowfall and the lowest levels of sunshine. Exposed areas of the moors are windier than the lowlands and can be almost as windy as the coast and this is a smaller area than the UK Governments South West England region, which also covers Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and Dorset. The region is sometimes loosely described as the West Country. The south-west experiences a temperature variation, although it is less extreme than most of the United Kingdom. This is because the sea is in proximity to inland areas of the south-west than inland areas of most of the United Kingdom. The sea is coldest between February and March, as a result Cornwall and Devon are coldest in February with daily minima ranging from 1.5 °C in inland Devon to 5 °C on the Isles of Scilly. The sea has less influence towards the north-east of the region, in the months of July and August daily maxima range from about 19 °C on the coast of Cornwall to 21 °C across inland areas of the north-east. The sea surrounding the south-west peninsula has the highest annual temperature of any sea in the United KingdomClimate of south-west England – In June 1925, Pendennis Point (castle pictured) recorded the most monthly sunshine in the south-west.
34. HMS Falmouth (1910) – HMS Falmouth was a Town-class light cruiser built for the Royal Navy during the 1910s. She was one of four ships of the Weymouth sub-class, the ship was initially assigned to the Atlantic Fleet upon completion in 1911, but was reduced to reserve in mid-1913. When the First World War began in 1914, Falmouth was transferred to the 1st Light Cruiser Squadron of the Grand Fleet and then the 3rd Light Cruiser Squadron at the end of the year. The ship participated in most of the fleet actions, including the Battles of Heligoland Bight, Dogger Bank, and Jutland. She was torpedoed and sunk off Flamborough Head, Yorkshire by German submarines during the Action of 19 August 1916, the Weymouth sub-class were slightly larger and improved versions of the preceding Bristol sub-class with a more powerful armament. They were 453 feet long overall, with a beam of 47 feet 6 inches, displacement was 5,275 long tons normal and 5,800 long tons at full load. Twelve Yarrow boilers fed Falmouths Parsons steam turbines, driving two shafts, that were rated at 22,000 shaft horsepower for a design speed of 25 knots. The ship reached 26.62 knots during her sea trials from 27,900 shp. The boilers used both fuel oil and coal, with 1,290 long tons of coal and 269 long tons tons of oil carried, the Weymouths replaced the ten 4-inch guns of the Bristol sub-class with an additional six BL 6-inch Mk XI guns. Two of these guns were mounted on the fore and aft of the superstructure. The remaining four guns were positioned on the deck in waist mountings. All these guns were fitted with gun shields, four Vickers 3-pounder saluting guns were also fitted. Their armament was completed by two submerged 21-inch torpedo tubes, the Weymouth-class ships were considered protected cruisers, with an armoured deck providing protection for the ships vitals. The armoured deck was 2 inches thick over the magazines and machinery,1 inch over the gear and 0.75 inches elsewhere. The conning tower was protected by 4 inches of armour, with the gun shields having 3-inch armour, as the protective deck was at the waterline, the ships were given a large metacentric height so that they would remain stable in the event of flooding above the armoured deck. This, however, resulted in the ships rolling badly making them poor gun platforms, Falmouth was the ninth ship in the Royal Navy to be named after the eponymous port. The ship was laid down on 21 February 1910 by William Beardmore and Company at their Dalmuir shipyard, by the end of the year, the ship had been transferred to the 5th Cruiser Squadron, also of the Second Fleet. On the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, Falmouth was not in range to engage before the squadron turned away to follow the battlecruisersHMS Falmouth (1910) – Falmouth in 1914
35. Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall – Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall was an English nobleman of Gascon origin, and the favourite of King Edward II of England. At a young age he made an impression on King Edward I Longshanks. Edward bestowed the Earldom of Cornwall on Gaveston, and arranged for him to marry his niece Margaret de Clare, Gavestons exclusive access to the King provoked several members of the nobility, and in 1307 the King was again forced to send him into exile. During this absence he served as the Kings Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Edward managed to negotiate a deal with the opposition, however, and Gaveston returned the next year. Upon his return his behaviour even more offensive, and by the Ordinances of 1311 it was decided that Gaveston should be exiled for a third time. When he did return in 1312, he was hunted down and executed by a group of magnates led by Thomas of Lancaster and Guy de Beauchamp and this assertion has received the support of some modern historians, while others have questioned it. According to Pierre Chaplais, the relationship between the two was that of a brotherhood, and Gaveston served as an unofficial deputy for a reluctant king. Piers Gavestons father was Arnaud de Gabaston, a Gascon knight in the service of Gaston VII of Béarn. Gabaston had come into an amount of land in Gascony through his marriage to Claramonde de Marsan. Through the possessions of his wife, Gabaston also became a vassal of the King of England and his service to Edward I of England stretched over a long period of time, starting in the Welsh Wars of 1282–83, in which he participated with a substantial contingent. Sometime before 4 February 1287, Claramonde died, and for the rest of his life Gabaston struggled to retain his wifes inheritance from rival claims by relatives, because of this, he became financially dependent on the English king, and was continuously in his service. He was used as a hostage by Edward twice, first in 1288 to Aragon, secondly in 1294 to the French king, after returning home, he was back in England in 1300, where he served with Edward I in the Scottish Wars. He died at some point before 18 May 1302, little is known of Piers Gavestons early years, even his year of birth is unknown. He and Prince Edward of Caernarfon were said to be contemporaries, though one chronicle claims he accompanied his father to England in 1297, the first reliable reference to him is from Gascony later that year, when he served in the company of Edward I. In 1300 he sailed to England with his father and his older brother and it was at this time that he became a member of the household of the young Prince Edward – the future Edward II. The King was apparently impressed by Gavestons conduct and martial skills, in 1304, the King awarded Gaveston the wardship of Roger Mortimer of Wigmore, after the death of Rogers father, on the request of Edward, Prince of Wales. This put Gaveston in charge of Mortimers possessions during the latters minority, as part of the circle around the prince, however, Gaveston also became entangled in conflicts between the King and his son. These difficulties first materialised in a dispute between treasurer Walter Langton and Prince Edward, the case enraged King Edward to the point where he banned his son from court, and banished several men from the princes householdPiers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall – Initial from the charter granting Gaveston the earldom of Cornwall, showing the arms of England at top, and Gaveston's coat of arms impaled with those of de Clare below.
36. Henry Martyn – Henry Martyn was an Anglican priest and missionary to the peoples of India and Persia. Born in Truro, Cornwall, he was educated at Truro Grammar School, a chance encounter with Charles Simeon led him to become a missionary. He was ordained a priest in the Church of England and became a chaplain for the British East India Company, Martyn arrived in India in April 1806, where he preached and occupied himself in the study of linguistics. He translated the whole of the New Testament into Urdu, Persian and he also translated the Psalms into Persian and the Book of Common Prayer into Urdu. From India, he set out for Bushire, Shiraz, Isfahan, Martyn was seized with fever, and, though the plague was raging at Tokat, he was forced to stop there, unable to continue. On 16 October 1812 he died and he was remembered for his courage, selflessness and his religious devotion. In parts of the Anglican Communion he is celebrated with a Lesser Festival on 19 October, Martyn was born in Truro, Cornwall. His father, John Martyn, was a captain or mine-agent at Gwennap. As a boy, he was educated at Truro grammar school under Dr. Cardew and he entered St Johns College, Cambridge, in the autumn of 1797, in 1802, he was chosen as a fellow of his college. He resolved, accordingly, to become a missionary himself, on 22 October 1803, he was ordained deacon at Ely, and afterwards priest, and served as Simeons curate at the Church of Holy Trinity, taking charge of the neighbouring parish of Lolworth. Martyn wanted to offer his services to the Church Missionary Society and it was necessary for Martyn to earn an income that would support his sister as well as himself. He accordingly obtained a chaplaincy under the British East India Company, on his voyage to the East, Martyn happened to be present at the British conquest of the Cape Colony on 8 January 1806. He spent that day tending to the soldiers and was distressed by seeing the horrors of war. He would come away feeling that it was Britains destiny to convert, not colonize, Martyn arrived in India in April 1806, and for some months he was stationed at Aldeen, near Serampur. In October 1806, he proceeded to Dinapur, where he was able to conduct worship among the locals in the vernacular. In April 1809, he was transferred to Cawnpore, where he preached to British and Indians in his own compound, in spite of interruptions and threats from local non-Christians. He occupied himself in study, and had already, during his residence at Dinapur. He now translated the whole of the New Testament into Urdu also and he translated the Psalms into Persian, the Gospels into Judaeo-Persic, and the Book of Common Prayer into Urdu, in spite of ill-health and the pride, pedantry and fury of his chief munshi SabatHenry Martyn – Henry Martyn
37. Old Blockhouse – The Old Blockhouse, also known as the Dover Fort, is a 16th-century fortification on the island of Tresco in the Isles of Scilly. It was built between 1548 and 1551 by the government of Edward VI to protect the islands against French attack, an earthwork bank and a stone wall were built to protect it from attack from the beach and the landward sides respectively. A small room to provide living quarters for the garrison was constructed on the side of the gun platform. During the interregnum following the English Civil War, the Old Blockhouse was occupied by the Royalists, Blakes naval guns out-ranged those of the fort, and, after fierce fighting, the blockhouse was taken. A battery of guns was maintained at the blockhouse until at least the 1750s and it is protected as a scheduled monument under UK law. The Old Blockhouse was built between 1548 and 1551 to protect the Scilly Isles against French attack, tensions with France had grown during the reign of Henry VIII and spilled over into war in 1538. Henry initially responded by fortifying the coasts of England, constructing new artillery forts designed to defend against the cannons that were becoming common in the 16th century. Henrys son, the nine-year-old Edward VI, inherited the throne in 1547, Edward Seymour was made the Lord Protector to the King, and he appointed his brother, Thomas, as Englands Lord Admiral. Thomas inspected the Scilly Isles personally and concluded that they were vulnerable to a French invasion, the building work initially focused on the island of Tresco and was carried out under the direction of John Killigrew, the captain of Pendennis Castle in Falmouth. Tresco was in need of modern defences, but Killigrew also wanted to use the programme to increase his political influence on the island. The Old Blockhouse was built as part of programme of work. The blockhouse was positioned on high ground to protect the Old Grimsby harbour, when complete, it would have held a battery of two to three guns, which could have fired on targets attempting to enter the harbour, or engaged ships approaching the Scilly Isles from the north-east. Orders were given in 1551 to send bows, arrows and the required to make gunpowder to the islands. Edwards successor, Queen Mary I, intended to establish a garrison of 150 soldiers on the islands, the Scilly Isles were supporters of Charles I during the civil war, and after a short period in Parliamentary control rebelled in favour of Charles in 1648. In 1651 Parliament sent Sir Robert Blake in charge of a task force to retake the islands. Blake arrived at St Helens Pool in April 1651 and set about taking the island of Tresco, attacking the harbour of Old Grimsby, Blake deployed a force of men in small boats, but they landed on the wrong island and had to be recalled to the ships. The next day the men landed on the beaches below the blockhouse, fighting ensued, Blakes men made another landing which also saw fierce resistance, and the guns of the blockhouse were probably turned on the landing parties. Around 15 of the force were killed, but the guns of Blakes ships guns had a longer range than those of the blockhouseOld Blockhouse – Old Blockhouse, viewed from the north-west
38. Pendennis Castle – Pendennis Castle is an artillery fort constructed by Henry VIII near Falmouth, Cornwall, England between 1540 and 1542. It formed part of the Kings Device programme to protect against invasion from France and the Holy Roman Empire, Pendennis saw service during the English Civil War, when it was held by the Royalists, and was only taken by Parliament after a long siege in 1646. It survived the interregnum and Charles II renovated the fortress after his restoration to the throne in 1660. In the 1880s and 1890s an electrically operated minefield was laid across the River Fal, operated from Pendennis and St Mawes, the castle saw service during both the First and Second World Wars, but in 1956, by now obsolete, it was decommissioned. It passed into the control of the Ministry of Works, who cleared away many of the modern military buildings. In the 21st century, the castle is managed by English Heritage as a tourist attraction, the heritage agency Historic England considers Pendennis to be one of the finest examples of a post-medieval defensive promontory fort in the country. Pendennis Castle was built as a consequence of international tensions between England, France and the Holy Roman Empire in the years of the reign of King Henry VIII. In 1533, Henry broke with Pope Paul III in order to annul the marriage to his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine was the aunt of Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor and this resulted in France and the Empire declaring an alliance against Henry in 1538, and the Pope encouraging the two countries to attack England. An invasion of England appeared certain, in response, Henry issued an order, called a device, in 1539, giving instructions for the defence of the realm in time of invasion and the construction of forts along the English coastline. The stretch of water known as Carrick Roads at the mouth of the River Fal was an important anchorage serving shipping arriving from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. A small gun tower, called the Little Dennis Blockhouse, was built in 1539 overlooking the entrance, and plans were made to protect the anchorage further with five additional castles. In the event, only two of these were constructed, Pendennis and St Mawes Castle, positioned on each side of Carrick Roads and able to provide overlapping fire across the water. John Killigrew, a prominent member of the local Cornish gentry, probably oversaw the construction of Pendennis, it was built on his land, Pendennis Castle cost £5,614 to construct. The Killigrews controlled the castle for several decades, with John Killigrews son and grandson continuing in turn as the captain there until 1605, the Admiralty eventually issued a compromise, proposing that the castles share the searching of the traffic. Meanwhile, a peace with France was made in 1558. The Spanish threat to the south-west of England became more serious, however, the levels of the garrison varied considerably during the period. Pendennis had a garrison of 100 men in 1578, and could have mustered around 500 men in 1596, the Spanish threat continued, raiding parties destroyed the Killigrews family home at Arwenack in 1593, and four Spanish ships attacked the towns along the coast in 1595Pendennis Castle – Pendennis Castle keep
39. St Mawes Castle – St Mawes Castle is an artillery fort constructed by Henry VIII near Falmouth, Cornwall, between 1540 and 1542. It formed part of the Kings Device programme to protect against invasion from France and the Holy Roman Empire, the castle was built under the direction of Thomas Treffry to a clover leaf design, with a four-storey central tower and three protruding, round bastions that formed gun platforms. It was initially armed with 19 artillery pieces, intended for use against enemy shipping, operating in partnership with its castle of Pendennis on the other side of the estuary. During the English Civil War, St Mawes was held by Royalist supporters of King Charles I, the castle continued in use as a fort through the 18th and 19th centuries. In the early 1850s, fears of a conflict with France, combined with changes in military technology. The out-dated Henrician castle was turned into a barracks and substantial gun batteries were constructed beneath it, after 1905, however, St Mawes guns were removed, and between 1920 and 1939 it was run by the state as a tourist attraction. Brought back into service in the Second World War, naval artillery, with the end of the war, St Mawes again returned to use as a tourist attraction. In the 21st century, the castle is operated by English Heritage, St Mawes Castle was built as a consequence of international tensions between England, France and the Holy Roman Empire in the final years of the reign of King Henry VIII. In 1533, Henry broke with Pope Paul III in order to annul the marriage to his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine was the aunt of Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor and this resulted in France and the Empire declaring an alliance against Henry in 1538, and the Pope encouraging the two countries to attack England. An invasion of England appeared certain, in response, Henry issued an order, called a device, in 1539, giving instructions for the defence of the realm in time of invasion and the construction of forts along the English coastline. In the event, only two of these were constructed, St Mawes and Pendennis, positioned on each side of Carrick Roads, the two castles guns could provide overlapping fire across the water, while St Mawes also overlooked a separate anchorage on the eastern side of the estuary. The construction work began in 1540, under the direction of Sir Thomas Treffy, by later that year, the castle was described as being half-made, with most of the build having been finished by 1542. The total cost of the project was £5,018, the artillery was originally mounted in the castles stone bastions and was intended as ship-sinking weapons for use against enemy vessels. A smaller blockhouse was constructed beneath the castle, at sea level. Michael Vvyan, a member of the gentry, was appointed as the first captain of St Mawes and the surrounding land in 1544. On Vyvyans death in 1603, his son, Sir Francis Vyvyan, the Admiralty issued a compromise, proposing that the castles share the incoming traffic. Meanwhile, the threat from France passed and a lasting peace was made in 1558St Mawes Castle – The Henrician castle, seen from the landward side
40. Squab pie – Squab pie is a traditional dish from South West England, with early records showing it was associated with Cornwall, Devon and Gloucestershire. Although the name suggests it contains squab, in fact it contains mutton, the pie was eaten around the world in the 1900s, though outside South West England it generally did contain pigeon. It is no longer a popular dish, with less than 3% of British teenagers surveyed having eaten it, although it is not known exactly where squab pie was first made, it is clear that it was somewhere in South West England. There are references to it originating in Gloucestershire, Devon and Cornwall and this misnaming has meant that the pie is considered to be a surprise. Squab is described as tender with a mild flavour, and so it is possible that the combination of mutton. There is also a theory that the squab pie is short for squabble pie. There are many variations to the pie in England, although it traditionally includes mutton. Squab pie in Devon can be served with clotted cream, alternatively, in America, it is cooked with squab, and is synonymous with pigeon pie. Squab pie is a pie with a shortcrust pastry lid. It should be made with at least one layer of onions, followed by alternating layers of sliced apples, the mixture should be covered with water, though less than in some pies, covered with pastry and baked in the oven for about two hours. Within the UK, the most common variation is to use instead of mutton. Gloucester Squab pie did not require lamb and suggests any leftover meat could be used, outside of England, the concept of squab pie does exist, but in a more literal form actually containing squab. Known as Picconi AllInglese, one Italian chef explains that he is aware that the recipe does not match the traditional English version, in America, squab pie still uses squab. It was included in a Cooking for profit book in San Francisco, in 2009, less than 3% of British teenagers had tried the dish and it has been listed amongst the at risk British Classics. A prominent critic of squab pie was Charles Dickens journal All the Year Round, Of all the west country pies, squab pie is, in our estimation, the most incongruous. The odious composition is made of fat clumsy mutton chops, embedded in layers of sliced apples, shredded onions, the result is nausea, unsociability, and, in course of time, hatred of the whole human race. The greasy sugary, oniony taste is associated, in our mind, using its many ingredients definition, squab pie was used by Gallynipper as an analogy for New York City. This is a comparison, explaining that New York does not smell badSquab pie – A squab pie, before pastry added
41. Tamar Bridge – The Tamar Bridge is a major road bridge over the River Tamar between Saltash, Cornwall and Plymouth, Devon in southwest England. It is 335 metres long, running adjacent to the Royal Albert Bridge, and part of the A38, during the 20th century, there was increasing demand to replace or supplement the Saltash and Torpoint ferries, which could not cope with the rise in motor traffic. After the Government refused to prioritise the project in the 1950s, it was self-financed by Plymouth City Council, construction was undertaken by the Cleveland Bridge & Engineering Company and began in 1959. It was unofficially opened in October 1961, with a presentation by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother in April 1962. A reconstruction of the began in 1999 after it was found to be unable to support a European Union requirement for goods vehicle weights. The work involved building two new parallel decks while the construction was completely rebuilt. The project was completed in late 2001 and formally opened by Princess Anne in April 2002, the extra decks have remained in use, increasing the bridges capacity. The bridge is tolled for eastbound travel, with a discount available via a payment scheme. It has become a significant landmark in Plymouth, Saltash and the surrounding area, the bridge runs over the River Tamar from near Wearde, Saltash in the west to Riverside, Plymouth in the east. It has a span of 335 metres and two side spans of 114 metres. Both bridges are north of the Hamoaze, the estuary that the Tamar feeds into, the bridge is owned and maintained by the Tamar Bridge and Torpoint Ferry Joint Committee, a conglomerate between Plymouth City Council and Cornwall County Council. It has a span of three lanes, which use a tidal flow arrangement to maximise traffic flow at rush hour. The north of these is used as an access route from Saltash, while the south is used by cyclists. The current tolls are £1.50 for cars, and £3.70, £6.00 and £8.20 for 2,3, an electronic device called the Tamar Tag can be affixed to a vehicle window, which allows the driver to travel at half-fare. Tolls are only payable when travelling eastbound from Saltash to Plymouth, there is no charge for pedestrians, cyclists and motorcycles. Disabled drivers can apply for online or via an office next to the Torpoint Ferry. For centuries, road users wishing to go from Saltash to Plymouth had two main choices, travel by coach involved a long detour north either to Gunnislake New Bridge, or other bridges further north along the Devon – Cornwall border. The alternative was to catch a ferry across the Tamar, the Torpoint Ferry had been running successfully since 1791 while the Saltash Ferry ran near to the bridges present locationTamar Bridge – The Tamar Bridge from a train on the neighbouring Royal Albert Bridge, 2009
42. Timeline of Cornish history – This timeline summarizes significant events in the History of Cornwall Examples of Cornish Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age structures are Chûn Quoit, Boscawen-Un and Chysauster Ancient Village. Mining in Cornwall has existed from the early Bronze Age around 2150 BC, Cornwall experiences a trade boom driven by the export of tin across Europe. The Iron Age reaches Cornwall, permitting greater scope of agriculture through the use of new iron ploughs, pytheas of Massilia, a Greek merchant and explorer, circumnavigated the British Isles between about 330 and 320 BC and produced the first written record of the islands. He described the Cornish as civilised, skilled farmers, usually peaceable,60 BC, Greek historian Diodorus Siculus named Cornwall Belerion - The Shining Land, the first recorded place name in the British Isles. 43 BC, First attempted invasion of British Mainland by Julius Caesar, over the next century, the Romans come to rule Cornwall, then part of Dumnonia. 19 AD, Total eclipse in Cornwall,43 AD, Claudian invasion of Britain begins. Roman control of Cornwall comes much later, but at an uncertain date, 55–60 AD, Construction of Nanstallon Roman fort near Bodmin, one of only a few Roman sites in Cornwall. Roman villa at Magor Farm near Camborne occupied,360 and after, various Germanic peoples came to Roman Britain, raiders, Roman armies recruited from among German tribes, authorized settlers, ref. Aelle of Sussex Cornwalls native name appeared on record as early as 400, the Ravenna Cosmography, compiled c.700 from Roman material 300 years older, lists a route running westward into Cornwall and on this route is a place then called Durocornovio. In Latin, V represented and was pronounced as a W, King Mark, of Tristan and Iseult fame, probably ruled in the late 5th century. According to Cornish folklore, he held court at Tintagel, King Salomon, father of Saint Cybi, ruled after Mark. 410, Emperor Honorius recalls the last legions from Britain, there is some uncertainty, some say that this rescript refers not to Britannia but to Bruttium in Italy. 500, The Kingdom of Cornwall emerged around the 6th century which included the tribes of the Dumnonii, the origins of the neighbouring Kingdom of Wessex are also in this period. 490 to 510, likely range of dates for the Battle of Mons Badonicus, 535/6, Extreme weather events of 535–536 cause European famine. After 540s, Plague of Justinian, which would all of Europe. 577, Battle of Deorham Down near Bristol results in the separation of the West Welsh from the Welsh by the advance of the Saxons, the earliest Cornish saints systematically convert Cornwall to Christianity, a considerable period before the conversion of the Anglo-Saxon peoples of England. According to tradition these early foundations were made by Christian preachers or Christian Druids from other Celtic lands, mainly Ireland, Wales. 664, The Synod of Whitby determines that England is again a province of RomeTimeline of Cornish history – Rooms in a building within Chysauster village
43. Dumnonii – They were bordered to the east by the Durotriges tribe. The Country of this nation is at this day divided into two parts, known by names of Cornwall and Denshire. John Rhys later theorized that the name was derived from the name of a goddess, Domnu. The proto-Celtic root *dubno- or *dumno- meaning the deep or the earth appears in personal names such as Dumnorix, another group with a similar name but with no known links were the Fir Domnann of Connacht. The Roman name of the town of Exeter, Isca Dumnoniorum, the Latin name suggests that the city was already an oppidum, or walled town, on the banks on the River Exe before the foundation of the Roman city, in about AD50. The Dumnonii gave their name to the English county of Devon, Amédée Thierry, one of the inventors of the historic race of Gauls, could confidently equate them with the Cornish. Victorian historians often referred to the tribe as the Damnonii, which is also the name of people from lowland Scotland. The people of Dumnonia spoke a Southwestern Brythonic dialect similar to the forerunner of more recent Cornish, irish immigrants, the Déisi, are evidenced by the Ogham-inscribed stones they have left behind, confirmed and supplemented by toponymical studies. The stones are inscribed in Latin, sometimes in both scripts. Tristram Risdon suggested the continuance of a Brythonic dialect in the South Hams, Devon, as late as the 14th century, ptolemys 2nd century Geography places the Dumnonii to the west of the Durotriges. The name purocoronavium that appears in the Ravenna Cosmography implies the existence of a sub-tribe called the Cornavii or Cornovii, in the sub-Roman period a Brythonic kingdom called Dumnonia emerged, covering the entire peninsula, although it is believed by some to have effectively been a collection of sub-kingdoms. The Latin name for Exeter is Isca Dumnoniorum and this oppidum on the banks of the River Exe certainly existed prior to the foundation of the Roman city in about AD50. Isca is derived from the Brythonic word for flowing water, which was given to the River Exe and this is reflected in the Welsh name for Exeter, Caerwysg meaning fortified settlement on the river Uisc. Isca Dumnoniorum originated with a settlement that developed around the Roman fortress of the Legio II Augusta and is one of the four attributed to the tribe by Ptolemy. It is also listed in two routes of the late 2nd century Antonine Itinerary, a legionary bath-house was built inside the fortress sometime between 55 and 60 and underwent renovation shortly afterwards but by c.68 the legion had transferred to a newer fortress at Gloucester. This saw the dismantling of the Isca fortress, and the site was then abandoned, around AD75, work on the civitas forum and basilica had commenced on the site of the former principia and by the late 2nd century the civitas walls had been completed. They were 3 metres thick and 6 metres high and enclosed exactly the area as the earlier fortress. However, by the late 4th century the civitas was in decline, the Ravenna Cosmography includes the last two names, and adds several more names which may be settlements in the territoryDumnonii – Dumnonii
44. Kings of Dumnonia – The kings of Dumnonia were the rulers of the large Brythonic kingdom of Dumnonia in the south-west of Great Britain during the Sub-Roman and early medieval periods. Therefore, this list should be treated with caution, although subjugated by c. AD78, the civitas Dumnoniorum was one of the regions of Roman Britain least affected by Roman influence. Known as Caer Uisc, Exeter was inhabited by Dumnonian Britons up until c.936 when King Athelstan expelled them, several other royal residences may also have served the kings of Dumnonia or Cornwall, including Din-Tagell, and Cadbury Castle. By the end of the 8th century, Dumnonia was much reduced in size by the advance of the West Saxons, the generally accepted date for this transition is around 800. Recorded in Old Welsh documents, Saints Lives and in local and Arthurian tradition King Mark – of Tristan and Iseult fame, according to Cornish folklore, he held court at Tintagel. King Salomon – father of Saint Cybi, probably ruled after Mark, not to be confused with Salomon, dungarth – was recorded by the Annales Cambriae as having drowned in 876. The Annales refer to him as rex Cerniu, King of Cornwall, in records open to interpretation Ricatus is mentioned on a memorial stone, he may have ruled a more localised region. Huwal of the West Welsh, about whom there has been controversy since the 19th century and he only appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for 927, accepting King Athelstan of Wessex as his overlord. West Wales was an old term for Dumnonia or Cornwall, but may refer to present day West Wales, then generally known as Deheubarth. The Book of Baglan An early 17th century pedigree of a so-called Earl of Cornwall in the Book of Baglan may possibly represent a list of rulers in Cornwall. In the De Gestis Herewardi Saxonis written in the 12th century it is recorded that Hereward the Wake took refuge in Cornwall in the 11th century at the court of the Cornish Prince or King Alef. If he is not to be identified with Hywel Dda of Deheubarth, some of the later supposed rulers listed below are given the title Earl of Cornwall, although in two cases may have been recognized as rebel kings. The South West to AD1000, stenton, F. M. Anglo-Saxon England Third Edition Oxford, Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-280139-5 Morris, John. The Age of Arthur AS Edition Phoenix ISBN 1-84212-477-3 Whitaker, John, the Ancient Cathedral of Cornwall, Historically SurveyedKings of Dumnonia – King Doniert's Stone, located near St Cleer, Bodmin Moor, commemorates King Dungarth/Donyarth/Doniert.
45. Duchy of Cornwall – The Duchy of Cornwall is one of two royal duchies in England, the other being the Duchy of Lancaster. If the monarch has no children, the rights and responsibilities of the duchy belong to The Crown. The current duke is Prince Charles, the Prince of Wales, the principal activity of the duchy is the management of its land totalling 135,000 acres or 550 km2. Nearly half of the holdings are in Devon, with large holdings in Cornwall, Herefordshire, Somerset. The duchy also has a financial investments portfolio, for the fiscal year ending 31 March 2013, the duchy was valued at £763 million, and annual profit was £19 million, a revenue surplus gain of 4. 1% from the previous year. The Duchy Council meets twice a year, the duchy also exercises certain legal rights and privileges across Cornwall, including some that elsewhere in England belong to the crown. The duke appoints a number of officials in the county and acts as the authority for the main harbour of the Isles of Scilly. The government considers the duchy to be a body and therefore exempt from paying corporation tax. Additional charters were issued later by Edward III, the duchy consisted of the title and honour, and the land holdings that supported it financially. The duchy estate, which was based on the holdings of the earls, did not comprise the whole of the county. The extent of the estate has varied as various holdings have been sold and acquired over the years, under the charter, the manors of the earldom passed to the duchy. The original 17 manors, all in Cornwall, are known as the antiqua maneria and those outside Cornwall given to the duchy at its creation are known as the forinseca maneria, with estates incorporated later becoming known as the annexata maneria. We have invested him with the said Principality, Duchy, and Earldom, with the death of Prince Arthur in 1502, the Princes Council became defunct. From 1547 to 1603, there was no male heir to hold the title of duke. The council was revived in 1611 to deal with a food crisis, on the death of King Charles I, the Crown lands came under the control of Parliament, this lasted until the restoration of King Charles II in 1660. In 1975, Charles established the Duke of Cornwall’s Benevolent Fund to benefit south west communities, in 1988, West Dorset District Council allocated land in the ducal estate, west of Dorchester, for housing development, which became known as Poundbury. The Duchy Originals company was set up in 1992 to use produce from farms on the ducal estate, Duchy Originals was licensed out to Waitrose in 2009 after losses in 2008. In 2006, Llwynywermod was purchased by the Duchy as a residence for the Duke in Wales, under the Land Registration Act 2002, the Duchy was required by October 2013 to have filed with the Land Registry mineral rights given to the Duchy in 1337Duchy of Cornwall – The largest rural portfolio office at Newton St Loe, near Bath. This is the office of the Eastern District, centralised finance and property services, and the Estate Surveyor.
46. Michael An Gof – Michael Joseph, better known as Michael An Gof, from the Cornish for the blacksmith, was one of the leaders of the Cornish Rebellion of 1497, along with Thomas Flamank. The rebels marched on London to protest King Henry VIIs levy of a tax to pay for an invasion of Scotland in response to the Scots support of the pretender Perkin Warbeck, a blacksmith named Michael Joseph lived at St Keverne on the Lizard peninsula. Michael Joseph, was chosen by the people of St. Keverne to challenge the tax, when he and his followers reached Bodmin, they were joined by Thomas Flamank, a local lawyer. Flamank argued that it was the business of the barons of the north to defend the Scottish border, and he suggested that the Cornishmen should march on London and present a petition to the king setting forth their grievances against the advisers responsible for the kings action. Under the leadership of Flamank and Joseph, about 6,000 Cornishmen assembled at Bodmin, the army attracted support in provisions and recruits along the way and by the time it reached Devon numbered some 15,000 strong. Up until then the march had been relatively peaceable, but when they reached Taunton in Somerset, Provost Perrin, an officer and commissioner who was collecting the tax was killed. They hoped to support from people in Kent – the focus of Jack Cades rebellion of 1450 –. The Cornish rebels were beaten by the Kings forces at the Battle of Deptford Bridge on 17 June 1497 on an adjacent to the River Ravensbourne. Michael fled to Greenwich after the battle, but was captured, as one of the leaders, Michael An Gof was executed with Flamank on 27 June 1497. Deemed to be traitors, they were hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn, just before his execution, An Gof is recorded to have said that he would have a name perpetual and a fame permanent and immortal. In 1997, the 500th anniversary of the rebellion, a march was held. A statue depicting An Gof and Flamank was unveiled in St Keverne, the Holyer An Gof trophy is an annual award for the best publication on Cornwall, and part of the Cornish Gorsedd. The name is the origin of the British surname Angove, an Gofs name was later used by a Cornish nationalist extremist organisationMichael An Gof – Commemorative plaque in Cornish and English for Michael Joseph the Smith (An Gof) and Thomas Flamank mounted on the north side of Blackheath Common, south east London, near the south entrance to Greenwich Park.
47. Cornish currency – Currency, in the form of coins, has been issued in Cornwall periodically since at least the 10th century AD, while banknotes were issued into the 19th century. The earliest known Cornish mint was at Launceston, which operated on a scale at the time of Ethelred II. Only one specimen, a coin, is known to exist. After the Norman Conquest, Robert, Count of Mortain was given much of Cornwall, including Dunheved and he expropriated the market and mint from the canons of St Stephen and the townspeople followed these to Dunheved. The mint was reopened halfway through the Conquerors reign, the only English coin at the time was the silver penny, presumably the dynar was equivalent to this. A Royalist mint was established in Truro in 1642-43 during the English Civil War by Sir Richard Vyvyan, several Cornish towns in the mining districts set up their own banks and even issued their own banknotes. One example is The Mounts Bay Commercial Bank which was set up 1807 by the Bolitho family of Penzance, the Consolidated Bank of Cornwall was taken over by Barclays Bank in 1905. In 2004 a rare banknote from the Falmouth bank sold for £540, several other examples of Cornish banknotes are held at the County Museum in Truro. In more recent times Cornish currency was issued by the Cornish Stannary Parliament in 1974 under the name of the Cornish National Fund, the 1974 banknotes were issued in denominations of 5 shillings,10 shillings,1 pound and 5 pounds. Cornish language text on the front of the 5 shilling note can be translated as, in 1985 the Cornish Stannary Parliament issued notes of two denominations –-50 pence and 1 pound—and were sold at a premium as a matching pair as a fund raising exercise. On the front of the note there is a depiction of Saint Piran, carrying his banner, on 15 December 1974, it was announced that Frederick Trull, styled clerk to the stannary, was to issue banknotes in four denominations. He produced twenty-five pages of documents in an attempt to prove that the court had no jurisdiction but was fined, ordered to pay costs and he was subsequently dismissed from his post as clerk to the stannary and expelled from the organisation. The banknotes, which bore Trulls signature, were burnt, Cornish tokens sometimes called Cornish Pennies were trade tokens widely used in the 18th and 19th century in Cornwall. One dated 1811 had the words, For the accommodation of the county, on the other side were the words Cornish penny, in the centre a view of a mine pumping engine and winding gear. The 1791 Cornwall Conder Token, had Cornish Copper Half an Ounce written around a Duchy bezant shield, william John Hocking of the Royal Mint Williams, J. A. Cornish TokensCornish currency – 1811 Cornish penny showing a pilchard between cakes of copper and ingots of tin
48. Cornwall in the English Civil War – Cornwall played a significant role in the English Civil War, being a Royalist enclave in the generally Parliamentarian south-west. The English Civil War lasted nearly nine years, having begun with the battle of Edgehill, in Warwickshire, on Sunday,23 October 1642, the principal events in Cornwall happened in the following order. The Battle of Braddock Down near Boconnoc on 19 January 1643 resulted from a parliamentarian counter-invasion of Cornwall and it ended in defeat for Col. Ruthins Parliamentarian troops by Sir Ralph Hopton. Hoptons victory secured Cornwall for the King and the Royalists resumed the siege of Plymouth with their forces occupying surrounding towns to seal off the city by land, the Battle of Stratton occurred on 15 May 1643. The Earl of Stamfords Parliamentarian force was repelled by Hoptons men after day-long fighting, with 300 men killed and 1700 captured, the victories for Hopton with five Old Cornish regiments provided the impetus for campaigns in Devon and Somerset. Taunton and Bridgwater were taken by the Cornish army, but Sir Bevil Grenville was killed in the moment of victory at the Battle of Lansdown in Somerset, bristol fell to Hoptons Royalist troops, followed by Exeter. On December 13, the Royalists began a bombardment of the northern defences of Plymouth but with little effect. Sir Richard Grenville, 1st Baronet, having declared for Parliament, invited his troops to follow him into the Kings service. Sir Richard Grenville arrived in Plymouth in March 1644 to maintain a blockade, robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, arrived in command of the Roundhead army of 8000 men and forced Grenville to retreat to Cornwall across the River Tamar. After relieving Plymouth, Essex advanced into Cornwall, reaching Bodmin on 28 July, King Charles meanwhile led the main Royalist army against him, blocking his line of retreat. Caught between Charles and Grenville, Essex took up positions at Lostwithiel and Fowey, hoping for support or evacuation by the Parliamentarian fleet, the Royalists cut off his escape routes by land and on 13 August Charles began his attack. On 21 August, the Royalists took Restormel Castle and Beacon Hill, after further sporadic fighting they pushed the Parliamentarians back to Castle Dore above the Fowey river on 31 August. That night the Parliamentarian cavalry broke through the encircling Royalists and escaped to Plymouth, the Royalists confiscated the Parliamentarians weapons and then allowed them to return to Portsmouth. Afflicted by bad weather, hunger, disease and attacks from local people,1000 of the soldiers died along the way. The ensuing debate in London about the manner of the war led to the passage of the Self-Denying Ordinance. This was the prompt for a professional English army with a unified command, in 1645 Sir Thomas Fairfax was appointed the commander of the New Model Army. The Royalist army was reorganised with Prince Charles becoming the Commander-in-Chief. The Royalists suffered a loss at Naseby in Northamptonshire and there were further Parliamentarian gains in the southCornwall in the English Civil War – Maps of territory held by Royalists (red) and Parliamentarians (green), 1642 — 1645
49. Newlyn riots – The Newlyn riots were a major civil disturbance that occurred in Newlyn, Cornwall, UK on the three days beginning 18 May 1896, it arose from the local fishery and the trade in fish. By mid-morning some 16 boats had been seized and approximately 100,000 mackerel thrown overboard, by midday messages were sent to the fishing communities of St Ives, Mousehole and Porthleven for help in intercepting the further 100 non-Cornish fishing vessels still at sea in the area. By late afternoon the Porthleven fleet arrived in support of the Newlyn men, the next day the police and local fisherman exchanged in a number of violent encounters around Newlyn Harbour. The only recorded injury was to local Police Inspector Matthews, who was knocked on the head by a fish box, as the rioting continued seven Yorkie vessels were sighted making for Penzance harbour to land their catches there. Around 300 of the rioters then made for that harbour and were met by a detachment of the Penzance Borough Police, the strong resistance met on arrival in Penzance forced the rioters to return to Newlyn. By mid-afternoon the situation had become so serious that the authorities asked for military assistance. At 6,00 pm 400 soldiers from the Royal Berkshire Regiment under Major Massard arrived by train at Penzance railway station, the soldiers immediately made for Newlyn, again joined by several hundred Penzance men, and, upon crossing Newlyn bridge, were met with stone throwing. The soldiers then made for the Harbour and occupied the piers, while this was occurring the torpedo boat destroyer HMS Ferret entered the harbour. The arrival of the military calmed the rioters, and by midnight that day they had largely dispersedNewlyn riots – History
50. Penlee lifeboat disaster – The Penlee lifeboat disaster occurred on 19 December 1981 off the coast of Cornwall. The Penlee Lifeboat Solomon Browne went to the aid of the vessel Union Star after its engines failed in heavy seas, after the lifeboat had rescued four people, both vessels were lost with all hands, in all, sixteen people died including eight volunteer lifeboatmen. The MV Union Star was launched in Ringkøbing in Denmark just a few days before it was wrecked on the Cornish coast. A mini-bulk carrier registered in Dublin, Ireland, it sailed to IJmuiden in the Netherlands to collect a cargo of fertiliser for its voyage to Arklow in Ireland. It was carrying a crew of five, Captain Henry Morton, Mate James Whittaker, Engineer George Sedgwick, Crewman Anghostino Verressimo, also on board was the captains family who had been picked up at an unauthorised stop on the east coast of England. Near the south coast of Cornwall,8 miles east of the Wolf Rock and it was unable to restart them but did not make a mayday call. Assistance was offered by a tug, the Noord Holland, under the Lloyds Open Form salvage contract, winds were gusting at up to 90 knots – hurricane, force 12 on the Beaufort scale – with waves up to 60 feet high. The powerless ship was blown across Mounts Bay towards the rocks of Boscawen Cove, as the ship was close to shore, the Coastguard at Falmouth summoned a Royal Navy Sea King helicopter from 820 Naval Air Squadron, RNAS Culdrose. It used the call sign Rescue 80 during the mission, the aircraft was flown that night by United States Navy exchange-pilot Lt Cdr Russell Smith, assisted by Lt Steve Marlow, S/Lt Kenneth Doherty and Leading Aircrewman Martin Kennie of the Royal Navy. They were unable to winch anyone off the ship as the waves were too violent, the Coastguard had difficulties contacting the secretary of the nearest lifeboat, Penlee Lifeboat Station at Mousehole on the west side of the bay. They eventually contacted Coxswain Trevelyan Richards and asked him to put the lifeboat on standby in case the helicopter rescue failed and he summoned the lifeboats volunteer crew and picked seven men to accompany him in the lifeboat. They were Second Coxswain/Mechanic Stephen Madron, Assistant Mechanic Nigel Brockman, Emergency Mechanic John Blewett, the lifeboat launched at 8,12 pm and headed out through the storm to the drifting coaster. The lifeboat was the Solomon Browne, a wooden 47-foot Watson-class boat built in 1960, after it had made several attempts to get alongside, four people managed to jump across, the captains family and one of the men were apparently safe. The lifeboat radioed that we’ve got four off, but that was the last heard from either vessel and they were truly the bravest eight men Ive ever seen, who were also totally dedicated to upholding the highest standards of the RNLI. Lifeboats were summoned from Sennen Cove, The Lizard and St Marys to try to help their colleagues from Penlee, the Sennen Cove Lifeboat found it impossible to make headway round Lands End. The Lizard Lifeboat found a hole in its hull when it finally returned to its slipway after a fruitless search. Wreckage from the Solomon Browne was found along the shore, some, but not all, of the 16 bodies were eventually recovered. The loss of the Solomon Browne was, in consequence of the persistent and heroic endeavours by the coxswain, such heroism enhances the highest traditions of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution in whose service they gave their livesPenlee lifeboat disaster – Penlee Lifeboat Station
51. Geology of Cornwall – The geology of Cornwall, England, is dominated by its granite backbone, part of the Cornubian batholith, formed during the Variscan orogeny. Around this is a metamorphic aureole formed in the mainly Devonian slates that make up most of the rest of the county. There is an area of sandstone and shale of Carboniferous age in the north east, Cornwall forms the tip of the south-west peninsula of the island Great Britain, and is therefore exposed to the full force of the prevailing winds that blow in from the Atlantic Ocean. The coastline is composed mainly of resistant rocks that rise in many places to impressive cliffs. The north and south coasts have different characteristics, the north coast is more exposed and therefore has a wilder nature. The only river estuary of any size on the north coast is that of the Camel, beaches on the south coast usually consist of coarser sand and shingle, interspersed with rocky sections of wave-cut platform. From east to west, and with approximately descending altitude, these are Bodmin Moor, the north of St Austell, the area south of Camborne and Redruth. The uplands are surrounded by fertile, mainly pastoral farmland. Near the south coast, deep wooded valleys provide sheltered conditions for a flora that likes shade and these areas are mainly of Devonian sandstone and slate. The north east of Cornwall lies on Carboniferous rocks known as the Culm Measures and it is thought that tin ore was exploited in Cornwall as early as the Bronze Age. Over the years, many metals such as copper, lead, zinc. Alteration of the granite also gave rise to deposits of china clay, especially in the area to the north of St Austell. Granite was used as a stone as early as the Bronze Age. Before the 17th century the granite was not quarried as it was far too difficult to cut the stone at that time, builders used blocks lying about on the moors, known as moorstone, instead. By the later Middle Ages the masons were adept enough at dressing moorstone to use it in church building, moorstone blocks were also used for bridging streams and for walls, stiles, posts and troughs. The Lizard complex is Britains most complete example of an ophiolite, much of the peninsula consists of the dark green and red rock, serpentinite, which forms cliffs as at Kynance Cove, and can be carved and polished to create ornaments. This ultramafic rock forms an infertile soil which covers the flat. Extraction of tin began in Cornwall in prehistoric times and continued until the late 20th century, historically extensive tin and copper mining has occurred in Devon and Cornwall, as well as arsenic, silver, zinc and a few other metalsGeology of Cornwall – A map showing the simplified geology of Cornwall
52. Carnmenellis – Carnmenellis Hill gives its name to the area of west Cornwall in England, between Redruth, Helston and Penryn. The hill itself is situated three miles south of Redruth. It is one of five Marilyns in Cornwall, the others being Brown Willy, Kit Hill, Hensbarrow Beacon, the natural region of Carnmenellis has been designated as national character area 155 by Natural England. Penmarth, a village, is sometimes referred to locally as Carnmenellis. The term Carnmenellis Granite refers to the plateau of high ground in this area, Carnmenellis was also the name of a former ecclesiastical parish created in 1846 from part of Wendron parish. Initially, the parish included the area later became the parish of Pencoys. Today, most of the Carmenellis area is in Stithians civil parish, the summit of Carnmenellis Hill is located at OS grid reference, grid reference SW695 364) and is 252 metres above sea level. A microwave transmitting and receiving tower on the summit is used for telephone and computer connections as well as data and television. A number of Iron Age fortifications surround the hill, but little research has been done on the site. There is no right of way across the summitCarnmenellis – The telecommunications mast on Carnmenellis Hill. The mound to the right is a covered reservoir according to the OS map
53. Hensbarrow – Hensbarrow is a natural region in the county of Cornwall, England, UK, that has been recognized as National Character Area 154 by Natural England. Hensbarrow is a region covering an area of just under 12,000 hectares immediately north of St Austell. It is bounded in the north by the A30 road and runs from Retew and Treviscoe in the west to Redmoor and it is the remnant of a much larger exposed and windswept heather moorland. Its lower, more sheltered areas are covered by irregular livestock fields enclosed by Cornish hedges of stone walls, with scattered hamlets, china clay pits, sand tips and mica dams occupy much of the central area. Its highest point is Hensbarrow Beacon, collins, Joseph Henry The Hensbarrow Granite District,1878, republished 1992, ISBN 0-9519419-1-7Hensbarrow – Hensbarrow Downs
54. West Penwith – Penwith is an area of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom, located on the peninsula of the same name. It is also the name of a local government district. The area is named one of the ancient administrative hundreds of Cornwall which derives from two Cornish words, penn meaning headland and wydh meaning at the end. Natural England have designated the peninsula as national character area 156 and it is also known as the Lands End Peninsula. The Penwith peninsula sits predominantly on granite bedrock that has led to the formation of a coastline with many fine beaches. Tin and copper have been mined in the area since pre-Roman times, inland, the peninsula is primarily granite with a thin top soil. This is most evident on the north coast between St Just and Zennor where the remains of the ancient seabed of the Pliocene era are visible and its highest point is Watch Croft. There are several deep cut into this plateau such as Lamorna on the south coast. The shelter of these valleys and the mild climate gives Penwith a flora not seen anywhere else in the UK, penzances Morrab Gardens is able to grow bananas. Penwith also contains a lake, Drift Reservoir, which is located appromimately 3 miles west of Penzance. In addition to Penwiths status as a Heritage coastline, west Penwith, Penwith lies within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Almost a third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status, the principal towns in Penwith are Penzance, the port town and seat of local government, and St Ives, one of the countys most popular seaside resorts. For a full list of settlements in Penwith see List of places in Penwith As a small peninsula at the tip of a larger peninsula, two major transport routes terminate in the district, the A30 road and the Great Western Main Line railway. The St Ives Bay Line provides local transport between St Ives, and the line at St Erth. A ferry to the Isles of Scilly,28 miles west-south-west of the district, is based in Penzance, Penwith contains a great concentration of Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Romano-British archaeological remains. The most significant of them are described in a guide first published in 1954. Tewdwr Mawr ruled over the area from Carnsew in the century before returning to his patrimony in Cornouaille in Brittany around 577. Penwiths population has remained static for the last one hundredWest Penwith
55. Penwith – Penwith is an area of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom, located on the peninsula of the same name. It is also the name of a local government district. The area is named one of the ancient administrative hundreds of Cornwall which derives from two Cornish words, penn meaning headland and wydh meaning at the end. Natural England have designated the peninsula as national character area 156 and it is also known as the Lands End Peninsula. The Penwith peninsula sits predominantly on granite bedrock that has led to the formation of a coastline with many fine beaches. Tin and copper have been mined in the area since pre-Roman times, inland, the peninsula is primarily granite with a thin top soil. This is most evident on the north coast between St Just and Zennor where the remains of the ancient seabed of the Pliocene era are visible and its highest point is Watch Croft. There are several deep cut into this plateau such as Lamorna on the south coast. The shelter of these valleys and the mild climate gives Penwith a flora not seen anywhere else in the UK, penzances Morrab Gardens is able to grow bananas. Penwith also contains a lake, Drift Reservoir, which is located appromimately 3 miles west of Penzance. In addition to Penwiths status as a Heritage coastline, west Penwith, Penwith lies within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Almost a third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status, the principal towns in Penwith are Penzance, the port town and seat of local government, and St Ives, one of the countys most popular seaside resorts. For a full list of settlements in Penwith see List of places in Penwith As a small peninsula at the tip of a larger peninsula, two major transport routes terminate in the district, the A30 road and the Great Western Main Line railway. The St Ives Bay Line provides local transport between St Ives, and the line at St Erth. A ferry to the Isles of Scilly,28 miles west-south-west of the district, is based in Penzance, Penwith contains a great concentration of Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Romano-British archaeological remains. The most significant of them are described in a guide first published in 1954. Tewdwr Mawr ruled over the area from Carnsew in the century before returning to his patrimony in Cornouaille in Brittany around 577. Penwiths population has remained static for the last one hundredPenwith
56. Kerrier – Kerrier was a local government district in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It was the most southerly district in the United Kingdom, other than the Isles of Scilly and its council was based in Camborne 50. 214°N5. 297°W /50.214, -5.297. Other towns in the district included Redruth and Helston, the district also contained the Lizard Peninsula. Kerrier is named one of the ancient administrative Hundreds of Cornwall, Kerrier, which covered broadly the same area. The district was formed on 1 April 1974, as a merger of the borough of Helston, on 25 July 2007, Cornwall County Councils bid for unitary authority status was accepted by the government. It was abolished on 1 April 2009 as part of changes to local government in England. Cornish musician Luke Vibert has released a number of albums and singles under the alias Kerrier District, as a nod to New York musicians Metro Area, Kerrier District Council website Kerrier Local election results 2007 Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for Kerrier District CouncilKerrier
57. North Cornwall – North Cornwall is an area of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It is also the name of a local government district. Other towns in the area are Launceston, Bude, Padstow, North Cornwall is an area of outstanding natural beauty that is of great geological and scientific interest. It includes the part of Cornwall that is formed of carboniferous rocks. The rest of the lies on Devonian sedimentary strata and the granite of Bodmin Moor. A similar area is covered by the North Cornwall parliamentary constituency, North Cornwall has a stretch of coastline that borders the Celtic Sea to the north. The Carboniferous sandstone cliffs that surround Bude were formed during the Carboniferous period and they are part of what are known to geologists as the Culm Measures which continue eastwards across north Devon. The folded and contorted stratification of shale and sandstone is unique in southern England, during the Variscan Orogeny, which affected the entire Cornish coast, the cliffs were pushed up from underneath the sea, creating the overlapping strata. As the sands and cliffs around Bude contain calcium carbonate, farmers used to sand from the beach. The stratified cliffs of Bude gave their name to an event called the Bude Formation. Many formations can be viewed from the South West Coast Path which passes through the town, there are good beaches at Polzeath, Trebarwith Strand and Bude. At Delabole the large Delabole Quarry has been worked for many centuries, most of the lowland areas have good agricultural land used either for mixed or dairy farming. At Davidstow much of the milk is processed into Davidstow cheese, list of topics related to Cornwall Bodmin Moor Triggshire Jenkin, A. K. Hamilton Mines and Miners of Cornwall. Penzance, Federation of Old Cornwall Societies Maclean, Sir John The Parochial History of the Deanery of Trigg Minor, 1872–79 Online Catalogue for North Cornwall District Council at the Cornwall Record OfficeNorth Cornwall – The Platt in Wadebridge looking at the Clock Tower
58. St Austell – St Austell is a civil parish and major town in Cornwall, England, UK. It is situated on the south coast, approximately 10 miles south of Bodmin and 30 miles west of the border with Devon. Named after Saint Austol, one of the earliest references to the village of St Austell is in John Lelands Itinerary, where he says At S. Austelles is nothing notable but the paroch chirch. Not long after William Cookworthy discovered china clay at Tregonning hill in west Cornwall, Clay mining soon took over from tin and copper mining as the principal industry in the area, and this eventually contributed enormously to the growth of the town. This meant that shops and businesses took root, providing more jobs. This, along with other factors, led to St Austell becoming one of the ten most important commercial centres of Cornwall. Work began in 1963 on the precinct which included shops, offices and flats, the design was by Alister MacDonald & Partners. The town centre underwent a £75 million redevelopment process. The redevelopment attracted heavy opposition from its outset, in October 2007, the South West of England Regional Development Agency and project developers David McLean announced that the new development would be named White River Place. It was also announced that 50% of shop units had been leased to high street stores, with New Look, Peacocks, Bonmarché and Wilkinson opening new stores. This would mean New Look relocating from its current premises in Fore Street, the Torchlight Carnival was revived in November 2009 as a direct result of public demand through a survey conducted with local residents. The Torchlight Procession has become an important event in the calendar, heralding in the Winter celebrations and drawing thousands of people from across Cornwall. The event is run by a group of non affiliated volunteers. The St Austell and Clay Country Eco-town is a plan for new settlements around St Austell on old Imerys sites. It was given government approval in July 2009. In July 2011, the Cornwall Council strategic planning committee voted to approve a £250 million beach resort scheme at Carlyon Bay, the development was initially proposed in 2003. The arms of St Austell are Arg, St Austell is in the parliamentary constituency of St Austell and Newquay which was created in 2010 by the Boundary Commission for England. Before 2010 it was in the Truro and St Austell seat, the main local authority is Cornwall Council, the unitary authority created as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in EnglandSt Austell – High Cross Street
59. Camborne – Camborne is a town and civil parish in west Cornwall, England. It is at the edge of a conurbation comprising Camborne, Pool. The population of Camborne was 14,726 in 1901 and 20,010 at the 2001 census, by 2011 the population had grown to 20,845. The Northern edge of the parish includes a section of the South West Coast Path which includes, Hells Mouth, Camborne is located in what was formerly one of the richest tin mining areas in the world and was once the home to the Camborne School of Mines. The School of Mines moved from the centre of Camborne to Trevenson, Pool and is now a specialist department of the University of Exeter, Camborne is in the western part of the largest urban and industrial area in Cornwall with the town of Redruth 3 miles to the east. It is the centre of a large civil parish and has a town council. Camborne-Redruth is on the side of the Carn Brea/Carnmenellis granite upland which slopes northwards to the sea. The two towns are linked by the A3047 road which was turnpiked in 1839 and the villages along the road were Roskear, Tuckingmill, Pool and Illogan. Running north-south are a number of streams with narrow river valleys which have been deeply-cut following centuries of tin streaming. An example is the Red River valley which crosses the A3047 at Tuckingmill, to the north, the A30 forms a boundary between the urban area and the agricultural land on the other side. It is the only Roman villa to be found in the whole of Cornwall, there are also early Christian sites such as an inscribed altar stone, and dated to the tenth or eleventh centuries, which attests to the existence of a settlement then. Langdon records seven crosses in the parish of which two are at Pendarves. By the late Middle Ages manorial holdings developed in the surrounding area, Cornish medieval mystery plays were held in a playing place and the chuchyard is said to have had a pilgrimage chapel and holy well. John Norden visited in 1584 and described Camborne as ″A churche standinge among the barrayne hills″, at this time there would have been moors and rough grazing as well as small fields in the surrounding countryside. By 1708 Camborne had rights to hold markets and three fairs a year which may be an indication of tin mining in the area, Cambornes was inland and in an unfavourable location for trading. Mining is first recorded locally in the 1400s with early exploitation of the small streams cutting through the mineralised area, adit mining was first recorded in the 16th-century. A sign of increasing industrial activity and increasing population is the first chapel built in 1806. In 1823 the population was around 2,000 and in 1841 it was 4,377, with 75 smiths recorded, in the expanding town gasworks were opened in 1834, the Hayle Railway was built and Holmans opened a small foundry in 1839Camborne – Commercial Square, Camborne Town Centre
60. Redruth – Redruth is a town and civil parish in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The population of Redruth was 14,018 at the 2011 census, Camborne and Redruth together form the largest urban area in Cornwall and before local government reorganisation were an urban district. The name Redruth derives from its older Cornish name, Rhyd-ruth and it is the -ruth which means the colour red. Traditionally in the Penwith Hundred, the town has developed away from the original settlement and this location is a steeply wooded valley, with Carn Brea on one side and the now-called Bullers Hill on the other. The presence of shallow lodes of tin and copper lying east to west made it a site for extracting metals, including, tin, lead. The first settlers stayed by a crossing in the river and started extracting metal ores, historically, Redruth was a small market town overshadowed by its neighbours until a boom in the demand for copper ore during the 18th century. Copper ore had mostly been discarded by the Cornish tin-mining industry but was now needed to make brass, surrounded by copper ore deposits, Redruth quickly became one of the largest and richest mining areas in Britain and the towns population grew markedly, although most miners families remained poor. The Mining Exchange was built in 1880 as a place for the trading of mineral stock, Redruth was making its transition from a market town dominated by mines and industry to a residential centre. By the end of the 19th century, the Cornish mining industry was in decline, to find employment, many miners emigrated to the newer mining industries in the Americas, Australasia and South Africa. Cornwalls last fully operational mine, South Crofty at Pool between Redruth and Camborne, closed in March 1998, Redruth School, a Technology College, is a secondary school and sixth form college, for ages 11–18. Primary schools within the town include Pennoweth School, Treleigh School, Treloweth Community Primary School, Trewirgie Infant School, the Curnow Community Special School caters for students with special needs. The Parish Church of St Uny, which is distance from the town centre, is of Norman foundation but was rebuilt in 1756. The patron saint is also honoured at Lelant, the tower is two centuries earlier and the whole church is built of granite. A chapel of ease was built in the town in 1828, other places of worship include the Wesleyan Church of 1826, the Free Methodist Church of 1864 and the Quaker Meeting House of 1833. The former post office in Alma Place is now known as the Cornish Studies Centre, the Mining Exchange building is now used as a housing advice centre. The house now called Murdoch House in the middle of Cross Street was erected in the 1660s as a chapel, william Murdoch lived in it from 1782 to 1798. During this time, he worked on local tin and copper mines, erecting engines on behalf of Boulton and he fitted the house out with gas lighting from coal gas – this was the first house in the world with this type of lighting. In the 19th century, the house was used as a tea room, in 1931 Mr A. Pearce Jenkin, a leading citizen of Redruth purchased the house and gave it as a gift to the Society of FriendsRedruth – Fore Street, Redruth town centre
61. Bude – Bude is a small seaside resort town in north Cornwall, England, UK, in the civil parish of Bude-Stratton and at the mouth of the River Neet. It is sometimes known as Bude Haven. It lies southwest of Stratton, south of Flexbury and Poughill, Bude is twinned with Ergué-Gabéric in Brittany, France. Budes coast faces Bude Bay in the Celtic Sea, part of the Atlantic Ocean, the population of the civil parish can be found under Bude-Stratton. Its earlier importance was as a harbour, and then a source of sea sand useful for improving the moorland soil, the Victorians favoured it as a watering place, and it was a popular seaside destination in the 20th century. It lies just south of Flexbury and north of Widemouth Bay and is located along the A3073 road off the A39 road. A section of Budes coast which is located between Compass Cove to the south and Furzey Cove to the north, is a SSSI noted for its geological and biological interest, during the Variscan Orogeny the strata were heavily faulted and folded. As the sands and cliffs around Bude contain calcium carbonate, farmers used to sand from the beach. The cliffs around Bude are the ones in Cornwall that are made of Carboniferous sandstone, as most of the Cornish coast is formed of Devonian slate, granite. The stratified cliffs of Bude give their name to a sequence of rocks called the Bude Formation, many formations can be viewed from the South West Coast Path which passes through the town. Many ships have wrecked on the jagged reefs which fringe the base of the cliffs. The aftermath of the wreck of the Bencoolen was described by Robert Stephen Hawker in letters which were published in Hawkers Poetical Works, like the rest of the British Isles and South West England, Bude experiences a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters. Temperature extremes at the Met Office weather station at Bude range from −11.1 °C during February 1969 to 32.2 °C in June 1976, the Met Office recorded Bude as the sunniest place in the United Kingdom during the summer of 2013 with 783 hours of sunlight. In the Middle Ages the only dwelling here was Efford Manor, the seat of the Arundells of Trerice, another chapel existed at Chapel Rock which was dedicated to Holy Trinity and St Michael. Bude Canal, which ran to Launceston, now runs only a few miles inland. Several historic wharf buildings were demolished in the 1980s, but since then the canal has undergone restoration. On 10 October 1844, during an exercise, the unnamed Bude Lifeboat capsized when the steering oar broke followed by four on the port side, the local senior school Budehaven Community School suffered a major fire in October 1999, destroying most of the older parts of the school. The school was forced to close for weeks until temporary classrooms could be brought inBude – Bude
62. Liskeard – Liskeard /lɪsˈkɑːrd/ is an ancient stannary and market town and civil parish in south east Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. Liskeard is situated approximately 20 miles west of Plymouth,14 miles west of the River Tamar and the border with Devon, the town is at the head of the Looe valley in the ancient hundred of West Wivelshire and has a population of 9,417. Liskeard was the base of the former Caradon District Council and it still has a town council, there are 3 wards in Liskeard. The total population at the 2011 census was 11,366 The place name element Lis, along with ancient privileges accorded the town, a Norman castle was built here after the Conquest, which eventually fell into disuse in the later Middle Ages. By 1538 when visited by John Leland only a few insignificant remains were to be seen, Sir Richard Carew writing in 1602 concurred, Liskeard was one of the 17 Antiqua maneria of the Duchy of Cornwall. The market charter was granted by Richard, Earl of Cornwall in 1240, since then, it has been an important centre for agriculture. The seal of the borough of Liskeard was Ar, a fleur-de-lis and perched thereon and respecting each other two birds in chief two annulets and in flank two feathers. When Wilkie Collins wrote of his visit to the town in his Rambles Beyond Railways he had a low opinion of it, that abomination of desolation, a large agricultural country town. The town went through a period of prosperity during the pre-20th century boom in tin mining, becoming a key centre in the industry as a location for a stannary. Liskeard is one of the few towns in Cornwall still to have a livestock market. There is a range of restaurants, cafes and pubs in the town, Liskeard puts on a pantomime in the last week of January and holds a carnival every June. Every July, Liskeard holds an agricultural show, The Liskeard Show. St Matthews Fair was originally established by charter in 1266, the fair was re-established in 1976 which runs in September/October, every December, there is street entertainment and a lantern parade for Liskeard Lights Up, when the Christmas lights are switched on. Bodmin Moor lies to the northwest of the town, the A38 trunk road used to pass through the town centre but a dual carriageway bypass now carries traffic south of the town leaving the town centre accessible but with low traffic levels. Liskeard is one of the towns for Bodmin Moor. The town boasts St. Martins, the second largest parish church in Cornwall Built on the site of the former Norman church, other places of worship include a Roman Catholic church and Methodist chapels. The Foresters Hall now houses the Tourist Information Office and Liskeard & District Museum, the Foresters still meet in the town at the Public Rooms in West Street. Stuart House was used by Charles I as a lodging in 1644, restored, it is now used as a community building for arts, heritage and community events Luxstowe HouseLiskeard – Liskeard Guildhall
63. Launceston, Cornwall – It is one mile west of the River Tamar, which constitutes almost the entire border between Cornwall and Devon, at its middle stage. Its gradients are generally steep particularly at a sharp south-western knoll topped by Launceston Castle, the town centre is bypassed and is no longer physically a main thoroughfare. However, the town remains figuratively the gateway to Cornwall, due to having one of the two dual carriageways into the county pass directly next to the town. The other dual carriageway and alternative main point of entry is at Saltash over the Tamar Bridge and was completed in 1962, Launceston Castle was built by Robert, Count of Mortain c.1070 to dominate the surrounding area. Launceston was the caput of the barony of Launceston and of the Earldom of Cornwall until replaced by Lostwithiel in the 13th century. Launceston was later the county town of Cornwall until 1835 when Bodmin replaced it, two civil parishes serve the town and its outskirts, of which the central more built-up administrative unit housed 8,952 residents at the 2011 census. Launcestons motto is a reference to its adherence to the Cavalier cause during the English Civil War of the mid-17th century, Dunheved was the Southwestern Brittonic name for the town in the West Saxon period. The earliest known Cornish mint was at Launceston, which operated on a scale at the time of Æthelred the Unready before Cornwall received full diocesan jurisdiction in the year 994 AD. Only one specimen is known to exist, in the reign of William the Conqueror, the mint was moved to Dunheved and remained in existence until the reign of Henry II,1160. During the reign of Henry III of England, another mint was established in Launceston, Launceston Castle, in good repair, is a Norman motte-and-bailey castle, and was built by Robert, Count of Mortain c.1070 to dominate the surrounding area. Launceston was the caput of the barony of Launceston and of the Earldom of Cornwall until replaced by Lostwithiel in the 13th century. Launceston was later the county town of Cornwall until 1835 when Bodmin replaced it, in Domesday Book it is recorded that Launceston was held by the Count of Mortain, and that he had his castle there. There was land for 10 ploughs,1 villein and 13 smallholders with 4 ploughs,2 mills which paid 40/- and 40 acres of pasture, the value of the manor was only £4 though it had formerly been worth £20. The Roman Catholic martyr Cuthbert Mayne was executed at Launceston — a legacy of memorials, during the English Civil War Launceston was known to be Royale et Loyale to Charles I of England, hence its coat of arms. His son, who was later crowned Charles II of England, in 1643, the Parliamentarian forces under the command of Major General James Chudleigh advanced in an attempt to capture Launceston from the Royalists. The Royalist commander, Ralph Hopton, 1st Baron Hopton, stationed his forces on the summit of Beacon Hill, the Parliamentarians captured the foot of the hill, but were unable to dislodge the Royalist forces from the top. Hopton led a counterattack down the hill and, despite fierce fighting, Sir Richard Grenville, 1st Baronet was committed by Prince Charles to Launceston Prison for refusing to obey Lord Hopton, Grenville had already quarrelled with General George Goring, Lord Goring. Launceston has the document in the UK signed by Mary II of England and her husbandLaunceston, Cornwall – Town Square
64. Penryn, Cornwall – Penryn is a civil parish and town in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It is situated on the Penryn River about 1 mile north-west of Falmouth, the population was 7,166 in the 2001 census and a receded 6,812 in the 2011 census, a drop of more than 300 people across the ten year time gap. There are two wards covering Penryn, Penryn East and Mylor and Penryn West. Penryn is one of Cornwalls most ancient towns and boasts a wealth of history, the ancient town first appears in the Domesday Book under the name of Trelivel, and was since founded and named Penryn in 1216 by the Bishop of Exeter. The borough was enfranchised and its Charter of Incorporation was made in 1236, the contents of this Charter were embodied in a confirmation by Bishop Walter Bronescombe in the year 1259. In 1265, a college, called Glasney College, was built in Penryn for the Bishop of Exeter to develop the churchs influence in the far west of the diocese. In 1374, the chapel of St Thomas was opened, standing at the head of the Penryn River, Penryn occupies a sheltered position and was a port of some significance in the 15th century. The dissolution of Glasney College helped trigger the Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549, the loss of Glasney and the defeat of the 1549 rebellion proved to be a turning point in the history of the town from which Penryn has never recovered. From 1554, Penryn held a constituency, which became Penryn. The constituency was abolished in 1950, with Penryn becoming part of the Falmouth and it received a royal charter as a borough in 1621, mainly in a bid by the crown to cure the town of piracy. At least three mayors of Penryn were convicted of piracy between 1550 and 1650, the arms of the borough of Penryn were Sa. A Saracens head Or in a bordure of eight bezants, by the mid 17th century the port was thriving with the trade in Cornish fish, tin and copper. However, Penryn lost its house and market rights to the new town of Falmouth as a direct result of supporting the Parliamentary side in the English Civil War. The Killigrews of Arwenack were more skilful turncoats, and as their new town grew so the port of Penryn declined from the 17th century right up to today. In the early 19th century, granite works were established by the river, the town is the setting of the play The Penryn Tragedy, which tells of a young man unwittingly murdered by his parents after disguising himself as a rich stranger. Today, Penryn is a town and has retained a large amount of its heritage. With a large proportion of its buildings dating back to Tudor, Jacobean and Georgian times, the local museum is housed in the Town Hall. Penryn has a small but active Rotary Club, Penryn is twinned with Audierne in Brittany, FrancePenryn, Cornwall – St Gluvias Street, Penryn
65. List of hills of Cornwall – Many of these hills are important historic, archaeological and nature conservation sites, as well as popular hiking and tourist destinations in the county of Cornwall in southwest England. The table is colour-coded based on the classification or listing of the hill, the three types that occur in Cornwall are Marilyns, HuMPs and TuMPs, listings based on topographical prominence. Prominence correlates strongly with the significance of a summit. Peaks with low prominences are either subsidiary tops of a summit or relatively insignificant independent summits. Peaks with high prominences tend to be the highest points around, a Marilyn is a hill with a prominence of at least 150 metres or about 500 feet. A HuMP is a hill with a prominence of at least 100, in this table Marilyns are in beige and HuMPs in lilac. The term sub-Marilyn or sub-HuMP is used, e. g. in the online Database of British and Irish Hills to indicate hills that fall just below the threshold. To qualify for inclusion, hills must either be 300 metres or higher with a prominence of at least 30 metres, for further information see the Lists of mountains and hills in the British Isles and the individual articles on Marilyns and HuMPs. List of mountains and hills of the United Kingdom List of Marilyns in England Geography of CornwallList of hills of Cornwall – Brown Willy
66. Alex Tor – Alex Tor is a conical hill,291 metres high, located in the west of Bodmin Moor in the county of Cornwall, England. At the summit of Alex Tor are granite outcrops and a large. There are panoramic views from the plateau and other tors visible include, Rough Tor, Brown Willy, Showery Tor, Garrow Tor. Parking is possible on the lane running SW to NE past the tor, from here it is an easy climb of less than 1 kilometre. On the western flank of the hill there are hut circles and the remains of an ancient farmsteadAlex Tor – The large and intricate cairn on the summit.
67. Caradon Hill – Caradon Hill is on Bodmin Moor in the former Caradon district of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The summit is 371 metres above sea level. Caradon Hill is on the edge of the moor, it is between the villages of Minions, Upton Cross, Pensilva and Darite. The hill was once famous for its copper mines but these are now closed, the South Caradon Copper Mine,1 km to the SW of the transmitter, was the biggest copper mine in the UK in its heyday in the second half of the 19th century. Other disused copper and tin mines are scattered around the base of the hill, including the Wheal Phoenix, the ruins of the Prince of Wales engine house are prominent at Wheal Phoenix. The mining area around the southwest base of the hill form part of Crows Nest SSSI, the Caradon Hill transmitting station television mast is near the summit of Caradon Hill at grid reference SX272707Caradon Hill – Caradon Hill
68. Kilmar Tor – Kilmar Tor is an elongated hill,396 metres high and running from SW to NE, on Bodmin Moor in the Duchy of Cornwall, England. Its prominence of 118 metres qualifies it as a HuMP, Kilmar Tor is located on the eastern side of Bodmin Moor, about 2½ kilometres WSW of the hamlet of North Hill and 3½ kilometres north of Cornwalls highest village, Minions. It is surmounted by granite tors, there is trig point at the summit as well as a cairn and cist. The course of a railway runs around the hill to the south. On Kilmar Tors northern flank is Twelve Mens Moor with Trewortha Tor, to the southeast is Bearah Tor and, to the south, Langstone Downs. Withy Brook runs roughly north to south past the end of the hill and, to the eastKilmar Tor – Kilmar Tor from the SE. Trig point just visible on the right.
69. Rough Tor – Rough Tor, or Roughtor, is a tor on Bodmin Moor, Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The site is composed of the tor summit and logan stone, a tor enclosure, a large number of Bronze Age hut circles. In the 19th-century the hill was known as Router, Rough Tor is approximately one mile northwest of Brown Willy, Cornwalls highest point, on Bodmin Moor. Its summit is 1313 ft above sea level, making it the second highest point in Cornwall. Both hills are in the parish of St Breward and near the town of Camelford. The De Lank River rises nearby and flows between the two hills, Rough Tor and Little Rough Tor are twin summits of a prominent ridge of granite, though there are actually three tors at the site, Showery Tor, Little Rough Tor, and Rough Tor. Crowdy Reservoir and the Lowermoor Water Treatment Works are not far away from the hill. Hikes to the summit and to neighbouring Brown Willy are popular, though the walk may be strenuous, a road provides access to a car park, which is about a mile. From the summit of Rough Tor, many signs of settlements and field systems are visible, the summit of Rough Tor once had a neolithic tor enclosure. The summit is encircled by a series of stone walls that align with natural stone outcroppings on the tor. The walls would have completely encircled the tor. The walls would have had numerous stone lined openings, in the interior of the circle, there are remains of terraces leveled into the slopes, which archaeologists believe formed the foundations of circular wooden houses. There are also cleared areas near the terraces that have been garden plots, stannon stone circle is also located nearby, and there are numerous cairns and burial monuments in the vicinity. On the southern slopes of Rough Tor, there are the remains of a number of stone hut circles. There are also the remains of a large field systems, which is overlain with a medieval field system. The purpose of this system has been debated, with historians disagreeing as to whether the fields were used for cereals or for stock. The summit of the tor was once the site of a chapel, which was built into the side of one of the cairns. The chapel was recorded in the 14th century, and is the only known chapel in Bodmin MoorRough Tor – Rough Tor seen from the west
70. Politics of Cornwall – Its position on the geographical periphery of the island of Great Britain is also a factor. Cornish politics is also defined by its relationship between the Liberal Democrats, and the Conservative Party, the main contenders for political office in Cornwall. There is also marked lack of organised trade unionism, and in many areas, Cornwalls politics have partly been dictated by its geography and history. It is a peninsula, relatively distant from London, and its main industries – fishing, farming, however, Cornwall is attractive to tourists, and to people seeking to move into the area to live. There are therefore tensions in the market between the demands of inward migrants to the area, and the needs of local people. Historically, Cornwall was a Brittonic-speaking area separate from the rest of England until about the 10th century, religious non-conformism was strong in Cornwall, and the Church of England was less well supported than some areas to the east. The Conservative Party is also strong in Cornwall, but for slightly different reasons. They suffered a particularly bad setback in the 1990s, however they regained three of the six Cornish seats in the 2010 general election. The Labour Party is traditionally much weaker in Cornwall than many parts of the UK. This may be partly because there is no urban centre in Cornwall – Plymouth tends to fulfil that role. Cornwall also traditionally elects a number of independent councillors, and is a centre for the rump Liberal Party in the UK. The distinctive nature of Cornish politics has led to a significant number of office holders from both the Liberal Democrats and the Conservative Party being supportive of greater Cornish autonomy, however, with both parties this has never been official national policy. 1986 saw the death of the charismatic MP David Penhaligon of the Liberal Party, penhaligons career looked promising, with some tipping him as a future leader. These identities are distinctly national in ways which proud people from Yorkshire, any new constitutional settlement which ignores these factors will be built on uneven ground. At a local level the tradition of Independent candidates and councillors is far stronger than most other areas, Mebyon Kernow was formed in 1951, initially as a pressure group. Some of its members and supporters were politicians from the three main British political parties, but later on, it became a party in its own right and its most famous supporter of the time was the novelist Daphne du Maurier. One of Mebyon Kernows main campaigns is for a Cornish Assembly and this was backed up by Cornwall Councils Feb 2003 MORI poll which showed 55% in favour of an elected, fully devolved regional assembly for Cornwall and 13% against. On 26 July 2007 the Conservative party appointed Mark Prisk Shadow Minister for Cornwall and this appointment was called the fictional minister for Cornwall, by a Liberal Democrat MP, as there was no government minister to shadowPolitics of Cornwall – Truro
71. Civil parishes in Cornwall – A civil parish is a country subdivision, forming the lowest unit of local government in England. There are 218 civil parishes in the county of Cornwall. The county is effectively parished in its entirety, only the unpopulated Wolf Rock is unparished, at the 2001 census, there were 501,267 people living in the current parishes, accounting for the whole of the countys population. The final unparished areas of mainland Cornwall, around St Austell, were parished on 1 April 2009 to coincide with the changes to local government in England. Population sizes within the county vary considerably, Falmouth is the most populous with a population of 25,223, recorded in 2001, and St Michaels Mount the least with 29 residents. The county is governed by two separate authorities, Cornwall Council covers mainland Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly are administered by their own unitary authority. Parishes arose from Church of England divisions, and were originally purely ecclesiastical, over time they acquired civil administration powers. The Highways Act 1555 made parishes responsible for the upkeep of roads, the poor were looked after by the monasteries, until their dissolution. In 1572, magistrates were given power to survey the poor and this system was made more formal by the Poor Law Act 1601, which made parishes responsible for administering the Poor Law, overseers were appointed to charge a rate to support the poor of the parish. The 19th century saw an increase in the responsibility of parishes, the Public Health Act 1872 grouped parishes into Rural Sanitary Districts, based on the Poor Law Unions, these subsequently formed the basis for rural districts. Under the Divided Parishes and Poor Law Amendment Act 1882, all extra-parochial areas, urban civil parishes continued to exist, and were generally coterminous with the urban district, municipal borough or county borough in which they were situated. Many large towns contained a number of parishes, and these were merged into one. Parish councils were not formed in areas, and the only function of the parish was to elect guardians to Poor Law Unions. With the abolition of the Poor Law system in 1930 the parishes had only a nominal existence, the Local Government Act 1972 retained civil parishes in rural areas, and many former urban districts and municipal Boroughs that were being abolished, were replaced by new successor parishes. Urban areas that were considered too large to be single parishes became unparished areas, recent governments have encouraged the formation of town and parish councils in unparished areas. The Local Government and Rating Act 1997 gave local residents the right to demand the creation of a new civil parish, a parish council can become a town council unilaterally, simply by resolution. A civil parish can gain city status, but only if that is granted by the Crown. The chairman of a town or city council is called a mayor, the Local Government and Public Involvement in Health Act 2007 introduced alternative names, a parish council can now choose to be called a community, village, or neighbourhood councilCivil parishes in Cornwall – Advent Sen Adhwynn
72. South East Cornwall (UK Parliament constituency) – South East Cornwall is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by Sheryll Murray, a Conservative. 1983-2010, The District of Caradon, the Borough of Restormel wards of Fowey, Lostwithiel, St Blaise, and Tywardreath, 2010–present, The District of Caradon, and the Borough of Restormel ward of Lostwithiel. Consistent with this, since 1983 the preference for an MP has alternated between Liberal Democrats and Conservatives, workless claimants were in November 2012 significantly lower than the national average of 3. 8%, at 2. 5% of the population based on a statistical compilation by The Guardian. Despite the presence of South in its name, this constituency is the second most northern of the six Cornwall seats, list of Parliamentary constituencies in Cornwall Forgotten Corner of Cornwall Wivelshire Notes ReferencesSouth East Cornwall (UK Parliament constituency) – Boundary of South East Cornwall in Cornwall for the 2010 general election.
73. Cornish nationalism – Cornish nationalism is a cultural, political and social movement that seeks the recognition of Cornwall – the south-westernmost part of the island of Great Britain – as a nation distinct from England. Cornish nationalists generally seek some form of autonomy for Cornwall, if correct they argue the Cornish therefore have a right to national self determination. Campaigners in 2001 for the first time prevailed upon the UK census to count Cornish ethnicity as an option on the national census. In 2004 school children in Cornwall could also record their ethnicity as Cornish on the schools census, in the world of Cornish sport also can be found expressions of Cornish national identity. In 2004 a campaign was started to field a Cornish national team in the 2006 Commonwealth Games, however, this campaign lapsed, was revived, but has now been abandoned. The notion that the Cornish are an ethnicity is sometimes tied up with the notion that the Cornish are of Celtic blood. Edward Lhuyd noticed the similarities between Breton, Cornish, Irish, Scots Gaelic and Welsh, so he grouped together as Celtic. However, Sykes questions whether there ever was a Celtic people at all, in 2011, an e-petition directed at Westminster was launched. This petition calls for signatures to raise the issue of the Cornish Identity in Parliament, the Duchy of Cornwall claims that it is a private estate which funds the public, charitable and private activities of The Prince of Wales and his family. The Duchy itself consists of around 54,424 hectares of land in 23 counties, the current Duke of Cornwall is HRH Charles, Prince of Wales. A charter ruled that each future Duke of Cornwall would be the eldest surviving son of the monarch, the Duke of Cornwall, Prince Charles, as eldest son of the reigning monarch is also the Prince of Wales. Furthermore, the entirety of the Isles of Scilly is claimed despite the Duchys admitting that they were not included in, rather omitted from, despite these assertions, the summons of Exchequer was exceptionally granted to the Dukes of Cornwall in order to govern Cornwall. Since 1752, when the incumbent Duke of Cornwall was seriously challenged by the Cornish Stannary Parliament, supporters of self-government often point to a lack of co-operation shown by the Duchy of Cornwall authorities when requests are made for an investigation of constitutional issues. On 15 May 2000 the Revived Cornish Stannary Parliament, a group formed in 1974, dispatched an invoice to the chief officer of the Duchy of Cornwall. This invoice demanded a refund of a calculated £20 billion overcharge in taxation on tin production from 1337-1837 and this was calculated according to production figures and historic wealth calculation methods, and The Sunday Times Rich List, March 2000, respectively. Cornwall was charged at twice the rate levied on the adjacent county of Devon. On 17 May 2000 The Guardian reported that the CSP claimed that the Duchy had levied a tax on tin production in Cornwall for five hundred years. The CSP argued that their action demonstrated how Cornwall was treated separately from England in the past and they declared that if they received the money it would be spent on an agency to boost Cornwalls economyCornish nationalism – Cornwall Council has held up the Channel Island of Guernsey as a potential model for future Cornish autonomy. (Guernsey Parliament building pictured)
74. Cornish Assembly – The campaign for Cornish devolution began in 2000 with the founding of the Cornish Constitutional Convention, a cross-party, cross-sector association that campaigns for devolution to Cornwall. In November 2014 a petition was launched on the government petitions website campaigning for a Cornish Assembly, a law-making Cornish Assembly is party policy for the Liberal Democrats, Mebyon Kernow and the Greens. Cornwall enjoyed a level of self-government until 1753 through its Stannary Parliament, laws and maps of the time mentioned Anglia et Cornubia. Cornwall County Council was created by the Local Government Act 1888, at the same time, the Celtic revival saw the emergence of Cornish nationalism. Self-government for Cornwall will be the next move, the Cornish political party Mebyon Kernow was formed in 1951, calling for greater autonomy in what it hoped would become a federal UK. Post Second World War Cornwall became increasingly linked with Devon in an economic, political and statistical sense, symbolised by the merging of Devon, devons relative wealth overshadowed Cornwalls low GDP and high deprivation, meaning that the single Devonwall area did not qualify for EU funding. The calls for Cornish devolution also started to more widespread attention. In 1990, a Guardian newspaper editorial commented “Smaller minorities also have equally proud visions of themselves as irreducibly Welsh, Irish and these identities are distinctly national in ways which proud people from Yorkshire, much less proud people from Berkshire will never know. Any new constitutional settlement which ignores these factors will be built on uneven ground, in the late 1990s, devolution became a political issue in the UK with the creation of the Scottish Parliament, Welsh Assembly and Northern Ireland Assembly. It has a clearly defined economic, administrative and social profile, Cornwalls unique identity reflects its Celtic character, culture and environment. We declare that the people of Cornwall will be best served in their governance by a Cornish regional assembly. We therefore commit ourselves to setting up the Cornish Constitutional Convention with the intention of achieving a devolved Cornish Assembly - Senedh Kernow, three months later the Cornish Constitutional Convention held its first open meeting to promote the objective of establishing a devolved Assembly. The Labour government did not respond to the petition, and continued to promote its own plans for English regional assemblies, the plans were put on hold when voters overwhelmingly rejected a regional assembly in the North East of England in 2004. In 2007, the Labour government announced plans to abolish regional assemblies, the same year, the then leader of Cornwall County Council David Whalley stated There is something inevitable about the journey to a Cornish Assembly. We are also moving forward in creating a Cornish Development Agency - we are confident that strategic planning powers will come back to us after the SW regional assembly goes, in 2008 Parliament agreed plans to create a unitary authority for Cornwall, abolishing the six district councils. Leaders at the claimed that the unitary would provide a single voice for Cornwall to demand greater powers. The new Coalition Government abolished the South West Regional Development Agency, in 2014 the government announced plans to place Cornish EU funds into a nationally run programme, depriving Cornwall of its ability to allocate where the money goes. This decision was reversed and Cornwall was granted the autonomy to manage its own EU fundsCornish Assembly – The exchequer hall of Duchy Palace in Lostwithiel, site of the autonomous Cornish Stannary Courts and then-capital of Cornwall
75. Constitutional status of Cornwall – Cornwall is a unitary authority area and ceremonial county of England. In ethnic and cultural terms, Cornwall and its inhabitants have at times been referred to as foreign to England. One aspect of the identity of Cornwall is the Cornish language. Cornish nationalists argue, whether from a legal, cultural or other basis, a manifestation of this is the campaign for a Cornish assembly, along the lines of the Welsh or Scottish legislative institutions. Those who assert that Cornwall is, or ought to be, an important aim is Cornwalls recognition as a British home nation in its own right similar to how Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland are considered. An ancient tale, the legend of Brutus, recounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth, in addition, according to the legend, a second and smaller group of Trojans arrived in Britain, led by a warrior named Corineus, to whom Brutus granted extensive estates. Just as Brutus had called the island Britain, and his companions Britons, so Corineus called the region of the kingdom which had fallen to his share Cornwall, after the manner of his own name, and the people who lived there. This indicates that, at least as far as Geoffrey was concerned, in pre-Roman times, Cornwall was part of the kingdom of Dumnonia. Later, it was known to the Anglo-Saxons as West Wales, to distinguish it from North Wales, the name Cornwall is a combination of two elements. The second derives from the Anglo-Saxon word wealh, meaning foreigner, one who speaks a non-Germanic language, the first element Corn, indicating the shape of the peninsula, is descended from Celtic kernou, an Indo-European word related to English horn and Latin cornu. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records a battle in 825 and quotes The Wealas, Gafulforda is thought to be Galford near Lew Trenchard on the banks of the River Lew, though some translations render it as Camelford, some 60 km further west. References in contemporary charters show Egbert of Wessex granting lands in Cornwall at Kilkhampton, Ros, Maker, Pawton, Caellwic, and Lawhitton to Sherborne Abbey and to the Bishop of Sherborne. All of the locations except Pawton are in the far east of Cornwall. Such control had certainly been established in places by the ninth century. At Easter 928, Athelstan held court at Exeter, with the Welsh and West Welsh subject rulers present, the Bodmin manumissions, two to three generations later, show that the ruling class of Cornwall quickly became Anglicised, most owners of slaves having Anglo-Saxon names. Among those manumitting slaves in the Bodmin record are four English kings and it is clear that at this time areas beyond the core of Anglo-Saxon settlement were recognised as different by the English kings. Athelstans successor, Edmund, in a charter for an estate just north of Exeter, styled himself as King of the English, edmunds successor Edgar styled himself, King of the English and ruler of the adjacent nations. This was followed by king Aethelred II describing Cornwall not as an English shire, but as a province, or client territoryConstitutional status of Cornwall – Roman Britannia showing those areas under Roman rule and the position of Dumnonia as a part of Roman Britain
76. South West Regional Assembly – The South West Regional Assembly was the regional chamber for South West England, established in 1999. It was wound up in December 2008, and its functions taken on by the Strategic Leaders Board, the South West Secretariat which supported the member organisations is based in Taunton, as is its successor body. In July 2007, Local Government Minister John Healey MP announced Government plans to abolish regional assemblies, the functions of regional assemblies were planned to pass to regional development agencies in 2010. The assemblys responsibilities for planning, housing and transport transferred to the Strategic Leaders Board of South West Councils on 13 May 2009, the transfer followed agreement between the Assembly Leaders, the Strategic Leaders, the Social Economic and Environmental Partners and South West Councils. The outgoing Chairman of the Assembly, Sir Simon Day said and it was made up of 119 members, of which,79 were appointed by the 51 Unitary, County and District Authorities in the South West. Membership was reviewed by local authorities every year, and changes reflected political proportionality across the region after local elections,2 were appointed by the National Parks Authorities in the region. 2 were appointed by the Association of Local Councils,36 were appointed by the region’s Social, Economic and Environmental Partners. The SEEP representatives were nominated by regional Groups and these were reviewed at least every four years and this opinion was based upon geography, arguing that having the Isles of Scilly and Cornwall in the same region as Gloucestershire would be comparable to linking London with Yorkshire. The feeling is strong in Cornwall where in July 2000 Mebyon Kernow issued the Declaration for a Cornish Assembly. If Scotland and London are benefiting from devolution then Cornwall should learn from this and increase the intensity of its own campaign for devolution to a Cornish AssemblySouth West Regional Assembly – Logo of the South West Regional Assembly, 1999-2009
77. Gorseth Kernow – Gorsedh Kernow is a non-political Cornish organisation, based in Cornwall, United Kingdom, which exists to maintain the national Celtic spirit of Cornwall. It is based on the Welsh-based Gorsedd, which was founded by Iolo Morganwg in 1792. The Gorsedh Kernow was set up in 1928 at Boscawen-Un by Henry Jenner, one of the proponents of Cornish language revival. He and twelve others were initiated by the Archdruid of Wales and it has been held every year since, except during World War II. 1,000 people have been Cornish bards, including Ken George, R. Morton Nance, over time, and up to 1970, additional pieces were added, including Plastrons for past Grand Bards, also produced by Francis Cargeeg. The Gorsedh Kernow has now opened up to all forms of revived Cornish language, the Gorsedh also encourages the study of the arts and history. It has been held annually since and has become an important institution in Cornwalls cultural and its competitions attract many applicants and the open Gorsedh is attended by many Cornish people. There is also extensive coverage on local media, an important part of the open Gorsedh is the awarding of bardships to individuals for meritorious work for Cornish culture. Thus the Gorsedh acts in ways as a form of honours system. Bardships are awarded for study in the language, services to Cornish music, initiate Bards are given Bardic names by the Grand Bard who welcomes them into the College of Bards. After domination of the Brythonic Celts by the Saxons the Bardic tradition fell into disuse, the Gorsedh for 2008 was held in September 2008 in Looe which coincided with the Dehwelans Kernow festival. The 2009 Gorsedh began on 18 April at Saltash and he said, One generation has set Cornish on its feet. It is now for another to make it walk, although the early Gorsedh used the Unified form, in June 2009, members voted overwhelmingly to adopt the new Standard Written Form as their standard. 1899, Wales John Hobson Matthews Reginald Reynolds Hettie Tangye Reynolds 1903, Brittany Henry Jenner 1904, byrth Gorseth Kernow 1928–2007, Bards of the Gorseth of Cornwall. Gorseth Kernow / The Cornish Gorsedd, what it is and what it does, penzance 2007 Gorseth Kernow parade and ceremony. Archived from the original on 10 July 2009Gorseth Kernow – Lady of Cornwall and flower girls at the 2007 Gorsedh (Penzance)
78. Cornish festivals – The cultural calendar of Cornwall is punctuated by numerous historic and community festivals and celebrations. In particular there are links between parishes and their patronal feast days. There is also a tradition of holding celebrations associated with tin mining and fishing, since the 1980s there has been a development of community based festivals in Cornwall often named after a famous local resident. These have included Murdoch day in Redruth, the Daphne du Maurier Festival in Fowey, Trevithick Day in Camborne, other modern festivals include, Falmouth oyster festival, Newlyn fish festival, Lowender Peran in Perranporth, Dehwelans Kernow and many more. In Moonta, South Australia, the Kernewek Lowender is the largest Cornish festival in the world, the following list is of festivals celebrated past and present in Cornwall which can be traced back over 100 years or more, often these celebrations have considerable antiquity. These have been classified separately to the above because they form a part of a Cornish indigenous culture, there have been attempts and successes to revive these celebrations where they have fallen into disuse. Today many of these ceremonies are kept alive by members of the Federation of Old Cornwall Societies. † = Parish feast day Charles Henderson Celtic Kalendar, giving the feast days of most of the parishes in the Diocese in, Cornish Church Guide Truro, Blackford, pp. 9–16Cornish festivals – Celebrating St Piran's Day in Penzance
79. Cornish wrestling – Cornish wrestling is a form of wrestling which has been established in Cornwall for several centuries. It is similar to the Breton Gouren wrestling style, the referee is known as a stickler, and it is claimed that the popular meaning of the word as a pedant originates from this usage. It is colloquially known as wrasslin in the Cornish dialect, the wrestlers in the Cornish style both wear tough jackets enabling them to gain better grip on their opponent. All holds are taken upon the other wrestlers jacket, grabbing of the wrists or fingers is forbidden as well as any holding below the waist. Although all holds are to be taken upon the jacket, the flat of the hand is allowed to be used to push or deflect an opponent, the objective of Cornish wrestling is to throw your opponent and make him land as flat as possible on his back. Three sticklers watch and control each bout whilst also recording down the score of points achieved in play, four pins are located on the back of a wrestler, two at the back of each shoulder and two either side just above the buttocks. The sticklers will each raise their sticks when they perceive a Back has been achieved, if two sticklers raise their sticks but one does not a back is still awarded. The Cornish Wrestling Association was formed in 1923 to standardize the rules and to promote Cornish Wrestling throughout Cornwall, the earliest written evidence for wrestling in the West Country comes from a 1590 poem entitled Poly-Olbion by Michael Drayton, concerning the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. It states that the Cornish men who accompanied Henry V into battle held a banner of two Cornish wrestlers in a hitch, Cornish, Devon and Breton wrestlers have long taken part in inter-Celtic matches since at least 1402 and these still occasionally continue. In early times Cornish and Devonian wrestlers often had matches against each other though the rules followed were not the same. One of these was the match between Richard Parkyn and the Devonian Jordan. In the 17th century, historian Richard Carew wrote of Cornish wrestling, wrastling is as full of manliness, more delightful and less dangerous. For you shall find a assembly of boyes in Devon and Cornwall. Sir Thomas Parkyns, known as the Wrestling Baronet, was a devotee of wrestling and his book on the subject The Inn-Play, or, the Cornish Hugg-Wrestler was published in 1713 and reprinted many times. A contest at Bodmin in 1811 attracted 4,000 spectators, the Cornish Wrestling Association was formed in 1923. In 1927 William Tregonning Hooper agreed with the Breton Dr. Cottonac of Quimper that there should be annual wrestling tournaments in which both Cornish and Breton wrestlers would compete. In the 1970s Truro Cathedral School was teaching Cornish wrestling as part of its education programme and was the only school in Cornwall to do so. Ashley Cawley is the current Heavyweight Champion of Cornwall, Ashley Cawley defended his title for the first time in 2006Cornish wrestling – Gerry and Ashley Cawley wrestling at Pendennis Castle, 6 May 2002
80. Cornish hurling – Hurling or Hurling the Silver Ball, is an outdoor team game played only in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is played with a silver ball. Hurling is not to be confused with the Irish game, also known as hurling, there are profound differences between the two sports. Once played widely in Cornwall, the game has similarities to other traditional football or inter parish mob games and it is considered by many to be Cornwalls national game along with Cornish wrestling. An old saying in the Cornish language goes, hyrlîan yw gen gwaré nyi which translated into English means, Hurling is our sport In August,1705, the parish burials register contains the following entry William Trevarthen buried in the church. Being disstroid to a hurling with Redruth men at the high dounes the 10th day of August and this is the only recorded death of a player during a hurling match. The ball for hurling is made of sterling silver which is hammered into two hemispheres and then bound around a core of applewood which is held together with a band of silver, the band hold screws or nails which hold the ball together. In St Columb the ball was crafted for a few years by John Turver, although since the 1990s, the winner of the ball has the right to keep it, but must have a new one made in its place for the next game. The price of a new ball is said to be around £1000, the current inscription on the St Columb ball is Town and Country, Do your best, which derives from the motto, Town and Country - do your best -for in this parish - I must rest. The ball weighs just over a pound but there is no size or weight, as the ball is handmade. There are examples of hurling balls on public display at Truro Museum, Lanhydrock House, St Ives Museum, St Agnes Museum, many are also held in private hands. One held at Penzance Museum is thought to be old and bears the following inscription in the Cornish language. 1704 The first two words signify Men of Paul, i. e. the owners of the ball. The last seven words may be translated literally into English as sweet play fair without hate to be called, which may be roughly translated as, Fair play is good play. Another comes from the legend of Setanta, nephew to the King of Ulster, no evidence exists to support these two theories. In Brittany, Normandy and Picardy a comparable game is known as la soule or choule, the earliest recorded game of Soule comes from Cornwall. Court records from 1283 show an entry in the plea rolls providing details of action taken when a man called Roger was accused of killing a fellow Soule player with a stone. One instance is recorded of a match between twenty-one Irish players from County Wexford and an number of Cornish players which was witnessed by George I of Great BritainCornish hurling – Pub sign at St Columb Major