1. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-governmentUnited Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
2. Great Britain – Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, Great Britain is the largest European island, in 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the worlds third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan. The island of Ireland is situated to the west of it, the island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, the island is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, most of England, Scotland, and Wales are on the island. The term Great Britain often extends to surrounding islands that form part of England, Scotland, and Wales. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England, the archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years, the term British Isles derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, the oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or possibly by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles, Albion and Ierne. The name Britain descends from the Latin name for Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Breoten, Bryten, Breten, Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together. It is derived from the writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι. The peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Πρεττανοί, Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, Britain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland. The latter were later called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans, the Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. The name Albion appears to have out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a term only. It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself King of Great Brittaine, France, Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, politically to England, Scotland and Wales in combinationGreat Britain – Satellite image of Great Britain in April 2002
3. Celtic Sea – The southern and western boundaries are delimited by the continental shelf, which drops away sharply. The Isles of Scilly are an archipelago of islands in the sea. The Celtic Sea takes its name from the Celtic heritage of the lands to the north. The name was first proposed by E. W. L, Holt at a 1921 meeting in Dublin of fisheries experts from England, Wales, Ireland, Scotland and France. The northern portion of this sea had previously considered as part of Saint Georges Channel. The need for a name came to be felt because of the common marine biology, geology and hydrology. It was adopted in France before being common in the English-speaking countries, in 1957 Édouard Le Danois wrote and it was adopted by marine biologists and oceanographers, and later by petroleum exploration firms. There are no features to divide the Celtic Sea from the open Atlantic Ocean to the south. For these limits, Holt suggested the 200 fathom marine contour, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Celtic Sea as follows, On the North. The Southern limit of the Irish Sea, the South coast of Ireland, a line from the position 51°0′N 11°30′W South to 49°N, thence to latitude 46°30N on the Western limit of the Bay of Biscay, thence along that line to Penmarch Point. The Western limit of the English Channel and the Western limit of the Bristol Channel, the seabed under the Celtic Sea is called the Celtic Shelf, part of the continental shelf of Europe. The northeast portion has a depth of between 90m and 100m, increasing towards Saint Georges Channel, in the opposite direction, sand ridges pointing southwest have a similar height, separated by troughs approximately 50m deeper. These ridges were formed by tidal effects when the sea level was lower, South of 50° the topography is more irregular. Oil and gas exploration in the Celtic Sea has had limited commercial success, the Kinsale Head gas field supplied much of the Republic of Ireland in the 1980s and 1990s. The Celtic Sea has a rich fishery with total annual catches of 1.8 million tonnes as of 2007, four cetacean species occur frequently in the area, minke whale, bottlenose dolphin, short-beaked common dolphin and harbor porpoise. Formerly it held an abundance of marine mammals, Irish Conservation Box Coccoliths in the Celtic Sea, a bloom of phytoplankton in the Celtic Sea, visible from outer space in an MISR image,4 June 2001Celtic Sea – Celtic Sea as viewed from Cork Harbour
4. English Channel – The English Channel, also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France, and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. It is about 560 km long and varies in width from 240 km at its widest to 33.3 km in the Strait of Dover and it is the smallest of the shallow seas around the continental shelf of Europe, covering an area of some 75,000 km2. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the English Channel as follows, a line joining Isle Vierge to Lands End. The southwestern limit of the North Sea, the IHO defines the southwestern limit of the North Sea as a line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. The Walde Lighthouse is 6 km east of Calais, and Leathercoat Point is at the end of St Margarets Bay. The Strait of Dover, at the Channels eastern end, is its narrowest point and it is relatively shallow, with an average depth of about 120 m at its widest part, reducing to a depth of about 45 m between Dover and Calais. Eastwards from there the adjoining North Sea reduces to about 26 m in the Broad Fourteens where it lies over the watershed of the land bridge between East Anglia and the Low Countries. It reaches a depth of 180 m in the submerged valley of Hurds Deep,48 km west-northwest of Guernsey. The eastern region along the French coast between Cherbourg and the mouth of the Seine river at Le Havre is frequently referred to as the Bay of the Seine. There are several islands in the Channel, the most notable being the Isle of Wight off the English coast. The coastline, particularly on the French shore, is indented, several small islands close to the coastline, including Chausey. The Cotentin Peninsula in France juts out into the Channel, whilst on the English side there is a parallel channel known as the Solent between the Isle of Wight and the mainland. The Celtic Sea is to the west of the Channel, the Channel is of geologically recent origins, having been dry land for most of the Pleistocene period. The first flood would have lasted for months, releasing as much as one million cubic metres of water per second. The flood started with large but localized waterfalls over the ridge, the flow eroded the retaining ridge, causing the rock dam to fail and releasing lake water into the English Channel. The erosion of the Lobourg Channel was probably the final opening of the Strait, the time difference of about six hours between high water at the eastern and western limits of the Channel is indicative of the tidal range being amplified further by resonance. It was never defined as a border and the names were more or less descriptive. It was not considered as the property of a nation, strangely, before the development of the modern nations, British scholars very often referred to it as Gaulish and the French one as British or EnglishEnglish Channel – English Channel
5. Devon – Devon, also known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is part of South West England, bounded by Cornwall to the west, Somerset to the northeast, combined as a ceremonial county, Devons area is 6,707 km2 and its population is about 1.1 million. Devon derives its name from Dumnonia, which, during the British Iron Age, Roman Britain, the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain resulted in the partial assimilation of Dumnonia into the Kingdom of Wessex during the eighth and ninth centuries. The western boundary with Cornwall was set at the River Tamar by King Æthelstan in 936, Devon was constituted as a shire of the Kingdom of England thereafter. The north and south coasts of Devon each have both cliffs and sandy shores, and the bays contain seaside resorts, fishing towns. The inland terrain is rural, generally hilly, and has a low density in comparison to many other parts of England. Dartmoor is the largest open space in southern England at 954 km2, to the north of Dartmoor are the Culm Measures and Exmoor. In the valleys and lowlands of south and east Devon the soil is fertile, drained by rivers including the Exe, the Culm, the Teign, the Dart. As well as agriculture, much of the economy of Devon is linked with tourism, in the Brittonic, Devon is known as Welsh, Dyfnaint, Breton, Devnent and Cornish, Dewnens, each meaning deep valleys. One erroneous theory is that the suffix is due to a mistake in the making of the original letters patent for the Duke of Devonshire. However, there are references to Defenascire in Anglo-Saxon texts from before 1000 AD, the term Devonshire may have originated around the 8th century, when it changed from Dumnonia to Defenascir. Kents Cavern in Torquay had produced human remains from 30–40,000 years ago, Dartmoor is thought to have been occupied by Mesolithic hunter-gatherer peoples from about 6000 BC. The Romans held the area under occupation for around 350 years. Devon became a frontier between Brittonic and Anglo-Saxon Wessex, and it was absorbed into Wessex by the mid 9th century. This suggests the Anglo-Saxon migration into Devon was limited rather than a movement of people. The border with Cornwall was set by King Æthelstan on the east bank of the River Tamar in 936 AD, the arrival of William of Orange to launch the Glorious Revolution of 1688 took place at Brixham. Devon has produced tin, copper and other metals from ancient times, Devons tin miners enjoyed a substantial degree of independence through Devons Stannary Parliament, which dates back to the 12th century. The last recorded sitting was in 1748, agriculture has been an important industry in Devon since the 19th centuryDevon – Menhir at Drizzlecombe
6. River Tamar – The Tamar is a river in south west England, that forms most of the border between Devon and Cornwall. The area is a World Heritage Site due to its mining activities. The Tamars source is less than 6 km from the north Cornish coast, the total length of the river is 61 miles. At its mouth, the Tamar flows into the Hamoaze before entering Plymouth Sound, tributaries of the river include the rivers Inny, Ottery, Kensey and Lynher on the Cornish side, and the Deer and Tavy on the Devon side. The name Tamar was mentioned by Ptolemy in the century in his Geography. The name is said to mean Great Water, the Tamar is one of several British rivers whose ancient name is assumed by some to be derived from a prehistoric river word apparently meaning dark flowing and which it shares with the River Thames. The seventh century Ravenna Cosmography mentions a Roman settlement named Tamaris, Plymouth, Launceston and the Roman fort at Calstock have been variously suggested. The river is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest, a European Special Area of Conservation, and it is also designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape. In November 2013, South West Water was fined £50,000 after it admitted permitting the discharge of sewage from its Camels Head treatment plant into a tributary of the River Tamar for eight years. Together, the Tamar, Tavy and Lynher form the Tamar Valley, the Tamar Valley Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty covers around 195 km2 around the lower Tamar and its tributaries the Tavy and the Lynher. It was first proposed in 1963, but was not designated until 1995, the highest point in the AONB is Kit Hill,334 metres above sea level. The Plymouth Sound and Estuaries are a European Special Area of Conservation, rocky reefs in low salinity estuarine conditions far inland on the Tamar are very unusual and support species such as the hydroid Cordylophora caspia. The Tamar is one of few estuaries where zonation of rocky habitats can be observed along an estuarine gradient, the Tamar–Tavy Estuary is a Site of Special Scientific Interest covering the tidal estuaries of the River Tamar and the River Tavy. Part of the Tamar estuary also forms the Tamar Estuary Nature Reserve, the site was designated in 1991 for its biodiversity and varying habitats that support a large number of wader and wildfowl species, as well as the special interest of its marine biology. The site supports an important wintering population of avocet and supports species such as black-tailed godwit, whimbrel, greenshank, spotted redshank, green sandpiper. The valley, with the town of Tavistock was added to the World Heritage List during the 30th Session of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee in Vilnius. According to Ordnance Survey mapping, the source of the Tamar is at Woolley Moor, approximately 3.5 miles from the north Cornish coast, at 50. 9235°N4. 4622°W /50.9235, -4.4622. The location of the spring is a windswept plateau largely devoid of farmlandRiver Tamar – The Tamar near Bohetherick
7. Truro – Truro is a city and civil parish in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. Truro is Cornwalls county town and only city, its centre for administration, leisure and it is the most southern city in mainland Great Britain. People from Truro are known as Truronians, Truro grew as a centre of trade from its port and then as a stannary town for the tin mining industry. The citys cathedral was completed in 1910, places of interest include the Royal Cornwall Museum, the Hall for Cornwall and Cornwalls Courts of Justice. The origin of Truros name is debated and it is said to be derived from the Cornish tri-veru meaning three rivers, but references such as the Oxford Dictionary of English Place Names reject this theory. The tru part might mean three, though this is doubtful, an expert on Cornish place-names, Oliver Padel, in his book A Popular Dictionary of Cornish Place-names, wrote that the three rivers meaning is possible. Alternatively the name may derive from *tre-uro or similar, i. e. the settlement on the river *uro, the earliest records and archaeological findings of a permanent settlement in the Truro area originate from Norman times. The town grew in the shadow of the castle and was awarded borough status to further economic activity, the castle has long since gone. Richard de Lucy fought in Cornwall under Count Alan of Brittany after leaving Falaise late in 1138, the small adulterine castle at Truro, Cornwall, later known as “Castellum de Guelon” was probably built by him between 1139-1140. He styled himself Richard de Lucy, de Trivereu, the castle later passed to Reginald FitzRoy, an illegitimate son of Henry I, when he was invested by King Stephen as the first Earl of Cornwall. Reginald married Mabel FitzRichard, daughter of William FitzRichard, a landholder in Cornwall. The 75-foot diameter castle was in ruins by 1270 and the motte levelled in 1840 and it is today the site of the Crown Court. Reginald FitzRoy confirmed c1170 in a charter to the burgesses of Truro the privileges which had been granted by Richard de Lucy, Richard held ten Knights Fees in Cornwall prior to 1135 and at his death a third of his considerable total holding remained in Cornwall. The Black Death arrived, and with it a trade recession, resulting in an exodus of the population. Trade gradually returned and the town became prosperous during the Tudor period, self-governance was awarded in 1589 when a new charter was granted by Elizabeth I, which gave Truro an elected mayor and control over the port of Falmouth. During the Civil War in the 17th century, Truro raised a force to fight for the king. Defeat by the Parliamentary troops came in 1646 and the mint was moved to Exeter, later in the century Falmouth was awarded its own charter giving it rights to its harbour, starting a long rivalry between the two towns. The dispute was settled in 1709 with control of the River Fal divided between Truro and Falmouth, Truro prospered greatly during the 18th and 19th centuriesTruro – Truro Cathedral, as seen here dominates the city.
8. Wales – Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector, light and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen. The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage, culture, and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian, Cambric and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, WelshWales – Bryn Celli Ddu, a late Neolithic chambered tomb on Anglesey
9. Kingdom of Cornwall – The history of Cornwall begins with the pre-Roman inhabitants, including speakers of a Celtic language, Common Brittonic, that would develop into Southwestern Brittonic and then the Cornish language. Cornwall was part of the territory of the tribe of the Dumnonii that included modern-day Devon, after the collapse of Dumnonia, the remaining territory of Cornwall came into conflict with neighbouring Wessex. By the middle of the century, Cornwall had fallen under the control of Wessex. In 1337, the title Duke of Cornwall was created by the English monarchy, to be held by the kings eldest son, conflicts with the centre took place with the Cornish Rebellion of 1497 and Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549. By the 18th century, Cornwall was incorporated into the Kingdom of Great Britain along with the rest of England, the Industrial Revolution brought huge change to Cornwall, as well as the adoption of methodism among the general populace, turning the area nonconformist. The present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age, the inhabitants may have been related to the Iberians who occupied Spain and Portugal. The upland areas of Cornwall were the parts first open to settlement as the vegetation required little in the way of clearance, many megaliths of this period exist in Cornwall and prehistoric remains in general are more numerous in Cornwall than in any other English county except Wiltshire. The remains are of various kinds and include menhirs, barrows, Cornwall and neighbouring Devon had large reserves of tin, which was mined extensively during the Bronze Age by people associated with the Beaker culture. Tin is necessary to make bronze from copper, and by about 1600 BCE the West Country was experiencing a trade boom driven by the export of tin across Europe and this prosperity helped feed the skilfully wrought gold ornaments recovered from Wessex culture sites. There is evidence of a relatively large-scale disruption of cultural practices around the 12th century BCE that some think may indicate an invasion or migration into southern Britain. Around 750 BCE the Iron Age reached Britain, permitting greater scope of agriculture through the use of new iron ploughs, the building of hill forts also peaked during the British Iron Age. During broadly the same time, Celtic cultures and peoples spread across the British Isles, during the British Iron Age Cornwall, like all of Britain south of the Firth of Forth, was inhabited by Celts known as the Britons. The Celtic language spoken at the time, Common Brittonic, eventually developed several distinct tongues. By the time that Classical written sources appear, Cornwall was inhabited by tribes speaking Celtic languages, the tribal name is therefore likely to be the origin of Kernow or later Curnow used for Cornwall in the Cornish language. The Cornish Cornovii may even be a separate tribe, taking their name from the horn shape of the peninsula. The English name, Cornwall, comes from the Celtic name, in pre-Roman times, Cornwall was part of the kingdom of Dumnonia, and was later known to the Anglo-Saxons as West Wales, to distinguish it from North Wales. During the time of Roman dominance in Britain, Cornwall was rather remote from the centres of Romanisation. A Roman style villa was found at Magor Farm near Camborne, pottery and other evidence suggesting the presence of an ironworks have been found at the undisclosed location near St Austell, CornwallKingdom of Cornwall – Boscawen-Un stone circle looking north
10. Wessex – Wessex was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century. The Anglo-Saxons believed that Wessex was founded by Cerdic and Cynric, the two main sources for the history of Wessex are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List, which sometimes conflict. Wessex became a Christian kingdom after Cenwalh was baptised and was expanded under his rule, cædwalla later conquered Sussex, Kent and the Isle of Wight. His successor, Ine, issued one of the oldest surviving English law codes, the throne subsequently passed to a series of kings with unknown genealogies. During the 8th century, as the hegemony of Mercia grew and it was during this period that the system of shires was established. Under Egbert, Surrey, Sussex, Kent, Essex, and Mercia and he also obtained the overlordship of the Northumbrian king. However, Mercian independence was restored in 830, during the reign of his successor, Æthelwulf, a Danish army arrived in the Thames estuary, but was decisively defeated. When Æthelwulfs son, Æthelbald, usurped the throne, the kingdom was divided to avoid war, Æthelwulf was succeeded in turn by his four sons, the youngest being Alfred the Great. Wessex was invaded by the Danes in 871, and Alfred was compelled to pay them to leave and they returned in 876, but were forced to withdraw. In 878 they forced Alfred to flee to the Somerset Levels, during his reign Alfred issued a new law code, gathered scholars to his court and was able to devote funds to building ships, organising an army and establishing a system of burhs. Alfreds son, Edward, captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of his sister, Edwards son, Æthelstan, conquered Northumbria in 927, and England became a unified kingdom for the first time. Cnut the Great, who conquered England in 1016, created the wealthy and powerful earldom of Wessex, modern archaeologists use the term Wessex culture for a Middle Bronze Age culture in this area. Although agriculture and hunting were pursued during this period, there is little archaeological evidence of human settlements. During the Roman occupation numerous country villas with attached farms were established across Wessex, the Romans, or rather the Romano-British, built another major road that integrated Wessex, running eastwards from Exeter through Dorchester to Winchester and Silchester and on to London. The early 4th century CE was a time in Roman Britain. However, following a previous incursion in 360 that was stopped by Roman forces and they devastated many parts of Britain and laid siege to London. The Romans responded promptly, and Count Theodosius had recovered the land up to the Wall by 368, the Romans temporarily ceased to rule Britain on the death of Magnus Maximus in 388. Stilicho attempted to restore Roman authority in the late 390s, two subsequent Roman rulers of Britain, appointed by the remaining troops, were murderedWessex – Imaginary depiction of Cerdic from John Speed 's 1611 "Saxon Heptarchy"
11. English people – The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England, who speak the English language. The English identity is of medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn. Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD, England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England along with the later Danes, Normans, in the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become closely aligned with British customs. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system and these and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire. The concept of an English nation is far older than that of the British nation, many recent immigrants to England have assumed a solely British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities. Use of the word English to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their national identity. They found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as English and it is unclear how many British people consider themselves English. Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to allow respondents to record their English, Welsh, Scottish, another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words English and British to be used interchangeably, especially overseas. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say English, I mean British. He notes that this slip is made only by the English themselves and by foreigners. Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of Englands dominant position with the UK and it tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles. In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote, When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago and it meant indiscriminately England and Wales, Great Britain, the United Kingdom, and even the British Empire. Foreigners used it as the name of a Great Power and indeed continue to do so, bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as Prime Minister of England Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of England except for a geographic area brings protests and this version of history is now regarded by many historians as incorrect, on the basis of more recent genetic and archaeological research. The 2016 study authored by Stephan Schiffels et al, the remaining portion of English DNA is primarily French, introduced in a migration after the end of the Ice AgeEnglish people
12. Cornish people – Many in the county today continue to assert a distinct identity separate from or in addition to English or British identities. Cornish identity has been adopted by migrants into Cornwall, as well as by emigrant and descendant communities from Cornwall, although not included as an explicit option in the UK census, the numbers of those claiming Cornish ethnic and national identity are officially recognised and recorded. The name Cornwall and its demonym Cornish are derived from the Celtic Cornovii tribe, the Anglo-Saxon invasion and settlement of Britain in the 5th to 6th centuries pushed Celtic culture and some Celtic peoples to the northern and western fringes of Britain. The Cornish people, who shared the Brythonic language with the Welsh, the Battle of Deorham between the Britons and Anglo-Saxons is thought to have resulted in a loss of landlinks with the people of Wales. The Cornish people and their Brythonic Cornish language experienced a process of anglicisation and attrition during the Medieval, by the 18th century, and following the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Cornish language and identity had faded, replaced by the English language and British identity. A Celtic revival during the early-20th century enabled a cultural self-consciousness in Cornwall that revitalised the Cornish language, in the 2011 census, the population of Cornwall, including the Isles of Scilly was estimated to be 532,300. Weighting of the 2001 Census data gives a figure of 154,791 people with Cornish ethnicity living in Cornwall, the Cornish have been described as a special case in England, with an ethnic rather than regional identity. The British are the citizens of the United Kingdom, a people who by convention consist of four national groups, meanwhile, another international rugby union player, Josh Matavesi, describes himself as Cornish-Fijian and Cornish not English. A survey by Plymouth University in 2000 found that 30% of children in Cornwall felt Cornish, a 2004 survey on national identity by the finance firm Morgan Stanley found that 44% of respondents in Cornwall saw themselves as Cornish rather than British or English. A2008 study by the University of Edinburgh of 15- and 16-year-old schoolchildren in Cornwall found that 58% of respondents felt themselves to be either ‘Fairly’ or ‘Very much’ Cornish, the other 42% may be the result of in-migration to the area during the second half of the twentieth century. A2010 study by the University of Exeter into the meaning of contemporary Cornish identity across Cornwall found that there was a west-east distance decay in the strength of the Cornish identity. The study was conducted amongst the community as they were deemed to be the socio-professional group most objectively representative of Cornishness. All participants categorised themselves as Cornish and identified Cornish as their ethnic group orientation. Those in the west primarily thought of themselves as Cornish and British/Celtic, all participants in West Cornwall who identified as Cornish and not English described people in East Cornwall, without hesitation, as equally Cornish as themselves. Those who identified as Cornish and English stressed the primacy of their Cornishness, ancestry was seen as the most important criterion for being categorised as Cornish, above place of birth or growing up in Cornwall. This study supports a 1988 study by Mary McArthur that had found that the meanings of Cornishness varied substantially, both studies also observed that the Cornish were less materialistic than the English. The Cornish generally saw the English, or city people, as being friendly and more aggressively self-promoting. The Cornish saw themselves as friendly, welcoming and caring, a campaign for the inclusion of a Cornish tick-box in the nationality section of the 2011 census failed to win the support of parliament in 2009Cornish people – The Union and Cornish flags.
13. Homeland – A homeland is the concept of the place with which an ethnic group holds a long history and a deep cultural association – the country in which a particular national identity began. As a common noun, homeland, it connotes the country of ones origin. When used as a noun, the Homeland, as well as its equivalents in other languages. A homeland may also be referred to as a fatherland, a motherland, or a country, depending on the culture. Motherland refers to a country, i. e. the place of ones birth, the place of ones ancestors. People often refer to Mother Russia as a personification of the Russian nation, within the British Empire, many natives in the colonies came to think of Britain as the mother country of one, large nation. India is often personified as Bharat Mata, Fatherland is the nation of ones fathers or forefathers. It can be viewed as a nationalist concept, insofar as it relates to nations, the term fatherland is used throughout German-speaking Europe, as well as in Dutch. For example, Wien Neêrlands Bloed, national anthem of the Netherlands between 1815 and 1932, makes extensive and conspicuous use of the parallel Dutch word. Because of the use of Vaterland in Nazi-German war propaganda, the term Fatherland in English has become associated with domestic British and this is not the case in Germany itself, where the word remains used in the usual patriotic contexts. In Romance languages, a way to refer to ones home country is Patria/Pátria/Patrie which has the same connotation as Fatherland, that is. As patria has feminine gender, it is used in expressions related to ones mother. The Soviet Union created homelands for some minorities in the 1920s, including the Volga German ASSR, in the case of the Volga German ASSR, these homelands were later abolished and their inhabitants deported to either Siberia or the Kazakh SSR. In the case of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast this was not necessary, since it had created from the start at the far-Eastern end of Siberia. In the United States, the Department of Homeland Security was created soon after the 11 September 2001, terrorist attacks, Homeland isnt really an American word, its not something we used to say or say now. In the apartheid era in South Africa, the concept was given a different meaning, the white government had designated approximately 25% of its non-desert territory for black tribal settlement. Whites and other non-blacks were restricted from owning land or settling in those areas, after 1948 they were gradually granted an increasing level of home-rule. From 1976 several of these regions were granted independence, four of them were declared independent nations by South Africa, but were unrecognized as independent countries by any other nation besides each other and South AfricaHomeland – La liberté guidant le peuple by Eugène Delacroix personifies the French motherland
14. Cornish diaspora – The Cornish diaspora consists of Cornish people and their descendants who emigrated from Cornwall, Britain. The diaspora is found in such as the United States, Canada, Australia, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa. A driving force for some emigrants was the opportunity for skilled miners to work abroad, later in combination with the decline of the tin. It is estimated that 250,000 Cornish migrated abroad between 1861 and 1901 and these emigrants included farmers, merchants and tradesmen, but miners made up most of the numbers. There is a saying in Cornwall that a mine is a hole anywhere in the world with at least one Cornishman at the bottom of it, the Cornish economy profited from the miners’ work abroad. Some men sent back “home pay”, which helped to keep their families out of the workhouse, as well as their mining skills, the Cornish emigrants carried their culture and way of life with them when they travelled. They formed tight-knit communities, and did not lose contact with either the people or the customs of their homeland. The passion for Rugby union was exported overseas by the Cornish miners and this is evidenced by the existence of both Cornish societies and Cornish festivals in these countries, as well as a growing overseas interest in the Cornish language. Many of those with Cornish ancestry are now reviving their heritage, in Moonta, South Australia, the Kernewek Lowender is the largest Cornish festival in the world and attracts tens of thousands of visitors each year. In its heyday Moonta was South Australias second largest town after Adelaide and was settled by Cornish miners. Today it is known as Australias Little Cornwall, today Moonta is most famous for its traditional Cornish pasties and its Cornish style miners cottages and mine engine houses such as Richmans and Hughes engines houses built in the 1860s. Many streets and houses have Cornish names, many descendants of these Cornish families bearing their Cornish surnames still live in the Copper Triangle and the area is intensely proud of its Cornish heritage. Many of the miners cottages made from wattle and daub still stand and are still lived in by local residents. An example of the extent of the Cornish diaspora are the miners who worked at the Geraldine mine in Western Australia and had an influence on the town of Northampton. In South Australia, the town of Burra has Cornish connections and this former copper mining town is listed on the National Estate Register and also declared a State Heritage Area. The great Burra Jinker holds pride of place in Market Square and it was once pulled by some 40 bullocks, four abreast. Straining to the exhortations of six bullock drivers under the leadership of William Woollacott. In April 2001 the Jinker was included in the BankSA Heritage Icons List, Burra began with the discovery of copper in 1845, by shepherds Thomas Pickett and William StreairCornish diaspora – A statue commemorating Cornish and German miners in Bendigo, Victoria, Australia
15. Culture of Cornwall – The culture of Cornwall forms part of the culture of the United Kingdom, but has distinct customs, traditions and peculiarities. Cornwall, a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county of England, a duchy, after many years of decline, Cornish culture has undergone a strong revival, and many groups exist to promote Cornwalls culture and language today. The Cornish language is a Celtic language related to Breton and Welsh, all of these are directly descended from the British language which was once spoken throughout most of Britain. Some events will use Cornish, in phrases, openings, greetings or names. There is a tradition of music in the language, which can also be enjoyed by non-speakers. The vast majority of names in Cornwall are derived from the language. A sign of this role is that two of Cornwalls five MPs once swore their oaths to the Queen in Cornish, the ancient Brythonic country shares much of its cultural history with neighbouring Devon and Somerset in England and Wales and Brittany further afield. Cornish grievances against the policies of the English government led to the uprisings of the Cornish Rebellion of 1497. The earliest Cornish literature is in the Cornish language and Cornwall produced a number of passion plays during the Middle Ages. Many are still extant, and provide information about the language. Writing in the Cornish dialect has generally been overshadowed by the Cornish language, however, from the 19th century onwards poems and short stories have been published, often with a typically Cornish humour. Some Cornish newspapers have featured a column written in Cornish dialect, then there are literary works in standard English including conversations between dialect speakers. Cornish World, a magazine produced in Cornwall and covering all aspects of Cornish life has proved popular with the descendants of Cornish emigrants as well as Cornish residents. It includes a column in the Cornish language, Charles Causley was born in Launceston and is perhaps the best known of Cornish poets. The Nobel-prizewinning novelist William Golding who was born in St Columb Minor in 1911, the late Poet Laureate Sir John Betjeman was famously fond of Cornwall and it featured prominently in his poetry. He is buried in the churchyard at St Enodocs Church, Trebetherick, the poet Laurence Binyon wrote For the Fallen while sitting on the cliffs between Pentire Point and The Rumps and a stone plaque was erected in 2001 to commemorate the fact. She is also noted for writing Vanishing Cornwall, Cornwall provided the inspiration for The Birds, one of her terrifying series of short stories, made famous as a film by Alfred Hitchcock. Conan Doyles The Adventure of the Devils Foot featuring Sherlock Holmes is set in Cornwall, howard Spring lived in Cornwall from 1939 and set part or all of various novels in the CountyCulture of Cornwall – Entrance at Truro Cathedral has welcome sign in several languages, including Cornish
16. Tourism – Tourism is travel for pleasure or business, also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours. Tourism may be international, or within the travellers country, Tourism can be domestic or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a countrys balance of payments. Today, tourism is a source of income for many countries. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion in 2011, the ITB Berlin is the worlds leading tourism trade fair. The word tourist was used by 1772 and tourism by 1811. It is formed from the tour, which is derived from Old English turian, from Old French torner, from Latin tornare, to turn on a lathe. Tourism is an important, even vital, source of income for many regions and it also creates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism. This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs, in 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours. Its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945 and it includes movements for all purposes. In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home, in this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited, by contrast, traveler is often used as a sign of distinction. The sociology of tourism has studied the values underpinning these distinctions. International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, the World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travellers in 2016. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.2 trillion in 2014, based upon air traffic, the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index reports the following cities as the top ten most popular destinations of international tourism worldwide. MasterCard reports the following cities as the top ten biggest earners on international tourism worldwide in 2015, as early as Shulgi, however, kings praised themselves for protecting roads and building waystations for travelers. During the Roman Republic, spas and coastal resorts such as Baiae were popular among the rich, pausanias wrote his Description of Greece in the 2nd century AD. In ancient China, nobles sometimes made a point of visiting Mount Tai and, on occasion, the Islamic hajj is still central to its faith and Chaucers Canterbury Tales and Wu Chengens Journey to the West remain classics of English and Chinese literature. The 10th- to 13th-century Song dynasty also saw secular travel writers such as Su Shi, under the Ming, Xu Xiake continued the practiceTourism – A tourist taking photographs and video at archaeological site
17. May Day – May Day is a public holiday usually celebrated on May 1. It is an ancient northern hemisphere spring festival and it is also a traditional spring holiday in many cultures. Dances, singing, and cake are usually part of the celebrations that the day includes, in the late 19th century, May Day was chosen as the date for International Workers Day by the Socialists and Communists of the Second International to commemorate the Haymarket affair in Chicago. International Workers Day may also be referred to as May Day and it is also associated with the Gaelic Beltane, most commonly held on April 30. The day was a summer holiday in many pre-Christian European pagan cultures. While February 1 was the first day of spring, May 1 was the first day of summer, hence, as Europe became Christianised, the pagan holidays lost their religious character and May Day changed into a popular secular celebration. A significant celebration of May Day occurs in Germany where it is one of days on which St. Walburga. The secular versions of May Day, observed in Europe and America, may be best known for their traditions of dancing around the maypole and crowning the Queen of May. Fading in popularity since the late 20th century is the giving of May baskets, small baskets of sweets or flowers, usually left anonymously on neighbours doorsteps. May 1 is also one of two feast days of the Catholic patron saint of workers St Joseph the Worker, a carpenter, husband to Mother Mary, and surrogate father of Jesus. Replacing another feast to St. Joseph, this date was chosen by Pope Pius XII in 1955 as a counterpoint to the communist International Workers Day celebrations on May Day. In the late 20th century, many neopagans began reconstructing traditions, traditional English May Day rites and celebrations include crowning a May Queen and celebrations involving a maypole. Historically, Morris dancing has been linked to May Day celebrations, much of this tradition derives from the pagan Anglo-Saxon customs held during Þrimilci-mōnaþ along with many Celtic traditions. May Day has been a day of festivities throughout the centuries. May Day is most associated with towns and villages celebrating springtime fertility and revelry with village fetes, seeding has been completed by this date and it was convenient to give farm labourers a day off. Perhaps the most significant of the traditions is the maypole, around which traditional dancers circle with ribbons, the spring bank holiday on the first Monday in May was created in 1978, May Day itself – May 1 – is not a public holiday in England. Unlike the other Bank Holidays and common law holidays, the first Monday in May is taken off from schools by itself and this is because it has no Christian significance and does not otherwise fit into the usual school holiday pattern. May Day was abolished and its celebration banned by Puritan parliaments during the Interregnum, may 1,1707, was the day the Act of Union came into effect, joining England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great BritainMay Day – Maypole dancing at Bishopstone Church, Sussex, UK.
18. Maypole – A maypole is a tall wooden pole erected as a part of various European folk festivals, around which a maypole dance often takes place. The festivals may occur on May Day or Pentecost, although in some countries it is erected at Midsummer. In some cases the maypole is a permanent feature that is utilised during the festival. It has been a practice in many parts of Europe throughout the Medieval and Early Modern periods. Today, the tradition is observed in some parts of Europe. The symbolism of the maypole has been debated by folklorists for centuries. Some scholars classify maypoles as symbols of the world axis and it is also known that, in Norse paganism, cosmological views held that the universe was a world tree, known as Yggdrasil. There is therefore speculation that the maypole was in some way a continuance of this tradition and this notion has been supported by various figures since, including the psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. Not the play-thing of a boy, not the weapon of a man, but a maypole of so enormous a standard, the anthropologist Mircea Eliade theorizes that the maypoles were simply a part of the general rejoicing at the return of summer, and the growth of new vegetation. In this way, they bore similarities with the May Day garlands which were also a common practice in Britain. In Germany and Austria the maypole is a going back to the 16th century. It is a tree or tree trunk that is usually erected either on 1 May – in Baden and Swabia – or on the evening before, for example. In most areas, especially in Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria and Austria, the custom of combining it with a village or town fete, that usually takes place on 30 April,1 May or at Pentecost, is widespread. This tradition is strong in the villages of the Bavarian Alps where the raising of the traditional maypole on 1 May in the village square is a cause for much celebration. The pole is usually painted in the Bavarian colours of white and blue and decorated with emblems depicting local crafts, the actual installation of the tree then takes place in the afternoon or evening. While the maypole is traditionally set up with the help of poles, today it may sometime also be done using tractors. In Lower Austria ropes and ladders are used, if the tree is erected on the eve of 1 May, then the event is usually followed by a May dance or Tanz in den Mai. Depending on local custom, the Maibaum may remain in place until the end of the month and is taken down, decorations removedMaypole – Dancing around the maypole, in Åmmeberg, Sweden
19. Temperance movement – The Temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The temperance movement began in the early 19th century, before this, although there were pieces published against drunkenness and excess, total abstinence from alcohol was very rarely advocated or practiced. There was also a concentration on hard spirits rather than on abstinence from alcohol, an early temperance movement began during the American Revolution in Connecticut, Virginia and New York state, with farmers forming associations to ban whiskey distilling. The movement spread to eight states, advocating temperance rather than abstinence, the American Temperance Society was formed in 1826, within 12 years claiming more than 8,000 local groups and over 1,250,000 members. He mainly concentrated his fire on the elimination of spirits rather than wine, on 14 August 1829 he wrote a letter in the Belfast Telegraph publicizing his views on temperance. He also formed the Ulster Temperance Movement with other Presbyterian clergy, the 1830s saw a tremendous growth in temperance groups, not just in England and the United States, but also in British colonies, especially New Zealand and Australia. In the 1830s a more form of temperance emerged called teetotalism. This movement originated in Preston, England, in 1833, the Catholic temperance movement started in 1838 when the Irish priest Theobald Mathew established the Teetotal Abstinence Society in 1838. In 1838, the working class movement for universal suffrage for men, Chartism. During the Victorian period, the movement became more radical, advocating the legal prohibition of all alcohol. It was also perceived to be tied in both religious renewal and progressive politics, particularly female suffrage. In 1855, an organisation was formed amidst an explosion of Band of Hope work. Meetings were held in churches throughout the UK and included Christian teaching, the group also campaigned politically for the curtailment of the influence of pubs and brewers. In this period there was success at restricting or banning the sale of alcohol in many parts of the United States, New Zealand. The Temperance movement was a significant mass movement at this time, numerous periodicals devoted to temperance were also published and temperance theatre, which had started in the 1820s, became an important part of the American cultural landscape at this time. The Salvation Army quickly spread internationally, maintaining an emphasis on abstinence, many of the most important prohibitionist groups, such as the avowedly prohibitionist United Kingdom Alliance and the US-based Womans Christian Temperance Union, were started in this time. In 1898 the Pioneer Total Abstinence Association was formed by James Cullen, an Irish Catholic, the Anti-Saloon League was an organization that began in 1893 in Ohio. A favorite goal of the British Temperance movement was to reduce the heavy drinking by closing as many pubs as possibleTemperance movement – A cartoon from Australia
20. Ireland – Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, in 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.4 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland, the islands geography comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. The island has lush vegetation, a product of its mild, thick woodlands covered the island until the Middle Ages. As of 2013, the amount of land that is wooded in Ireland is about 11% of the total, there are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is moderate and classified as oceanic. As a result, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, however, summers are cooler than those in Continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant, the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century CE, the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, England claimed sovereignty over Ireland, however, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, with the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s and this subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the fields of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, an indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music. The culture of the island shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, and sports such as association football, rugby, horse racing. The name Ireland derives from Old Irish Eriu and this in turn derives from Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, which is also the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning fat, prosperous, during the last glacial period, and up until about 9000 years ago, most of Ireland was covered with ice, most of the timeIreland – Satellite image of Ireland on 11 October 2010
21. Leper colony – A leper colony, leprosarium, or lazar house is a place to quarantine people with leprosy. The term lazaretto can refer to sites, which were at some time also leper colonies. Leper colonies or houses became widespread in the Middle Ages, particularly in Europe and India, historically, leprosy has been greatly feared because it causes visible disfigurement and disability, was incurable, and was commonly believed to be highly contagious. A leper colony administered by a Roman Catholic order was called a lazar house, after Lazarus. Some colonies were located on mountains or in locations in order to ensure quarantine, some on main roads. There is even doubt that the current definition of leprosy can be applied to the Medieval condition. What was classified as leprosy then covers a range of skin conditions that would be classified as distinct afflictions today. Some leper colonies issued their own money, in the belief that allowing lepers to handle regular money could spread the disease, the last existing leper colony in Europe is Tichilești in Romania. In 2002, an inquiry into these colonies was set up, and in March 2005. Did not have any scientific grounds, history of leprosy Kalawao, Hawaii Leprosy colony money Losheng SanatoriumLeper colony – Spinalonga on Crete, Greece, one of the last leper colonies in Europe, closed in 1957.
22. Thomas Malory – Sir Thomas Malory was an English writer, the author or compiler of Le Morte dArthur. Since the late century, he has generally been identified as Sir Thomas Malory of Newbold Revel in Warwickshire, a knight, land-owner. Previously, it was suggested by antiquary John Leland and John Bale that he was Welsh, the name could also be rooted in Irish & Scottish Gaelic and mean follower of the king, as in maol and ry or ree. Maol or Máel is a root of indigenous names and is found in the name Malmesbury which was founded by the Irish scholar Máel Dub meaning the dark follower. Arthurian literature originates in the Irish & Scottish Gaelic traditions as Norman interpretation and translation, occasionally, other candidates are put forward for authorship of Le Morte dArthur, but the supporting evidence for their claim has been described as no more than circumstantial. Most of what is known about Malory stems from the accounts describing him in the found in the Winchester Manuscript. He is described as a knyght presoner, distinguishing him from the six individuals also bearing the name Thomas Malory in the 15th century when Le Morte dArthur was written. At the end of the Tale of King Arthur is written, For this was written by a knight prisoner Thomas Malleorre, that God send him good recovery. At the end of The Tale of Sir Gareth, And I pray you all that readeth this tale to pray for him that this wrote, that God send him good deliverance soon and hastily. At the conclusion of the Tale of Sir Tristram, Here endeth the second book of Sir Tristram de Lyones, which was drawn out of the French by Sir Thomas Malleorre, knight, as Jesu be his help. Finally, at the conclusion of the book, The Most Piteous Tale of the Morte Arthure Sanz Gwerdon par le shyvalere Sir Thomas Malleorre, knight. For this book was ended the year of the reign of King Edward the Fourth by Sir Thomas Maleore, knight, as Jesu help him for his great might. The author was educated, as some of his material was drawn out of the French, a claimants age must also fit the time of writing. By far the likeliest candidate for the authorship is Thomas Malory of Newbold Revel in Warwickshire, H. Oskar Sommer first proposed this identification in his edition of Le Morte dArthur published in 1890, and George Lyman Kittredge, a professor at Harvard, provided the evidence in 1896. Kittredge showed Malory as a soldier and a member of Parliament, Helen Cooper referred to his life as one that reads more like an account of exemplary thuggery than chivalry. Malory was born to Sir John Malory of Winwick, Northamptonshire, who had served as a Justice of the Peace in Warwickshire and as a member of Parliament, and Lady Phillipa Malory, heiress of Newbold. He was born after 1415 and before 1418, judging by the fact that he attained his majority between 1434 and 1439. He was knighted before 8 October 1441, became a soldier, and served under the Duke of Warwick—but all dates are vagueThomas Malory – An Aubrey Beardsley illustration for Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur, "How Sir Bedivere Cast the Sword Excalibur into the Water" (1894)
23. Madron – Madron is a civil parish and village in west Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It is a rural parish on the Penwith peninsula north of Penzance. Madron village is centred on a site approximately two miles northwest of Penzance town centre. The main villages and hamets are Tredinnick, Lower Ninnes, New Mill, Newbridge, the population was 1,466 at the 2001 census, rising to 1,591 at the 2011 census. The parish church, is in the churchtown and is dedicated to Madron, the word Modron appears in Cornish and Welsh literature, Modron being the mother goddess, mother of Mabon. Evidence of early medieval habitation at Madron is in the form of one or two inscribed stones, one was found in the wall of the village church and has since been removed, the inscription consists of a cross and legible text, but its meaning is not clear. The others are at Boscathnoe, Boswarthen, Parc-an-Growse, Trembath Cross, Trengwainton Carn, Madron was recorded in the Domesday Book. It was within the Manor of Alverton, an area that in the Anglo-Saxon, the church itself was once under the control of the Knights Hospitallers of Jerusalem and was known by the Cornish name of Landithy, a name which is still used in parts of the village today. Madron Well was, until the 18th century, the source of water for the nearby town of Penzance. John Richards Lapenotiere in Mounts Bay and it is believed a fishing vessel from Penzance passed the news to the shore which was formally announced from the balcony of the Assembly Rooms in Chapel Street, Penzance. On it was the epitaph Mourn for the brave, the immortal Nelsons gone, / His last sea fight is fought, his work of Glory done. Storms in the English Channel meant that Nelsons body did not arrive by sea in London until January 1806, an annual Trafalgar Service commemorating the death of Nelson was started on 27 October 1946 when so many people attended that the service was relayed outside. These services continue to this day, the Trafalgar Fields housing development was so named to reinforce the links with Nelson. Once within the parish was the Penzance Union Workhouse, the Penzance Poor Law Union was formed on 10 June 1837 and the population that fell within the Union at the time of the 1831 census was just under 40,000. The Penzance Union workhouse was built in 1838, designed by George Gilbert Scott and William Bonython Moffatt, it was intended to house four hundred paupers and cost £6,050 to build. It was in use until 1948 when the National Health Service came into being, Landithy Hall, which opened in 1909, contains the Community Rooms and tea rooms where guests can stay the night and hosts many village events. It is here that Madron Parish Council holds the majority of its meetings, Madron Feast Week is from the first Sunday in Advent. The Western Hunt traditionally meets at Madron on Feast Monday and also on Boxing Day, the village has a Garden of Remembrance for the dead of both World WarsMadron – Madron Primary School
24. Penwith – Penwith is an area of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom, located on the peninsula of the same name. It is also the name of a local government district. The area is named one of the ancient administrative hundreds of Cornwall which derives from two Cornish words, penn meaning headland and wydh meaning at the end. Natural England have designated the peninsula as national character area 156 and it is also known as the Lands End Peninsula. The Penwith peninsula sits predominantly on granite bedrock that has led to the formation of a coastline with many fine beaches. Tin and copper have been mined in the area since pre-Roman times, inland, the peninsula is primarily granite with a thin top soil. This is most evident on the north coast between St Just and Zennor where the remains of the ancient seabed of the Pliocene era are visible and its highest point is Watch Croft. There are several deep cut into this plateau such as Lamorna on the south coast. The shelter of these valleys and the mild climate gives Penwith a flora not seen anywhere else in the UK, penzances Morrab Gardens is able to grow bananas. Penwith also contains a lake, Drift Reservoir, which is located appromimately 3 miles west of Penzance. In addition to Penwiths status as a Heritage coastline, west Penwith, Penwith lies within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Almost a third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status, the principal towns in Penwith are Penzance, the port town and seat of local government, and St Ives, one of the countys most popular seaside resorts. For a full list of settlements in Penwith see List of places in Penwith As a small peninsula at the tip of a larger peninsula, two major transport routes terminate in the district, the A30 road and the Great Western Main Line railway. The St Ives Bay Line provides local transport between St Ives, and the line at St Erth. A ferry to the Isles of Scilly,28 miles west-south-west of the district, is based in Penzance, Penwith contains a great concentration of Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Romano-British archaeological remains. The most significant of them are described in a guide first published in 1954. Tewdwr Mawr ruled over the area from Carnsew in the century before returning to his patrimony in Cornouaille in Brittany around 577. Penwiths population has remained static for the last one hundredPenwith
25. Battle of Bossenden Wood – The Battle of Bossenden Wood took place on 31 May 1838 near Hernhill in Kent, it has been called the last battle on English soil. Eleven men died in the confrontation, Courtenay, eight of his followers. Courtenay had appeared in Canterbury in 1832, standing unsuccessfully in the December 1832 general election and, although suspected of being an imposter and he had been convicted of perjury in 1833 after giving evidence in defence of some smugglers. On 29 May, Oak Apple Day, Courtenay and a band of followers began to march around the countryside with a flag. Courtenay rode a horse, his followers were on foot. Although at this stage the protesters were acting peacefully some wealthier landowners were becoming alarmed, and on 31 May 1838 and it is not clear exactly what the warrant was for – to arrest Courtenay or to arrest workers who were in breach of contract with their employers. A parish constable, together with his brother, Nicholas Mears, and an assistant, went to find Courtenay at Bossenden Farm, Courtenay shot and killed the constable. When news of the reached the magistrates, they sent to Canterbury for soldiers. It was led by Major Armstrong, with three officers and about a hundred soldiers. The regiment had returned from India, and the following year they would kill twenty Chartists at Newport. While they were waiting for the soldiers, a group of armed gentry and farmers took shots at Courtenay, by this time some of Courtenay’s followers had escaped. There were about 35 or 40 left, armed only with sticks, except for Courtenay who had pistols, the soldiers split into two groups to execute a pincer movement. One of the groups, led by Captain Reid and magistrates Knatchbull and Baldock, divided again and it was this group that approached Courtenay’s band in the clearing, while the other group, under Major Armstrong and magistrate Poore, circled round to the far side of the clearing. There was a fight, lasting only a few minutes. Courtenay shot Bennett dead and then was shot and killed as Armstrong’s men opened fire. Eight of Courtenay’s followers were killed or mortally wounded, a young man from Faversham, George Catt, who had been helping the magistrates was caught in the soldiers’ fire and killed. On Saturday 2 June Lieutenant Bennett was buried in Canterbury Cathedral precincts with full military honours, on the same day an inquest at the White Horse, Boughton, returned a verdict of justifiable homicide on the deaths of Courtenay and his followers. Those who were following Courtenay and were killed were, Stephen Baker, William Foster, William Rye, Edward Wraight, Phineas Harvey, William Burford, George Griggs, and George BranchettBattle of Bossenden Wood – Scene at Bossenden Wood drawn by an eyewitness, expressly for the Penny Satirist
26. John Nichols Thom – John Nichols Tom was born the son of innkeepers in 1799 at St Columb Major, Cornwall. He was baptised in the church on 10 November 1799. His parents were William and Charity Tom who kept the Joiners Arms, Tom went to school in Penryn, attending Bellevue Academy. At the age of fourteen he transferred to the private school in Launceston that was run by Reverend Richard Cope. Tom stayed at school until he was eighteen and was articled to solicitor Mr Paynter of St Columb. He decided, however, against a career in the law, in 1821 he married Catherine Fisher Fulpitt, the daughter of a market gardener in Truro. Tom was a tall, strongly built, good-looking man, who became known in Truro for his skill as a cricketer, during a visit to London he joined the Spencean Society. When Tom was in his late twenties a series of disasters struck and his mother Charity was removed to Cornwall Lunatic Asylum in 1827, and died there. Then, in 1828, his business premises in Pydar Street burnt down, Tom claimed the insurance and was able to rebuild the premises. At the Quarter Sessions held at Bodmin on 15 July 1828, in 1831 Tom received treatment from a surgeon for an attack of insanity but recovered and the following spring sailed from Truro to Liverpool with a cargo of malt. He wrote to his wife from Liverpool to tell her he had sold the malt, and wrote again from Birmingham to tell her he was going to France. Nothing more was heard from him until over a year later, in September 1832 Thom arrived in Canterbury, dressed in exotic costumes and wearing long hair and a beard. In the December 1832 general election Liberal support in the town was so strong that the Conservatives decided not to field candidates, stung by jeers about not standing, some local Conservatives asked Tom to stand as an independent candidate for Canterbury, hoping he would inconvenience the Liberals. He polled a creditable 375 votes and he then decided to stand in the East Kent election, but polled only three votes, and turned his attention to publishing a weekly paper, The Lion. Eight issues of the paper were produced, full of biblical quotations, it argued for the rights of the poor, expressed loyalty to the Crown, and was critical of the clergy, aristocracy, town corporations and Parliament. Toms biographer described the views expressed in The Lion as showing amazing common sense, at the beginning of March 1833, Thom intervened in the case of some Faversham smugglers, acting as a witness for the defence. The smugglers were nevertheless convicted, and Tom was prosecuted for perjury and his trial took place on 25 July at the Kent Summer Assizes at Maidstone before Mr Justice Parke and a crowded court. Evidence was heard from the Vicar of Boughton-under-Blean that Tom had been at church when he claimed to have witnessed events off the Goodwin SandsJohn Nichols Thom – John Nichols Thom
27. St Buryan's Church – The Church of St Buryan is a late-15th-century Church of England parish church in St Buryan in Cornwall, England. A church has stood on the current site since c.930, king Athelstan stopped to pray at Saint Burianas chapel, of which little now remains, during his conquest of Cornwall before his campaign against the Scilly Isles. He vowed to erect a college of clergy where the oratory stood if God blessed his expedition with success. Upon his triumphant return, having subdued Scilly, Athelstan endowed a church in honour of Saint Buriana with a charter that established St Buryan as one of the earliest monasteries in Cornwall. The current tower, completed in 1501, is 92 feet high, many years later the same granite was used to build Old London Bridge. The tower is divided into four stages, and has buttresses at each angle. An octagonal turret rises at the south-east corner and contains a spiral staircase and he also consecrated the new churchyard. In 1956 the present Lady Chapel was erected as a gift of John Franklin Tonkin, in memory of his uncle, Robert Edmund Tonkin, the church is currently classified as a Grade I listed building. Arguments came to a head in 1327 when blood was shed in the churchyard, the Deanery was annexed in 1663 to the Bishopric of Exeter after the English Civil War. However, it was severed during the rule of Bishop Harris. The current diocese holds jurisdiction over the parishes of St Buryan, St. Levan, the Churchs tower currently houses six hansom bells that call the faithful of St Buryan to worship. St Buryans famous bells, which both the worlds third heaviest treble bell and a magnificent tenor bell, help give the church of St Buryan the heaviest peal of six bells anywhere in the world. The tower was planned to house eight bells, the first such peal in Cornwall. In 1901 a substantial refurbishment was undertaken by Warners bell foundry who recast two of the old bells and supplemented them with a new tenor whilst also retuning the old treble bell. The bells were restored between 1990 and 2001 due to the efforts of Chris Venn, and the first phase of restoration completed in February 1991 with the rehanging of the four bells. Bells are now rung regularly by a group from the village. The church contains an organ by Heard and Sons dating from 1895. A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register, crosses in St Buryan parish, Arthur Langdon records twelve crosses in the parish of which one is in the churchyardSt Buryan's Church – St. Buryan's Church
28. Church bell – A church bell in the Christian tradition is a bell which is rung in a church for a variety of church purposes, and can be heard outside the building. Traditionally they were used to call worshippers to the church for a communal service and they are also rung on special occasions such as a wedding, or a funeral service. In some religious traditions they are used within the liturgy of the service to signify to people that a particular part of the service has been reached. The ringing of bells, in the Christian tradition, is also believed to drive out demons. It is hung within a steeple or belltower of a church or religious building, such bells are either fixed in position or hung from a pivoted beam so they can swing to and fro. A rope hangs from a lever or wheel attached to the headstock, and when the bell ringer pulls on the rope the bell back and forth. Bells that are hung dead are normally sounded by hitting the bow with a hammer or occasionally by a rope which pulls the internal clapper against the bell. A church may have a bell, or a collection of bells which are tuned to a common scale. They may be stationary and chimed, rung randomly by swinging through a small arc, before modern communications, church bells were a common way to call the community together for all purposes, both sacred and secular. The injunction to pray the Lords prayer thrice daily was given in Didache 8,2 f, as such, the Catechism of the Catholic Church states that the Early Church prayed the Lords Prayer thrice a day, supplanting the former Amidah predominant in the Hebrew tradition. The Christian tradition of the ringing of bells from a belltower is analogous to the Islamic tradition of the adhan from a minaret. Most Christian denominations ring church bells to call the faithful to worship, in the United Kingdom predominantly in the Anglican church, there is a strong tradition of change ringing on full-circle tower bells for about half an hour before a service. This originated from the early 17th century when bell ringers found that swinging a bell through a large arc gave more control over the time between successive strikes of the clapper. This culminated in ringing bells through a circle, which let ringers easily produce different striking sequences. In Christianity, the ringing of bells is traditionally believed to drive out demons. The ringing of a bell to announce a death is called a death knell. A more modern tradition where there are full-circle bells is to use half-muffles when sounding one bell as a tolled bell, or all the bells in change-ringing. This means a leather muffle is placed on the clapper of each bell so that there is a loud open strike followed by a muffled strike, which has a very sonorous and mournful effectChurch bell – The new bells of Notre Dame de Paris on display in the nave in February 2013 before being hung in the towers of the cathedral.
29. John Prescott – John Leslie Prescott, Baron Prescott is a British politician who was the Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007. Born in Prestatyn, Wales, he represented Hull East as the Labour member of parliament from 1970 to 2010, in the 1994 leadership election, he stood for both Leader and Deputy Leader of the Labour Party, winning election to the latter office. He was appointed Deputy Prime Minister after Labours victory in the 1997 election, with a brief as Secretary of State for the Environment, Transport. In his youth he failed the 11-Plus entrance examination for school, but went on to graduate from Ruskin College. Prescott also developed a reputation as a key conciliator in the stormy relationship between Prime Minister Tony Blair and Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown. On 27 June 2007 he resigned as Deputy Prime Minister, coinciding with Blairs resignation as Prime Minister, following an election within the Labour party, he was replaced as Deputy Leader by Harriet Harman. Prescott retired as an MP at the 2010 election, on 8 July 2010, he entered the House of Lords as a life peer with the title Baron Prescott, of Kingston upon Hull in the County of East Yorkshire. Prescott stood as the Labour candidate in the election to be the first Police and Crime Commissioner for Humberside Police, on 21 February 2015, it was announced that Prescott would return to politics as a special adviser to then-Labour leader, Ed Miliband. The son of John Herbert Prescott, a signalman and Labour councillor, and Phyllis. In 2009, he said, Ive always felt very proud of Wales and being Welsh. I was born in Wales, went to school in Wales and its my place of birth, my country. In 2009, John Prescott featured in the BBC Wales programme Coming Home about his Welsh family history, with roots in Prestatyn and he left Wales in 1942 at the age of four and was brought up initially in Brinsworth in South Yorkshire, England. He attended Brinsworth Manor School, where in 1949 he sat, shortly afterwards, his family moved to Upton, Cheshire, and he attended Grange Secondary Modern School in nearby Ellesmere Port. He became a steward and waiter in the Merchant Navy, thus avoiding National Service, working for Cunard, Prescotts time in the Merchant Navy included a cruise from England to New Zealand in 1957. Among the passengers was Sir Anthony Eden, recuperating after his resignation over the Suez Crisis, Prescott reportedly described Eden as a real gentleman. Apart from serving Eden, who stayed in his much of the time, Prescott also won several boxing contests. He married Pauline Tilly Tilston at Upton Church in Chester on 11 November 1961 and he then went to the independent Ruskin College, which specialises in courses for union officials, where he gained a diploma in economics and politics in 1965. In 1968, he obtained a BSc in economics and economic history at the University of Hull, the defeated Conservative challenger was Norman Lamont. Previously, he had attempted to become MP for Southport in 1966, from July 1975 to 1979, he concurrently served as a Member of the European Parliament and Leader of the Labour Group, when its members were nominated by the national ParliamentsJohn Prescott – The Right Honourable The Lord Prescott
30. Perranwell – Perranarworthal is a civil parish and village in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The village is four miles northwest of Falmouth and five miles southwest of Truro. Perranarworthal parish is bordered on the north by Kea parish, on the east by Restronguet Creek and Mylor parish, on the south by St Gluvias and Stithians parishes, the parish population at the 2011 census was 1,496. The name derives from the Manor of Arworthal which has had a number of spellings in the past including Hareworthal, by the 18th-century two names appear on maps Perran Arworthal meaning St Pirans by the creek or estuary. William Penaluna described the settlement in 1838, Perran Wharf is the area of the parish beside the River Kennall where there were wharves and a quay. This is currently being developed into Perran Foundry where there will be new homes, the other settlements in the parish are Perranwell and Perranwell Station. It was the home of the Perran Iron Foundry, a concern, run by the Fox family of Falmouth. It was set up on the site of a tin smelting works in 1791, the foundry was later operated in partnership with the Williams family, and in 1858, it was sold to them. The creek serving the factory silted up and mining in Cornwall declined, the wharf had been used to import timber for the mining industry from Scandinavia. The slump in the industry during the 1870s hit Perran Foundry badly and it closed in March 1879 with the loss of 400 jobs. In April 1879, the Royal Cornwall Gazette reported that a soup kitchen had been open since January, in July 1880 a preliminary notice of an intended auction for Perran Foundry was planned for mid-August. Williamss Perran Foundry covered an area of over 4 acres and had a lease of 99 years from Colonel Tremayne, the property contained a number of workshops, including blacksmith and engineers, a hammermill and a quay at Restronguet with access for 200 ton vessels. Over the years there have been ambitious plans which have come and gone, the site has been used for various purposes since but closed in 1986. In 2005, the owners, North Hill Estates Ltd. applied for planning permission to redevelop the site, the proposal was for a mix of live/work units and residential accommodation. Further consultation on their proposal was ongoing and this will be the first opportunity for people to acquire a home in this historic setting, as the show home opens for private viewings on 24 June 2013 with Heather & Lay and Savills. Perran Foundry is being revived by North Hill Estates Ltd with sensitive renovation and regeneration, acknowledging its immense value to Cornish history. The Hammer Mill is the most iconic building on site, converted from what was originally the heart of the old foundry. The lofts, apartments and riverside homes being developed at the Perran Foundry commemorate the buildings iconic past, as each building has adopted its name from its original purposePerranwell – Perranarworthal Church
31. Languages of Cornwall – Even if no language is formally recognized as official in the ceremonial county of Cornwall, English is used for all official purposes. Cornish, which had used as a primary language by Cornish people throughout most of its history. However, it has revived since 1904, with the publication of A Handbook of Cornish language. Nowadays, it is recognized as a language of England. Anglo-Cornish is a dialect of English spoken in Cornwall by Cornish people, dialectal English spoken in Cornwall is to some extent influenced by Cornish grammar, and often includes words derived from the Cornish language. The Cornish language is a Celtic language of the Brythonic branch, as are the Welsh and Breton languagesLanguages of Cornwall
32. Red-billed chough – The red-billed chough, Cornish chough or simply chough, is a bird in the crow family, one of only two species in the genus Pyrrhocorax. Its eight subspecies breed on mountains and coastal cliffs from the coasts of Ireland and Britain east through southern Europe and North Africa to Central Asia, India. This bird has black plumage, a long curved red bill, red legs. It has a buoyant acrobatic flight with widely spread primaries, the red-billed chough pairs for life and displays fidelity to its breeding site, which is usually a cave or crevice in a cliff face. It builds a stick nest and lays three eggs. It feeds, often in flocks, on short grazed grassland, the red-billed chough, which derived its common name from the jackdaw, was formerly associated with fire-raising, and has links with Saint Thomas Becket and Cornwall. The red-billed chough has been depicted on stamps of a few countries, including the Isle of Man, with four different stamps, and The Gambia. The red-billed chough was first described by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae in 1758 as Upupa pyrrhocorax and it was moved to its current genus, Pyrrhocorax, by Marmaduke Tunstall in his 1771 Ornithologia Britannica. The genus name is derived from Greek πυρρός, flame-coloured, and κόραξ, the only other member of the genus is the Alpine chough, Pyrrhocorax graculus. The closest relatives of the choughs are the typical crows, Corvus, chough was originally an alternative onomatopoeic name for the jackdaw, Corvus monedula, based on its call. The similar red-billed species, formerly common in Cornwall, became known initially as Cornish chough and then just chough. The Australian white-winged chough, Corcorax melanorhamphos, despite its similar shape and habits, is distantly related to the true choughs. There are eight extant subspecies, although differences between them are slight, P. p. P. p. erythropthalmus, described by Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot in 1817 as Coracia erythrorhamphos, occurs in the red-billed choughs continental European range, excluding Greece. It is larger and slightly greener than the nominate race, P. p. barbarus, described by Charles Vaurie under its current name in 1954, is resident in North Africa and on La Palma in the Canary Islands. Compared to P. p. erythropthalmus, it is larger, has a tail and wings. It is the form, both absolutely and relatively. P. p. baileyi described by Austin Loomer Rand and Charles Vaurie under its current name in 1955, is a subspecies endemic to Ethiopia. The two populations could possibly represent different subspecies, P. p. docilis, described by Johann Friedrich Gmelin as Corvus docilis in 1774, breeds from Greece to AfghanistanRed-billed chough – Red-billed chough
33. Bal maiden – The term has been in use since at least the early 18th century. At least 55,000 women and girls worked as bal maidens, while women worked in coal mines elsewhere in Britain, either on the surface or underground, bal maidens worked only on the surface. It is likely that Cornish women had worked in metal mining since antiquity, after the Black Death in the 14th century, mining declined, and no records of female workers have been found from then until the late 17th century. Industrial improvements, the end of Crown control of metal mines, increasing numbers of women and girls were recruited to the mines from about 1720, processing ore sent up by the male miners underground. The discovery of sources of copper in North Wales in the 1770s triggered a crash in the copper price. As the Industrial Revolution began in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, women and girls were recruited in large numbers for work in ore processing. Women and children accounted for up to half the workers in the copper mines. At the peak of the Cornish mining boom, in around 1860, at least 6000 bal maidens were working at the regions mines, the actual number is likely to have been much higher. While it was not unusual for girls to become bal maidens at the age of six and to work into old age, they began at around age 10 or 11. From the 1860s Cornish mines faced competition from cheap metal imports, the Cornish mining system went into terminal decline, leading to a collapse of the local economy and mass emigration both overseas and to other parts of the United Kingdom. In 1891 the number of bal maidens had fallen to half its peak, in 1921 Dolcoath mine, the last employer of bal maidens, ceased operations, bringing the tradition to an end. The last surviving bal maiden died in 1968, and with the closure of South Crofty tin mine in 1998, for at least 3,000 years from antiquity until the late 20th century mining of tin and copper played a significant part in the economy of Cornwall. Cornwall, the part of Iberia and the Ore Mountains are the only places in Europe in which major tin deposits are found near the surface. As tin is an ingredient of bronze, Cornwall was of great economic significance in Bronze Age Europe despite its relative isolation. Mining by the Roman Empire led to the Iberian mines becoming depleted by the 3rd century AD, leaving Cornwall, the primitive early mines of Cornwall and Devon probably were operated by local extended families, with the men, women and children all working. In late 1066 Cornwall, along with the rest of the lands under the control of the English king, was conquered by the Normans, an adult woman was paid up to one penny per day, and young girls between 1⁄2 and 2⁄3 of a penny. During and after the Black Death the areas population collapsed and those miners who had survived the pandemic left mining to work in farming, in which wages had doubled owing to the severe labour shortage, and the mines of Bere Alston were abandoned. It does not appear that significant numbers of labourers worked in Cornwalls mining industry until the early 18th centuryBal maiden – Bal maidens in traditional protective clothing, 1890
34. Cromwell's Castle – Cromwells Castle is an artillery fort overlooking New Grimsby harbour on the island of Tresco in the Isles of Scilly. It comprises a tall, circular gun tower and an adjacent gun platform, the tower fell into disuse soon afterwards, and in the 21st century is managed by English Heritage and open to visitors. Cromwells Castle is a tower, built by Sir Robert Blake following the Parliamentary invasion of the Isles of Scilly in 1651. During the English Civil War between 1642 and 1646, the inhabitants of the Isles had been Royalist supporters of King Charles I, in 1651 Parliament sent Robert Blake and a naval force to retake the island, which had been fortified by the Royalists. Having established control of the islands, between 1651 and 1652 Blake constructed Cromwells Castle on Tresco, named after Oliver Cromwell, the Parliamentary leader. It was intended to protect the water entrance to New Grimsby harbour on the west side of the island. The Parliamentarian forces were particularly concerned about any potential Dutch attack, there were two existing fortifications in this location. The main existing fort, King Charless Castle, had built in the 1550s but was poorly sited and had been blown up by its defenders when Blakes forces took the island. There was also a small blockhouse beneath it, dating from the 16th century, some of the stone used came from the ruins of King Charless Castle. Six gun-ports with broad external splays on the roof allowed the battery a good angle of fire across the channel between the islands of Bryher and Tresco, there may have been an adjacent gun platform just beneath the main structure. The design was old-fashioned, resembling the circular keeps built by Henry VIII in the mid-16th century, after the restoration of Charles II to the throne in 1660, a survey of the castle was carried out, which recommended repairs to the site. In 1739, the War of Jenkins Ear broke out between Britain and Spain, and the decision was taken to improve the defences at Cromwell Castle, a parapet protected the guns, a new entrance was cut into the main tower and other adjustments made. The antiquary William Borlase visited the castle in 1752, noting that the gun platform was armed with 9-pounder cannons, the site was now unmanned, however, and had fallen into decay since the construction work by Tovey. The writer John Troutbeck, commenting at the end of the century, remarked on the tower having a bomb proof roof. He noted, that although there still some old iron artillery guns present. The Crown, in the form of the Duchy of Cornwall, had leased the Scilly Isles to the Godolphin family in 1687, followed by Augustus Smith in 1834. In 1922, the passed to Arthur Dorrien-Smith, who agreed to pass several properties on Tresco, including the castle. In the 21st century, the castle is controlled by English Heritage, as the successor to the Ministry of Works, the interior wooden floors have been lost, but the spiral staircase and the stone, vaulted roof remain intact and accessibleCromwell's Castle – Cromwell's Castle
35. HMS Falmouth (1910) – HMS Falmouth was a Town-class light cruiser built for the Royal Navy during the 1910s. She was one of four ships of the Weymouth sub-class, the ship was initially assigned to the Atlantic Fleet upon completion in 1911, but was reduced to reserve in mid-1913. When the First World War began in 1914, Falmouth was transferred to the 1st Light Cruiser Squadron of the Grand Fleet and then the 3rd Light Cruiser Squadron at the end of the year. The ship participated in most of the fleet actions, including the Battles of Heligoland Bight, Dogger Bank, and Jutland. She was torpedoed and sunk off Flamborough Head, Yorkshire by German submarines during the Action of 19 August 1916, the Weymouth sub-class were slightly larger and improved versions of the preceding Bristol sub-class with a more powerful armament. They were 453 feet long overall, with a beam of 47 feet 6 inches, displacement was 5,275 long tons normal and 5,800 long tons at full load. Twelve Yarrow boilers fed Falmouths Parsons steam turbines, driving two shafts, that were rated at 22,000 shaft horsepower for a design speed of 25 knots. The ship reached 26.62 knots during her sea trials from 27,900 shp. The boilers used both fuel oil and coal, with 1,290 long tons of coal and 269 long tons tons of oil carried, the Weymouths replaced the ten 4-inch guns of the Bristol sub-class with an additional six BL 6-inch Mk XI guns. Two of these guns were mounted on the fore and aft of the superstructure. The remaining four guns were positioned on the deck in waist mountings. All these guns were fitted with gun shields, four Vickers 3-pounder saluting guns were also fitted. Their armament was completed by two submerged 21-inch torpedo tubes, the Weymouth-class ships were considered protected cruisers, with an armoured deck providing protection for the ships vitals. The armoured deck was 2 inches thick over the magazines and machinery,1 inch over the gear and 0.75 inches elsewhere. The conning tower was protected by 4 inches of armour, with the gun shields having 3-inch armour, as the protective deck was at the waterline, the ships were given a large metacentric height so that they would remain stable in the event of flooding above the armoured deck. This, however, resulted in the ships rolling badly making them poor gun platforms, Falmouth was the ninth ship in the Royal Navy to be named after the eponymous port. The ship was laid down on 21 February 1910 by William Beardmore and Company at their Dalmuir shipyard, by the end of the year, the ship had been transferred to the 5th Cruiser Squadron, also of the Second Fleet. On the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, Falmouth was not in range to engage before the squadron turned away to follow the battlecruisersHMS Falmouth (1910) – Falmouth in 1914
36. King Charles's Castle – King Charless Castle is a ruined artillery fort overlooking New Grimsby harbour on the island of Tresco in the Isles of Scilly. Built between 1548 and 1551 to protect the islands from French attack, it would have held a battery of guns and an accompanying garrison, designed to prevent enemy vessels from entering the harbour. The castle is polygonal in design, constructed from stone, with the gun battery at the front. An additional defensive earthwork was constructed around it during the 17th century, the design of the castle is unusual for the period, and is only seen elsewhere in blockhouses along the River Thames. The castles design was unsatisfactory, as its guns could not be angled so to fire down into the harbour, in the aftermath of the English Civil War, the Scilly Isles were held by the Royalist sympathisers of King Charles I, who gave the castle its current name. The islands were attacked by a Parliamentary force led by Sir Robert Blake in 1651. Its Royalist defenders blew up parts of the castle as they left, although King Charless Castle was being used to house soldiers in 1660, by the 18th century it was described as ruinous. After 1922, the castle passed into the guardianship of the Ministry of Works, in the 21st century the site is controlled by English Heritage and is open to visitors. It is protected under UK law as a monument and a Grade II* listed building. King Charless Castle was built between 1548 and 1551 to protect the Scilly Isles against French attack, tensions with France had grown during the reign of Henry VIII and spilled over into war in 1538. Henry initially responded by fortifying the coasts of England, constructing new artillery forts designed to defend against the cannons that were becoming common in the 16th century. Henrys son, the nine-year-old Edward VI, inherited the throne in 1547, Edward Seymour was made the Lord Protector to the King, and he appointed his brother, Thomas, as Englands Lord Admiral. Thomas inspected the Scilly Isles personally and concluded that they were vulnerable to a French invasion, as a result of the inspection, Sir Francis Flemming, the Lieutenant-General of the Ordnance, was tasked in February 1558 with improving the defences on the islands. Flemming was supported in this effort with a shipment of lead to aid in construction, the building work initially focused on the island of Tresco and was carried out under the direction of John Killigrew, the captain of Pendennis Castle in Falmouth. Tresco was in need of modern defences, but Killigrew also wanted to use the programme to increase his political influence on the island. The castle was built as part of programme of work. It was positioned on the ground of Castle Down to protect New Grimsby harbour, overlooking the narrow. It would have held a battery of guns and an accompanying garrison, building work across the Scilly Isles continued, expanding to include the neighbouring island of St MarysKing Charles's Castle – Exterior of King Charles's Castle
37. Large Black pig – The Large Black, occasionally called the Devon, Cornwall Black or Boggu, is a breed of domestic pig native to Great Britain, particularly Devon, Cornwall and Essex. The Large Black is accurately named, as it is a large swine breed and is the only British pig that is entirely black and it is a hardy and docile pig, with Large Black sows known for having large litters. The breeds foraging ability make it useful for extensive farming. The Large Black combined local black pig breeds from the West Country, with the founding of a breed association in 1898 or 1899, variations between the types from the two areas decreased. The Large Black was popular in the early 1900s and was exported to many areas of the world, population numbers declined after the Second World War as farmers turned to breeds more suitable to intensive pig farming, and by the 1960s the breed was almost extinct. Numbers have slowly risen, but it is considered vulnerable by the Rare Breeds Survival Trust, the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy. The Large Black resulted from the amalgamation of black pigs from two separate areas, Devon and Cornwall in the south-west of England, and Essex, Suffolk. Alternative origins proposed for the colour of the breed are black Guinea hogs imported from Africa or from Neapolitan pigs. During the late 19th century, the Large Black grew in popularity, a breed association, the Large Black Pig Society, was formed in 1898 or 1899, in Ipswich, Suffolk. A trademark, consisting of the letters LBP within a shield, was registered in 1902, the Herd Book of Large Black Pigs was first published in 1899. There were considerable variations between the types in the two areas, but breeding stock was exchanged between them and by 1913 general uniformity had been achieved. In 1919 a Large Black sow was Supreme Champion at Smithfield, popularity of the breed peaked in the 1920s, however, and after World War II, population numbers declined as farmers began to favour pig breeds that would do well in intensive indoor farming. The breed association was merged with the National Pig Breeders Association in 1949, in 1955 the Howitt report on the development of pig production in the United Kingdom was published. The report initiated a period of decline in all other British pig breeds, by the time the Rare Breeds Survival Trust was founded 1973, numbers of all traditional pig breeds were dangerously low, and many of them were extinct. The Large Black was placed on the Trusts endangered list, by 1913, Large Black had by then spread throughout most of Britain, and had been exported to most of mainland Europe and to North and South America, Africa and Oceania. By 1930, Large Blacks represented only 1 percent of Australia pig population, the breed population continued to hover around 1 percent of the total population, with a slight increase after World War II and a decrease to almost zero new registrations in the 1980s. The first exports to the US were in the 1920s, today, small herds can be found in the US that descend from the pigs imported in 1985 and 1990, and there are also herds in Canada, Australia, and South Africa. The Large Black is a long, deep-bodied pig, well known for its hardiness, Large Blacks are best suited for pasture-based farming due to their strong foraging and grazing ability, which efficiently converts poor quality feed into meatLarge Black pig – Large Black sow and piglets (foreground)
38. Old Blockhouse – The Old Blockhouse, also known as the Dover Fort, is a 16th-century fortification on the island of Tresco in the Isles of Scilly. It was built between 1548 and 1551 by the government of Edward VI to protect the islands against French attack, an earthwork bank and a stone wall were built to protect it from attack from the beach and the landward sides respectively. A small room to provide living quarters for the garrison was constructed on the side of the gun platform. During the interregnum following the English Civil War, the Old Blockhouse was occupied by the Royalists, Blakes naval guns out-ranged those of the fort, and, after fierce fighting, the blockhouse was taken. A battery of guns was maintained at the blockhouse until at least the 1750s and it is protected as a scheduled monument under UK law. The Old Blockhouse was built between 1548 and 1551 to protect the Scilly Isles against French attack, tensions with France had grown during the reign of Henry VIII and spilled over into war in 1538. Henry initially responded by fortifying the coasts of England, constructing new artillery forts designed to defend against the cannons that were becoming common in the 16th century. Henrys son, the nine-year-old Edward VI, inherited the throne in 1547, Edward Seymour was made the Lord Protector to the King, and he appointed his brother, Thomas, as Englands Lord Admiral. Thomas inspected the Scilly Isles personally and concluded that they were vulnerable to a French invasion, the building work initially focused on the island of Tresco and was carried out under the direction of John Killigrew, the captain of Pendennis Castle in Falmouth. Tresco was in need of modern defences, but Killigrew also wanted to use the programme to increase his political influence on the island. The Old Blockhouse was built as part of programme of work. The blockhouse was positioned on high ground to protect the Old Grimsby harbour, when complete, it would have held a battery of two to three guns, which could have fired on targets attempting to enter the harbour, or engaged ships approaching the Scilly Isles from the north-east. Orders were given in 1551 to send bows, arrows and the required to make gunpowder to the islands. Edwards successor, Queen Mary I, intended to establish a garrison of 150 soldiers on the islands, the Scilly Isles were supporters of Charles I during the civil war, and after a short period in Parliamentary control rebelled in favour of Charles in 1648. In 1651 Parliament sent Sir Robert Blake in charge of a task force to retake the islands. Blake arrived at St Helens Pool in April 1651 and set about taking the island of Tresco, attacking the harbour of Old Grimsby, Blake deployed a force of men in small boats, but they landed on the wrong island and had to be recalled to the ships. The next day the men landed on the beaches below the blockhouse, fighting ensued, Blakes men made another landing which also saw fierce resistance, and the guns of the blockhouse were probably turned on the landing parties. Around 15 of the force were killed, but the guns of Blakes ships guns had a longer range than those of the blockhouseOld Blockhouse – Old Blockhouse, viewed from the north-west
39. Pasty – A pasty is a baked pastry, a traditional variety of which is particularly associated with Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. Today, the pasty is the food most associated with Cornwall and it is regarded as the national dish and accounts for 6% of the Cornish food economy. Pasties with many different fillings are made and some specialise in selling all sorts of pasties. The origins of the pasty are unclear, though there are references to them throughout historical documents. The pasty is now popular worldwide due to the spread of Cornish miners, and variations can be found in Australia, despite the modern pastys strong association with Cornwall, its exact origins are unclear. The English word pasty derives from Medieval French for a pie, filled with venison, salmon or other meat, vegetables or cheese, Pasties have been mentioned in cookbooks throughout the ages. For example, the earliest version of Le Viandier has been dated to around 1300, in 1393, Le Menagier de Paris contains recipes for pasté with venison, veal, beef, or mutton. Other early references to include a 13th-century charter that was granted by Henry III to the town of Great Yarmouth. Around the same time, 13th-century chronicler Matthew Paris wrote of the monks of St Albans Abbey according to their custom, a total of 5,500 venison pasties were served at the installation feast of George Neville, archbishop of York and chancellor of England in 1465. They were even eaten by royalty, as a letter from a baker to Henry VIIIs third wife, but after this period the use of the word outside Cornwall declined. In a mine, the dense, folded pastry could stay warm for several hours. Another theory suggests that pasties were marked at one end with an initial and then eaten from the end so that if not finished in one go. In 2006, a researcher in Devon discovered a list of ingredients for a pasty tucked inside a book and dated 1510. This replaced the previous oldest recipe, dated 1746, held by the Cornwall Records Office in Truro, the dish at the time was cooked with venison, in this case from the Mount Edgcumbe estate, as the pasty was then considered a luxury meal. However, the term pasty appears in much earlier written records from parts of the country. Cornish pasties are very popular with the workingclasses in this neighbourhood and they are made of small pieces of beef, and thin slices of potatoe, highly peppered, and enclosed in wrappers of paste. According to the PGI status, a Cornish pasty should be shaped like a ‘D’ and crimped on one side and its ingredients should include beef, swede, potato and onion, with a light seasoning of salt and pepper, keeping a chunky texture. The pastry should be golden and retain its shape when cooked and cooled, the PGI status also means that Cornish pasties must be prepared in CornwallPasty – A Cornish pasty
40. Pendennis Castle – Pendennis Castle is an artillery fort constructed by Henry VIII near Falmouth, Cornwall, England between 1540 and 1542. It formed part of the Kings Device programme to protect against invasion from France and the Holy Roman Empire, Pendennis saw service during the English Civil War, when it was held by the Royalists, and was only taken by Parliament after a long siege in 1646. It survived the interregnum and Charles II renovated the fortress after his restoration to the throne in 1660. In the 1880s and 1890s an electrically operated minefield was laid across the River Fal, operated from Pendennis and St Mawes, the castle saw service during both the First and Second World Wars, but in 1956, by now obsolete, it was decommissioned. It passed into the control of the Ministry of Works, who cleared away many of the modern military buildings. In the 21st century, the castle is managed by English Heritage as a tourist attraction, the heritage agency Historic England considers Pendennis to be one of the finest examples of a post-medieval defensive promontory fort in the country. Pendennis Castle was built as a consequence of international tensions between England, France and the Holy Roman Empire in the years of the reign of King Henry VIII. In 1533, Henry broke with Pope Paul III in order to annul the marriage to his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine was the aunt of Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor and this resulted in France and the Empire declaring an alliance against Henry in 1538, and the Pope encouraging the two countries to attack England. An invasion of England appeared certain, in response, Henry issued an order, called a device, in 1539, giving instructions for the defence of the realm in time of invasion and the construction of forts along the English coastline. The stretch of water known as Carrick Roads at the mouth of the River Fal was an important anchorage serving shipping arriving from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. A small gun tower, called the Little Dennis Blockhouse, was built in 1539 overlooking the entrance, and plans were made to protect the anchorage further with five additional castles. In the event, only two of these were constructed, Pendennis and St Mawes Castle, positioned on each side of Carrick Roads and able to provide overlapping fire across the water. John Killigrew, a prominent member of the local Cornish gentry, probably oversaw the construction of Pendennis, it was built on his land, Pendennis Castle cost £5,614 to construct. The Killigrews controlled the castle for several decades, with John Killigrews son and grandson continuing in turn as the captain there until 1605, the Admiralty eventually issued a compromise, proposing that the castles share the searching of the traffic. Meanwhile, a peace with France was made in 1558. The Spanish threat to the south-west of England became more serious, however, the levels of the garrison varied considerably during the period. Pendennis had a garrison of 100 men in 1578, and could have mustered around 500 men in 1596, the Spanish threat continued, raiding parties destroyed the Killigrews family home at Arwenack in 1593, and four Spanish ships attacked the towns along the coast in 1595Pendennis Castle – Pendennis Castle keep
41. St Catherine's Castle – St Catherines Castle is a Henrician castle in Cornwall, built by Thomas Treffry between approximately 1538 and 1540, in response to fears of an invasion of England by France and the Holy Roman Empire. The D-shaped, stone fortification, equipped with five gun-ports for cannon and it was protected by a curtain wall and the surrounding cliffs. The castle remained in use for years until it was closed at the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. Brought back into service in 1855 during the Crimean War, it was fitted with two new positions, but it soon became obsolete and was abandoned. During the Second World War the castle was refortified and used to house a battery of naval guns, at the end of the conflict the castle was restored to its previous condition and is now managed by English Heritage as a tourist attraction. St Catherines Castle was built as a consequence of the tensions between England, France and the Holy Roman Empire in the final years of the reign of King Henry VIII. In 1533, Henry broke with Pope Paul III in order to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Catherine was the aunt of Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor and this resulted in France and the Empire declaring an alliance against Henry in 1538, and the Pope encouraging the two countries to attack England. An invasion of England now appeared certain and Henry began to improve his coastal defences, in response to this situation, a small, D-shaped stone fortification was built to protect Fowey Harbour in Cornwall, then an important centre for trade. The new castle replaced these and was located high on the headland overlooking the entrance to the estuary itself, St Catherines Point, from which it took its name. Construction work began on the castle at some point between 1538 and 1540, under the direction of a member of the local Cornish gentry, St Catherines Castle remained in use for many years. The antiquarian Francis Grose visited the castle in 1786 and noted that the fortification was still being maintained at the expense of the local town and he praised its picturesque and romantic position but concluded that the building itself was of little importance, either to antiquity or architecture. At this time the castle was equipped with six cannons and it continued to be used as a battery until the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, after the Crimean War broke out in 1853, fresh concerns of invasion were raised and the coastline was refortified. The castle was redeveloped as part of work in 1855. The castle was back into use in the Second World War by the British Southern Command to defend the coast against German attack. In June 1940 it was re-equipped as a gun battery and observation post, the guns were manned first by the 364 Coast Battery of the Royal Artillery and then by the 379 Battery of the 557 Coast Regiment, but the battery was retired from active operations in November 1943. After 1945 the entire fort was decommissioned and the newer defences removed, in the 21st century, the castle is operated by the heritage organisation English Heritage as a tourist attraction and is protected under UK law as a Grade 2* listed building and scheduled monument. The 16th century blockhouse is a two-storey, D-shaped design,5 by 4.4 metres internally, the ground floor originally had three semi-circular gun-ports overlooking the sea and the estuary, although one has since been blocked upSt Catherine's Castle – The blockhouse of St Catherine's Castle, seen from the gun platform
42. St Mawes Castle – St Mawes Castle is an artillery fort constructed by Henry VIII near Falmouth, Cornwall, between 1540 and 1542. It formed part of the Kings Device programme to protect against invasion from France and the Holy Roman Empire, the castle was built under the direction of Thomas Treffry to a clover leaf design, with a four-storey central tower and three protruding, round bastions that formed gun platforms. It was initially armed with 19 artillery pieces, intended for use against enemy shipping, operating in partnership with its castle of Pendennis on the other side of the estuary. During the English Civil War, St Mawes was held by Royalist supporters of King Charles I, the castle continued in use as a fort through the 18th and 19th centuries. In the early 1850s, fears of a conflict with France, combined with changes in military technology. The out-dated Henrician castle was turned into a barracks and substantial gun batteries were constructed beneath it, after 1905, however, St Mawes guns were removed, and between 1920 and 1939 it was run by the state as a tourist attraction. Brought back into service in the Second World War, naval artillery, with the end of the war, St Mawes again returned to use as a tourist attraction. In the 21st century, the castle is operated by English Heritage, St Mawes Castle was built as a consequence of international tensions between England, France and the Holy Roman Empire in the final years of the reign of King Henry VIII. In 1533, Henry broke with Pope Paul III in order to annul the marriage to his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine was the aunt of Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor and this resulted in France and the Empire declaring an alliance against Henry in 1538, and the Pope encouraging the two countries to attack England. An invasion of England appeared certain, in response, Henry issued an order, called a device, in 1539, giving instructions for the defence of the realm in time of invasion and the construction of forts along the English coastline. In the event, only two of these were constructed, St Mawes and Pendennis, positioned on each side of Carrick Roads, the two castles guns could provide overlapping fire across the water, while St Mawes also overlooked a separate anchorage on the eastern side of the estuary. The construction work began in 1540, under the direction of Sir Thomas Treffy, by later that year, the castle was described as being half-made, with most of the build having been finished by 1542. The total cost of the project was £5,018, the artillery was originally mounted in the castles stone bastions and was intended as ship-sinking weapons for use against enemy vessels. A smaller blockhouse was constructed beneath the castle, at sea level. Michael Vvyan, a member of the gentry, was appointed as the first captain of St Mawes and the surrounding land in 1544. On Vyvyans death in 1603, his son, Sir Francis Vyvyan, the Admiralty issued a compromise, proposing that the castles share the incoming traffic. Meanwhile, the threat from France passed and a lasting peace was made in 1558St Mawes Castle – The Henrician castle, seen from the landward side
43. Stargazy pie – Stargazy pie is a Cornish dish made of baked pilchards, along with eggs and potatoes, covered with a pastry crust. Although there are a few variations with different fish being used and this allows the oils released during cooking to flow back into the pie. The story of Bawcock was popularised by Antonia Barbers childrens book The Mousehole Cat, in 2007 contestant Mark Hix won the BBCs Great British Menu with a variant of the dish. Stargazy pie is a fish pie which, by tradition, is filled with whole pilchards. Critically, the pilchards must retain their heads, which poke through the pastry top. The position of the fish allows the oil that is released during cooking to drain into the pie, adding a fuller flavour, the celebrity chef Rick Stein suggested also poking the pilchards tails through the pie crust to give the effect of leaping through water. In spite of the fact that the British Food Trust describes the dish as being fun as well as amusing to children, disgusting things people eat, a lifestyle feature by the New York Daily News based upon the book by an American author, Neil Setchfield. On Tom Bawcocks Eve it is served in The Ship Inn, the pie originates from the fishing village of Mousehole in Cornwall. As with many parts of Cornish heritage, a legend has appeared about its origins, in this case, the pie is served to celebrate the bravery of Tom Bawcock, a local fisherman in the 16th century. The legend explains that one winter had been stormy, meaning that none of the fishing boats had been able to leave the harbour. As Christmas approached, the villagers, who relied on fish as their source of food, were facing starvation. On 23 December, Tom Bawcock decided to brave the storms, despite the stormy weather and the difficult seas, he managed to catch enough fish to feed the entire village. The entire catch was baked into a pie, which had the fish heads poking through to prove there were fish inside. Ever since then, the Tom Bawcocks Eve festival is held on 23 December in Mousehole, the celebration and memorial to the efforts of Tom Bawcock sees the villagers parading a huge stargazy pie during the evening with a procession of handmade lanterns, before eating the pie itself. An older feast, held by the fishermen towards the end of December, there is a possibility that Tom Bawcocks Eve is an evolution of this festival. Since 1963, the festival has run against the backdrop of the Mousehole village illuminations. One set of lights even represents the pie itself, showing fish heads, there was a rumour that the entire festival was a fabrication by the landlord of The Ship Inn in the 1950s. However, festivities had been recorded by Morton Nance, an author on the Cornish language and his description was regarding the festivities prior to 1900, though he doubted the reality of Tom Bawcock, suggesting it was in fact Beau CocStargazy pie – A stargazy pie, ready to serve
44. Zennor Head – Zennor Head /ˈzɛnʊər hɛd/ is a 750-metre long promontory on the Cornish coast of England, between Pendour Cove and Porthzennor Cove. Facing the Atlantic Ocean, it lies 1 kilometre north-west of the village of Zennor and 1.6 kilometres east of the next promontory, Gurnards Head. The granite cliffs rise over 200 feet from the sea and the highest point of the headland is 314 feet above sea level, Zennor Head is on the South West Coast Path, which follows the cliff edge closely, skirting the entire perimeter of the headland. The promontory is part of the Penwith Heritage Coast, and is the largest coastal feature in the United Kingdom that begins with the letter Z and it gets its name from a local saint, Senara. Zennor Head was mined for copper and tin in the Victorian Era, there is no longer any residential or commercial occupancy on the headland, but it is occupied by a variety of coastal animals and plants, such as kestrels and gorse. The name Zennor Head originates from the name of a local saint, the s changed to a z, an occurrence common in the West Country but rare elsewhere, and as such is the largest coastal feature in the United Kingdom to begin with the letter Z. The headland is bordered by Cornish granite hedges, and the system dates from about 4000 BC. The surrounding area and village of Zennor has been occupied for over 4,000 years. Zennor Head was mined extensively for copper and tin in the 19th century, the promontory was donated to the National Trust in December 1953. The Southwest Coast Path was created in 1978, and runs along the top of Zennor Head as part of its 630 miles, Zennor in Darkness, the 1994 McKitterick Prize-winning novel by Helen Dunmore, was partly set around Zennor Head. In 2009 the headland suffered flooding which affected the cliff-top footpath, the promontory has been designated as part of the Penwith Heritage Coast. Zennor Head is located on the north coast of Cornwall, England, a headland extending some 750 metres, it is surrounded by steep cliffs plunging into the sea below. It is west of the town of St Ives, and north-east of the town of Penzance, the nearest human settlement is the village of Zennor, and the headland is flanked by two coves, Pendour and Porthzennor. The nearest headland is Gurnards Head,1.6 kilometres to the west, access is from the South West Coast Path, or the B3306 road. There is a deep inlet known as Horseback Zawn on the western side, the headland is topped by an Ordnance Survey Trig Point. The Killas strata, which is exposed over the majority of Zennor Head, is a rock formation laid down in the Devonian period. Zennor Head is on the boundary of the so-called Lands End Granite. However, the intrusion of the granite into the Killas strata altered it metamorphically into a shale-type rock, Zennor Head is home to a variety of wildlife, including the Cornish choughZennor Head – Zennor Head, looking north
45. Timeline of Cornish history – This timeline summarizes significant events in the History of Cornwall Examples of Cornish Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age structures are Chûn Quoit, Boscawen-Un and Chysauster Ancient Village. Mining in Cornwall has existed from the early Bronze Age around 2150 BC, Cornwall experiences a trade boom driven by the export of tin across Europe. The Iron Age reaches Cornwall, permitting greater scope of agriculture through the use of new iron ploughs, pytheas of Massilia, a Greek merchant and explorer, circumnavigated the British Isles between about 330 and 320 BC and produced the first written record of the islands. He described the Cornish as civilised, skilled farmers, usually peaceable,60 BC, Greek historian Diodorus Siculus named Cornwall Belerion - The Shining Land, the first recorded place name in the British Isles. 43 BC, First attempted invasion of British Mainland by Julius Caesar, over the next century, the Romans come to rule Cornwall, then part of Dumnonia. 19 AD, Total eclipse in Cornwall,43 AD, Claudian invasion of Britain begins. Roman control of Cornwall comes much later, but at an uncertain date, 55–60 AD, Construction of Nanstallon Roman fort near Bodmin, one of only a few Roman sites in Cornwall. Roman villa at Magor Farm near Camborne occupied,360 and after, various Germanic peoples came to Roman Britain, raiders, Roman armies recruited from among German tribes, authorized settlers, ref. Aelle of Sussex Cornwalls native name appeared on record as early as 400, the Ravenna Cosmography, compiled c.700 from Roman material 300 years older, lists a route running westward into Cornwall and on this route is a place then called Durocornovio. In Latin, V represented and was pronounced as a W, King Mark, of Tristan and Iseult fame, probably ruled in the late 5th century. According to Cornish folklore, he held court at Tintagel, King Salomon, father of Saint Cybi, ruled after Mark. 410, Emperor Honorius recalls the last legions from Britain, there is some uncertainty, some say that this rescript refers not to Britannia but to Bruttium in Italy. 500, The Kingdom of Cornwall emerged around the 6th century which included the tribes of the Dumnonii, the origins of the neighbouring Kingdom of Wessex are also in this period. 490 to 510, likely range of dates for the Battle of Mons Badonicus, 535/6, Extreme weather events of 535–536 cause European famine. After 540s, Plague of Justinian, which would all of Europe. 577, Battle of Deorham Down near Bristol results in the separation of the West Welsh from the Welsh by the advance of the Saxons, the earliest Cornish saints systematically convert Cornwall to Christianity, a considerable period before the conversion of the Anglo-Saxon peoples of England. According to tradition these early foundations were made by Christian preachers or Christian Druids from other Celtic lands, mainly Ireland, Wales. 664, The Synod of Whitby determines that England is again a province of RomeTimeline of Cornish history – Rooms in a building within Chysauster village
46. Cornovii (Cornish) – The Cornovii would have lived at the western end of the peninsula, in the area now known as Cornwall, and the tribal name would be the ultimate source of the name of that present-day county. The existence of this sub-tribe, clan, or sept is not mentioned in Ptolemys 2nd century Geography, according to Ptolemy, there were two other tribes known as the Cornovii, one in the Midlands and one in Northern Scotland. It is on basis that the name of this putative ancestor-tribe of Cornwall is inferred. Although the Brittonic name is derived from the word *cornu-. Considering that Cornwall is at the end of a long tapering peninsula, morris suggested that a contingent was sent to Dumnonia to rule the land there and keep out the invading Irish seeing that a similar situation had occurred in North Wales. Morriss theory is not generally accepted by scholarship, Philip Payton, in his book Cornwall. The extreme western peninsula of Dumnonia came to be known as Cerniw in Welsh, Kernow in Cornish, the modern English name Cornwall arises from a suffixation of the Old English word for Brittonic-speakers, wealas, to a borrowed form of the Brittonic place-name. Since the Cornovii are only known from one mention in antiquity and they were part of the Dumnonii, the tribe whose lands, known as Dumnonia, extended from Cornwall through Devon and included parts of Somerset and Dorset. For details of the people who lived in the area after the withdrawal of the Romans, after the passing of the Roman period they re-appeared in 430 AD as a sub-Dukedom of Dumnonia until early in the 9th century. In 838 the Cornish in alliance with Vikings were defeated by the West Saxons at the Battle of Hingston Down and this was the last recorded battle between Cornwall and Wessex, and resulted in the loss of Cornish independence. Of these, there has been speculation that Voliba might be a place in Cornwall and Tamara is assumed to be on the River Tamar, the border between Cornwall and Devon. Ptolemys list is supplemented by the problematical Ravenna Cosmography, which lists sixteen names before Isca Dumnoniorum, the pre-Roman inhabitants were speakers of a Celtic language that would later develop into the Brythonic language Cornish. List of Celtic tribes Rivet, A. L. F. Smith, the South West to AD1000. The History Files, Post-Roman Celtic Kingdoms, CornubiaCornovii (Cornish) – The coastline at Tintagel, a possible location of a settlement of the Cornovii
47. Kings of Dumnonia – The kings of Dumnonia were the rulers of the large Brythonic kingdom of Dumnonia in the south-west of Great Britain during the Sub-Roman and early medieval periods. Therefore, this list should be treated with caution, although subjugated by c. AD78, the civitas Dumnoniorum was one of the regions of Roman Britain least affected by Roman influence. Known as Caer Uisc, Exeter was inhabited by Dumnonian Britons up until c.936 when King Athelstan expelled them, several other royal residences may also have served the kings of Dumnonia or Cornwall, including Din-Tagell, and Cadbury Castle. By the end of the 8th century, Dumnonia was much reduced in size by the advance of the West Saxons, the generally accepted date for this transition is around 800. Recorded in Old Welsh documents, Saints Lives and in local and Arthurian tradition King Mark – of Tristan and Iseult fame, according to Cornish folklore, he held court at Tintagel. King Salomon – father of Saint Cybi, probably ruled after Mark, not to be confused with Salomon, dungarth – was recorded by the Annales Cambriae as having drowned in 876. The Annales refer to him as rex Cerniu, King of Cornwall, in records open to interpretation Ricatus is mentioned on a memorial stone, he may have ruled a more localised region. Huwal of the West Welsh, about whom there has been controversy since the 19th century and he only appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for 927, accepting King Athelstan of Wessex as his overlord. West Wales was an old term for Dumnonia or Cornwall, but may refer to present day West Wales, then generally known as Deheubarth. The Book of Baglan An early 17th century pedigree of a so-called Earl of Cornwall in the Book of Baglan may possibly represent a list of rulers in Cornwall. In the De Gestis Herewardi Saxonis written in the 12th century it is recorded that Hereward the Wake took refuge in Cornwall in the 11th century at the court of the Cornish Prince or King Alef. If he is not to be identified with Hywel Dda of Deheubarth, some of the later supposed rulers listed below are given the title Earl of Cornwall, although in two cases may have been recognized as rebel kings. The South West to AD1000, stenton, F. M. Anglo-Saxon England Third Edition Oxford, Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-280139-5 Morris, John. The Age of Arthur AS Edition Phoenix ISBN 1-84212-477-3 Whitaker, John, the Ancient Cathedral of Cornwall, Historically SurveyedKings of Dumnonia – King Doniert's Stone, located near St Cleer, Bodmin Moor, commemorates King Dungarth/Donyarth/Doniert.
48. List of Cornish saints – For more information see the works of Canon Doble, Nicholas Ormes book, The Saints of Cornwall, and the works of Charles Henderson N. B. All these have dedications in Cornwall but not all have legends or traditions associating them with Cornwall, llan place name element List of Welsh saints Nicholas Roscarrock left an interesting account of the lives of the saints. Orme, Nicholas English Church Dedications, With a Survey of Cornwall and Devon, University of Exeter Press ISBN 0-85989-516-5 Ellis, penryn, Tor Mark Press Bowen, E. G. The Settlements of the Celtic Saints in Wales, cardiff, University of Wales Press Baring-Gould, S. Fisher, John Lives of the British Saints, the saints of Wales and Cornwall and such Irish saints as have dedications in Britain. Llandovery, W. Rees Wade-Evans, A. W. Vitae Sanctorum Britanniae et Genealogiae, cardiff, University of Wales Press Board. A - Z of saints by St Patricks Washington DCList of Cornish saints – The Archangel Michael from Perugino's triptych in the Certosa of Pavia *The Archangel Michael was recognized as the patron saint of Cornwall in medieval times; his cult however was introduced to the land by the Normans
49. Cornish Rebellion of 1497 – The Cornish Rebellion of 1497 was a popular uprising by the people of Cornwall. Its primary cause was the response by the impoverished Cornish populace to the raising of war taxes by King Henry VII to raise money for a campaign against Scotland. In 1496, after disagreements regarding new regulations for the tin-mining industry, in late 1496 the council approved a forced loan to which Cornwall contributed a disproportionately large share. The primary cause of the rebellion was Henry VIIs tax levy to pay for a war against the Scots, the terms of the levy violated the Stannary Charter of 1305 which prohibited taxes of 10ths and 15ths from being raised in Cornwall. Cornwall had already contributed significantly to the Scottish expedition, even though it was not affected by any border incursions. In reaction to King Henrys tax levy, Michael Joseph, a blacksmith from St. Keverne and Thomas Flamank, the rebels included at least two former MPs, Flamank and William Antron. An army some 15,000 strong marched into Devon, attracting support in terms of provisions, from Taunton, they moved on to Wells, where they were joined by their most eminent recruit, James Touchet, the seventh Baron Audley, a member of the old nobility. Despite this welcome and prestigious acquisition of support, An Gof, Audley joined Thomas Flamank as joint political leader of the expedition. After issuing a declaration of grievances, the army left Wells and marched to Winchester via Bristol and Salisbury, at this point, having come so far, there seems to have been some questioning of what exactly should be done. Flamank conceived the idea of trying to broaden the rising, to force the monarch into concessions by mobilising wider support for the Cornishmen. Flamank proposed that they should head for Kent, the soil of protests. It was a subtle and ambitious strategy—but sadly misinformed, although the Scottish War was as remote a project to the Kentishmen as to the Cornish, they not only declined to offer their support but went so far as to offer resistance under their Earl. Sadly disillusioned, the Cornish army retreated and some of the men returned to their homes. The remainder, let go the pretence of acting against the Kings ministers alone – they were prepared to battle against the King himself. Moving back west, by 13 June 1497 the Cornish army arrived at Guildford, although shocked by the scale of the revolt and the speed of its approach, Henry VII had not been idle. The army of 8,000 men assembled for Scotland under the command of Giles, Lord Daubeny, Henrys chief general and Lord Chamberlain, was recalled. Then the Earl of Surrey was sent north to conduct a defensive, the Royal family moved to the Tower of London for safety whilst in the rest of the City there was panic among the common citizens. It is said there was a cry of Every man to harnessCornish Rebellion of 1497 – Commemorative plaque in Cornish and English for Michael Joseph the Smith (An Gof) and Thomas Flamank mounted on the north side of Blackheath common, south east London, near the south entrance to Greenwich Park
50. Michael An Gof – Michael Joseph, better known as Michael An Gof, from the Cornish for the blacksmith, was one of the leaders of the Cornish Rebellion of 1497, along with Thomas Flamank. The rebels marched on London to protest King Henry VIIs levy of a tax to pay for an invasion of Scotland in response to the Scots support of the pretender Perkin Warbeck, a blacksmith named Michael Joseph lived at St Keverne on the Lizard peninsula. Michael Joseph, was chosen by the people of St. Keverne to challenge the tax, when he and his followers reached Bodmin, they were joined by Thomas Flamank, a local lawyer. Flamank argued that it was the business of the barons of the north to defend the Scottish border, and he suggested that the Cornishmen should march on London and present a petition to the king setting forth their grievances against the advisers responsible for the kings action. Under the leadership of Flamank and Joseph, about 6,000 Cornishmen assembled at Bodmin, the army attracted support in provisions and recruits along the way and by the time it reached Devon numbered some 15,000 strong. Up until then the march had been relatively peaceable, but when they reached Taunton in Somerset, Provost Perrin, an officer and commissioner who was collecting the tax was killed. They hoped to support from people in Kent – the focus of Jack Cades rebellion of 1450 –. The Cornish rebels were beaten by the Kings forces at the Battle of Deptford Bridge on 17 June 1497 on an adjacent to the River Ravensbourne. Michael fled to Greenwich after the battle, but was captured, as one of the leaders, Michael An Gof was executed with Flamank on 27 June 1497. Deemed to be traitors, they were hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn, just before his execution, An Gof is recorded to have said that he would have a name perpetual and a fame permanent and immortal. In 1997, the 500th anniversary of the rebellion, a march was held. A statue depicting An Gof and Flamank was unveiled in St Keverne, the Holyer An Gof trophy is an annual award for the best publication on Cornwall, and part of the Cornish Gorsedd. The name is the origin of the British surname Angove, an Gofs name was later used by a Cornish nationalist extremist organisationMichael An Gof – Commemorative plaque in Cornish and English for Michael Joseph the Smith (An Gof) and Thomas Flamank mounted on the north side of Blackheath Common, south east London, near the south entrance to Greenwich Park.
51. Prayer Book Rebellion – The Prayer Book Rebellion, Prayer Book Revolt, Prayer Book Rising, Western Rising or Western Rebellion was a popular revolt in Devon and Cornwall in 1549. In that year, the Book of Common Prayer, presenting the theology of the English Reformation, was introduced, the change was widely unpopular – particularly in areas of still firmly Catholic religious loyalty such as Lancashire. Along with poor conditions, the attack on the Catholic Church led to an explosion of anger in Devon and Cornwall. In response, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset sent Lord John Russell with an army composed partly of German and Italian mercenaries to suppress the revolt. One probable cause of the Prayer Book Rebellion is the religious changes recently implemented by the government of the new king, Edward VI. In Cornwall, this task was given to William Body, whose perceived desecration of religious shrines led to his murder on 5 April 1548, by William Kylter and this pressure on the lower classes was compounded by the recent poll tax on sheep. This would have affected the region significantly, the West Country being an area of sheep farming, rumours circulating that the tax would be extended to other livestock may have increased the discontent. A damaged social structure then meant this local uprising was not sufficiently dealt with by landowners nearby, the Marquess of Exeter, a large landowner in Sampford Courtenay, had recently been attainted. His successor, Lord Russell, was based in London and rarely came out to his land and it is possible this created a lack of local power, that would have normally been expected to quell the revolt. The dissolution of Glasney College and Crantock College played a significant part in fomenting opposition to future cultural reforms, immediate retribution followed with the execution of twenty-eight Cornishmen at Launceston Castle. One execution of a traitor of Cornwall occurred on Plymouth Hoe—town accounts give details of the cost of timber for both gallows and poles, martin Geoffrey, the pro-Catholic priest of St Keverne, near Helston, was taken to London. After execution, his head was impaled on a staff erected upon London Bridge as was customary, the new prayer book was not uniformly adopted, and in 1549 the Act of Uniformity made it unlawful to use the Latin liturgical rites from Whitsunday 1549 onwards. Magistrates were given the task of enforcing the change, following the enforced change on Whitsunday, on Whitmonday the parishioners of Sampford Courtenay in Devon compelled their priest to revert to the old service. The rebels argued that the new English liturgy was but lyke a Christmas game and this claim was probably related to the books provision for men and women to file into the quire on different sides to receive the sacrament, which seemed to remind the Devon men of country dancing. Justices arrived at the service to enforce the change. An altercation at the service led to a proponent of the change being killed by being run through with a pitchfork on the steps of the church house. Following this confrontation a group of parishioners from Sampford Courtenay decided to march to Exeter to protest at the introduction of the new prayer book, as the group of rebels moved through Devon they gained large numbers of Catholic supporters and became a significant force. Marching east to Crediton, the Devon rebels laid siege to Exeter, although a number of the inhabitants in Exeter sent a message of support to the rebels, the city refused to open its gatesPrayer Book Rebellion – Cranmer's Prayer book of 1549
52. Cornwall in the English Civil War – Cornwall played a significant role in the English Civil War, being a Royalist enclave in the generally Parliamentarian south-west. The English Civil War lasted nearly nine years, having begun with the battle of Edgehill, in Warwickshire, on Sunday,23 October 1642, the principal events in Cornwall happened in the following order. The Battle of Braddock Down near Boconnoc on 19 January 1643 resulted from a parliamentarian counter-invasion of Cornwall and it ended in defeat for Col. Ruthins Parliamentarian troops by Sir Ralph Hopton. Hoptons victory secured Cornwall for the King and the Royalists resumed the siege of Plymouth with their forces occupying surrounding towns to seal off the city by land, the Battle of Stratton occurred on 15 May 1643. The Earl of Stamfords Parliamentarian force was repelled by Hoptons men after day-long fighting, with 300 men killed and 1700 captured, the victories for Hopton with five Old Cornish regiments provided the impetus for campaigns in Devon and Somerset. Taunton and Bridgwater were taken by the Cornish army, but Sir Bevil Grenville was killed in the moment of victory at the Battle of Lansdown in Somerset, bristol fell to Hoptons Royalist troops, followed by Exeter. On December 13, the Royalists began a bombardment of the northern defences of Plymouth but with little effect. Sir Richard Grenville, 1st Baronet, having declared for Parliament, invited his troops to follow him into the Kings service. Sir Richard Grenville arrived in Plymouth in March 1644 to maintain a blockade, robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, arrived in command of the Roundhead army of 8000 men and forced Grenville to retreat to Cornwall across the River Tamar. After relieving Plymouth, Essex advanced into Cornwall, reaching Bodmin on 28 July, King Charles meanwhile led the main Royalist army against him, blocking his line of retreat. Caught between Charles and Grenville, Essex took up positions at Lostwithiel and Fowey, hoping for support or evacuation by the Parliamentarian fleet, the Royalists cut off his escape routes by land and on 13 August Charles began his attack. On 21 August, the Royalists took Restormel Castle and Beacon Hill, after further sporadic fighting they pushed the Parliamentarians back to Castle Dore above the Fowey river on 31 August. That night the Parliamentarian cavalry broke through the encircling Royalists and escaped to Plymouth, the Royalists confiscated the Parliamentarians weapons and then allowed them to return to Portsmouth. Afflicted by bad weather, hunger, disease and attacks from local people,1000 of the soldiers died along the way. The ensuing debate in London about the manner of the war led to the passage of the Self-Denying Ordinance. This was the prompt for a professional English army with a unified command, in 1645 Sir Thomas Fairfax was appointed the commander of the New Model Army. The Royalist army was reorganised with Prince Charles becoming the Commander-in-Chief. The Royalists suffered a loss at Naseby in Northamptonshire and there were further Parliamentarian gains in the southCornwall in the English Civil War – Maps of territory held by Royalists (red) and Parliamentarians (green), 1642 — 1645
53. Jacobite uprising in Cornwall of 1715 – The Jacobite uprising in Cornwall of 1715 was the last uprising against the British Crown to take place in the county of Cornwall. On 1 August 1714, Queen Anne had died and George, Elector of Hanover, the key characters of the Jacobite uprising in Cornwall were James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde and Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke. They were leaders of the High Tories, part of their scheme was to capture Bristol, Exeter and Plymouth. With these important places in the hands of the Jacobites, they hoped that other towns would join the cause. Ormonde had implicit confidence in Colonel Maclean, who had sent to Devon and Cornwall to visit prominent members of the Tory party. It turned out that Maclean was probably a spy who supplied the Ministry with names of Jacobite adherents, on 7 October Mr James Paynter of Trekenning, proclaimed the Pretender in the market square at St Columb Major in Cornwall. At this time the representative of the Government in Cornwall was Hugh Boscawen and this gentleman called out the militia and took measures which effectively put an end to any attempt at a rising. James Paynter and his servant along with fellow rebel, Henry Darr fled to London, immediately warrants were ordered but they denied their names until eventually a messenger was sent to London who knew them particularly well and they were found to be the same persons. Some time later Paynter and his rebels were sent to Newgate to be tried for high treason. Paynter claimed to be a judge in Cornwall, so he was tried at Launceston, here Henry Darr died in the prison. Eventually Paynter was acquitted by a packed Jacobite jury, following the release of the rebels, friends appeared with white cockades in their hats, as a token of joy they were welcomed with bonfire and ball all the way to Lands End. In October 1716, the associated with the proclamation of James III at St Columb were as follows, James Paynter. Henry Darr, Anthony Hoskin, Francis Brewer, jun, Richard Whitford, John Angove, Richard Meter. According to Henry Jenner, it seems probable that the postmaster who opened the letter from James Paynters servant was no other than the celebrated Ralph Allen, afterwards of Bath. He certainly was at St Columb post office at that time, a fictional account based on historical facts of the Jacobite rising in Cornwall. The following give a background to Cornish involvement in other rebellions, Jacobitism and the English People, 1688–1788. The Continuation of Mr. Rapins History of England, charles, George History of the Transactions in Scotland in the Years 1715-16 and 1745-46 Jacobitism in Devon PDF file of The Jacobite Vol 2 No 5. 1923 Gives an account of the declaration at St ColumbJacobite uprising in Cornwall of 1715 – St Columb town square. The site of the proclamation in Cornwall
54. Penlee lifeboat disaster – The Penlee lifeboat disaster occurred on 19 December 1981 off the coast of Cornwall. The Penlee Lifeboat Solomon Browne went to the aid of the vessel Union Star after its engines failed in heavy seas, after the lifeboat had rescued four people, both vessels were lost with all hands, in all, sixteen people died including eight volunteer lifeboatmen. The MV Union Star was launched in Ringkøbing in Denmark just a few days before it was wrecked on the Cornish coast. A mini-bulk carrier registered in Dublin, Ireland, it sailed to IJmuiden in the Netherlands to collect a cargo of fertiliser for its voyage to Arklow in Ireland. It was carrying a crew of five, Captain Henry Morton, Mate James Whittaker, Engineer George Sedgwick, Crewman Anghostino Verressimo, also on board was the captains family who had been picked up at an unauthorised stop on the east coast of England. Near the south coast of Cornwall,8 miles east of the Wolf Rock and it was unable to restart them but did not make a mayday call. Assistance was offered by a tug, the Noord Holland, under the Lloyds Open Form salvage contract, winds were gusting at up to 90 knots – hurricane, force 12 on the Beaufort scale – with waves up to 60 feet high. The powerless ship was blown across Mounts Bay towards the rocks of Boscawen Cove, as the ship was close to shore, the Coastguard at Falmouth summoned a Royal Navy Sea King helicopter from 820 Naval Air Squadron, RNAS Culdrose. It used the call sign Rescue 80 during the mission, the aircraft was flown that night by United States Navy exchange-pilot Lt Cdr Russell Smith, assisted by Lt Steve Marlow, S/Lt Kenneth Doherty and Leading Aircrewman Martin Kennie of the Royal Navy. They were unable to winch anyone off the ship as the waves were too violent, the Coastguard had difficulties contacting the secretary of the nearest lifeboat, Penlee Lifeboat Station at Mousehole on the west side of the bay. They eventually contacted Coxswain Trevelyan Richards and asked him to put the lifeboat on standby in case the helicopter rescue failed and he summoned the lifeboats volunteer crew and picked seven men to accompany him in the lifeboat. They were Second Coxswain/Mechanic Stephen Madron, Assistant Mechanic Nigel Brockman, Emergency Mechanic John Blewett, the lifeboat launched at 8,12 pm and headed out through the storm to the drifting coaster. The lifeboat was the Solomon Browne, a wooden 47-foot Watson-class boat built in 1960, after it had made several attempts to get alongside, four people managed to jump across, the captains family and one of the men were apparently safe. The lifeboat radioed that we’ve got four off, but that was the last heard from either vessel and they were truly the bravest eight men Ive ever seen, who were also totally dedicated to upholding the highest standards of the RNLI. Lifeboats were summoned from Sennen Cove, The Lizard and St Marys to try to help their colleagues from Penlee, the Sennen Cove Lifeboat found it impossible to make headway round Lands End. The Lizard Lifeboat found a hole in its hull when it finally returned to its slipway after a fruitless search. Wreckage from the Solomon Browne was found along the shore, some, but not all, of the 16 bodies were eventually recovered. The loss of the Solomon Browne was, in consequence of the persistent and heroic endeavours by the coxswain, such heroism enhances the highest traditions of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution in whose service they gave their livesPenlee lifeboat disaster – Penlee Lifeboat Station
55. 1983 British Airways Sikorsky S-61 crash – Only six of the twenty-six people on board survived. It was Britains worst helicopter civil aviation accident at the time, an investigation was promptly carried out by the Accidents Investigation Branch, though calls for a public inquiry were dismissed. The AIB found that the accident was caused by error, in failing to notice. Other contributory factors were found to be a failure to monitor flight instrument adequately, the crash sparked a review of helicopter safety, and eight recommendations were made by the AIB. Of these, seven were adopted, most notably that it was mandatory for there to be audible height warnings on passenger helicopters operating off-shore. It remained the worst British civilian helicopter accident until 1986, when the Boeing 234LR Chinook helicopter G-BWFC crashed in the North Sea, the Sikorsky S-61 helicopter Oscar November was owned by British Airways Helicopters, and typically operated between Aberdeen and the oil platforms of the North Sea. It was configured as such, to seats for 24 passengers. On 24 June 1983, Oscar November was assigned to act as a replacement for the British Airways Helicopters service between Penzance and the Isles of Scilly. The helicopter that usually operated the service, a Sikorsky S-61NM fitted with 32 passenger seats, was out of action while it was being repaired, on 3 July 1983, Oscar November received its annual certificate of airworthiness. Oscar November was manufactured in 1977, and the airframe had flown a total of 7,904 hours,49 of which had been since the last certificate of airworthiness. The crew consisted of pilots Captain Dominic Lawlor and Captain Neil Charleton, Lawlor was designated as the commander for the flight, while Charleton acted as co-pilot. Charleton was based in Beccles, but had also flown the route before and he had a total of 3,737 pilot hours, of which 2,280 had been in an S-61N. Oscar November was one of two scheduled to fly from Penzance to the Isles of Scilly on the morning of 16 July. Delta Alpha had been scheduled to depart at 7,50 am, while Oscar November was due to leave at 8,15 am, but both flights were delayed due to poor visibility. The actual visibility recorded at St Marys aerodrome increased from 1.2 kilometres at 9,30 am to 2.2 kilometres by 11,30 am, Delta Alpha departed at 10,46 am, and landed at St Marys at 11,06 am. With the possibility of the weather worsening, Lawlor waited for confirmation that Delta Alpha had landed, the minimum requirements to conduct a VFR flight were 900 metres of visibility, with a cloud ceiling of 200 feet. Having received confirmation, Oscar November departed Penzance at roughly 11,10 am, during the investigation into the crash, Lawlor and Charleton reported that they received a verbal weather report from the crew of Delta Alpha, who were passing on their return flight. According to the pair, they were told that visibility was 0.5 to 0.75 nautical miles at 300 feet, however, the crew of Delta Alpha did not recall talking to the Oscar November crew at any time during their flight1983 British Airways Sikorsky S-61 crash – A ditched British Airways Sikorsky S-61 N helicopter similar to the aircraft involved in the accident.
56. Boscastle flood of 2004 – The Boscastle flood of 2004 occurred on Monday,16 August 2004 in the two villages of Boscastle and Crackington Haven in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The villages suffered extensive damage after flash floods caused by an amount of rain that fell over eight hours that afternoon. The flood in Boscastle was filmed and extensively reported but the floods in Crackington Haven, the floods were the worst in local memory. A study commissioned by the Environment Agency from hydraulics consulting firm HR Wallingford concluded that it was among the most extreme ever experienced in Britain, the peak flow was about 140 m³/s, between 5, 00pm and 6, 00pm BST. The annual chance of flood in any one year is about 1 in 400. The probability each year of the heaviest three-hour rainfall is about 1 in 1300, at midday on 16 August 2004, heavy thundery showers had developed across the South West due to a weak disturbance to the northeast of the United Kingdom. The last time Boscastle had suffered notable flooding was in 1996 as a result of Hurricane Lili, but floods are recorded in 1847,1957,3 June 1958 and 1963. On 16 August 1952 the small town of Lynmouth,50 miles north-east along the north coast in Devon near Exmoor, suffered damage in a catastrophic flood. Coincidentally, this was 52 years to the day before Boscastles 2004 flood, on the 16th, warm air picking up moisture – due to residual heat from the Atlantic Ocean – travelled towards the South West Cornish coast as prevailing winds. With convergence and coalescence, enhanced moisture levels resulted in heavy rainfall on the afternoon of 16 August 2004,185 mm of rain fell over the high ground just inland of Boscastle. At the peak of the downpour, at about 15,40 GMT,24. 1mm of rain was recorded as falling in just 15 minutes at Lesnewth,2.5 miles up the valley from Boscastle. In Boscastle,89 mm of rain was recorded in 60 minutes, the cause of the very heavy localised rain is thought to be an extreme example of what has become known as the Brown Willy effect. The torrential rain led to a 2 m rise in levels in one hour. A3 m wave, believed to have triggered by water pooling behind debris caught under a bridge. Water speed was over 4 m/s, more than enough to cause structural damage and it is estimated that 20,000,000 cubic metres of water flowed through Boscastle that day alone. The steep valley sides, and the saturated surface ensured a high amount of surface run-off, fortunately, no one died in the flood. In an operation lasting from mid-afternoon until 2,30 AM, a fleet of 7 Westland Sea King helicopters rescued about 150 people clinging to trees, no major injuries or loss of life were reported. The estimated cost of damage was £15 million, most work takes place in the winter season, during the off-seasonBoscastle flood of 2004 – The old Cornish Stores shop
57. Geography of Cornwall – The geography of Cornwall describes the extreme southwestern peninsula of England west of the River Tamar. The population of Cornwall is greater in the less extensive west of the county than the east due to Bodmin Moors location, however the larger part of the population live in rural areas. It is the county in England bordered by only one other county, Devon. The length of the coast is large in proportion to the area of the county, Cornwall is exposed to the full force of the prevailing south-westerly winds that blow in from the Atlantic Ocean. To the north is the Celtic Sea, and to the south the English Channel, Cornwall is the location of Great Britains most southerly point, The Lizard, and the southern mainlands most westerly point, Lands End. A few miles further west are the Isles of Scilly, Cornwall is located at 50. 5°N 5°W /50.5, -5. The highest point is Brown Willy at 420 m, part of the granite Bodmin Moor, of such intrusions are covered by rough grass, heather. Woodland is prevented from growing on the granite uplands because of the poor soil, the rest of the inland contains pastureland and arable farmland. The coastline, at 697 km, is occupied by high cliffs. Lowland stretches are also to be found, particularly along the south coast, the Isles of Scilly are the largest archipelago in the British Isles outside Scotland. The largest other islands are off the south coast, Looe Island, Cornwall has varied habitats including terrestrial and marine ecosystems. One of the plant forms in decline locally is the Reindeer lichen. Bodmin Moor and Carn Brea are examples of such granite intrusion, the Lizard peninsula is an example of an ophiolite. The north coast is exposed to the prevailing winds from the Atlantic Ocean than the south coast and is more rugged, with many sheer cliffs. The south coast is sheltered and is interrupted by several rias which provide deep water harbours such as Carrick Roads. Cornwall consisted from April 1974 to March 2009 of six districts, which are, from west to east, Penwith, Kerrier, Carrick, Restormel, North Cornwall, and Caradon. While traditionally administered as part of Cornwall, the Isles of Scilly are now a unitary authority though they are included in the ceremonial county. Natural resources include, granite, slate, tin, copper, agricultural land,73. 64%, Woodland cover,7. 5%, Other types,18. 86%Geography of Cornwall – Geography of Cornwall
58. Bodmin Moor – Bodmin Moor is a granite moorland in northeastern Cornwall, England. It is 208 square kilometres in size, and dates from the Carboniferous period of geological history and it includes Brown Willy, the highest point in Cornwall, and Rough Tor, a slightly lower peak. Many of Cornwalls rivers have their sources here and it has been inhabited since at least the Neolithic era, when primitive farmers started clearing trees and farming the land. They left their megalithic monuments, hut circles and cairns, and the Bronze Age culture that followed left further cairns, by medieval and modern times, nearly all the forest was gone and livestock rearing predominated. The name Bodmin Moor is relatively recent, an Ordnance Survey invention of 1813, the upland area was formerly known as Fowey Moor after the River Fowey, which rises within it. Bodmin Moor is one of five granite plutons in Cornwall that make up part of the Cornubian batholith, dramatic granite tors rise from the rolling moorland, the best known are Brown Willy, the highest point in Cornwall at 417 m, and Rough Tor at 400 m. To the south-east Kilmar Tor and Caradon Hill are the most prominent hills, considerable areas of the moor are poorly drained and form marshes. The rest of the moor is mostly rough pasture or overgrown with heather and other low vegetation, the moor contains about 500 holdings with around 10,000 beef cows,55,000 breeding ewes and 1,000 horses and ponies. Most of the moor is a Site of Special Scientific Interest, Bodmin Moor, North, almost a third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status and protection as a National Park. The moor has also recognised as a separate natural region. Bodmin Moor is the source of several of Cornwalls rivers, they are mentioned here anti-clockwise from the south, the River Fowey rises at a height of 290 m and flows through Lostwithiel and into the Fowey estuary. The River Tiddy rises near Pensilva and flows southeast to its confluence with the River Lynher, the River Inny rises near Davidstow and flows southeast to its confluence with the River Tamar. The River Camel rises on Hendraburnick Down and flows for approximately 40 km before joining the sea at Padstow, the River Warleggan rises near Temple and flows south to join the Fowey. On the southern slopes of the moor lies Dozmary Pool and it is Cornwalls only natural inland lake and is glacial in origin. In the 20th century three reservoirs have been constructed on the moor, these are Colliford Lake, Siblyback Lake, various species of waterfowl are resident around these waters. The parishes on the moor are as follows,10,000 years ago, in the Mesolithic period, there are several documented cases of flint scatters being discovered by archaeologists, indicating that these hunter gatherers practised flint knapping in the region. During the Neolithic era, from about 4,500 to 2,300 BC, people began clearing trees and it was also in this era that the production of various megalithic monuments began, predominantly long cairns and stone circles. It was also likely that the naturally forming tors were also viewed in a manner to the manmade ceremonial sitesBodmin Moor – Geological sketch showing Bodmin Moor in relation to Cornwall's granite intrusions
59. Cornish Killas – The Cornish Killas is a natural region covering most of the county of Cornwall in southwest England. It has been designated as National Character Area 152 by Natural England, Killas is a mining term that refers to the sedimentary rocks of the Devon and Cornwall region. The Cornish Killas forms the body of the Cornish landmass around the high granite moorlands such as Bodmin Moor. Much of central Cornwall is an undulating, slate plateau with little woodland and few hedgerow trees. In places there is little vegetation apart from scrub-covered stone hedges dominating the farmland. By contrast, the coastline is varied, with rugged, windswept cliffs separating broad. The area is rich in important archaeological and former industrial sites, evidence of Neolithic and Bronze Age farming settlements abounds, with their round-houses, stone wall field enclosures and meadows bordering upland grazing pastures. Hillforts emerged during the Bronze Age and rounds existed into the early Medieval period, by the 18th century the landscape was being dramatically changed by mining for tin, copper and china clay and quarrying for graniteCornish Killas – Cliffs at Polperro
60. Hensbarrow – Hensbarrow is a natural region in the county of Cornwall, England, UK, that has been recognized as National Character Area 154 by Natural England. Hensbarrow is a region covering an area of just under 12,000 hectares immediately north of St Austell. It is bounded in the north by the A30 road and runs from Retew and Treviscoe in the west to Redmoor and it is the remnant of a much larger exposed and windswept heather moorland. Its lower, more sheltered areas are covered by irregular livestock fields enclosed by Cornish hedges of stone walls, with scattered hamlets, china clay pits, sand tips and mica dams occupy much of the central area. Its highest point is Hensbarrow Beacon, collins, Joseph Henry The Hensbarrow Granite District,1878, republished 1992, ISBN 0-9519419-1-7Hensbarrow – Hensbarrow Downs
61. The Lizard – The Lizard is a peninsula in southern Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The most southerly point of the British mainland is near Lizard Point at grid reference SW701,115, the Lizard village, is the most southerly on the British mainland, and is in the civil parish of Landewednack, the most southerly parish. The valleys of the River Helford and Loe Pool form the northern boundary, the area measures about 14 by 14 miles. The Lizard is one of Englands natural regions and has designated as national character area 157 by Natural England. The peninsula is known for its geology and for its rare plants, almost a third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status and protection as a National Park. The name Lizard is most probably a corruption of the Cornish name Lys Ardh, meaning high court, the Lizard peninsulas original name may have been the Celtic name Predannack, during the Iron Age and Roman period, Britain was known as Pretannike and as Albion. The Lizards coast is hazardous to shipping and the seaways round the peninsula were historically known as the Graveyard of Ships. The Lizard Lighthouse was built at Lizard Point in 1752 and the RNLI operates The Lizard lifeboat station, there is evidence of early habitation with several burial mounds and stones. Part of the peninsula is known as the Meneage, Helston, the nearest town to the Lizard peninsula, is said to have once headed the estuary of the River Cober, before it was cut off from the sea by Loe Bar in the 13th century. It is a matter of debate as to whether Helston was once a port, geomorphologists believe the bar was most likely formed by rising sea levels, after the last ice age, blocking the river and creating a barrier beach. The beach is formed mostly of flint and the nearest source is found offshore under the drowned terraces of the river that flowed between England and France, and now under the English Channel. The medieval port of Helston was at Gweek, possibly from around 1260 onwards, on the Helford river which exported tin, Helston was believed to be in existence in the sixth century, around the Dowr Kohar. The name comes from the Cornish hen lis or old court and ton added later to denote a Saxon manor and it was granted its charter by King John in 1201. It was here that tin ingots were weighed to determine the duty due to the Duke of Cornwall when a number of towns were authorised by royal decree. The royal manor of Winnianton, which was held by King William I at the time of the Domesday Book, was also the manor of the hundred of Kerrier. It was assessed as having fifteen hides before 1066, at the time of Domesday there was land for sixty ploughs, but in the lords land there were two ploughs and in the lands held by villeins twenty-four ploughs. There were twenty-four villeins, forty-one freedmen, thirty-three smallholders and fourteen slaves, there was 6 acres, eight square leagues of pasture and half a square league of woodland. The livestock was fourteen unbroken mares, three cattle and one hundred and twenty-eight sheep, its value was £12 annually, Mullion has the 15th century church of St Mellanus, and the Old Inn from the 16th centuryThe Lizard – Lizard Point
62. West Penwith – Penwith is an area of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom, located on the peninsula of the same name. It is also the name of a local government district. The area is named one of the ancient administrative hundreds of Cornwall which derives from two Cornish words, penn meaning headland and wydh meaning at the end. Natural England have designated the peninsula as national character area 156 and it is also known as the Lands End Peninsula. The Penwith peninsula sits predominantly on granite bedrock that has led to the formation of a coastline with many fine beaches. Tin and copper have been mined in the area since pre-Roman times, inland, the peninsula is primarily granite with a thin top soil. This is most evident on the north coast between St Just and Zennor where the remains of the ancient seabed of the Pliocene era are visible and its highest point is Watch Croft. There are several deep cut into this plateau such as Lamorna on the south coast. The shelter of these valleys and the mild climate gives Penwith a flora not seen anywhere else in the UK, penzances Morrab Gardens is able to grow bananas. Penwith also contains a lake, Drift Reservoir, which is located appromimately 3 miles west of Penzance. In addition to Penwiths status as a Heritage coastline, west Penwith, Penwith lies within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Almost a third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status, the principal towns in Penwith are Penzance, the port town and seat of local government, and St Ives, one of the countys most popular seaside resorts. For a full list of settlements in Penwith see List of places in Penwith As a small peninsula at the tip of a larger peninsula, two major transport routes terminate in the district, the A30 road and the Great Western Main Line railway. The St Ives Bay Line provides local transport between St Ives, and the line at St Erth. A ferry to the Isles of Scilly,28 miles west-south-west of the district, is based in Penzance, Penwith contains a great concentration of Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Romano-British archaeological remains. The most significant of them are described in a guide first published in 1954. Tewdwr Mawr ruled over the area from Carnsew in the century before returning to his patrimony in Cornouaille in Brittany around 577. Penwiths population has remained static for the last one hundredWest Penwith
63. Kerrier – Kerrier was a local government district in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It was the most southerly district in the United Kingdom, other than the Isles of Scilly and its council was based in Camborne 50. 214°N5. 297°W /50.214, -5.297. Other towns in the district included Redruth and Helston, the district also contained the Lizard Peninsula. Kerrier is named one of the ancient administrative Hundreds of Cornwall, Kerrier, which covered broadly the same area. The district was formed on 1 April 1974, as a merger of the borough of Helston, on 25 July 2007, Cornwall County Councils bid for unitary authority status was accepted by the government. It was abolished on 1 April 2009 as part of changes to local government in England. Cornish musician Luke Vibert has released a number of albums and singles under the alias Kerrier District, as a nod to New York musicians Metro Area, Kerrier District Council website Kerrier Local election results 2007 Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for Kerrier District CouncilKerrier
64. Carrick, Cornwall – Carrick was a local government district in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. Its council was based in Truro, the main centres of population, industry and commerce were the city of Truro and the towns of Falmouth/Penryn. The district was created under the Local Government Act 1972, on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the boroughs of Truro, Falmouth and Penryn. It was named after the Carrick Roads, an inlet near Falmouth that the rivers Percuil, Penryn, the district was abolished as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England on 1 April. Carrick comprises the following 27 parishes Carrick Council Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for Carrick District CouncilCarrick, Cornwall – Carrick District
65. Caradon – Caradon was a local government district in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It contained five towns, Callington, Liskeard, Looe, Saltash and Torpoint and its District Council was based in Liskeard 50. 453°N4. 465°W /50.453, -4.465. The district was named after Caradon Hill, the landmark of the area. The district was abolished as part of the 2009 structural changes to government in England on 1 April. All of Caradon is included in one of two hundreds. East Wivelshire and West Wivelshire are two of the ancient Hundreds of Cornwall, East and West must have originally had a Cornish name but it is not recorded. There are also Anglican deaneries by the names but the modern boundaries do not correspond exactly. The area must have formed one hundred originally but had already divided into two before the Norman Conquest, they are grouped in Domesday under the head manors of Rillaton and Fawton. The Cornish names are, East, West, Caradon District Council Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for Caradon District CouncilCaradon – Caradon District
66. St Austell – St Austell is a civil parish and major town in Cornwall, England, UK. It is situated on the south coast, approximately 10 miles south of Bodmin and 30 miles west of the border with Devon. Named after Saint Austol, one of the earliest references to the village of St Austell is in John Lelands Itinerary, where he says At S. Austelles is nothing notable but the paroch chirch. Not long after William Cookworthy discovered china clay at Tregonning hill in west Cornwall, Clay mining soon took over from tin and copper mining as the principal industry in the area, and this eventually contributed enormously to the growth of the town. This meant that shops and businesses took root, providing more jobs. This, along with other factors, led to St Austell becoming one of the ten most important commercial centres of Cornwall. Work began in 1963 on the precinct which included shops, offices and flats, the design was by Alister MacDonald & Partners. The town centre underwent a £75 million redevelopment process. The redevelopment attracted heavy opposition from its outset, in October 2007, the South West of England Regional Development Agency and project developers David McLean announced that the new development would be named White River Place. It was also announced that 50% of shop units had been leased to high street stores, with New Look, Peacocks, Bonmarché and Wilkinson opening new stores. This would mean New Look relocating from its current premises in Fore Street, the Torchlight Carnival was revived in November 2009 as a direct result of public demand through a survey conducted with local residents. The Torchlight Procession has become an important event in the calendar, heralding in the Winter celebrations and drawing thousands of people from across Cornwall. The event is run by a group of non affiliated volunteers. The St Austell and Clay Country Eco-town is a plan for new settlements around St Austell on old Imerys sites. It was given government approval in July 2009. In July 2011, the Cornwall Council strategic planning committee voted to approve a £250 million beach resort scheme at Carlyon Bay, the development was initially proposed in 2003. The arms of St Austell are Arg, St Austell is in the parliamentary constituency of St Austell and Newquay which was created in 2010 by the Boundary Commission for England. Before 2010 it was in the Truro and St Austell seat, the main local authority is Cornwall Council, the unitary authority created as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in EnglandSt Austell – High Cross Street
67. Falmouth, Cornwall – Falmouth is a town, civil parish and port on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It has a resident population of 27,422. See also, Miss Susan Gays Falmouth chronology The name Falmouth is of English origin and it is claimed that an earlier Celtic name for the place was Peny-cwm-cuic which is the same as the anglicised Pennycomequick district in Plymouth. Falmouth was where Henry VIII built Pendennis Castle to defend Carrick Roads in 1540, the main town of the district was then at Penryn. Sir John Killigrew created the town of Falmouth shortly after 1613, in the late 16th century, under threat from the Spanish Armada, the defences at Pendennis were strengthened by the building of angled ramparts. During the Civil War, Pendennis Castle was the second to last fort to surrender to the Parliamentary Army. After the Civil War, Sir Peter Killigrew received royal patronage when he gave land for the building of the Church of King Charles the Martyr, dedicated to Charles I, the Martyr. The seal of Falmouth was blazoned as An eagle displayed with two heads and on each wing with a tower, the arms of the borough of Falmouth were Arg. The Falmouth Packet Service operated out of Falmouth for over 160 years between 1689 and 1851 and its purpose was to carry mail to and from Britains growing empire. As the most south-westerly good harbour in Great Britain, Falmouth was often the first port for returning Royal Navy ships, in 1805 news of Britains victory and Admiral Nelsons death at Trafalgar was landed here from the schooner Pickle and taken to London by stagecoach. On 2 October 1836 HMS Beagle anchored at Falmouth at the end of her noted survey voyage around the world and that evening, Charles Darwin left the ship and took the Mail coach to his family home at The Mount, Shrewsbury. The ship stayed a few days and Captain Robert FitzRoy visited the Fox family at nearby Penjerrick Gardens, darwins shipmate Sulivan later made his home in the nearby waterside village of Flushing, then home to many naval officers. In 1839 Falmouth was the scene of a gold dust robbery when £47,600 worth of gold dust from Brazil was stolen on arrival at the port, the Falmouth Docks were developed from 1858, and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution opened Falmouth Lifeboat Station nearby in 1867. The present building dates from 1993 and also houses Her Majestys Coastguard, the RNLI operates two lifeboats from Falmouth, Richard Cox Scott, a 17-metre Severn-class all-weather boat, and Eve Park, an Atlantic 75 inshore lifeboat. Near the town centre is Kimberley Park, the land pre-dates 1877, and is named after the Earl of Kimberley who leased the parks land to the borough of Falmouth. Today the park has exotic and ornate plants and trees, the Cornwall Railway reached Falmouth on 24 August 1863. The railway brought new prosperity to Falmouth, as it made it easy for tourists to reach the town and it also allowed the swift transport of the goods recently disembarked from the ships in the port. The town now has three railway stations, Falmouth Docks railway station is the original terminus and is close to Pendennis Castle and Gyllyngvase beachFalmouth, Cornwall – Falmouth Harbour
68. Redruth – Redruth is a town and civil parish in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The population of Redruth was 14,018 at the 2011 census, Camborne and Redruth together form the largest urban area in Cornwall and before local government reorganisation were an urban district. The name Redruth derives from its older Cornish name, Rhyd-ruth and it is the -ruth which means the colour red. Traditionally in the Penwith Hundred, the town has developed away from the original settlement and this location is a steeply wooded valley, with Carn Brea on one side and the now-called Bullers Hill on the other. The presence of shallow lodes of tin and copper lying east to west made it a site for extracting metals, including, tin, lead. The first settlers stayed by a crossing in the river and started extracting metal ores, historically, Redruth was a small market town overshadowed by its neighbours until a boom in the demand for copper ore during the 18th century. Copper ore had mostly been discarded by the Cornish tin-mining industry but was now needed to make brass, surrounded by copper ore deposits, Redruth quickly became one of the largest and richest mining areas in Britain and the towns population grew markedly, although most miners families remained poor. The Mining Exchange was built in 1880 as a place for the trading of mineral stock, Redruth was making its transition from a market town dominated by mines and industry to a residential centre. By the end of the 19th century, the Cornish mining industry was in decline, to find employment, many miners emigrated to the newer mining industries in the Americas, Australasia and South Africa. Cornwalls last fully operational mine, South Crofty at Pool between Redruth and Camborne, closed in March 1998, Redruth School, a Technology College, is a secondary school and sixth form college, for ages 11–18. Primary schools within the town include Pennoweth School, Treleigh School, Treloweth Community Primary School, Trewirgie Infant School, the Curnow Community Special School caters for students with special needs. The Parish Church of St Uny, which is distance from the town centre, is of Norman foundation but was rebuilt in 1756. The patron saint is also honoured at Lelant, the tower is two centuries earlier and the whole church is built of granite. A chapel of ease was built in the town in 1828, other places of worship include the Wesleyan Church of 1826, the Free Methodist Church of 1864 and the Quaker Meeting House of 1833. The former post office in Alma Place is now known as the Cornish Studies Centre, the Mining Exchange building is now used as a housing advice centre. The house now called Murdoch House in the middle of Cross Street was erected in the 1660s as a chapel, william Murdoch lived in it from 1782 to 1798. During this time, he worked on local tin and copper mines, erecting engines on behalf of Boulton and he fitted the house out with gas lighting from coal gas – this was the first house in the world with this type of lighting. In the 19th century, the house was used as a tea room, in 1931 Mr A. Pearce Jenkin, a leading citizen of Redruth purchased the house and gave it as a gift to the Society of FriendsRedruth – Fore Street, Redruth town centre
69. St Ives, Cornwall – St Ives is a seaside town, civil parish and port in Cornwall, England. The town lies north of Penzance and west of Camborne on the coast of the Celtic Sea, in former times it was commercially dependent on fishing. St Ives was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1639, St Ives has become renowned for its number of artists. It was named best seaside town of 2007 by The Guardian newspaper and it should not be confused with St Ive, a village and civil parish in southwest Cornwall. The origin of St Ives is attributed in legend to the arrival of the Irish saint Ia of Cornwall, the parish church bears her name, and St Ives derives from it. The Sloop Inn, which lies on the wharf was a pub for many centuries and is dated to circa 1312. The town was the site of a particularly notable atrocity during the Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549, the English provost marshal, Anthony Kingston, came to St Ives and invited the portreeve, John Payne, to lunch at an inn. He asked the portreeve to have the gallows erected during the course of the lunch, afterwards the portreeve and the Provost Marshal walked down to the gallows, the Provost Marshal then ordered the portreeve to mount the gallows. The portreeve was then hanged for being a busy rebel, the seal of St Ives is Argent, an ivy branch overspreading the whole field Vert, with the legend Sigillum Burgi St. Ives in Com. During the Spanish Armada of 1597 two Spanish ships, a bark and a pinnace had made their way to St Ives to seek shelter from the storm which had dispersed the Spanish fleet. They were captured by the English warship Warpsite of Sir Walter Raleigh leaking from the same storm, the information given by the prisoners was vital on learning the Armadas objectives. From medieval times fishing was important at St Ives, it was the most important fishing port on the north coast, the pier was built by John Smeaton in 1767–70 but has been lengthened at a later date. The octagonal lookout with a cupola belongs to Smeatons design, in the decade 1747–1756 the total number of pilchards dispatched from the four principal Cornish ports of Falmouth, Fowey, Penzance, and St Ives averaged 30,000 hogsheads annually. Much greater catches were achieved in 1790 and 1796, in 1847 the exports of pilchards from Cornwall amounted to 40,883 hogsheads or 122 million fish while the greatest number ever taken in one seine was 5,600 hogsheads at St Ives in 1868. A. K. Hamilton Jenkin describes how the St Ives fisherman strictly observed Sunday as a day of rest, St Ives was a very busy fishing port and seining was the usual method of fishing. Seining was carried out by a set of three boats of different sizes, the largest two carrying seine nets of different sizes, the total number of crew was seventeen or eighteen. However this came to an end in 1924, the bulk of the catch was exported to Italy, for example, in 1830,6400 hogsheads were sent to Mediterranean ports. From 1829 to 1838, the average for this trade was 9000 hogsheadsSt Ives, Cornwall – St Ives
70. Hayle – Hayle is a small town, civil parish and cargo port in west Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It is situated at the mouth of the Hayle River and is seven miles northeast of Penzance. Hayle parish was created in 1888 from part of the now defunct Phillack parish, with which it was combined in 1935. The modern parish boundaries with St Ives to the west, St Erth to the south, Gwinear and Gwithian in the east. Although there is a history of settlement in the Hayle Estuary area dating from the Bronze Age. Evidence of Iron Age settlement exists at the fort on the hill above Carnsew Pool where the Plantation now stands. It is thought that Hayle, was an important centre for the tin industry, trading not only Irish and Breton people. Evidence of this comes from finds of imported pottery including Romano/Grecian Amphorae - containers for wine, in those times the estuary looked a lot different from that of today. The departure of the Romans was followed by an influx of Christian missionaries, most of whom are said to have had Irish origins and after whom many Cornish towns take their present name. The lives of Saint Samson and Saint Petroc report that both saints arrived in Cornwall at the Hayle Estuary, indicating that it was a port at least by the end of the 5th century. A number of inscribed stones from this period have been found in the area, two early stones have been found at Phillack, one bearing a Constantine form of a Chi-Rho cross which may date to the 5th Century. The most noteworthy inscribed stone is one uncovered during the construction of a road in the grounds of Carnsew, and is now set into a bank at The Plantation, a public park. The stone was discovered in December 1843 by workmen, lying in a position at the depth of four feet. When the stone was moved it broke into three parts, the stone bears an inscription in Latin, but it is now unreadable. The version that appears on the replica is translated as Here Cenui fell asleep who was born in 500, Here in his tomb he lies, he lived 33 years. Here he lies in the tomb, the Domesday survey in 1086 shows that the town of Hayle was not yet in existence. The manor of Connerton is recorded as including the Hayle Estuary with the manor centred on Conerton and this was held by the King and was the headmanor of the hundred of Penwith. It is from Conerton that the name of the present day settlement of Connor Downs is derived, a number of scattered farmsteads are recorded but no substantial settlementHayle – Hayle Viaduct from a hill by the estuary mouth
71. Launceston, Cornwall – It is one mile west of the River Tamar, which constitutes almost the entire border between Cornwall and Devon, at its middle stage. Its gradients are generally steep particularly at a sharp south-western knoll topped by Launceston Castle, the town centre is bypassed and is no longer physically a main thoroughfare. However, the town remains figuratively the gateway to Cornwall, due to having one of the two dual carriageways into the county pass directly next to the town. The other dual carriageway and alternative main point of entry is at Saltash over the Tamar Bridge and was completed in 1962, Launceston Castle was built by Robert, Count of Mortain c.1070 to dominate the surrounding area. Launceston was the caput of the barony of Launceston and of the Earldom of Cornwall until replaced by Lostwithiel in the 13th century. Launceston was later the county town of Cornwall until 1835 when Bodmin replaced it, two civil parishes serve the town and its outskirts, of which the central more built-up administrative unit housed 8,952 residents at the 2011 census. Launcestons motto is a reference to its adherence to the Cavalier cause during the English Civil War of the mid-17th century, Dunheved was the Southwestern Brittonic name for the town in the West Saxon period. The earliest known Cornish mint was at Launceston, which operated on a scale at the time of Æthelred the Unready before Cornwall received full diocesan jurisdiction in the year 994 AD. Only one specimen is known to exist, in the reign of William the Conqueror, the mint was moved to Dunheved and remained in existence until the reign of Henry II,1160. During the reign of Henry III of England, another mint was established in Launceston, Launceston Castle, in good repair, is a Norman motte-and-bailey castle, and was built by Robert, Count of Mortain c.1070 to dominate the surrounding area. Launceston was the caput of the barony of Launceston and of the Earldom of Cornwall until replaced by Lostwithiel in the 13th century. Launceston was later the county town of Cornwall until 1835 when Bodmin replaced it, in Domesday Book it is recorded that Launceston was held by the Count of Mortain, and that he had his castle there. There was land for 10 ploughs,1 villein and 13 smallholders with 4 ploughs,2 mills which paid 40/- and 40 acres of pasture, the value of the manor was only £4 though it had formerly been worth £20. The Roman Catholic martyr Cuthbert Mayne was executed at Launceston — a legacy of memorials, during the English Civil War Launceston was known to be Royale et Loyale to Charles I of England, hence its coat of arms. His son, who was later crowned Charles II of England, in 1643, the Parliamentarian forces under the command of Major General James Chudleigh advanced in an attempt to capture Launceston from the Royalists. The Royalist commander, Ralph Hopton, 1st Baron Hopton, stationed his forces on the summit of Beacon Hill, the Parliamentarians captured the foot of the hill, but were unable to dislodge the Royalist forces from the top. Hopton led a counterattack down the hill and, despite fierce fighting, Sir Richard Grenville, 1st Baronet was committed by Prince Charles to Launceston Prison for refusing to obey Lord Hopton, Grenville had already quarrelled with General George Goring, Lord Goring. Launceston has the document in the UK signed by Mary II of England and her husbandLaunceston, Cornwall – Town Square
72. Penryn, Cornwall – Penryn is a civil parish and town in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It is situated on the Penryn River about 1 mile north-west of Falmouth, the population was 7,166 in the 2001 census and a receded 6,812 in the 2011 census, a drop of more than 300 people across the ten year time gap. There are two wards covering Penryn, Penryn East and Mylor and Penryn West. Penryn is one of Cornwalls most ancient towns and boasts a wealth of history, the ancient town first appears in the Domesday Book under the name of Trelivel, and was since founded and named Penryn in 1216 by the Bishop of Exeter. The borough was enfranchised and its Charter of Incorporation was made in 1236, the contents of this Charter were embodied in a confirmation by Bishop Walter Bronescombe in the year 1259. In 1265, a college, called Glasney College, was built in Penryn for the Bishop of Exeter to develop the churchs influence in the far west of the diocese. In 1374, the chapel of St Thomas was opened, standing at the head of the Penryn River, Penryn occupies a sheltered position and was a port of some significance in the 15th century. The dissolution of Glasney College helped trigger the Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549, the loss of Glasney and the defeat of the 1549 rebellion proved to be a turning point in the history of the town from which Penryn has never recovered. From 1554, Penryn held a constituency, which became Penryn. The constituency was abolished in 1950, with Penryn becoming part of the Falmouth and it received a royal charter as a borough in 1621, mainly in a bid by the crown to cure the town of piracy. At least three mayors of Penryn were convicted of piracy between 1550 and 1650, the arms of the borough of Penryn were Sa. A Saracens head Or in a bordure of eight bezants, by the mid 17th century the port was thriving with the trade in Cornish fish, tin and copper. However, Penryn lost its house and market rights to the new town of Falmouth as a direct result of supporting the Parliamentary side in the English Civil War. The Killigrews of Arwenack were more skilful turncoats, and as their new town grew so the port of Penryn declined from the 17th century right up to today. In the early 19th century, granite works were established by the river, the town is the setting of the play The Penryn Tragedy, which tells of a young man unwittingly murdered by his parents after disguising himself as a rich stranger. Today, Penryn is a town and has retained a large amount of its heritage. With a large proportion of its buildings dating back to Tudor, Jacobean and Georgian times, the local museum is housed in the Town Hall. Penryn has a small but active Rotary Club, Penryn is twinned with Audierne in Brittany, FrancePenryn, Cornwall – St Gluvias Street, Penryn
73. List of hills of Cornwall – Many of these hills are important historic, archaeological and nature conservation sites, as well as popular hiking and tourist destinations in the county of Cornwall in southwest England. The table is colour-coded based on the classification or listing of the hill, the three types that occur in Cornwall are Marilyns, HuMPs and TuMPs, listings based on topographical prominence. Prominence correlates strongly with the significance of a summit. Peaks with low prominences are either subsidiary tops of a summit or relatively insignificant independent summits. Peaks with high prominences tend to be the highest points around, a Marilyn is a hill with a prominence of at least 150 metres or about 500 feet. A HuMP is a hill with a prominence of at least 100, in this table Marilyns are in beige and HuMPs in lilac. The term sub-Marilyn or sub-HuMP is used, e. g. in the online Database of British and Irish Hills to indicate hills that fall just below the threshold. To qualify for inclusion, hills must either be 300 metres or higher with a prominence of at least 30 metres, for further information see the Lists of mountains and hills in the British Isles and the individual articles on Marilyns and HuMPs. List of mountains and hills of the United Kingdom List of Marilyns in England Geography of CornwallList of hills of Cornwall – Brown Willy
74. Alex Tor – Alex Tor is a conical hill,291 metres high, located in the west of Bodmin Moor in the county of Cornwall, England. At the summit of Alex Tor are granite outcrops and a large. There are panoramic views from the plateau and other tors visible include, Rough Tor, Brown Willy, Showery Tor, Garrow Tor. Parking is possible on the lane running SW to NE past the tor, from here it is an easy climb of less than 1 kilometre. On the western flank of the hill there are hut circles and the remains of an ancient farmsteadAlex Tor – The large and intricate cairn on the summit.
75. Brown Willy – Brown Willy is a hill in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The summit, at 1,378 feet above sea level, is the highest point of Bodmin Moor and it is situated about 2.5 miles north-west of Bolventor and 4 miles south-east of Camelford. The hill has an appearance that depends on the vantage point from which it is seen. It bears the appearance of a sugarloaf from the north. The first part of the name is a common Brythonic element meaning breast, pap, hill-side, slope, breast. The name has evolved through a variety of historical spellings as follows and it has frequently been noted on lists of unusual place names. In 2012 a campaign was launched to have the name restored to the original Bronn Wennili on the grounds that it would be slightly more attractive to residents and tourists than Brown Willy. Cornish residents objected to the idea, one commented, Its been Brown Willy for as far back as living memory goes and I suspect, as others have pointed out, that it will always be called that, whatever name we may formally give it. The Daily Telegraph ran an editorial supporting the name and called for campaigners to keep their hands off Brown Willy. The summit of Brown Willy is 1,378 feet above sea level, the geography of the surrounding terrain is typical of Bodmin Moor – tors surrounded by desolate moorland. Streams and marshes are common surrounding the summit, and the River Fowey rises nearby, there are naturally occurring piles of granite boulders around the summit, and one, known as the Cheesewring is composed of 5 separate rocks which get progressively higher towards the top. There are two cairns on the summit. Brown Willy Summit Cairn or Brown Willy North Cairn is a man made rock pile that sits alongside an Ordnance Survey triangulation station, the Cornish word for cairn is karn, and it has been suggested that Cornwalls ancient name Kernow is related. William Copeland Borlase classified ridge-top cairns such as these in the most common category a bowl- or cone-shaped tumulus and he also referred to them as sepulchral mounds but admitted that burials had not been found at many. Brown Willy Summit Cairn has never been excavated and folklore suggests an ancient Cornish king may lie entombed underneath and these are amongst the most intact due to their remote and inaccessible location. Many rocks from similar cairns have been spoiled and removed over centuries of neglect to be re-used in dry stone walling and these purported alignments have been taken as evidence of some astronomical purpose in cairn placement and construction. Brown Willy is a destination for walkers and is said to be one of the UKs best-loved high points. The hill features in a race held on New Years Day that starts and finishes at Jamaica InnBrown Willy – Brown Willy from the summit of Rough Tor
76. Caradon Hill – Caradon Hill is on Bodmin Moor in the former Caradon district of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The summit is 371 metres above sea level. Caradon Hill is on the edge of the moor, it is between the villages of Minions, Upton Cross, Pensilva and Darite. The hill was once famous for its copper mines but these are now closed, the South Caradon Copper Mine,1 km to the SW of the transmitter, was the biggest copper mine in the UK in its heyday in the second half of the 19th century. Other disused copper and tin mines are scattered around the base of the hill, including the Wheal Phoenix, the ruins of the Prince of Wales engine house are prominent at Wheal Phoenix. The mining area around the southwest base of the hill form part of Crows Nest SSSI, the Caradon Hill transmitting station television mast is near the summit of Caradon Hill at grid reference SX272707Caradon Hill – Caradon Hill
77. Condolden – Condolden is a hill in north Cornwall, United Kingdom. The summit is 308 metres above ordnance datum, Condolden is two miles southeast of Tintagel village and is on the eastern border of Tintagel civil parish between Waterpit Down and Penpethy. It is the highest point in the parish and the second highest point in Cornwall outside Bodmin Moor, the largest of the Bronze Age barrows in Tintagel is at Condolden. On the edges of the hill are Halgabron, Trenale, Downrow, Truas, Menadue, near Trenale was the Iron Age fort of Trenale Bury which was ploughed up during the Second World War. The barrow has not been excavated and is topped by an Ordnance Survey triangulation point, the land is used for arable farming. View uphill from slopes of Condolden HillCondolden – The OS trig point on Condolden
78. Stowe's Hill – Stowes Hill is an elongated hill,381 metres high, located on the eastern edge of Bodmin Moor in the county of Cornwall, England. Stowes Hill is a prominent granite ridge located about 1500 metres north of Minions and it is dominated by Stowes Pound, a huge tor enclosure comprising two massive stone-walls. The smaller enclosure surrounds the tors at the end of the hill. At the southern end is a large, disused quarry, but the hill is best known as the site of the Cheesewring, inside Stowes Pound are two Bronze Age cairns, a stone round house and over 100 house platforms. The site is thought to be Neolithic or Bronze Age and connected with other settlements and ritual monuments in the vicinityStowe's Hill – Stowe's Hill from the west.
79. Tregonning Hill – Tregonning Hill is the westerly of two granite hills overlooking Mounts Bay in west Cornwall, England, United Kingdom, the other being Godolphin Hill. They are approximately 6 kilometres west of the town of Helston, part of the hill is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest and at the date of notification was the only known site of western rustwort in Great Britain. Germoe war memorial is on the summit of the hill, the main vegetation types on the hill are western lowland heath and scrub. The heath consists of a mixture of heather, bell heather, on the deeper soils European gorse, bracken and bramble are the dominant scrub species. The bare slopes of the old china clay works are where western rustwort occurs, by 2004 the liverwort was known from fourteen sites within three SSSIs, making Cornwall the main stronghold globally. The nationally scarce moss known from two sites in Cornwall also occurs on Tregonning Hill. As of 7 September 2010 the condition of the SSSI was considered to be ″unfavourable declining, Tregonning Hill is a detached outcrop of the Cornubian batholith. The granite has been altered by kaolinization and china clay has been quarried, disused pits, gullies, waste-tips and debris litter the hillside. An elvan quarry was in operation on the summit in 1879, export of china clay and fire bricks to New York via Hayle first started in August 1880. In 1880 The Cornishman reported on the custom, by the Ashtown Free Church Sunday scholars. Cornwall Biodiversity Action Plans The Tregonning – Godolphin Mining DistrictTregonning Hill – Germoe war memorial
80. Cornwall Council – Cornwall Council is the unitary authority for the county of Cornwall in the United Kingdom, not including the Isles of Scilly, which has its own council. The council, and its predecessor Cornwall County Council, has a tradition of large groups of independent councillors, since the 2013 elections, it is run by an Independent-Liberal Democrat coalition. Cornwall Council provides a range of services to more than half a million Cornish residents. In 2014 it had an budget of more than £1 billion and was the biggest employer in Cornwall with a staff of 12,429 salaried workers. It is responsible for including, schools, social services, rubbish collection, roads, planning. Before April 2009, Cornwall was administered as a county by the Cornwall County Council with six districts, Caradon, Carrick, Kerrier, North Cornwall, Penwith. The Council of the Isles of Scilly was and still remains a unitary authority. On 5 December 2007, the Government confirmed that Cornwall was one of five councils that would move to unitary status and this was enacted by statutory instrument as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England, The changes took effect on 1 April 2009. On that date the six districts and Cornwall County Council were abolished and were replaced by Cornwall Council. The original proposals for a new logo and motto for Cornwalls new unitary authority were met with criticism from the general public with demands that the old logo. In March 2009, the leader of Cornwall County Council David Whalley announced he would be standing down as a councillor, the current logo features a Cornish chough and the 15 Cornish golden bezants on a black field as used in the arms of the Duchy of Cornwall. On the creation of the new unitary authority it was decided that the name of the new council would be Cornwall Council, the campaign for Cornish devolution began in 2000 with the founding of the Cornish Constitutional Convention, a cross-party, cross-sector association that campaigns for devolution to Cornwall. In 2011, the then Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg said he would meet a party group, including the six Cornish MPs. The subsequent Localism Act 2011 was expected to achieve this but it proved incapable, among the services provided by the council is a public library service which consists of a main library in Truro and smaller libraries in towns and some villages throughout Cornwall. Cornwall Council is promoting ten cultural projects as part of a culture strategy. Cornwall Council has based its idea on the successful National Theatres of Scotland, another of the projects is the proposed creation of a National Library of Cornwall to resolve inadequacies with the current storage of archives. It is hoped that this will bring some important documents concerning Cornish history back to Cornwall as well as providing public access to those records already held. Cornwall Council is also involved in the project to build a Stadium for Cornwall, Cornwall Council backs the campaign for the Cornish to be recognised as a National Minority in the UKCornwall Council
81. South West England – South West England is one of nine official regions of England. It is the largest in area, covering 9,200 square miles, five million people live in South West England. The region includes the West Country and much of the ancient kingdom of Wessex, other major urban centres include Plymouth, Swindon, Gloucester, Cheltenham, Exeter, Bath, Torbay, and the South East Dorset conurbation. There are eight cities, Salisbury, Bath, Wells, Bristol, Gloucester, Exeter, Plymouth and it includes two entire national parks, Dartmoor and Exmoor, and four World Heritage Sites, including Stonehenge and the Jurassic Coast. The northern part of Gloucestershire, near Chipping Campden, is as close to the Scottish border as it is to the tip of Cornwall, the region has by far the longest coastline in England and many seaside fishing towns. The region is at the first-level of NUTS for Eurostat purposes, key data and facts about the region are produced by the South West Observatory. Following the abolition of the South West Regional Assembly and Government Office, the region is known for its rich folklore, including the legend of King Arthur and Glastonbury Tor, as well as its traditions and customs. Cornwall has its own language, Cornish, and some regard it as a Celtic nation, the South West of England is known for Cheddar cheese, which originated in the Somerset village of Cheddar, Devon cream teas, crabs, Cornish pasties, and cider. It is also home to the Eden Project, Aardman Animations, the Glastonbury Festival, most of the region is located on the South West Peninsula, between the English Channel and Bristol Channel. It has the longest coastline of all the English regions, totalling over 700 miles, much of the coast is now protected from further substantial development because of its environmental importance, which contributes to the region’s attractiveness to tourists and residents. Geologically the region is divided into the largely igneous and metamorphic west and sedimentary east, Cornwall and West Devons landscape is of rocky coastline and high moorland, notably at Bodmin Moor and Dartmoor. These are due to the granite and slate that underlie the area, the highest point of the region is High Willhays, at 2,038 feet, on Dartmoor. In North Devon the slates of the west and limestones of the east meet at Exmoor National Park, the variety of rocks of similar ages seen here have led to the countys name being lent to that of the Devonian period. The east of the region is characterised by wide, flat clay vales and chalk, the vales, with good irrigation, are home to the regions dairy agriculture. The Blackmore Vale was Thomas Hardys Vale of the Little Dairies, another and these downs are the principal area of arable agriculture in the region. Limestone is also found in the region, at the Cotswolds, Quantock Hills and Mendip Hills, all of the principal rock types can be seen on the Jurassic Coast of Dorset and East Devon, where they document the entire Mesozoic era from west to east. The climate of South West England is classed as oceanic according to the Köppen climate classification, the oceanic climate typically experiences cool winters with warmer summers and precipitation all year round, with more experienced in winter. Annual rainfall is about 1,000 millimetres and up to 2,000 millimetres on higher ground, summer maxima averages range from 18 °C to 22 °C and winter minimum averages range from 1 °C to 4 °C across the south-westSouth West England – High Willhays on Dartmoor, Devon, the region's highest point.
82. North Cornwall (UK Parliament constituency) – North Cornwall is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament by Scott Mann, a Conservative. This constituency was created under the Representation of the People Act 1918, in 1997 and 2001 the seat turned out strongly overall for the latter party. A third-placed candidate has not polled more in North Cornwall than 16. 38%, 2010–present, The District of North Cornwall. Historically four borough constituencies lay within the boundaries, three of which were abolished as rotten boroughs by the Great Reform Act,1832, Bossiney Camelford Launceston Newport, february 1974, new constituency boundaries applied. Death of Maclean 15 June 1932 List of Parliamentary constituencies in Cornwall British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949, compiled and edited by F. W. SNorth Cornwall (UK Parliament constituency) – Sir Donald Maclean
83. South East Cornwall (UK Parliament constituency) – South East Cornwall is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by Sheryll Murray, a Conservative. 1983-2010, The District of Caradon, the Borough of Restormel wards of Fowey, Lostwithiel, St Blaise, and Tywardreath, 2010–present, The District of Caradon, and the Borough of Restormel ward of Lostwithiel. Consistent with this, since 1983 the preference for an MP has alternated between Liberal Democrats and Conservatives, workless claimants were in November 2012 significantly lower than the national average of 3. 8%, at 2. 5% of the population based on a statistical compilation by The Guardian. Despite the presence of South in its name, this constituency is the second most northern of the six Cornwall seats, list of Parliamentary constituencies in Cornwall Forgotten Corner of Cornwall Wivelshire Notes ReferencesSouth East Cornwall (UK Parliament constituency) – Boundary of South East Cornwall in Cornwall for the 2010 general election.
84. Truro and Falmouth (UK Parliament constituency) – Truro and Falmouth is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since its 2010 creation by Sarah Newton, a Conservative. It replaces parts of the former Truro and St Austell and Falmouth, political history The result was a very marginal one in 2010, with the previous results in either predecessor seat also closely fought between the Liberal Democrats and the Conservatives. The Truro and Falmouth has the boundaries as the former district of Carrick, with the exception of the ward of Mount Hawke. The main settlements in the constituency are the city of Truro, other settlements include Penryn, Perranporth, St Agnes and St Mawes. The constituency has visitor attractions spanning diametrically opposite coasts, including Porthtowan and Perranporth, Falmouth abounds with restaurants, places to stay and sailing and motor yacht facilities. However industries and businesses are not dominated by the arts or leisure and also rely on maritime maintenance, hospitality, tourism, retail, distribution and agriculture. Workless claimants, registered jobseekers, were in November 2012 lower than the average of 3. 8%. List of Parliamentary constituencies in Cornwall Notes ReferencesTruro and Falmouth (UK Parliament constituency) – Boundary of Truro and Falmouth in Cornwall.
85. Constitutional status of Cornwall – Cornwall is a unitary authority area and ceremonial county of England. In ethnic and cultural terms, Cornwall and its inhabitants have at times been referred to as foreign to England. One aspect of the identity of Cornwall is the Cornish language. Cornish nationalists argue, whether from a legal, cultural or other basis, a manifestation of this is the campaign for a Cornish assembly, along the lines of the Welsh or Scottish legislative institutions. Those who assert that Cornwall is, or ought to be, an important aim is Cornwalls recognition as a British home nation in its own right similar to how Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland are considered. An ancient tale, the legend of Brutus, recounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth, in addition, according to the legend, a second and smaller group of Trojans arrived in Britain, led by a warrior named Corineus, to whom Brutus granted extensive estates. Just as Brutus had called the island Britain, and his companions Britons, so Corineus called the region of the kingdom which had fallen to his share Cornwall, after the manner of his own name, and the people who lived there. This indicates that, at least as far as Geoffrey was concerned, in pre-Roman times, Cornwall was part of the kingdom of Dumnonia. Later, it was known to the Anglo-Saxons as West Wales, to distinguish it from North Wales, the name Cornwall is a combination of two elements. The second derives from the Anglo-Saxon word wealh, meaning foreigner, one who speaks a non-Germanic language, the first element Corn, indicating the shape of the peninsula, is descended from Celtic kernou, an Indo-European word related to English horn and Latin cornu. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records a battle in 825 and quotes The Wealas, Gafulforda is thought to be Galford near Lew Trenchard on the banks of the River Lew, though some translations render it as Camelford, some 60 km further west. References in contemporary charters show Egbert of Wessex granting lands in Cornwall at Kilkhampton, Ros, Maker, Pawton, Caellwic, and Lawhitton to Sherborne Abbey and to the Bishop of Sherborne. All of the locations except Pawton are in the far east of Cornwall. Such control had certainly been established in places by the ninth century. At Easter 928, Athelstan held court at Exeter, with the Welsh and West Welsh subject rulers present, the Bodmin manumissions, two to three generations later, show that the ruling class of Cornwall quickly became Anglicised, most owners of slaves having Anglo-Saxon names. Among those manumitting slaves in the Bodmin record are four English kings and it is clear that at this time areas beyond the core of Anglo-Saxon settlement were recognised as different by the English kings. Athelstans successor, Edmund, in a charter for an estate just north of Exeter, styled himself as King of the English, edmunds successor Edgar styled himself, King of the English and ruler of the adjacent nations. This was followed by king Aethelred II describing Cornwall not as an English shire, but as a province, or client territoryConstitutional status of Cornwall – Roman Britannia showing those areas under Roman rule and the position of Dumnonia as a part of Roman Britain
86. Revived Cornish Stannary Parliament – The Revived Cornish Stannary Parliament, is a pressure group which claimed to be a revival of the historic Cornish Stannary Parliament last held in 1753. It was established in 1974 and campaigned, up until 2008, against the government of the United Kingdoms position on the status of Cornwall, England. The historic Cornish Stannary Parliament last assembled at Truro in 1752 and their contention is that the Stannary Parliament, whilst not in session, still exists. They also point to the fact that the 1508 Charter of Pardon from which the historic parliament derived its powers, was confirmed as still being on the books in 1977. The British government rejects the claims of the group, There are no treaties today that apply to Cornwall only. And that There is no special status for legislation which applies to Cornwall or to Cornish localities and this was also confirmed in a reply to a question posed by the MP Andrew George in May 2009. On 20 May 1974 a pressure group claiming to be a revived Cornish Stannary Parliament assembled in Lostwithiel, the meeting was primarily called in response to a crisis in the china clay industry. Employers in the industry had been forbidden by the Pay Board from paying their 9,000 workers the higher wages agreed under a productivity deal, the Warden of the Stannaries, Geoffrey Waldegrave, 12th Earl Waldegrave refused an invitation to open the parliament. A petition was sent to the queen declaring that if she did not recognise the parliament they would seize crown lands and they also sought recognition from the United Nations. On 12 December 1974 the Home Office replied to the petition, Hambley claimed there was a constitutional crisis and this should be done immediately to avoid political anarchy. The Cornish Stannary Parliament next hit the headlines in 1978, again at St Austell Magistrates Court, Hambley had been charged with having failed to pay motor tax and displaying the stannary seal in place of a tax disc. After two and an hours consultation the magistrates agreed they had no jurisdiction. The following day a court in Bodmin adjourned a similar case sine die against Frederick Trull, on 11 July, the county court, declared that the lands Hambley claimed to have staked were already bounded, and ordered him to pay the landowners costs. By the end of July over a people were refusing to pay road tax in Cornwall. The Cornish Stannary Parliaments next large campaign was in 1989, shares were made available for sale in the Royal Cornish Consols United Tin Mines Cost Book Company at one pound each, the claim being that shareholders would not be liable for the charge. The company was owned by Frederick Trull, who had rejoined the group as its clerk, by March 1990 up to one and a quarter million applications for shares had been made. On 27 June the company was placed in receivership, with shareholders potentially facing the payment of costs, on 5 September the receiver announced that Trull had vanished and that there was no trace of the estimated £1 million paid by members of the public. On 12 October Trull was found guilty of contempt by breaching High Court orders to stop issuing shares and he was sentenced in his absence to six months imprisonmentRevived Cornish Stannary Parliament – History
87. Cornish Nationalist Party – The Cornish Nationalist Party, Cornish, An Parti Kenethlegek Kernow, is a political party, founded by Dr James Whetter, who campaigned for independence for Cornwall. It was formed by people who left Cornwalls main nationalist party Mebyon Kernow on 28 May 1975, a separate party with a similar name existed from 1969. Originally, another subject of the split was whether to embrace devolution as a first step to independence or for it to be all or nothing. The CNP essentially represented a more right-wing outlook from those who disagree that economic arguments were more likely to win votes than cultural. The CNP worked to preserve the identity of Cornwall and improve its economy and it also gave support to the Cornish language and commemorated Thomas Flamank, a leader of the Cornish Rebellion in 1497, at an annual ceremony at Bodmin on 27 June each year. While the CNP is not a racist organisation, there was an image problem from the similarly-styled BNP. The CNP was for some time seen as more of a group, as it did not put up candidates for any elections, although its visibility. As of 2012, it is now registered on the UK political parties register, in April 2009, a news story reported that the CNP had re-formed following a conference in Bodmin, however, it did not contest any elections that year. Whetter and the CNP still publish a journal, The Cornish Banner. A newspaper article and a revamp of the party website in October 2014 state that the party is now to contest elections once more, the partys policies include the following, Calling for more legislative powers to be given to Cornwall Council. The authority should effectively become the Cornish government, with town, Cornwall council should have a reduction in councillors, with a standardisation of electoral areas and constituencies in throughout Cornwall. The Westminster government should appoint a Minister for Cornwall and confirm there will be no plans to have any parliamentary constituency covering part of Cornwall. List of topics related to Cornwall Cornish self-government movement Constitutional status of Cornwall Mebyon Kernow The CNP at the Roseland Institute UK Register of Political PartiesCornish Nationalist Party – Cornish Nationalist Party
88. South West Regional Assembly – The South West Regional Assembly was the regional chamber for South West England, established in 1999. It was wound up in December 2008, and its functions taken on by the Strategic Leaders Board, the South West Secretariat which supported the member organisations is based in Taunton, as is its successor body. In July 2007, Local Government Minister John Healey MP announced Government plans to abolish regional assemblies, the functions of regional assemblies were planned to pass to regional development agencies in 2010. The assemblys responsibilities for planning, housing and transport transferred to the Strategic Leaders Board of South West Councils on 13 May 2009, the transfer followed agreement between the Assembly Leaders, the Strategic Leaders, the Social Economic and Environmental Partners and South West Councils. The outgoing Chairman of the Assembly, Sir Simon Day said and it was made up of 119 members, of which,79 were appointed by the 51 Unitary, County and District Authorities in the South West. Membership was reviewed by local authorities every year, and changes reflected political proportionality across the region after local elections,2 were appointed by the National Parks Authorities in the region. 2 were appointed by the Association of Local Councils,36 were appointed by the region’s Social, Economic and Environmental Partners. The SEEP representatives were nominated by regional Groups and these were reviewed at least every four years and this opinion was based upon geography, arguing that having the Isles of Scilly and Cornwall in the same region as Gloucestershire would be comparable to linking London with Yorkshire. The feeling is strong in Cornwall where in July 2000 Mebyon Kernow issued the Declaration for a Cornish Assembly. If Scotland and London are benefiting from devolution then Cornwall should learn from this and increase the intensity of its own campaign for devolution to a Cornish AssemblySouth West Regional Assembly – Logo of the South West Regional Assembly, 1999-2009
89. South West of England Regional Development Agency – The South West of England Regional Development Agency was one of the nine Regional Development Agencies set up by the United Kingdom government in 1999. Its purpose was to lead the development of an economy in South West England. It was abolished along with all the other RDAs on 31 March 2012, each of Englands RDAs was required to work with partners in the region to draw together a Regional Economic Strategy. This document set out for the region how the RDAs statutory objectives would be met. These strategies were owned by the region, not just the RDA. Significant examples include, Wave Hub, the world’s largest ocean test site for renewable energy devices. The Eden Project, with over £1bn economic impact since opening in 2001, national Composites Centre, a world-class centre for composite material manufacture and design. Combined Universities in Cornwall, transforming higher education in Cornwall since 2001, Regional Infrastructure Fund, providing essential infrastructure across the region in places such as Poole, Taunton, east of Exeter and Bristol. Marine Skills Centres in Poole, Plymouth and Falmouth, delivering over 14,000 marine training courses, osprey Quay, a £38 million investment to revitalise a former Royal Navy air base – including bringing the Olympic sailing regatta to Weymouth and Portland. Airbus ‘Integrated Wing’ project, generating over 850 highly skilled jobs, PRIMARE and Plymouth Science and Innovation Programme, a £7.3 million investment for world-beating marine energy knowledge collaboration. Major urban regeneration investment in – among others – Bristol, Gloucester, Plymouth, Swindon, rural Development Programme for England across the region, including Gloucestershire, Somerset, Wiltshire, Dorset, Devon, and Cornwall. Provided 130,000 people with new work-related skills Through the regional Business Link network, helped over 100,000 businesses improve their performance and save over £220 million in costs. The SWRDA had an budget of around £160 million and spent almost £2 million opening offices as far away as Australia and China. In the 2007–8 financial year, SWRDA also started an operation in Mumbai, in March 2008 former Bristol Lord Mayor Peter Abraham criticised the SWRDA for these actions, saying that it should be more publicly accountable. The South West Science and Industry Council advised the SWRDA on the use of science, technology. The SWRDA provided funding for the South West Observatory, an organisation which produces key data. Regen SW is the energy agency for South West England. South West of England Regional Development Agency South West of England Regional Development Agencys press and news siteSouth West of England Regional Development Agency – South West region shown in red.
90. Saint Piran's Flag – Saint Pirans Flag is the flag of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The earliest known description of the flag as the Standard of Cornwall was written in 1838 and it is used by some Cornish people as a symbol of identity. It is a cross on a black background. The flag is attributed to Saint Piran, a 6th-century Cornish abbot, one early use of a white cross and black background design is the 15th-century coat of arms of the Saint-Peran family. At the Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant in June 2012, the flag was among those flown on the Royal Barge, Gloriana, though this was explained as innocent and nothing constitutional. However, the reference given by the Encyclopædia Britannica seems to have confused with one that comes from a 1590 poem entitled Poly-Olbion by Michael Drayton. It states that the banner carried by the Cornish men at Agincourt depicted two Cornish wrestlers in a hitch, however, Gilbert did not leave a record of his background research, and referred only to his recollection. One of the oldest depictions of the flag can be seen in a glass window at Westminster Abbey. It was unveiled in 1888, in memory of the famous Cornish inventor, the window depicts St Michael at the top and nine Cornish saints, Piran, Petroc, Pinnock, Germanus, Julian, Cyriacus, Constantine, Nonna and Geraint in tiers below. The head of St Piran appears to be a portrait of Trevithick himself, Saint Pirans Flag has similarities to the old Breton flag and the flag of Saint David. The cultural links between Brittany, Wales and Cornwall are well recorded, Saint Pirans Flag is the negative image of the old Breton flag, a black cross on a white field. The flag of Saint David shares a background with Saint Pirans Flag. The arms of the Saint-Peran family in Brittany, show a cross pattee on a black field. Geoffroy le Borgne of Brittany is described as de sable à croix dargent, rossillon de Gex, coat of arms described, De sable à la croix dargent. Brunet, de la Besse, coat of arms described, Dazur, rouvroy de Saint-Simon of Picardy, described, De sable à la croix dargent chargée de cinq coquilles. The flag is displayed on bumper stickers, and flying from buildings. It is flown at most Cornish gatherings, such as the Gorseth Kernow, St Pirans Day, Cambornes Trevithick Day, Padstows Obby Oss festival, Helstons Flora Day, and at Cornish rugby matches. It is regularly seen around Cornwall on car stickers with the word Kernow, at the Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant in June 2012, the flag was flown on the Royal Rowing Barge alongside the flags representing England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and the City of LondonSaint Piran's Flag – Souvenir flags outside a café
91. Media in Cornwall – The media in Cornwall has a long and distinct history. The county has a range of different types and quality of media. Cornwalls geography, a long, narrowing peninsula, pointing into the Atlantic, made travel by land slow, unreliable, selling and distribution of market goods used the sea and major rivers. However, improved telecommunications stimulated growth in the ports of Cornwall, before the arrival of mass media in Cornwall and telegraphy, since 1688, Falmouth was the hub of the Packet ships Post Office mail system. Newspapers were slow to develop in Cornwall, despite the first British newspaper starting in 1665, due to poor roads, and long distances, distribution of national newspapers did not start fully until the coming of the railways in the 1840s. Outside key urban areas like Truro and Falmouth, national news travelled slowly, mines used cork bulletin boards displayed in the dry, a building used for miners to change in and out of work clothes. The information displayed included, employment, tin output, rates of pay, little information was passed on concerning news from the neighbouring village, or the next market town along the road. Although the Cornish language had died out by the early nineteenth century. Different areas within Cornwall had their own variations from each other. It was more common for a miner, seeking work to travel from his home in West Cornwall to South Africa, than it was for him to travel to the Tamar Valley, or other mining locations within Cornwall. The communications with developing mining towns in the British Empire were better than they were within the county. With the major slump in mining at the end of the century, and the coming of the Great War, Cornwall was about to embark on a process of change. At Porthcurno in 1870 Britain became wired to the world, for the first time telegraphy made it possible for Britain to communicate with its colonies in the British Empire. The reason was to protect the cables from dredging damage in the busy Falmouth harbour, the completion of this cable in 1870 was the final link in the London to Bombay line. In 1872, this was one of the companies merged to form the Eastern Telegraph Company, the company developed a network of telegraphs by creating new routes and doubling and trebling cables on busy existing routes. In the early years of the 20th century, the Eastern became part of the Eastern, porthcurnos telegraphic code name was PK. In 1929 the company began to operate radio communications through a merger with Marconis radio network. In 1934 the name changed again to Cable & WirelessMedia in Cornwall – The telecommunications mast on Carnmenellis hill. The mound to the right is a covered reservoir according to the OS map
92. Music of Cornwall – Cornwall is a culturally Celtic nation, though Celtic-derived musical traditions had been moribund for some time before being revived during a late-20th-century roots revival. In medieval Cornwall there are records of performances of ‘Miracle Plays’ in the Cornish language, also minstrels were hired to play for saints day celebrations. The richest families retained their own minstrels, and many others employed minstrels on a casual basis, there were vigorous traditions of Morris dancing, mumming, guising, and social dance. The consequences of these events disadvantaged many gentry who had employed their own minstrels or patronised itinerant performers. Over the same period in art music the use of modes was largely supplanted by use of major and minor keys, altogether it was an extended cultural revolution, and it is unlikely that there were not musical casualties. Seasonal and community festivals, mumming and guising all flourished, some traditional tunes were used for hymns and carols. Church Feast Days and Sunday School treats were widespread—a whole village processing behind a band of musicians leading them to a picnic site and this left a legacy of marches and polkas. Records exist of dancing in farmhouse kitchens, and in fish cellars Cornish ceilidhs called troyls were common, thousands converge on Helston to witness the spectacle. The Sans Day Carol or St Day Carol is one of the many Cornish Christmas carols written in the 19th century. This carol and its melody were first transcribed from the singing of a villager in St Day in the parish of Gwennap, the lyrics are similar to those of The Holly, in Anglican churches the church bands were replaced by keyboard instruments and singing in unison became more usual. Folk songs include Sweet Nightingale, Little Eyes, and Lamorna, few traditional Cornish lyrics survived the decline of the language. In some cases lyrics of common English songs became attached to older Cornish tunes, some folk tunes have Cornish lyrics written since the language revival of the 1920s. The Cornish anthem that has been used by Gorseth Kernow for the last 75 plus years is Bro Goth Agan Tasow with a tune to the Welsh national anthem. Bro Goth Agan Tasow is not heard so often, as it is sung in Cornish, another popular Cornish anthem is Hail to the Homeland. Sabine Baring-Gould compiled Songs of the West, which contains songs from Devon and Cornwall, in collaboration with Henry Fleetwood Sheppard. Songs of the West was published by Methuen in conjunction with Watey and Willis, in a new edition songs omitted from the first edition were listed, and the music was edited by Cecil Sharp. The second edition mentions the third collaborator, the Rev. Dr. F. W. Bussell, Sheppard was Rector of Thurnscoe, Yorkshire, and his parochial duties limited the amount of time he could spend on the work. In Plymouth City Library are two volumes containing the material as collected, in all 202 songs with musicMusic of Cornwall – Brenda Wootton, "The Voice of Cornwall", during a performance
93. Cornish festivals – The cultural calendar of Cornwall is punctuated by numerous historic and community festivals and celebrations. In particular there are links between parishes and their patronal feast days. There is also a tradition of holding celebrations associated with tin mining and fishing, since the 1980s there has been a development of community based festivals in Cornwall often named after a famous local resident. These have included Murdoch day in Redruth, the Daphne du Maurier Festival in Fowey, Trevithick Day in Camborne, other modern festivals include, Falmouth oyster festival, Newlyn fish festival, Lowender Peran in Perranporth, Dehwelans Kernow and many more. In Moonta, South Australia, the Kernewek Lowender is the largest Cornish festival in the world, the following list is of festivals celebrated past and present in Cornwall which can be traced back over 100 years or more, often these celebrations have considerable antiquity. These have been classified separately to the above because they form a part of a Cornish indigenous culture, there have been attempts and successes to revive these celebrations where they have fallen into disuse. Today many of these ceremonies are kept alive by members of the Federation of Old Cornwall Societies. † = Parish feast day Charles Henderson Celtic Kalendar, giving the feast days of most of the parishes in the Diocese in, Cornish Church Guide Truro, Blackford, pp. 9–16Cornish festivals – Celebrating St Piran's Day in Penzance
94. Cornish wrestling – Cornish wrestling is a form of wrestling which has been established in Cornwall for several centuries. It is similar to the Breton Gouren wrestling style, the referee is known as a stickler, and it is claimed that the popular meaning of the word as a pedant originates from this usage. It is colloquially known as wrasslin in the Cornish dialect, the wrestlers in the Cornish style both wear tough jackets enabling them to gain better grip on their opponent. All holds are taken upon the other wrestlers jacket, grabbing of the wrists or fingers is forbidden as well as any holding below the waist. Although all holds are to be taken upon the jacket, the flat of the hand is allowed to be used to push or deflect an opponent, the objective of Cornish wrestling is to throw your opponent and make him land as flat as possible on his back. Three sticklers watch and control each bout whilst also recording down the score of points achieved in play, four pins are located on the back of a wrestler, two at the back of each shoulder and two either side just above the buttocks. The sticklers will each raise their sticks when they perceive a Back has been achieved, if two sticklers raise their sticks but one does not a back is still awarded. The Cornish Wrestling Association was formed in 1923 to standardize the rules and to promote Cornish Wrestling throughout Cornwall, the earliest written evidence for wrestling in the West Country comes from a 1590 poem entitled Poly-Olbion by Michael Drayton, concerning the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. It states that the Cornish men who accompanied Henry V into battle held a banner of two Cornish wrestlers in a hitch, Cornish, Devon and Breton wrestlers have long taken part in inter-Celtic matches since at least 1402 and these still occasionally continue. In early times Cornish and Devonian wrestlers often had matches against each other though the rules followed were not the same. One of these was the match between Richard Parkyn and the Devonian Jordan. In the 17th century, historian Richard Carew wrote of Cornish wrestling, wrastling is as full of manliness, more delightful and less dangerous. For you shall find a assembly of boyes in Devon and Cornwall. Sir Thomas Parkyns, known as the Wrestling Baronet, was a devotee of wrestling and his book on the subject The Inn-Play, or, the Cornish Hugg-Wrestler was published in 1713 and reprinted many times. A contest at Bodmin in 1811 attracted 4,000 spectators, the Cornish Wrestling Association was formed in 1923. In 1927 William Tregonning Hooper agreed with the Breton Dr. Cottonac of Quimper that there should be annual wrestling tournaments in which both Cornish and Breton wrestlers would compete. In the 1970s Truro Cathedral School was teaching Cornish wrestling as part of its education programme and was the only school in Cornwall to do so. Ashley Cawley is the current Heavyweight Champion of Cornwall, Ashley Cawley defended his title for the first time in 2006Cornish wrestling – Gerry and Ashley Cawley wrestling at Pendennis Castle, 6 May 2002
95. Cornish hurling – Hurling or Hurling the Silver Ball, is an outdoor team game played only in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is played with a silver ball. Hurling is not to be confused with the Irish game, also known as hurling, there are profound differences between the two sports. Once played widely in Cornwall, the game has similarities to other traditional football or inter parish mob games and it is considered by many to be Cornwalls national game along with Cornish wrestling. An old saying in the Cornish language goes, hyrlîan yw gen gwaré nyi which translated into English means, Hurling is our sport In August,1705, the parish burials register contains the following entry William Trevarthen buried in the church. Being disstroid to a hurling with Redruth men at the high dounes the 10th day of August and this is the only recorded death of a player during a hurling match. The ball for hurling is made of sterling silver which is hammered into two hemispheres and then bound around a core of applewood which is held together with a band of silver, the band hold screws or nails which hold the ball together. In St Columb the ball was crafted for a few years by John Turver, although since the 1990s, the winner of the ball has the right to keep it, but must have a new one made in its place for the next game. The price of a new ball is said to be around £1000, the current inscription on the St Columb ball is Town and Country, Do your best, which derives from the motto, Town and Country - do your best -for in this parish - I must rest. The ball weighs just over a pound but there is no size or weight, as the ball is handmade. There are examples of hurling balls on public display at Truro Museum, Lanhydrock House, St Ives Museum, St Agnes Museum, many are also held in private hands. One held at Penzance Museum is thought to be old and bears the following inscription in the Cornish language. 1704 The first two words signify Men of Paul, i. e. the owners of the ball. The last seven words may be translated literally into English as sweet play fair without hate to be called, which may be roughly translated as, Fair play is good play. Another comes from the legend of Setanta, nephew to the King of Ulster, no evidence exists to support these two theories. In Brittany, Normandy and Picardy a comparable game is known as la soule or choule, the earliest recorded game of Soule comes from Cornwall. Court records from 1283 show an entry in the plea rolls providing details of action taken when a man called Roger was accused of killing a fellow Soule player with a stone. One instance is recorded of a match between twenty-one Irish players from County Wexford and an number of Cornish players which was witnessed by George I of Great BritainCornish hurling – Pub sign at St Columb Major