1. Cornish language – Cornish is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Cornwall. The language is considered to be an important part of Cornish identity, culture and heritage. Along with Welsh and Breton, Cornish is descended directly from the Brittonic language spoken throughout much of Britain before the English language came to dominate. In 2010 UNESCO announced that its former classification of the language as "extinct" was "no longer accurate". Since the revival of the language, an increasing number of people are studying the language. Recent developments include Cornish music, children's books. The language is taught in many schools. The first Cornish crèche opened in 2010. Cornish is one of the Brittonic languages, which constitute a branch of the Insular Celtic section of the Celtic family. Brittonic also includes Welsh, the Cumbric language; the last is extinct. Scottish Gaelic, Irish and Manx are part of the Goidelic branch of Insular Celtic. Cornish evolved from the Common Brittonic spoken during the British Iron Age and Roman period. As a result of Anglo-Saxon expansion, the Britons of the southwest were separated from those in modern-day Wales and Cumbria. Some scholars have proposed that this split took place in about 577. The area controlled by the southwestern Britons was progressively reduced over the next few centuries.Cornish language – The opening verses of Origo Mundi, the first play of the Ordinalia (the magnum opus of medieval Cornish literature), written by an unknown monk in the late 14th century
2. England – England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated to the south. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain mostly comprises low plains, especially in southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the south west. The capital is London, the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles". The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used.England – Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument
3. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the UK is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants. Together, this makes it the fourth most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch—since 6 February 1952—is Queen Elizabeth II. Other major urban areas in the UK include the regions of Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow and Liverpool. The UK consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the United Kingdom have changed over time. Wales was annexed in 1542. In 1922, five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories.United Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
4. Great Britain – Great Britain, also known as Britain /ˈbrɪ.tən/, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, Great Britain is the ninth-largest in the world. The island is dominated with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, the island constitutes most of its territory. Most of England, Scotland, Wales are on the island. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted by the 1707 Acts of Union. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, later Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia. The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or possibly by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two very large islands in it, called the British Isles, Albion and Ierne". The name Britain descends from the land of the Britons. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Breoten, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together. Marcian in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι.Great Britain – Satellite image of Great Britain in April 2002
5. Celtic Sea – The southern and western boundaries are delimited by the continental shelf, which drops away sharply. The Isles of Scilly are an archipelago of small islands in the sea. The Celtic Sea takes its name to the north and east. The name was first proposed by E.W.L. Holt at a 1921 meeting in Dublin of fisheries experts from England, Wales, Ireland, Scotland and France. The need for a common name came to be felt because of the common marine biology, hydrology. It was adopted by marine oceanographers, later by petroleum exploration firms. There are no land features to divide the Celtic Sea to the south and west. For these limits, Holt suggested the island of Ushant off the tip of Brittany. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Celtic Sea as follows: On the North. The Southern limit of the Irish Sea, the South coast of Ireland, thence from Mizen Head a line drawn to a position 51°0′N 11°30′W. On the West and South. On the East. The Western limit of the English Channel and the Western limit of the Bristol Channel. The seabed under the Celtic Sea is called the Celtic Shelf, part of the continental shelf of Europe.Celtic Sea – Celtic Sea as viewed from Cork Harbour
6. English Channel – It varies from 240 km at its widest to 33.3 km in the Strait of Dover. It is the smallest of the shallow seas around the continental shelf of Europe, covering an area of some 75,000 km2. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the English Channel as follows: On the west. A line joining Isle Vierge to Lands End. On the east. The southwestern limit of the North Sea. The IHO defines the southwestern limit of the North Sea as "a line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point". Leathercoat Point is at the end of St Margaret's Bay, Kent. It reaches a maximum depth of 180 m in the submerged valley of Hurd's Deep, 48 km west-northwest of Guernsey. The coastline, particularly on the French shore, is deeply indented; small islands close to the coastline, including Mont Saint-Michel, are within French jurisdiction. The Celtic Sea is to the west of the Channel. The Channel is of geologically recent origins, having been dry land for most of the Pleistocene period. The flood would have lasted for several months, releasing as much as one million cubic metres of water per second. The cause of the breach may have been the build-up of water pressure in the lake. The flood carved a bedrock-floored valley down the length of the Channel, leaving behind longitudinal erosional grooves characteristic of catastrophic megaflood events.English Channel – English Channel
7. Devon – Devon is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is part of South West England, bounded by Cornwall to the west, Dorset to the east. Combined as a ceremonial county, its population is about 1.1 million. Devon derives its name from Dumnonia, which, during the British Iron Age, Early Medieval was the homeland of the Dumnonii Brittonic Celts. The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain resulted in the partial assimilation of Dumnonia during the eighth and ninth centuries. The western boundary with Cornwall was set by King Æthelstan in 936. Devon was constituted as a shire of the Kingdom of England thereafter. The county's bays contain seaside resorts, fishing towns, ports. The inland terrain is rural, generally hilly, has a low density in comparison to many other parts of England. Dartmoor is the largest open space at 954 km2, its moorland extending across a large expanse of granite bedrock. To the north of Dartmoor are the Culm Measures and Exmoor. As well as agriculture, much of the economy of Devon is linked with tourism. In the Brittonic, Devon is known as Welsh: Dyfnaint, Breton: Devnent and Cornish: each meaning "deep valleys." However, there are references to "Defenascire" from before 1000 AD, which translates to modern English as "Devonshire". The Devonshire may have originated around the 8th century, when it changed from Dumnonia to Defenascir.Devon – Menhir at Drizzlecombe
8. River Tamar – The Tamar is a river in south west England, that forms most of the border between Devon and Cornwall. The area is a World Heritage Site due to its historic mining activities. The total length of the river is 61 miles. At its mouth, the Tamar flows before entering Plymouth Sound, a bay of the English Channel. Tributaries of the river include Inny, Ottery, Kensey and Lynher on the Cornish side, the Deer and Tavy on the Devon side. The Tamar was mentioned by Ptolemy in the second century in his Geography. The name is said to mean "Great Water." It is unclear which of the towns along the Tamar this refers to. The Roman fort at Calstock have been variously suggested. The river is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. It is also designated as part of the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape. Together, the Tamar, Tavy and Lynher form a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The Tamar Valley Area of Natural Beauty covers around 195 km2 around the lower Tamar and its tributaries the Tavy and the Lynher. It was not designated until 1995. The highest point in the AONB is 334 metres above sea level.River Tamar – The Tamar near Bohetherick
9. Truro – Truro is a city and civil parish in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. Truro is Cornwall's county only city, its centre for administration, leisure and retail and had a population recorded in the 2011 census of 18,766. It is the most southern city in mainland Great Britain. People from Truro are known as Truronians. Truro grew from its port and then as a stannary town for the tin mining industry. The city's cathedral was completed in 1910. Places of interest include the Hall for Cornwall and Cornwall's Courts of Justice. The origin of Truro's name is debated. The "tru" part might mean "three", though this is doubtful. Oliver Padel, in his book A Popular Dictionary of Cornish Place-names, wrote that the ` three rivers' meaning is "possible". Alternatively the name may derive from * tre-uro or i.e. the settlement on the river * uro. Archaeological findings of a permanent settlement in the Truro area originate from Norman times. The town was awarded borough status to further economic activity. The castle has long since gone. Richard de Lucy fought in Cornwall after leaving Falaise late in 1138.Truro – Truro Cathedral, as seen here dominates the city.
10. Celts – The history of pre-Celtic Europe remains very uncertain. Thus this area is sometimes called the'Celtic homeland'. The earliest direct examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions, beginning in the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested exclusively through inscriptions and place-names. Insular Celtic is attested beginning around the 4th AD through Ogham inscriptions, although it was clearly being spoken much earlier. Literary tradition begins with Old Irish texts around the 8th century. Coherent texts such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge, survive in 12th-century recensions. Between the 8th centuries, the Celtic-speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a reasonably cohesive cultural entity. They had a common linguistic, artistic heritage that distinguished them from the culture of the surrounding polities. By the 6th century, however, the Continental Celtic languages were longer in wide use. Insular Celtic culture diversified into the Brythonic Celts of the medieval and modern periods. Cornish and Manx are undergoing a revival. In the 5th century BC Herodotus referred to Keltoi living also in the far west of Europe. The etymology of the term Keltoi is unclear. Possible roots include Indo-European * k ´ el - ` to hide', IE * * kel - ` to impel'.Celts – Celtic stele from Galicia, 2nd century AD: “APANA·AMBO / LLI· F(ilia)·CELTICA / SUPERTAM(arica) · / (j) MIOBRI· / AN(norum)· XXV·H(ic)·S(ita)·E(st)· / APANUS·FR(ater)· F(aciendum)·C(uravit)”
11. Wales – Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Bristol Channel to the south. It has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit. The country has a changeable, maritime climate. The whole of Wales was incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 -- 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party. National feeling grew over the century; Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. Two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and in the nearby valleys. Wales' 2010 gross value added was # billion. The language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness.Wales – Bryn Celli Ddu, a late Neolithic chambered tomb on Anglesey
12. Battle of Deorham – The Battle of Deorham was a decisive military encounter between the West Saxons and the Britons of the West Country in 577. It also led from Wales. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is the only source that carries a mention of the battle. Although it gives few details, it describes it as a major engagement. The location of the Deorham is Hinton Hill near to Dyrham in South Gloucestershire. This is generally taken to be Dyrham in what is now South Gloucestershire, on the Cotswolds escarpment a few miles north of Bath. Three kings of the Britons, whose names are given as Conmail, Condidan, Farinmail, were slain. The three opposing British kings were killed. The military historian Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Burne, employing his theory of ` Inherent Military Probability' opted than Baddeley. The three forces of Britons concentrated to stop him. A last stand in this position would explain why none of the three Briton leaders was able to escape. Archaeological research has found that many of the villas in the post-Roman era were still occupied around these cities. This suggests the area was controlled by relatively wealthy Britons. However they were eventually destroyed as the territory came under the control of Wessex. The Saxons took many years to colonise Gloucester and Bath.Battle of Deorham – Earthworks around Hinton Hill just north of Dyrham
13. Kingdom of Cornwall – Cornwall was part of the territory of the tribe of the Dumnonii that included modern-day Devon and parts of Somerset. After the collapse of Dumnonia, the remaining territory of Cornwall came with neighbouring Wessex. It kept its own culture. In 1337, the title Duke of Cornwall was created by the English monarchy, to be held by heir. Conflicts with the centre took place with Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549. The Industrial Revolution brought huge change to Cornwall, well as the adoption of methodism among the general populace, turning the area nonconformist. The human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The inhabitants may have been related to the Iberians who occupied Spain and Portugal. Prehistoric remains in general are more numerous in Cornwall than in any other English county except Wiltshire. The remains include menhirs, barrows and hut circles. Neighbouring Devon had large reserves of tin, mined extensively during the Bronze Age by people associated with the Beaker culture. This prosperity helped feed the skilfully wrought gold ornaments recovered from Wessex culture sites. Around 750 BCE the Iron Age reached Britain, permitting greater scope of agriculture through the use of new iron axes. The building of hill forts also peaked during the British Iron Age. During broadly Celtic cultures and peoples spread across the British Isles.Kingdom of Cornwall – Boscawen-Un stone circle looking north
14. Wessex – Wessex was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century. This may be a legend. The two main sources for the history of Wessex are the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List, which sometimes conflict. Wessex was expanded under his rule. Cædwalla later conquered Sussex, the Isle of Wight. Ine, issued one of the oldest surviving English law codes and established a second West Saxon bishopric. The throne subsequently passed with unknown genealogies. During the 8th century, as the hegemony of Mercia grew, Wessex largely retained its independence. It was during this period that the system of shires was established. Under Mercia, along with parts of Dumnonia, were conquered. He also obtained the overlordship of the Northumbrian king. However, Mercian independence was restored in 830. During the reign of Æthelwulf, a Danish army arrived in the Thames estuary, but was decisively defeated. When Æthelbald, usurped the throne, the kingdom was divided to avoid war. Æthelwulf was succeeded by his four sons, the youngest being Alfred the Great.Wessex – Imaginary depiction of Cerdic from John Speed 's 1611 "Saxon Heptarchy"
15. English people – The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England, who speak the English language. The English identity is of medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn. Their ethnonym is derived from one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England along with the later Danes, other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire. The 1990s witnessed a revival in English self-consciousness. Recent immigrants to England have assumed a solely British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their national identity. They found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British". It is unclear how many British people consider themselves English. Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to "allow respondents to their English, Welsh, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity." Another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words "English" and "British" to be used interchangeably, overseas.English people
16. Cornish people – Although not included as an explicit option in the UK census, the numbers of those claiming Cornish national identity are officially recognised and recorded. Its demonym Cornish are derived from the Celtic Cornovii tribe. The Battle of Deorham between the Britons and Anglo-Saxons is thought to have resulted with the people of Wales. Their Brythonic Cornish language experienced a process of anglicisation and attrition during the Medieval and early Modern Period. In the 2011 census, the population of Cornwall, including the Isles of Scilly was estimated to be 532,300. Weighting of the 2001 Census data gives ethnicity living in Cornwall. The Cornish have been described as "a special case" with an "ethnic rather than regional identity". The British are the citizens of a people who by convention consist of four national groups: the English, Northern Irish, Scots and Welsh. Meanwhile, Josh Matavesi, describes himself as Cornish-Fijian and Cornish not English. A survey by Plymouth University in 2000 found that 30% of children in Cornwall felt "Cornish, not English". The other 42% may be the result of in-migration to the area during the second half of the twentieth century. The study was conducted amongst the community as they were deemed to be the socio-professional group most objectively representative of Cornishness. All participants identified Cornish as their primary ethnic group orientation. Those in the west primarily thought as Cornish and British/Celtic while those in the east tended to think of themselves as Cornish and English. All participants in West Cornwall who not English described people in East Cornwall, without hesitation, as equally Cornish as themselves.Cornish people – The Union and Cornish flags.
17. Homeland – As a common noun, it simply connotes the country of one's origin. When used as the word, as well as its equivalents in other languages, often have ethnic nationalist connotations. People often refer to Mother Russia as a personification of the Russian nation. This view however was not shared by many in Britain, leading to racial tension as immigration increased. India is often personified as Bharat Mata. Fatherland is the nation of one's "fathers" or "forefathers". It can be viewed as a nationalist concept, insofar as it relates to nations. The fatherland is used throughout German-speaking Europe, as well as in Dutch. For example, "Wien Neêrlands Bloed", national anthem of the Netherlands between 1932, makes extensive and conspicuous use of the parallel Dutch word. This is not the case in Germany itself, where the word remains used in the patriotic contexts. As patria has feminine gender, it is usually used in expressions related to one's mother, as in Portuguese a Pátria Mãe. The Soviet Union created homelands for some minorities including the Volga German ASSR and the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. In the case of the Volga German ASSR, their inhabitants deported to either Siberia or the Kazakh SSR. Homeland isn't really an American word, it's not something we used to say now". In the era in South Africa, the concept was given a different meaning.Homeland – La liberté guidant le peuple by Eugène Delacroix personifies the French motherland
18. Cornish diaspora – The Cornish diaspora consists of Cornish people and their descendants who emigrated from Cornwall, Britain. The diaspora is found in countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, Mexico, New Zealand, Brazil. There is a saying in Cornwall that "a mine is a hole anywhere in the world with at least one Cornishman at the bottom of it!" The Cornish economy profited from the miners’ work abroad. Some men sent back "pay", which helped to keep their families out of the workhouse. As well as their mining skills, the Cornish emigrants carried their way of life with them when they travelled. They did not lose contact with either the people or the customs of their homeland. A plethora of Cornish family history and genealogy groups exist. In Moonta, South Australia, the Kernewek Lowender attracts tens of thousands of visitors each year. In its heyday Moonta was predominately settled by Cornish miners and their families. It is known as ` Australia's Little Cornwall'. Many houses have Cornish names. The area is intensely proud of its Cornish heritage. Many of the original miners' cottages made from daub still stand and are still lived in by local residents. In South Australia, the town of Burra has Cornish connections.Cornish diaspora – A statue commemorating Cornish and German miners in Bendigo, Victoria, Australia
19. Celtic nations – The Celtic nations are territories in western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived. It is not synonymous with "sovereign state". The six territories widely considered Celtic nations are Brittany, Cornwall, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, the Isle of Man, commonly referred to as the "Celtic fringe". Each has a Celtic language, either still spoken or was spoken into modern times. Unlike the others, however, no Celtic language has been spoken there in modern times. Each of the six nations has its own Celtic language. In the latter two regions, however, language revitalization movements have led to the adoption of these languages by adults and produced a number of native speakers. Generally these communities are in more isolated island areas. The term Gàidhealtachd historically distinguished the Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland from the Lowland Scots areas. More recently, this term has also been adopted as the Gaelic name of the Highland council area, which includes non-Gaelic speaking areas. Hence, more specific terms such as sgìre Ghàidhlig are now used. In Wales, the Welsh language is a core curriculum subject, which all pupils study. Additionally, 20% of school children in Wales go to Welsh medium schools, where they are taught entirely in the Welsh language. Parts of the northern Iberian Peninsula, namely Galicia, Cantabria, Asturias and Northern Portugal, also lay claim to this heritage. Notably, the region's music features extensive use of an common in Celtic music.Celtic nations – Pipers at the Festival Interceltique de Lorient
20. History of Cornwall – Cornwall was part of the territory of the tribe of the Dumnonii that included modern-day Devon and parts of Somerset. After the collapse of Dumnonia, the remaining territory of Cornwall came with neighbouring Wessex. It kept its own culture. In 1337, the title Duke of Cornwall was created by the English monarchy, to be held by heir. Conflicts with the centre took place with Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549. The Industrial Revolution brought huge change to Cornwall, well as the adoption of methodism among the general populace, turning the area nonconformist. The human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The inhabitants may have been related to the Iberians who occupied Spain and Portugal. Prehistoric remains in general are more numerous in Cornwall than in any other English county except Wiltshire. The remains include menhirs, barrows and hut circles. Neighbouring Devon had large reserves of tin, mined extensively during the Bronze Age by people associated with the Beaker culture. This prosperity helped feed the skilfully wrought gold ornaments recovered from Wessex culture sites. Around 750 BCE the Iron Age reached Britain, permitting greater scope of agriculture through the use of new iron axes. The building of hill forts also peaked during the British Iron Age. During broadly Celtic cultures and peoples spread across the British Isles.History of Cornwall – Boscawen-Un stone circle looking north
21. Culture of Cornwall – The culture of Cornwall forms part of the culture of the United Kingdom, but has distinct customs, traditions and peculiarities. A non-metropolitan and ceremonial county of England, a duchy, a Celtic nation, has many strong local traditions. After many years of decline, many groups exist to promote Cornwall's culture and language today. The Cornish language is a Celtic language related to Breton and Welsh. All of these are directly descended from the British language, once spoken throughout most of Britain. Some events will use Cornish, in short phrases, openings, names. There is a healthy tradition of music in the language, which can also be enjoyed by non-speakers. . A sign of this role is that two of Cornwall's five MPs once swore their oaths in Cornish. Brittany further afield. Cornwall produced a substantial number of passion plays during the Middle Ages. Many provide valuable information about the language: they were performed in round ` plen a gwary' open-air theatres. Writing in the Cornish dialect has generally been overshadowed by the Cornish language. However, short stories have been published, often with a typically Cornish humour. Some Cornish newspapers have featured a column written in Cornish dialect.Culture of Cornwall – Entrance at Truro Cathedral has welcome sign in several languages, including Cornish
22. Economy of Cornwall – The economy of Cornwall in South West England, is largely dependent upon agriculture followed by tourism. Farming and processing contributed # 366 million to the county, equal to 5.3 % of Cornwall's total GVA. Tourism contributed # 1.85 billion in 2011. An updated overview of the Cornish economy can be found here Cornwall qualified for Objective One European funding in 1999. Prior to this the Government had, for statistical purposes, incorporated it under the Devonwall concept. Due to Cornwall producing less than 75 % of the European GDP, # 350 million of Objective One funding was received between 2000 and 2006. The Combined Universities Campus at Tremough was one result of this funding. Other sectors have also benefited, including the ` creative industries', which have benefited from investment. Broadband provision was made a priority. In 2005, Cornwall qualified once again for Objective One. This ` tranche' was due to last between the beginning of 2008 and 2013, be worth # 445 million. Priorities for the 2008–13 tranche have an emphasis on information and communication technologies, competitiveness, enterprise and a providing a skilled workforce. It became the company's national distribution centre. In March 2008 it was announced that the depot was to close. The Gaia Energy Centre at Delabole, opened as a tourist attraction.Economy of Cornwall – The Eden Project, constructed in a used kaolin pit
23. Mining in Cornwall – Tin and also copper were the most productive of the metals extracted: some tin mining continued long after mining of other metals had become unprofitable. Copper mining has occurred in Cornwall and Devon, as well as arsenic, silver, zinc and a few other metals. As of 2007 there are no active mines remaining. However, there is talk of reopening South Crofty tin mine. Furthermore, work has commenced to re-open the Hemerdon tungsten and mine in south-west Devon. Quarrying of metamorphic rocks has also been a significant industry: in the 20th century the extraction of kaolin was the most important economically. It is thought that ore was exploited in Cornwall as early as the Bronze Age. Over the years, other metals such as copper, lead, zinc and silver have all been mined in Cornwall. Alquifou, is a lead ore found in Cornwall, used for its green glaze. Cornwall and Devon provided most of the United Kingdom's tin, arsenic until the 20th century. Eventually underground working took place. Tin lodes outcropped on underground mines sprang up as early as the 16th century. Tin is one of the earliest metals to have been exploited in Britain. Chalcolithic metal workers discovered that by putting a small amount of tin in copper an alloy called bronze was produced, harder than copper. The strategic importance of tin in forging bronze weapons brought the southwest of Britain at an early date.Mining in Cornwall – Openworks near the Warren House Inn, Dartmoor – looking down one gully towards a group of them in the middle distance, and more on the left side of the ridge beyond
24. Fishing – Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, trapping. Fishing may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods, echinoderms. The term is not normally applied to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. According to United Nations FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be million. Aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries. In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms. In addition to providing food, modern fishing is also a recreational pastime. Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago. A 40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he regularly consumed freshwater fish. Archaeology features such as shell middens, cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. During this period, most people were, of necessity, constantly on the move. They were also sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water. The great fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of ` Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'.Fishing – Stilts fishermen, Sri Lanka
25. Tourism – Tourism is travel for pleasure; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, entertaining tourists, the business of operating tours. Tourism may be international, or within the traveler's country. International tourism has both outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. International tourism receipts grew in 2011 corresponding from 2010. The ITB Berlin is the world's leading fair. The tourist was used by 1811. Tourism is an important, even vital, source of income for many regions and countries. It also creates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism. This is to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs, other supplies. In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours". Its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home. In this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the locations visited.Tourism – A tourist taking photographs and video at archaeological site
26. Moorland – Moorland nowadays generally means uncultivated hill land, but includes low-lying wetlands. It is closely related to heath although experts disagree on precisely what distinguishes the types of vegetation. Generally, moor refers to highland, rainfall zones, whereas heath refers to lowland zones which are more likely to be the result of human activity. Most of the world's moorlands are very diverse ecosystems. In the extensive moorlands of the tropics biodiversity can be extremely high. Moorland also bears a relationship to tundra, inhabiting the area between the permafrost and the natural tree zone. The boundary between moorland constantly shifts with climate change. Heathland and moorland are the most extensive areas of semi-natural vegetation in the British Isles. The British moorlands are similar to heaths but are differentiated by having a covering of peat. On western moors the layer may be several metres thick. There is uncertainty about how many moors were created by human activity. How much the deforestation was caused by climatic changes and how much by human activity is uncertain. A variety of distinct habitat types are found in different world regions of moorland. The vegetation forms often lead to high endemism because of the severe soil and microclimate characteristics. For example, in England's Exmoor is found the rare horse breed the Exmoor Pony, which has adapted to the harsh conditions of that environment.Moorland – Extensive moorland in the Desert of Wales
27. Flora and fauna of Cornwall – Ferns, mosses, liverworts, fungi can all be found in the county. In the wettest areas of Bodmin Moor, bog moss can be found. Cornwall is home to rare flower species, especially at the southern end of the Lizard, due to its unique soil and geology. The coast of Cornwall features maritime grassland, heathland and stunted woodland. The county's coastal waters are home to large populations of seals. Porpoises, sharks are not uncommonly seen. St Ives recently made newspaper headlines after a reported sighting of a white shark. The etymology of the word is obscure. A common suggestion is that it combines tenacious hunting habits. Another is that it is derived from the Cornish porth, bugel, meaning "shepherd". Squalus cornubicus; Lamna cornubica are other Latin names for the porbeagle. Swanpool is the only location in the British Isles in which the bryozoan Victorella pavida is found. The sea cliffs host marine bird species with the Cornish chough recently returning to the county after a long absence. This rare bird holds the honour of being the county animal of Cornwall. The tidal estuaries along the coasts contain large numbers of wading birds, while marshland bird species frequently settle in the mires inland.Flora and fauna of Cornwall – Some of the plants in Trebah garden
28. Cornwall – Cornwall is a ceremonial county and unitary authority area of England within the United Kingdom. Cornwall covers an area of 3,563 km2. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall. This area was first inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods. It continued to then Bronze Age peoples, later by Brythons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Wales and Brittany. Few Roman remains have been found. In the mid-19th century, however, the copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, metal mining had virtually ended by the 1990s. Traditionally, agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led in the 20th century; however, Cornwall's economy struggled after the decline of the mining and fishing industries. Extensive stretches of Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Cornwall is recognised as one of the Celtic nations, retaining a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history. On April 2014 it was announced that Cornish people will be granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. The Cornwall derives from the combination of two separate terms from different languages. The Corn- part comes from the hypothesised original tribal name of the Celtic people who had lived here since the Iron Age, the Cornovii.Cornwall – "Cornweallas" shown on an early 19th-century map of "Saxon England" (and Wales) based on the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
29. Cornish Rex – A Cornish Rex is a breed of domestic cat. The Cornish Rex has no hair except for down. Cornish Rexes only have the undercoat. The curl in Cornish Rex fur is caused by a different gene than that of the Devon Rex. It originates from Cornwall, Britain. The coat of a Cornish Rex is sometimes curly. Their light coat means that they are best suited for indoor living in dry conditions, as they are sensitive to low temperatures. Cornish Rexes like to stay warm places such as computer monitors, light bulbs, shoulders. The breed is sometimes referred to as the Greyhound of the cats, because of the galloping run characteristic of the breed. These cats tend to stay kittenish throughout their long lives. Some Cornish Rexes like to play fetch, other pets, or do acrobatic jumps. The Cornish Rex is very intelligent. It will explore wherever it can go, jumping into refrigerators, examining washing machines, etc.. The Rex is extremely curious, is friendly towards other companion animals. It is a suitable pet for timid children.Cornish Rex – Cornish Rex
30. Cat breedCat breed – Abyssinian
31. Cat – The domestic cat is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal. Cats are often valued to hunt vermin. There are more than 70 cat breeds; different associations proclaim different numbers according to their standards. Cats are similar in anatomy with a strong, flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws, teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high such as those made by mice and other small animals. They can see in near darkness. Like most other mammals, cats have a better sense of smell than humans. Cats have a high rate. Under controlled breeding, they can be shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known as cat fancy. In certain areas outside cats' native range, this has contributed, along with other factors, to the extinction of many bird species. Cats may have contributed to the extinction of isolated island populations. Stephen J. O'Brien argues that a disease not so different from HIV was found in house cats. A genetic study in 2007 concluded that domestic cats are descended from Near Eastern wildcats, having diverged around 8,000 BC in West Asia. As of a 2007 study, cats are the second most popular pet in the US by number behind freshwater fish.Cat – Domestic cat
32. Down hair – Fur is also used to refer to animal pelts which have been processed with the hair still attached. If layered, rather than grown as a single coat, it may consist of short down long guard hairs, in some cases, medium awn hairs. Mammals with reduced amounts of fur are often called "naked", as with "hairless", as with hairless dogs. An animal with commercially valuable fur is known as a furbearer. Its principal function is thermoregulation; it maintains a layer of dry air next to the skin and repels water, thus providing thermal insulation. Guard hair — the top layer consisting of longer, generally coarser, nearly straight shafts of hair that protrude through the down hair layer. The distal ends of the guard hairs provide the externally visible layer of the coat of most mammals with well-developed fur. This layer of the coat gloss, including coat patterns adapted to display or camouflage. It is also adapted to shedding water and protecting the undercoat and skin from external factors such as rain and ultraviolet radiation. Many animals, such as domestic cats, erect their guard hairs as part of their threat display when agitated. Mammals with well-developed down and guard hairs usually have large numbers of awn hairs. This portion of the hair is called awn. The rest of the growth is wavy, much like down hair. In many species of mammals, the awn hairs comprise the bulk of the visible coat. Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals, however, several breeds have considerably reduced amounts of fur.Down hair – Opossum fur
33. Mutation – In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements. Mutations may also result from deletion of segments of DNA due to genetic elements. Mutations may or may not produce discernible changes in the observable characteristics of an organism. Mutations play a part in both abnormal biological processes including junctional diversity. The genomes of RNA viruses are based on RNA rather than DNA. The RNA viral genome can be single stranded. In some of these viruses replication occurs quickly and there are no mechanisms to check the genome for accuracy. This error-prone process often results in mutations. Mutation can result in many different types of change in sequences. Mutations in genes can either prevent the gene from functioning properly or completely. Mutations can also occur in nongenic regions. Mutations can involve the duplication of large sections of DNA, usually through genetic recombination. These duplications are a major source of raw material for evolving new genes, with tens to hundreds of genes duplicated in animal genomes every million years. Most genes belong to larger gene families of shared ancestry, known as homology. Other types of mutation occasionally create new genes from previously noncoding DNA.Mutation – A mutation has caused this garden moss rose to produce flowers of different colors. This is a somatic mutation that may also be passed on in the germline.
34. 1950s – The 1950s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1950, ended on December 31, 1959. Clashes between communism and capitalism dominated the decade, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. The conflicts included the Korean War in the beginnings of the decade and the beginning of the Space Race with the launch of Sputnik 1. Along with increased testing of nuclear weapons, this created a politically conservative climate. The beginning of decolonization in Africa and Asia took place in this decade and accelerated in the following decade. On September 15, General Douglas MacArthur conducted Operation Chromite, an amphibious landing at the city of Inchon. The North Korean army collapsed, within a few days, MacArthur's army retook Seoul. He then pushed north, capturing Pyongyang in October. The following month drove UN forces again. This was against others who wanted a limited war. He was dismissed and replaced by General Matthew Ridgeway. The war then became a bloody stalemate for the next two and a half years while peace negotiations dragged on. The war left Prisoner of war. Estimates place Chinese casualties at 1,000,000 -- 140,000 MIA or POW. The Vietnam War began in 1959.1950s – Korean War
35. Guard hair – Fur is also used to refer to animal pelts which have been processed with the hair still attached. If layered, rather than grown as a single coat, it may consist of short down long guard hairs, in some cases, medium awn hairs. Mammals with reduced amounts of fur are often called "naked", as with "hairless", as with hairless dogs. An animal with commercially valuable fur is known as a furbearer. Its principal function is thermoregulation; it maintains a layer of dry air next to the skin and repels water, thus providing thermal insulation. Guard hair — the top layer consisting of longer, generally coarser, nearly straight shafts of hair that protrude through the down hair layer. The distal ends of the guard hairs provide the externally visible layer of the coat of most mammals with well-developed fur. This layer of the coat gloss, including coat patterns adapted to display or camouflage. It is also adapted to shedding water and protecting the undercoat and skin from external factors such as rain and ultraviolet radiation. Many animals, such as domestic cats, erect their guard hairs as part of their threat display when agitated. Mammals with well-developed down and guard hairs usually have large numbers of awn hairs. This portion of the hair is called awn. The rest of the growth is wavy, much like down hair. In many species of mammals, the awn hairs comprise the bulk of the visible coat. Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals, however, several breeds have considerably reduced amounts of fur.Guard hair – Opossum fur
36. Mark of Cornwall – Mark of Cornwall was a king of Kernow in the early 6th century. He is most famous as the uncle of Tristan and husband of Iseult, who engage in a secret affair. Mark sent Tristan as his proxy to fetch the Princess Iseult, from Ireland. Tristan and Iseult fall in love, and, with the help of a magic potion, proceed to have one of the stormiest love affairs in medieval literature. Eventually his suspicions are confirmed. In some versions, he banishes Iseult to a leper colony. Tristan escapes the hanging and rescues Mark's bride from her confinement, later to be discovered by Mark. Mark eventually forgives them, with Iseult returning to Mark and Tristan leaving the country. The story is cyclical with Mark suspecting Tristan and Iseult of adultery and then believing they were innocent. This happened again in the story. In the Beroul version, Tristan and Iseult are never in grave danger due to the narrator's declaration that God were on their side. In the Prose Tristan, Mark's character deteriorates to a downright villain. He then murders her when she produces his son, Meraugis. He murders his brother Baldwin well. In these legends, Mark is usually seen as ruling Cornwall from Tintagel Castle.Mark of Cornwall – 14th century depiction of Mark of Cornwall from the Tristan Quilt.
37. 6th century – The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. In the West this century marks the end of Classical Antiquity and the beginning of the Middle Ages. From this upheaval the Franks rose to prominence, carved out a sizeable domain encompassing much of modern France and Germany. During its second Golden Age, the Sassanid Empire reached the peak of its power under Khosrau I in the 6th century. The classical Gupta Empire of Northern India, largely overrun by the Huna, ended in the mid-6th century. In Japan, the Kofun period gave way to the Asuka period. The Three Kingdoms of Korea persisted throughout the 6th century. The Göktürks became a major power in Central Asia after defeating the Rouran. In the Americas, Teotihuacan began to decline in the 6th century after having reached its zenith between AD 150 and 450. Classic Period of the Maya civilization in Central America. Early 6th century – Ah Suytok Tutul Xiu founds Uxmal. Early 6th century – Archangel Michael, panel of a dyptich probably from the court workshop at Constantinople, is made. It is now kept at The British Museum, London. Early 6th century – Page with Rebecca at the Well, from "Book of Genesis", probably made in Syria or Palestine, is made. It is now kept at Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna.6th century – This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century.
38. King Arthur – The details of Arthur's story are mainly composed of folklore and literary invention, his historical existence is debated and disputed by modern historians. The historical background of Arthur is gleaned from various sources, including the Annales Cambriae, the Historia Brittonum, the writings of Gildas. Arthur's name also occurs in poetic sources such as Y Gododdin. Arthur is a central figure in the legends making up the so-called Matter of Britain. The legendary Arthur developed largely through the popularity of Geoffrey of Monmouth's fanciful and imaginative 12th-century Historia Regum Britanniae. How much of Geoffrey's Historia was adapted from such earlier sources, rather than invented by Geoffrey himself, is unknown. Geoffrey depicted Arthur as a king of Britain who established an empire over Britain, Ireland, Iceland, Norway and Gaul. In these French stories, the focus often shifts from King Arthur himself to other characters, such as various Knights of the Round Table. Arthurian literature waned in the centuries that followed until it experienced a major resurgence in the 19th century. In the 21st century, the legend lives on, not only also in adaptations for theatre, film, television, comics and other media. The historical basis for the King Arthur legend has long been debated by scholars. These culminate in the Battle of Badon, where he is said to have single-handedly killed 960 men. Recent studies, however, question the reliability of the Historia Brittonum. The Annales date this battle to 516–518, also mention the Battle of Camlann, in which Arthur and Medraut were both killed, dated to 537–539. These details have often been used to confirm that Arthur really did fight at Badon.King Arthur – Tapestry showing Arthur as one of the Nine Worthies, wearing a coat of arms often attributed to him (c. 1385)
39. Tristan – KEKB is a particle accelerator used in the Belle experiment to study CP violation. KEKB is located in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. There are basically two rings for accelerating positrons. The HER and LER are constructed side-by-side in the tunnel, excavated already in the past for the former accelerator. The RF cavities in the HER use superconducting RF technology, whereas the RF cavities in the LER use a normal design denoted ARES. The circumference of each ring is 3016 m, having four straight sections. In the KEKB, there is only one interaction point in the "Tsukuba area", where the Belle experiment is located. The other areas are currently not actively used by an experiment. KEKB's leading finite crossing angle design provides its high luminosity. However, the improvement is not clear and currently under tuning. KEKB is still the world's highest machine. Its latest record is of more than 2.11 × 10 34 c m − 2 s − 1. Crab cavity Superconducting radio frequencyTristan
40. Iseult – Iseult, alternatively Isolde, Iseo, Yseult, Isode, Isoude, Izolda, Esyllt, Isotta, is the name of several characters in the Arthurian story of Tristan and Iseult. The most prominent is adulterous lover of Sir Tristan. Her mother, the Queen of Ireland, is also named Iseult. The third is Iseult of the White Hands, eventual wife of Tristan. Iseult of Ireland, is the daughter of Queen Iseult the Elder. Iseult is first seen as a young princess who heals Tristan from wounds he received fighting her uncle, Morholt. When his identity is revealed, Tristan flees back to his own land. Later, Tristan returns to Ireland to gain Iseult's hand for King Mark of Cornwall. The two fall hopelessly in love, begin an affair that ends when Mark banishes Tristan from Cornwall. Mark is much less sympathetic in these versions, the adulterers eventually flee from his wrath. They engage in further adventures. In the prose versions, the lovers' end comes when Mark finds them as Tristan plays the harp for Iseult beneath a tree. The cruel king stabs his nephew in the back, Tristan, at Iseult's request, fatally crushes his beloved in a tight embrace as his final act. One of her rumored burial sites is Chapelizod in Dublin, Ireland. After King Mark learns of the secret love affair between Tristan and Iseult, he banishes Tristan to Brittany, never to return to Cornwall.Iseult – Tristan and Iseult as depicted by Herbert Draper (1863–1920).
41. Ireland – Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the twentieth-largest on Earth. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. The island has a product of its mild but changeable climate which avoids extremes in temperature. Thick woodlands covered the island until the Middle Ages. As of 2013, the amount of land, wooded in Ireland is about 11% of the total, compared with a European average of 35%. There are extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is classified as oceanic. As a result, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area. However, summers are cooler than those in Continental Europe. Cloud cover are abundant. The earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC.Ireland – Satellite image of Ireland on 11 October 2010
42. Tristan and Iseult – Tristan and Iseult is a tale made popular during the 12th century through French medieval poetry, inspired by Celtic legend. It has become an influential romance and tragedy, retold in numerous sources with many variations. The tragic story is of the adulterous love between the Cornish knight Tristan and the Irish princess Iseult. While the details of the story differ from one author to another, the overall plot structure remains much the same. There are two main traditions of the Tristan legend. The early tradition comprised the French romances of two poets from the second half of the twelfth century, Thomas of Britain and Béroul. Their sources could be traced back to the original, archetypal Celtic romance. Later traditions come from the Prose Tristan, markedly different from the earlier tales written by Thomas and Béroul. The story and character of Tristan vary from poet to poet. Even the spelling of his name varies a great deal, although "Tristan" is the most popular spelling. Most versions of the Tristan story follow the same general outline. After defeating the Irish knight Morholt, Tristan goes to Ireland to bring back the fair Iseult for his uncle King Mark to marry. Along the way, they ingest a love potion which causes the pair to fall madly in love. In the courtly version, the potion's effects last a lifetime; in the common versions, the potion's effects wane after three years. Although Iseult marries Mark, she and Tristan are forced by the potion to seek one another as lovers.Tristan and Iseult – Tristan and Iseult as depicted by Herbert Draper (1863–1920)
43. Leper colony – A leper colony, leprosarium, or lazar house is a place to quarantine people with leprosy. The lazaretto can refer to quarantine sites, which were at some time also leper colonies. Leper houses became widespread in the Middle Ages, particularly in Europe and India, often run by monastic orders. Historically, leprosy has been greatly feared because it causes visible disability, was incurable, was commonly believed to be highly contagious. A colony administered by a Roman Catholic order was often called a lazar house, after Lazarus, the patron saint of lepers. There is even doubt that the current definition of leprosy can be retrospectively applied to the Medieval condition. What was classified as leprosy then covers a wide range of skin conditions that would be classified as distinct afflictions today. Some leper colonies issued their own money, in the belief that allowing lepers to handle regular money could spread the disease. The existing leper colony in Europe is Tichilești in Romania. In 2002, in March 2005, the policy was strongly denounced. "Japan's policy of absolute quarantine... did not have any scientific grounds." History of leprosy Kalawao, Hawaii Leprosy colony moneyLeper colony – Spinalonga on Crete, Greece, one of the last leper colonies in Europe, closed in 1957.
44. Cuckold – A cuckold is the husband of an adulterous wife. In evolutionary biology, the term is also applied to males who are unwittingly investing parental effort in offspring that are not genetically their own. The cuckold derives from the cuckoo bird, alluding to its habit of laying its eggs in other birds' nests. The association is common in medieval folklore, iconography. English usage first appears about 1250 in the polemical poem "The Owl and the Nightingale". The term was clearly regarded as evident in John Lydgate's "Fall of Princes". In the 14th century, the term also appeared in Geoffrey Chaucer's "The Miller's Tale". Shakespeare's poetry often referred with several of his characters suspecting they had become one. The female cuckquean first appears in English literature in 1562, adding a female suffix to the cuck. In Western traditions, cuckolds have sometimes been described as "wearing the horns of a cuckold" or just "wearing the horns." This is an allusion to the mating habits of stags, who forfeit their mates when they are defeated by another male. In Italy, the insult is often accompanied by the sign of the horns. In French, the term is porter des cornes, used by Molière to describe someone whose consort has been unfaithful. In German, the term is "Hörner tragen", the husband is "der gehörnte Ehemann". Molière's L'École des femmes is the story of a man who mocks becomes one at the end.Cuckold – c. 1815 French satire on cuckoldry, which shows both men and women wearing horns.
45. Brittany – It is a cultural region in the north-west of France. It has also been referred to as Less, Little Britain. Its area is 34,023 km ². Since reorganisation in 1956, the administrative region of Brittany comprises only four of the five Breton departments, or 80 % of historical Brittany. The Loire-Atlantique department around Nantes, now forms part of the Pays de la Loire region. At the 2010 census, the population of historic Brittany was estimated to be 4,475,295. Of these, 71% lived in the region of Brittany, while 29% lived in the Loire-Atlantique department. In 2012, the largest metropolitan areas were Nantes, Rennes, Brest. A nationalist movement seeks greater autonomy within the French Republic. The word "Brittany", along with its French, Breton and Gallo equivalents "Bretagne", "Breizh" and "Bertaèyn", derive from the Latin Britannia, which means "Britons' land". This word had been more specifically the Roman province of Britain. This word derives from a Greek word, Βρεττανίαι, used by Pytheas, an explorer from Massalia who visited the British Islands around 320 BC. This term probably comes from aremorica, which means "close to the sea". Letauia, was used until the 12th century. It possibly means "wide and flat" or "to expand" and it gave the Welsh name for Brittany: Llydaw.Brittany – The Carnac stones.
46. Palamedes (Arthurian legend) – Palamedes /pæləˈmiːdiːz/ is a Knight of the Round Table in the Arthurian legend. His unrequited love for Iseult brings him into frequent conflict with Tristan. Palamedes' father is King Esclabor; his brothers Safir and Segwarides also join the Round Table. Palamedes first appears in an early 13th-century prose expansion of the Tristan and Iseult legend. He is introduced as a knight fighting at a tournament in Ireland; he ultimately loses to Tristan, to the delight of the princess. Tristan forbids him to bear arms for a year or to pursue Iseult's love ever again. They eventually share a love-hate relationship through the rest of the narrative. Palamedes also even gave his name to his own romance, the Palamedes. Details the adventures of two generations of Arthurian heroes. Many tales also have Palamedes as the hunter of the Questing Beast, only the chosen can kill. The hunt is as fruitless as the pursuit of Iseult, in most versions remains uncompleted. In The Once and Future King by T.H. White, Palamides appears in Part Two, The Queen of Air and Darkness, as a questing partner of King Pellinore. Sir Palomides attempts to aid Pellinore in his pursuit of the Questing Beast and then assumes himself. Like White's Pellinore, Sir Palomides is a comic character.Palamedes (Arthurian legend) – How King Marke and Sir Dinadan heard Sir Palomides making great sarrow and mourning for La Beale Isoud by Aubrey Beardsley
47. Thomas Malory – Sir Thomas Malory was an English writer, the author or compiler of Le Morte d'Arthur. Since the late century, Malory has generally been identified as Sir Thomas Malory of Newbold Revel in Warwickshire, a knight, Member of Parliament. Previously, it was suggested by antiquary John Leland and John Bale that he was Welsh. Most of what is known about Malory stems from the accounts describing him in the prayers found in the Winchester Manuscript. The author was educated, as some of his material "was drawn out of the French," which suggests that he might have been from a wealthy family. A claimant's age must also fit the time of writing. By far the likeliest candidate for the authorship is Thomas Malory of Newbold Revel in Warwickshire. Kittredge showed Malory as a member of Parliament, who fought with Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick. Helen Cooper referred to his life as one that "reads more like an account of exemplary thuggery than chivalry". Malory was born before 1418, judging by the fact that he attained his majority between 1439. He married a woman named Elizabeth Walsh, with whom he had at least one son, named Robert, possibly one or two other children. Despite the criminal charges against him, he seems to have remained in good standing with his peers. In 1449, he was elected as member of Parliament for the Duke of Buckingham's safe seat of Great Bedwyn. The accusation was never proved. At this period, however, a charge of rape could also apply to consensual sex with a married woman whose husband had not agreed to the liaison.Thomas Malory – An Aubrey Beardsley illustration for Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur, "How Sir Bedivere Cast the Sword Excalibur into the Water" (1894)
48. Le Morte d'Arthur – Malory adds original material. Le Morte d'Arthur is today perhaps the best-known work of Arthurian literature in English. Although in 1450 he was a member of Parliament. He was escaped and soon after robbed the Cistercian monastery. Two years later he was released through a royal pardon. Sir Thomas Malory died in prison March 1471 with Le Morte d'Arthur published posthumously by William Caxton on 31 July 1485. Modernized editions update the late Middle English spelling, repunctuate and reparagraph the text. Others furthermore update the vocabulary to contemporary Modern English. It shall bring you to good fame and renown. The Middle English of Le Morte D'Arthur is much closer to Early Modern English than the Middle English of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. If the spelling is modernized, it reads almost like Elizabethan English. The first printing of Malory's work was made in 1485. Only two copies of this original printing are known to exist, in the collections of the the John Rylands Library. It was reprinted in 1498 and 1529 with some additions and changes by Wynkyn de Worde who succeeded Caxton's press. Three more editions were published before the English Civil War: William Stansby's, each of which contained additional changes and errors.Le Morte d'Arthur – The Last Sleep of Arthur in Avalon (begun 1881), detail, by Edward Burne-Jones (d. 1898), greatly influenced by Le Morte d'Arthur throughout his career.
49. Tintagel Castle – Tintagel Castle is a medieval fortification located on the peninsula of Tintagel Island adjacent to the village of Tintagel, north Cornwall in the United Kingdom. It subsequently saw settlement during the Early Medieval period, when it was probably one of the seasonal residences of the regional king of Dumnonia. It later ruin. Archaeological investigation into the site began in the 19th century as it became a attraction, with visitors coming to see the ruins of Richard's castle. In the 1930s, excavations revealed significant traces of a much earlier high settlement, which had trading links with the Mediterranean during the Late Roman period. The castle has a long association with legends related to King Arthur. Tintagel Castle has been a destination since the mid-19th century. Owned as part of the landholdings of the Duchy of Cornwall, the site is currently managed by English Heritage. In the first AD, southern Britain was invaded and occupied by the Roman Empire. Archaeologists know of five route-markers in Cornwall erected in the Romano-British period. Two of these are in the vicinity of Tintagel, indicating that a road passed through the locality. However, there has been some dispute as to exactly what the site of Tintagel Island was used for in this period. Archaeologists longer accept this viewpoint, however. Instead, they now believe that this was an elite settlement in the Early Medieval period, inhabited by their entourage. This evidence led him to believe that Tintagel was a site where ships docked to deposit their cargo in the Early Medieval period.Tintagel Castle – The outer and upper wards of the ruined Tintagel Castle (part of the village of Tintagel may be seen in the distance)
50. Flag – A flag is a piece of fabric with a distinctive design, used as a symbol, as a signaling device, or as decoration. National flags are patriotic symbols with wide-ranging interpretations, often including strong military associations due to their original and ongoing military uses. Flags are also used for other decorative purposes. The study of flags is known from the Latin word vexillum, meaning flag or banner. Due to the use of flags by military units,'flag' is also used as the name of some military units. In Spain, a flag is a battalion-equivalent in the Spanish Legion. In antiquity, field standards were used in warfare that can be categorized as vexilloid or ` flag-like'. Regimental flags for individual units became commonplace during the Early Modern period. Flags also became the preferred means of communications at sea, resulting in various systems of flag signals; see, International maritime signal flags. One of the most popular uses of a flag is to symbolize a country. Some national flags have been particularly inspirational to other nations, subnational entities in the design of their own flags. Some prominent examples include: The flag of the Dannebrog, is attested in 1478, is the oldest national flag still in use. The flag of the Netherlands is the oldest tricolour. Its three colours of red, blue go back to Charlemagne's time, the 9th century. The coastal region of what today is the Netherlands was then known for its cloth in these colours.Flag – ASEAN members' national flags in Jakarta
51. Isles of Scilly – The Isles of Scilly are an archipelago off the south western tip of the Cornish peninsula of Great Britain. It is the southernmost location in the United Kingdom, as well as the most westerly in England. The population of all the islands at the 2011 census was 2,203. Some services are combined with those of Cornwall. However, since 1890, the islands have had a local authority. The adjective "Scillonian" is sometimes used for things related to the archipelago. The Duchy of Cornwall owns most of the freehold land on the islands. Tourism is a major part of the local economy, along with agriculture — particularly the production of cut flowers. Until the early 20th century its history had been one of subsistence living. The main industry now is tourism. The islands may correspond to the Cassiterides mentioned by the Greeks. However, the archipelago itself does not contain much tin -- it may be that the islands were used as a post. It is likely that until relatively recent times the islands perhaps joined together into one island named Ennor. The Ennor is a contraction of En Noer, meaning the ` great island'. Remains of a prehistoric farm have been found on Nornour, now a rocky skerry far too small for farming.Isles of Scilly – Aerial photo of the Isles of Scilly
52. 2002 – Euro coins are introduced in France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Greece, Finland, Luxembourg, Belgium, Austria, Ireland and the Netherlands. January 16 – The United Nations Security Council unanimously establishes an arms embargo and freezes the assets of Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda, the Taliban. January 17 – The eruption of Mount Nyiragongo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo displaces an estimated 400,000 people. January 27 – Several explosions at a military dump in Lagos, Nigeria kill more than 1,000 people. January 31 – A large section of the Antarctic Larsen Ice Shelf begins disintegrating, consuming about 3,250 km over 35 days. February 6 – Queen of the United Kingdom Elizabeth II celebrates her Golden Jubilee, marking 50 years since her accession to the British throne. February 8 -- 24 -- The 2002 Winter Olympics are held in Utah. The former President of Yugoslavia, begins at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague. February 19 – NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey space probe begins to map the surface of Mars using its thermal emission imaging system. February 20 – A train catches fire at Reqa Al-Gharbiya in Egypt while en route to Luxor from Cairo, killing 383 people. The most prolific serial killer in Canadian history, is arrested and charged with the first 2 counts of first-degree murder. Sri Lankan Civil War: A Spanish-facilitated ceasefire begins in Sri Lanka. February 28 – The ex-currencies of all euro-using nations cease to be legal tender in the European Union. March 1 War in Afghanistan: In eastern Afghanistan, Operation Anaconda begins. STS-109: Space Shuttle Columbia flies the Hubble Space Telescope service mission, the penultimate flight before its ill-fated STS-107 mission.2002 – Artists concept of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Spacecraft
53. Jacobite uprising in Cornwall of 1715 – The Jacobite uprising in Cornwall of 1715 was the last uprising against the British Crown to take place in the county of Cornwall. The key characters of the Jacobite uprising in Cornwall were Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke. They were leaders of the High Tories. Part of their scheme was to capture Bristol, Exeter and Plymouth. With these important places in the hands of the Jacobites, they hoped that other smaller towns would join the cause. On 7 October Mr James Paynter of Trekenning, proclaimed the Pretender in the market square at St Columb Major in Cornwall. At this time the representative of the Government in Cornwall was Hugh Boscawen, of Tregothnan. This gentleman took measures which effectively put an end at a rising. His servant remained undiscovered for some time. Some time later Paynter and his fellow rebels were sent to Newgate to be tried for high treason. Paynter claimed to be a judge in Cornwall, so he was tried at Launceston. Here Henry Darr died in the prison. Eventually Paynter was acquitted by a packed Jacobite jury. Best, G M. The Jacobite Murders.Jacobite uprising in Cornwall of 1715 – St Columb town square. The site of the proclamation in Cornwall
54. South America – South America is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas, the model used in nations that speak Romance languages. The reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics. It includes twelve sovereign states, a non-sovereign area. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Panama may also be considered part of South America. South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers. Its population as of 2005 has been estimated at more than 371,090,000. South America ranks fourth in fifth in population. Brazil is with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina, Venezuela and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has become a first regional power. Most of the population lives near the continent's eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. Most of the continent lies in the tropics. The continent's ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, societies and states commonly reflect Western traditions. South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas.South America – A composite relief image of South America.
55. Araucaria araucana – Araucaria araucana is an evergreen tree growing to 1-1.5 m in diameter and 30–40 m in height. It is native to southern Chile and western Argentina. Araucaria araucana is the hardiest species in the conifer genus Araucaria. Because of the longevity of this species, it is described as a living fossil. It is also the national tree of Chile. Its status was changed to Endangered by the IUCN in 2013 due to the dwindling population. The leaves are thick, 3 -- 4 cm long, 1 -- 3 cm broad at the base, with sharp edges and tips. They persist for 10–15 years or more, so cover most of the tree except for the older branches. It's usually dioecious, with the male and female cones on separate trees, though occasional individuals bear cones of both sexes. The male cones are cucumber-shaped, 4 cm long at first, expanding to 8 -- 12 cm long by 5 -- 6 cm broad at pollen release. It is wind pollinated. The female cones, which mature about 18 months after pollination, are globose, large, 12 -- 20 hold about 200 seeds. The cones disintegrate at maturity to release the 3 -- 4 cm nut-like seeds. Its native habitat is the lower slopes of the Chilean and Argentinian south-central Andes, typically above 1,000 m. Juvenile trees exhibit a broadly pyramidal or conical habit which naturally develops into the distinctive umbrella form of mature specimens as the tree ages.Araucaria araucana – Araucaria araucana
56. William Lobb – His introductions of the monkey-puzzle tree, many other conifers to Europe earned him the sobriquet "messenger of the big tree". He was spent his early life at Egloshayle, near Wadebridge. Lobb had two sisters. Two of Henry and James, became managers of gunpowder plants in south-west England. John Lobb, was the estate carpenter at nearby Pencarrow where a notable garden had been developed by Sir William Molesworth. In 1837, William was engaged by Mr Stephen Davey of Redruth, where he helped establish a "thoroughly efficient" horticultural establishment. From there, Lobb moved on to become gardener at Scorrier House, near Falmouth. William's brother Thomas recommended William to Veitch. Veitch decided that William, despite not being a botanist, would prove a steady, industrious and dependable collector. Before his departure, he visited Kew Gardens where he was taught how to make herbarium specimens by placing material between special papers. He took with him seeds of the early Rhododendron hybrid "Cornish Early Red" to the new emperor of Brazil, Pedro II. The seeds were planted at Petrópolis where they are still growing today. Later in 1841, he travelled to Argentina where he spent the winter exploring the area around Buenos Aires. He then travelled overland to the Uspallata Pass over the Andes, thus avoiding the perilous sea voyage around Cape Horn. He collected by shooting cones from the trees while his porters gathered fallen nuts from the ground.William Lobb – Monkey-puzzle trees are popularly grown as ornamental trees
57. Rugby union at the 1908 Summer Olympics – Rugby union at the 1908 Summer Olympics. The event was summarised under the "Football" heading along with football. The host Great Britain was represented by the 1908 county champion. Leaving Australasia, represented by the Australia national rugby union team as the only other remaining entrant. The Australian team were the only other team alongside Cornwall, who were representing Great Britain. Scotland and Ireland had turned down the Rugby Football Union's invitation to participate in the Olympic bouts. France had withdrawn, leaving just the Australia and Cornwall for England team to play for gold and silver medals. In 1908 Twickenham Stadium was still being built. Large mattresses were spread along the rim of the pool to prevent injuries to falling players. One day was allocated to what was called the rugby tournament. The game took place in a thick mid week London fog at a virtually deserted White City. Australia outscored Great Britain six tries to one to win the gold medal with a 32-3 victory. No bronze was awarded. After the match the Cornish players were'entertained to dinner' by the Cornish Members of Parliament. The champion England county was practically at full strength, but from start to finish they were outplayed.Rugby union at the 1908 Summer Olympics – The Australia side that won the Gold Medal.
58. 1908 Summer Olympics – These games were originally scheduled to be held in Rome, but were re-located on financial grounds following a disastrous eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 1906. They were the modern Olympic Games in keeping with the now-accepted four-year cycle as opposed to the proposed Intercalated Games alternate four-year cycle. The IOC president for these Games was Baron Pierre de Coubertin. Lasting 4 days, these games were the longest in modern Olympics history. The process for the 1908 Summer Olympics saw Rome selected ahead of London, Berlin and Milan. The selection was made at the 6th IOC Session in London in 1904. Italian authorities were preparing to hold the games when Mount Vesuvius erupted on 7 April 1906, devastating the city of Naples. Funds were diverted to the reconstruction of Naples, so a new venue was required. The White City Stadium, built in short time for the games, was considered by a technological marvel. The distance from the start of the Marathon to the finish at the stadium was established at these games. The games were surrounded by controversy. On the opening day, following the practice introduced at the Intercalated Games of 1906, teams paraded behind national flags. The Swedish flag had not been displayed above the stadium, so the members of the Swedish team decided not to take part in the ceremony. The flag of the United States had also not been displayed above the stadium before the opening. The United States' flag bearer, Ralph Rose, refused to dip the flag to King-Emperor Edward VII in the royal box.1908 Summer Olympics – Games of the IV Olympiad
59. Newlyn – Newlyn is a seaside town and fishing port in south-west Cornwall, UK. Newlyn forms a small conurbation with the neighbouring town of Penzance. It is the southern-most town on the British mainland. Although the parish is now listed under Penzance there is an electoral ward in separate existence called Newlyn and Mousehole. The population at the 2011 census was 4,432. Before the rise of Newlyn as an important settlement most property within the Newlyn area were owned by the Manor of Alverton. Newlyn's history has been strongly linked to its role as a major port. The natural protection afforded by the Gwavas Lake led to local fishermen using this area as a preferred landing site. Before the 19th century, "Newlyn" referred only to the area near the old quay. In fact Newlyn comprises being Tolcarne, Street-an-Nowan and Trewarveneth. Newlyn was part of the ancient parish of Paul. In 1851 Newlyn became the ecclesiastical parish of Newlyn St Peter. The Spanish Raid of 1595 destroyed Penzance, Mousehole and Paul well as Newlyn. In 1620 the Mayflower stopped off at Newlyn old quay to take on water. The sea ebbed at the same rate.Newlyn – Newlyn
60. Pilgrim Fathers – The Pilgrims or Pilgrim Fathers were early European settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts, United States. The colony became the second English settlement in North America. While seeking religious freedom for their own group, the Pilgrims exhibited intolerance to other faiths. The Pilgrims' story became a central theme of the history and culture of the United States. This congregation held Separatist beliefs comparable to nonconforming movements led by Henry Barrowe. He had been favorably impressed by Clyfton's services, had begun participating in Separatist services led by John Smyth in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire. The Separatists had long been controversial. The penalties for conducting unofficial services included imprisonment and larger fines. Under the policy of this time, Barrowe and Greenwood were executed for sedition in 1593. During much of Brewster's tenure, the Archbishop was Matthew Hutton. Following the Conference in 1605, Clyfton was stripped at Babworth. Brewster invited Clyfton to live at his home. Upon Hutton's death in 1606, Tobias Matthew was appointed as his replacement. Prominent Separatists were confronted, imprisoned. He is credited with driving recusants out of the country, those who refused to attend Anglican services.Pilgrim Fathers – "The Embarkation of the Pilgrims" (1857) by the American painter Robert Walter Weir at the Brooklyn Museum in New York City
61. New World – The New World is one of the names used for the Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas. The term was first coined by Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci. The Americas were also referred to as the "fourth part of the world". The terms "Old World" vs. The term "New World" is used in a biological context, when one speaks of Old World and New World species. New World monkeys, New World vultures, New World warblers. The label is also often used in agriculture. Domesticated animals did not exist in the Americas until they were introduced by post-Columbian contact in the 1490s. Other famous New World crops include fruits like the guava, papaya and pineapple. In terminology, "New World" has a different definition. Vespucci was finally convinced when he proceeded through 1501-02 covering the huge stretch of coast of eastern Brazil. But this opinion is entirely opposed to the truth. Vespucci's letter was a sensation in Europe, immediately reprinted in several other countries. However, this was merely a literary flourish, not a suggestion of a new "fourth" part of the world. Cadamosto was quite aware sub-Saharan Africa was firmly part of the African continent.New World – Sebastian Münster 's map of the New World, first published in 1540
62. Mayflower – The Mayflower was the ship that transported the first English Separatists, known today as the Pilgrims, from Plymouth to the New World in 1620. The exact number is unknown. This was the direct cause of the voyage from England to America taking more than two months. The Mayflower's trip to London in April -- May 1621 took less than half that time, with the same strong winds following. By 1620, the Mayflower was aging, nearing the end of the usual working life of an English ship in that era, some 15 years. No dimensions of her hull can be stated exactly, since this was many years before such measurements were standardized. She probably measured about 100 feet in length to the tip of her stern superstructure aft. She was about 25 feet with the bottom of her keel about 12 feet below the waterline. He was not a mariner. What is known on the basis of surviving records from that time is that she could certainly accommodate 180 casks of wine in her hold. The casks were great barrels that each held hundreds of gallons of claret wine. And with its armament, the crew could easily be conscripted by the English monarch at any time in case of conflict with other nations. The general layout of the ship was as also a spritsail in the bow area. Three primary levels: main deck, gun deck, cargo hold. Aft on the main deck in the stern was the cabin for Master Christopher Jones, measuring about ten by seven feet.Mayflower – Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall (1882)
63. Wherrytown – Wherrytown is a small settlement in west Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The only Wherrytown building to survive was the Mount's Bay Inn. At low spring tides, after storms partially fossilised trees can be exposed. The South West Coast Path follows the shore. Offshore surveys of Mount's Bay have found erosional plains and valleys containing deposits of peat, sand and gravel. The deposits indicate cyclical changes to coastal forest, to brackish conditions have been occurring over the past 12,000 years as sea levels rose. Artefacts dating from the Mesolithic have been found indicating some occupation contemporary with the forest. Marshes were overlain by sand, gravel and by sand dunes which formed natural barriers to the sea. The Western Green was such a barrier. Storms sometimes destroyed the barriers depositing gravel over peat beds in Marazion Marsh, in the foundations of buildings in Wherrytown. The submerged forest in the intertidal area between Wherrytown and Long Rock is a Cornwall Geology Site. A record book from the Angarrack house refers, in 1713 and 1714 to "Penzance Work" and "Wheal Kathleen", although the actual sites are not known. Daniel Defoe, staying in Penzance in circa 1722 wrote in the whole island of Great Britain --"...". ". In 1762 one-tenth of the Wherry bounds formed part of the security for a mortgage to Rachel Hawkins of Penquite, Golant.Wherrytown – Contents
64. Ship – A ship is a large buoyant watercraft. Ships are generally distinguished from boats based on passenger capacity. Historically, a "ship" was a vessel with at least three square-rigged masts and a full bowsprit. In in daily life, ships have become an integral part of modern commercial and military systems. Fishing boats are used throughout the world. Military forces operate vessels to transport and support forces ashore. Nearly 35,000 in number, carried 7.4 billion tons of cargo in 2007. As of 2011, there are about 104,304 ships in the world. Ships were always a key in scientific and technological development. Navigators such as Zheng He spread such inventions as gunpowder. Ships have served scientific, cultural, humanitarian needs. After the 16th century, new crops that had come to the Americas via the European seafarers significantly contributed to the world population growth. Transport has shaped the world's economy into today's energy-intensive pattern. There is no universal definition of what distinguishes a ship from a boat. Ships can usually be distinguished from boats based on the ship's ability to operate independently for extended periods.Ship – Italian full-rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976
65. John Prescott – John Leslie Prescott, Baron Prescott is a British politician, the Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007. Born in Prestatyn, Wales, Prescott represented Hull East from 1970 to 2010. In the 1994 election, Prescott stood for both Leader and Deputy Leader of the Labour Party, winning election to the latter office. In his youth Prescott went on to graduate from Ruskin College and the University of Hull. He also developed a reputation in the often tense relationship between Prime Minister Tony Blair and Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown. On June 2007 Prescott resigned as Deputy Prime Minister, coinciding with Blair's resignation as Prime Minister. Following an election within the Labour party, Prescott was replaced by Harriet Harman. He retired at the 2010 election. He lost to Conservative Matthew Grove. On 21 it was announced that Prescott would return to politics as a special adviser to then-Labour leader, Ed Miliband. I'm Welsh. It's my place of my country." In 2009, John Prescott featured in the BBC Wales programme Coming Home with roots in Prestatyn and Chirk. Prescott was brought up initially in Brinsworth in South Yorkshire, England. Prescott attended Brinsworth Manor School, where in 1949 he failed the 11-Plus examination to attend Rotherham Grammar School.John Prescott – The Right Honourable The Lord Prescott
66. List of places in Cornwall – This is a list of all the villages of Cornwall, United Kingdom. This also includes places in the Isles of Scilly. Some of these parishes form part of the largest being Camborne/Carn Brea/Illogan/Redruth / Lanner/Carharrack/St Day, with 55,400. The second largest is Par, with 34,700 people. The third largest is Falmouth/Penryn/Mabe with 33,000.List of places in Cornwall – Falmouth (Aberfala) 21,797
67. Perranwell – Perranarworthal is a civil parish and village in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The village is about four miles northwest of Falmouth and five miles southwest of Truro. The parish population at the 2011 census was 1,496. The name derives from the Manor of Arworthal which has had a number of spellings in the past including Hareworthal, Arwoethel and Arwythel. By the 18th-century two names appear on maps "Perran Arworthal" meaning St Piran's by the creek or estuary. William Penaluna described the settlement in 1838. Perran Wharf is the area of the parish beside the River Kennall where there were wharves and a quay. This is currently being developed into Perran Foundry where there will be new homes and working space settled amidst the history of the site. The other settlements in the parish are Perranwell and Perranwell Station. It was the home of an innovative concern, run by the Fox family of other Quaker business families. It was set up on the site of a tin smelting works in 1791. The foundry was later operated in partnership with the Williams family, in 1858, it was sold to them. The creek serving the factory silted up and mining in Cornwall declined. The wharf had been used to import timber for the mining industry from Scandinavia. The site has been used for various purposes since but closed in 1986.Perranwell – Perranarworthal Church
69. Upton Cross – Upton Cross and Upton are hamlets a quarter of a mile apart in east Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. Upton is situated at reference SX 279 724 north of Upton Cross 5 miles northwest of Callington. They are to Launceston road. A further north are the hamlets of Darleyford and North Darley below Notter Tor and a remarkable tree, the Darley Oak. At Netherton Farm Yarg cheese was produced by Lynher Dairies. A cheese made by the Cornish Cheese Company at Upton Cross, was the winning cheese in the World Food Awards in December 2010. The Hurlers are a group of three stone circles some distance to the west. Famous people. Kate Upton. Her family originates from Upton, Cornwall. Her earliest ancestor to date is Walter Upton.Upton Cross – St Paul's Church, Upton Cross
70. Linkinhorne – Linkinhorne is a civil parish and village in southeast Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The village itself is situated at reference SX 320 736 and is approximately four miles northwest of Callington and seven miles south of Launceston. The area is bordered by the River Inny to the west. The valley of the River Lynher runs through the parish. The Linkinhorne means church site of Kenhoarn. In the Domesday Book, the manor is referred to as Resleston. The parish church of St Melor is built from the 15th century. Lofty tower are said to have been built at the expense of Henry Trecarrel. Stonemason, lived in a cottage near the Cheesewring; several gravestones in Linkinhorne churchyard were carved by him. In medieval times there were chapels at Trefrize and Caradon. Also in the parish are the Holy Well of St Melor; a 15th-century bridge over the Lynher at Plushabridge; and near Minions the Rillaton round barrow. The Hurlers are a group of three stone circles near Upton Cross. The manor of Rillaton was the head manor of the Duchy of Cornwall. Linkinhorne Parish websiteLinkinhorne – Sharp Tor
71. Languages of Cornwall – Even if no language is formally recognized as official in the ceremonial county of Cornwall, English is used for all official purposes. However, it has been revived since 1904, by Henry Jenner. Nowadays, it is recognized as a regional language of England. Anglo-Cornish is a dialect of English spoken by Cornish people. Dialectal English spoken in Cornwall is to some extent often includes words derived from the Cornish language. The Cornish language is a Celtic language of the Brythonic branch, as are the Welsh and Breton languages. Cornish toponymyLanguages of Cornwall
74. Doom Bar – The sands have been prone to dramatic shifts during storms. According to tradition, the Doom Bar formed in the reign of Henry VIII, damaging the prosperity of the port of a mile up the estuary. A Cornish legend relates that a mermaid created the bar as a dying curse on the harbour after she was shot by a local man. It has given its name to the flagship ale from Sharp's Brewery. The Doom Bar is a sandbar at the mouth of the Camel estuary on the coast of Cornwall. The exact patterns of sediment transport within the estuary are complex and are not fully understood. There is only a very small contribution from the River Camel itself: most of the river's sediment is deposited much higher up the estuary. The high calcium content of the sand has meant that it has been used for hundreds of years to improve agricultural soil by liming. This use is known to date back to before 1600. High carbonate levels combined with natural sea salt made the sand valuable to farmers as an alkaline fertiliser when mixed with manure. Another report, published about twenty years earlier by Samuel Drew, stated, however, that although the sandbars had been "pillaged" for ages they remained undiminished. An estimated million tons of sediment was removed from the estuary between 1836 and 1989, mostly for agricultural purposes and mostly from the Doom Bar. Sand is still regularly dredged from the area; in 2009 an estimated 120,000 tons of sand were removed from the surrounding estuary. There is a submerged forest beneath the eastern part of the Doom Bar, off Daymer Bay. The sandbank covers approximately 0.4 square miles, linking the beaches near Harbour Cove by sand flats, although the actual size and shape varies.Doom Bar – Waves breaking on the Doom Bar at high water
75. Red-billed chough – The red-billed chough, Cornish chough or simply chough, is a bird in the crow family, one of only two species in the genus Pyrrhocorax. This bird has glossy black plumage, a long curved red bill, a loud, ringing call. It has a acrobatic flight with widely spread primaries. The red-billed chough pairs for life and displays fidelity to its breeding site, usually a crevice in a cliff face. It lays three eggs. It feeds, often on short grazed grassland, taking mainly invertebrate prey. The red-billed chough, which derived its common name from the jackdaw, has links with Saint Thomas Becket and Cornwall. The red-billed chough was first described by Linnaeus as Upupa pyrrhocorax. It was moved by Marmaduke Tunstall in his 1771 Ornithologia Britannica. The genus name is derived from Greek πυρρός, κόραξ, "raven". The only other member of the genus is the Alpine chough, Pyrrhocorax graculus. The closest relatives of the choughs are Corvus, especially the jackdaws in the subgenus Coloeus. "Chough" was originally an onomatopoeic name for the jackdaw, Corvus monedula, based on its call. There are eight extant subspecies, although differences between them are slight. P. p. erythropthalmus, described as Coracia erythrorhamphos, occurs in the red-billed chough's continental European range, excluding Greece.Red-billed chough – Red-billed chough
76. Bal maiden – The term has been since at least the early 18th century. The actual number is likely to have been much higher. While women worked elsewhere in Britain, either on the surface or underground, bal maidens worked only on the surface. The first records of female mine workers date from the 13th century. After the Black Death in the 14th century, no records of female workers have been found from then until the late 17th century. Increasing numbers of girls were recruited to the mines from about 1720, processing ore sent up by the male miners underground. Many mines closed. Girls were recruited in large numbers for work in ore processing. Children accounted for up to half the workers in the area's copper mines. Legislation introduced in the 1870s limited the use of child labour. In 1921 the last employer of bal maidens, ceased operations, bringing the tradition to an end. With the closure of South Crofty tin mine in 1998, Cornish metals mining came to an end. For at least 3,000 years from antiquity until the 20th century mining of tin and copper played a significant part in the economy of Cornwall. Cornwall, the northern part of the Ore Mountains are the only places in Europe in which major tin deposits are found near the surface. As tin is an essential ingredient of bronze, Cornwall was despite its relative isolation.Bal maiden – Bal maidens in traditional protective clothing, 1890
77. Climate of south-west England – The climate of south-west England is classed as oceanic according to the Köppen climate classification. The oceanic climate is typified by cool winters with more experienced in winter. Annual rainfall is up to 2,000 millimetres on higher ground. Summer maxima averages range from 18 °C to 22 °C and winter minima averages range from 1 °C to 4 °C across the south-west. It is the second area of the United Kingdom, the majority of winds coming from the south-west and north-east. Government organisations predict the area will become the hottest region in the United Kingdom. Inland areas of low altitude experience the least amount of precipitation. Winter minima are lower than those of the coast. Snowfalls are less so in comparison to higher ground. They experience the total sunshine hours are between those of the coast and the moors. This typical climate of inland areas is more noticeable the further north-east into the region. In comparison to inland areas, the coast experiences slightly lower maximum temperatures during the summer. Rainfall is lowest at the snowfall there is rarer than the rest of the region. They receive the most sunshine. The coastal climate becomes more prevalent further south-west into the region.Climate of south-west England – In June 1925, Pendennis Point (castle pictured) recorded the most monthly sunshine in the south-west.
78. Clotted cream – During this time, the cream content rises to the surface and forms "clots" or "clouts". It forms an essential part of a cream tea. Although its origin is uncertain, the cream's production is commonly associated with dairy farms in southwest England and in particular the counties of Cornwall and Devon. The current largest commercial producer in the UK is Rodda's in Redruth, Cornwall, which can produce up to 25 tonnes of clotted cream a day. It is a thick cream, with a very high fat content; in the United States it would be classified as butter. For comparison, the fat content of single cream is only 18 percent. Despite its popularity, virtually none is exported due to its short shelf life. A 2006 survey of nutrition professionals ranked clotted cream as the least healthy of 120 foods selected to be representative of the British diet. According to the United Kingdom's Food Standards Agency, a 100-gram tub of clotted cream provides 586 kilocalories, roughly equivalent to a 200-gram cheeseburger. The Oxford Companion to Food follows traditional folklore by suggesting it may have been introduced to Cornwall by Phoenician traders in search of tin. Clotted is similar to a Near Eastern delicacy, made throughout the Middle East, Turkey. A similar clotted cream known as'urum' is also made in Mongolia. However, contemporary ancient food experts, noting Strabo's commentaries on Britain; "They live off their herds... Have proposed that the early Britons would probably have clotted cream to preserve its freshness. Similar functions are ascribed to the linhay stone-built form, often used as a dairy in later medieval longhouses in the same regions.Clotted cream – A tub of clotted cream, showing top crust.
79. HMS Cornwall (56) – HMS Cornwall, pennant number 56, was a County-class heavy cruiser of the Kent sub-class built for the Royal Navy in the mid-1920s. The ship spent most of her pre-World War II career assigned to the China Station. Shortly after the war began in August 1939, she was assigned to search for German commerce raiders in the Indian Ocean. Cornwall was transferred to the South Atlantic in late 1939 where she escorted convoys before returning to the Indian Ocean in 1941. She then sank the auxiliary cruiser Pinguin in May. After the start of the Pacific War in December 1941, she began escorting convoys until she was transferred to the Eastern Fleet in March 1942. The ship was sunk on 5 April by dive bombers from three Japanese aircraft carriers during the Indian Ocean Raid. Cornwall displaced 9,850 long tons at deep load. The ship had an overall length of 630 feet, a draught of 20 feet 6 inches. Steam for the turbines was provided by eight Admiralty 3-drum boilers. Cornwall carried a maximum of 3,425 long tons of oil that gave her a range of 13,300 nautical miles at 12 knots. The ship's complement was 784 men. The ship mounted eight 8-inch guns in four twin gun turrets. Her secondary armament consisted in single mounts. Cornwall mounted four single 2-pounder light AA guns.HMS Cornwall (56) – History
80. Henry Pering Pellew Crease – Sir Henry Pering Pellew Crease was a British-Canadian lawyer, judge, politician, influential in the colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. He sat on the Supreme Court of that province for 26 years. Crease was born in Cornwall, the son of a Royal Navy captain. He then studied law at the Middle Temple. Though called to the bar in June 1849, he did not immediately pursue his career in law. Instead he joined his parents in Upper Canada. By the Crease left again for Canada in April 1858, he had married Sarah Lindley and had three young daughters, Susan, Mary, Barbara. Sarah was the daughter of John Lindley. She would go on to create many drawings and watercolours of early BC. Unable to find work in Toronto, Henry arrived there in December. However, he was soon criticised for being too cozy with the HBC-backed government. His legislation cemented his reputation as an advocate of free trade. Even as a colonial pioneer, Crease clung to the aristocratic traditions of Britain. The Crease family's home in New Westminster was Ince Cottage, on Sapperton Road, named for the castle that belonged in England. When the colonies were joined in 1866 Crease became the first Attorney General of the united British Columbia.Henry Pering Pellew Crease – Crease on the lawn of Pentrelew, his home in Victoria.
81. Cromwell's Castle – Cromwell's Castle is an artillery fort overlooking New Grimsby harbour on the island of Tresco in the Isles of Scilly. It was designed to prevent enemy naval vessels from entering the harbour. In the 21st century is managed by English Heritage and open to visitors. Cromwell's Castle is an tower, built by Sir Robert Blake following the Parliamentary invasion of the Isles of Scilly in 1651. In 1651 Parliament sent a naval force to retake the island, fortified by the Royalists. Having established control of between 1651 and 1652 Blake constructed Cromwell's Castle on Tresco, named after Oliver Cromwell, the Parliamentary leader. The Parliamentarian forces were particularly concerned about any Dutch attack. There were two existing fortifications in this location. The new castle was built on top of this preexisting site. Some of the stone used came from the ruins of King Charles's Castle. There may have been an adjacent platform just beneath the main structure. The design was old-fashioned, resembling the circular keeps built by Henry VIII in the mid-16th century. After the restoration of Charles II to the throne in 1660, a survey of the castle was carried out, which recommended repairs to the site. In 1739, the decision was taken to improve the defences at Cromwell Castle. A parapet protected the guns, other adjustments made.Cromwell's Castle – Cromwell's Castle
82. HMS Falmouth (1910) – HMS Falmouth was a Town-class light cruiser built for the Royal Navy during the 1910s. She was one of four ships of the Weymouth sub-class. The ship was reduced to reserve in mid-1913. She was torpedoed and sunk off Flamborough Head, Yorkshire during the Action of 19 August 1916. The Weymouth sub-class improved versions of the preceding Bristol sub-class with a more powerful armament. They were 453 feet long overall, with a beam of a draught of 15 feet 6 inches. Displacement was 5,800 long tons at full load. Twelve Yarrow boilers fed Falmouth's Parsons steam turbines, driving two propeller shafts, that were rated at 22,000 horsepower for a design speed of 25 knots. The ship reached 26.62 knots from 27,900 shp. The Weymouths exchanged the ten 4-inch guns of the Bristol sub-class for six additional BL 6-inch Mk XI guns. The remaining four guns were positioned on the upper deck in waist mountings. All these guns were fitted with gun shields. Four Vickers 3-pounder saluting guns were also fitted. Their armament was completed by two submerged torpedo tubes. The Weymouth-class ships were considered protected cruisers, with an armoured deck providing protection for the ships' vitals.HMS Falmouth (1910) – Falmouth in 1914
83. Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall – Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall was an English nobleman of Gascon origin, the favourite of King Edward II of England. Edward bestowed the Earldom of Cornwall on Gaveston, arranged for him to marry his niece Margaret de Clare, sister of the powerful Earl of Gloucester. Gaveston's exclusive access to the King provoked several members of the nobility, in 1307 the King was again forced to send him into exile. During this absence he served as the King's Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Edward managed to negotiate a deal with the opposition, however, Gaveston returned the next year. This assertion has received the support of some modern historians, while others have questioned it. According to Pierre Chaplais, the relationship between the two was that of an adoptive brotherhood, Gaveston served as an unofficial deputy for a reluctant king. Piers Gaveston's father was Arnaud de Gabaston, a Gascon knight in the service of Gaston VII of Béarn. Through the possessions of his wife, Gabaston also became a vassal of the King of England, in the King's capacity of Duke of Aquitaine. Because of this, he became financially dependent on the English king, was continuously in his service. After returning home, he was back in England in 1300, where he served with Edward I in the Scottish Wars. He died at some point before 18 May 1302. Little is known of Piers Gaveston's early years; even his year of birth is unknown. He and Prince Edward of Caernarfon were said to be contemporaries, so it can be assumed that he was born in or around 1284. In 1300 he sailed with Arnaud-Guillaume de Marsan.Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall – Initial from the charter granting Gaveston the earldom of Cornwall, showing the arms of England at top, and Gaveston's coat of arms impaled with those of de Clare below.
84. Robert Peverell Hichens – Hichens was also recommended after being killed in action in April 1943. Before the Second World War, he was a keen sportsman who competed in the Double sculls at the Henley Regatta. Hichens also competed in International Fourteen three times participated in the Fastnet race. On land Hichens also entered the 24 Hours of Le Mans race three times. Robert Peverell Hichens was born 2 March 1909, Constance Sawbridge Hichens. It was when living in Cornwall that his sister Loveday were taught how to sail, eventually sailing their dinghy Arethusa on Carrick Roads. He entered Oxford, to read law in 1927. While at university he also joined the Officers Training Corps, receiving a commission as second lieutenant in the infantry on 2 June 1929. In 1929, the Hichens family had purchased Bodrennick House at Flushing, Cornwall, which they moved after the death of Hichens' father. Robert Hichens met Catherine Gilbert Enys of Enys, Penryn, in 1928; they were married at St Gluvias church, Penryn, Cornwall, in April 1931. He joined a firm of solicitors, Reginald Rodgers and son of Falmouth, Cornwall, as an articled clerk to be instructed as a solicitor. After his mother's death, he inherited half of his father's estate and Bodrennick House, at the same time completed his articles. Hichens became a junior partner on 1 January 1934. Robert and Catherine had Antony, born in 1936. Hichens competed in the Prince of Wales Cup, coming fifth on the River Clyde in 1936.Robert Peverell Hichens – Robert Peverell Hichens
85. King Charles's Castle – King Charles's Castle is a ruined artillery fort overlooking New Grimsby harbour on the island of Tresco in the Isles of Scilly. An defensive earthwork was constructed around it during the 17th century. The design of the castle is only seen elsewhere in blockhouses along the River Thames. Although King Charles's Castle was being used to house soldiers by the 18th century it was described as ruinous. After 1922, archaeological excavations were carried out in 1954. In the 21st century the site is open to visitors. It is protected as a scheduled monument and a Grade II * listed building. King Charles's Castle was built between 1551 to protect the Scilly Isles against French attack. Tensions with France spilled over into war in 1538. The nine-year-old Edward VI, inherited the throne in 1547, facing renewed war with France. He appointed his brother, Thomas, as England's Lord Admiral. Thomas concluded that they were vulnerable to a French invasion. As a result of the inspection, the Lieutenant-General of the Ordnance, was tasked in February 1558 with improving the defences on the islands. Money raised from the dissolution of the monasteries in England. Killigrew also wanted to use the work programme to increase his political influence on the island.King Charles's Castle – Exterior of King Charles's Castle
86. Large Black pig – The Large Black, occasionally called the Devon, Cornwall Black or Boggu, is a breed of domestic pig native to Great Britain, particularly Devon, Cornwall and Essex. The Large Black is accurately named, as it is a large swine breed and is the only British pig, entirely black. It is a hardy and docile pig, with Large Black sows known for having large litters. The breed's foraging ability make it particularly useful for extensive farming, while a poor candidate for intensive farming. The Large Black combined local black pig breeds from the West Country and the East of England. With the founding of a breed association in 1898 or 1899, variations between the types from the two areas decreased. The Large Black was popular in the early 1900s and was exported to many areas of the world. It is still considered vulnerable by Rare Breeds Canada. Alternative origins proposed for the black colour of the breed are black Guinea hogs imported from Africa or from Neapolitan pigs. During the late 19th century, the Large Black grew in popularity. A breed association, the Large Black Pig Society, was formed in 1898 or 1899, in Ipswich, Suffolk. A trademark, consisting of the letters LBP within a shield, was registered in 1902. The Herd Book of Large Black Pigs was first published in 1899. There were considerable variations between the types in the two areas, but breeding stock was exchanged between them and by 1913 "general uniformity" had been achieved. The breed association was merged with the National Pig Breeders Association in 1949.Large Black pig – Large Black sow and piglets (foreground)
87. Launceston Castle – Launceston Castle is located in the town of Launceston, Cornwall, England. Launceston Castle formed the administrative centre of the new earldom of Cornwall, with a large community packed within its bailey's walls. When Edmund, inherited the castle, he moved the earldom's administration to Lostwithiel, triggering the castle's decline. By 1337, the castle was increasingly ruinous and used primarily as a gaol and to host judicial assizes. Towards the end of the civil war it was rendered largely uninhabitable. A small gaol was erected in the centre of the bailey, also used for executions. The castle eventually was heavily criticised for its poor facilities and treatment of inmates. During the Second World War, the site was used to host United States Army soldiers and, later, by the Air Ministry for offices. The site was reopened to visitors. In the 21st century, Launceston is operated by English Heritage as a tourist attraction. Much of the castle defences remain, including the motte, keep and high tower which overlook the castle's deer park to the south. Archaeologists have uncovered the foundations of various buildings in the bailey, including the great hall. Launceston Castle was built following the capture of Exeter in 1068. It was probably constructed by the Count of Mortain, granted the earldom of Cornwall by William the Conqueror. The early castle had timber ramparts surrounding a bailey, with a defensive motte in its north-east corner.Launceston Castle – View of Launceston Castle from the south-west
88. Henry Martyn – Henry Martyn was an Anglican priest and missionary to the peoples of India and Persia. Born in Truro, Cornwall, he was educated at St John's College, Cambridge. A encounter with Charles Simeon led him to become a missionary. He became a chaplain for the British East India Company. Martyn arrived in April 1806 where he preached and occupied himself in the study of linguistics. He translated the whole of the New Testament into Urdu, Persian and Judaeo-Persic. He also translated the Psalms into Urdu. From India, he set out for Bushire, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz. , though the plague was raging at Tokat, he was forced to stop there, unable to continue. On October 1812 he died. He was remembered for his courage, his religious devotion. In parts of the Anglican Communion he is celebrated with a Lesser Festival on 19 October. Martyn was born in Truro, Cornwall. John Martyn, was a "captain" or mine-agent at Gwennap. In 1802, he was chosen as a fellow of his college.Henry Martyn – Henry Martyn
89. Old Blockhouse – The Old Blockhouse, also known as the Dover Fort, is a 16th-century fortification on the island of Tresco in the Isles of Scilly. It was built between 1551 by the government of Edward VI to protect the islands against French attack. A stone wall were built to protect it from attack from the beach and the landward sides respectively. A small room to provide living quarters for the garrison was later constructed on the side of the platform. , after fierce fighting, the blockhouse was taken. It is protected under UK law. The Old Blockhouse was built between 1551 to protect the Scilly Isles against French attack. Tensions with France spilled over into war in 1538. The nine-year-old Edward VI, inherited the throne in 1547, facing renewed war with France. He appointed his brother, Thomas, as England's Lord Admiral. Thomas concluded that they were vulnerable to a French invasion. Killigrew also wanted to use the work programme to increase his political influence on the island. The Old Blockhouse was built as part of this programme of work. The blockhouse was positioned on high ground to protect the Old Grimsby harbour, overlooking the nearby anchorage of St Helen's Pool. It is uncertain if these numbers were ever achieved.Old Blockhouse – Old Blockhouse, viewed from the north-west
90. Pasty – A pasty is a baked pastry, a traditional variety of, particularly associated with Cornwall, in the United Kingdom. The pasty is the food most associated with Cornwall. It is regarded for 6 % of the Cornish food economy. Some shops specialise in selling all sorts of pasties. The origins of the pasty are unclear, though there are many references to them throughout historical documents and fiction. Despite the modern pasty's strong association with Cornwall, its exact origins are unclear. The English word "pasty" derives from Medieval French for a pie, baked without a dish. Pasties have been mentioned in cookbooks throughout the ages. For example, the earliest version of Le Viandier contains several pasty recipes. In 1393, Le Menagier de Paris contains recipes for pasté with veal, beef, or mutton. Early references to pasties include a 13th-century charter, granted by Henry III to the town of Great Yarmouth. Around the same time, 13th-century chronicler Matthew Paris wrote of the monks of St Albans Abbey "according to their custom, lived upon pasties of flesh-meat". A total of 5,500 venison pasties were served in 1465. This replaced the previous oldest recipe, dated 1746, held in Truro, Cornwall. The dish at the time was cooked in this case from the Mount Edgcumbe estate, as the pasty was then considered a luxury meal.Pasty – A Cornish pasty
91. Pendennis Castle – Pendennis Castle is an artillery fort constructed by Henry VIII near Falmouth, Cornwall, England between 1540 and 1542. It survived Charles II renovated the fortress after his restoration to the throne in 1660. The castle saw service by now obsolete, it was decommissioned. It passed into the control of the Ministry of Works, who opened the site to visitors. In the 21st century, the castle is managed as a tourist attraction receiving 74,230 visitors in 2011 -- 12. Historic England considers Pendennis to be "one of the finest examples of a post-medieval defensive promontory fort in the country". In 1533, Henry broke with Pope Paul III in order to annul the long-standing marriage to his wife, remarry. He took the annulment as a personal insult. The Pope encouraging the two countries to attack England. An invasion of England appeared certain. Pendennis Castle cost £5,614 to construct. The Killigrews controlled the castle for several decades, with John Killigrew's grandson continuing in turn as the captain there until 1605. The Admiralty eventually issued a compromise, proposing that the castles share the searching of the traffic. Meanwhile, the initial invasion threat passed. War broke out in 1569.Pendennis Castle – Pendennis Castle keep
92. St Catherine's Castle – The stone fortification, equipped with five gun-ports for cannon, overlooked the mouth of the River Fowey in Cornwall. It was protected by the surrounding cliffs. The castle remained in use for many years until it was closed in 1815. It soon became obsolete and was abandoned. At the end of the conflict the castle is now managed by English Heritage as a tourist attraction. In 1533, Henry broke with Pope Paul III in order to annul his long-standing marriage to Catherine of remarry. He took the annulment as a personal insult. The Pope encouraging the two countries to attack England. An invasion of England now appeared Henry began to improve his coastal defences. In response to this situation, a D-shaped stone fortification was built to protect Fowey Harbour in Cornwall, then an important centre for trade. Work began on the castle at some point between 1538 and 1540, under the direction of a member of the local Cornish gentry, Thomas Treffry. St Catherine's Castle remained for many years. The antiquarian Francis Grose noted that the fortification was still being maintained at the expense of the local town. He concluded that the building itself was of "little importance, either to antiquity or architecture". After the Crimean War broke out in 1853, the coastline was refortified.St Catherine's Castle – The blockhouse of St Catherine's Castle, seen from the gun platform
93. St Mawes Castle – St Mawes Castle is an artillery fort constructed by Henry VIII near Falmouth, Cornwall, between 1540 and 1542. The castle continued in use through the 18th and 19th centuries. In the early 1850s, fears of a fresh conflict with France, combined with changes in military technology, led to the redevelopment of the fortification. Substantial gun batteries were constructed beneath it, equipped with the latest naval artillery. After 1905, between 1920 and 1939 it was run by the state as a tourist attraction. With the end of the war, St Mawes again returned to use as a attraction. In the 21st century, the castle is operated by English Heritage. In 1533, Henry broke with Pope Paul III in order to annul the long-standing marriage to his wife, remarry. He took the annulment as a personal insult. The Pope encouraging the two countries to attack England. An invasion of England appeared certain. In the event, only two of these were constructed, St Mawes and Pendennis, positioned on each side of Carrick Roads. The two castles' guns could provide overlapping fire across the water, while St Mawes also overlooked a separate anchorage on the eastern side of the estuary. By later the castle was described as being "half-made", with most of the build having been finished by 1542. The total cost of the project was £5,018.St Mawes Castle – The Henrician castle, seen from the landward side
94. Sir Bevil Grenville's Monument – It was designated a scheduled monument on 12 December 1950. It has been maintained by his descendants. This has included the repair of inscriptions carved on the base of the monument, his forces. The Battle of Lansdowne took place on 5 July 1643 during the Civil War. The Royalists under Lord Hopton attacked the Parliamentarians led by Sir William Waller who occupied a commanding position on Lansdowne Hill. Grenville was mortally wounded in hand-to-hand combat as Parliamentarian horse were driven off. He was taken to the rectory at nearby Cold Ashton where he died. His death was a set-back from which the king's cause in the Westcountry never recovered, for he alone knew how to handle the unruly Cornishmen. The monument has been repaired several times. Initially in 1777 and again then in 1879, each time the repairs were funded by Granville's descendants. Note that today Grenville or Greville are commonly used. The monument is of ashlar masonry, 25 feet high, in the English Baroque style. On the north side are two poems. On top is a griffin holding an escutcheon displaying the Grenville coat of arms: three clarions or. Barratt, John.Sir Bevil Grenville's Monument – Sir Bevil Grenville's monument, at the place where on 5 July 1643 he fell mortally wounded
95. South West Coast Path – The South West Coast Path is England's longest waymarked long-distance footpath and a National Trail. It stretches for 630 miles, running, along the coasts of Devon and Cornwall, to Poole Harbour in Dorset. Since it falls with every river mouth, it is also one of the more challenging trails. The total height climbed has been calculated to be almost four times the height of Mount Everest. The final section of the path was designated as a National Trail in 1978. Many of the landscapes which the South West Coast Path crosses have special status, either as one of the Heritage Coasts. They spent # 136 million in a year. Other visitors contributed the remainder. A further study in 2005 estimated this figure to have risen to around # million. Sections of the path are maintained by the National Trust, which owns parts of the coast. The path is a designated National Trail, largely funded by Natural England. It was created with its final section, Somerset and North Devon, opening in 1978. It is maintained by a dedicated South West Coast Path Team. A registered charity, exists to support the interests of users of the path. Its services include accommodation guides and completion certificates.South West Coast Path – The starting point at Minehead
96. Squab pie – Squab pie is a traditional dish from South West England, with early records showing it was associated with Cornwall, Devon and Gloucestershire. Although the name suggests it contains squab, in fact it contains mutton and apples. The pie was eaten around the world in the 1900s, though outside South West England it generally did contain pigeon. It is longer a popular dish, with less than 3 % of British teenagers surveyed having eaten it. Although it is not known exactly where pie was first made, it is clear that it was somewhere in South West England. There are references to it originating in Gloucestershire, Devon and Cornwall. This misnaming has meant that the pie is considered to be a surprise. Squab is described with a mild berry flavour, so it is possible that the combination of mutton and apples created a similar flavour. Squab pie in Devon can be served with clotted cream. Alternatively, in America, it is synonymous with pigeon pie. Squab pie is a pie with a shortcrust pastry lid. It should be made with at least one layer of onions, followed by alternating layers of sliced apples and mutton chops. The mixture should be covered with water, baked in the oven for about two hours. Within the UK, the most common variation is to use lamb instead of mutton. Gloucester Squab pie suggests any leftover meat could be used.Squab pie – A squab pie, before pastry added
97. Stargazy pie – Stargazy pie is a Cornish dish made of baked pilchards, along with eggs and potatoes, covered with a pastry crust. This allows the oils released during cooking to flow back into the pie. The story of Bawcock was popularised by Antonia Barber's children's book The Mousehole Cat, which featured the star-gazy pie. In 2007 contestant Mark Hix won the BBC's Great British Menu with a variant of the dish. Stargazy pie is a pastry-based fish pie which, by tradition, is filled with whole pilchards. Critically, the pilchards must retain their heads, which then poke through the pastry top, appearing to gaze at the stars. The celebrity chef Rick Stein suggested also poking the pilchards' tails through the pie crust to give the effect of leaping through water. Disgusting people eat", a lifestyle feature by the New York Daily News based by an American author, Neil Setchfield. On Tom Bawcock's Eve it is served in The Ship Inn, the only pub in Mousehole, sometimes after a re-enactment of the legend. The pie originates from the fishing village of Mousehole in Cornwall. As with many parts of Cornish heritage, a legend has appeared about its origins. In this case, the pie is served to celebrate the bravery of Tom Bawcock, a local fisherman in the 16th century. The legend explains that one winter had been particularly stormy, meaning that none of the fishing boats had been able to leave the harbour. As Christmas approached, the villagers, who relied on fish as their primary source of food, were facing starvation. On 23 Tom Bawcock went out in his fishing boat.Stargazy pie – A stargazy pie, ready to serve
98. SS Suevic – SS Suevic was a steamship built by Harland and Wolff in Belfast for the White Star Line. Suevic was the last of the "Jubilee Class" ocean liners, built specifically to service the Liverpool-Cape Town-Sydney route. In the largest rescue of its kind, all passengers and crew were saved. A new bow was attached to the salvaged stern portion. When White Star inaugurated service to Sydney in 1899, they commissioned three steam ships to be built for that route: Afric, Medic and Persic. All three were single-funnel liners which were configured to carry 320 steerage or third class passengers. The first of these was Runic, launched on 25 October 1900. Largest of the class, was Suevic, at 12,531 GRT. These ships had seven cargo holds, some of which were refrigerated. Suevic was set sail on her maiden voyage to Sydney on 23 March 1901. Thereafter, Suevic and her four sisters were pressed into service carrying troops to fight in the Boer War in South Africa. In August 1901 she made her one and only voyage to New York City. Once the Boer War was over, White Star was finally able to institute monthly service to Australia using the Jubilee-class ships. On 1903 voyage, a young officer named Charles Lightoller was assigned to crew Suevic as a punishment. Lightoller would later become the second officer on the most senior of her crew to survive the disaster.SS Suevic – White Star Line postcard of Suevic
99. Tamar Bridge – The Tamar Bridge is a major road bridge over the River Tamar between Saltash, Cornwall and Plymouth, Devon in southwest England. It is 335 metres long, running adjacent to part of the A38, a main road between the two counties. After the Government refused to prioritise the project in the 1950s, it was self-financed by Cornwall County Council. Construction began in 1959. It was unofficially opened with a formal presentation by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother in April 1962. A reconstruction of the bridge began in 1999 after it was found to be unable to support a European Union requirement for goods vehicle weights. The work involved building two parallel decks while the original construction was completely rebuilt. The project was formally opened by Princess Anne in April 2002. The extra decks have remained in use, increasing the bridge's capacity. The bridge is tolled with a discount available via an electronic payment scheme. The bridge runs from near Wearde, Saltash in the west to Riverside, Plymouth in the east. It has two side spans of 114 metres. Both bridges are north of the Hamoaze, the Torpoint Ferry. The bridge is maintained by the Tamar Bridge and Torpoint Ferry Joint Committee, a conglomerate between Plymouth City Council and Cornwall County Council. It has two outer lanes.Tamar Bridge – The Tamar Bridge from a train on the neighbouring Royal Albert Bridge, 2009
100. Zennor Head – Zennor Head /ˈzɛnʊər hɛd/ is a 750-metre long promontory on the Cornish coast of England, between Pendour Cove and Porthzennor Cove. Facing the Atlantic Ocean, it lies 1 kilometre north-west of the village of Zennor and 1.6 kilometres east of the next promontory, Gurnard's Head. Zennor Head is on the South West Coast Path, which follows the edge closely, skirting the entire perimeter of the headland. The promontory is the largest coastal feature in the United Kingdom that begins with the letter "Z". It gets its name from Senara. Zennor Head was mined in the Victorian Era. The name "Zennor Head" originates from the name of Senara. The farming system dates from about 4000 BC, the time of the Bronze Age in Cornwall. Village of Zennor has been continually occupied for over 4,000 years. Drainage adits remain visible on the eastern side. The promontory was donated to the National Trust in December 1953. The 1994 McKitterick Prize-winning novel by Helen Dunmore, was partly set around Zennor Head. In 2009 the headland suffered flooding which affected the cliff-top footpath. The promontory has been designated as part of the Penwith Heritage Coast. Zennor Head is located on the coast of Cornwall, England, facing the Atlantic Ocean.Zennor Head – Zennor Head, looking north
102. Timeline of Cornish history – First Cornish hedges. Cornwall experiences a boom driven by the export of tin across Europe. The Iron Age reaches Cornwall, permitting greater scope of agriculture through the use of new iron axes. He described the Cornish as skilled farmers, usually peaceable, but formidable in war. 60 BC: Greek historian Diodorus Siculus named Cornwall "Belerion" - "The Shining Land", the first recorded place name in the British Isles. 43 BC: First attempted invasion of British Mainland by Julius Caesar. Over the next century, the Romans come to rule Cornwall, then part of Dumnonia. 19 AD: Total eclipse in Cornwall. 43 AD: Claudian invasion of Britain begins. Roman control of Cornwall comes later, but at an uncertain date. 55–60 AD: Construction of Nanstallon Roman fort near Bodmin, one of only a few Roman sites in Cornwall. Roman villa at Magor Farm near Camborne occupied. After: various Germanic peoples came to Roman Britain: raiders, Roman armies recruited from among German tribes, authorized settlers: ref. Aelle of Sussex Cornwall's native name appeared as early as 400. In Latin, ` V' was pronounced as a ` W' and the fortress name refers to Tintagel.Timeline of Cornish history – Rooms in a building within Chysauster village
103. Cornovii (Cornish) – According to Ptolemy, there were two other tribes known as the Cornovii, one in Northern Scotland. It is on this basis that the name of this putative ancestor-tribe of Cornwall is inferred. Considering that Cornwall is at the end of a tapering peninsula, many scholars have adopted this derivation for the Cornish Cornovii. The western peninsula of Dumnonia came to be known as "Cerniw" in Welsh, "Kernow" in Cornish and "Kernev" in Breton. The English name Cornwall arises from a suffixation of the Old English word for Brittonic-speakers, wealas, to a borrowed form of the Brittonic place-name. Since the Cornovii are only known from one mention in antiquity, nothing is known for certain of their history. They were part of the tribe whose lands, known as Dumnonia, extended from Cornwall through Devon and included parts of Somerset and Dorset. For details of the people who lived after the withdrawal of the Romans, see History of Cornwall. After the passing of the Roman period they re-appeared until early in the 9th century. In 838 the Cornish in alliance with Vikings were defeated at the Battle of Hingston Down. This resulted in the loss of Cornish independence. The pre-Roman inhabitants were speakers of a Celtic language that would later develop into the Brythonic Cornish. List of Celtic tribes Rivet, A. L. F.; Smith, Colin. The Place-names of Roman Britain. London: Batsford Ltd. pp. 324–5.Cornovii (Cornish) – The coastline at Tintagel, a possible location of a settlement of the Cornovii
104. Dumnonii – They were bordered to the east by the Durotriges tribe. .... But... the Country of this nation is at this day divided into two parts, known by later names of Cornwall and Denshire... John Rhys later theorized that the tribal name was derived from the name of a goddess, Domnu, probably meaning "the goddess of the deep". The proto-Celtic dubno - or * dumno - meaning "the deep" or "the earth" appears in personal names such as Dumnorix and Dubnovellaunus. Another group with a similar name but with no known links were the Fir Domnann of Connacht. The Roman name of the town of Exeter, Isca Dumnoniorum, contains the root *iska- "water" for "Water of the Dumnonii". Amédée Thierry, one of the inventors of the "historic race" of Gauls, could confidently equate them with the Cornish. The people of Dumnonia spoke a Southwestern Brythonic dialect similar to the forerunner of more recent Cornish and Breton. The Déisi, are evidenced by the Ogham-inscribed stones they have left behind, supplemented by toponymical studies. The stones are sometimes inscribed in Latin, sometimes in both scripts. Ptolemy's 2nd century Geography places the Dumnonii to the west of the Durotriges. The Latin name for Exeter is Isca Dumnoniorum. This oppidum on the banks of the River Exe certainly existed prior to the foundation of the Roman city in about AD 50. Isca is derived from the Brythonic word for flowing water, given to the River Exe.Dumnonii – Dumnonii
105. Dumnonia – Domnonia also shares a linguistic relationship with the Breton region of Domnonée, Breton: Domnonea. The name has etymological origins in the proto-Celtic root word dubno -, meaning both "deep" and "world". Groups with similar names existed in Scotland and Ireland. Historian Barbara Yorke has speculated that the Dumnonii may have seen the end of the Roman empire as an opportunity to establish control in new areas. Those governed from Dorchester and Ilchester. Julius Caesar's Comentarii de Bello Gallico, Book III notes the close trading and military relationship between the southwestern insular British. In the post the eastern boundary of Dumnonia is unclear. The boundary may have been formed by the West Wansdyke, Bokerly Dyke. Thus Dumnonia would have included later Cornwall, Devon, west Somerset and possibly parts of modern Dorset on the eastern border of the Durotriges kingdom. If so Dumnonia would have included places such as Glastonbury and South Cadbury and may have included continental holdings in Armorica. The people of Dumnonia would have spoken the ancestor of modern Cornish and Breton. Working continued throughout Roman occupation and appears to have reached a peak during the 3rd century AD. Imported pottery has been excavated from many sites across the region. Christianity seems to have survived in Dumnonia after the Roman departure with a number of late Roman Christian cemeteries extending into the post-Roman period. Sporadically, Cornish bishops are named in various records until they submitted in the mid-9th century.Dumnonia – This article is about the kingdom in Southwestern Britain. For Brythonic colony of the same name in Brittany, see Domnonée. For the kingdom in northern Britain, see Damnonii.
106. Kings of Dumnonia – Therefore, this list should be treated with caution. Although subjugated by c.AD 78, the civitas Dumnoniorum was one of the regions of Roman Britain least affected by Roman influence. Known as Caer Uisc, Exeter was inhabited by Dumnonian Britons up until c.936 when King Athelstan expelled them. Other royal residences may also have served the kings of Dumnonia or Cornwall, including Din-Tagell, Cadbury Castle. The generally accepted date for this transition is around 800. According to Cornish folklore, he held court at Tintagel. King Salomon – father of Saint Cybi, probably ruled after Mark; not to be confused with Salomon, King of Brittany. Dungarth -- was recorded as having drowned in 876. The Annales refer as "rex Cerniu", King of Cornwall. In records open to interpretation Ricatus is mentioned on a stone; he may have ruled a more localised region. Huwal of the West Welsh, about whom there has been controversy since the 19th century. He only appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for 927, accepting King Athelstan of Wessex as his overlord. If he is not to be identified with Hywel Dda of Deheubarth, the singularly recorded Huwal could have been the native king. Some of the later supposed rulers listed below are given the title'Earl of Cornwall', although in two cases may have been recognized as rebel kings. Snyder, Christopher A..Kings of Dumnonia – King Doniert's Stone, located near St Cleer, Bodmin Moor, commemorates King Dungarth/Donyarth/Doniert.
107. List of Cornish saints – For more information see the works of Canon Doble,Nicholas Orme's book, The Saints of Cornwall, the works of Charles Henderson N.B. All these have dedications in Cornwall but not all have legends or traditions associating them with Cornwall. Llan place name List of Welsh saints Nicholas Roscarrock left an interesting account of the lives of the saints. Nicholas English Church Dedications: With a Survey of Cornwall and Devon, University of Exeter Press ISBN 0-85989-516-5 Ellis, P. B. The Cornish Saints. Penryn: Tor Mark Press Bowen, E. G. The Settlements of the Celtic Saints in Wales. 4 vols. Llandovery: W. Rees Wade-Evans, A. W.. Vitae Sanctorum Britanniae et Genealogiae. Cardiff: University of Wales Press Board. A - Z of saints by St Patrick's Washington DCList of Cornish saints – The Archangel Michael from Perugino's triptych in the Certosa of Pavia *The Archangel Michael was recognized as the patron saint of Cornwall in medieval times; his cult however was introduced to the land by the Normans
108. Cornish Rebellion of 1497 – The Cornish Rebellion of 1497 was a popular uprising by the people of Cornwall. After disagreements regarding new regulations for the tin-mining industry, King Henry VII suspended the privileges of the Stannaries. In late 1496 the council approved a forced loan to which Cornwall contributed a large share. The primary cause of the rebellion was Henry VII's levy to pay for a war against the Scots. The terms of the levy violated the Stannary Charter of 1305 which prohibited taxes of 15ths from being raised in Cornwall. Cornwall had already contributed significantly to the Scottish expedition, even though it was not affected by any border incursions. The rebels included at least two former MPs, William Antron. An army some 15,000 strong marched into Devon, attracting support in terms of recruits as they went. Despite this prestigious acquisition of support, An Gof, the blacksmith, remained in command of the army. Audley joined Thomas Flamank as joint'political' leader of the expedition. At this point, having come far, there seems to have been some questioning of what exactly should be done. Flamank conceived the idea of trying to broaden the rising; to force the monarch by mobilising wider support for the Cornishmen. It was a ambitious strategy -- but sadly misinformed. Some of the men quietly returned to their homes. The remainder, let go the pretence of acting against the King's ministers alone -- they were prepared to give himself.Cornish Rebellion of 1497 – Commemorative plaque in Cornish and English for Michael Joseph the Smith (An Gof) and Thomas Flamank mounted on the north side of Blackheath common, south east London, near the south entrance to Greenwich Park
109. Duchy of Cornwall – The Duchy of Cornwall is one of two royal duchies in England, the other being the Duchy of Lancaster. If the monarch has no male children, there is no duke. The current duke is the Prince of Wales. The principal activity of the duchy is the management of its land totalling 550 km2. Nearly half of the holdings are with other large holdings in Cornwall, Herefordshire, Somerset and almost all of the Isles of Scilly. The duchy also has a financial investments portfolio. The Duchy Council meets twice a year. The duchy also exercises certain legal rights and privileges including some that elsewhere in England belong to the crown. The duke acts as the port authority for the main harbour of the Isles of Scilly. The government considers the duchy to be a body and therefore exempt from paying corporation tax. Additional charters were issued later by Edward III. The duchy consisted of the land holdings that supported it financially. The extent of the estate has varied as various holdings have been acquired over the years, both within Cornwall and in other counties. Under the charter, the manors of the earldom passed to the duchy. All in Cornwall, are known as the antiqua maneria.Duchy of Cornwall – The largest rural portfolio office at Newton St Loe, near Bath. This is the office of the Eastern District, centralised finance and property services, and the Estate Surveyor.
110. Michael An Gof – A blacksmith named Michael Joseph lived at St Keverne on the Lizard peninsula. Michael Joseph, was chosen by the people of St. Keverne to challenge the tax. When his followers reached Bodmin, they were joined by Thomas Flamank, a local lawyer. Flamank argued that the tax was illegal. Under the leadership of Flamank and Joseph, about 6,000 Cornishmen set out. By the time it reached Devon numbered some 15,000 strong. Michael was captured and sent to the Tower of London. As one of the leaders, Michael An Gof was executed with Flamank on 27 June 1497. Deemed to be traitors, they were hanged, quartered at Tyburn and their heads displayed on pike-staffs on London Bridge. Just before his execution, An Gof is recorded to have said that a fame permanent and immortal". In 1997, the 500th anniversary of a commemorative march was held, retracing the route of the original march from St. Keverne to London. A statue depicting An Gof and Flamank was unveiled in a commemorative plaque was unveiled on Blackheath common. The Holyer An Gof trophy is part of the Cornish Gorsedd. The name is the origin of the British Angove. An Gof's name was later used by a Cornish nationalist organisation.Michael An Gof – Commemorative plaque in Cornish and English for Michael Joseph the Smith (An Gof) and Thomas Flamank mounted on the north side of Blackheath Common, south east London, near the south entrance to Greenwich Park.
111. Prayer Book Rebellion – The Prayer Book Rebellion, Prayer Book Revolt, Prayer Book Rising, Western Rising or Western Rebellion was a popular revolt in Devon and Cornwall in 1549. In that year, the Book of Common Prayer, presenting the theology of the English Reformation, was introduced. The change was widely unpopular -- particularly in areas of firmly Catholic religious loyalty such as Lancashire. Along with economic conditions, the attack on the Catholic Church led to an explosion of anger in Devon and Cornwall, initiating an uprising. In response, 1st Duke of Somerset sent Lord John Russell with an army composed partly of German and Italian mercenaries to suppress the revolt. One probable cause of the Prayer Book Rebellion is the religious changes recently implemented by the government of Edward VI. This pressure on the lower classes was compounded by the recent tax on sheep. This would have affected the region significantly, the West Country being an area of farming. Rumours circulating that the tax would be extended to other livestock may have increased the discontent. A damaged social structure then meant this local uprising was sufficiently dealt with by landowners nearby. A large landowner in Sampford Courtenay, had recently been attainted. Lord Russell, was based in London and rarely came out to his land. It is possible this created a lack of local power, that would have normally been expected to quell the revolt. The dissolution of Crantock College played a significant part in fomenting opposition to future cultural reforms. Immediate retribution followed at Launceston Castle.Prayer Book Rebellion – Cranmer's Prayer book of 1549
112. List of legendary rulers of Cornwall – "Duke of Cornwall" appears as a title in pseudo-historical authors as Nennius and Geoffrey of Monmouth. The list is extremely patchy, not every succession was unbroken. As supporting roles to the kings of the Britons, the legendary dukes of Cornwall are considered part of the vast Matter of Britain. The list is more often thought as a conglomeration of various Celtic rulers, Celtic warlords, mythical heroes. From 1337 to the present see Duke of Cornwall. List of legendary kings of Britain History of Cornwall Cornovii DumnoniaList of legendary rulers of Cornwall – Nations
113. Cornish currency – The earliest known Cornish mint was at Launceston, which operated on a minimal scale in 976 AD. A heavy coin, is known to exist. After the Norman Conquest, Robert, Count of Mortain was rebuilt the castle there. The townspeople followed these to Dunheved. The mint was reopened halfway through the Conqueror's reign. The only English coin at the time was the silver penny: presumably the dynar was equivalent to this. A Royalist mint was established in Truro in 1642-43 by Sir Richard Vyvyan; in September 1643 it was moved to Exeter. Several Cornish towns in the mining districts even issued their own banknotes. One example is'The Mounts Bay Commercial Bank', set up 1807 by the Bolitho family of Penzance. The Consolidated Bank of Cornwall was taken over by Barclays Bank in 1905. In 2004 a rare banknote from the Falmouth bank sold for £540. Other examples of Cornish banknotes are held at the County Museum in Truro. In more recent times Cornish currency was issued under the name of the'Cornish National Fund'. The 1974 banknotes were issued in denominations of 5 shillings, 10 shillings, 5 pounds. On the front of the note there is a depiction of Saint Piran, standing before a stone cross.Cornish currency – 1811 Cornish penny showing a pilchard between cakes of copper and ingots of tin
114. Cornwall in the English Civil War – Cornwall played a significant role in the English Civil War, being a Royalist enclave in the generally Parliamentarian south-west. The principal events in Cornwall happened in the following order. The Battle of Braddock Down near Boconnoc on 19 January 1643 resulted from a counter-invasion of Cornwall. It ended by Sir Ralph Hopton. The Battle of Stratton occurred on 15 May 1643. The Earl of Stamford's Parliamentarian force was repelled by Hopton's men with 300 men killed and 1700 captured, retreated to Bideford. The victories for Hopton with five'Old Cornish' regiments provided the impetus in Devon and Somerset. Bristol fell followed by Exeter. On December 13, the Royalists began a heavy bombardment of the northern defences of Plymouth but with little effect. 1st Baronet, having previously declared for Parliament, invited his troops to follow him into the King's service and parliament proclaimed him a traitor. After relieving Plymouth, Essex advanced into Cornwall, reaching July. King Charles meanwhile led the main Royalist army against him, blocking his line of retreat. Caught between Charles and Grenville, Essex took up positions at Lostwithiel and Fowey, hoping by the Parliamentarian fleet. On 13 August Charles began his attack. On 21 the Royalists took Restormel Castle and Beacon Hill, Lostwithiel.Cornwall in the English Civil War – Maps of territory held by Royalists (red) and Parliamentarians (green), 1642 — 1645
115. Hundreds of Cornwall – In the Cornish language the keverang is the equivalent for English "hundred" and the Welsh cantref. The word, in its plural form, appears in place names like Meankeverango in 1580, Assa Govranckowe 1580, Kyver Ankou c. 1720, also on the Penwith – Kerrier border near Scorrier. It is also found in the form at Buscaverran, just south of Crowan churchtown and also on the Penwith-Kerrier border. The hundred of Trigg is mentioned by name as "Pagus Tricurius", "land of three war hosts". The Hawkinses went on to sell it to the Paynters in 1832. The Lordship of Penwith came over the entire hundred. Advent, Altarnun, St Clether, Davidstow, Forrabury, St Gennys, St Juliot, Lanteglos-by-Camelford, Lesnewth, Michaelstow, Minster, Otterham, Poundstock, Tintagel, Treneglos, Trevalga, Warbstow. Nottingham: English Place-name Society ISBN 0-904889-11-4 List of former administrative divisions in CornwallHundreds of Cornwall – 1783 map of Cornwall
116. Cornish emigration – The Cornish diaspora consists of Cornish people and their descendants who emigrated from Cornwall, Britain. The diaspora is found in countries such as the United States, Brazil. There is a saying in Cornwall that "a mine is a hole anywhere in the world with at least one Cornishman at the bottom of it!" The Cornish economy profited from the miners’ work abroad. Some men sent back “home pay”, which helped to keep their families out of the workhouse. As well as their mining skills, the Cornish emigrants carried their culture and way of life with them when they travelled. They did not lose contact of their homeland. A plethora of Cornish family genealogy groups exist. In Moonta, South Australia, the Kernewek Lowender attracts tens of thousands of each year. In its heyday Moonta was predominately settled by their families. Today it is known as'Australia's Little Cornwall'. Many streets and houses have Cornish names. Many descendants of these Cornish families bearing their Cornish surnames still live in the Copper Triangle and the area is intensely proud of its Cornish heritage. Many of the original miners' cottages made from daub still are still lived in by local residents. In South Australia, the town of Burra has Cornish connections.Cornish emigration – A statue commemorating Cornish and German miners in Bendigo, Victoria, Australia
117. Newlyn riots – By mid-morning some 16 boats had been seized and approximately 100,000 mackerel thrown overboard. By late afternoon the Porthleven fleet arrived in support of the Newlyn men. The police and local fisherman exchanged in a number of violent encounters around Newlyn Harbour. The only recorded injury was to local Police Inspector Matthews, knocked by a fish box. As the rioting continued seven "Yorkie" vessels were sighted making for Penzance harbour to land their catches there. The strong resistance met on arrival in Penzance forced the rioters to return to Newlyn. By mid-afternoon the situation had become so serious that the local authorities asked for military assistance. The soldiers again joined by several hundred Penzance men, upon crossing Newlyn bridge, were met with stone throwing. The soldiers then occupied the piers. While this was occurring the torpedo destroyer HMS Ferret entered the harbour. By midnight that day they had largely dispersed. Newspaper reportNewlyn riots – History
118. Penlee lifeboat disaster – The Penlee lifeboat disaster occurred on 19 December 1981 off the coast of Cornwall. The Penlee Lifeboat Solomon Browne went to the aid of the vessel Union Star after its engines failed in heavy seas. After the lifeboat had rescued four people, both vessels were lost with all hands; in all, sixteen people died including eight lifeboatmen. The MV Union Star was launched in Ringkøbing in Denmark just a few days before it was wrecked on the Cornish coast. It was carrying a crew of five: Captain Henry Morton; Mate James Whittaker, Engineer George Sedgwick, Crewman Manuel Lopes. Also on board was the captain's family, picked up at an unauthorised stop on the east coast of England. Near the south coast of Cornwall, 8 miles east of the Wolf Rock, the new ship's engines failed. It did not make a mayday call. Winds were gusting with waves up to 60 feet high. The powerless ship was blown across Mount's Bay towards the rocks near Lamorna. As the ship was close to shore, the Coastguard at Falmouth summoned a Royal Navy Sea King helicopter from RNAS Culdrose. It used the call sign "Rescue 80" during the mission. They were unable to winch anyone off the ship as the waves were too violent. The Coastguard had difficulties contacting the secretary of Penlee Lifeboat Station at Mousehole on the west side of the bay. They eventually asked him to put the lifeboat on standby in case the helicopter rescue failed.Penlee lifeboat disaster – Penlee Lifeboat Station
119. 1983 British Airways Sikorsky S-61 crash – Only six of the 26 on board survived. Owned by British Airways Helicopters, the Sikorsky S-61N registered G-BEON operated between the oil platforms of the North Sea. On 22 Oscar November received its last annual certificate of airworthiness. On 24 it was being used as a replacement helicopter, operating the British Airways Helicopters service between Penzance and the Isles of Scilly. The helicopter which would normally run the service, ever since its purchase in 1974, was in for repairs. Oscar November left Penzance to the Isles of Scilly. It was flying over the Celtic Sea due to poor visibility. It had sunk immediately, only 2.5 miles from St Mary's Airport. There were twenty fatalities. The helicopter did not carry a black box, as it had been found that the vibrations from flight rendered conventional black box recordings unreliable. The only record of the flight was from the pilot's log, documents carried in the cabin. Langley-Williams told The Times: "It was very quick. I hit my head on the seat in front." She asked Smith," ` What the hell is going on?" The response was one word, by which time the passengers were chest-deep in seawater.1983 British Airways Sikorsky S-61 crash – A ditched British Airways Sikorsky S-61 N helicopter similar to the aircraft involved in the accident.
120. Boscastle flood of 2004 – The Boscastle flood of 2004 occurred on Monday, 16 August 2004 in the two villages of Boscastle and Crackington Haven in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The villages suffered extensive damage after flash floods caused by an exceptional amount of rain that fell over eight hours that afternoon. The flood in Boscastle was filmed and extensively reported but the floods in Crackington Haven and Rocky Valley were not mentioned beyond the local news. The floods were the worst in local memory. A study commissioned by the Environment Agency from hydraulics consulting firm HR Wallingford concluded that it was among the most extreme ever experienced in Britain. The flow was about 140 m ³ / 6:00 pm BST. The annual chance of this flood in any one year is about 1 in 400. The probability each year of the heaviest three-hour rainfall is about 1 in 1300. Coincidentally, this was 52 years to the day before Boscastle's 2004 flood. With convergence and coalescence, enhanced moisture levels resulted in heavy rainfall on the afternoon of 16 August 2004. 185 mm of rain fell over the high ground just inland of Boscastle. In Boscastle, 89 mm of rain was recorded in 60 minutes. The cause of the very heavy localised rain is thought to be an extreme example of what has become known as the Brown Willy effect. The torrential rain led to a 2 m rise in river levels in one hour. Water speed was over 4 m/s, more than enough to cause structural damage.Boscastle flood of 2004 – The old Cornish Stores shop
121. Geography of Cornwall – The geography of Cornwall describes the extreme southwestern peninsula of England west of the River Tamar. It is the 9th largest county by area, encompassing 3,563 km ². The length of the coast is large in proportion to the area of the county. Cornwall is exposed that blow in from the Atlantic Ocean. To the north is the Celtic Sea, to the south the English Channel. Cornwall is Land's End. A few miles further west are the Isles of Scilly. Cornwall is located at ° N 5 ° W / 50.5; -5. The rest of the inland contains arable farmland. Also featuring islets, stacks, coves and bays. Lowland stretches are also to be found, particularly along the south coast, sometimes backed by large expanses of dunes such as near Par. The Isles of Scilly are the largest archipelago in the British Isles outside Scotland. The largest other islands are off the south coast: Looe Island and St Michael's Mount. Cornwall has varied habitats including marine ecosystems. Bodmin Moor and Carn Brea are examples of such intrusion.Geography of Cornwall – Geography of Cornwall
122. Geology of Cornwall – The geology of Cornwall, England, is dominated by its granite backbone, part of the Cornubian batholith, formed during the Variscan orogeny. Around this is an metamorphic aureole formed in the mainly Devonian slates that make up most of the rest of the county. The coastline is composed mainly of resistant rocks that give rise in many places to impressive cliffs. South coasts have different characteristics. The coast is more exposed and therefore has a wilder nature. The prosaically-named High Cliff, between Boscastle and St Gennys, is the highest sheer-drop cliff in Cornwall at 735 ft. The only river estuary of any size on the north coast is that of the Camel, which provides Padstow with a safe harbour. Beaches on the south coast usually consist of coarser shingle, interspersed with rocky sections of wave-cut platform. The uplands are surrounded by more fertile, mainly pastoral farmland. Near the south coast, wooded valleys provide sheltered conditions for a flora that likes shade and a moist, mild climate. These areas are mainly of Devonian slate. The north east of Cornwall lies on Carboniferous rocks known as the Culm Measures. It is thought that ore was exploited in Cornwall as early as the Bronze Age. Over the years, other metals such as copper, lead, zinc and silver have all been mined in Cornwall. The Lizard complex is Britain's most complete example of an ophiolite.Geology of Cornwall – A map showing the simplified geology of Cornwall
123. Bodmin Moor – Bodmin Moor is a granite moorland in northeastern Cornwall, England. It dates from the Carboniferous period of geological history. It includes Brown Willy, Rough Tor, a slightly lower peak. Many of Cornwall's rivers have their sources here. It has been inhabited since at least the Neolithic era, when primitive farmers started farming the land. They left more stone circles and stone rows. By medieval and modern times, livestock rearing predominated. The name Bodmin Moor is relatively recent, an Ordnance Survey invention of 1813. The upland area was formerly known after the River Fowey, which rises within it. Bodmin Moor is one of five granite plutons in Cornwall that make up part of the Cornubian batholith. To the south-east Kilmar Tor and Caradon Hill are the most prominent hills. Considerable areas of the moor are poorly form marshes. The rest of the moor is mostly rough overgrown with heather and other low vegetation. The moor ponies. Almost a third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same protection as a National Park.Bodmin Moor – Geological sketch showing Bodmin Moor in relation to Cornwall's granite intrusions
124. Carnmenellis – Carnmenellis Hill gives its name to the area of west Cornwall in England, between Redruth, Helston and Penryn. The hill itself is situated approximately three miles south of Redruth. It is one of five Marilyns in Cornwall; the others being Brown Willy, Kit Hill, Watch Croft. The natural region of Carnmenellis has been designated by Natural England. A nearby village, is sometimes referred to locally as Carnmenellis. Carnmenellis was also the name of a ecclesiastical parish created in 1846 from part of Wendron parish. Initially, the parish included the area which later became the parish of Pencoys. Most of the Carmenellis area is in Stithians civil parish. The summit of Carnmenellis Hill is located at OS grid reference:grid reference SW 695 364) and is 252 metres above sea level. It is maintained by BT. Little archaeological research has been done on the site.Carnmenellis – The telecommunications mast on Carnmenellis Hill. The mound to the right is a covered reservoir according to the OS map
125. Cornish Killas – The Cornish Killas is a natural region covering most of the county of Cornwall in southwest England. It has been designated by Natural England. Killas is a term that refers to the sedimentary rocks of the Devon and Cornwall region. The Cornish Killas forms the main body of the Cornish landmass around the high granite moorlands such as Bodmin Moor and Hensbarrow. Much of central Cornwall is slate plateau with little woodland and few hedgerow trees, dissected by a complex pattern of valleys. In places there is woody vegetation apart from scrub-covered stone hedges dominating the farmland. By contrast, the coastline is richly varied, with windswept cliffs separating broad, sandy bays. The area is rich in important archaeological and industrial sites. Evidence of Neolithic and Bronze Age farming settlements abounds, with their round-houses, stone field enclosures and meadows bordering upland grazing pastures. Hillforts emerged during "rounds" existed into the early Medieval period. By the 18th century the landscape was being dramatically changed by quarrying for granite.Cornish Killas – Cliffs at Polperro
126. Hensbarrow – Hensbarrow is a natural region in the county of Cornwall, England, UK, recognized as National Character Area 154 by Natural England. Hensbarrow is an upland region covering an area of just under 12,000 hectares north of St Austell. It runs from Retew and Treviscoe in the west to Redmoor and Penpillick in the east. It is the remnant of a exposed and windswept heather moorland. Its lower, more sheltered areas are covered by irregular livestock fields enclosed by Cornish hedges of stone walls, with scattered hamlets and farmsteads. China clay pits, sand tips and mica dams occupy much of the central area. Its highest point is Hensbarrow Beacon. Collins, Joseph Henry The Hensbarrow Granite District, 1878, republished 1992, ISBN 0-9519419-1-7Hensbarrow – Hensbarrow Downs
127. The Lizard – The Lizard is a peninsula in southern Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The most southerly point of the British mainland is near Lizard Point at reference SW 701,115. The Lizard village, is in the civil parish of Landewednack; the most southerly parish. The valleys of the River Helford and Loe Pool form the northern boundary, with the rest of the peninsula surrounded by sea. The area measures about 14 by 14 miles. The Lizard has been designated as national character area 157 by Natural England. The peninsula lies within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Almost a third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same protection as a National Park. The Lizard's coast is particularly hazardous to the seaways round the peninsula were historically known as the "Graveyard of Ships". The RNLI operates The Lizard lifeboat station. There is evidence of early habitation with several burial stones. Part of the peninsula is known as the Meneage. It is a matter of debate as to whether Helston was once a port, albeit no actual records still exist. Geomorphologists believe the bar was most likely formed by rising sea levels, after the last ice age, creating a barrier beach. The medieval port of Helston was at Gweek, on the Helford river which exported tin and copper.The Lizard – Lizard Point
128. West Penwith – Penwith is an area of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom, located on the peninsula of the same name. It is also the name of a local government district, whose council was based in Penzance. The area is named after one of the administrative hundreds of Cornwall which derives from two Cornish words, penn meaning ` headland' and wydh meaning ` at the end'. Natural England have named it West Penwith. It is also known as the Land's End Peninsula. The Penwith peninsula sits predominantly on bedrock that has led to the formation of a rugged coastline with many fine beaches. The landscape is dotted with ruined mine buildings. Inland, the peninsula is primarily granite with a top soil. This is most evident on the coast between St Just and Zennor where the remains of the ancient seabed of the Pliocene era are visible. Its highest point is Watch Croft. The shelter of the mild climate gives Penwith a flora not seen anywhere else in the UK. Penzance's Morrab Gardens is able to grow bananas. Penwith also contains Drift Reservoir, located appromimately 3 miles west of Penzance. In addition to Penwith's status as a Heritage coastline, an area of 90 square kilometres, is considered an Environmentally Sensitive Area. Penwith lies within the Cornwall Area of Natural Beauty.West Penwith
129. Penwith – Penwith is an area of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom, located on the peninsula of the same name. It is also the name of a local government district, whose council was based in Penzance. The area is named after one of the administrative hundreds of Cornwall which derives from two Cornish words, penn meaning ` headland' and wydh meaning ` at the end'. Natural England have named it West Penwith. It is also known as the Land's End Peninsula. The Penwith peninsula sits predominantly on bedrock that has led to the formation of a rugged coastline with many fine beaches. The landscape is dotted with ruined mine buildings. Inland, the peninsula is primarily granite with a top soil. This is most evident on the coast between St Just and Zennor where the remains of the ancient seabed of the Pliocene era are visible. Its highest point is Watch Croft. The shelter of the mild climate gives Penwith a flora not seen anywhere else in the UK. Penzance's Morrab Gardens is able to grow bananas. Penwith also contains Drift Reservoir, located appromimately 3 miles west of Penzance. In addition to Penwith's status as a Heritage coastline, an area of 90 square kilometres, is considered an Environmentally Sensitive Area. Penwith lies within the Cornwall Area of Natural Beauty.Penwith
130. Kerrier – Kerrier was a local government district in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It was the most southerly district in the United Kingdom, other than the Isles of Scilly. Its council was based in ° N 5.297 ° W / 50.214; -5.297. Other towns in the district included Redruth and Helston. The district also contained the Lizard Peninsula. The district was formed on 1 April 1974, as a merger of the borough of Helston, Kerrier Rural District. On 25 Cornwall County Council's bid for unitary authority status was accepted by the government. It was abolished on 1 April 2009 as part of structural changes to local government in England. Kerrier District Council website Kerrier Local election results 2007 Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for Kerrier District CouncilKerrier
131. Carrick, Cornwall – Carrick was a local government district in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. Its council was based in Truro. The main centres of population, commerce were the city of Truro and the towns of Falmouth/Penryn. It was named after an inlet near Falmouth that the rivers Percuil, Penryn and Fal drain into. The district was abolished to local government in England on 1 April. Carrick comprises the following 27 parishes Carrick Council Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for Carrick District CouncilCarrick, Cornwall – Carrick District
132. Restormel – Restormel was a borough of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom, one of the six administrative divisions that made up the county. Its council was based in N 4.792 ° W / 50.338; -4.792. Other towns included Newquay. The borough was named after Restormel Castle. The Restormel comes from the Cornish, meaning the king's tower hill. The motto in Cornish, is "Ro an mor hag an tyr", meaning "From the sea and from the land." It recognises the Borough's connection with the land. The largest settlement in Cornwall, does not have a Parish/Town Council. The district was abolished to local government in England on 1 April 2009. Restormel is twinned by oath, which can be viewed in the council offices with Kreis Dithmarschen. This used to be part of the council, however in recent years it has become a separate organisation.Restormel – Borough of Restormel
133. Caradon – Caradon was a local government district in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It contained five towns: Callington, Liskeard, Looe, Saltash and Torpoint, over 80 hamlets within 41 civil parishes. Its District Council was based in ° N 4.465 ° W / 50.453; -4.465. The district was named after the principal landmark of the area, formerly the site of important copper mines. The district was abolished to local government in England on 1 April. All of Caradon is included in one of these two hundreds. East Wivelshire and West Wivelshire are two of the ancient Hundreds of Cornwall. It is not recorded. The modern boundaries do not correspond exactly. The Cornish names are: East; West. Caradon District Council Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for Caradon District CouncilCaradon – Caradon District
134. North Cornwall – North Cornwall is an area of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It is also the name of a local government district, administered from Bodmin and Wadebridge 50.516 ° N 4.835 ° W / 50.516; -4.835. Other towns in the area are Camelford. North Cornwall is an area of natural beauty, of great geological and scientific interest. It includes the only part of Cornwall, formed of the northern area of North Cornwall District. The rest of the district lies on the granite of Bodmin Moor. A similar area is covered by the North Cornwall parliamentary constituency. North Cornwall has a stretch of coastline that borders the Celtic Sea to the north. The Carboniferous sandstone cliffs that surround Bude were formed during the Carboniferous period, around million years ago. They are part of what are known to geologists as the Culm Measures which continue eastwards across north Devon. The folded and contorted stratification of sandstone is unique in southern England. During the Variscan Orogeny, which affected the entire Cornish coast, the cliffs were pushed up from underneath the sea, creating the overlapping strata. As the cliffs around Bude contain calcium carbonate, farmers used to take sand from the beach, for spreading on their fields. The stratified cliffs of Bude gave their name to a geological event called the Bude Formation. Many formations can be viewed from the South West Coast Path which passes through the town.North Cornwall – The Platt in Wadebridge looking at the Clock Tower
135. St Austell – St Austell is a civil parish and major town in Cornwall, England, UK. It is situated on the south coast, 30 miles west of the border with Devon. One of the earliest references to St Austell is in John Leland's Itinerary, where he says "At S. Austelles is the paroch chirch". This meant that more businesses took root, providing more jobs and improving trade. This, along with other factors, led to St Austell becoming one of the ten most commercial centres of Cornwall. The centre recently underwent a # 75 million redevelopment process. The redevelopment attracted heavy opposition from its outset. In October 2007, the South West of project developers David McLean announced that the new development would be named ` White River Place'. It was also announced that 50 % of shop units had been leased with New Look, Peacocks, Bonmarché and Wilkinson opening new stores. Bonmarche has since closed. The Torchlight Carnival was revived in November 2009 through a survey conducted with local residents. The event is run by a small group of non affiliated volunteers. The St Austell and Clay Country Eco-town is a plan for new settlements around St Austell on old Imerys sites. It was given government approval in July 2009. In July 2011, the Cornwall Council strategic committee voted to approve a # 250 million beach resort scheme at Carlyon Bay, St Austell.St Austell – High Cross Street
136. Falmouth, Cornwall – Falmouth is a town, civil parish and port on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It has a total population of 26,767. It is claimed that an earlier Celtic name for the place was Peny-cwm-cuic, Anglicized to'Pennycomequick'. Falmouth was the site where Henry VIII built Pendennis Castle to defend Carrick Roads, in 1540. The main town of the district was then at Penryn. Sir John Killigrew created the town of Falmouth shortly after 1613. Under threat from the Spanish Armada, the defences at Pendennis were strengthened by the building of angled ramparts. During the Civil War, Pendennis Castle was the second to last fort to surrender to the Parliamentary Army. The seal of Falmouth was An eagle displayed on each wing with a tower. The arms of the borough of Falmouth were Arg. The Falmouth Packet Service operated out for over 160 years between 1689 and 1851. Its purpose was to carry mail to and from Britain's growing empire. As the most good harbour in Great Britain Falmouth was often the first port for returning Royal Navy ships. In 1805 news of Britain's Admiral Nelson's death at Trafalgar was landed here from the schooner Pickle and taken to London by stagecoach. On 2 October 1836 HMS Beagle anchored at the end of its noted survey voyage around the world.Falmouth, Cornwall – Falmouth Harbour
137. Penzance – Penzance is a town, civil parish and port in Cornwall, in England, United Kingdom. The civil parish includes the villages of Mousehole, Paul, Gulval and Heamoor. Incorporated in 1614, it has a population of 21,200. There are no early documents mentioning an actual dedication to St Anthony which may be groundless. Until the 1930s this history was also reflected for the town, the severed "holy head" of St John the Baptist. It can still be seen on several important landmarks in the town. A significant amount of trade is indicated as many have been found elsewhere in Britain. The earliest evidence of settlement in Penzance is from the Age. The defensive earthwork known as Lescudjack Castle almost certainly belongs to the Iron Age. A single rampart would have dominated the approach to the area from the east. The site is now surrounded by housing with allotments. In August 1899 two coins of Vespasian were found in an ancient trench in Penzance Cemetery. The coins are now in the Penlee House Museum. A 1934 was also donated to the museum. The Hundred of Penwith had its ancient centre at Connerton, now buried beneath the sands of Gwithian Towans at Gwithian.Penzance – A panorama of Penzance
138. Camborne – Camborne is a town and civil parish in west Cornwall, England, UK. It is at the western edge of a conurbation comprising Camborne, Pool and Redruth. The population of Camborne was 14,726 in 20,010 at the 2001 census. By 2011 the population had grown to 20,845. The Northern edge of the parish includes a section of the South West Coast Path which includes; Deadman's Cove. Camborne is with the town of Redruth 3 miles to the east. It has a town council. Camborne-Redruth is on the northern side of the Carn Brea/Carnmenellis upland which slopes northwards to the sea. The villages along the road were Roskear, Tuckingmill, Pool and Illogan. Running north-south are a number of small streams with narrow river valleys which have been following centuries of tin streaming and other industrial processes. An example is the Red River valley which crosses the A3047 at Tuckingmill. To the north, the A30 forms the agricultural land on the other side. It is the only Roman villa to be found in the whole of Cornwall. Langdon records seven stone crosses in the parish of which two are at Pendarves. Church-paths linked the churchtown to the outlying hamlets.Camborne – Commercial Square, Camborne Town Centre
139. Newquay – Newquay is a town, civil parish, seaside resort and fishing port in Cornwall, England. It is situated on the North Atlantic coast of Truro. The town is bounded to the west to the east by the Porth Valley. Newquay has been expanding inland since it was founded. In 2001, the census recorded a permanent population of 19,562, increasing at the 2011 census. There are an embankment on the area now known as The Barrowfields, 400 m from Trevelgue. Now only a few remain. In 1987, evidence of a Bronze village was found at Trethellan Farm, a site that overlooks the River Gannel. It is claimed that occupation of the site was continuous from the 3rd BC to the 5th or 6th century AD. It is not mentioned in the Domesday Book although a local house is included. The first British census of 1801 recorded around 1,300 inhabitants in the settlement. The construction of the current harbour started in 1832. Newquay parish was created in 1882. The Tower later became the golf house. After the arrival of passenger trains in 1876, the former village started to grow.Newquay – Looking towards Newquay Harbour
140. Bodmin – Bodmin is a civil parish and major town in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It is situated south-west of Bodmin Moor. The extent of the civil parish corresponds closely to that of the town so is mostly urban in character. Bodmin had a population of 12,778. This population had increased at the 2011 Census. It was formerly the town of Cornwall until the Crown Courts moved to Truro, also the administrative centre. Bodmin was in the administrative North Cornwall District until local reorganisation in 2009 abolished the District. The town is part of the North Cornwall parliamentary constituency, represented by Scott Mann MP. Bodmin Town Council is made up of sixteen councillors who are elected to serve a term of four years. The Council elects one of its number as Mayor to serve as the town's civic leader and to chair council meetings. Bodmin lies in the east of south-west of Bodmin Moor. It has been suggested that the town's name comes from a contraction of "menegh". The "monks' dwelling" may refer to an monastic settlement instituted by St. Guron, which St. Petroc took as his site. Guron is said to have departed on the arrival of Petroc. The hamlets of Cooksland, Dunmere and Turfdown are in the parish.Bodmin – The Shire Hall
141. Redruth – Redruth is a town and civil parish in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The population of Redruth was 14,018 at the 2011 census. Camborne and Redruth together form the largest urban area before local government reorganisation were an urban district. The Redruth derives from its Cornish name, Rhyd-ruth. It is the -ruth which means the colour red. Traditionally in the Penwith Hundred, the town has developed away from the original settlement, near where the present Churchtown district of Redruth stands today. This location is a steeply wooded valley, on the other. The presence of shallow lodes of copper lying east to west made it an advantageous site for extracting metals, including, tin, lead and copper. This process turned the colour of the river red. Historically, Redruth was a small town overshadowed by its neighbours until a boom in the demand for copper ore during the 18th century. Ore had mostly been discarded by the Cornish tin-mining industry but was now needed to make brass, an essential metal in the Industrial Revolution. The Mining Exchange was built as a place for the trading of mineral stock. Redruth was making its transition from a town dominated by mines and industry to a residential centre. By the end of the 19th century, Britain was importing most of its copper ore. To find employment, many miners emigrated in the Americas, Australasia and South Africa.Redruth – Fore Street, Redruth town centre
142. St Ives, Cornwall – It is a seaside town, civil parish and port in Cornwall, England, UK. The town lies west of Camborne on the coast of the Celtic Sea. In former times St Ives was commercially dependent on fishing. It was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1639. It has become renowned for its number of artists. St Ives was named best seaside town of 2007 by The Guardian newspaper. St Ives should not be confused in south-west Cornwall. The origin of St Ives is attributed in legend in the 5th century. St Ives derives from it. The town was the site of a particularly notable atrocity during the Prayer rebellion of 1549. The English Provost Marshal invited the portreeve, John Payne, to lunch at an inn. He asked the portreeve to have the gallows erected during the course of the lunch. Afterwards the Provost Marshal walked down to the gallows; the Provost Marshal then ordered the portreeve to mount the gallows. The portreeve was then hanged for being a "busy rebel". The seal of St Ives is an ivy branch overspreading the whole field Vert, with the legend Sigillum Burgi St. Ives in Com.St Ives, Cornwall – St Ives
143. Helston – Helston is a town and civil parish in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It is situated at the northern end of the Lizard Peninsula approximately 12 miles east of Penzance and 9 miles south-west of Falmouth. Helston is around 1.5 miles farther south than Penzance. The population in 2011 was 11,700. Cattle market town is best known for the annual Furry Dance, said to originate from the medieval period. However, the Hal-an-Tow is reputed to be of Celtic origin. The music, associated with the Furry Dance is known to have been written in 1911. In 2001, the town celebrated the 800th anniversary of the granting of its Charter. The name comes from ` ton' added later to denote a Saxon manor; the Domesday Book refers to Henliston. Only one edition refers to'Henlistona'. It was granted its charter for the price of forty marks of silver. The seal of the borough of Helston was St Michael his wings standing on a gateway. It is a matter of debate as to whether Helston was once a port, albeit no actual records exist. Geomorphologists believe the bar was most likely formed by rising sea levels, after the last ice age, creating a barrier beach. Defoe's description seems claiming Helston to be a port in the historic period.Helston – The Hal an Tow celebration
144. Bude – Bude is a small seaside resort town in north Cornwall, England, UK, in the civil parish of Bude-Stratton and at the mouth of the River Neet. It is sometimes formerly known as Bude Haven. It is located along the A3073 road off the A39. Bude is twinned in Brittany, France. Bude's coast faces Bude Bay in the Celtic Sea, part of the Atlantic Ocean. Its earlier importance was as a harbour, then a source of sand useful for improving the moorland soil. It was a popular seaside destination in the 20th century. It is located along the A3073 road off the A39 road. Bude Coast SSSI, located between Compass Cove to the north, is noted for its geological and biological interest. Carboniferous sandstone cliffs surround Bude. During the Variscan Orogeny the strata were heavily folded. As the cliffs around Bude contain calcium carbonate, farmers used to take sand from the beach, for spreading on their fields. The stratified cliffs of Bude give their name to a sequence of rocks called the Bude Formation. Many formations can be viewed from the South West Coast Path which passes through the town. Many ships have been wrecked on the jagged reefs which fringe the base of the cliffs.Bude – Bude
145. Liskeard – Liskeard /lɪsˈkɑːrd/ is an ancient stannary and market town and civil parish in south east Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The town has a population of 9,417. It still has a town council. There are 3 wards in Liskeard. A Norman castle was built here after the Conquest, which eventually fell in the later Middle Ages. By 1538 when visited by John Leland only a few insignificant remains were to be seen. Sir Richard Carew writing in 1602 concurred; Liskeard was one of the Duchy of Cornwall. The charter was granted by Richard, Earl of Cornwall in 1240. Since then, it has been an important centre for agriculture. The seal of the borough of Liskeard was Ar. A perched thereon and respecting each other two birds in chief two annulets and in flank two feathers. Liskeard is one of the few towns in Cornwall still to have every other Tuesday. Some shops retain their Victorian shopfronts and interiors. Liskeard holds a carnival every June. Liskeard holds a large agricultural show, The Liskeard Show, always held on the second Saturday in July.Liskeard – Liskeard Guildhall
146. Hayle – Hayle is a small town, civil parish and cargo port in west Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It is approximately seven miles northeast of Penzance. Evidence of Iron Age settlement exists at the fort on the hill above Carnsew Pool where the Plantation now stands. Evidence of this comes from finds of imported pottery including Romano/Grecian Amphorae - containers for oil. In those times the estuary looked a lot different from that of today. A number of inscribed stones from this period have been found in the area. Two early stones have been found at one bearing a ` Constantine' form of a Chi-Rho cross which may date to the 5th Century. The stone was discovered by workmen lying in a horizontal position at the depth of four feet. When the stone was moved it broke into three parts. It is now unreadable. The version that appears on the replica is translated as "Here Cenui fell asleep, born in 500. Here in his tomb he lies, he lived 33 years." Here he lies in the tomb. He lived for 33 years." The Domesday survey in 1086 shows that the town of Hayle was not yet in existence.Hayle – Hayle Viaduct from a hill by the estuary mouth
147. Launceston, Cornwall – It is one west of the River Tamar, which constitutes almost the entire border between Cornwall and Devon, at its middle stage. Its gradients are generally steep particularly at a south-western knoll topped by Launceston Castle. The centre is bypassed and is no longer physically a main thoroughfare. The other dual carriageway and main point of entry is at Saltash over the Tamar Bridge and was completed in 1962. Launceston Castle was built by Robert, Count of Mortain c. 1070 to dominate the surrounding area. Launceston was the caput of of the Earldom of Cornwall until replaced by Lostwithiel in the 13th century. Launceston was later the town of Cornwall until 1835 when Bodmin replaced it. Two civil parishes serve its outskirts, of which the central more built-up administrative unit housed 8,952 residents at the 2011 census. Launceston's motto is a reference during the English Civil War of the mid-17th century. Dunheved was the Southwestern Brittonic name for the town in the West Saxon period. Only one specimen is known to exist. In the reign of William the Conqueror, the mint remained in existence until the reign of Henry II, 1160. During the reign of Henry III of England, another mint was established in Launceston. Launceston Castle, in good repair, was built by Robert, Count of Mortain c. 1070 to dominate the surrounding area. Launceston was the caput of of Cornwall until replaced by Lostwithiel in the 13th century.Launceston, Cornwall – Town Square
148. Penryn, Cornwall – Penryn is a civil parish and town in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It is situated about 1 mile north-west of Falmouth. There are two electoral wards covering Penryn: ` East and Mylor' and ` Penryn West'. Penryn boasts a wealth of history. Its Charter of Incorporation was made in 1236. The contents of this Charter were embodied by Bishop Walter Bronescombe in the year 1259. In 1374, the chapel of St Thomas was opened. Standing at the head of the Penryn River, Penryn was a port of some significance in the 15th century. The dissolution of Glasney College helped trigger the Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549. From 1554, Penryn held a parliamentary constituency, which became Penryn and Falmouth in 1832. The constituency was abolished with Penryn becoming part of the Falmouth and Camborne constituency. It received a royal charter as a borough in 1621, mainly by the crown to cure the town of piracy. At least three mayors of Penryn were convicted of piracy between 1650. The arms of the borough of Penryn were Sa. A Saracen's head Or in a bordure of eight bezants.Penryn, Cornwall – St Gluvias Street, Penryn
149. List of hills of Cornwall – The table is colour-coded based on the classification or "listing" of the hill. The two types that occur in Cornwall are listings based on topographical prominence. "Prominence" correlates strongly with the subjective significance of a summit. Peaks with low prominences are either subsidiary tops of relatively insignificant independent summits. Peaks with high prominences tend to be the highest points around and likely to have extraordinary views. A Marilyn is a hill with a prominence of about 500 feet. A "HuMP" is less than 150 metres. In this table Marilyns are in beige and HuMPs in lilac. The term "sub-Marilyn" or "sub-HuMP" is used, e.g. in the online Database of British and Irish Hills to indicate hills that fall just below the threshold. For further information see the Lists of the individual articles on Marilyns and HuMPs. List of mountains and hills of the United Kingdom List of Marilyns in England Geography of CornwallList of hills of Cornwall – Brown Willy
150. Alex Tor – Alex Tor is a conical hill, 291 metres high, located in the west of Bodmin Moor in the county of Cornwall, England. At the summit of Alex Tor are a large and intricate tor cairn. Other tors visible include: Rough Tor, Brown Willy, Showery Tor, Garrow Tor and Butter's Tor. Parking is possible on the lane running SW to NE past the tor, but not beyond the Private Road sign. From here it is an easy climb of less than 1 kilometre. On the western flank of the hill there are the remains of an ancient farmstead.Alex Tor – The large and intricate cairn on the summit.
151. Brown Willy – Brown Willy is a hill in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The summit, at 1,378 feet above level, is the highest point of Bodmin Moor and of Cornwall as a whole. It is situated about 2.5 miles north-west of Bolventor and 4 miles south-east of Camelford. The hill has a variable appearance that depends on the point from which it is seen. It widens into a long multi-peaked crest from closer range. The first part of the hill's name is a Brythonic element meaning "breast, pap; hill-side, slope, breast", frequent in Welsh placenames. It has frequently been noted on lists of unusual place names. Cornish residents objected to the idea. The Daily Telegraph called for campaigners to keep their "hands off Brown Willy". The summit of Brown Willy is in the county of Cornwall. The geography of the surrounding terrain is typical of Bodmin Moor – tors surrounded by desolate moorland. The River Fowey rises nearby. There are two man-made cairns on the summit. Brown Willy Summit Cairn or Brown Willy North Cairn is a man made pile that sits alongside an Ordnance Survey triangulation station. It has been suggested that Cornwall's ancient name Kernow is related.Brown Willy – Brown Willy from the summit of Rough Tor
152. Caradon Hill – Caradon Hill is on Bodmin Moor in the former Caradon district of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The summit is 371 metres above mean level. Caradon Hill is on the southeastern edge of the moor; it is between the villages of Minions, Upton Cross, Pensilva and Darite. These are now closed. Disused copper and tin mines are scattered around the base of the hill, including the Wheal Phoenix, well-known among mineral collectors. The ruins of the Prince of Wales house are prominent at Wheal Phoenix. Granite was also quarried nearby. The area around the southwest base of the hill form part of Crow's Nest SSSI. The Caradon Hill transmitting station mast is near the summit of Caradon Hill at grid reference SX 272 707.Caradon Hill – Caradon Hill
153. Condolden – Condolden is a hill in north Cornwall, United Kingdom. The summit is 308 metres above datum. Condolden is on the eastern border of Tintagel civil parish between Waterpit Down and Penpethy. It is the second highest point in Cornwall outside Bodmin Moor. The largest of the Bronze Age barrows in Tintagel is at Condolden. On the edges of the hill are Halgabron, Trenale, Downrow, Truas, Menadue and Trewarmett. Near Trenale was the Iron Age fort of Trenale Bury, ploughed up during the Second World War. The barrow is topped by an Ordnance Survey triangulation point. The land is used for arable farming. View uphill from slopes of Condolden HillCondolden – The OS trig point on Condolden
154. Hensbarrow Beacon – Hensbarrow Beacon is a hill in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It is situated a north-west of Stenalees village at grid reference SW 996 575. It is the highest natural point of the Hensbarrow uplands, national character area. The natural summit of Hensbarrow Beacon is marked by a trig point. It can be reached to the west. Geographically, the hill is also the highest point of a large region of downland to the north-west of St Austell. The large degree of Bodmin Moor to the north-east gives it enough relative height to make it a Marilyn. The medieval Blackmoor Stannary was centred with its records stored at the church in Luxulyan. Hensbarrow Beacon was 1:2500 Ordnance Survey maps of Cornwall.Hensbarrow Beacon – Hensbarrow Beacon.
155. Kilmar Tor – Kilmar Tor is an elongated hill, 396 metres high and running from SW to NE, on Bodmin Moor in the Duchy of Cornwall, England. Its prominence of 118 metres qualifies it as a HuMP. It is surmounted by granite tors. There is trig point at the summit well as a cairn and cist. The course of a dismantled railway runs around the hill to evidence of the mining that used to be carried out in the area. On Kilmar Tor's northern flank is Hawk's Tor beyond the saddle. The southeast is Bearah Tor and, to the south, Langstone Downs.Kilmar Tor – Kilmar Tor from the SE. Trig point just visible on the right.
156. Rough Tor – Rough Tor, or Roughtor, is a tor on Bodmin Moor, Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. Rough Tor is approximately one mile northwest of Cornwall's highest point, on Bodmin Moor. Its summit is 1313 ft above mean level, making it the second highest point in Cornwall. Both hills are near the town of Camelford. The De Lank River flows between the two hills. The Lowermoor Water Treatment Works are not far away from the hill. From the summit of Rough Tor, many signs of settlements and field systems are visible, indicating that it was a well populated area in former times. The summit of Rough Tor once had a neolithic enclosure. The summit is encircled by a series of rough stone walls that align with natural stone outcroppings on the tor. The walls would have originally completely encircled the tor. The walls would have had numerous stone lined openings. In the interior of the circle, there are remains of terraces leveled into the slopes, which archaeologists believe formed the foundations of wooden houses. There are also cleared areas near the terraces that have been garden plots. There are numerous cairns and burial monuments in the vicinity. There are also the remains of a large field systems, partially overlain with a medieval system.Rough Tor – Rough Tor seen from the west
157. Stowe's Hill – Stowe's Hill is an elongated hill, 381 metres high, located on the eastern edge of Bodmin Moor in the county of Cornwall, England. Stowe's Hill is a prominent ridge located about 1500 metres north of Minions, the highest village in Cornwall. It is dominated by Stowe's Pound, a huge tor enclosure comprising two massive stone-walls. The smaller enclosure surrounds the tors at the southern end of the hill; the larger one encircles the rest of the ridge. Inside Stowe's Pound are two Bronze Age cairns, over 100 house platforms. The site is thought to be Neolithic or Bronze Age and connected with other settlements and ritual monuments in the vicinity.Stowe's Hill – Stowe's Hill from the west.
158. Tregonning Hill – Tregonning Hill is the westerly of two granite hills overlooking Mount's Bay in west Cornwall, England, United Kingdom, the other being Godolphin Hill. They are approximately 6 kilometres west of the town of Helston. Germoe memorial is on the summit of the hill. The main vegetation types on the hill are lowland heath and scrub. The heath consists of a mixture of heather, bell heather and western gorse (Ulex gallii] with cross–leaved heath replacing E. cinerea in wet areas. Bilberry and tormentil also occur. On the deeper soils European gorse, bramble are the dominant scrub species. The bare slopes of the old clay works are where western rustwort occurs. By 2004 the liverwort was known from fourteen sites within three SSSIs, making Cornwall the main stronghold globally. The nationally scarce moss known in Cornwall also occurs on Tregonning Hill. As of 7 the condition of the SSSI was considered to be ″ unfavourable declining". Tregonning Hill is a detatched outcrop of the Cornubian batholith. China clay has been quarried. Disused pits, gullies, waste-tips and debris litter the hillside. An quarry was in operation on the summit in 1879.Tregonning Hill – Germoe war memorial
159. Watch Croft – Watch Croft is a prominent hill, 252 metres high overlooking the north coast of the county of Cornwall, England. Its prominence of 225 metres qualifies it as one of only five in Cornwall. The others are Brown Willy, Kit Hill, Carnmenellis. It is the highest point in West Penwith. Just and about a kilometre from the north Cornish coastline. The summit is a tor. There are views across Mount's Bay to the Lizard, north to Pendeen Watch.Watch Croft – Remote cottage at the Garden Mine on the west flank of Watch Croft.
160. Politics of Cornwall – Its position on the geographical periphery of the island of Great Britain is also a factor. Cornish politics is also defined for political office in Cornwall. In many areas, Labour Party support. Cornwall's politics have partly been dictated by its history. Cornwall's GDP still remains low. However, Cornwall is attractive to people seeking to move into the area to live. There are therefore the needs of local people. The Church of England was less well supported than some areas to the east. The Conservative Party is also fairly strong for slightly different reasons. They suffered a particularly bad setback in the 1990s. However they regained three of the six Cornish seats in the 2010 general election. The Labour Party is traditionally much weaker in Cornwall than other parts of the UK, although it has had some representation locally. This may be partly because there is no urban centre in Cornwall -- Plymouth tends to fulfil that role. Cornwall also is a centre for the rump Liberal Party in the UK. However, with both parties this has never been national policy.Politics of Cornwall – Truro
161. Cornwall Council – Cornwall Council is the unitary authority for the county of Cornwall in the United Kingdom, not including the Isles of Scilly, which has its own council. Since the 2013 elections, it is run by an Independent-Liberal Democrat coalition. Cornwall Council provides a wide range of services to more than half a million Cornish residents. In 2014 it was the biggest employer in Cornwall with a staff of 12,429 salaried workers. It is responsible for services including: schools, social services, rubbish collection, roads, more. Before April 2009, Cornwall was administered as a non-metropolitan county with six districts, Caradon, Carrick, Kerrier, North Cornwall, Penwith, Restormel. The Council of the Isles of Scilly still remains a separate unitary authority. On 5 the Government confirmed that Cornwall was one of five councils that would move to unitary status. This was enacted by statutory instrument to local government in England, The changes took effect on 1 April 2009. On that date Cornwall County Council were abolished and were replaced by Cornwall Council. In March 2009, the leader of Cornwall County Council David Whalley announced he would be standing down as a councillor, complaining of personal attacks against him. On the creation of the unitary authority it was decided that the name of the new council would be Cornwall Council. The campaign for Cornish devolution began with the founding of the Cornish Constitutional Convention a cross-party, cross-sector association that campaigns for devolution to Cornwall. It proved incapable. Cornwall Council is promoting ten cultural projects as part of a five-year strategy.Cornwall Council
162. South West England – South West England is one of nine official regions of England. Million people live in South West England. The region includes much of the ancient kingdom of Wessex. The largest city is Bristol. Other urban centres include Plymouth, Swindon, Gloucester, Cheltenham, Exeter, Bath, Torbay, the South East Dorset conurbation. There are eight cities: Salisbury, Bath, Wells, Bristol, Gloucester, Exeter, Plymouth and Truro. It includes two entire national parks, Dartmoor and; four World Heritage Sites, including Stonehenge and the Jurassic Coast. The northern part near Chipping Campden, is as close to the Scottish border as it is to the tip of Cornwall. The region has by far the longest coastline in many seaside fishing towns. The region is at the first-level of NUTS for Eurostat purposes. Key facts about the region are produced by the South West Observatory. Following the abolition of the South West Regional Assembly and Government Office, local co-ordination across the region is now undertaken by South West Councils. The region is known including the legend of King Arthur and Glastonbury Tor, as well as its traditions and customs. Some regard it as a Celtic nation. The South West of England is known for Cheddar cheese, which originated in the Somerset village of Cheddar, Devon cream teas, crabs, cider.South West England – High Willhays on Dartmoor, Devon, the region's highest point.
163. Civil parishes in Cornwall – A civil parish is a country subdivision, forming the lowest unit of local government in England. There are 218 civil parishes in the ceremonial county of Cornwall, which includes the Isles of Scilly. The county is effectively parished in its entirety; only the unpopulated Wolf Rock is unparished. At the 2001 census, there were 501,267 people living accounting for the whole of the county's population. The county is governed by two unitary authorities; Cornwall Council covers mainland Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly are administered by their own unitary authority. Parishes were originally purely ecclesiastical. Over time they acquired civil administration powers. The Highways Act 1555 made parishes responsible for the upkeep of roads. The poor were looked after by the monasteries, until their dissolution. In 1572, magistrates were given power to'survey the poor' and impose taxes for their relief. The 19th century saw an increase in the responsibility of parishes, although the Poor Law powers were transferred to Poor Law Unions. The Public Health Act 1872 grouped parishes into Rural Sanitary Districts, based on the Poor Law Unions; these subsequently formed the basis for rural districts. Under Poor Law Amendment Act 1882, all extra-parochial areas and townships that levied a separate rate became independent civil parishes. Urban civil parishes were generally coterminous with the urban district, municipal borough or county borough in which they were situated. These were usually merged into one.Civil parishes in Cornwall – Advent Sen Adhwynn
165. North Cornwall (UK Parliament constituency) – North Cornwall is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament by Scott Mann, a Conservative. This constituency was created under the Representation of the People Act 1918. 2010–present: The District of North Cornwall. February 1974; new constituency boundaries applied. Death of Maclean 15 June 1932 List of Parliamentary constituencies in Cornwall British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949, compiled and edited by F.W.S. CraigNorth Cornwall (UK Parliament constituency) – Sir Donald Maclean
166. South East Cornwall (UK Parliament constituency) – South East Cornwall is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by Sheryll Murray, a Conservative. 1983-2010: The District of Caradon, the Borough of Restormel wards of Fowey, Lostwithiel, St Blaise, Tywardreath, the District of North Cornwall ward of Stokeclimsland. 2010-present: The District of Caradon, the Borough of Restormel ward of Lostwithiel. Consistent with this, since 1983 the preference for an MP has alternated between Liberal Democrats and Conservatives. List of Parliamentary constituencies in Cornwall Forgotten Corner of Cornwall Wivelshire Notes ReferencesSouth East Cornwall (UK Parliament constituency) – Boundary of South East Cornwall in Cornwall for the 2010 general election.
167. St Ives (UK Parliament constituency) – St. Ives is a parliamentary constituency in west Cornwall; it includes the Isles of Scilly. The constituency has been represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament by Derek Thomas, a Conservative MP. St Ives has elected MPs to every Parliament except for a brief period during the Protectorate. The St Ives name was transferred to the surrounding county constituency. In 1831, the population of the borough contained 1,002 houses. But by 1761 the alliances had shifted again, Buckinghamshire and Praed on the Duke of Bolton on the other. Samuel Stephens, defeated by 7 votes, accused William Praed and Adam Drummond of benefiting from several types of corruption. His side, as petitioners, failed to bring any evidence of criminal misconduct by the parish overseers so the committee decided they had no jurisdiction to interfere. By 1784 Praed was considered unchallenged as patron. There were 584 qualified voters at that of 1832. 1885-1918 Division of counties into single-member constituencies was effected in 1885: Cornwall having six. Stretched not only from Land's End to St Erth but also included the Isles of Scilly. The Conservatives were consequently very weak. Party loyalties may have been disrupted by the 1918 changes. For the next decade St Ives was a marginal, changing hands four times in the 1920s.St Ives (UK Parliament constituency) – Walter Runciman
168. Truro and Falmouth (UK Parliament constituency) – Truro and Falmouth is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since its 2010 creation by Sarah Newton, a Conservative. It replaces parts of the former Truro and St Austell and Falmouth and Camborne seats. The main settlements in the constituency are the town of Falmouth, after which it is named. Other settlements include Penryn, Perranporth, St Agnes and St Mawes. The constituency has visitor attractions spanning opposite coasts, including Porthtowan and Perranporth, noted for beaches. Falmouth abounds to stay and sailing and motor yacht facilities. However businesses are not dominated by the arts or leisure and also rely on maritime maintenance, hospitality, tourism, retail, distribution and agriculture. List of Parliamentary constituencies in Cornwall Notes ReferencesTruro and Falmouth (UK Parliament constituency) – Boundary of Truro and Falmouth in Cornwall.
169. Cornish nationalism – Cornish nationalists generally seek some form of autonomy for Cornwall. If correct they argue the Cornish therefore have a right to national self determination. In 2004 school children in Cornwall could also record their ethnicity as Cornish on the schools census. In the world of Cornish sport also can be found expressions of Cornish national identity. In 2004 a campaign was started to field a Cornish national team in the 2006 Commonwealth Games. However, this campaign has now been abandoned. Edward Lhuyd noticed the similarities between Breton, Cornish, Irish, Scots Gaelic and Welsh, so he grouped them together as "Celtic". However, Sykes questions whether there ever was a Celtic people at all. In 2011, an e-petition directed at Westminster was launched. "This petition aims to have Cornwall recognised as a National Minority.." The Duchy itself consists of around 54,424 hectares of land in 23 counties, mostly in the South West of England. The current Duke of Cornwall is HRH Charles, Prince of Wales. The Duke of the reigning monarch is also the Prince of Wales. However, these titles are separate. .Cornish nationalism – Cornwall Council has held up the Channel Island of Guernsey as a potential model for future Cornish autonomy. (Guernsey Parliament building pictured)
170. Cornish Assembly – The campaign for Cornish devolution began with the founding of the Cornish Constitutional Convention a cross-party, cross-sector association that campaigns for devolution to Cornwall. In November 2014 a petition was launched on the government petitions campaigning for a Cornish Assembly. A law-making Cornish Assembly is policy for the Liberal Democrats, Mebyon Kernow and the Greens. Cornwall enjoyed a level of self-government through its Stannary Parliament. Maps of the time mentioned "Anglia et Cornubia". Cornwall County Council was created by the Local Government Act 1888. At the same time, the Celtic revival saw the emergence of Cornish nationalism. Self-government for Cornwall will be the next move". The Cornish political party Mebyon Kernow was formed in 1951, calling for greater autonomy in what it hoped would become a federal UK. Devon's relative wealth overshadowed high deprivation, meaning that the single "Devonwall" area did not qualify for EU funding. The calls for Cornish devolution also started to gain more widespread attention. In 1990, a Guardian editorial commented "Smaller minorities also have equally proud visions of themselves as irreducibly Welsh, Irish, Manx or Cornish. These identities are distinctly national in ways which proud people from much less proud people from Berkshire will never know. Any constitutional settlement which ignores these factors will be built on uneven ground." In the late 1990s, devolution became a political issue with the creation of the Scottish Parliament, Welsh Assembly and Northern Ireland Assembly.Cornish Assembly – The exchequer hall of Duchy Palace in Lostwithiel, site of the autonomous Cornish Stannary Courts and then-capital of Cornwall
171. Constitutional status of Cornwall – Cornwall is a unitary authority area and ceremonial county of England. One aspect of the distinct identity of Cornwall is the Cornish language, revived in modern times. Cornish nationalists argue, whether from a legal, other basis, that Cornwall should have greater autonomy than the present administrative circumstances give. A manifestation of this is the campaign for a Cornish assembly, along the lines of the Welsh or Scottish legislative institutions. Those who assert ought to be, separate from England do not necessarily advocate separation from the United Kingdom. An important aim is Cornwall's recognition as a "nation" in its own right similar to how Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland are considered. The legend of Brutus, recounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth, makes explicit reference to a distinct origin of the Cornish people. Cornishmen". This indicates that, at least far as Geoffrey was concerned, Cornwall possessed an identity distinct from the other parts of Britain. In pre-Roman times, Cornwall was part of the kingdom of Dumnonia. Later, it was known as West Wales to distinguish it from North Wales, modern-day Wales. The Cornwall is a combination of two elements. The second derives from the Anglo-Saxon wealh, meaning "foreigner", "one who speaks a non-Germanic language", which also survives in the words Wales and Welsh. The first element "Corn", indicating the shape of the peninsula, is descended from an Indo-European word related to English horn and Latin cornu. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle quotes "The Wealas and the Defnas fought at Gafulforda".Constitutional status of Cornwall – Roman Britannia showing those areas under Roman rule and the position of Dumnonia as a part of Roman Britain
173. Revived Cornish Stannary Parliament – The Revived Cornish Stannary Parliament, is a pressure group which claimed to be a revival of the historic Cornish Stannary Parliament last held in 1753. It was campaigned, up until 2008, against the government of the United Kingdom's position on the constitutional status of Cornwall, England, UK. The historic Cornish Stannary Parliament last continued until 11 September 1753. Their contention is that the Stannary Parliament, whilst not in session, still exists. The British government rejects the claims of the group. This was also confirmed to a question posed by the MP Andrew George in May 2009. On May 1974 a pressure group claiming to be a revived Cornish Stannary Parliament assembled in Lostwithiel. The meeting was primarily called to a crisis in the china clay industry. Employers in the industry had been forbidden from paying their 9,000 workers the higher wages agreed under a productivity deal. Geoffrey Waldegrave, 12th Earl Waldegrave refused an invitation to open the parliament. A petition was sent to the queen declaring that if she did not recognise the parliament they would seize crown properties. They also sought recognition from the United Nations. Hambley claimed this should be done "immediately to avoid political anarchy". The Cornish Stannary Parliament next hit the headlines in 1978, again at St Austell Magistrate's Court. Hambley had been charged with displaying the stannary seal in place of a tax disc.Revived Cornish Stannary Parliament – History
174. Mebyon Kernow – Mebyon Kernow – The Party for Cornwall is a Cornish nationalist, centre-left political party in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It primarily campaigns for devolution in the form of a Cornish Assembly, as well as social democracy and environmental protection. MK was contained as members activists and politicians from a number of political parties. Its first leader was Helena Charles. Its first win came in 1953, with its members running as independents. The party has close links with Plaid Cymru, the Scottish National Party and the Breton Democratic Union. It currently has four elected councillors in 27 town and parish councillors. Dick Cole is the current leader. Mebyon Kernow is run by a 20-member National Executive, which includes the leadership team, policy spokespersons, local party representatives. It has a clearly defined economic, social profile. Cornwall's unique identity reflects its Celtic character, environment. We declare that the people of Cornwall will be best served in their future governance by a Cornish regional assembly. We therefore commit ourselves to setting up the Cornish Constitutional Convention with the intention of achieving a devolved Cornish Assembly. Three months later the Cornish Constitutional Convention was held with the objective of establishing a devolved Assembly. The South West Regional Development Agency administrate economic development, housing and strategic planning.Mebyon Kernow – Picture of Mebyon Kernow's assembly petition
175. Cornish Nationalist Party – The Cornish Nationalist Party, Cornish: An Parti Kenethlegek Kernow, is a political party, founded by Dr James Whetter, who campaigned for independence for Cornwall. It is no longer for independence. A separate party with a similar name existed from 1969. Originally, another subject of the split was for it to be "all or nothing". The CNP essentially represented a more right-wing outlook from those who disagree that economic arguments were more likely to win votes than cultural. While the CNP is not a racist organisation, there was a perceived problem from the similarly-styled BNP. In April 2009, a story reported that the CNP had re-formed following a conference in Bodmin; however, it did not contest any elections that year. The CNP still publish a quarterly journal, The Cornish Banner, within the actions of the Roseland Institute. A revamp of the party website in October 2014 state that the party is now to contest elections once more. The party's policies include the following: Calling for more legislative powers to be given to Cornwall Council. The authority should effectively become the Cornish government, with parish councils acting as local government. Cornwall council should have a reduction with a standardisation of electoral areas and constituencies in throughout Cornwall. List of topics related to Cornwall Cornish self-government movement Constitutional status of Cornwall Mebyon Kernow The CNP at the Roseland Institute UK Register of Political PartiesCornish Nationalist Party – Cornish Nationalist Party
176. Cornish National Liberation Army – A 36-year-old man was later arrested for making the threats. It has been described as a ` pseudo-terrorist group'. The group also has threatened to destroy all English flags in the region. The announcement contained admissions of various publicised CNLA attacks. It also confirmed that Rick Stein had been ceased. As as confirming the name change, the interview outlined the structure of the organisation, confirmed official CRA attacks and suggested future plans. When questioned on forthcoming events the CRA spokesperson answered: "2008 promises to be an interesting year for their establishment. Beyond that, no comment." There were arrests made in Cornwall of people, who, it was led to believe, had some connection with the CNLA. None of these were formally charged with anything. The arrests were strongly criticised by many, including the Celtic League as being completely spurious. At 430pm the last of the Branch supporters had to return home, after not being informed when or if Member B would be released. Member B was finally released with little money or means of returning home.Cornish National Liberation Army – History
177. Transport in Cornwall – In part, this is because many Cornish lines serve holiday destinations and are visitor attractions in their own right. As a maritime county, sea transport were once vital to Cornwall's prosperity: however, they are less important now. Fish from the ports was an important component of the traffic for Cornwall's railways although now the fish is conveyed by road. As well as Newlyn, other ports cater for commercial fishing albeit on a smaller scale. Many more small harbours cater to angling, again reflecting the county's reliance on tourism and leisure. The coastline of Cornwall is deeply indented by rias so Cornwall's ferry crossings are an important part of today's transport mix. The Isles of Scilly are accessible by sea from Penzance. Cornwall is one of the English counties with no motorways. The principal road routes into Cornwall for both passenger vehicles are the A30 from Exeter and the A38 from Plymouth and south Devon. The route has been greatly upgraded in the past thirty years. Nonetheless, the A38 provides an alternative route for traffic from the M5 motorway heading to south-east Cornwall. The increase in traffic warranted two extra lanes being added to the Tamar Bridge in 2001. Data collected on the A30 Launceston bypass shows that annual daily traffic rose from 14,318 in 1995 to 20,842 in 2005. As as increased traffic from outside the county, Cornwall's resident population has grown more rapidly than average. Despite the very substantial increase in resident and visiting traffic, road improvements have reduced congestion on the major routes.Transport in Cornwall – Road, railway and canal side by side at Par harbour.
178. South West Regional Assembly – The South West Regional Assembly was the regional chamber for South West England, established in 1999. The South West Secretariat which supported the member organisations is based in Taunton, as is its body. In July 2007, Local Government Minister John Healey MP announced Government plans to abolish regional assemblies. The functions of regional assemblies were planned to pass to regional development agencies in 2010. The assembly's responsibilities for planning, transport transferred to the Strategic Leaders' Board of South West Councils on 13 May 2009. The transfer followed agreement between the Assembly Leaders, the Strategic Leaders, South West Councils. It was made up of 119 members, of which: 79 were appointed in the South West. Changes reflected political proportionality across the region after local elections. 2 were appointed by the National Parks Authorities in the region. 2 were appointed by the Association of Local Councils. 36 were appointed by Economic and Environmental Partners. These were reviewed at least every four years, so the Membership was fairly fluid. The feeling is especially strong in Cornwall where in July 2000 Mebyon Kernow issued the "Declaration for a Cornish Assembly".South West Regional Assembly – Logo of the South West Regional Assembly, 1999-2009
179. South West of England Regional Development Agency – The South West of England Regional Development Agency was one of the nine Regional Development Agencies set up by the United Kingdom government in 1999. Its purpose was to lead the development of a sustainable economy in South West England, investing to unlock the region's potential. It was abolished along with all the other RDAs on 31 March 2012, with some of its functions being replaced by local enterprise partnerships. Each of England's RDAs was required to work with partners in the region to draw together a Regional Economic Strategy. This document set out for the whole region how the region developed. These strategies were owned by the whole region, just the RDA. Significant examples include: the world's largest ocean test site for marine renewable energy devices. The Eden Project, with over £1bn economic impact since opening in 2001. National Composites Centre, a world-class centre for composite material manufacture and design. Combined Universities in Cornwall, transforming higher education since 2001. Regional Infrastructure Fund, providing essential infrastructure across the region in places such as Poole, Taunton, east of Exeter and Bristol. Marine Skills Centres in Poole, Plymouth and Falmouth, delivering over 14,000 marine training courses. Osprey Quay, a £38 million investment to revitalise a former Royal Navy air base – including bringing the Olympic sailing regatta to Weymouth and Portland. Airbus ` Integrated Wing' project, generating to the economy. PRIMARE and Plymouth Science and Innovation Programme, a £7.3 million investment for world-beating marine energy knowledge collaboration.South West of England Regional Development Agency – South West region shown in red.
180. Saint Piran's Flag – Saint Piran's Flag is the flag of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The earliest known description of the flag as the Standard of Cornwall was written in 1838. It is used as a symbol of identity. It is a white cross on a black background. The flag is attributed to a 6th-century Cornish abbot. One early use of black background design is the 15th-century coat of arms of the Saint-Peran family. However, the reference given by the Encyclopædia Britannica seems to have been confused with one that comes from a 1590 poem entitled Poly-Olbion by Michael Drayton. It states that the banner carried at Agincourt depicted two Cornish wrestlers in a hitch. However, Gilbert referred only to his "recollection". One of the oldest depictions of the flag can be seen in a stained window at Westminster Abbey. It was unveiled in memory of the famous Cornish inventor and engineer Richard Trevithick. The window depicts nine Cornish saints, Piran, Petroc, Pinnock, Germanus, Julian, Cyriacus, Constantine, Nonna and Geraint in tiers below. The figure carries the banner of Cornwall. Saint Piran's Flag has similarities to the flag of Saint David. The cultural links between Brittany, Wales and Cornwall are well recorded.Saint Piran's Flag – Souvenir flags outside a café
181. Saint Piran's Day – St Piran's Day is the national day of people in Cornwall, held on 5 March every year. The day is named after one of the patron saints of Cornwall, Saint Piran, also the saint of tin miners. St Piran's Day started as one of the many tinners' holidays observed by the tin miners of Cornwall. Other miners' holidays of a similar nature include Chewidden Thursday. The miners of Breage and Germoe observed St Piran's feast day until at least 1764. The phrase'drunk as a perraner' was used in 19th century Cornwall to describe people who had consumed large quantities of alcohol. Saint Piran's Flag is also seen flying on this day. Speeches including the town mayor, Lord Lieutenant, Grand Bard of Cornwall, followed by children's performances of Cornish plays and songs. 400 people attended the parade in 2009. The parade was started in 1999. Bude - a St Piran's day walk led by a piper and attended by hundreds of people annually. Callington - Shop decorations and a St Piran's Supper with Cornish music and poetry. Camborne - singing with Cadgwith Singers at Camborne Rugby Club. Falmouth - parade through the town including nearly 100 school children. Shop window competition.Saint Piran's Day – St Piran's day parade at Penzance in 2006
182. The Song of the Western Men – However it is more likely that it referred to his grandfather, Sir John Trelawny, a Cornish Royalist leader, imprisoned by parliament in 1628. Ye jolly tinner boys contains the line "Why forty thousand Cornish boys shall knawa the reason why." The song is a regular favourite sung at Cornish rugby union matches and other Cornish gatherings. However, the people of Cornwall did not march to rescue Trelawny, as told in the song. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London for three weeks, acquitted. Trelawny Lyrics A good sword and a trusty hand! A merry heart and true! King James's men shall understand What Cornish lads can do! And have they fixed the where and when? And shall Trelawny die? Here's thousand Cornish men Will know the reason why! And shall Trelawny live? Or shall Trelawny die? Here's twenty thousand Cornish men Will know the reason why! Out spake their Captain bold: A merry wight was he: Though London Tower were Michael's hold, We'll set Trelawny free!The Song of the Western Men – Plaque commemorating R. S. Hawker at Charles Church, Plymouth.
183. Gorseth Kernow – Gorsedh Kernow is a non-political Cornish organisation, based in Cornwall, United Kingdom, which exists "to maintain the national Celtic spirit of Cornwall". It is based on the Welsh-based Gorsedd, founded by Iolo Morganwg in 1792. Twelve others were initiated by the Archdruid of Wales. It has been held every year since, during World War II. 1,000 people have been Cornish bards, including Ken George, Peter Berresford Ellis. Over time, up to 1970, additional pieces were added, including Plastrons for past Grand Bards, also produced by Francis Cargeeg. The Gorsedh also encourages the study of history. It has become an important institution in Cornwall's cultural and civic life. Its competitions attract the "open Gorsedh" is attended by many Cornish people. There is also extensive coverage on local media. An important part of the open Gorsedh is the awarding of bardships to individuals for meritorious work for Cornish culture. Thus the Gorsedh acts as a form of "honours system". Bardships are awarded in the language, services to Cornish music, encouraging the arts amongst other things. Initiate Bards are given Bardic names by the Grand Bard who welcomes them into the College of Bards. The Gorsedh for 2008 was held in Looe which coincided with the Dehwelans Kernow festival.Gorseth Kernow – Lady of Cornwall and flower girls at the 2007 Gorsedh (Penzance)
184. Cornish kilts and tartans – Cornish kilts and tartans are thought to be a modern tradition started in the early to mid 20th century. Other patterns followed. It is documented that a garment known as a bracca was worn by Celtic people who inhabited the term indicating its appearance. Cornish historian L. C. R. Duncombe-Jewell attempted to prove that plain kilts were in use in Cornwall. He discovered carvings of minstrels dressed on bench ends at Altarnun church, which dated from circa 1510. Some, however, contend that these images are more likely to be belted tunics that were common throughout Europe. First created in 1963, the Cornish National tartan was designed by the poet E.E. Morton Nance, nephew of Robert Morton Nance. Each colour of tartan has meaning. The Cornish Hunting Tartan was registered in the 1980s. The following Cornish tartans have been previously registered. Some of theses are Cornish family tartans which are worn at family get weddings. Pengelly, The Cornish Cornish National Tartan http://www.alanrichards.org/cornishtartan.htm Cornish tartans Cornish KiltsCornish kilts and tartans – Cornish tartan shop in St Austell
185. Media in Cornwall – The media in Cornwall has a long and distinct history. The county has quality of media. A long, narrowing peninsula, pointing into the Atlantic, made travel by land slow, unreliable and poor.. . Distribution of market goods used the sea and major rivers. However, improved telecommunications stimulated growth like copper and tin. Since 1688, Falmouth was the hub of the Packet ships Post Office mail system. Newspapers were slow to develop in Cornwall. Outside urban areas like Truro and Falmouth, national news travelled slowly, unreliably, by word of mouth. Mines used bulletin boards displayed in "the dry", a building used for miners to change in and out of work clothes. The information displayed included: employment, tin output, rates of pay and new Resource extractions. Little information was passed on concerning news from the next market town along the road. Although the Cornish language had effectively died out by the early century, dialects and accents remained strong throughout the whole of Cornwall. Different areas within Cornwall had their own variations from each other. The communications with developing mining towns in the British Empire were better than they were within the county.Media in Cornwall – The telecommunications mast on Carnmenellis hill. The mound to the right is a covered reservoir according to the OS map
186. Music of Cornwall – Cornwall is a culturally Celtic nation, though Celtic-derived musical traditions had been moribund for some time before being revived during a late-20th-century roots revival. In medieval Cornwall there are records of performances of ` Miracle Plays' in the Cornish language, with musical involvement. Also minstrels were hired to play for saints day celebrations. Many others employed minstrels on a casual basis. There were vigorous traditions of Morris dancing, mumming, social dance. The consequences of these events disadvantaged many gentry who had previously employed their own minstrels or patronised itinerant performers. Over the same period in music the use of modes was largely supplanted by use of major and minor keys. It is unlikely that there were not musical casualties. Community festivals, mumming and guising all flourished. Some traditional tunes were used for carols. This left a legacy of polkas. In fish cellars Cornish ceilidhs called troyls were common, they are analogous to the fest-noz of the Bretons. Thousands converge on Helston to witness the spectacle. The "Sans Day Carol" or "St Day Carol" is one of the many Cornish Christmas carols written in the 19th century. Singing in unison became more usual.Music of Cornwall – Brenda Wootton, "The Voice of Cornwall", during a performance
187. Cornish festivals – The cultural calendar of Cornwall is punctuated by numerous historic and community festivals and celebrations. In particular there are strong links between their patronal feast days. There is also a tradition of holding celebrations associated with tin fishing. Since the 1980s there has been a development of community based festivals in Cornwall often named after a local resident. These have included Murdoch day in Redruth, the Daphne du Maurier Festival in Fowey, the Montol Festival in Penzance. Other modern festivals include, Falmouth oyster festival, Newlyn fish festival, Lowender Peran in Perranporth, Dehwelans Kernow and many more. In Moonta, South Australia, the Kernewek Lowender attracts tens of thousands of visitors each year. These have been classified separately to the above because they form a part of a Cornish indigenous culture. There have been successes to revive these celebrations where they have fallen into disuse. Many of these ceremonies are kept alive by members of the Federation of Old Cornwall Societies.Cornish festivals – Celebrating St Piran's Day in Penzance
188. Diocese of Truro – The diocese's area is that of the county including the Isles of Scilly, as well as two parishes in neighbouring Devon. It was formed on 15 December 1876 from the Archdeaconry of Cornwall in the Diocese of Exeter. It is, therefore, one of the younger dioceses. There are 313 church buildings. The Bishop of Truro, is Tim Thornton. He is assisted by the suffragan Bishop of St Germans. At some periods there have also been assistant bishops, including Bill Lash, both retired from sees abroad. He is licensed as an assistant bishop of the diocese in order to facilitate his ministry. John Ford, was also licensed as an honorary assistant bishop in Truro diocese. A former Bishop of Roy Screech, lives in St Austell. It is not recorded. The deaneries created in the episcopate of Frederick Temple were Bodmin, Stratton, St Austell and Carnmarth. These remained unchanged until Carnmarth was divided; later still in the 1980s some alterations of boundaries occurred. The border is derived from the arms of the Duchy of Cornwall. In base, a fleur de lys sable.Diocese of Truro – Truro Cathedral from St Mary's Street
189. Rugby in Cornwall – Rugby union in Cornwall is one of the county's most popular sports and has a large following in Cornwall. The followers of the side are dubbed Trelawny's Army. Also, the Cornish rugby team can boast an Olympic medal. In 1908, the prize was to represent Great Britain at rugby in the 1908 Olympic Games. They remain the only county side to represent Great Britain at rugby in the Olympics. The Cornwall Rugby Football Union was formed in 1883. The CRFU are members of the governing body for rugby union in England. All cups are currently sponsored by Tribute Ales. The Cornish rugby tradition has deep roots, stretching back before the game was even codified. A form of football, known as Cornish hurling was highly popular there, is still played in two towns in Cornwall. It is possible that the former popularity of this game paved the way for the rugby code. Their rugby jerseys with black hoops were introduced in 1885. One of the most important times of the year in a Cornish rugby fan's calendar is the County Championship. Like the 1900 games, three teams entered: Australasia, Great Britain. France pulled themselves prior to the commencement of the tournament being unable to field a representative team.Rugby in Cornwall – The Cornwall RFU team that won the county championship, 1907-08.
190. Cornish wrestling – Cornish wrestling is a form of wrestling, established in Cornwall, a county in Southwest England for several centuries. It is similar to the Breton Gouren wrestling style. The referee is known as a'stickler', it is claimed that the popular meaning of the word as a'pedant' originates from this usage. It is colloquially known as "wrasslin" in the Cornish dialect. The wrestlers in the Cornish style both wear tough jackets enabling them to gain better grip on their opponent. All holds are taken upon the other wrestler's jacket, grabbing of the fingers is forbidden well as any holding below the waist. Although all holds are to be taken upon the jacket, the flat of the hand is allowed to be used to push or deflect an opponent. The objective of Cornish wrestling is to throw your opponent and make him land as flat as possible on his back. Three sticklers control each whilst also recording down the score of points achieved in play. Four pins are located on two either side just above the buttocks. The sticklers will each raise their sticks when they perceive a Back has been achieved. If two sticklers raise their sticks but one does not a back is still awarded. The Cornish Wrestling Association was formed in 1923 to standardize the rules and to promote Cornish Wrestling throughout Cornwall and indeed Worldwide. It states that the Cornish men who accompanied Henry V into battle held a banner of two Cornish wrestlers in a hitch. Cornish, Devon and Breton wrestlers have long taken part in inter-Celtic matches since at least 1402 and these still occasionally continue.Cornish wrestling – Gerry and Ashley Cawley wrestling at Pendennis Castle, 6 May 2002
191. Cornish hurling – Hurling or Hurling the Silver Ball, is an outdoor team game played only in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is played with a small ball. Hurling is not to be confused with the Irish game, also known as hurling. There are profound differences between the two sports. Certain attributes make this version unique to Cornwall. It is considered by many to be Cornwall's national game along with Cornish wrestling. The band hold nails which hold the ball together. The winner of the ball must have a new one made in its place for the next game. The price of a new ball is said to be depending on the price of silver at the time. Many are also held in private hands. 1704 The first two words signify "Men of Paul", i.e. the owners of the ball. No evidence exists to support these two theories. In Brittany, Normandy and Picardy a comparable game is known as La Soule or Choule. The earliest recorded game of Soule comes from Cornwall. .Cornish hurling – Pub sign at St Columb Major
192. Literature in Cornish – Cornish literature refers to written works in the Cornish language. The earliest surviving texts are from the 14th century. Writing in revived forms of Cornish began in the early 20th century. John stated that the work was a translation based on an earlier document written in the Cornish language. The manuscript on a codex currently held at the Vatican Library, is unique. These notes are among the earliest known writings in the Cornish language. In 2001 this important work was translated back by Julyan Holmes. A poem of 259 eight-line verses probably composed around 1375, is one of the earliest surviving works of Cornish literature. The Ordinalia consists of three mystery plays, Origo Mundi, Resurrexio Domini, meant to be performed on successive days. Such plays were performed in Plain an Gwarry. In 1981, the Breton Preder edited it in modern scripture under the name of Passyon agan arluth. The longest single surviving work of Cornish literature is a two-day verse drama dated 1504, but probably copied from an earlier manuscript. The first two are the only known surviving Cornish prose texts from the 17th century. Fragments of Cornish writing continued to appear as the language was becoming extinct during the 18th century. The poem, published by John Hobson Matthews in 1892, may be the last piece of traditional Cornish literature.Literature in Cornish – The opening verses of Origo Mundi, the first play of the Ordinalia (the magnum opus of mediaeval Cornish literature), written by an unknown monk in the late 14th century
193. Bible translations into Cornish – Translations of parts of the Bible into Cornish have existed since the 17th century. The early works involved the translation of individual passages, books of the Bible. The full translation of the Bible into the Cornish language was published in 2011. Psalms in another translation went on-line in 2014. Two chapters of St Matthew's Gospel survive from the hand of William Rowe of Sancreed. There are ten versions of the Lord's Prayer from the 1700s. A translation from Latin was produced in 1632. Two versions were produced in John Chamberlayne's 1715 Oratio Dominica in diversas linguas versa. Also from this period, William Gwavas also produced two. There are seven versions of the Ten Commandments. Two translations of Genesis 1 survive by John Keigwin. William Kerew produced translations of Genesis 3, -- 20 and Matthew 4. There is also an line-for-line translation of Psalm 100 located as part of the Gwavas MS at the British Library. St Luke's Gospel appeared in 1989. Furthermore, the Cornish version of the order for Evensong contains a translation of I Corinthians 13 by Robert Morton Nance.Bible translations into Cornish – The front cover of An Beybel Sans: The Holy Bible in Cornish, 2011
194. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. The movement has since expanded to many other projects, including the Wikipedia community with around 70,000 volunteers. Volunteers for other Wikimedia projects such as Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons, volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online Wikipedia. It consists of Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include: The Wikimedia Foundation is an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It operates most of the movement's websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in geographical regions, mostly countries. There are 41 chapters. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a total budget of $ million. WMDE allocates approximately $ million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, $4 million for transfer to the WMF. To have the same procedure, every chapter follows requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. A total of Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations.Wikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014